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Sample records for achillea lewisii

  1. Components of Reproductive Isolation between the Monkeyflowers Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis (Phrymaceae)

    E-print Network

    Ramsey, Justin

    Components of Reproductive Isolation between the Monkeyflowers Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis ISOLATION BETWEEN THE MONKEYFLOWERS MIMULUS LEWISIIAND M. CARDINALIS(PHRYMACEAE) JUSTIN RAMSEY,1'2'3 H. D lewisii and M. cardinalis, sister species of monkeyflowers. Studied reproductive barriersinclude: ecogeo

  2. Chromosomal rearrangements directly cause underdominant F1 pollen sterility in Mimulus lewisii-Mimulus cardinalis hybrids.

    PubMed

    Stathos, Angela; Fishman, Lila

    2014-11-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements can contribute to the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation directly, by disrupting meiosis in F1 hybrids, or indirectly, by suppressing recombination among genic incompatibilities. Because direct effects of rearrangements on fertility imply fitness costs during their spread, understanding the mechanism of F1 hybrid sterility is integral to reconstructing the role(s) of rearrangements in speciation. In hybrids between monkeyflowers Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewisii, rearrangements contain all quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for both premating barriers and pollen sterility, suggesting that they may have facilitated speciation in this model system. We used artificial chromosome doubling and comparative mapping to test whether heterozygous rearrangements directly cause underdominant male sterility in M. lewisii-M. cardinalis hybrids. Consistent with a direct chromosomal basis for hybrid sterility, synthetic tetraploid F1 s showed highly restored fertility (83.4% pollen fertility) relative to diploids F1 s (36.0%). Additional mapping with Mimulus parishii-M. cardinalis and M. parishii-M. lewisii hybrids demonstrated that underdominant male sterility is caused by one M. lewisii specific and one M. cardinalis specific reciprocal translocation, but that inversions had no direct effects on fertility. We discuss the importance of translocations as causes of reproductive isolation, and consider models for how underdominant rearrangements spread and fix despite intrinsic fitness costs. PMID:25125144

  3. Components of reproductive isolation between the monkeyflowers Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis (Phrymaceae).

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Justin; Bradshaw, H D; Schemske, Douglas W

    2003-07-01

    Evolutionists have long recognized the role of reproductive isolation in speciation, but the relative contributions of different reproductive barriers are poorly understood. We examined the nature of isolation between Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis, sister species of monkeyflowers. Studied reproductive barriers include: ecogeographic isolation; pollinator isolation (pollinator fidelity in a natural mixed population); pollen competition (seed set and hybrid production from experimental interspecific, intraspecific, and mixed pollinations in the greenhouse); and relative hybrid fitness (germination, survivorship, percent flowering, biomass, pollen viability, and seed mass in the greenhouse). Additionally, the rate of hybridization in nature was estimated from seed collections in a sympatric population. We found substantial reproductive barriers at multiple stages in the life history of M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. Using range maps constructed from herbarium collections, we estimated that the different ecogeographic distributions of the species result in 58.7% reproductive isolation. Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis are visited by different pollinators, and in a region of sympatry 97.6% of pollinator foraging bouts were specific to one species or the other. In the greenhouse, interspecific pollinations generated nearly 50% fewer seeds than intraspecific controls. Mixed pollinations of M. cardinalis flowers yielded >75% parentals even when only one-quarter of the pollen treatment consisted of M. cardinalis pollen. In contrast, both species had similar siring success on M. lewisii flowers. The observed 99.915% occurrence of parental M. lewisii and M. cardinalis in seeds collected from a sympatric population is nearly identical to that expected, based upon our field observations of pollinator behavior and our laboratory experiments of pollen competition. F1 hybrids exhibited reduced germination rates, high survivorship and reproduction, and low pollen and ovule fertility. In aggregate, the studied reproductive barriers prevent, on average, 99.87% of gene flow, with most reproductive isolation occurring prior to hybrid formation. Our results suggest that ecological factors resulting from adaptive divergence are the primary isolating barriers in this system. Additional studies of taxa at varying degrees of evolutionary divergence are needed to identify the relative importance of pre- and postzygotic isolating mechanisms in speciation. PMID:12940357

  4. Demography of central and marginal populations of monkeyflowers (Mimulus cardinalis and M. lewisii).

    PubMed

    Angert, Amy Lauren

    2006-08-01

    Every species occupies a limited geographic area, but how spatiotemporal environmental variation affects individual and population fitness to create range limits is not well understood. Because range boundaries arise where, on average, populations are more likely to go extinct than to persist, range limits are an inherently population-level problem for which a demographic framework is useful. In this study, I compare demographic parameters and population dynamics between central and marginal populations of monkeyflowers, Mimulus cardinalis and M. lewisii, along an elevation gradient spanning both species' ranges. Central and marginal populations of both species differed in survival and fecundity. For M. lewisii, these components of fitness were higher in central than in marginal populations, but for M. cardinalis the converse was true. To assess spatiotemporal variation in population dynamics, I used transition matrix models to estimate asymptotic population growth rates (lambda) and found that population growth rates of M. lewisii were highest at the range center and reduced at the range margin. Population growth rates of M. cardinalis were highest at the range margin and greatly reduced at the range center. Life table response analysis decomposed spatiotemporal variation in lambda into contributions from each transition between life stages, finding that transitions from large nonreproductive and reproductive plants to the seed class and stasis in the reproductive class made the largest contributions to spatial differences in lambda. These transitions had only low to moderate sensitivities, indicating that differences in projected population growth rates resulted mainly from observed differences in transition matrix parameters and their underlying vital rates. PMID:16937641

  5. Biological activities of yarrow species (Achillea spp.).

    PubMed

    Nemeth, E; Bernath, J

    2008-01-01

    The genus Achillea consists of about 140 perennial herbs native to the Northern hemisphere. Traditional indications of their use include digestive problems, liver and gall-bladder conditions, menstrual irregularities, cramps, fever, wound healing. The Commission E approves its internal use for loss of appetite and dyspeptic ailments (gastric catarrh, spastic discomfort), externally it is used in form of sitz bath or as a compress against skin inflammation, slow healing wounds, bacterial or fungal infections. In the last decades, pharmacological studies became intensive, although human clinical investigations are still rare. Recent findings have confirmed several traditional uses. The largest number of data accumulated for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. There are positive results on the analgesic, anti-ulcer, choleretic, hepatoprotective and wound healing activities. First results on other interesting therapeutical areas - antihypertensive, antidiabetic, antitumor, antispermatogenic activities -need confirmation. Yarrow can be used also as an insect repellent. Contact dermatitis as adverse effect may be connected to sesquiterpenes. The diversity and complexity of the effective compounds of yarrow species explains the broad spectrum of their activity. According to the literature the pharmacological effects are mainly due to the essential oil, proazulenes and other sesquiterpene lactones, dicaffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids. Synergistic actions of these and other compounds are also supposed. Achillea species have different chemical and therapeutical values. Despite of numerous data, correct evaluation of the results is difficult because of missing generally accepted taxonomical nomenclature. The used chemical-analytical methods and bio-assays are utmost diverse, making the comparison complicated. Further research on the activity is needed using exactly defined plant material, standardized methods and chemical analysis. PMID:19075697

  6. The evolution of species' distributions: reciprocal transplants across the elevation ranges of Mimulus cardinalis and M. lewisii.

    PubMed

    Angert, A L; Schemske, D W

    2005-08-01

    Every species occupies a limited geographic area, but it remains unclear why traits that limit distribution do not evolve to allow range expansion. Hypotheses for the evolutionary stability of geographic ranges assume that species are maladapted at the range boundary and unfit beyond the current range, but this assumption has rarely been tested. To examine how fitness varies across species' ranges, we reciprocally transplanted two species of monkeyflowers, Mimulus cardinalis and M. lewisii, within and beyond their present elevation ranges. We used individuals of known parentage from populations collected across the elevation ranges of both species to examine whether populations are adapted to position within the range. For both species we found the greatest average fitness at elevations central within the range, reduced fitness at the range margin, and zero or near-zero fitness when transplanted beyond their present elevation range limits. However, the underlying causes of fitness variation differed between the species. At high elevations beyond its range, M. cardinalis displayed reduced growth and fecundity, whereas at low elevations M. lewisii experienced high mortality. Weak differences in performance were observed among populations within each species and these were not related to elevation of origin. Low fitness of both species at their range margin and weak differentiation among populations within each species suggest that adaptation to the environment at and beyond the range margin is hindered, illustrating that range margins provide an interesting system in which to study limits to adaptation. PMID:16329239

  7. In Vitro Anti-rotaviral Activity of Achillea kellalensis

    PubMed Central

    Taherkhani, Reza; Farshadpour, Fatemeh; Makvandi, Manoochehr

    2013-01-01

    Background Achillea kellalensis, which is frequently used by Chaharmahal va Bakhtiarians residing in, Southwest of Iran, as a traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of acute diarrhea, has been selected to examine its antiviral activities against bovine rotavirus and cell toxicity activity in MA-104 cells. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic and anti-rotavirus properties of crude extracts of A. kellalensis. Materials and Methods The dried and powdered flowers of Achillea kellalensis were extracted with hot water and ethanol 50% (v/v). The cell viability and toxicity of the extracts were evaluated on MA-104 cells using four methods; trypan blue dye, NR, crystal violet and MTT assay. The in vitro anti-rotavirus properties were determined via four different assays, in order to evaluate the direct inhibition and/or the inhibition of viral replication. Results Cytotoxicity of two A. kellalensis extracts showed different concentrations. Hydro-alcoholic extract had low CC50 at 600 µg/mL by the NR assay while the aqueous extract had high CC50 at 1000µg/mL by the crystal violet method. In the simultaneous treatment assay and post treatment assay, the extracts were able to prevent viral replication and inhibit the viral CPE on MA-104 cells at 10 TCID50, but the extracts did not exhibit direct antiviral activity on rotavirus adsorption. The effective concentration (EC50) of both extracts was observed to be 100 µg/mL. Conclusions These results indicate that A. kellalensis extracts exert potent anti-rotaviral activity only after viral adsorption. The two extracts from A. kellalensis showed a good selectivity index. Also these results suggest that extracts prepared from the flowers of A. kellalensis may be potential anti-rotaviral agents in vivo and be useful in veterinary medicine. PMID:24624203

  8. The Volatile Compounds and Bioactivity of Achillea sieheana Stapf. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Sevil

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Achillea sieheana Staf. (Asteraceae) were investigated in this study. The chemical composition of the essential oil isolated by hydro-distillation from the aerial parts of A. sieheana was analyzed by GC–MS. Camphor (43.36%), Artemisia ketone (25.95%), 1.8-cineole (6.29%) and camphene (4.77%) were the main components in the essential oil. Their antioxidant activities were also evaluated using phosphomolybdenum, ?-carotene bleaching and 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. A. sieheana methanolic extract showed an effective DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 87.04 ?g/mL). The extract had also a high reducing effect (71.08%) on the oxidation of ?-carotene. In addition to evaluating the antioxidant activity of this plant, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured in the extract. The antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extract and the oil were also tested against 13 bacteria and two yeasts. The results showed that both had strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. PMID:24250570

  9. Context dependence in foraging behaviour of Achillea millefolium.

    PubMed

    Karst, Justine D; Belter, Pamela R; Bennett, Jonathan A; Cahill, James F

    2012-12-01

    Context-dependent foraging behaviour is acknowledged and well documented for a diversity of animals and conditions. The contextual determinants of plant foraging behaviour, however, are poorly understood. Plant roots encounter patchy distributions of nutrients and soil fungi. Both of these features affect root form and function, but how they interact to affect foraging behaviour is unknown. We extend the use of the marginal value theorem to make predictions about the foraging behaviour of roots, and test our predictions by manipulating soil resource distribution and inoculation by soil fungi. We measured plant movement as both distance roots travelled and time taken to grow through nutrient patches of varied quality. To do this, we grew Achillea millefolium in the centers of modified pots with a high-nutrient patch and a low-nutrient patch on either side of the plant (heterogeneous) or patch-free conditions (homogeneous). Fungal inoculation, but not resource distribution, altered the time it took roots to reach nutrient patches. When in nutrient patches, root growth decreased relative to homogeneous soils. However, this change in foraging behaviour was not contingent upon patch quality or fungal inoculation. Root system breadth was larger in homogeneous than in heterogeneous soils, until measures were influenced by pot edges. Overall, we find that root foraging behaviour is modified by resource heterogeneity but not fungal inoculation. We find support for predictions of the marginal value theorem that organisms travel faster through low-quality than through high-quality environments, with the caveat that roots respond to nutrient patches per se rather than the quality of those patches. PMID:22622873

  10. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-ulcerogenic potentials of Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.)

    E-print Network

    Paré, Paul W.

    -inflammatory Analgesic Anti-ulcerogenic Egyptian folk medicine Achillea fragrantissima is a perennial herb grown in Egypt, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA. f Chemistry of Medicinal Plants Department, and Center of Excellence for Advanced and traditionally employed medicinally for its anti- inflammatory and analgesic properties among Sinai inhabitants

  11. Essential oil composition of five collections of Achillea biebersteinii from central Turkey and their antifungal and insecticidal activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The composition of the essential oils hydrodistilled from the aerial parts of five Achillea biebersteinii Afan samples, collected in central Turkey from Konya, Isparta and Ankara, were analyzed both by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eighty-four componen...

  12. Choleretic effects of yarrow (Achillea millefolium s.l.) in the isolated perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Benedek, B; Geisz, N; Jäger, W; Thalhammer, T; Kopp, B

    2006-11-01

    Different species from the Achillea millefolium aggregate are used against gastrointestinal and hepato-biliary disorders in traditional European medicine. In this work, a fraction enriched in dicaffeoylquinic acids (DCCAs) and luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide was investigated on its choleretic effect in the isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL) compared to cynarin (1,3-DCCA), the main choleretic compound of Cynara scolymus L. A fraction containing 3,4-, 3,5- and 4,5-DCCA and luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide was prepared by solid phase extraction from a 20% methanolic extract of yarrow. A total amount of 48.8% DCCAs and 3.4% luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide was determined by HPLC analysis with cynarin as internal standard. IPRL experiments revealed a dose-dependant increase in bile flow (23-44-47%) by the Achillea fraction. Choleresis was two- to three-fold higher than that of cynarin. The combined effect of DCCAs and luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide stimulated bile flow more effectively than the single compound cynarin. Due to their polar structure, these compounds are quantitatively extracted into teas and tinctures; hence, they seem to be the choleretic active principles in the traditional application forms of yarrow. PMID:16303291

  13. Radioprotective Effect of Achillea millefolium L Against Genotoxicity Induced by Ionizing Radiation in Human Normal Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shahani, Somayeh; Rostamnezhad, Mostafa; Ghaffari-rad, Vahid; Ghasemi, Arash; Allahverdi Pourfallah, Tayyeb

    2015-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of Achillea millefolium L (ACM) extract was investigated against genotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in human lymphocytes. Peripheral blood samples were collected from human volunteers and incubated with the methanolic extract of ACM at different concentrations (10, 50, 100, and 200 ?g/mL) for 2 hours. At each dose point, the whole blood was exposed in vitro to 2.5 Gy of X-ray and then the lymphocytes were cultured with mitogenic stimulation to determine the micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated cell. Antioxidant capacity of the extract was determined using free radical-scavenging method. The treatment of lymphocytes with the extract showed a significant decrease in the incidence of micronuclei binucleated cells, as compared with similarly irradiated lymphocytes without any extract treatment. The maximum protection and decrease in frequency of micronuclei were observed at 200 ?g/mL of ACM extract which completely protected genotoxicity induced by IR in human lymphocytes. Achillea millefolium extract exhibited concentration-dependent radical-scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radicals. These data suggest that the methanolic extract of ACM may play an important role in the protection of normal tissues against genetic damage induced by IR. PMID:26675116

  14. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982) at test concentrations of 1000 ?g/ml, 100 ?g/ml, 10 ?g/ml, 7.5 ?g/ml, 5.0 ?g/ml, 2.5 ?g/ml and 1.25 ?g/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA) and Teucrium stocksianum (CST) had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 ?g/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity) was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST) has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development. PMID:22051373

  15. Antimutagenic Effect of Medicinal Plants Achillea millefolium and Bauhinia forficata In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Coelho, Ana Carolina; Balbi, Thiago José; Düsman Tonin, Lilian Tatiani; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is valuable both as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs and as a measure of safety for the continued use of these medicinal plants. Achillea millefolium L. (AM) is an ancient remedial herb native to Europe that is used to treat wounds, gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders, inflammation, headaches, and pain. Bauhinia forficata Link (BF), an Asiatic plant, is one of the most commonly used plants in folk medicine against diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimutagenic potential of aqueous extracts of AM and BF on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats treated in vivo. These plant extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. These compounds were determinants to noncytotoxic and antimutagenic/protective action of these plants, that reduced statistically the percentage of chromosomal alterations induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide in simultaneous (AM, 68%; BF, 91%), pre- (AM, 68%; BF, 71%), and post-treatment (AM, 67%; BF, 95%). Therefore, the results of this study indicate that extracts of A. millefolium and B. forficata have antimutagenic potential and that their consumption can benefit the health of those using them as an alternative therapy. PMID:24459532

  16. The Effect of Hydroethanol Extract of Achillea Millefolium on ?-adrenoceptors of Guinea Pig Tracheal Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Koushyar, H.; Koushyar, M. M.; Byrami, G.; Feizpour, A.; Golamnezhad, Z.; Boskabady, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Different pharmacological effects of Achillea millefolium including its relaxant effect on smooth muscle have been shown previously. In the present study the stimulatory effect of the plant extract on ?-adrenoceptor of tracheal muscle was examined in order to investigate one possible mechanism for its observed relaxant effect. Effect of three concentrations of hydroethanol extract, 10 nM propranolol, and saline on ?-adrenoceptor was tested in two experimental groups including; nonincubated tracheal smooth muscles (group 1) and incubated tracheal smooth muscle with chlorpheniramine (group 2). Concentration response curves to isoprenaline were performed in precontracted tracheal smooth muscle in the presence of the extract, propranolol and saline. Values of EC50 and CR-1 were measured. Leftward shifts in isoprenaline curves were observed in the presence of medium and high concentrations of the extract compared with saline in both groups. The values of EC50 obtained in the presence of medium and high concentrations of the extract only in group 1 were nonsignificantly lower than that of saline. The values of CR-1 obtained in the presence of all concentrations of the extract in both groups were negative and significantly different with that of propranolol. The results indicated a small stimulatory effect of the extract on ß2-adrenoceptors. PMID:24302793

  17. The Polyploid Series of the Achillea millefolium Aggregate in the Iberian Peninsula Investigated Using Microsatellites.

    PubMed

    López-Vinyallonga, Sara; Soriano, Ignasi; Susanna, Alfonso; Montserra, Josep Maria; Roquet, Cristina; Garcia-Jacas, Núria

    2015-01-01

    The Achillea millefolium aggregate is one of the most diverse polyploid complexes of the Northern hemisphere and has its western Eurasian boundary in the Iberian Peninsula. Four ploidy levels have been detected in A. millefolium, three of which have already been found in Iberia (diploid, hexaploid and octoploid), and a fourth (tetraploid) reported during the preparation of this paper. We collected a sample from 26 Iberian populations comprising all ploidy levels, and we used microsatellite markers analyzed as dominant in view of the high ploidy levels. Our goals were to quantify the genetic diversity of A. millefolium in the Iberian Peninsula, to elucidate its genetic structure, to investigate the differences in ploidy levels, and to analyse the dispersal of the species. The lack of spatial genetic structure recovered is linked to both high levels of gene flow between populations and to the fact that most genetic variability occurs within populations. This in turn suggests the existence of a huge panmictic yarrow population in the Iberian Peninsula. This is consistent with the assumption that recent colonization and rapid expansion occurred throughout this area. Likewise, the low levels of genetic variability recovered suggest that bottlenecks and/or founder events may have been involved in this process, and clonal reproduction may have played an important role in maintaining this genetic impoverishment. Indeed, the ecological and phenologic uniformity present in the A. millefolium agg. in Iberia compared to Eurasia and North America may be responsible for the low number of representatives of this complex of species present in the Iberian Peninsula. The low levels of genetic differentiation between ploidy levels recovered in our work suggest the absence of barriers between them. PMID:26091537

  18. The Polyploid Series of the Achillea millefolium Aggregate in the Iberian Peninsula Investigated Using Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    López-Vinyallonga, Sara; Soriano, Ignasi; Susanna, Alfonso; Montserra, Josep Maria; Roquet, Cristina; Garcia-Jacas, Núria

    2015-01-01

    The Achillea millefolium aggregate is one of the most diverse polyploid complexes of the Northern hemisphere and has its western Eurasian boundary in the Iberian Peninsula. Four ploidy levels have been detected in A. millefolium, three of which have already been found in Iberia (diploid, hexaploid and octoploid), and a fourth (tetraploid) reported during the preparation of this paper. We collected a sample from 26 Iberian populations comprising all ploidy levels, and we used microsatellite markers analyzed as dominant in view of the high ploidy levels. Our goals were to quantify the genetic diversity of A. millefolium in the Iberian Peninsula, to elucidate its genetic structure, to investigate the differences in ploidy levels, and to analyse the dispersal of the species. The lack of spatial genetic structure recovered is linked to both high levels of gene flow between populations and to the fact that most genetic variability occurs within populations. This in turn suggests the existence of a huge panmictic yarrow population in the Iberian Peninsula. This is consistent with the assumption that recent colonization and rapid expansion occurred throughout this area. Likewise, the low levels of genetic variability recovered suggest that bottlenecks and/or founder events may have been involved in this process, and clonal reproduction may have played an important role in maintaining this genetic impoverishment. Indeed, the ecological and phenologic uniformity present in the A. millefolium agg. in Iberia compared to Eurasia and North America may be responsible for the low number of representatives of this complex of species present in the Iberian Peninsula. The low levels of genetic differentiation between ploidy levels recovered in our work suggest the absence of barriers between them. PMID:26091537

  19. Achillea Millefolium L. Hydro- Alcoholic Extract Protects Pancreatic Cells by Down Regulating IL- 1? and iNOS Gene Expression in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zolghadri, Yalda; Fazeli, Mehdi; Kooshki, Marzieh; Shomali, Tahoora; Karimaghayee, Negar; Dehghani, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) has a role in ?- cell destruction in autoimmune diabetes by stimulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that generates the free radical nitric oxide. We aimed to investigate the effect of Achillea millefolium L, as a traditional hypoglycemic agent, on IL-1? and iNOS gene expression of pancreatic tissue in the STZ- induced diabetic rats. Forty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1. diabetic control; 2. diabetic rats treated with Achillea millefolium L. extract; 3. normal rats received only extract and 4. negative control (n= 10 each). Diabetes was induced by single i.p. injection of 45 mg/ kg streptozotocin (STZ). Rats in groups 2 and 3 were treated with i.p. injection of Achillea millefolium L. extract (100 mg/ kg/ day) for 14 days. Body weight, serum glucose and insulin levels were assayed at baseline and on days 3, 7, 10 and 14 of the experiment. Finally, the quantity of pancreatic IL-1? and iNOS mRNA was determined by real- time PCR. The mRNA expression level of IL-1? and iNOS genes, was significantly (p<0.001) increased in diabetic rats of group 1. Treatment with Achillea millefolium L. caused a significant (p<0.01) reduction in both IL-1? and iNOS genes expression. Moreover, rats in group 2 had higher insulin level associated with lower glucose level and higher body weight compared to control diabetic group. It seems that beneficial effect of Achillea millefolium L. on STZ- induced diabetes is at least partly due to amelioration of IL-1? and iNOS gene over expression which can have a ?-cell protective effect. PMID:25635252

  20. Comparative Studies on Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant, Wound Healing and Cytotoxic Activities of Selected Achillea L. Species Growing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Agar, Osman Tuncay; Dikmen, Miris; Ozturk, Nilgun; Yilmaz, Mustafa Abdullah; Temel, Hamdi; Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Turkey is one of the most important centers of diversity for the genus Achillea L. in the world. Keeping in mind the immense medicinal importance of phenols, in this study, three species growing in Turkey, A. coarctata Poir. (AC), A. kotschyi Boiss. subsp. kotschyi (AK) and A. lycaonica Boiss. & Heldr. (AL) were evaluated for their phenolic compositions, total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant properties, wound healing potencies on NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Comprehensive LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that AK was distinctively rich in chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, apigenin, hesperidin, rutin, kaempferol and luteolin (2890.6, 987.3, 797.0, 422.5, 188.1, 159.4 and 121.2 µg analyte/g extract, respectively). The findings exhibited a strong correlation between TPC and both free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Among studied species, the highest TPC (148.00 mg GAE/g extract) and TAC (2.080 UAE), the strongest radical scavenging (EC50 = 32.63 ?g/mL), the most prominent wound healing and most abundant cytotoxic activities were observed with AK. The results suggested that AK is a valuable source of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid with important antioxidant, wound healing and cytotoxic activities. These findings warrant further studies to assess the potential of AK as a bioactive source that could be exploited in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries. PMID:26437391

  1. In Vitro Evaluation of Achillea Millefolium on the Production and Stimulation of Human Skin Fibroblast Cells (HFS-PI-16)

    PubMed Central

    Ghobadian, Zahra; Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza Hafezi; Rezazadeh, Leila; Hosseini, Ehsan; Kokhazadeh, Taleb; Ghavam, Samiramis

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In the present study, we aimed the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Achillea millefolium (HEAML) on human skin fibroblast cells (HSF-PI-16) proliferation, stimulation and growth properties. Methods: Initially, using HSF-PI-16 monolayer culture, we created one line scratch method as an in vitro wound closure and after 3 days monitored via an inverted microscopy. Results: HEAML selectively inhibited proliferation of HSF-PI-16 cells at higher concentration (>20.0 mg/mL), and stimulated at lower concentrations (<20.0 mg/mL). Following, HSF-PI-16 media treatments up to 72 h, HEAML demonstrated significantly elevated proliferation rates (p<0.05) and stimulation in a scratch wound assay (p<0.04). Furthermore, the morphological analysis of HSF-PI-16 cells at culture media were detected the figures of round to spindle, non-adherent, immature and mature cells. Conclusion: These results clearly demonstrate the absence of any toxic effect of HEAML on human skin fibroblasts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report elucidating potential mechanisms of action of HEAML on fibroblasts proliferation, and stimulation, offering a greater insight and a better understanding of its effect in future studies. PMID:26543303

  2. Biochemical and Pathological Study of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Achillea millefolium L. on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Nephrolithiasis in Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bafrani, Hassan Hassani; Parsa, Yekta; Yadollah-Damavandi, Soheila; Jangholi, Ehsan; Ashkani-Esfahani, Soheil; Gharehbeglou, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nephrolithiasis is of the most prevalent urinary tract disease. It seems worthwhile to replace the conventional treatments with more beneficial and safer agents, particularly herbal medicines which are receiving an increasing interest nowadays. Aims: In this study, we investigated the protective and curative effects of Achillea millefolium L. on ethylene glycol (EG)-induced nephrolithiasis in rats. Materials and Methods: The extract of A. millefolium was prepared by soxhlet method. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (N = 8) as follows. The negative control (group A) received tap drinking water. Rats in sham (positive control group B), curative (group C and D), and preventive (group E) groups all received 1% EG in drinking water according to the experimental protocol for 30 days. In the curative groups, dosages of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (BW) of A. millefolium extract were administered orally from day 15 to the end of the experiment, group C and D, respectively. Group E received 200 mg/kg A. millefolium extract from the 1st day throughout the experiment. Urinary oxalate and citrate concentrations were measured by spectrophotometer on the first and 30th days. On day 31, the kidneys were removed and examined histopathologically for counting the calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposits in 50 microscopic fields. Results: In the curative and preventive groups, administration of A. millefolium extract showed significant reduction in urinary oxalate concentration (P < 0.05). Also, urinary citrate concentration was significantly increased in group C, D, and E. The CaOx deposits significantly decreased in group C to E compared with the group B. Conclusions: According to our results, A. millefolium extract had preventive and curative effects on EG-induced renal calculi. PMID:25599052

  3. The effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Achillea millefolium on muscarinic receptors of guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Feizpour, Azadeh; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Byrami, Goltaj; Golamnezhad, Zahra; Shafei, Mohammad Naser

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate one possible mechanism for the observed relaxant effect of A. millefolium (Achillea millefolium), in the present study the inhibitory effect of the extract of this plant on muscarinic receptors was examined. Materials and Methods: The effects of three concentrations of aqueous-ethanolic extract, 10 nM atropine, and saline on muscarinic receptors were tested in three conditions: In non incubated tracheal smooth muscle (group 1), tracheal chain incubated with propranolol and chlorpheniramine (group 2), and the one incubated with propranolol (group 3). Results: The EC50 obtained in the presence of all three concentrations of the extract were significantly higher compared to saline in groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.001and P < 0.01 in group 2 and 3 respectively). The EC50 obtained in the presence of all concentrations of the extract in group 2 were significantly improved compared to groups 1 and 3 (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). The maximum responses to methacholine in presence of only the higher concentration of the extract (0.8mg/ml) was significantly lower than that of saline in groups 1 (P < 0.05). There was neither significant difference between slopes of methacholine-response curves obtained in the presence of different concentrations of the extract and that of saline nor between the three groups. The values of (CR-1), obtained in the presence of all concentrations of the extract, were significantly lower compared to atropine in the first group but were not significantly different in other groups. The values of (CR-1) obtained in the presence of all concentrations of the extract were significantly improved in groups 2, compared to groups 1 and 3 (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). Conclusion: These results showed an inhibitory effect for the extract of A. millefolium on muscarinic receptors of tracheal smooth muscle. A histamine (H1) receptor blockade was also suggested for the extract. PMID:23543621

  4. In vitro anti-oxidant, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of Achillea teretifolia Willd extracts on human prostate cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Elif Burcu; Aç?k, Leyla; Elçi, P?nar; Sarper, Meral; Avcu, Ferit; Vural, Mecit

    2015-01-01

    Background: The majority of Achillea species are the most important native economic plants of Anatolia. They include highly bioactive compounds, so they have therapeutic applications. Objective: In the present study, the aim was to investigate in vitro anti-oxidant, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of Achillea teretifolia Willd extracts (Turkish name: Beyaz civanperÇemi). Materials and Methods: The anti-oxidant potential of the extracts was analyzed by the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and total phenolic content methods. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to detect cytotoxicity of the extracts onhuman prostate cancer cell lines (DU145 and PC-3) and human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells. mRNA expression levels of pro-apoptotic (bax, caspase-3) and anti-apoptotic (bcl-2) genes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The results showed that extracts exhibited a remarkable DPPH scavenging activity, and total phenolic content of the methanol extract was higher than that of the water extract. As time and concentration were increased, the methanol extract exhibited a more powerful cytotoxic effect on prostate cancer cells. In prostate cancer cells, the levels of mRNA expression of the bax and caspase-3 genes were significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05), whereas the expression of bcl-2 was down-regulated (P < 0.05). In HGF cells, there were no cytotoxic effect and apoptosis induction triggered by the extracts. Conclusion: The methanol extract had more powerful anti-oxidant, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects than the water extract. The extracts could be good anti-oxidant sources, and they might include anti-cancer compounds triggering the cytotoxicity and the apoptosis on prostate cancer cells. PMID:26664020

  5. Achillea lanulosa western yarrow

    E-print Network

    -flower · Umbel inflorescence · Leaves at base of plant · Bracts at base of inflorescence · Stoloniferous · Stems · Umbel inflorescence · Yellow flowers · Highly dissected leaf #12;Helianthus pumilus dwarf sunflower

  6. The Melanogenesis Alteration Effects of Achillea millefolium L. Essential Oil and Linalyl Acetate: Involvement of Oxidative Stress and the JNK and ERK Signaling Pathways in Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Chih-Chien; Wang, Hsun-Yen; Shih, Ying; Chou, Su-Tze

    2014-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2 and p38 MAPK, is known to be activated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation in melanocytes to regulate melanin production. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the pathway of ERK and JNK activation. It has been established that the essential oil of Achillea millefolium L. (AM-EO) has activities that suppress the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Thus, we analyzed the effects of AM-EO on melanogenesis in melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH) treated melanoma cells. The results demonstrated that AM-EO suppresses melanin production by decreasing tyrosinase activity through the regulation of the JNK and ERK signaling pathways. This effect might be associated with the AM-EO activity leading to the suppression of ROS, and linalyl acetate is its major functional component. Therefore, we propose that AM-EO has the potential to treat hyperpigmentation in the future. PMID:24743745

  7. The melanogenesis alteration effects of Achillea millefolium L. essential oil and linalyl acetate: involvement of oxidative stress and the JNK and ERK signaling pathways in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Chih-Chien; Wang, Hsun-Yen; Shih, Ying; Chou, Su-Tze

    2014-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2 and p38 MAPK, is known to be activated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation in melanocytes to regulate melanin production. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the pathway of ERK and JNK activation. It has been established that the essential oil of Achillea millefolium L. (AM-EO) has activities that suppress the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Thus, we analyzed the effects of AM-EO on melanogenesis in melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH) treated melanoma cells. The results demonstrated that AM-EO suppresses melanin production by decreasing tyrosinase activity through the regulation of the JNK and ERK signaling pathways. This effect might be associated with the AM-EO activity leading to the suppression of ROS, and linalyl acetate is its major functional component. Therefore, we propose that AM-EO has the potential to treat hyperpigmentation in the future. PMID:24743745

  8. Germacrene A synthase in yarrow (Achillea millefolium) is an enzyme with mixed substrate specificity: gene cloning, functional characterization and expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pazouki, Leila; Memari, Hamid R.; Kännaste, Astrid; Bichele, Rudolf; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoid synthases constitute a highly diverse gene family producing a wide range of cyclic and acyclic molecules consisting of isoprene (C5) residues. Often a single terpene synthase produces a spectrum of molecules of given chain length, but some terpene synthases can use multiple substrates, producing products of different chain length. Only a few such enzymes has been characterized, but the capacity for multiple-substrate use can be more widespread than previously thought. Here we focused on germacrene A synthase (GAS) that is a key cytosolic enzyme in the sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis pathway in the important medicinal plant Achillea millefolium (AmGAS). The full length encoding gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), functionally characterized, and its in vivo expression was analyzed. The recombinant protein catalyzed formation of germacrene A with the C15 substrate farnesyl diphosphate (FDP), while acyclic monoterpenes were formed with the C10 substrate geranyl diphosphate (GDP) and cyclic monoterpenes with the C10 substrate neryl diphosphate (NDP). Although monoterpene synthesis has been assumed to be confined exclusively to plastids, AmGAS can potentially synthesize monoterpenes in cytosol when GDP or NDP become available. AmGAS enzyme had high homology with GAS sequences from other Asteraceae species, suggesting that multi-substrate use can be more widespread among germacrene A synthases than previously thought. Expression studies indicated that AmGAS was expressed in both autotrophic and heterotrophic plant compartments with the highest expression levels in leaves and flowers. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the cloning and characterization of germacrene A synthase coding gene in A. millefolium, and multi-substrate use of GAS enzymes. PMID:25784918

  9. Anti-inflammatory Activity of New Guaiane Acid Derivatives from Achillea Coarctata

    E-print Network

    Paré, Paul W.

    in folk medicine, such as A. millefolium L. (Yarrow), administered orally and topically for reducing blood , Joe Karchesyf , Mohamed S. Kamelb and Ahmed A. Ahmedg a Chemistry of Medicinal Plants Department

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLE doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2008.00471.x

    E-print Network

    Bradshaw, Toby

    limits. Here we examine sister species of the monkeyflowers Mimulus cardinalis and M. lewisii to identify of California, M. cardinalis is found from low to mid elevation and M. lewisii is found from mid to high

  11. Revision of the Nearctic species of the genus Iphthiminus Spilman (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Rebekka M; Pollock, Darren A

    2015-01-01

    Nearctic species of Iphthiminus Spilman (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) are revised by examining external morphological structures and genital characters. Of the six Nearctic species, only three are considered valid: Iphthiminus serratus (Mannerheim 1843), I. opacus (Leconte 1866), and I. lewisii (Horn 1870). Photographs are taken to highlight structures and a key is created to identify the species. Three names are synonymized: (senior synonym in brackets) I. sublaevis (Bland 1865) [=Nyctobates sublaevis (Bland 1865)], I. salebrosus (Casey 1924) [=Iphthimus salebrosus (Casey 1924)] are synonymized under I. serratus (Mannerheim 1843) [=Nyctobates serratus (Mannerheim 1843)], and I. laevissimus (Casey 1890 [=Iphthimus laevissimus (Casey 1890)] is synonymized under Iphthiminus lewisii (Horn 1870) [=Iphthimus lewisii (Horn 1870)]. Lectotypes are designated for Iphthimus serratus lewisii Horn 1870 and Iphthimus opacus LeConte 1866. PMID:26624753

  12. Three floral volatiles contribute to differential pollinator attraction in monkeyflowers (Mimulus)

    PubMed Central

    Byers, Kelsey J. R. P.; Bradshaw, H. D.; Riffell, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Flowering plants employ a wide variety of signals, including scent, to attract the attention of pollinators. In this study we investigated the role of floral scent in mediating differential attraction between two species of monkeyflowers (Mimulus) reproductively isolated by pollinator preference. The emission rate and chemical identity of floral volatiles differ between the bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated M. cardinalis. Mimulus lewisii flowers produce an array of volatiles dominated by d-limonene, ?-myrcene and E-?-ocimene. Of these three monoterpenes, M. cardinalis flowers produce only d-limonene, released at just 0.9% the rate of M. lewisii flowers. Using the Bombus vosnesenskii bumblebee, an important pollinator of M. lewisii, we conducted simultaneous gas chromatography with extracellular recordings in the bumblebee antennal lobe. Results from these experiments revealed that these three monoterpenes evoke significant neural responses, and that a synthetic mixture of the three volatiles evokes the same responses as the natural scent. Furthermore, the neural population shows enhanced responses to the M. lewisii scent over the scent of M. cardinalis. This neural response is reflected in behavior; in two-choice assays, bumblebees investigate artificial flowers scented with M. lewisii more frequently than ones scented with M. cardinalis, and in synthetic mixtures the three monoterpenes are necessary and sufficient to recapitulate responses to the natural scent of M. lewisii. In this system, floral scent alone is sufficient to elicit differential visitation by bumblebees, implying a strong role of scent in the maintenance of reproductive isolation between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. PMID:24198269

  13. Three floral volatiles contribute to differential pollinator attraction in monkeyflowers (Mimulus).

    PubMed

    Byers, Kelsey J R P; Bradshaw, H D; Riffell, Jeffrey A

    2014-02-15

    Flowering plants employ a wide variety of signals, including scent, to attract the attention of pollinators. In this study we investigated the role of floral scent in mediating differential attraction between two species of monkeyflowers (Mimulus) reproductively isolated by pollinator preference. The emission rate and chemical identity of floral volatiles differ between the bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated M. cardinalis. Mimulus lewisii flowers produce an array of volatiles dominated by d-limonene, ?-myrcene and E-?-ocimene. Of these three monoterpenes, M. cardinalis flowers produce only d-limonene, released at just 0.9% the rate of M. lewisii flowers. Using the Bombus vosnesenskii bumblebee, an important pollinator of M. lewisii, we conducted simultaneous gas chromatography with extracellular recordings in the bumblebee antennal lobe. Results from these experiments revealed that these three monoterpenes evoke significant neural responses, and that a synthetic mixture of the three volatiles evokes the same responses as the natural scent. Furthermore, the neural population shows enhanced responses to the M. lewisii scent over the scent of M. cardinalis. This neural response is reflected in behavior; in two-choice assays, bumblebees investigate artificial flowers scented with M. lewisii more frequently than ones scented with M. cardinalis, and in synthetic mixtures the three monoterpenes are necessary and sufficient to recapitulate responses to the natural scent of M. lewisii. In this system, floral scent alone is sufficient to elicit differential visitation by bumblebees, implying a strong role of scent in the maintenance of reproductive isolation between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. PMID:24198269

  14. Chromosomal rearrangements and the genetics of reproductive barriers in mimulus (monkey flowers).

    PubMed

    Fishman, Lila; Stathos, Angela; Beardsley, Paul M; Williams, Charles F; Hill, Jeffrey P

    2013-09-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements may directly cause hybrid sterility and can facilitate speciation by preserving local adaptation in the face of gene flow. We used comparative linkage mapping with shared gene-based markers to identify potential chromosomal rearrangements between the sister monkeyflowers Mimulus lewisii and Mimulus cardinalis, which are textbook examples of ecological speciation. We then remapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for floral traits and flowering time (premating isolation) and hybrid sterility (postzygotic isolation). We identified three major regions of recombination suppression in the M. lewisii × M. cardinalis hybrid map compared to a relatively collinear Mimulus parishii × M. lewisii map, consistent with a reciprocal translocation and two inversions specific to M. cardinalis. These inferences were supported by targeted intraspecific mapping, which also implied a M. lewisii-specific reciprocal translocation causing chromosomal pseudo-linkage in both hybrid mapping populations. Floral QTLs mapped in this study, along with previously mapped adaptive QTLs, were clustered in putatively rearranged regions. All QTLs for male sterility, including two underdominant loci, mapped to regions of recombination suppression. We argue that chromosomal rearrangements may have played an important role in generating and consolidating barriers to gene flow as natural selection drove the dramatic ecological and morphological divergence of these species. PMID:24033166

  15. Copyright 1998 by the Genetics Society of America Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Differences in Floral Morphology

    E-print Network

    Bradshaw, Toby

    . cardinalis flowers are visited mostly by hummingbirds. The genetic control of 12 morphological differences between the flowers of M. lewisii and M. cardinalis was explored in a large linkage mapping population pollination, but they of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling adaptive are exserted in M. cardinalis

  16. 2003 The Society for the Study of Evolution. All rights reserved. Evolution, 57(7), 2003, pp. 15201534

    E-print Network

    Bradshaw, Toby

    isolation in speciation, but the relative con- tributions of different reproductive barriers are poorly understood. We examined the nature of isolation between Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis, sister species experimental interspecific, intraspecific, and mixed pollinations in the greenhouse); and relative hybrid

  17. Bulk Segregant Analysis of an Induced Floral Mutant Identifies a MIXTA-Like R2R3 MYB

    E-print Network

    Bradshaw, Toby

    . lewisii flowers, which involves epidermal cell development and carotenoid pigmentation. THE rapid adaptive radiation of the .250,000 species of flowering plants has produced an astonishing diversity of flower). Therefore, an ideal experimental sys- tem to study the genetic basis of flower diversification should

  18. H. r. D. (Toby) Bradshaw, J Professor and Chair

    E-print Network

    Bradshaw, Toby

    Fellow, 197984 f the human thymidine kinase Ph.D. Biochemistry 1984 "Cloning and characterization o of morphological and physiological raits resulting in reproductive isolation of Mimulus lewisii and Mimulus cardinalis; positional t cloning of adaptive QTLs; synthesis of new species. This and previous work has

  19. Growth and leaf physiology of monkeyflowers with different altitude ranges.

    PubMed

    Angert, Amy Lauren

    2006-06-01

    Every species is limited both geographically and ecologically to a subset of available habitats, yet for many species the causes of distribution limits are unknown. Temperature is thought to be one of the primary determinants of species distributions along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients. This study examined leaf physiology and plant performance under contrasting temperature regimes of sister species of monkeyflower, Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewisii (Phrymaceae), that differ in altitude distribution to test the hypothesis that temperature is the primary determinant of differences in fitness versus altitude. Each species attained greatest aboveground biomass, net photosynthetic rate, and effective quantum yield of photosystem II when grown under temperatures characteristic of the altitudinal range center. Although both species exhibited greater stem length, stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO2 concentration in hot than in cold temperatures, these traits showed much greater reductions under cold temperature for M. cardinalis than for M. lewisii. Survival of M. lewisii was also sensitive to temperature, showing a striking decrease in hot temperatures. Within each temperature regime, the species native to that temperature displayed greatest growth and leaf physiological capacity. Populations from the altitude range center and range margin of each species were used to examine population differentiation, but central and marginal populations did not differ in most growth or leaf physiological responses to temperature. This study provides evidence that M. cardinalis and M. lewisii differ in survival, growth, and leaf physiology under temperature regimes characterizing their contrasting low and high altitude range centers, and suggests that the species' altitude range limits may arise, in part, due to metabolic limitations on growth that ultimately decrease survival and limit reproduction. PMID:16468056

  20. Floral volatile alleles can contribute to pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation in monkeyflowers (Mimulus).

    PubMed

    Byers, Kelsey J R P; Vela, James P; Peng, Foen; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Bradshaw, Harvey D

    2014-12-01

    Pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation is a major factor in driving the diversification of flowering plants. Studies of floral traits involved in reproductive isolation have focused nearly exclusively on visual signals, such as flower color. The role of less obvious signals, such as floral scent, has been studied only recently. In particular, the genetics of floral volatiles involved in mediating differential pollinator visitation remains unknown. The bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and hummingbird-pollinated Mimulus cardinalis are a model system for studying reproductive isolation via pollinator preference. We have shown that these two species differ in three floral terpenoid volatiles - d-limonene, ?-myrcene, and E-?-ocimene - that are attractive to bumblebee pollinators. By genetic mapping and in vitro analysis of enzyme activity we demonstrate that these interspecific differences are consistent with allelic variation at two loci, LIMONENE-MYRCENE SYNTHASE (LMS) and OCIMENE SYNTHASE (OS). Mimulus lewisii LMS (MlLMS) and OS (MlOS) are expressed most strongly in floral tissue in the last stages of floral development. Mimulus cardinalis LMS (McLMS) is weakly expressed and has a nonsense mutation in exon 3. Mimulus cardinalis OS (McOS) is expressed similarly to MlOS, but the encoded McOS enzyme produces no E-?-ocimene. Recapitulating the M. cardinalis phenotype by reducing the expression of MlLMS by RNA interference in transgenic M. lewisii produces no behavioral difference in pollinating bumblebees; however, reducing MlOS expression produces a 6% decrease in visitation. Allelic variation at the OCIMENE SYNTHASE locus is likely to contribute to differential pollinator visitation, and thus promote reproductive isolation between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. OCIMENE SYNTHASE joins a growing list of 'speciation genes' ('barrier genes') in flowering plants. PMID:25319242

  1. Transcriptional control of floral anthocyanin pigmentation in monkeyflowers (Mimulus).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Sagawa, Janelle M; Frost, Laura; Vela, James P; Bradshaw, Harvey D

    2014-12-01

    A molecular description of the control of floral pigmentation in a multi-species group displaying various flower color patterns is of great interest for understanding the molecular bases of phenotypic diversification and pollinator-mediated speciation. Through transcriptome profiling, mutant analyses and transgenic experiments, we aim to establish a 'baseline' floral anthocyanin regulation model in Mimulus lewisii and to examine the different ways of tinkering with this model in generating the diversity of floral anthocyanin patterns in other Mimulus species. We find one WD40 and one bHLH gene controlling anthocyanin pigmentation in the entire corolla of M. lewisii and two R2R3-MYB genes, PELAN and NEGAN, controlling anthocyanin production in the petal lobe and nectar guide, respectively. The autoregulation of NEGAN might be a critical property to generate anthocyanin spots. Independent losses of PELAN expression (via different mechanisms) explain two natural yellow-flowered populations of M. cardinalis (typically red-flowered). The NEGAN ortholog is the only anthocyanin-activating MYB expressed in the M. guttatus flowers. The mutant lines and transgenic tools available for M. lewisii will enable gene-by-gene replacement experiments to dissect the genetic and developmental bases of more complex floral color patterns, and to test hypotheses on phenotypic evolution in general. PMID:25103615

  2. Allele substitution at a flower colour locus produces a pollinator shift in monkeyflowers.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, H D; Schemske, Douglas W

    2003-11-13

    The role of major mutations in adaptive evolution has been debated for more than a century. The classical view is that adaptive mutations are nearly infinite in number with infinitesimally small phenotypic effect, but recent theory suggests otherwise. To provide empirical estimates of the magnitude of adaptive mutations in wild plants, we conducted field studies to determine the adaptive value of alternative alleles at a single locus, YELLOW UPPER (YUP). YUP controls the presence or absence of yellow carotenoid pigments in the petals of pink-flowered Mimulus lewisii, which is pollinated by bumblebees, and its red-flowered sister species M. cardinalis, which is pollinated by hummingbirds. We bred near-isogenic lines (NILs) in which the YUP allele from each species was substituted into the other. M. cardinalis NILs with the M. lewisii YUP allele had dark pink flowers and received 74-fold more bee visits than the wild type, whereas M. lewisii NILs with the M. cardinalis yup allele had yellow-orange flowers and received 68-fold more hummingbird visits than the wild type. These results indicate that an adaptive shift in pollinator preference may be initiated by a single major mutation. PMID:14614505

  3. Transcriptional control of floral anthocyanin pigmentation in monkeyflowers (Mimulus)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Sagawa, Janelle M.; Frost, Laura; Vela, James P.; Bradshaw, Harvey D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A molecular description of the control of floral pigmentation in a multi-species group displaying various flower color patterns is of great interest for understanding the molecular bases of phenotypic diversification and pollinator-mediated speciation. Through transcriptome profiling, mutant analyses, and transgenic experiments, we aim to establish a ‘baseline’ floral anthocyanin regulation model in Mimulus lewisii and to examine the different ways of tinkering with this model in generating the diversity of floral anthocyanin patterns in other Mimulus species. We find one WD40 and one bHLH gene controlling anthocyanin pigmentation in the entire corolla of M. lewisii, and two R2R3-MYB genes, PELAN and NEGAN, controlling anthocyanin production in the petal lobe and nectar guide, respectively. The autoregulation of NEGAN might be a critical property to generate anthocyanin spots. Independent losses of PELAN expression (via different mechanisms) explain two natural yellow-flowered populations of M. cardinalis (typically red-flowered). The NEGAN ortholog is the only anthocyanin-activating MYB expressed in the M. guttatus flowers. The mutant lines and transgenic tools available for M. lewisii will enable gene-by-gene replacement experiments to dissect the genetic and developmental bases of more complex floral color patterns, and to test hypotheses on phenotypic evolution in general. PMID:25103615

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ach5

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Cho, Shu-Ting; Lo, Wen-Sui; Wang, Yi-Chieh; Lai, Erh-Min

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes crown gall disease. The strain Ach5 was isolated from yarrow (Achillea ptarmica L.) and is the wild-type progenitor of other derived strains widely used for plant transformation. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium. PMID:26044425

  5. Working Groups Integrated fruit protection in fruit crops

    E-print Network

    Lucas, Éric

    (Solidago canadensis) and the common yarrow (Achillea millefolium), two native plants known to attract orchard pests, more specifically the European red mite (Panonychus ulmi), the two- spotted spider mite), the tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris) and the white apple leafhopper (Typhlocyba pomaria). In the present

  6. Comparative linkage maps suggest that fission, not polyploidy, underlies near-doubling of chromosome number within monkeyflowers (Mimulus; Phrymaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, L; Willis, J H; Wu, C A; Lee, Y-W

    2014-01-01

    Changes in chromosome number and structure are important contributors to adaptation, speciation and macroevolution. In flowering plants, polyploidy and subsequent reductions in chromosome number by fusion are major sources of chromosomal evolution, but chromosome number increase by fission has been relatively unexplored. Here, we use comparative linkage mapping with gene-based markers to reconstruct chromosomal synteny within the model flowering plant genus Mimulus (monkeyflowers). Two sections of the genus with haploid numbers ?14 have been inferred to be relatively recent polyploids because they are phylogenetically nested within numerous taxa with low base numbers (n=8–10). We combined multiple data sets to build integrated genetic maps of the M. guttatus species complex (section Simiolus, n=14) and the M. lewisii group (section Erythranthe; n=8), and then aligned the two integrated maps using >100 shared markers. We observed strong segmental synteny between M. lewisii and M. guttatus maps, with essentially 1-to-1 correspondence across each of 16 chromosomal blocks. Assuming that the M. lewisii (and widespread) base number of 8 is ancestral, reconstruction of 14 M. guttatus chromosomes requires at least eight fission events (likely shared by Simiolus and sister section Paradanthus (n=16)), plus two fusion events. This apparent burst of fission in the yellow monkeyflower lineages raises new questions about mechanisms and consequences of chromosomal fission in plants. Our comparative maps also provide insight into the origins of a chromosome exhibiting centromere-associated female meiotic drive and create a framework for transferring M. guttatus genome resources across the entire genus. PMID:24398885

  7. Quantitative trait loci affecting differences in floral morphology between two species of monkeyflower (Mimulus).

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, H D; Otto, K G; Frewen, B E; McKay, J K; Schemske, D W

    1998-05-01

    Conspicuous differences in floral morphology are partly responsible for reproductive isolation between two sympatric species of monkeyflower because of their effect on visitation of the flowers by different pollinators. Mimulus lewisii flowers are visited primarily by bumblebees, whereas M. cardinalis flowers are visited mostly by hummingbirds. The genetic control of 12 morphological differences between the flowers of M. lewisii and M. cardinalis was explored in a large linkage mapping population of F2 plants n = 465 to provide an accurate estimate of the number and magnitude of effect of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing each character. Between one and six QTLs were identified for each trait. Most (9/12) traits appear to be controlled in part by at least one major QTL explaining >/=25% of the total phenotypic variance. This implies that either single genes of individually large effect or linked clusters of genes with a large cumulative effect can play a role in the evolution of reproductive isolation and speciation. PMID:9584110

  8. Genetic dissection of a major anthocyanin QTL contributing to pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation between sister species of Mimulus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Sagawa, Janelle M; Young, Riane C; Christensen, Brian J; Bradshaw, Harvey D

    2013-05-01

    Prezygotic barriers play a major role in the evolution of reproductive isolation, which is a prerequisite for speciation. However, despite considerable progress in identifying genes and mutations responsible for postzygotic isolation, little is known about the genetic and molecular basis underlying prezygotic barriers. The bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated M. cardinalis represent a classic example of pollinator-mediated prezygotic isolation between two sister species in sympatry. Flower color differences resulting from both carotenoid and anthocyanin pigments contribute to pollinator discrimination between the two species in nature. Through fine-scale genetic mapping, site-directed mutagenesis, and transgenic experiments, we demonstrate that a single-repeat R3 MYB repressor, ROSE INTENSITY1 (ROI1), is the causal gene underlying a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) with the largest effect on anthocyanin concentration and that cis-regulatory change rather than coding DNA mutations cause the allelic difference between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. Together with the genomic resources and stable transgenic tools developed here, these results suggest that Mimulus is an excellent platform for studying the genetics of pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation and the molecular basis of morphological evolution at the most fundamental level-gene by gene, mutation by mutation. PMID:23335333

  9. Mastoparan induces apoptosis in B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and displays antitumor activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Ricardo A; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Ferreira, Adilson K; Matsuo, Alisson L; Massaoka, Mariana H; Girola, Natalia; Auada, Aline V V; Farias, Camyla F; Pasqualoto, Kerly F M; Rodrigues, Cecília P; Barbuto, José A; Levy, Debora; Bydlowski, Sérgio P; de Sá-Junior, Paulo L; Travassos, Luiz R; Lebrun, Ivo

    2015-06-01

    Mastoparan is an ?-helical and amphipathic tetradecapeptide obtained from the venom of the wasp Vespula lewisii. This peptide exhibits a wide variety of biological effects, including antimicrobial activity, increased histamine release from mast cells, induction of a potent mitochondrial permeability transition and tumor cell cytotoxicity. Here, the effects of mastoparan in malignant melanoma were studied using the murine model of B16F10-Nex2 cells. In vitro, mastoparan caused melanoma cell death by the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, as evidenced by the Annexin V-FITC/PI assay, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), generation of reactive oxygen species, DNA degradation and cell death signaling. Most importantly, mastoparan reduced the growth of subcutaneous melanoma in syngeneic mice and increased their survival. The present results show that mastoparan induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in melanoma cells through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway protecting the mice against tumor development. PMID:25305549

  10. Using experimental evolution to investigate geographic range limits in monkeyflowers.

    PubMed

    Angert, Amy L; Bradshaw, H D; Schemske, Douglas W

    2008-10-01

    Every species occupies a restricted geographic distribution, but it is unclear why natural selection at the range margin fails to increase tolerance to limiting environmental variables and thereby allow continual range expansion. Models indicate that the interplay of demographic asymmetries, dispersal, divergent natural selection, and adaptive trade-offs across spatially varying environments can give rise to stable range limits. Here we examine sister species of the monkeyflowers Mimulus cardinalis and M. lewisii to identify traits that might contribute to the evolution of the species' ranges and to ask whether adaptive trade-offs between environments can limit their geographic distribution. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, M. cardinalis is found from low to mid elevation and M. lewisii is found from mid to high elevation. We transplanted segregating populations of interspecific hybrids to low and high elevation and cross-pollinated those that survived to flowering to create selected populations that evolved at low or high elevation. When grown in a common environment, the progeny of hybrids selected at high elevation flowered earlier compared to a greenhouse control population, whereas hybrids selected at low elevation displayed increased warm-temperature photosynthetic capacity. If adaptation to one environment entails a cost to adaptation in other environments, then selected hybrid populations should display reduced fitness, relative to an unselected control population, when grown in an environment in which they were not selected. Two such trade-offs were observed in this study, where hybrids selected at high elevation displayed reduced biomass when grown in temperatures characteristic of low elevation and hybrids selected at low elevation showed reduced resistance to freezing. These results identify traits under selection for range expansion and suggest that adaptive trade-offs can contribute to limiting the geographic distribution of species. PMID:18647337

  11. The niche, limits to species' distributions, and spatiotemporal variation in demography across the elevation ranges of two monkeyflowers.

    PubMed

    Angert, Amy L

    2009-11-17

    Understanding the processes that create and maintain species' geographic range limits has implications for many questions in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. Many expectations for the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of populations at the range margin rest on the concordance of geographic limits and the limits of a species' ecological niche. If range limits are coincident with niche limits, then marginal populations should have lower and/or more variable vital rates and population growth rates than central populations. Using data from 8 annual censuses of marked individuals, I investigated the demography of Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewisii across the species' elevation ranges. Central and marginal populations exhibited striking demographic differences, but only for one species were differences in expected directions. Marginal populations from the M. lewisii lower elevation range limit had lower and more variable survival than central populations and appeared to be demographic sinks. In contrast, marginal populations from the M. cardinalis upper elevation limit had higher fecundity and higher population growth rates than central populations. Although the species differed with respect to central-marginal patterns, they were concordant with respect to elevation; that is, both species had higher fitness in higher reaches of their examined ranges. Potential explanations for these patterns include source-sink dynamics, with asymmetrical gene flow mediated by river currents, and climate change, with recent warming shifting the species' climatic envelopes to higher elevations. Hence, assessment of spatiotemporal variation in both demography and dispersal is necessary to fully understand the relationship between the niche and species' distributions. PMID:19805178

  12. Volatile chemical composition and bioactivity of six essential oils against the stored food insect Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera Dryophthoridae).

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Alessandra; Conti, Barbara; Mazzoni, Valerio; Meini, Laura; Pistelli, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) of Achillea millefolium, Myrtus communis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare and Lavandula angustifolia were analysed with GC-FID and GC-MS in order to define their aromatic profiles and then their toxicity and repellent activity against Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera Dryophthoridae) with specific bioassays were evaluated. Results from topical applications on insects showed that all EOs had variable and significant insecticidal activity. Mortality rate never exceeded 76%. Results of repellency tests are indicated for M. communis and L. angustifolia EOs, displaying high repellent activity to S. zeamais adults. PMID:21861644

  13. High-performance liquid chromatographic characterization of some medical plant extracts used in cosmetic formulas.

    PubMed

    Schulz, H; Albroscheit, G

    1988-06-17

    Rapid and reliable methods are presented for the characterization of biologically active and/or characteristic constituents in aqueous extracts of Hamamelis virginiana, Matricaria chamomilla, Achillea millefolium, Thymus vulgaris, Althaea officinalis and Cinchonia spp. Prior to high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation a clean-up step was performed using a solid-phase extraction system. The purified extracts were analysed by HPLC coupled with a diode-array detector and a fluorescence detector. In some instances, previously unreported components of the aqueous plant extracts were found. PMID:3417826

  14. The influence of plant species on the plant/air partitioning coefficients of PCBs and chlorinated benzenes

    SciTech Connect

    Koemp, P.; McLachlan, M.S.

    1995-12-31

    The plant/air partitioning coefficients (K{sub PA}) of pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene and 16 PCB congeners were determined in five different grass and herb species common to Central Europe (Lolium multiflorum, Trifolium repens, Plantago lanceolata, Crepis biennis, Achillea millefolium). The measurements were conducted between 5 C and 35 C using a solid phase fugacity meter. Octanol/air partition coefficients (K{sub OA}) were also measured over a similar temperature range. In all cases an excellent linear relationship between log K{sub PA} and log K{sub OA} was observed (r{sup 2} between 0.80 and 0.99). However, while the slope of this relationship was 1 for Lolium multiflorum (ryegrass), in agreement with previous work, the slopes of the log K{sub PA} vs. log K{sub OA} plot were less than 1 for the other 4 species, lying as low as 0.49 for Achillea millefolium (yarrow). Large differences in the enthalpy of phase change (plant/air) were also observed between the different species, but these differences were not related to the differences in the partition coefficients. These observations demonstrate that the contaminant storage properties of plants are variable, and that the lipophilic compartment in some plants is considerably more polar than octanol. This places constraints on the applicability of current models of plant uptake, almost all of which assume that the lipophilic compartment behaves like octanol, and reinforces the need for more research into the contaminant storage properties of plants.

  15. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard; Boepple, Willi

    2007-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera helix and Alchemilla vulgaris are fed for retained placenta. Conclusion Some of the plants showing high levels of validity were Hedera helix for retained placenta and Euphrasia officinalis for eye problems. Plants with high validity for wounds and injuries included Hypericum perforatum, Malva parviflora and Prunella vulgaris. Treatments with high validity against endoparasites included those with Juniperus communis and Pinus ponderosa. Anxiety and pain are well treated with Melissa officinalis and Nepeta caesarea. PMID:17324258

  16. Pollinator preference and the evolution of floral traits in monkeyflowers (Mimulus).

    PubMed

    Schemske, D W; Bradshaw, H D

    1999-10-12

    A paradigm of evolutionary biology is that adaptation and reproductive isolation are caused by a nearly infinite number of mutations of individually small effect. Here, we test this hypothesis by investigating the genetic basis of pollinator discrimination in two closely related species of monkeyflowers that differ in their major pollinators. This system provides a unique opportunity to investigate the genetic architecture of adaptation and speciation because floral traits that confer pollinator specificity also contribute to premating reproductive isolation. We asked: (i) What floral traits cause pollinator discrimination among plant species? and (ii) What is the genetic basis of these traits? We examined these questions by using data obtained from a large-scale field experiment where genetic markers were employed to determine the genetic basis of pollinator visitation. Observations of F2 hybrids produced by crossing bee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii with hummingbird-pollinated Mimulus cardinalis revealed that bees preferred large flowers low in anthocyanin and carotenoid pigments, whereas hummingbirds favored nectar-rich flowers high in anthocyanins. An allele that increases petal carotenoid concentration reduced bee visitation by 80%, whereas an allele that increases nectar production doubled hummingbird visitation. These results suggest that genes of large effect on pollinator preference have contributed to floral evolution and premating reproductive isolation in these monkeyflowers. This work contributes to growing evidence that adaptation and reproductive isolation may often involve major genes. PMID:10518550

  17. Fisheries Enhancement on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation; Hangman Creek, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Ronald; Kinkead, Bruce; Stanger, Mark

    2003-07-01

    Historically, Hangman Creek produced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the Upper Columbia Basin Tribes. One weir, located at the mouth of Hangman Creek was reported to catch 1,000 salmon a day for a period of 30 days a year (Scholz et al. 1985). The current town of Tekoa, Washington, near the state border with Idaho, was the location of one of the principle anadromous fisheries for the Coeur d'Alene Tribe (Scholz et al. 1985). The construction, in 1909, of Little Falls Dam, which was not equipped with a fish passage system, blocked anadromous fish access to the Hangman Watershed. The fisheries were further removed with the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. As a result, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as Redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri), Westslope Cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii), Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and other terrestrial wildlife. Historically, Redband and Cutthroat trout comprised a great deal of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's diet (Power 1997).

  18. Comparative study of the membrane-permeabilizing activities of mastoparans and related histamine-releasing agents in bacteria, erythrocytes, and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Satoshi; Komagoe, Keiko; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Katsu, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The membrane-permeabilizing activities of mastoparans and related histamine-releasing agents were compared through measurements of K(+) efflux from bacteria, erythrocytes, and mast cells. Changes in bacterial cell viability, hemolysis, and histamine release, as well as in the shape of erythrocytes were also investigated. The compounds tested were mastoparans (HR1, a mastoparan from Polistes jadwagae, and a mastoparan from Vespula lewisii), granuliberin R, mast cell-degranulating peptide, and compound 48/80, as well as antimicrobial peptides, such as magainin I, magainin II, gramicidin S, and melittin. We used a K(+)-selective electrode to determine changes in the permeability to K(+) of the cytoplasmic membranes of cells. Consistent with the surface of mast cells becoming negatively charged during histamine release, due to the translocation of phosphatidylserine to the outer leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane, histamine-releasing agents induced K(+) efflux from mast cells, dependent on their ability to increase the permeability of bacterial cytoplasmic membranes rich in negatively charged phospholipids. The present results demonstrated that amphiphilic peptides, possessing both histamine-releasing and antimicrobial capabilities, induced the permeabilization of the cytoplasmic membranes of not only bacteria but mast cells. Mastoparans increased the permeability of membranes in human erythrocytes at higher concentrations, and changed the normal discoid shape to a crenated form. The structural requirement for making the crenated form was determined using compound 48/80 and its constituents (monomer, dimer, and trimer), changing systematically the number of cationic charges of the molecules. PMID:20955685

  19. Molecular phylogenies in angiosperm evolution.

    PubMed

    Martin, W; Lydiate, D; Brinkmann, H; Forkmann, G; Saedler, H; Cerff, R

    1993-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced cDNAs for the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of glycolysis, gapC, from a bryophyte, a gymnosperm, and three angiosperms. Phylogenetic analyses are presented for these data in the context of other gapC sequences and in parallel with published nucleotide sequences for the chloroplast encoded gene for the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL). Relative-rate tests were performed for these genes in order to assess variation in substitution rate for coding regions, along individual plant lineages studied. The results of both gene analyses suggest that the deepest dichotomy within the angiosperms separates not magnoliids from remaining angiosperms, but monocotyledons from dicotyledons, in sharp contrast to prediction from the Euanthial theory for angiosperm evolution. Furthermore, these chloroplast and nuclear sequence data taken together suggest that the separation of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous lineages took place in late Carboniferous times [approximately 300 Myr before the present (Mybp)]. This date would exceed but be compatible with the late-Triassic (approximately 220 Mybp) occurrence of fossil reproductive structures of the primitive angiosperm Sanmiguelia lewisii. PMID:8095691

  20. The genetic architecture of traits associated with the evolution of self-pollination in Mimulus.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Lila; Beardsley, Paul M; Stathos, Angela; Williams, Charles F; Hill, Jeffrey P

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping is a first step toward understanding the genetic basis of adaptive evolution and may also reveal reproductive incompatibilities unique to hybrids. In plants, the shift from outcrossing to self-pollination is common, providing the opportunity for comparisons of QTL architecture among parallel evolutionary transitions. We used QTL mapping in hybrids between the bee-pollinated monkeyflower Mimulus lewisii and the closely related selfer Mimulus parishii to determine the genetic basis of divergence in floral traits and flowering time associated with mating-system evolution, and to characterize hybrid anther sterility. We found a moderately polygenic and highly directional basis for floral size evolution, suggesting adaptation from standing variation or in pursuit of a moving optimum, whereas only a few major loci accounted for substantial flowering-time divergence. Cytonuclear incompatibilities caused hybrid anther sterility, confounding estimation of reproductive organ QTLs. The genetic architecture of floral traits associated with selfing in M. parishii was primarily polygenic, as in other QTL studies of this transition, but in contrast to the previously characterized oligogenic basis of a pollinator shift in close relatives. Hybrid anther sterility appeared parallel at the molecular level to previously characterized incompatibilities, but also raised new questions about cytonuclear co-evolution in plants. PMID:25306861

  1. Downregulation of microglial activation by achillolide A.

    PubMed

    Elmann, Anat; Telerman, Alona; Mordechay, Sharon; Erlank, Hilla; Rindner, Miriam; Kashman, Yoel; Ofir, Rivka

    2015-02-01

    Chronic inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. During the neuroinflammatory process, microglial cells release neurotoxic and proinflammatory mediators. In the present study, using activity-guided fractionation, we have purified an anti-inflammatory compound determined by spectroscopic methods to be a sesquiterpene lactone named achillolide A from Achillea fragrantissima (Forsk.) Sch. Bip. In primary cultures of lipopolysaccharide-activated microglial cells, achillolide A inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-induced levels of proinflammatory and toxic mediators including glutamate, nitric oxide, matrix metalloproteinase-9, cyclooxygenase-2, induced nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-?. Achillolide A also exhibited an antioxidant capacity, as was shown in a cell free system as well as by its ability to reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in microglial cells. Thus, achillolide A might have therapeutic potential for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and deserves further studies. PMID:25654405

  2. Content of Zinc and Copper in Selected Plants Growing Along a Motorway.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, El?bieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz; Wi?niewska-Kad?ajan, Beata; Sosnowski, Jacek; Kolczarek, Roman; Jankowska, Jolanta; Ciepiela, Gra?yna A

    2015-11-01

    In 2011 a study was carried out analyzing the effects of road traffic on bioaccumulation of zinc and copper in selected species of dicotyledonous plants growing on adjacent grasslands. To do the research the plants were sampled from the 9-km-long Siedlce bypass, a part of the international route E-30. They were collected during the flowering stage, at following distances from the road: 1, 5, 10, 15 m. The content of zinc and copper was determined with the AAS method, with dry mineralisation done before. The highest concentration of the elements, regardless of the distance from the road, was found in Taraxacum spec. Among the tested plants, the lowest zinc content was in Vicia cracca, and the lowest copper content in Rumex acetosa. The limit for copper content was exceeded in Taraxacum spec. and, slightly, in Achillea millefolium growing at the roadside, closest to the roadway. PMID:26364030

  3. Host Status of Herbaceous Perennials to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria.

    PubMed

    Walker, J T; Melin, J B

    1998-12-01

    Twenty-two different herbaceous perennials were studied for their reaction to separate inoculations of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita under greenhouse conditions. Perennial taxa that did not develop root-galls following inoculation, and therefore are considered as nonhosts of both nematode species, included species and cultivars of Aethionema, Fragaria, Phlox, and Polygonum. Echinacea, Monarda, and Patrinia developed only a few galls. Root-galls developed on species and cultivars of Achillea, Geranium, Heuchera, Heucherella, Linaria, Nepeta, Nierembergia, Penstemon, and Salvia. There was no difference in the number of root-galls caused by M. arenaria or M. incognita on most plants except for Penstemon cultivars. Plant heights and dry weights varied between species and nematode density. PMID:19274254

  4. Evaluation of Antileishmanial Activity of Albaha Medicinal Plants against Leishmania amazonensis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sokari, Saeed S.; Ali, Nasser A. Awadh; Monzote, Lianet; Al-Fatimi, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen methanolic extracts obtained from thirteen plant species, selected either from ethnobotanical or chemotaxonomical data, were screened for their antileishmanial activity against Leishmania amazonensis. The cytotoxic activity against normal peritoneal macrophages from normal BALB/c mice was also determined. Eight extracts had IC50 values ranging from <12.5 to 37.8?µg/mL against promastigotes. Achillea biebersteinii flower, Euphorbia helioscopia, and Solanum incanum leaf extracts showed antileishmanial activities with IC50 between <12.5–26.9?µg/mL and acceptable selectivity indices of 8–5. The other leishmanicidal plant extracts, with IC50 ranging from 18.0 to 29.5?µg/mL, exhibited low selectivity indices. PMID:26357662

  5. A Systematic Review of the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Damiăo Pergentino; Hocayen, Palloma de Almeida Soares; Andrade, Luciana Nalone; Andreatini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of standardized essential oils (such as Lavender officinalis), in treating anxiety disorders strongly suggests that these natural products are an important candidate source for new anxiolytic drugs. A systematic review of essential oils, their bioactive constituents, and anxiolytic-like activity is conducted. The essential oil with the best profile is Lavendula angustifolia, which has already been tested in controlled clinical trials with positive results. Citrus aurantium using different routes of administration also showed significant effects in several animal models, and was corroborated by different research groups. Other promising essential oils are Citrus sinensis and bergamot oil, which showed certain clinical anxiolytic actions; along with Achillea wilhemsii, Alpinia zerumbet, Citrus aurantium, and Spiranthera odoratissima, which, like Lavendula angustifolia, appear to exert anxiolytic-like effects without GABA/benzodiazepine activity, thus differing in their mechanisms of action from the benzodiazepines. The anxiolytic activity of 25 compounds commonly found in essential oils is also discussed. PMID:26473822

  6. An annotated list of aquatic insects of Fort Sill, Oklahoma, excluding diptera with notes on several new state records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuellig, R.E.; Kondratieff, B.C.; Schmidt, J.P.; Durfee, R.S.; Ruiter, D.E.; Prather, I.E.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative collections of aquatic insects were made at Fort Sill, Lawton, Oklahoma, between 2002 and 2004. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Odonata, Coleoptera, aquatic Heteroptera, Neuroptera, and Megaloptera were targeted. Additional records are included from a survey that took place in 1999. More than 11,000 specimens from more than 290 collections were examined. Based on the current understanding of aquatic insect systematics, 276 taxa distributed over 8 orders, 46 families, and 141 genera were identified. Twenty-three of the 276 taxa, Plauditus texanus Wiersema, Tricorythodes allectus (Needham), Palmacorixa nana walleyi Hungerford, Climacia chapini Partin and Gurney, Oxyethira forcipata Mosely, Oxyethira janella Denning, Triaenodes helo Milne, Ylodes frontalis (Banks), Acilius fraternus Harris, Coptotomus loticus Hilsenhoff, Coptotomus venustus (Say), Desmopachria dispersa Crotch, Graphoderus liberus (Say), Hydrovatus pustulatus (Melsheimer), Hygrotus acaroides (LeConte), Liodessus flavicollis (LeConte), Uvarus texanus (Sharp), Gyrinus woodruffi Fall, Haliplus fasciatus Aube, Haliplus lewisii Crotch, Haliplus tortilipenis Brigham & Sanderson, Chaetarthria bicolor Sharp, Epimetopus costatus complex, and Hydrochus simplex LeConte are reported from Oklahoma for the first time. The three most diverse orders included Coleoptera (86 species), Odonata (67 species) and Trichoptera (59 species), and the remaining taxa were distributed among Heteroptera, (30 species), Ephemeroptera (21 species), Plecoptera (6 species), Megaloptera (4 species), and Neuroptera (3 species). Based on previous published records, many of the species collected during this study were expected to be found at Fort Sill; however, 276 taxa of aquatic insects identified from such a small geographic area is noteworthy, especially when considering local climatic conditions and the relatively small size of Fort Sill (38,300 ha). Despite agricultural practices in Oklahoma, the dust bowl days, and the development of water-based recreation at Fort Sill, a high percentage of the total known aquatic insect fauna of Oklahoma can be found in a small geographic area. ?? 2006 Kansas Entomological Society.

  7. Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  8. Hybridization and cytonuclear associations among native westslope cutthroat trout, introduced rainbow trout, and their hybrids within the Stehekin River drainage, North Cascades National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostberg, C.O.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Historic introductions of nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss into the native habitats of cutthroat trout O. clarkii have impacted cutthroat trout populations through introgressive hybridization, creating challenges and concerns for cutthroat trout conservation. We examined the effects of rainbow trout introductions on the native westslope cutthroat trout O. c. lewisii within the Stehekin River drainage, North Cascades National Park, Washington, by analyzing 1,763 salmonid DNA samples from 18 locations with nine diagnostic nuclear DNA markers and one diagnostic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker. Pure westslope cutthroat trout populations only occurred above upstream migration barriers in the Stehekin River and Park Creek. Two categories of rainbow trout admixture were observed: (1) less than 10% within the Stehekin River drainage above the Bridge Creek confluence and the middle and upper Bridge Creek drainage and (2) greater than 30% within the Stehekin River below the Bridge Creek confluence and in lower Bridge Creek. Hybrid indices and multilocus genotypes revealed an absence of rainbow trout and reduced hybrid diversity within the Stehekin River above the Bridge Creek confluence relative to hybrid diversity in the Stehekin River below the confluence and within lower Bridge Creek. Cytonuclear disequilibrium statistics revealed assortative mating between westslope cutthroat and rainbow trout but not among hybrids within the same locations. This suggests that a randomly mating hybrid swarm does not currently exist. However, continual migration of parental genotypes into the study location could also create significant cytonuclear disequilibria. The Stehekin River represents a novel and unique example of a dynamic hybridization zone where the invasion of rainbow trout alleles into the Stehekin River westslope cutthroat trout population above the Bridge Creek confluence appears to be impeded, suggesting that divergent ecological or evolutionary mechanisms promote the population structure within the Stehekin River drainage, depending upon location.

  9. Cytotoxicity, mode of action and antibacterial activities of selected Saudi Arabian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The flora of Saudi Arabia is one of the richest biodiversity areas in the Arabian Peninsula and comprises very important genetic resources of crop and medicinal plants. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity and the antibacterial activities of the organic extracts from twenty six Saudi Arabian medicinal plants. The study was also extended to the investigation of the effects of the extracts from the four best plants, Ononis serrata (SY160), Haplophyllum tuberculatum (SY177), Pulicaria crispa (SY179), and Achillea beiberstenii (SY-200) on cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, caspases activities and mitochondrial function in leukemia CCRF-CEM cell line. Methods A resazurin assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of the extracts on a panel of human cancer cell lines whilst the microbroth dilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the samples against twelve bacterial strains belonging to four species, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results The best activity on leukemia cell lines were recorded with SY177 (IC50 of 9.94 ?g/mL) and SY179 (IC50 of 1.81 ?g/mL) against CCRF-CEM as well as Ach-b (IC50 of 9.30 ?g/mL) and SY160 (IC50 of 5.06 ?g/mL) against HL60 cells. The extracts from SY177 and SY179 were also toxic against the seven solid cancer cell lines studied with the highest IC50 values of 31.64 ?g/mL (SY177 against Hep-G2 cells). SY177 and Ach-b induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and S phases whilst SY160 and SY179 induced arrest in G0/G1 phase. All the four plant extracts induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells with the alteration of the mitochondrial membrane potential. In the antibacterial assays, only Ach-b displayed moderate antibacterial activities against E. coli and E. aerogenes ATCC strains (MIC of 256 ?g/mL), AG100ATeT and K. pneumoniae ATCC strains (MIC of 128 ?g/mL). Conclusions Finally, the results of the present investigation provided supportive data for the possible use of some Saudi Arabian plants investigated herein, and mostly Haplophyllum tuberculatum, Pulicaria crispa, Ononis serrata and Achillea beiberstenii in the control of cancer diseases. PMID:24330397

  10. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Holetz, Fabíola Barbiéri; Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Sanches, Neviton Rogério; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

    2002-10-01

    Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases. PMID:12471432

  11. Modulation of Cox-1, 5-, 12- and 15-Lox by Popular Herbal Remedies Used in Southern Italy Against Psoriasis and Other Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Ammar; Martini, Francesca; Schinella, Guillermo R; Rios, Jose L; Prieto, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Acanthus mollis (Acanthaceae), Achillea ligustica, Artemisia arborescens and Inula viscosa (Asteraceae) are used in Southern Italy against psoriasis and other skin diseases that occur with an imbalanced production of eicosanoids. We here assessed their in vitro effects upon 5-, 12-, 15-LOX and COX-1 enzymes as well as NF?B activation in intact cells as their possible therapeutic targets. All methanol crude extracts inhibited both 5-LOX and COX-1 activities under 200?µg/mL, without significant effects on the 12-LOX pathway or any relevant in vitro free radical scavenging activity. NF?B activation was prevented by all extracts but A. mollis. Interestingly, A. ligustica, A. arborescens and A. mollis increased the biosynthesis of 15(S)-HETE, an anti-inflammatory eicosanoid. A. ligustica (IC50?=?49.5?µg/mL) was superior to Silybum marianum (IC50?=?147.8?µg/mL), which we used as antipsoriatic herbal medicine of reference. Its n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions had also inhibitory effects on the LTB4 biosynthesis (IC50s?=?9.6, 20.3 and 68?µg/mL, respectively) evidencing that the apolar extracts of A. ligustica are promising active herbal ingredients for future phytotherapeutical products targeting psoriasis. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25278440

  12. Quantification of Sesquiterpene Lactones in Asteraceae Plant Extracts: Evaluation of their Allergenic Potential.

    PubMed

    Salapovic, Helena; Geier, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly those with an activated exocyclic methylene group, are important allergens in Asteraceae (Compositae) plants. As a screening tool, the Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae plant extracts with allergenic potential (feverfew, tansy, arnica, yarrow, and German chamomile) is part of several national patch test baseline series. However, the SL content of the Compositae mix may vary due to the source material. Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method for the quantitative measurement of SLs with the ?-methylene-?-butyrolactone moiety was developed, giving the percentage of allergenic compounds in plant extracts. The method has been validated and five Asteraceae extracts, namely feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert) that have been used in routine patch test screening were evaluated. A good correlation could be found between the results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method and the corresponding clinical results. Thus, the introduced method is a valuable tool for evaluating the allergenic potential and for the simple and efficient quality control of plant extracts with allergenic potential. PMID:24106675

  13. Determination of the hydroxycinnamate profile of 12 members of the Asteraceae family.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Rakesh; Kiprotich, Joseph; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2011-06-01

    The hydroxycinnamates of the leaves of 12 plants of the Astreraceae family, Achillea millefolium, Arnica montana, Artemesia dracunculus, Cichorium intybus, Cnicus benedictus, Cynara scolymus, Echinops humilis, Inula helenium, Lactuca sativa, Petasites hybridus, Solidago virgaurea, and Tanacetum parthenium were investigated qualitatively by LC-MS(n). Thirty-nine chlorogenic acids were detected and all characterized to regioisomeric level on the basis of their fragmentation pattern in the tandem MS spectra, most of them for the first time from these sources with two of them previously not reported in nature. Both chlorogenic acids based on trans and cis-cinnamic acid substituents were identified. Assignment to the level of individual regioisomers was possible for seven caffeoylquinic acids (1-7), 11 dicaffeoylquinic acids (17-27), six feruloylquinic acids (9-14), two p-coumaroylquinic acids (15-16), two caffeoyl-feruloylquinic acids (28 and 29), four caffeoyl-p-coumaroylquinic acids (30-33), three dicaffeoyl-succinoylquinic acids (34-36), two dicaffeoyl-methoxyoxaloylquinic acids (37 and 38), and one tricaffeoylquinic acid (39). Furthermore, one caffeoylshikimic acid (40), one caffeoyltartaric acid (41), three dicaffeoyltartaric acids (42-44), and three caffeoyl-feruloyltartaric acids (45-47) were detected and shown to possess characteristic tandem MS spectra and were tentatively assigned on the basis of their retention time and previously developed hierarchical keys. PMID:21453943

  14. Pesticide residues in some herbs growing in agricultural areas in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, El?bieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess residue content of plant protection products in selected herbs: Achillea millefolium L., Cichorium intybus L., Equisetum arvense L., Polygonum persicaria L., Plantago lanceolata L., and Plantago major L. The study comprises herbs growing in their natural habitat, 1 and 10 m away from crop fields. The herbs, 30 plants of each species, were sampled during the flowering stage between 1 and 20 July 2014. Pesticide residue content was measured with the QuECHERS method in the dry matter of leaves, stalks, and inflorescence, all mixed together. Out of six herb species growing close to wheat and maize fields, pesticide residues were found in three species: A. millefolium L., E. arvense L., and P. lanceolata L. Most plants containing the residues grew 1 m away from the wheat field. Two active substances of fungicides were found: diphenylamine and tebuconazole, and one active substance of insecticides: chlorpyrifos-ethyl. Those substances are illegal to use on herbal plants. Samples of E. arvense L. and P. lanceolata L. contained two active substances each, which constituted 10 % of all samples, while A. millefolium L. contained one substance, which is 6.6 % of all samples. PMID:26612566

  15. Phytochemical attributes of four conventionally extracted medicinal plants and cytotoxic evaluation of their extracts on human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp2) cells.

    PubMed

    Belš?ak-Cvitanovi?, Ana; Durgo, Ksenija; Buši?, Arijana; Franeki?, Jasna; Komes, Draženka

    2014-02-01

    The bioactive composition and cytotoxic and antioxidative/prooxidative effects of four medicinal plants: yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L.), ground ivy (Glechoma hederacea L.), and olive (Olea europea L.) on human laryngeal carcinoma cell line (HEp2) were investigated. Water extracts of these plants obtained by infusion, maceration, and decoction were characterized for their polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. Based on the extraction efficiency of polyphenols, the final extracts were obtained whose polyphenolic profile, polysaccharides, mineral content, and cytoprotective activities were determined. The overall highest content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity was determined in hawthorn, followed by yarrow and ground ivy, and the lowest in olive leaves extract. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenolic acids, as the most abundant bioactive compounds, followed by flavonoids, flavons, and flavonols. All examined medicinal plants reduced the cell viability and reactive oxygen species formation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Ground ivy and yarrow containing a high content of phenolic acids and polysaccharides were more efficient to decrease the cell survival when compared to olive leaf and hawthorn. Experiments confirmed the importance of polyphenolic composition rather than content of investigated plants and revealed a relationship between the polyphenolic and polysaccharide contents and antioxidant/prooxidant characters of medicinal plants. PMID:24325458

  16. A Novel Reduction Strategy of Clarithromycin Resistance in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Tadjrobehkar, Omid; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic resistance is a major therapeutic problem in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori clarithromycin resistant mutants have been evolved during antibiotic therapy, this is mainly due to 23s rRNA point mutations. Objectives: In the present study, we investigated anti-mutational features of four traditionally Iranian medicinal plants on three local isolated H. pylori strains. Materials and Methods: In this study clarithromycin resistance was used as a mutation indicator. Frequencies of such mutations in the presence and absence of plant extracts were evaluated. Mutation incidence was evaluated by Luria Delbruck fluctuation assay. Results: The mean mutation frequency in H. pylori isolates was 27 × 10-9 which decreased at the presence of Mirtus communis, Teucrium polium, Achillea millefolium and Thymus vulgaris of plant extract, this amount was 97.4%, 95.2%, 63.7% and 19.6% respectively. Moreover, A-to-G transition at 2143 position (A2143G) was detected by PCR-sequencing as major point mutation causing clarithromycin resistant mutants. Conclusions: The efficacy of these plant extracts in prohibiting resistance showed considerable results. This finding should be considered to use plant extracts with antibiotics to develop more effective eradication regimens. PMID:25741431

  17. Higher-order interaction between molluscs and sheep affecting seedling numbers in grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clear Hill, B. H.; Silvertown, J.

    Vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores are both important in mesotrophic grasslands and these two different classes of herbivore potentially interact in their effect upon plant populations. We used two field experiments to test for higher order interactions (HOIs) among sheep, slugs and seedlings, using the mechanistic definition that an HOI occurs when the presence of one species modifies the interaction between two others. In each experiment slug addition and slug-removal treatments were nested inside treatments that altered sheep grazing intensity and timing, and the emergence, of seedlings from experimentally sown seeds was monitored. In Experiment 1, seedling numbers of Cerastium fontanum were increased by intense summer grazing by sheep in both slug-addition and slugremoval treatment, but winter grazing by sheep only increased seedling emergence if slugs were removed. In Experiment 2, winter grazing by sheep significantly reduced total seedling emergence of four species sown ( Lotus corniculatus, Plantago lanceolata, Leucanthemum vulgare, Achillea millefolium), but the effect was only seen where slugs were removed. Though the experimental system is a relatively simple one with only four components (sheep, slugs, seedlings and the matrix vegetation), higher order interactions, a combination of direct and indirect effects and possible switching behaviour by slugs are all suggested by our results.

  18. Root Foraging Influences Plant Growth Responses to Earthworm Foraging

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Erin K.; Cahill, James F.; Bayne, Erin M.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503

  19. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Their Isolated Constituents against Cariogenic Bacteria: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Freires, Irlan Almeida; Denny, Carina; Benso, Bruna; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries remains the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide. Several methods have been employed to prevent this biofilm-dependent disease, including the use of essential oils (EOs). In this systematic review, we discuss the antibacterial activity of EOs and their isolated constituents in view of a potential applicability in novel dental formulations. Seven databases were systematically searched for clinical trials, in situ, in vivo and in vitro studies addressing the topic published up to date. Most of the knowledge in the literature is based on in vitro studies assessing the effects of EOs on caries-related streptococci (mainly Streptococcus mutans) and lactobacilli, and on a limited number of clinical trials. The most promising species with antibacterial potential against cariogenic bacteria are: Achillea ligustica, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Croton cajucara, Cryptomeria japonica, Coriandrum sativum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Lippia sidoides, Ocimum americanum, and Rosmarinus officinalis. In some cases, the major phytochemical compounds determine the biological properties of EOs. Menthol and eugenol were considered outstanding compounds demonstrating an antibacterial potential. Only L. sidoides mouthwash (1%) has shown clinical antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens thus far. This review suggests avenues for further non-clinical and clinical studies with the most promising EOs and their isolated constituents bioprospected worldwide. PMID:25911964

  20. TLC-Direct Bioautography and LC/MS as Complementary Methods in Identification of Antibacterial Agents in Plant Tinctures from the Asteraceae Family.

    PubMed

    Jesionek, Wioleta; Móricz, Ágnes M; Ott, Péter G; Kocsis, Béla; Horváth, Györgyi; Choma, Irena M

    2015-01-01

    Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) and Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow) are very common herbs growing in meadows, pathways, crop fields, and home gardens. Preparations from these plants, e.g., infusions or alcohol extracts, are widely used as remedies. Both chamomile and yarrow have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. Most microbiological assays used today give information only on activity of whole extracts and do not provide information on the composition and activity of individual components. This problem can be solved by using TLC with direct microbiological detection, i.e., TLC-direct bioautography (TLC-DB), followed by LC/MS of active fractions. The aim of our study was chemical and microbiological screening of plant components of chamomile and yarrow tinctures using derivatization reagents and TLC-DB against eight bacterial strains: Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola, Xanthomonas campestis pv. vesicatoria, Aliivibrio fischeri, and Bacillus subtilis. The identity of compounds exhibiting the widest range of activity (apigenin and ?-linolenic acid) was confirmed by LC/MS. PMID:26268962

  1. Medicinal plant extracts can variously modify biofilm formation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Samoilova, Zoya; Muzyka, Nadezda; Lepekhina, Elena; Oktyabrsky, Oleg; Smirnova, Galina

    2014-04-01

    Low concentrations of black tea and water extracts from medicinal plants Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Tilia cordata, Betula pendula and Zea mays stimulated biofilm formation in Escherichia coli BW25113 up to three times. Similar effect was observed for tannic acid and low concentrations of quercetin. In contrast, the extract from Urtica dioica reduced biofilm production. Pretreatment with plant extracts variously modified antibiotic effects on specific biofilm formation (SBF). Extract from V. vitis-idaea increased SBF, while the extracts from Achillea millefolium, Laminaria japonica and U. dioica considerably decreased SBF in the presence of ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and cefotaxime. Stimulatory effect of the extracts and pure polyphenols on biofilm formation was probably related to their prooxidant properties. The rpoS deletion did not affect SBF significantly, but stimulation of biofilm formation by the compounds tested was accompanied by inhibition of rpoS expression, suggesting that a RpoS-independent signal transduction pathway was apparently used. PMID:24500005

  2. Bioactivity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against the Cotton Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  3. Soil-to-plant transfer of native selenium for wild vegetation cover at selected locations of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Száková, Ji?ina; Tremlová, Jana; Pegová, Kristýna; Najmanová, Jana; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-06-01

    Total selenium (Se) contents were determined in aboveground biomass of wild plant species growing in two uncultivated meadows at two different locations. The soils in these locations had pseudototal (Aqua Regia soluble) Se in concentration ranges of between 0.2 and 0.3 mg kg(-1) at the first location, and between 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg(-1) at the second location. The plant species represented 29 plant families where the most numerous ones were Poaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae , and Asteraceae. The selenium contents in the plants varied between undetectable levels (Aegopodium podagraria, Achillea millefolium, Lotus corniculatus) and 0.158 mg kg(-1) (Veronica arvensis, Veronicaceae). The Se levels were roughly one order of magnitude lower compared to other elements with similar soil content, such as cadmium and molybdenum. The transfer factors of Se, quantifying the element transfer from soil to plants, varied between <0.001 and 0.146 with no significant differences between the locations, confirming the limited soil-plant selenium transfer regardless of location, soil Se level, and plant species. Among the plant families, no unambiguous trend to potential elevated Se uptake was observed. Low Se content in the soil and its plant availability was comparable to other Se-deficient areas within Europe. PMID:25975239

  4. Mathematical probit and logistic mortality models of the Khapra beetle fumigated with plant essential oils.

    PubMed

    Alamir, Alhadi E; Nenaah, Gomah E; Hafiz, Mohamed A

    2015-08-01

    In the current study, probit and logistic models were employed to fit experimental mortality data of the Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium (Everts) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), when fumigated with three plant oils of the gens Achillea. A generalized inverse matrix technique was used to estimate the mortality model parameters instead of the usual statistical iterative maximum likelihood estimation. As this technique needs to perturb the observed mortality proportions if the proportions include 0 or 1, the optimal perturbation in terms of minimum least squares (L2) error was also determined. According to our results, it was better to log-transform concentration and time as explanatory variables in modeling mortality of the test insect. Estimated data using the probit model were more accurate in terms of L2 errors, than the logistic one. Results of the predicted mortality revealed also that extending the fumigation period could be an effective control strategy, even, at lower concentrations. Results could help in using a relatively safe and effective strategy for the control of this serious pest using alternative control strategy to reduce the health and environmental drawbacks resulted from the excessive reliance on the broadly toxic chemical pesticides and in order to contribute safeguard world-wide grain supplies. PMID:25974342

  5. Relative densities of natural enemy and pest insects within California hedgerows.

    PubMed

    Gareau, Tara L Pisani; Letourneau, Deborah K; Shennan, Carol

    2013-08-01

    Research on hedgerow design for supporting communities of natural enemies for biological control lags behind farmer innovation in California, where assemblages of perennial plant species have been used on crop field margins in the last decade. We compared natural enemy to pest ratios between fields with hedgerows and fields with weedy margins by sampling beneficial insects and key pests of vegetables on sticky cards. We used biweekly vacuum samples to measure the distribution of key insect taxa among native perennial plant species with respect to the timing and intensity of bloom. Sticky cards indicated a trend that field margins with hedgerows support a higher ratio of natural enemies to pests compared with weedy borders. Hedgerow plant species hosted different relative densities of a generally overlapping insect community, and the timing and intensity of bloom only explained a small proportion of the variation in insect abundance at plant species and among hedgerows, with the exception of Orius spp. on Achillea millefolium L. and Baccharis pilularis De Candolle. Indicator Species Analysis showed an affinity of parasitic wasps, especially in the super-family Chalcidoidea, for B. pilularis whether or not it was in flower. A. millefolium was attractive to predatory and herbivorous homopterans; Heteromeles arbutifolia (Lindley) Roemer and B. pilularis to Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim; and Rhamnus californica Eschsch to Hemerobiidae. Perennial hedgerows can be designed through species selection to support particular beneficial insect taxa, but plant resources beyond floral availability may be critical in providing structural refuges, alternative prey, and other attractive qualities that are often overlooked. PMID:23905731

  6. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against this pathogen. Conclusions Our data suggest that further screening of plants used in traditional Haudenosaunee medicine is warranted, and we put forward several species for further investigation of activity against S. typhimurium (A. millefolium, H. matronalis, I. pandurata, H. pilosella, R. multiflora, S. canadensis). PMID:21054887

  7. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extracts of selected Jordanian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Hudaib, Mohammad M.; Tawaha, Khaled A.; Mohammad, Mohammad K.; Assaf, Areej M.; Issa, Ala Y.; Alali, Feras Q.; Aburjai, Talal A.; Bustanji, Yasser K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The search for novel xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors with a higher therapeutic activity and fewer side effects are desired not only to treat gout but also to combat various other diseases associated with the XO activity. At present, the potential of developing successful natural products for the management of XO-related diseases is still largely unexplored. In the present study, we have screened the methanolic extracts of various Jordanian medicinal plants for their XO inhibitory activities using an optimized protocol. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, belonging to 12 families, were tested in vitro, at 200 ?g/ml concentrations, for their XO inhibitory potential. The dose-dependent inhibition profiles of the most active plants were further evaluated by estimating the IC50 values of their corresponding extracts. Results: Six plants were found most active (% inhibition more than 39%). These plants are Salvia spinosa L. (IC50 = 53.7 ?g/ml), Anthemis palestina Boiss. (168.0 ?g/ml), Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (199.5 ?g/ml), Achillea biebersteinii Afansiev (360.0 ?g/ml), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (650.0 ?g/ml), and Ginkgo biloba L. (595.8 ?g/ml). Moreover, four more plants, namely Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (28.7% inhibition), Helianthemum ledifolium (L.) Mill. (28.4%), Majorana syriaca (L.) Kostel. (25.1%), and Mentha spicata L. (22.5%) showed a XO inhibitory activity in the range of 22–30%. Conclusion: The study showed that many of the tested plant species are potential sources of natural XO inhibitors that can be developed, upon further investigation, into successful herbal drugs for treatment of gout and other XO-related disorders. PMID:22262935

  8. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase or glutamic acid decarboxylase inhibition; a range of monoaminergic effects; and potential cannabinoid receptor modulation. Future research should focus on conducting human clinical trials on the plants reviewed with promising anxiolytic activity. PMID:23436255

  9. The Root Herbivore History of the Soil Affects the Productivity of a Grassland Plant Community and Determines Plant Response to New Root Herbivore Attack

    PubMed Central

    Sonnemann, Ilja; Hempel, Stefan; Beutel, Maria; Hanauer, Nicola; Reidinger, Stefan; Wurst, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Insect root herbivores can alter plant community structure by affecting the competitive ability of single plants. However, their effects can be modified by the soil environment. Root herbivory itself may induce changes in the soil biota community, and it has recently been shown that these changes can affect plant growth in a subsequent season or plant generation. However, so far it is not known whether these root herbivore history effects (i) are detectable at the plant community level and/or (ii) also determine plant species and plant community responses to new root herbivore attack. The present greenhouse study determined root herbivore history effects of click beetle larvae (Elateridae, Coleoptera, genus Agriotes) in a model grassland plant community consisting of six common species (Achillea millefolium, Plantago lanceolata, Taraxacum officinale, Holcus lanatus, Poa pratensis, Trifolium repens). Root herbivore history effects were generated in a first phase of the experiment by growing the plant community in soil with or without Agriotes larvae, and investigated in a second phase by growing it again in the soils that were either Agriotes trained or not. The root herbivore history of the soil affected plant community productivity (but not composition), with communities growing in root herbivore trained soil producing more biomass than those growing in untrained soil. Additionally, it influenced the response of certain plant species to new root herbivore attack. Effects may partly be explained by herbivore-induced shifts in the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The root herbivore history of the soil proved to be a stronger driver of plant growth on the community level than an actual root herbivore attack which did not affect plant community parameters. History effects have to be taken into account when predicting the impact of root herbivores on grasslands. PMID:23441201

  10. The effect of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected medicinal plants of Asteraceae family on the peroxynitrite-induced changes in blood platelet proteins.

    PubMed

    Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Olas, Beata; Ko?odziejczyk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal; Nowak, Pawel; Tsirigotis-Wo?oszczak, Marta; Wachowicz, Barbara; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-12-01

    Lots of plants belonging to Asteraceae family are very popular in folk medicine in Poland. These plants are also known as being rich in acidic polysaccharides, due to the presence of hexuronic acids or its derivatives. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the extract from Conyza canadensis L. possesses various biological activity, including antiplatelet, antiocoagulant and antioxidant properties. The aim of our study was to assess if macromolecular glycoconjugates from selected herbal plants of Asteraceae family: Achillea millefolium L., Arnica montana L., Echinacea purpurea L., Solidago virgaurea L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert., and Conyza canadensis L. protect platelet proteins against nitrative and oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite, which is responsible for oxidative/nitrative modifications of platelet proteins: the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups. These modifications may lead to changes of blood platelet functions and can have pathological consequences. The role of these different medicinal plants in the defence against oxidative/nitrative stress in human platelets is still unknown, therefore the oxidative damage to platelet proteins induced by peroxynitrite and protectory effects of tested conjugates by the estimation of carbonyl group level and nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of protein nitration) were studied in vitro. The antioxidative properties of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). The obtained results demonstrate that the compounds from herbal plants: A. millefolium, A. montana, E. purpurea, C. recutita, S. virgaurea, possess antioxidative properties and protect platelet proteins against peroxynitrite toxicity in vitro, similar to the glycoconjugates from C. canadensis. However, in the comparative studies, the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were not found to be more effective antioxidant, than the solution of pure resveratrol. PMID:20869393

  11. The Interaction between Root Herbivory and Competitive Ability of Native and Invasive-Range Populations of Brassica nigra

    PubMed Central

    Oduor, Ayub M. O.; Stift, Marc; van Kleunen, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis predicts that escape from intense herbivore damage may enable invasive plants to evolve higher competitive ability in the invasive range. Below-ground root herbivory can have a strong impact on plant performance, and invasive plants often compete with multiple species simultaneously, but experimental approaches in which EICA predictions are tested with root herbivores and in a community setting are rare. Here, we used Brassica nigra plants from eight invasive- and seven native-range populations to test whether the invasive-range plants have evolved increased competitive ability when competing with Achillea millefolium and with a community (both with and without A. millefolium). Further, we tested whether competitive interactions depend on root herbivory on B. nigra by the specialist Delia radicum. Without the community, competition with A. millefolium reduced biomass of invasive- but not of native-range B. nigra. With the community, invasive-range B. nigra suffered less than native-range B. nigra. Although the overall effect of root herbivory was not significant, it reduced the negative effect of the presence of the community. The community produced significantly less biomass when competing with B. nigra, irrespective of the range of origin, and independent of the presence of A. millefolium. Taken together, these results offer no clear support for the EICA hypothesis. While native-range B. nigra plants appear to be better in dealing with a single competitor, the invasive-range plants appear to be better in dealing with a more realistic multi-species community. Possibly, this ability of tolerating multiple competitors simultaneously has contributed to the invasion success of B. nigra in North America. PMID:26517125

  12. The acceptability of meadow plants to the slug Deroceras reticulatum and implications for grassland restoration

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Sarah E.; Close, Andrew J.; Port, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite the selective pressure slugs may exert on seedling recruitment there is a lack of information in this context within grassland restoration studies. Selective grazing is influenced by interspecific differences in acceptability. As part of a larger study of how slug–seedling interactions may influence upland hay meadow restoration, an assessment of relative acceptability is made for seedlings of meadow plants to the slug, Deroceras reticulatum. Methods Slug feeding damage to seedling monocultures of 23 meadow species and Brassica napus was assessed in microcosms over 14 d. The severity and rate of damage incurred by each plant species was analysed with a generalized additive mixed model. Plant species were then ranked for their relative acceptability. Key Results Interspecific variation in relative acceptability suggested seedlings of meadow species form a hierarchy of acceptability to D. reticulatum. The four most acceptable species were Achillea millefolium and the grasses Holcus lanatus, Poa trivialis and Festuca rubra. Trifolium pratense was acceptable to D. reticulatum and was the second highest ranking forb species. The most unacceptable species were mainly forbs associated with the target grassland, and included Geranium sylvaticum, Rumex acetosa, Leontodon hispidus and the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum. A strong positive correlation was found for mean cumulative feeding damage and cumulative seedling mortality at day 14. Conclusions Highly unacceptable species to D. reticulatum are unlikely to be selectively grazed by slugs during the seedling recruitment phase, and were predominantly target restoration species. Seedlings of highly acceptable species may be less likely to survive slug herbivory and contribute to seedling recruitment at restoration sites. Selective slug herbivory, influenced by acceptability, may influence community-level processes if seedling recruitment and establishment of key functional species, such as T. pratense is reduced. PMID:23632124

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Various Plants Extracts Against Antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Al Laham, Shaza Anwar; Al Fadel, Frdoos Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aeromonas hydrophila cause one of the most important diseases in fishes and lead to economic losses, and may be contaminated human beings. Objectives: The current research aimed to investigate the anti-bacterial activity shown by the extracts prepared from different parts of Olea europea, Myrtus communis, Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinuis officinalis, and Achillea falcata that grow in Syria against A. hydrophila that causes the most dangerous bacterial diseases in fish. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in four stages: First of all, the presence of A. hydrophila was investigated in 450 Samples of Cyprinus Carpio fish using blood agar, Trypticase soya agar, and Analytical Profile Index (API20E). Secondly, the plants extract was obtained using water, absolute alcohol, then ether using Soxhlet extraction apparatus and rotary vacuum evaporator. Thirdly, the antibacterial activity of some antibiotics on these bacteria was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Finally, the antibacterial effect of the extracts was determined by disk diffusion method. Results: The studied antibiotics showed no antibacterial activity against these bacteria, except amikacin which had an acceptable effectiveness. However, the ethanol extracts of the studied plants revealed different antibacterial effects against A. hydrophila which showed antibiotic resistant. T. vulgaris extract had the strongest effect, whereas O. europea extract had the weakest activity. The water and ether petroleum extracts had no antibacterial activities. Conclusions: Ethanol extracts of the studied plants had different antibacterial effects against antibiotic-resistant A. hydrophila. T. vulgaris had the highest activity, R. officinalis had the second, and M. communis and A. falcate were in the third place, while the O. europea had the weakest antibacterial activity. PMID:25368797

  14. Apomixis is not prevalent in subnival to nival plants of the European Alps

    PubMed Central

    Hörandl, Elvira; Dobeš, Christoph; Suda, Jan; Vít, Petr; Urfus, Tomáš; Temsch, Eva M.; Cosendai, Anne-Caroline; Wagner, Johanna; Ladinig, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims High alpine environments are characterized by short growing seasons, stochastic climatic conditions and fluctuating pollinator visits. These conditions are rather unfavourable for sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Apomixis, asexual reproduction via seed, provides reproductive assurance without the need of pollinators and potentially accelerates seed development. Therefore, apomixis is expected to provide selective advantages in high-alpine biota. Indeed, apomictic species occur frequently in the subalpine to alpine grassland zone of the European Alps, but the mode of reproduction of the subnival to nival flora was largely unknown. Methods The mode of reproduction in 14 species belonging to seven families was investigated via flow cytometric seed screen. The sampling comprised 12 species typical for nival to subnival plant communities of the European Alps without any previous information on apomixis (Achillea atrata, Androsace alpina, Arabis caerulea, Erigeron uniflorus, Gnaphalium hoppeanum, Leucanthemopsis alpina, Oxyria digyna, Potentilla frigida, Ranunculus alpestris, R. glacialis, R. pygmaeus and Saxifraga bryoides), and two high-alpine species with apomixis reported from other geographical areas (Leontopodium alpinum and Potentilla crantzii). Key Results Flow cytometric data were clearly interpretable for all 46 population samples, confirming the utility of the method for broad screenings on non-model organisms. Formation of endosperm in all species of Asteraceae was documented. Ratios of endosperm : embryo showed pseudogamous apomixis for Potentilla crantzii (ratio approx. 3), but sexual reproduction for all other species (ratios approx. 1·5). Conclusions The occurrence of apomixis is not correlated to high altitudes, and cannot be readily explained by selective forces due to environmental conditions. The investigated species have probably other adaptations to high altitudes to maintain reproductive assurance via sexuality. We hypothesize that shifts to apomixis are rather connected to frequencies of polyploidization than to ecological conditions. PMID:21724654

  15. Levels of some microelements and essential heavy metals in herbal teas in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mihaljev, Zeljko; Zivkov-Balos, Milica; Cupi?, Zeljko; Jaksi?, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Levels of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Co, Ni, Se, Sn and Al were determined in 14 medicinal plants from Serbia, which are widely used in phytopharmacy as herbal teas. The following plants were investigated: yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), basil (Ocimum hasilicum L.), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.), field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.), thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.), maize silk (Zea mays L. - Maydis stigma), hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), rosehip/dog rose (Rosa canina L.), winter savory (Satureja montana L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). A total of 16 samples of different parts of medicinal plants (root, leaf, flower, herba) were examined, whereby 13 samples were delivered in original package and three samples were loose leaf herbs. Samples were prepared using the microwave digestion technique, and measurements were performed applying the atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Contents of microelements in the examined samples were in the range: Mn (23.86 - 453.71 mg/kg); Fe (61.87 - 673.0 mg/kg); Cu (6.68 - 24.46 mg/kg); Zn (16.11 - 113.81 mg/kg); Mo (0.576 - 4.265 mg/kg); Co (0.039 - 0.532 mg/kg); Se (0.036 - 0.146 mg/kg); Ni (0.738 - 6.034 mg/kg); Al (154.0 - 3015.0 mg/kg) and Sn (2.68 - 10.22 mg/kg). According to determined amounts of microelements, the investigated samples of herbal teas are considered safe for human consumption. PMID:25265817

  16. Testing the root-priming of soil organic matter decomposition using the isotopic signature of fossil fuel CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Robert; Paterson, Eric; Chapman, Steve; Thornton, Barry; Sim, Allan

    2013-04-01

    Plant roots provide various forms of soil labile carbon (i.e., rhizodeposition), which stimulate the growth of heterotrophic bacteria in the rhizosphere. This, in turn, provides a food source for phagotrophic protozoa and other bacterivores, whose carbon:nutrient ratios are generally higher than those of their food source. In order to maintain their stoichiometric composition, bacterivores release their extra nutrients into the rhizosphere, where they may be absorbed by plant roots. Thus, rhizodeposition should reduce carbon limitation, but increase nutrient demand, of the soil microbial biomass. We hypothesized that this shift towards nutrient deficiency would stimulate the production of microbial enzymes that depolymerise soil organic matter into microbial available forms. In other words, roots should stimulate the decomposition of soil organic matter. We report on experiment where we tested such a "root-priming" effect using 3 contrasting plant species (Achillea millefolium, Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens). An agricultural soil, with a delta-13C value of approximately -14 ‰ , was transferred into 30 pots and planted with seeds of each species. A ring was inserted in the middle of each pot, and no seeds were planted within the ring. Plants were grown in a growth chamber designed to deliver 13C-depleted air. The resulting plant biomass had a delta-13C value of approximately -52 ‰ . On 7 occasions during the growth trial, pots were sampled for the flux and delta-13C value of soil CO2. Using similar data from control pots without plants, we compared the expected vs. observed contributions of CO2 from roots and soil organic matter. Results from this study revealed a negative root-priming effect for all three species. We discuss the experimental conditions that could have led to this observation, as well as the novelty and potential of our experimental protocol.

  17. Mechanisms for Success after Long-term Nutrient Enrichment in a Boreal Forest Understory

    PubMed Central

    Grainger, Tess Nahanni; Turkington, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Global levels of reactive nitrogen are predicted to rise in the coming decades as a result of increased deposition from the burning of fossil fuels and the large-scale conversion of nitrogen into a useable form for agriculture. Many plant communities respond strongly to increases in soil nitrogen, particularly in northern ecosystems where nitrogen levels are naturally very low. An experiment in northern Canada that was initiated in 1990 has been investigating the effects of long-term nutrient enrichment (fertilizer added annually) on a boreal forest understory community. We used this experiment to investigate why some species increase in abundance under nutrient enrichment whereas others decline. We focused on four species that differed in their responses to fertilization: Mertensia paniculata and Epilobium angustifolium increased in abundance, Achillea millefolium remained relatively constant and Festuca altaica declined. We hypothesized that the two species that were successful in the new high-nutrient, light-limited environment would be taller, have higher specific leaf area, change phenology by growing earlier in the season and be more morphologically plastic than their less successful counterparts. We compared plant height, specific leaf area, growth spurt date and allocation to leaves in plants grown in control and fertilized plots. We demonstrated that each of the two species that came to dominate fertilized plots has a different combination of traits and responses that likely gave them a competitive advantage; M. paniculata has the highest specific leaf area of the four species whereas E. angustifolium is tallest and exhibits morphological plasticity when fertilized by increasing biomass allocation to leaves. These results indicate that rather than one strategy determining success when nutrients become available, a variety of traits and responses may contribute to a species' ability to persist in a nutrient-enriched boreal forest understory. PMID:23573298

  18. Effect of Elevated Tropospheric Ozone on the Structure of Bacterial Communities Inhabiting the Rhizosphere of Herbaceous Plants Native to Germany†

    PubMed Central

    Dohrmann, Anja B.; Tebbe, Christoph C.

    2005-01-01

    Current elevated concentrations of ozone in the atmosphere, as they are observed during summer seasons, can cause severe effects on plant vegetation. This study was initiated to analyze whether ozone-stressed plants also transfer signals below ground and thereby alter the bacterial community composition in their rhizospheres. Herbaceous plants, native to Germany, with tolerance (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Poa pratensis, Rumex acetosa, and Veronica chamaedrys) and sensitivity (Matricaria chamomilla, Sonchus asper, and Tanacetum vulgare) to ozone, raised in the greenhouse, were exposed in open-top chambers to two different ozone regimes, i.e., “summer stress” and a normal ozone background. DNA of bacterial cells from the rhizospheres was directly extracted, and partial sequences of the 16S rRNA genes were PCR amplified with primers targeting the following phylogenetic groups: Bacteria, ?-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Pseudomonas, respectively. The diversity of the amplified products was analyzed by genetic profiling based on single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Neither the tolerant nor the sensitive plants, the latter with visible above-ground damage, showed ozone-induced differences in any of the SSCP profiles, with the single exception of Actinobacteria-targeted profiles from S. asper. To increase the stress, S. asper was germinated and raised in the continuous presence of an elevated level of ozone. SSCP profiles with Bacteria-specific primers combined with gene probe hybridizations indicated an ozone-related increase in a Xanthomonas-related 16S rRNA gene and a decrease in the respective gene from the plant plastids. The fact that only this latter unrealistic scenario caused a detectable effect demonstrated that ozone stress has a surprisingly small effect on the structural diversity of the bacterial community in rhizospheres. PMID:16332747

  19. Comparative evaluation of antioxidant and insecticidal properties of essential oils from five Moroccan aromatic herbs.

    PubMed

    Kasrati, Ayoub; Alaoui Jamali, Chaima; Bekkouche, Khalid; Wohlmuth, Hans; Leach, David; Abbad, Abdelaziz

    2015-04-01

    This study describes the antioxidant and insecticidal activities of essential oils (EOs) of Mentha suaveolens subsp. timija, Thymus satureioides, Achillea ageratum, Cotula cinerea and Salvia officinalis widely used in Morocco as flavorings, food additives and preservatives. Sixty seven components were identified accounting for more than 95.0 % of the total oils. M. suaveolens subsp. timija oil had as main components menthone and pulegone. A. ageratum oil was particularly rich in artemisyl acetate and yomogi alcohol. The essential oil of T. satureioides was characterized by high contents of carvacrol and borneol. C. cinerea oil contained trans-thujone and cis-verbenyl acetate as major constituents, whereas S. officinalis oil was characterized by trans-thujone and camphor. Antioxidant activities were examined by means of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), reducing power, ?-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching and ABTS radical tests. In all assays, the highest antioxidant potency was observed in T. satureioides EO with IC50 values ranging from 0.15?±?0.36 ?g mL(-1) to 0.23?±?0.67 ?g mL(-1) across the four assays. The in vitro evaluation of the insecticidal activity showed that M. suaveolens subsp. timija EO present the highest insecticidal efficiency against adults of Tribolium castaneum with LD50 and LD90 values of 0.17 ?L cm(-2) and 0.26 ?L cm(-2), respectively and LT50, LT90 values ranged from 44.19 h to 2.98 h and 98.14 h to 6.02 h, respectively. Our data support the possible use of T. satureioides oil as potential antioxidant agent, while M. suaveolens subsp. timija oil can be developed as a new natural bio-insecticide. PMID:25829614

  20. Nitrogen fixers in the rhizosphere of certain desert plants.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Y; Yousef, A N

    1979-01-01

    Six species of common desert range plants; Achillea sp., Aristida plumosa, Artemisia herba-alba, Haloxylon articulatum, and Heliotropium ramosissimum were colleted from Western Desert in Iraq. Counts of Azotobacter spp. and total bacteria were estimated in both rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils. Biomass and total nitrogen content of the plants were determined. The R/N ratio (ratio between rhizosphere to non-rhizosphere) for Azotobacter sp. ranged between 1 to 19.5 with an average of 4.96. The number of Azotobacter in the rhizosphere ranged between 6.8 X 10(3) to 47 X 10(3) cells/g, while in the non-rhizosphere it ranged from 2 X 10(3) to 21 X 10(3). Aristida plumosa harboured the highest number, i.e., 47 X 10(3) cells/g, while Artemisia herba-alba showed the least, i.e., 6.8 X 10(3) cells/g. Total counts of bacteria in the rhizosphere ranged between 17.2 X 10(6) and 97 X 10(6) cells/g, that of the non-rhizosphere between 1.5 X 10(6) and 18 X 10(6) cells/g. The R/N ratio ranged between 2.03 X 22.5 with an average of 7.28. An appreciable gain of dry weight and total nitrogen was observed. Between 13 and 152 g with an average of 78.9 g dry weight and between 347 and 6684.0 mg with an average of 2452.0 mg nitrogen per plant were found. The possible contribution of Azotobacter to the nitrogen economy of the plants is discussed and further suggested. PMID:473956

  1. Hangman Restoration Project : Annual Report, August 1, 2001 - July 31, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Gerald I.; Coeur D'Alene Tribe.

    2002-06-01

    The construction of hydroelectric facilities in the Columbia Basin resulted in the extirpation of anadromous fish stocks in Hangman Creek and its tributaries within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation. Thus, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss garideini), westslope cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) as well as local wildlife populations. Additionally, the Tribe was forced to convert prime riparian habitat into agricultural lands to supply sustenance for their changed needs. Wildlife habitats within the portion of the Hangman Creek Watershed that lies within the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation have been degraded from a century of land management practices that include widespread conversion of native habitats to agricultural production and intensive silvicultural practices. Currently, wildlife and fish populations have been marginalized and water quality is significantly impaired. In the fall of 2000 the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Wildlife Program, in coordination with the Tribal Fisheries Program, submitted a proposal to begin addressing the degradations to functioning habitats within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation in the Hangman Watershed. That proposal led to the implementation of this project during BPA's FY2001 through FY2003 funding cycle. The project is intended to protect, restore and/or enhance priority riparian, wetland and upland areas within the headwaters of Hangman Creek and its tributaries in order to promote healthy self-sustaining fish and wildlife populations. A key goal of this project is the implementation of wildlife habitat protection efforts in a manner that also secures areas with the potential to provide stream and wetland habitats essential to native salmonid populations. This goal is critical in our efforts to address both resident fish and wildlife habitat needs in the Hangman Watershed. All proposed implementation activities are conducted in the headwaters of the system and are expected to prove beneficial to the natural functions of the entire Hangman Watershed. The following is the FY2001 annual report of Project activities and is submitted as partial fulfillment of Operation and Maintenance Task 2.a. The Objectives and Tasks for this first year were designed to position this Project for a long-term habitat restoration effort. As such, efforts were largely directed at information gathering and project orientation. The major task for this first year was development of a Habitat Prioritization Plan (attached) to guide implementation efforts by selecting areas that will be of greatest benefit to the native ecology. Completion of the first year tasks has positioned the project to move forward with implementing restoration activities using the latest information to accomplish the greatest possible results. The Project will be looking to implement on-the-ground protection and restoration efforts in the coming fiscal year using the data and information gathered in the last fiscal year. Continually refining our understanding of the natural watershed functions and fish and wildlife habitats within the Project Area will result in an increase in the efficiency of project implementation. Research and data gathering efforts will remain a strong emphasis in the coming fiscal year, as it will throughout the life of this Project.

  2. Effect of ethnomedicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Jordan as antibiotic resistant inhibitors on Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli occurs naturally in the human gut; however, certain strains that can cause infections, are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant E. coli that produce extended-spectrum ? lactamases (ESBLs), such as the CTX-M enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and bloodstream infections may be associated with these community-onsets. This is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying activity of nineteen Jordanian plants against multidrug-resistant E. coli. Methods The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was tested by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using a broth microdilution method. Nineteen Jordanian plant extracts (Capparis spinosa L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Echinops polyceras Boiss., Gundelia tournefortii L, Varthemia iphionoides Boiss. & Blanche, Eruca sativa Mill., Euphorbia macroclada L., Hypericum trequetrifolium Turra, Achillea santolina L., Mentha longifolia Host, Origanum syriacum L., Phlomis brachydo(Boiss.) Zohary, Teucrium polium L., Anagyris foetida L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Thea sinensis L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lepidium sativum L., Pimpinella anisum L.) were combined with antibiotics, from different classes, and the inhibitory effect of the combinations was estimated. Results Methanolic extracts of the plant materials enhanced the inhibitory effects of chloramphenicol, neomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin and nalidixic acid against both the standard strain and to a lesser extent the resistant strain of E. coli. Two edible plant extracts (Gundelia tournefortii L. and Pimpinella anisum L.) generally enhanced activity against resistant strain. Some of the plant extracts like Origanum syriacum L.(Labiateae), Trigonella foenum- graecum L.(Leguminosae), Euphorbia macroclada (Euphorbiaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae) did not enhance the activity of amoxicillin against both standard and resistant E. coli. On the other hand combinations of amoxicillin with other plant extracts used showed variable effect between standard and resistant strains. Plant extracts like Anagyris foetida (Leguminosae) and Lepidium sativum (Umbelliferae) reduced the activity of amoxicillin against the standard strain but enhanced the activity against resistant strains. Three edible plants; Gundelia tournefortii L. (Compositae) Eruca sativa Mill. (Cruciferae), and Origanum syriacum L. (Labiateae), enhanced activity of clarithromycin against the resistant E. coli strain. Conclusion This study probably suggests possibility of concurrent use of these antibiotics and plant extracts in treating infections caused by E. coli or at least the concomitant administration may not impair the antimicrobial activity of these antibiotics. PMID:20187978

  3. Water dynamics and groundwater contributions in a young mountain soil under different meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negm, Amro; Falocchi, Marco; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater contribution to the soil-water content and to the evapotranspiration is a major uncertainty to assess the water balance. Particularly in mountain environments, where the soil and the depth of the water table are shallow, both percolation and water rise from the water table can happen. Aiming at better understanding these processes at the local scale, a micrometeorological station, equipped with both traditional sensors, an eddy covariance (EC) apparatus with a 20Hz sonic anemometer and infrared CO2 and H2O gas analyser, and four multiplexed TDR probes, was installed at Cividate Camuno (Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, Italy, 274ma.s.l.), in a mountain environment with complex topography and Alpine sublitoranean climate. The young, anthropised, soil upper layers are about 40cm deep and mainly covered by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), wild carrot (Daucus carota) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium). Field and laboratory tests were performed to characterise the soil hydraulic properties. Particularly the soil-water retention relationships were measured by means of a low- and a high-pressure Richards' apparatus, and the hydraulic conductivity at saturation of each soil layer was estimated by 2-dimensional, axis-symmetrical, inverse modelling of field infiltration tests from single ring infiltrometer. The measurements were performed during Summer 2012 and Summer 2013. The groundwater exchange was numerically estimated both in wet (Summer 2012) and in dry meteorlogical conditions (Summer 2013). Evapotranspiration was assessed by means of Penman-Monteith method, which was found to be in the range between EC-estimated fluxes and an indirect estimate based on the Bowen ratio correction for Summer 2012. The two seasons are meteorologically very different and it results also in the soil-water regime. During Summer 2012, the weather was relatively wet, the soil did not reach very small water contents, so that precipitation was able to percolate towards the groundwater table and the groundwater table to meaningfully contribute to the evapotranspirative fluxes. Summer 2013 was instead much drier, precipitation was not able to meaningfully change the water content of the lowest soil layer and to percolate toward the water table. As a consequence of the very small water contents of the soil, also a very small water rise had place.

  4. Assessment of the water exchange between soil and groundwater in an Alpine valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negm, Amro; Falocchi, Marco; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2013-04-01

    The soil-water balance in temperate climates can be sensitively characterised by the water exchange between soil and groundwater. Particularly in mountain environments, where the soil and the water table depth are shallow, both percolation and water rise from the water table can happen, but these latter extimate is still a major challenge for hydrological applications. Aiming at contributing to better characterise the soil-water balance and the water exchange between soil and groundwater, at the local scale in an Alpine valley, a micrometeorological station was installed during summer 2012 at Cividate Camuno (Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, 274ma.s.l.), in a mountain environment with complex orography and Alpine sublitoranean climate. The soil upper layers, lying on an anthropised loose rock, are about 40cm deep and mainly covered by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), wild carrot (Daucus carota) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium). The station is equipped with longwave and shortwave radiometers, a thermo-hygrometer, two rain-gauges, eddy correlation devices (Gill WindMaster sonic anemometer and Licor Li7500 gas analyser, sampling at 20Hz), a TDR with multiplexer apparatus and four probes at different depths, three soil-thermometers and a heat exchanger plate. Field and laboratory tests were performed to characterise the main soil hydraulic properties (i.e. hydraulic conductivity at saturation by means of infiltration tests and falling head permeameter, porosity, residual water content and water content at saturation, soil-water retention relationships, organic matter content and grain size distribution curve). Three different hypothesis to model the water exchange between soil-water and groundwater were introduced. They are (i) a null exchange rate which accounts for a shortage of precipitation and for representing the underlying soil as a capillary barrier, (ii) a pure percolation with unitary gradient of the total hydraulic potential and (iii) a percolation or water rise induced by an estimate of the local gradient on the basis of the measurements of water content. As the lateral fluxes were negligible due to the site orography, accounting for the measurement of rainfall, evapotranspiration and soil-water content, the closure of the water balance allowed to assess the effectiveness of the different hypotheses to estimate the exchange between soil-water and groundwater. The results shows that the water balance is not closed without estimating the water exchange between soil and groundwater, but assessing its value was found to be strongly sensitive to the accuracy of the adopted soil model and constitutive laws.

  5. Effects of Dilatancy on the Shearing Behaviour of Root-Permeated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Anil; Graf, Frank; Rickli, Christian; Springman, Sarah M.

    2015-04-01

    The effects of vegetation and, in particular, of forests on the stability of slopes are well recognized and have been widely investigated. However, there is still a considerable lack of understanding on the underlying processes that contribute to triggering superficial soil failure in root-permeated soil. Therefore, it comes as no surprise that a period of heavy rainfall in August 2005, affecting an extensive area in Praettigau region in canton Grisons, resulted in numerous shallow landslides of which about half, 26 out of 50 events, occurred in the forest area. Thus, quantification of the vegetation effects on the shear strength of soil is important in order to be able to evaluate the contribution of root reinforcement to slope stability. Root reinforcement has been investigated through different approaches, including laboratory or in-situ shear tests of root-permeated soil, and analytical models of soil-root interaction. Traditional methods, generally, consider roots passing through the shear surface with full development of the roots' tensile strength. However, it has been shown that lateral roots contribute to strength as well, and that roots and soil do not necessarily fail simultaneously, and hence the strengths of both components of root-permeated soil are displacement dependent. A robust inclinable large-scale direct shear apparatus (ILDSA) was constructed in order to evaluate the combined effects of the root system on the shearing behaviour of soil. Two different sets of planted samples, a first set consisting of Alnus incana, Trifolium pratense, Poa pratensis and a latter set, consisting of these three species complemented with Salix appendiculata, Achillea millefolium, Anthyllis vulneraria, have been prepared in moraine (SP-SM) from a recent landslide area in Central Switzerland. Planted samples are maintained in shear boxes (500x500x400 mm) inclined at 30°, simulating a slope, and the corresponding natural growth of roots on it. Direct shear tests have been conducted on unplanted and planted soil samples at a constant rate of horizontal displacement of 1 mm/min to a maximum horizontal displacement of 200 mm. Three different applied normal stress levels, namely 6 kPa, 11 kPa and 16 kPa, were chosen to be comparable to the average depth of shallow landslides. An artificial rainfall at a constant intensity (100 mm/h) was applied prior to shearing in order to simulate the loss of strength after a heavy rainfall period under continuous monitoring of the matric suction with tensiometers, which was brought as close as possible to 0 kPa around the shear surface to ensure saturation. Dependence of contribution of root reinforcement to the additional shear strength of soil due to dilatancy was investigated in this study, and a comparison between the two levels of number of plant species, in terms of shear strength parameters, was presented.

  6. Physics in the Spotlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    CERN, ESA and ESO Put Physics On Stage [1] Summary Can you imagine how much physics is in a simple match of ping-pong, in throwing a boomerang, or in a musical concert? Physics is all around us and governs our lives. The World-Wide Web and mobile communication are only two examples of technologies that have rapidly found their way from science into the everyday life. [Go to Physics On Stage Website at CERN] But who is going to maintain these technologies and develop new ones in the future? Probably not young Europeans, as recent surveys show a frightening decline of interest in physics and technology among Europe's citizens, especially schoolchildren. Fewer and fewer young people enrol in physics courses at university. The project "Physics on Stage" tackles this problem head on. An international festival of 400 physics educators from 22 European countries [2] gather at CERN in Geneva from 6 to 10 November to show how fascinating and entertaining physics can be . In a week-long event innovative methods of teaching physics and demonstrations of the fun that lies in physics are presented in a fair, in 10 spectacular performances, and presentations. Workshops on 14 key themes will give the delegates - teachers, professors, artists and other physics educators - the chance to discuss and come up with solutions for the worrying situation of disenchantment with Science in Europe. The European Science and Technology Week 2000 "Physics on Stage" is a joint project organised by the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , Europe's leading physics research organisations. This is the first time that these three organisations have worked together in such close collaboration to catalyse a change in attitude towards science and technology education. Physics on Stage is funded in part by the European Commission and happens as an event in the European Science and Technology Week 2000, an initiative of the EC to raise public awareness of science and technology. Other partners are the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). European Commissioner Busquin to Visit Physics On Stage On Thursday, November 9, Philippe Busquin , Commissioner for Research, European Commission, Prof. Luciano Maiani , Director-General of CERN, Antonio Rodota , Director-General of ESA, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , Director-General of ESO, and Dr. Achilleas Mitsos , Director-General of the Research DG in the European Commission, will participate in the activities of the Physics on Stage Festival. On this occasion, Commissioner Busquin will address conference delegates and the Media on the importance of Science and of innovative science and technology education. The Festival Each of the more than 400 delegates of the festival has been selected during the course of the year by committees in each of the 22 countries for outstanding projects promoting science. For example, a group of Irish physics teachers and their students will give a concert on instruments made exclusively of plumbing material, explaining the physics of sound at the same time. A professional theatre company from Switzerland stages a play on antimatter. Or two young Germans invite spectators to their interactive physics show where they juggle, eat fire and perform stunning physics experiments on stage. The colourful centrepiece of this week is the Physics Fair. Every country has its own stands where delegates show their projects, programmes or experiments and gain inspiration from the exhibits from other countries. Physics on Stage is a unique event. Nothing like it has ever happened in terms of international exchange, international collaboration and state of the art science and technology education methods. The Nobel prizewinners of 2030 are at school today. What ideas can Europe's teachers put forward to boost their interest in science? An invitation to the media We invite journalists to take part in this both politically and visually interesting