The chemotaxonomic relevance of sesquiterpenoids within the Achillea millefolium group has been evaluated by means of morphological, anatomical, cytological and phytochemical data. The sesquiterpene patterns of Achillea setacea Waldst. & Kit, Achillea asplenifolia Vent., Achillea roseoalba Ehrend., Achillea collina Becker, Achillea ceretanica Sennen, Achillea pratensis Saukel & Länger, Achillea distans subsp. styriaca Saukel in edit., Achillea millefolium L. and Achillea
Wolfgang Kubelka; Ulrike Kastner; Sabine Glasl; Johannes Saukel; Johann Jurenitsch
The chemical composition of the hydro-distilled essential oils of Achillea millefolium and Achillea crithmifolia was analyzed by GC, GC–MS, 13C NMR and high resolution LC–MS. For the first time, the use of the combination of different chromatographic and spectral\\u000a methods, primarily the advantage of LC-Orbitrap over standard methods, enabled the detection of azulenes and their progenitors,\\u000a in minute quantities, in
Andrija Smelcerovic; Marc Lamshoeft; Niko Radulovic; Danijela Ilic; Radosav Palic
A cytogeographic study was made of the tetraploid and hexaploid forms ofAchillea millefolium L. in western Oregon in order to clarify their distributions, to determine whether pentaploid hybrids are present at zones\\u000a of contact between the two, and to correlate environmental conditions with the presence of the tetraploid in the coastal areas\\u000a of Coos and Curry Counties, Oregon. The distributional
Ronald J. Tyrl
essential oil composition of this species. Water-distilled essential oil from aerial parts of Achillea boissieri in Turkey have been analyzed by means of GC and GC-MS. The resulting main components of the oil are shown in Table 1. The essential oil yield of A. boissieri was 0.2857%. Forty-eight compounds were identified, representing 93.0% of the oil. The major components were
F. Zehra Kucukbay; E. Kuyumcu; T. Arabaci
Proopiomelanocortin is a precursor peptide that gives rise to several neuropeptides including adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and ?-endorphin. POMC-derived peptides have been shown to be synthesized in human epidermis where they modulate numerous skin functions. Because we previously observed that melanocortin receptor-2 and ?-opioid receptor 1, the respective receptors for ACTH and ?-endorphin decreased with ageing in human epidermis, we have selected an active ingredient (INCI name: Achillea millefolium extract) able to upregulate receptor expressions. The aim of the present work was first to evaluate the effect of A. millefolium extract on the expression pattern of various epidermal differentiation markers ex vivo in normal human skin biopsies using quantitative image analysis and second to evaluate its capacity to rejuvenate the appearance of skin surface in vivo. Results show an improved expression profile of cytokeratin 10, transglutaminase-1 and filaggrin in cultured skin biopsies as well as an increased epidermal thickness. In vivo, a 2-month treatment with A. millefolium extract at 2% significantly improved the appearance of wrinkles and pores compared with placebo. Results were also directionally better than those of glycolic acid that was chosen as reference resurfacing molecule. PMID:21711463
Pain, S; Altobelli, C; Boher, A; Cittadini, L; Favre-Mercuret, M; Gaillard, C; Sohm, B; Vogelgesang, B; André-Frei, V
We investigated the effects of Achillea millefolium extract in vitro on the growth of primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as the potential involvement of estrogen receptors (ERs) in this process. In addition, the ability of A. millefolium extract to modulate the NF-?B pathway was tested in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The fingerprinting of the extract was carried out by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS(n) and main constituents were flavonoids (10%) and dicaffeolylquinic acid derivatives (12%). The extract enhanced VSMC growth at least in part by acting through ERs and impaired NF-?B signaling in HUVECs. The various compounds may act with different mode of actions thus contributing to the final effect of the extract. Our findings support some of the traditional uses of A. millefolium, and suggest potential modes of action as related to its effects on vascular inflammation. Therefore, A. millefolium may induce novel potential actions in the cardiovascular system. PMID:21684130
Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Bolego, Chiara; Cignarella, Andrea; Gaion, Rosa Maria; Innocenti, Gabbriella
Isolation and biological characterization of pure compounds was used to identify and characterize estrogenic activity and estrogen receptors (ER) preference in chemical components of Achillea millefolium. This medicinal plant is used in folk medicine as an emmenagogue. In vitro assay, based on recombinant MCF-7 cells, showed estrogenic activity in a crude extract of the aerial parts of A. millefolium. After
G. Innocenti; E. Vegeto; S. Dall’Acqua; P. Ciana; M. Giorgetti; E. Agradi; A. Sozzi; G. Fico; F. Tomè
From above ground parts of Achillea collina L., proline, stachydrine, betonicine, betaine and choline were isolated as the major nitrogen containing compounds. The TLC screening of 11 different species belonging to A. millefolium group showed qualitatively identical betaine patterns but quantitative differences were observed.
Michaela Mehlführer; Karin Troll; Johann Jurenitsch; Helga Auer; Wolfgang Kubelka
Summary Friable calli were obtained fromAchillea millefolium L. hypocotyls, in Gamborg B5 medium, supplemented with 1.5mg.1-1 2,4-D \\/ 0.1mg.1-1 Kin, and used for the production of cell suspension cultures in the same liquid medium. The growth pattern of the cultures was determined in permanent light or dark conditions and with different inoculum densities, basal media, growth regulators and sucrose concentrations.
A. Cristina S. Figueiredo; M. Salomé S. Pais
The effect of an ethanolic extract (200 mg\\/kg\\/day, intraperitoneally, for 20 days) and a hydroalcoholic extract (300 mg\\/kg\\/day, orally, for 30 days) of Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow) flowers on the spermatogenesis of Swiss mice was studied by evaluating morphologic characteristics with the light and electron microscopes. The alterations observed were exfoliation of immature germ cells, germ cell necrosis, and seminiferous
Tatiana Montanari; João Ernesto de Carvalho; Heidi Dolder
The data reported in the literature concerning the uses and composition of yarrow,Achillea millefolium aggr., Compositae, are compiled and discussed. Historically, this plant has been extensively used as a herbal remedy for\\u000a numerous afflictions by many cultures on several continents. It has also been the subject of a considerable number of scientific\\u000a investigations. It has, however, not been previously reviewed.
R. F. Chandler; S. N. Hooper; M. J. Harvey
Phytosociological classification of vegetation is often justified on the grounds it provides a means of predicting properties\\u000a other than floristic composition. It is difficult to find examples inliterature where this possibility of prediction is actually\\u000a used. In this paper, we examine the qualitative variation in proazulenes of theAchillea millefolium group as a function of cytological, abiotic and floristic factors. Sixty-six
Barbara Michler; Carl-Gerold Arnold
The chemical composition of essential oils ofAchillea millefoliumL.,A. NobilisL. from Kazakhstan flora andA. GrandifloraBieb introduced in culture at the Karaganda Botanic garden were determined by GC\\/MS. The main component in the essential oil ofA. MillefoliumL. andA. NobilisL. was found to be camphor, while it was ß-pinene for A. grandiflora.
Ye. M. Suleimenov; G. A. Atazhanova; T. Ozek; B. Demirci; A. T. Kulyjasov; S. M. Adekenov; K. H. C. Baser
1.Ausmaß, Verbreitung und Wesen der spontanen Störungen der Pollenmeiose bei diploiden Sippen von Achillea wurden an Hand cytologischer Analysen von 43 Wildformen (davon 1 Triploide) und 22 F1und F2-Pflanzen untersucht. Die Daten beziehen sich auf A. setacea, A. asplenifolia und spontane Introgressionspopulationen (A. roseo-alba) sowie experimentelle Hybriden zwischen diesen beiden Basissippen des A. millefolium-Komplexes, weiters auf die verwandtschaftlich etwas ferner
1.Ausmaß, Verbreitung und Wesen der spontanen Störungen der Pollenmeiose bei polyploiden Sippen des Achillea millefolium-Komplexes wurden an Hand cytologischer Analysen von 139 Wildformen untersucht (jeweils mindestens 50–100 PMZ). Die Daten beziehen sich auf die tetraploiden A. roseo-alba (Introgressionspopulationen), A. collina und A. lanulosa, auf die hexaploiden A. millefolium s. str., A. borealis und die±hybridogene A. distans, ferner auf die oktoploiden
Isolation and biological characterization of pure compounds was used to identify and characterize estrogenic activity and estrogen receptors (ER) preference in chemical components of Achillea millefolium. This medicinal plant is used in folk medicine as an emmenagogue. In vitro assay, based on recombinant MCF-7 cells, showed estrogenic activity in a crude extract of the aerial parts of A. millefolium. After fractionation of the crude extract with increasing polar solvents, estrogenic activity was found in the methanol/water fraction. Nine compounds were isolated and characterized by HR-MS spectra and 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. In particular, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside - a glycosyl-neolignan - was isolated for the first time from the genus Achillea in addition to six flavone derivatives, apigenin, apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, rutin, and two caffeic acid derivatives, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and chlorogenic acid. Apigenin and luteolin, the most important estrogenic compounds among those tested, were studied for their ability to activate alpha or beta estrogen receptors (ERalpha, ERbeta) using transiently transfected cells. Our results suggest that isolation and biological characterization of estrogenic compounds in traditionally used medicinal plants could be a first step in better assessing further (e.g. in vivo) tests of nutraceutical and pharmacological strategies based on phytoestrogens. PMID:16860978
Innocenti, G; Vegeto, E; Dall'Acqua, S; Ciana, P; Giorgetti, M; Agradi, E; Sozzi, A; Fico, G; Tomè, F
The transformation capacity of Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium (yarrow) cell suspension cultures was investigated using geraniol (50mg\\/l) and borneol, menthol, thymol and farnesols (25mg\\/l) as substrates. Apart from converting these substrates into several biotransformation products, the cell suspension cultures were also able to glycosylate both the substrates and the biotransformation products. aa]Key Words bb]Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium bb]Yarrow
A. Cristina Figueiredo; M. João Almendra; José G. Barroso; Johannes J. C. Scheffer
The present study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial, antifungal and antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of Hypericum scabrum L (HSm), Hypericum lysimachioides var. lysimachioides (HL), and Hypericum retusum Aucher (HR) and ethanol extracts of Achillea aleppica D.C. subsp. aleppica (AA), Achillea aleppica D.C. subsp. zederbaueri (Hayek) Hub.-Mor (AZ), and Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (AB). The antioxidant properties of extracts
Deniz Bar??; Murat K?z?l; Çetin Aytekin; Göksel K?z?l; Murat Yavuz; Bircan Çeken; A. Selçuk Ertekin
Achillea L. (Compositae or Asteraceae) is a widely distributed medicinal plant throughout the world and has been used since ancient time. Popular indications of the several species of this genus include treatment of wounds, bleedings, headache, inflammation, pains, spasmodic diseases, flatulence and dyspepsia. Phytochemical investigations of Achillea species have revealed that many components from this genus are highly bioactive. There are many reports on the mentioned folk and traditional effects. Although, the medicinal properties of Achillea plants are recognized worldwide, there are only one review article mainly about the structures of the phytochemical constituents of Achillea. The present paper reviews the medicinal properties of various species of Achillea, which have been examined on the basis of the scientific in vitro, in vivo or clinical evaluations. Various effects of these plants may be due to the presence of a broad range of secondary active metabolites such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, terpenoids (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes) and sterols which have been frequently reported from Achillea species.
Saeidnia, S.; Gohari, AR.; Mokhber-Dezfuli, N.; Kiuchi, F.
Species of the genus Achillea have been used in traditional folk medicine for centuries. In Europe taxa of the Achillea millefolium group are widely spread, their correct taxonomic differentiation by morphological and anatomical characteristics encounters\\u000a some difficulties. Several species of the polyploid A. millefolium group however, can be characterised by their distinct sesquiterpene pattern. Analysis is usually performed by LC
Gergely Montsko; Borbala Boros; Aniko Takatsy; Robert Ohmacht; Sabine Glasl; Liselotte Krenn; Laszlo Mark; Gottfried Reznicek
Since antiquity, Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) has been used in traditional medicine of several cultures, from Europe to Asia. Its richness in bioactive compounds contributes to a wide range of medicinal properties. In this study, we assessed A. millefolium methanolic extract and its isolated components for free radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-pycrilhydrazyl, total antioxidant capacity (based on the reduction of Cu(++) to Cu(+)), and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation. The activity against chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum was also tested. Chlorogenic acid, its derivatives and some flavonoids isolated by semipreparative HPLC and identified by NMR and spectrometric techniques were the major bioactive constituents of the methanolic extract. The latter exhibited significant antioxidant properties, as well as its flavonol glycosides and chlorogenic acids. With regard to the antiplasmodial activity, apigenin 7-glucoside was the most effective compound, followed by luteolin 7-glucoside, whereas chlorogenic acids were completely inactive. On the whole, our results confirmed A. millefolium as an important source of bioactive metabolites, justifying its pharmaceutical and ethnobotanical use. PMID:21503279
Vitalini, Sara; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Iriti, Marcello; Orsenigo, Simone; Basilico, Nicoletta; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Iorizzi, Maria; Fico, Gelsomina
Zusammenfassung 1.Die Stellung desAchillea millefolium-Rassenkomplexes innerhalb der Gattung, seine Verbreitung, Merkmale und seine Abgrenzung gegenüber nächst verwandten südeuropäischen Gruppen (A. tomentosa, A. nobilis s. l.,A. crithmifolia, A. virescens undA. tanacetifolia s. l.) wird besprochen.2.FürA. tomentosa wirdn=9, fürA. stricta (A. tanacetifolia s. l.)n=27 festgestellt.3.Für europäische Sippen desAchillea-millefolium-Komplexes werden 29 neue Chromosomenzahlen mitgeteilt, die sich einer Polyploidieserie 2x, 4x, 5x, 6x, 8x
Unterschiedliche Störungssyndrome der Meiose bei diploiden und polyploiden Sippen des Achillea millefolium-Komplexes und ihre Bedeutung für die Mikro-Evolution (Zur Phylogenie der Gattung Achillea, IV)
1.Die unterschiedliche Verteilung der Störungssyndrome der Pollenmeiose bei Diploiden (2x) und Polyploiden (4x, 6x, 8x) des Achillea millefolium-Komplexes und einiger nahestehender Arten (vgl. die speziellen Beiträge Ehrendorfer 1959b und c) wurde auf Grund der cytologischen Analyse von 186 Wildformen quantitativ dargestellt (Tabelle 1 und 2, Abb. 1).2.Zwischen den Störungserscheinungen und den Normalprozessen der cytogenetischen Differenzierung als Mechanismen der Mikro-Evolution ergeben
Friedrich Ehrendorfer; A. Einleitung
Context-dependent foraging behaviour is acknowledged and well documented for a diversity of animals and conditions. The contextual determinants of plant foraging behaviour, however, are poorly understood. Plant roots encounter patchy distributions of nutrients and soil fungi. Both of these features affect root form and function, but how they interact to affect foraging behaviour is unknown. We extend the use of the marginal value theorem to make predictions about the foraging behaviour of roots, and test our predictions by manipulating soil resource distribution and inoculation by soil fungi. We measured plant movement as both distance roots travelled and time taken to grow through nutrient patches of varied quality. To do this, we grew Achillea millefolium in the centers of modified pots with a high-nutrient patch and a low-nutrient patch on either side of the plant (heterogeneous) or patch-free conditions (homogeneous). Fungal inoculation, but not resource distribution, altered the time it took roots to reach nutrient patches. When in nutrient patches, root growth decreased relative to homogeneous soils. However, this change in foraging behaviour was not contingent upon patch quality or fungal inoculation. Root system breadth was larger in homogeneous than in heterogeneous soils, until measures were influenced by pot edges. Overall, we find that root foraging behaviour is modified by resource heterogeneity but not fungal inoculation. We find support for predictions of the marginal value theorem that organisms travel faster through low-quality than through high-quality environments, with the caveat that roots respond to nutrient patches per se rather than the quality of those patches. PMID:22622873
Karst, Justine D; Belter, Pamela R; Bennett, Jonathan A; Cahill, James F
The use of medicinal herbs among the general population gives rise to the possibility of therapeutic or toxic effects in patients that use these plants. The effects of Achillea millefolium hydroalcoholic extract on the contractile responses of the isolated guinea-pig ileum were investigated. The effect of the Achillea millefolium extracts at five concentrations ranging form 0.05 to 5 mg mL(-1) was tested. The terminal ileum was removed. Segments were fixed in an organ bath containing in Tyrode solution. Contraction changes in the tissues were monitored using force displacement transducer amplifier connected to physiograph. Each segment served as its own control. Achillea millefolium inhibited the contractile response in a dose-dependent manner. The 50% effective concentration values (EC50) were calculated, which was 1.5 mg mL(-1). Regression analysis had shown that with increasing in extract concentration the effect of extract was increased. The coefficient of extract dose was 0.031 mg. Present results demonstrate that extract prepared from the plant of Achillea millefolium inhibited electrical induced contractions of the guinea-pig ileum when tested in vitro. This effect is dose dependent and reversible. PMID:19093480
Babaei, Mehdi; Abarghoei, Mitra Emmami; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Ansari, Reza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Taherian, Abbas Ali; Mousavi, Shahrokh; Toussy, Jafar
The essential oil of the Achillea millefolium L. complex growing wild in Northern Greece was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Several monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were identified, although the main component was ascaridole (47.2%). Lesser amounts of 1, 8-cineole (10.5%), p-cymene (7.4%), ?-terpinene (7.0%) and camphor (8.1%) were also found.
Pashalina Chatzopoulou; Stavros T. Katsiotis; Anders Baerheim Svendsen
Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow), a perennial competitive ruderal, has become an increasing problem on arable land in New Zealand as a result of reduced cultivation, horticultural development, and the ineffectiveness of herbicides. Research conducted mainly in Canterbury, on aspects of the seed and rhizome biology of A. millefolium, is considered in relation to its control. It is concluded that major
G. W. BourdôT; R. J. Field
Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), popularly known as yarrow, has been used in folk medicine to treat complaints such as inflammation, pain, wounds, hemorrhages and gastrointestinal disturbances. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the aqueous extract (AE) of the plant after chronic exposure. Indeed, the AE was effective in protecting the gastric mucosa
Ana Maria Cavalcanti; Cristiane Hatsuko Baggio; Cristina Setim Freitas; Lia Rieck; Renato Silva de Sousa; José Eduardo Da Silva-Santos; Sonia Mesia-Vela; Maria Consuelo Andrade Marques
Plants are the main source of molecules with antioxidant and radical scavenging properties that aid the natural defence systems of cells and may be involved in the preservation of human health, particularly preventing all the physiopathological conditions where oxidative damage is a hallmark. Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb. is a medicinal plant of the Achillea millefolium aggregate (yarrow) traditionally used, particularly in mountain areas, as an infusion or alcohol extract for its digestive, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and wound healing properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity and cytoprotective activity against oxidative stress of infusions obtained from the leaves and inflorescences of Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb., assessed by chemical (free radical scavenging activity by DPPH and Folin Ciocalteu assay) and biological assays (in vitro model of cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in PC12 cells line). Infusions of leaves had the highest antioxidant properties and cytoprotective activity. The antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated with the total phenolic content but not with the cytoprotective profile. Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb. has good antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, suggesting further investigations on its chemical composition and potential health value, particularly for traditionally prepared infusions of leaves. PMID:19067389
Giorgi, Annamaria; Bombelli, Raffaella; Luini, Alessandra; Speranza, Giovanna; Cosentino, Marco; Lecchini, Sergio; Cocucci, Maurizio
Achillea millefolium populations from adjacent sites with zonal and serpentime soil were used to test predictions about the relation between growth and the competitive ability of plants in productive and unproductive environments. Under greenhouse conditions, individually-grown plants from both sources grew larger in serpentine soil than in zonal soil; serpentine plants accumulated 72% more biomass than zonal plants. In zonal
S. S. Higgins; R. N. Mack
Background The neuroinflammatory process plays a central role in the initiation and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, and involves the activation of brain microglial cells. During the neuroinflammatory process, microglial cells release proinflammatory mediators such as cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). In the present study, extracts from 66 different desert plants were tested for their effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - induced production of NO by primary microglial cells. The extract of Achillea fragrantissima (Af), which is a desert plant that has been used for many years in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases, was the most efficient extract, and was further studied for additional anti-neuroinflammatory effects in these cells. Methods In the present study, the ethanolic extract prepared from Af was tested for its anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated primary cultures of brain microglial cells. The levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin1? (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) secreted by the cells were determined by reverse transcriptase-PCR and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. NO levels secreted by the activate cells were measured using Griess reagent, ROS levels were measured by 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA), MMP-9 activity was measured using gel zymography, and the protein levels of the proinflammatory enzymes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured by Western blot analysis. Cell viability was assessed using Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the media conditioned by the cells or by the crystal violet cell staining. Results We have found that out of the 66 desert plants tested, the extract of Af was the most efficient extract and inhibited ~70% of the NO produced by the LPS-activated microglial cells, without affecting cell viability. In addition, this extract inhibited the LPS - elicited expression of the proinflammatory mediators IL-1?, TNF?, MMP-9, COX-2 and iNOS in these cells. Conclusions Thus, phytochemicals present in the Af extract could be beneficial in preventing/treating neurodegenerative diseases in which neuroinflammation is part of the pathophysiology.
TheAchillea millefolium group is represented in the Czech Republic and Slovakia by six species.Achillea setacea andA. asplenifolia are diploid;A. collina andA. pratensis are tetraploid;A. millefolium is hexaploid; andA. pannonica is octoploid. The populations from Slovakia of theA. distans group, distributed mainly in Central and south-eastern Europe, were all hexaploid. The presence of these taxa in the area\\u000a studied was documented
Ji?í Danihelka; Olga Rotreklová
Summary 1.For 79 North American populations of the N. Hemisphere polyploid complexAchillea millefolium agg. (Asteraceae-Anthemideae) new tetraploid and hexaploid chromosome counts (n=18, 27 resp. 2 n=36, 54) are documented.2.Together with literature references this adds to our knowledge of the distribution and affinities ofA. millefolium agg. cytotypes and races in North America. While 4 x types are widespread, autochthonous 6 x
The present study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity of the exposure to the aqueous extract from leaves (AE) of Achillea millefolium L. on reproductive endpoints in Wistar rats. Adult male rats were treated daily with yarrow extract (0.3, 0.6 and 1.2g\\/kg\\/day) during 90 days by oral gavage. Endpoints including reproductive organ weights, sperm and spermatid numbers as well as
Paulo R Dalsenter; Ana M Cavalcanti; Anderson J. M Andrade; Samanta L Araújo; Maria C. A Marques
Different species from the Achillea millefolium aggregate are used against gastrointestinal and hepato-biliary disorders in traditional European medicine. In this work, a fraction enriched in dicaffeoylquinic acids (DCCAs) and luteolin-7-O-?-d-glucuronide was investigated on its choleretic effect in the isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL) compared to cynarin (1,3-DCCA), the main choleretic compound of Cynara scolymus L. A fraction containing 3,4-, 3,5-
B. Benedek; N. Geisz; W. Jäger; T. Thalhammer; B. Kopp
Five clones of the Achillea millefolium-“complex” from different sites at Kaliningrad were cultivated in the Botanical Garden of Würzburg to investigate the oil composition of the flowerheads. The oil was obtained by steam distillation and the headspace method. Gas chromatography with an M.C.S.S. system (moving-capillary-stream-switching) was used to analyze chiral monoterpenes. The variability of the major components was examined by
Manuela Orth; Franz-C. Czygan; Viktor P. Dedkov
The composition of essential oils hydrodistilled from 19 samples of inflorescences and leaves of Achillea millefolium L. plants, which were transferred from 14 natural habitats in Lithuania to the field collection, is reported. Total content of oil was 0.15–0.55% in inflorescences and 0.06–0.19% (v\\/w) in leaves. In total 117 compounds were identified positively or tentatively. Data obtained clearly indicate the
Odeta Gudaityt?; Petras Rimantas Venskutonis
Variations in the essential oil composition of Achillea millefolium L. growing in Estonia and in other European countries, were determined. The oils were obtained in yields of 0.9–9.5?mL?kg. A total of 102 components were identified. The quantitatively most important components of yarrow were sabinene, ?-pinene, 1,8-cineole, artemisia ketone, linalool, ?-thujone, ?-thujone, camphor, borneol, fenchyl acetate, bornyl acetate, (E)-?-caryophyllene, germacrene D,
Anne Orav; Elmar Arak; Ain Raal
The essential oils isolated from roots of two Achillea millefolium populations (BGL and CGA) and from two hairy root cultures (A4 and LBA) derived from one of these were analysed by GC and GC–mass spectrometry. The essential oils from the plant roots were obtained in a yield of 0.10% (BGL) and 0.05% (CGA) (v\\/w), whereas that of both hairy root
P. M. L Lourenço; A. C Figueiredo; J. G Barroso; L. G Pedro; M. M Oliveira; S. G Deans; J. J. C Scheffer
The composition of the essential oil isolated from Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium cell suspension cultures was analysed by GC and GC-MS. The yield of the oil obtained by hydrodistillation or a simultaneous distillation -extraction of these cultures, harvested at days 8–10 (end of exponential phase), was 0.001 % (w\\/w). The analysis of the volatiles showed the presence of thirteen
A. Cristina Figueiredo; M. Salomé; S. Pais; Johannes J. C. Scheffer
Flavonoids represent an important bioactive component in Achillea millefolium. The comparison of the most commonly used analytical methods for the identification and quantification of flavonoids, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), is presented. The methods were optimized and validated. Using a 20mM borate buffer with 30% (v\\/v) of methanol (pH 9.3) in the CE analysis and a
Nina Ko?evar; Igor Glava?; Rade Injac; Samo Kreft
The essential oil, which was obtained by hydrodistillation from aerial parts of Achillea millefolium L. complex (Compositae), was analyzed using both GC\\/MS and Kovat's indices. The major components extracted from the stems, leaves and inflorescences were found to be ?-thujone (8.3–21.7%), camphor (8.6–11.7%), 1, 8-cineole (7.7–15.2%), ?-pinene (3.8–7.8%) and sabinene (5.7–8.9%). More than sixty components have been identified; forty of
Jean-Marie Hachey; Guy-J. Collin; Michel-J. Gagnon; Sandra Simard; Sylvain Dufour; France-Ida Jean; Gaston Vernin; Daniel Fraisse
Achillea millefolium L. s.l. is traditionally used not only in the treatment of gastro-intestinal and hepato-biliary disorders, but also as an antiphlogistic drug. As various proteases, for instance human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9), are associated with the inflammatory process, the aim of this study was to test a crude plant extract in in vitro-protease inhibition
Birgit Benedek; Brigitte Kopp; Matthias F. Melzig
Achillinin A (2?,3?-epoxy-1?,4?,10?-trihydroxyguai-11(13)-en-12,6?-olide, 1), a new guaianolide isolated from the flower of Achillea millefolium, exhibited potential antiproliferative activity to A549, RERF-LC-kj and QG-90 cells with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 5.8, 10 and 0.31 µM, respectively. PMID:21821943
Li, Yong; Zhang, Man-Li; Cong, Bin; Wang, Si-Ming; Dong, Mei; Sauriol, Françoise; Huo, Chang-Hong; Shi, Qing-Wen; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Kiyota, Hiromasa
An ethanol extract ofAchillea millefolium L. showed repelling properties against the mosquito,Aedes aegypti L. Prepared fractions from the extract contained several active compounds which were characterized by thin layer chromatography,\\u000a high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Of 35 compounds tested, the most active\\u000a were the nitrogen containing compound stachydrine, the carboxylic acids, caffeic, chlorogenic, and salicylic acids,
H. Tunón; W. Thorsell; L. Bohlin
The Achillea genus is one of the widely used genera to treat various medical ailments. In this study, gas chromatography (GS) and Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) were used to determine the essential oil composition of the A. millefolium L. Human skin fi broblasts (HSF) viability based on spectrophotometrical 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Neutral Red (NR) methods and morphological analysis was
Roman Paduch; Magdalena Nowak-Kryska; Piotr Niedziela; Martyna Kandefer-Szersze?
The component composition of the four species Achillea filipendulina, A. sudetica, A. ledebourii, and A. cartilaginea was studied by GC-MS. It was found that the principal components of the essential oil (%) were santolina alcohol (29.1) and\\u000a borneol (27.9) for A. filipendulina, linalool (11.8) and caryophyllene (8.9) for A. sudetica, germacrene D (20.55) for A. ledebourii, and ?-thujone (26.15) and
D. T. Sadyrbekov; E. M. Suleimenov; E. V. Tikhonova; G. A. Atazhanova; A. V. Tkachev; S. M. Adekenov
The chemical composition of the essential oil from flowering tops of Achillea millefolium L. isolated by different distillation methods was studied. Samples were hydrodistilled with Clevenger-type (HD), simultaneous micro-distillation-extraction (SMDE), and microwave (MAHD) apparatus. The yields were 0.46% ± 0.03 for the HD and 0.48% ± 0.03 for the MAHD (v\\/w, volume\\/dry weight). The oils were analyzed by GC and
Carlo I. G. Tuberoso; Adam Kowalczyk
Achillea millefolium L. s.l. is traditionally used not only in the treatment of gastro-intestinal and hepato-biliary disorders, but also as an antiphlogistic drug. As various proteases, for instance human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9), are associated with the inflammatory process, the aim of this study was to test a crude plant extract in in vitro-protease inhibition assays for understanding the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory action. Furthermore, two fractions enriched in flavonoids and dicaffeoylquinic acids (DCQAs), respectively, were also tested in order to evaluate their contribution to the antiphlogistic activity of the plant. The extract and the flavonoid fraction inhibited HNE showing IC(50) values of approximately 20 microg/ml, whereas the DCQA fraction was less active (IC(50)=72 microg/ml). The inhibitory activity on MMP-2 and -9 was observed at IC(50) values from 600 to 800 microg/ml, whereas the DCQA fraction showed stronger effects than the flavonoid fraction and the extract. In conclusion, the in vitro-antiphlogistic activity of Achillea is at least partly mediated by inhibition of HNE and MMP-2 and -9. After the recently described spasmolytic and choleretic effects the obtained results give further insights into the pharmacological activity of Achillea and confirm the traditional application as antiphlogistic drug. PMID:17689902
Benedek, Birgit; Kopp, Brigitte; Melzig, Matthias F
Achillea millefolium Linn. (Asteraceae) is used in folk medicine for the treatment of overactive cardiovascular and respiratory ailments. This study describes its hypotensive, cardio-depressant, vasodilatory and bronchodilatory activities. The crude extract of Achillea millefolium (Am.Cr) caused a dose-dependent (1-100?mg/kg) fall in arterial blood pressure of rats under anaesthesia. In spontaneously beating guinea-pig atrial tissues, Am.Cr exhibited negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. In isolated rabbit aortic rings, Am.Cr at 0.3-10?mg/mL relaxed phenylephrine (PE, 1?µm) and high K(+) (80?mm)-induced contractions, as well as suppressed the PE (1?µm) control peaks obtained in Ca(++) -free medium, like that caused by verapamil. The vasodilator effect of Am.Cr was partially blocked by N(?) -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester in endothelium intact preparations. In guinea-pig tracheal strips, Am.Cr inhibited carbachol (CCh, 1?µm) and K(+) -induced contractions. These results indicate that Achillea millefolium exhibits hypotensive, cardiovascular inhibitory and bronchodilatory effects, thus explaining its medicinal use in hyperactive cardiovascular and airway disorders, such as hypertension and asthma. PMID:20857434
Khan, Arif-ullah; Gilani, Anwarul Hasan
Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L. s.l.) is traditionally used in the treatment of inflammatory and spasmodic gastro-intestinal disorders, hepato-biliary complaints and inflammation. Now we could show that the flavonoids mediated the antispasmodic properties of yarrow, whereas the dicaffeoylquinic acids caused the choleretic effects. Moreover, we observed an in vitro-inhibition of human neutrophil elastase, a protease involved in the inflammatory process, by extracts and fractions from yarrow, which suggests additional mechanisms of antiphlogistic action. The presented results confirm the traditional use of yarrow. PMID:17704978
Benedek, Birgit; Kopp, Brigitte
Forty samples of inflorescences and leaves of Achillea millefolium ssp. millefolium with white flowers were collected in 21 habitats (1999 and 2000) in Lithuania. Essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. The volatile oils according to the cluster analysis were divided into four groups containing the same major constituents: I (four samples)—borneol (11.5–13.2%)+camphor (7.2–13.1%); II (four samples)—chamazulene (9.8–23.2%)+?-pinene (9.7–26.5%);
Danute Mockute; Asta Judzentiene
The essential oil obtained by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) from air-dried aerial parts of plant species Achillea millefolium L. yarrow was analyzed by capillary GC and GC\\/MS. Sixty-six components were identified. The major constituents in the oil extracts were ?-pinene (14.9–29.2%), sabinene (2.9–17.6%), 1,8-cineole (6.9–18.3%), ?-caryophyllene (3.3–6.2%), (E)-nerolidol (0.5–6.4%), guaiol (0.3–11.8%) and chamazulene (0.1–13.3%). The monoterpene fraction represented
Anne Orav; Tiiu Kailas; Kaire Ivask
\\u000a Zusammenfassung Die Schafgarbe (Achillea millefolium L. s.l.) wird traditionell bei krampfartigen und entzündlichen Magen-Darm-Erkrankungen, als Gallenmittel und äußerlich bei\\u000a Entzündungen eingesetzt. In neuesten Untersuchungen konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Flavonoide aus der Schafgarbe spasmolytisch\\u000a wirken, während die Dicaffeoylchinasäuren choleretisch aktiv sind. Außerdem wurde eine in vitro-Hemmung der humanen neutrophilen Elastase, einer am Entzündungsgeschehen beteiligten Protease, durch Extrakte und Fraktionen\\u000a aus der
Birgit Benedek; Brigitte Kopp
An FT-IR-based method for the rapid characterization and identification of Achillea species was developed. With the IR spectra of the CH2Cl2 extracts of A. aspleniifolia, A. collina, A. millefolium, A. millefolium ssp. sudetica, A. pannonica, A. pratensis, A. roseoalba, A. setacea, and A. styriaca, a spectrum library was created. This database allowed the identification of the respective taxa by comparison of IR spectra. Moreover, information concerning dominant structural elements of sesquiterpene constituents was obtained, providing hints about the composition of a plant sample of unknown origin. PMID:17193212
Werner, Ingrid; Glasl, Sabine; Reznicek, Gottfried
Several major phenolic constituents present in yarrow (Achillea millefolium L. s.l.) were determined for a homogenized plant sample. In order to optimize the conditions for sample preparation of the botanical matrix two different solvent extraction methods (maceration and ultrasonic agitation) were assayed. The preliminary maceration studies were performed to determine the influence of extracting solvents on the recovery of phenolics
Raimondas Benetis; Jolita Radušien?; Valdas Jakštas; Valdimaras Janulis; Faustas Malinauskas
The use of medicinal plants by the general population is an old and still widespread practice, which makes studies of their genotoxicity essential. Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L. are examples of plants commonly used in popular medicine. P. guajava L. is indicated for diarrhea and also as an antiseptic, while A. millefolium L. is indicated as an analgesic,
Rosangela de Oliveira Teixeira; Marjori Leiva Camparoto; Mário Sérgio Mantovani; Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini
Different species from the Achillea millefolium aggregate are used against gastrointestinal and hepato-biliary disorders in traditional European medicine. In this work, a fraction enriched in dicaffeoylquinic acids (DCCAs) and luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide was investigated on its choleretic effect in the isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL) compared to cynarin (1,3-DCCA), the main choleretic compound of Cynara scolymus L. A fraction containing 3,4-, 3,5- and 4,5-DCCA and luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide was prepared by solid phase extraction from a 20% methanolic extract of yarrow. A total amount of 48.8% DCCAs and 3.4% luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide was determined by HPLC analysis with cynarin as internal standard. IPRL experiments revealed a dose-dependant increase in bile flow (23-44-47%) by the Achillea fraction. Choleresis was two- to three-fold higher than that of cynarin. The combined effect of DCCAs and luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide stimulated bile flow more effectively than the single compound cynarin. Due to their polar structure, these compounds are quantitatively extracted into teas and tinctures; hence, they seem to be the choleretic active principles in the traditional application forms of yarrow. PMID:16303291
Benedek, B; Geisz, N; Jäger, W; Thalhammer, T; Kopp, B
Achillea millefolium L. sensu lato (yarrow) is the best-known species of the genus Achillea due to numerous medicinal applications both in folk and conventional medicine. Phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and phenol carbonic acids are present in yarrow and constitute one of the most important groups of pharmacologically active substances. In the present study, yarrow flowers gathered from native populations in different locations of Lithuania were analyzed for phenolic compound composition. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for chemical analyses. Eight phenolic compounds--chlorogenic acid and flavonoids, namely vicenin-2, luteolin-3',7-di-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, rutin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, and apigenin--were identified in the extracts from yarrow flowers. Considerable variation in accumulation of phenolic compounds among the flowers from different locations was observed. The samples were divided into two main groups based on chemical composition: the first group was characterized by lower than the mean total amount of the identified phenolics; the second was formed from samples accumulating higher concentrations of investigated secondary metabolites. The total amount of the identified phenolics in yarrow flowers from different populations varied from 13.290 to 27.947 mg/g. PMID:19001835
Benetis, Raimondas; Radusiene, Jolita; Janulis, Valdimaras
Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), popularly known as yarrow, has been used in folk medicine to treat complaints such as inflammation, pain, wounds, hemorrhages and gastrointestinal disturbances. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the aqueous extract (AE) of the plant after chronic exposure. Indeed, the AE was effective in protecting the gastric mucosa against acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol and indomethacin and in healing chronic gastric lesions induced by acetic acid with (ED(50)=32 mg/kg, p.o.). Safety studies were performed in female and male Wistar rats treated daily with AE (0.3-1.2 g/kg, p.o./day) or vehicle (water, 10 ml/kg/day) for 28 or 90 consecutive days. Satellite groups consisted of animals sacrificed 30 days after the end of these treatments. Clinical observations, body and organ weight measurements, gross autopsy, hematology, clinical biochemical and histopathological examinations were performed. Slight changes in liver weight, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and glucose were observed in male and female animals. These changes were not correlated with dose or time of exposure of the animals to the AE. Overall, the results show the antiulcer potential of the aerial parts of the Achillea millefolium which is accompanied by no signs of relevant toxicity even at very long chronic exposure. PMID:16647233
Cavalcanti, Ana Maria; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Freitas, Cristina Setim; Rieck, Lia; de Sousa, Renato Silva; Da Silva-Santos, José Eduardo; Mesia-Vela, Sonia; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade
Adaptive evolution is often associated with speciation. In plants, however, ecotypic differentiation is common within widespread species, suggesting that climatic and edaphic specialization can outpace cladogenesis and the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation. We used cpDNA sequence (5 noncoding regions, 3.5 kb) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs: 4 primer pairs, 1,013 loci) to evaluate the history of ecological differentiation in the North American Achillea millefolium, an autopolyploid complex of "ecological races" exhibiting morphological, physiological, and life-history adaptations to diverse environments. Phylogenetic analyses reveal North American A. millefolium to be a monophyletic group distinct from its European and Asian relatives. Based on patterns of sequence divergence, as well as fossil and paleoecological data, colonization of North America appears to have occurred via the Bering Land Bridge during the Pleistocene (1.8 MYA to 11,500 years ago). Population genetic analyses indicate negligible structure within North American A. millefolium associated with varietal identity, geographic distribution, or ploidy level. North American populations, moreover, exhibit the signature of demographic expansion. These results affirm the "ecotype" concept of the North American Achillea advocated by classical research and demonstrate the rapid rate of ecological differentiation that sometimes occurs in plants. PMID:18039326
Ramsey, Justin; Robertson, Alexander; Husband, Brian
Flavonoids represent an important bioactive component in Achillea millefolium. The comparison of the most commonly used analytical methods for the identification and quantification of flavonoids, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), is presented. The methods were optimized and validated. Using a 20 mM borate buffer with 30% (v/v) of methanol (pH 9.3) in the CE analysis and a gradient elution with water-acetonitrile mobile phase in the HPLC analysis, sufficient separation of the analytes was achieved. A relatively high injection volume in the CE analysis (30 mbar x 30s) enabled low limit of detection (LOD) (0.3-0.7 mg/L). Repeatability of both methods was acceptable (relative standard deviation of peak area were <6%). Additionally, the amount of flavonoids in a real sample of the dried herbal drug was determined. PMID:18164574
Kocevar, Nina; Glavac, Igor; Injac, Rade; Kreft, Samo
Achillea millefolium L. s.l. is a cytogenetically, morphologically, and chemically polymorphic aggregate. Besides the sesquiterpenes that possess chemotaxonomic relevance and mediate the antiphlogistic activity, the plant contains phenolic compounds such as dicaffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids causing choleretic and spasmolytic effects. To evaluate their contribution to the chemotaxonomy of European taxa of the A. millefolium group, we developed a SPE-HPLC/UV method that allows quantification of the phenolic constituents in the different taxa. The investigated species displayed differences in the quantitative and qualitative composition of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Hence, they seem to be of chemotaxonomic significance, especially for the distinction of the diploid taxa. Combining the obtained results with the data of the sesquiterpene analyses gives a comprehensive insight into the distribution of those pharmacologically relevant plant constituents in the A. millefolium group. PMID:17511000
Benedek, Birgit; Gjoncaj, Noela; Saukel, Johannes; Kopp, Brigitte
Achillea species are widely used for diarrhea, abdominal pain, stomachache and healing of wounds in folk medicine. To evaluate the wound healing activity of the plant, extracts were prepared with different solvents; hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively from the roots of Achillea biebersteinii. Linear incision by using tensiometer and circular excision wound models were employed on mice and rats. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with the standard skin ointment Madecassol. The n-hexane extract treated groups of animals showed 84.2% contraction, which was close to contraction value of the reference drug Madecassol (100%). On the other hand the same extract on incision wound model demonstrated a significant increase (40.1%) in wound tensile strength as compared to other groups. The results of histoptological examination supported the outcome of linear incision and circular excision wound models as well. The experimental data demonstrated that A. biebersteinii displayed remarkable wound healing activity.
Akkol, Esra Kupeli; Koca, Ufuk; Pesin, Ipek; Yilmazer, Demet
The in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae) were investigated. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 36 compounds constituting 90.8% of the total oil. Eucalyptol, camphor, ?-terpineol, ?-pinene, and borneol were the principal components comprising 60.7% of the oil. The oil strongly
Ferda Candan; Mehmet Unlu; Bekta? Tepe; Dimitra Daferera; Moschos Polissiou; Atalay Sökmen; H. A?k?n Akpulat
Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982) at test concentrations of 1000 ?g/ml, 100 ?g/ml, 10 ?g/ml, 7.5 ?g/ml, 5.0 ?g/ml, 2.5 ?g/ml and 1.25 ?g/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA) and Teucrium stocksianum (CST) had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 ?g/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity) was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST) has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development.
The aim of this work was to study the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Achillea distans Waldst. et Kit. subsp. distans and Achillea distans Waldst. et Kit. subsp. alpina Rochel, from the Rodna Mountains (Romania). The identification and quantification of major phenolic compounds was performed by a HPLC-MS method. The total polyphenolic and flavonoid content was determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH bleaching method, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC), hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX) assay, and an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy method. A data indicated that A. distans subsp. alpina extract has more antioxidant activity than A. distans subsp. distans extract. Luteolin, apigenin, quercetin, caffeic and chlorogenic acids were present in the two extracts of A. distans, but in different amounts. Three flavonoids were detected only in A. distans subsp. alpina. The polyphenol-richer A. distans subsp. alpina extract showed a higher antioxidant activity than A. distans subsp. distans extract. A. distans subsp. distans extract showed inhibitory activity for Gram-positive bacteria, as evaluated with four species. The quantitative and qualitative differences between the two subspecies of Achillea distans could be used as a potential taxonomic marker in order to distinguish the species. PMID:23887715
Benedec, Daniela; Vlase, Laurian; Oniga, Ilioara; Mot, Augustin C; Damian, Grigore; Hanganu, Daniela; Duma, Mihaela; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu
An essential oil was recently extracted from the leaves and flowers of yarrow (Achillea millefolium) and tested for in-vitro activity against Leishmania amazonensis and murine macrophages (i.e. the J774G8 cell line). The median inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) against L. amazonensis promastigotes was 7.8 ?g/ml whereas the survival of amastigotes of this pathogen, within peritoneal murine macrophages, was halved by treatment with the oil at 6.5 ?g/ml. The mean value for the median cytotoxic concentration of the oil, measured against adherent (uninfected) J774G8 macrophages, was 72.0 ?g/ml (i.e. 9.2 and 11.0 times higher, respectively, than the IC(50) against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the oil caused morphological changes in the treated parasites, including alterations in their shape and size. In transmission electron microscopy, promastigotes treated with the oil (at the IC(50) of 7.8 ?g/ml) showed various ultrastructural alterations, including changes in the flagellar membrane, abnormal membrane structures, rupture of the plasma membrane, atypical vacuoles, myelin-like figures, and vesicles that resembled autophagic vacuoles. PMID:20863436
Santos, A O; Santin, A C; Yamaguchi, M U; Cortez, L E R; Ueda-Nakamura, T; Dias-Filho, B P; Nakamura, C V
Herbal based remedies are used worldwide to treat psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to analyse the essential oil composition of Achillea Wilhemsii C. Koch (Asteraceae) and to evaluate its anxiolytic effects in the elevated plus maze (EPM) model of anxiety in rat. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the essential oil showed that the main compounds of the oil were p-ocimen (23%), 1, 8-cineole (20.8%) and carvone (19.13%). The EPM results showed that 1 mg/kg (i.p.) of the oil significantly (P<0.05) increased the percentage of the time spent and the number of entries in the open arms of the maze while it did not change the total number of entries in the maze arms. These effects were not reversed with 2 mg/kg flumazenil and 5 mg/kg naloxone. We concluded that a minimum dose of 1 mg/kg of the oil has anxiolytic effects which are not probably mediated through GABA and opioid receptors.
Majnooni, M. B.; Mohammadi-Farani, A.; Gholivand, M. B.; Nikbakht, M. R.; Bahrami, G. R.
Variations in the essential oil composition of Achillea millefolium L. growing in Estonia and in other European countries, were determined. The oils were obtained in yields of 0.9-9.5 mL kg-1. A total of 102 components were identified. The quantitatively most important components of yarrow were sabinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineole, artemisia ketone, linalool, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone, camphor, borneol, fenchyl acetate, bornyl acetate, (E)-beta-caryophyllene, germacrene D, caryophyllene oxide, beta-bisabolol, delta-cadinol, chamazulene etc. Samples from Estonia contained high amounts of monoterpenes and chamazulene. High amounts of monoterpenes and chamazulene were also found in samples from Hungary, Greek, Moldavia, Latvia, Lithuania and Germany. The oils from France, Belgium, Russia, Armenia, Spain and Italy were rich in oxygenated monoterpenes and contained a little amount of chamazulene. The drugs from Greece, Estonia, Moldavia and Scotland were rich in sesquiterpenes. The Millefolii herba grown in Estonia conforms to the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) standards in the aspect of the essential oil contents. PMID:17127661
Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar; Raal, Ain
Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L. s.l.) is traditionally used against inflammatory and spasmodic gastrointestinal complaints, hepato-biliary disorders, as an appetite enhancing drug, against skin inflammations and for wound healing due to its antiphlogistic, choleretic and spasmolytic properties. The main pharmacologically active principles were shown to be the essential oil (antimicrobial), proazulenes and other sesquiterpene lactones (antiphlogistic), dicaffeoylquinic acids (choleretic) and flavonoids (antispasmodic). In order to assess the pharmaceutical quality of the drug we evaluated the content of these bioactive compounds in 40 commercial drug samples. The essential oil and the proazulenes were analysed according to the European Pharmacopoeia, whereas the content of dicaffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids was determined by solid phase extraction (SPE)-HPLC. This comprehensive survey revealed that the quality of the drug material was very heterogenous, and only 50% of the samples met the standards of the European Pharmacopoeia. Moreover, this study gives information about the content of phenolic compounds in the drug and allowed to establish tentative reference values which may be used as additional parameters in the quality control of the drug. PMID:18271298
Benedek, B; Rothwangl-Wiltschnigg, K; Rozema, E; Gjoncaj, N; Reznicek, G; Jurenitsch, J; Kopp, B; Glasl, S
The essential oil of Achillea millefolium is commonly used in folk medicine for the treatment of several diseases and has been demonstrated previously to exert an in vitro antimicrobial activity against human pathogens. Current study investigates the genotoxic activity of A. millefolium oil. The oil's major constituents are: chamazulene (42.15%), sabinene (19.72%), terpin-4-ol (5.22%), beta-caryophyllene (4.44%) and eucalyptol (3.10%), comprising 74.63% of the total. The oil's genotoxic evaluation was performed at concentrations of 0.13 microL/mL, 0.19 microL/mL and 0.25 microL/mL with a heterozygous diploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans, named A757//UT448, with green conidia. A statistically significant increasing number of yellow and white mitotic recombinants, per colony, of the diploid strain was reported after oil treatment with 0.19 microL/mL and 0.25 microL/mL concentrations. The genotoxicity of the oil was associated with the induction of mitotic non-disjunction or crossing-over by oil. PMID:18803228
de Sant'anna, Juliane Rocha; Franco, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva; Miyamoto, Claudia Tiemi; Cunico, Miriam Machado; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes; Côcco, Lílian Cristina; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; Junior, Cirino Corrêa; de Castro-Prado, Marialba Avezum Alves
Four Achillea species, A. millefolium, A. nobilis, A. eriophora and A. biebersteinii, were grown in small field plots in Iran and harvested at four developmental stages: vegetative, at the appearance of the first flower heads, at full flowering, and at late flowering. The composition of the main volatile compounds in dichloromethane extracts and the essential oil obtained by microdistillation was established by GC/MS and GC. 1,8-Cineole (27-41%) was the main compound in the oils from A. millefolium and A. biebersteinii. These two species reached the highest amount of volatile compounds at the full blooming stage. alpha-Thujone was the main compound in A. nobilis oil (25-64%). Fully blooming plants of this species also had a high proportion of artemisia ketone (up to 40%) in the oil. The main oil compounds of A. eriophora were camphor (about 35%) and 1,8-cineol (about 30%). This species produces only a small number of flower heads and the composition of the essential oil did not change during development. PMID:20334145
Azizi, Majid; Chizzola, Remigius; Ghani, Askar; Oroojalian, Fatemeh
The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of Achillea ligustica essential oils against several oral microorganisms in comparison with a commercial essential oil-containing mouthrinse (Listerine(®)) and clove oil (containing 89% eugenol). The inhibition efficacy of A. ligustica essential oils alone and in combination with Listerine(®) was evaluated by the micro-dilution method. The most susceptible microorganisms were Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Candida albicans. The efficacy was similar to that of the clove oil. The antiseptic mouthwash Listerine(®) did not exert a strong inhibition on microbial strains tested, whereas its effectiveness increased significantly when essential oil was added. The study provides additional evidence for the in vitro inhibitory activity of A. ligustica essential oils on several pathogens, suggesting their usefulness in mouthrinse formulations as an adjunct to mechanical oral hygiene regimens. Essential oil-containing mouthrinses can be beneficial, safe components of daily oral health routines, representing an efficient and without side effect alternative to prevent and control oral infections. PMID:22253099
Cecchini, Cinzia; Silvi, Stefania; Cresci, Alberto; Piciotti, Andrea; Caprioli, Giovanni; Papa, Fabrizio; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo
Achillea species are widely used in folk medicine for treatment of inflammatory diseases. The inhibitory effect on the human neutrophils respiratory burst activity of total extracts, their fractions and some main constituents of the flower heads from Achillea asplenifolia, A. collina and A. distans belonging to A. millefolium complex of Bulgarian origin, were tested by the modified method of Tan and Berridge. Seven from the investigated fractions showed activity similar or higher than that of indomethacine and might be evaluated as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:17691054
Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Jalil, Saima; Todorova, M; Trendafilova, A; Mikhova, B; Duddeck, H; Atta-ur-Rahman
A methanol extract ofAchillea millefolium L. showed activity against 24-hr-old larvae ofAedes triseriatus. Bioassay- and TLC-monitored fractionation yielded a neutral fraction which was refined further by column chromatography to afford the antilarvalN-(2-methlpropyl)-(E,E)-2,4-decadienamide which was identified by spectral methods and through comparisons with a synthesized sample. Isolated and synthesized amides at 5 ppm resulted in 98 and 100% mortality of 24-hr-oldA.
R. T. Lalonde; C. F. Wong; S. J. Hofstead; C. D. Morris; L. C. Gardner
In this study, flowering aerial parts of wild Achillea millefolium growing on the Mediterranean coast (Sardinia Island, Italy) and on the Atlantic coast (Portugal- Serra de Montemuro) were used as a matrix for supercritical extraction of volatile oil with CO2 (SFE). The collected extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods and their composition were compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation. A strong chemical variability in essential oils depending on the origin of the samples was observed. The results showed the presence of two type oils. The Italian volatile extracts (SFE and essential oil) are predominantly composed by alpha-asarone (25.6-33.3%, in the SFE extract and in the HD oil, respectively), beta-bisabolene (27.3-16.6%) and alpha-pinene (10.0-17.0%); whereas the main components of the Portuguese extracts are trans-thujone (31.4-29.0%), trans-crhysanthenyl acetate (19.8-15.8%) and beta-pinene (1.2-11.1%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guillermondii, C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. verrucosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and A. flavus. The oils showed the highest activity against dermatophyte strains, with MIC values ranging from 0.32-1.25 microL mL(-1). PMID:22164800
Falconieri, Danilo; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Marongiu, Bruno; Gonçalves, Maria J; Cabral, Célia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia
Achillea millefolium or yarrow, a native plant in many countries, has been recognized in historical medicine, mainly because of its astringent effects. However, some aspects of the toxicity of yarrow such as possible effects on male reproductive system are not well established. In this investigation, the effects of A. millefolium L. extract on spermatogenesis in adult male wistar rats were studied. Eighty-five male Wistar rats were divided into nine experimental groups (10 in each group except the ninth group). Extract was administered at the dose of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day by intraperitoneal (IP) injection or through gavage for 22 days, on every other day. Three groups were determined as sham and control groups. Five rats from each group were killed and the rest of the rats were kept for 40 days later, but with no injection, to assess the reversibility of extract effect on spermatogenesis. The results of the study showed scattered immature cells on basal membrane in seminiferous tubules at the dose of 400 mg/kg/day IP. Moreover, a significant decrease in cell accumulation and vacuolization in seminiferous tubule was seen. At the dose of 800 mg/kg, IP, thickened seminiferous tubules on basal membrane, decrease in cell accumulation in seminiferous tubule, severe disarrangement, degenerative cells and severe decrease in sperm count were seen. At the dose of 800 mg/kg/day, orally, basal membrane was thickened and the disarrangement in cells was demonstrated. As a conclusion, our results suggest that the total extract of A. millefolium L. exhibit temporary antifertile activity in adult male animals. PMID:20515984
Takzare, Nasrin; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Hamideh Mortazavi, Seyedeh; Safaie, Sahar; Moradi, Rayhaneh
Trypanocidal activity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) essential oils and some of their constituents (eugenol and linalool) was investigated on Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote and bloodstream trypomastigote forms. Steam distillation was used to isolate the essential oils, with chemical analyses performed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS).
Giani F. Santoro; Maria G. Cardoso; Luiz Gustavo L. Guimarães; Lidiany Z. Mendonça; Maurilio J. Soares
Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) and 3 cryptogamic epiphytes were collected from and transplanted to 10 various locations in Denmark. The spatial and temporal variation in Pb and Cd concentrations of yarrow leaves and the cryptogams were determined. The physical structure of the plant parts, the mobility differences between the metals and the atmospheric fallout of metals at the growing site
Ib Johnsen; Kim Pilegaard; Erik Nymand
Yarrow Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), is a perennial herb highly recognized in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory properties. However, studies on molecular mechanisms underlying these properties are scarce. The present work focuses on examining the effect of aqueous extract of A. millefolium L. inflorescences on the inflammatory responses of RAW 264.7 macrophages challenged with LPS. Applied at a concentration range
David R. Burk; Zbigniew A. Cichacz; Sasha M. Daskalova
The antiproliferative activities of n-hexane, chloroform, aqueous-methanol and aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of the Achillea millefolium aggregate on three human tumour cell lines were investigated by means of MTT assays. The chloroform-soluble extract exerted high tumour cell proliferation inhibitory activities on HeLa and MCF-7 cells, and a moderate effect on A431 cells; accordingly, it was subjected to detailed bioactivity-guided fractionation. As a result of the multistep chromatographic purifications (VLC, CPC, PLC, gel filtration), five flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, centaureidin, casticin and artemetin) and five sesquiterpenoids (paulitin, isopaulitin, psilostachyin C, desacetylmatricarin and sintenin) were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. The antiproliferative assay demonstrated that centaureidin is the most effective constituent of the aerial parts of yarrow: high cell growth inhibitory activities were observed especially on HeLa (IC(50) 0.0819 microm) and MCF-7 (IC(50) 0.1250 microm) cells. Casticin and paulitin were also highly effective against all three tumour cell lines (IC(50) 1.286-4.76 microm), while apigenin, luteolin and isopaulitin proved to be moderately active (IC(50) 6.95-32.88 microm). Artemetin, psilostachyin C, desacetylmatricarin and sintenin did not display antiproliferative effects against these cell lines. This is the first report on the occurrence of seco-pseudoguaianolides (paulitin, isopaulitin and psilostachyin C) in the Achillea genus. PMID:19107850
Csupor-Löffler, Boglárka; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Zupkó, István; Réthy, Borbála; Falkay, George; Forgo, Peter; Hohmann, Judit
Many plant species are used for medicinal purposes without the knowledge of their possible toxic effect. The ethnopharmacologically renowned genus Achillea L. (Asteraceae) is even more troublesome in this respect since different taxa are believed to have the same beneficial properties as A. millefolium. According to the median lethal i.p. dose (LD(50)=853 mg/kg, mice), the volatiles of Achillea umbellata Sibth. et Sm. are more toxic than the thujone-containing essential oils (LD(50)>960 mg/kg). A GC-MS analysis of A. umbellata oil revealed the presence of a series of fragranyl esters (six new natural products). The major constituents of this oil, the rare monoterpene alcohol fragranol and fragranyl acetate, and one more ester (benzoate), as well as the oil itself, showed antianxiety, analgesic and, in some instances, paralyzing properties at 50-150 mg/kg but these are very likely sign of intoxication and not of possible beneficial effects of the plant volatiles. Testing of antimicrobial activity demonstrated that the oil possesses moderate activity against pathogenic microorganisms, but the effect of the oil differs in pro- and eukaryotic cells. According to the results obtained, fragranol may be considered as the main active principle responsible for the observed activity/toxicity. PMID:22449535
Radulovi?, Niko S; Deki?, Milan S; Ran?elovi?, Pavle J; Stojanovi?, Nikola M; Zarubica, Aleksandra R; Stojanovi?-Radi?, Zorica Z
Traditional uses of Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) include the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we used anesthetized rats to assess the hypotensive effect of a hydroethanolic extract (HEAM), and its dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), butanolic (BT), and dichloromethane-2 (DCM-2) fractions, besides the flavonoid artemetin, isolated from A. millefolium. The oral administration of HEAM (100-300 mg/kg), DCM (20mg/kg), DCM-2 (10-30 mg/kg), but not EA (10 mg/kg) and BT (50 mg/kg) fractions significantly reduced the mean arterial pressure (MAP) of normotensive rats. The phytochemical analysis by NMR (1)H of DCM and DCM-2 fractions revealed high amounts of artemetin, that was isolated and administered by either oral (1.5 mg/kg) or intravenous (0.15-1.5 mg/kg) routes in rats. This flavonoid was able to dose-dependently reduce the MAP, up to 11.47 ± 1.5 mmHg (1.5 mg/kg, i.v.). To investigate if artemetin-induced hypotension was related to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, we evaluated the influence of this flavonoid on the vascular effects of both angiotensin I and bradykinin. Intravenous injection of artemetin (0.75 mg/kg) significantly reduced the hypertensive response to angiotensin I while increased the average length of bradykinin-induced hypotension. Artemetin (1.5 mg/kg, p.o.) was also able to reduce plasma (about 37%) and vascular (up to 63%) ACE activity in vitro, compared to control group. On the other hand, artemetin did not change angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Our study is the first showing the hypotensive effects induced by the extract and fractions obtained from A. millefollium. In addition, our results disclosed that this effect may be, at least in part, associated with high levels of artemetin and its ability to decrease angiotensin II generation in vivo, by ACE inhibition. PMID:21420289
de Souza, Priscila; Gasparotto, Arquimedes; Crestani, Sandra; Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade; da Silva-Santos, José Eduardo; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite
We used GC\\/MS to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of wild Achillea plants native to Yugoslavia: Achillea millefolium L. ssp. pannonica (Scheele) Hayak, A. crithmifolia W. et K., A. serbica Nym. and A. tanacetifolia All. Seventy-four components were identified. All four oils contained camphor (4–16%), 1,8-cineole (6–23%) and borneol (4–16%). In addition, artemisia ketone (4%) was found
Jean-Claude Chalchat; M. S. Gorunovic; S. D. Petrovic
The crude extract of Achillea millefolium (Am.Cr) was studied for its possible hepatoprotective effect against d-galactosamine (d-GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced hepatitis in mice and antispasmodic effect in isolated gut preparations to rationalize some of the folklore uses. Co-administration of d-GalN (700 mg/kg) and LPS (25 microg/kg) produced 100% mortality in mice. Pre-treatment of animals with Am.Cr (300 mg/kg) reduced the mortality to 40%. Co-administration of d-GalN (700 mg/kg) and LPS (1 microg/kg) significantly raised the plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels compared with values in the control group (p < 0.05). Pre-treatment of mice with Am.Cr (150-600 mg/kg) significantly prevented the toxins induced rise in plasma ALT and AST (p < 0.05). The hepatoprotective effect of Am.Cr was further verified by histopathology of the liver, which showed improved architecture, absence of parenchymal congestion, decreased cellular swelling and apoptotic cells, compared with the toxin group of animals. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, Am.Cr caused a concentration-dependent (0.3-10 mg/mL) relaxation of both spontaneous and K(+)-induced contractions as well as shifting the Ca(++) concentration-response curves (CRCs) to the right, similar to that caused by verapamil. These results indicate that the crude extract of Achillea millefolium exhibits a hepatoprotective effect, which may be partly attributed to its observed calcium channel blocking activity. PMID:16619341
Yaeesh, Sheikh; Jamal, Qamar; Khan, Arif-Ullah; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan
Medicinal plants play a crucial role in traditional medicine and in the maintenance of human health worldwide. Sesquiterpene lactones represent an interesting group of plant-derived compounds that are currently being tested as lead drugs in cancer clinical trials. Achillea falcata is a medicinal plant indigenous to the Middle Eastern region and belongs to the Asteraceae family, which is known to be rich in sesquiterpene lactones. We subjected Achillea falcata extracts to bioassay-guided fractionation against the growth of HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells and identified four secotanapartholides, namely 3-?-methoxy-isosecotanapartholide (1), isosecotanapartholide (2), tanaphallin (3), and 8-hydroxy-3-methoxyisosecotanapartholide (4). Three highly oxygenated guaianolides were isolated for the first time from Achillea falcata, namely rupin A (5), chrysartemin B (6), and 1?, 2?-epoxy-3?,4?,10?-trihydroxyguaian-6?,12-olide (7). These sesquiterpene lactones showed no or minor cytotoxicity while exhibiting promising anticancer effects against HCT-116 cells. Further structure-activity relationship studies related the bioactivity of the tested compounds to their skeleton, their lipophilicity, and to the type of functional groups neighboring the main alkylating center of the molecule. PMID:23860275
Tohme, Rita; Al Aaraj, Lamis; Ghaddar, Tarek; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala; Saliba, Najat A; Darwiche, Nadine
In this study, an attempt was made to identify an effective phosphate solubilizing bacteria from pesticide polluted field soil. Based on the formation of solubilization halo on Pikovskaya's agar, six isolates were selected and screened for pesticide tolerance and phosphate (P) solubilization ability through liquid assay. The results showed that only one strain (SGRAJ09) obtained from Achillea clavennae was found to tolerate maximum level of the pesticides tested and it was phylogenetically identified as Pseudomonas sp. It possessed a wide range of pesticide tolerance, ranging from 117 ?g mL(-1) for alphamethrin to 2,600 ?g mL(-1) for endosulfan. The available P concentrations increased with the maximum and double the maximum dose of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, respectively. On subjected to FT-IR and HPLC analysis, the presence of organic acids functional group in the culture broth and the production of gluconic acid as dominant acid aiding the P solubilization were identified. On comparison with control broth, monocrotophos and imidacloprid added culture broth showed quantitatively high organic acids production. In addition to gluconic acid production, citric and acetic acids were also observed in the pesticide amended broth. Furthermore, the Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 possessed all the plant growth promoting traits tested. In presence of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, its plant growth promoting activities were lower than that of the pesticides unamended treatment. PMID:23512438
Rajasankar, R; Manju Gayathry, G; Sathiavelu, A; Ramalingam, C; Saravanan, V S
Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) is a herbaceous species common in the Alpine region of Europe and used in folk medicine since antiquity. Its organs are rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, two subclasses of plant terpenoids with relevant ecological significance, which were reported as valuable markers for the traceability of mountain dairy products. The variability in chemical composition of yarrow germplasm may be related with its genetic diversity, accounting for possible differences in medical properties, and supporting its use as a specific territorial marker. Aim of this work was to assess the leaf chemical composition of 16 yarrow populations collected at altitudes exceeding 1600 m in three valleys of the Rhaetian Alps, Italy, and jointly evaluated in a lowland site. The most abundant compounds detected generally differed from those of the germplasm from other countries. A trend of valley-specific pattern of composition was evident. However, the variability among individual populations was even more remarkable, regardless of their valley of origin. The concentrations of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, and oxygenated sesquiterpenes discriminated the populations in multivariate analysis. A few prevailing chemotypes were characterized, which differed from those previously reported in the literature. The geographic isolation from other germplasms, and the local ecotypization, likely originated a chemically distinct gene pool. PMID:23081927
Pecetti, Luciano; Tava, Aldo; Romani, Massimo; Cecotti, Roberto; Mella, Mariella
The composition of the essential oils hydrodistilled from the aerial parts of five Achillea biebersteinii Afan samples, collected in central Turkey from Konya, Isparta and Ankara, were analyzed both by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eighty-four components were identified, representing 87 to 99% of the total oil composition. The identified major components were 1,8-cineole (9-37%), camphor (16-30%) and p-cymene (1-27%). Two samples differed in piperitone (11%) and ascaridol (4%) content. The five A. biebersteinii essential oils were subsequently evaluated for their antifungal activity against the strawberry anthracnose-causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides using the direct overlay bioautography assay. The essential oils showed no antifungal activity at 80 and 160 microg/spot. In addition, A. biebersteinii oils and their major compounds were subsequently investigated against Aedes aegypti first instar larvae in a high throughput bioassay. Among the oils, only one sample from Ankara showed a notable larvacidal effect on Ae. aegypti larvae. The major compounds, 1,8-cineole, camphor and p-cymene, exhibited low mosquito larval activity, and thus the minor compounds are probably responsible for the observed activity against Ae. aegypti larvae. The oils showed weak activity against adult Ae. aegypti. PMID:21615036
Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betül; Gürbüz, Ilhan; Demirci, Fatih; Becnel, James J; Wedge, David E; Ba?er, Kemal Hüsnü Can
The flowering plants are one of the most phenotypically varied and wide-ranging groups of organisms on earth, and yet, we\\u000a have limited understanding of the contribution of animal pollinators to the diversification of floral form. To explore the\\u000a interaction between variation in floral form and pollinator behavior, we observed the foraging behavior of bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) when presented with both
Christina R. OwenH; H. D. Bradshaw
Background Species complexes or aggregates consist of a set of closely related species often of different ploidy levels, whose relationships are difficult to reconstruct. The N Hemisphere Achillea millefolium aggregate exhibits complex morphological and genetic variation and a broad ecological amplitude. To understand its evolutionary history, we study sequence variation at two nuclear genes and three plastid loci across the natural distribution of this species complex and compare the patterns of such variations to the species tree inferred earlier from AFLP data. Results Among the diploid species of A. millefolium agg., gene trees of the two nuclear loci, ncpGS and SBP, and the combined plastid fragments are incongruent with each other and with the AFLP tree likely due to incomplete lineage sorting or secondary introgression. In spite of the large distributional range, no isolation by distance is found. Furthermore, there is evidence for intragenic recombination in the ncpGS gene. An analysis using a probabilistic model for population demographic history indicates large ancestral effective population sizes and short intervals between speciation events. Such a scenario explains the incongruence of the gene trees and species tree we observe. The relationships are particularly complex in the polyploid members of A. millefolium agg. Conclusions The present study indicates that the diploid members of A. millefolium agg. share a large part of their molecular genetic variation. The findings of little lineage sorting and lack of isolation by distance is likely due to short intervals between speciation events and close proximity of ancestral populations. While previous AFLP data provide species trees congruent with earlier morphological classification and phylogeographic considerations, the present sequence data are not suited to recover the relationships of diploid species in A. millefolium agg. For the polyploid taxa many hybrid links and introgression from the diploids are suggested.
Objective: To investigate one possible mechanism for the observed relaxant effect of A. millefolium (Achillea millefolium), in the present study the inhibitory effect of the extract of this plant on muscarinic receptors was examined. Materials and Methods: The effects of three concentrations of aqueous-ethanolic extract, 10 nM atropine, and saline on muscarinic receptors were tested in three conditions: In non incubated tracheal smooth muscle (group 1), tracheal chain incubated with propranolol and chlorpheniramine (group 2), and the one incubated with propranolol (group 3). Results: The EC50 obtained in the presence of all three concentrations of the extract were significantly higher compared to saline in groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.001and P < 0.01 in group 2 and 3 respectively). The EC50 obtained in the presence of all concentrations of the extract in group 2 were significantly improved compared to groups 1 and 3 (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). The maximum responses to methacholine in presence of only the higher concentration of the extract (0.8mg/ml) was significantly lower than that of saline in groups 1 (P < 0.05). There was neither significant difference between slopes of methacholine-response curves obtained in the presence of different concentrations of the extract and that of saline nor between the three groups. The values of (CR-1), obtained in the presence of all concentrations of the extract, were significantly lower compared to atropine in the first group but were not significantly different in other groups. The values of (CR-1) obtained in the presence of all concentrations of the extract were significantly improved in groups 2, compared to groups 1 and 3 (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). Conclusion: These results showed an inhibitory effect for the extract of A. millefolium on muscarinic receptors of tracheal smooth muscle. A histamine (H1) receptor blockade was also suggested for the extract.
Feizpour, Azadeh; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Byrami, Goltaj; Golamnezhad, Zahra; Shafei, Mohammad Naser
The spasmolytic activity of a flavonoid fraction of a commercial sample of yarrow (Achillea millefolium s.l.), its main flavonoids as well as quercetin and two flavonoid metabolites were investigated on isolated terminal guinea-pig ilea. The aglycones quercetin, luteolin and apigenin exhibited the highest antispasmodic activities with IC50 values of 7.8 micromol/L, 9.8 micromol/L and 12.5 micromol/L, respectively. Rutin and the flavonoid metabolites homoprotocatechuic acid and homovanillic acid showed no significant effects on contractility of the terminal ilea. From the results on the spasmolytic activity of the flavonoid fraction, the glycosides and the respective aglycones it is concluded that in tea prepared from yarrow the concentration of the flavonoids is high enough to exert a spasmolytic effect in the gut, which is mainly caused by blockade of the calcium inward current, but additionally also by mediator-antagonistic effects. PMID:17009839
Lemmens-Gruber, Rosa; Marchart, Elke; Rawnduzi, Pakiza; Engel, Nicole; Benedek, Birgit; Kopp, Brigitte
Trypanocidal activity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) essential oils and some of their constituents (eugenol and linalool) was investigated on Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote and bloodstream trypomastigote forms. Steam distillation was used to isolate the essential oils, with chemical analyses performed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The IC(50) (concentration that inhibits 50% parasite growth) of the oils and constituents upon T. cruzi was determined by cell counting in a Neubauer chamber. Cell morphology alterations were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Treatment with oils and constituents demonstrated that they inhibit parasite growth, with clove essential being the most effective one (IC(50)=99.5 microg/ml for epimastigotes and 57.5 microg/ml for trypomastigotes). Ultrastructural alterations were observed mainly in the nucleus. PMID:17349626
Santoro, Giani F; Cardoso, Maria G; Guimarães, Luiz Gustavo L; Mendonça, Lidiany Z; Soares, Maurilio J
The hydroalcohol extracts of Achillea millefolium L. (AM) and Artemisia vulgaris L. (AV), both belonging to the Asteraceae family, were evaluated by the hot plate, writhing, formalin and intestinal transit tests in an attempt to confirm their folk use as analgesic, antiinflammatory and antispasmodic agents. AM 500 and 1000 mg/kg significantly inhibited abdominal contortions by 65% and 23%, respectively, whereas AV 500 and 1000 mg/kg inhibited them by 48% and 59%, respectively. None of the extracts produced differences in the intestinal transit in mice, nor in the response time in the hot plate or in the immediate or late responses in the formalin test. In HPLC/DAD analyses 'fingerprint', monitored at 360 and 270 nm, both hydroalcohol extracts showed the same flavonoid glycoside as a principal constituent, which was identified as rutin. A high content of caffeic acid derivatives were also found in both extracts. The main differences were observed at 240 nm: AM had a higher content of rutin, while in AV the hydroxybenzoic acid derivative was the major component. PMID:18844327
Pires, Júlia Movilla; Mendes, Fúlvio R; Negri, Giuseppina; Duarte-Almeida, Joaquim M; Carlini, Elisaldo A
Achillea millefolium L. is a member of the Asteraceae family and has been used in folk medicine in many countries. In this study, 19 compounds in A. millefolium essential oil (AM-EO) have been identified; the major components are artemisia ketone (14.92%), camphor (11.64%), linalyl acetate (11.51%) and 1,8-cineole (10.15%). AM-EO can suppress the inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, including decreased levels of cellular nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion production, lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) concentration. This antioxidant activity is not a result of increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, but rather occurs as a result of the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, thus reducing the inflammatory response. Therefore, AM-EO can be utilized in many applications, including the treatment of inflammatory diseases in the future.
Chou, Su-Tze; Peng, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Jaw-Cherng; Lin, Chih-Chien; Shih, Ying
The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of two Achillea millefolium (Adanson) Koch s.l species essential oils (A. collina Becker ex Heimerl s.l. and A. pannonica Scheele, Asteraceae) originating from the Golija and Radan mountains (Serbia) were investigated. The chemical profiles of the essential oils were evaluated by GC-MS. Antioxidant activity was assessed as free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) towards 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radicals, together with effects on lipid peroxidation (LP). Antibacterial activity was examined on 21 bacterial strains. Based on the chemical composition of the essential oil, A. collina s.l. from Mount Golija was classified as a chamazulene chemotype (tetraploid). The high percentage of oxygenated monoterpenes and absence of azulene in the essential oil obtained from A. pannonica from Radan pointing that this population is octaploid. Essential oil of A. pannonica expressed stronger antimicrobial activity on almost all tested bacteria. Furthermore, this essential oil expressed higher scavenging effects on DPPH radical (IC(50) = 0.52 comparing to 0.62 mug/mL). Only in the LP evaluation, essential oil of A. collina s.l. from Golija exhibited stronger antioxidant activity (IC(50) = 0.75 comparing to 2.12 mug/mL). PMID:18830141
Bozin, Biljana; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Bogavac, Mirjana; Suvajdzic, Ljiljana; Simin, Natasa; Samojlik, Isidora; Couladis, Maria
Achillea millefolium L. is a member of the Asteraceae family and has been used in folk medicine in many countries. In this study, 19 compounds in A. millefolium essential oil (AM-EO) have been identified; the major components are artemisia ketone (14.92%), camphor (11.64%), linalyl acetate (11.51%) and 1,8-cineole (10.15%). AM-EO can suppress the inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, including decreased levels of cellular nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion production, lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) concentration. This antioxidant activity is not a result of increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, but rather occurs as a result of the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, thus reducing the inflammatory response. Therefore, AM-EO can be utilized in many applications, including the treatment of inflammatory diseases in the future. PMID:23797659
Chou, Su-Tze; Peng, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Jaw-Cherng; Lin, Chih-Chien; Shih, Ying
Insecticide activity of essential oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii against two stored product pests, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.
Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), ?-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC(50) values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC(50) = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC(50) = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994
Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad
Insecticide Activity of Essential Oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii Against Two Stored Product Pests, the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus
Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), ?-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC50 values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC50 = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC50 = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects.
Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad
Every species occupies a limited geographic area, but it remains unclear why traits that limit distribution do not evolve to allow range expansion. Hypotheses for the evolutionary stability of geographic ranges assume that species are maladapted at the range boundary and unfit beyond the current range, but this assumption has rarely been tested. To examine how fitness varies across species'
A. L. Angert; D. W. Schemske
1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic methods as well as by 2D-NMR studies and by selective 1D-NOE experiments. Besides apigenin, luteolin and centaureidin, ? -sitosterol, 3? -hydroxy-11?,13-dihydro-costunolide, desacetylmatricarin, leucodin, achillin, 8?-angeloxy-leucodin and 8?-angeloxy-achillin were isolated. Both latter substances are re- ported here for the first time. Their NMR data were compared with those of the other guaianolides. The stereochemistry of
Sabine Glasl; Pavel Mucaji; Ingrid Werner; Armin Presser; Johann Jurenitsch
...Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), common yarrow (Achillea millefolium), prairie lupine (Lupinus lepidus), and...Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), common yarrow (Achillea millefolium), prairie lupine (Lupinus lepidus), and...
The National Park Service (NPS) proposes to restore native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisii, WCT) in the East Fork Specimen Creek watershed in Yellowstone National Park (Yellowstone or park). By an Act of Congress on March 1, 1872, Y...
Subgrade serpentine substrates are exceptionally difficult to revegetate due to multiple limitations including low N, P, and\\u000a K, low Ca:Mg molar ratios, high levels of heavy metals including Ni, Cr, and Co, low organic matter, low CEC, and low water\\u000a holding capacity. To examine the influence of plant origin on the success of the revegetation of serpentine substrates, granite\\u000a and
Ryan E. O’Dell; Victor P. Claassen
The construction of hydroelectric facilities in the Columbia Basin resulted in the extirpation of anadromous fish stocks in Hangman Creek and its tributaries within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation. Thus, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss garideini), westslope cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii) and bull trout
Gerald I. Green; Coeur DAlene Tribe
Chromosomal rearrangements may directly cause hybrid sterility and can facilitate speciation by preserving local adaptation in the face of gene flow. We used comparative linkage mapping with shared gene-based markers to identify potential chromosomal rearrangements between the sister monkeyflowers Mimulus lewisii and Mimulus cardinalis, which are textbook examples of ecological speciation. We then remapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for floral traits and flowering time (premating isolation) and hybrid sterility (postzygotic isolation). We identified three major regions of recombination suppression in the M. lewisii × M. cardinalis hybrid map compared to a relatively collinear Mimulus parishii × M. lewisii map, consistent with a reciprocal translocation and two inversions specific to M. cardinalis. These inferences were supported by targeted intraspecific mapping, which also implied a M. lewisii-specific reciprocal translocation causing chromosomal pseudo-linkage in both hybrid mapping populations. Floral QTLs mapped in this study, along with previously mapped adaptive QTLs, were clustered in putatively rearranged regions. All QTLs for male sterility, including two underdominant loci, mapped to regions of recombination suppression. We argue that chromosomal rearrangements may have played an important role in generating and consolidating barriers to gene flow as natural selection drove the dramatic ecological and morphological divergence of these species. PMID:24033166
Fishman, Lila; Stathos, Angela; Beardsley, Paul M; Williams, Charles F; Hill, Jeffrey P
Historic introductions of nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss into the native habitats of cutthroat trout O. clarkii have impacted cutthroat trout populations through introgressive hybridization, creating challenges and concerns for cutthroat trout conservation. We examined the effects of rainbow trout introductions on the native westslope cutthroat trout O. c. lewisii within the Stehekin River drainage, North Cascades National Park, Washington,
Carl O. Ostberg; Rusty J. Rodriguez
The membrane-permeabilizing activities of mastoparans and related histamine-releasing agents were compared through measurements of K+ efflux from bacteria, erythrocytes, and mast cells. Changes in bacterial cell viability, hemolysis, and histamine release, as well as in the shape of erythrocytes were also investigated. The compounds tested were mastoparans (HR1, a mastoparan from Polistes jadwagae, and a mastoparan from Vespula lewisii), granuliberin
Satoshi Nakao; Keiko Komagoe; Tsuyoshi Inoue; Takashi Katsu
We describe the historical and current distributions and genetic status of westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisii (WCT) throughout its range in the western United States using data and expert opinion provided by fish managers. Westslope cutthroat trout historically occupied 90,800 km and currently occupy 54,600 km; however, these are probably underestimates due to the large-scale (1:100,000) mapping we used.
Bradley B. Shepard; Bruce E. May; Wendi Urie
Sinapis alba L., Lapsana communis L., Achillea millefolium L., Brassica napus L., Lactuca sativa L., and Lycopersicum esculentum L. were exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxy (2-/sup 14/C)acetic acid (2,4-D) at 10 micrograms liter-1 in artificial rain, pH 6.5 and 3.3. The 2,4-D was absorbed in all species tested. Concentrations of parent 2,4-D appeared at the highest level in Achillea (0.1 mg kg-1 dry wt), and at zero level in Lycopersicum. Twenty-one daily treatments at pH 6.5 for 30-min periods increased dry-matter concentrations in the leaves of Achillea and decreased those in Brassica. No change in dry-matter concentration was observed in the leaves of Brassica by seven daily treatments for 30-min periods at pH 3.3.
Arsenic, cadmium and lead were determined for quality control monitoring purposes of Bulgarian herbs and their infusions by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Twelve samples of yarrow (Achillea millefolium), 18 of chamomile (Flores Chamomillae), 8 of bearberry leaves (Folia uvae ursi), 24 of peppermint (Mentha piperitae folium), 10 of hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa), 14 of oregano
S. Arpadjan; G. Çelik; S. Ta?kesen; ?. Güçer
The antihyperglycemic effect of the Antidiabetis herbal preparation ((Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris), Millefollii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Morii folium (Morus nigra L.), Valeriane radix (Valleriana officinalis L.), Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L.)), patent
R. Petlevski; M. Hadžija; M. Slijep?evi?; D. Jureti?
The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. In addition, the possible synergistic effects when associated with antibiotics were studied. Extracts from the following plants were utilized: Achillea millifolium (yarrow), Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove), Melissa offficinalis (lemon-balm), Ocimun basilucum (basil), Psidium guajava (guava), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Salvia officinalis (sage), Syzygyum
Gislene G. F. Nascimento; Juliana Locatelli; Paulo C. Freitas; Giuliana L. Silva
Laboratory bioassays on insecticidal activity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from six Mediterranean plants (Achillea millefolium, Lavandula angustifolia, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare, Myrtus communis, and Rosmarinus officinalis) were carried out against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito Aedes albopictus. The chemical composition of the six EOs was also investigated. Results from applications showed that all tested oils had\\u000a insecticidal activity,
Barbara Conti; Angelo Canale; Alessandra Bertoli; Francesca Gozzini; Luisa Pistelli
Nella tendinopatia achillea rientrano una serie di patologie che coinvolgono il tendine d'Achille; sono frequenti negli sportivi ma possono insorgere anche in soggetti sedentari, favorite da un sempli- ce aumento ponderale. Al momento della diagnosi riabilitativa il medico può riscontrare fondamentalmente tre alterazioni patologi- che: una peritendinite, una entesite o una tendinosi, si presentano spesso associate tra di loro dando
A. ROCCO; G. TANCREDI; C. FOTI
Zinc toxicity thresholds for reclamation plants are largely unknown. As a result, ecological risk assessments often rely on\\u000a toxicity thresholds for agronomic species, which may differ from those of restoration species. Our objective was to provide\\u000a Zn toxicity thresholds for forb species that are commonly used in reclamation activities. We used a greenhouse screening study\\u000a where seedlings of yarrow (Achillea
Mark W. Paschke; Laura G. Perry; Edward F. Redente
The effects of two-year early season ozone exposure on physiological and biochemical stress response were investigated in model plant communities. Achillea millefolium and Veronica chamaedrys target plants were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Poa pratensis (phytometer) and exposed in open-top chambers over two years for five weeks to charcoal-filtered (CF) air plus 25 nl l(-1) O3 (control) and non-filtered (NF) air plus 50 nl l(-1) O3. Significant O3 effects were detected in different physiological and biochemical parameters, evidencing interspecific differences in metabolic stress responses and a strong influence of the competition factor. O3 induced strong oxidative effects in Achillea irrespective to the different growth modality. Veronica showed less O3-induced effects in monoculture than when grown in competition with the phytometer. Poa exhibited a different behaviour against O3 depending on the species in competition, showing an overall higher sensitivity to O3 when in mixture with Achillea. PMID:16321463
Scebba, Francesca; Canaccini, Francesca; Castagna, Antonella; Bender, Jürgen; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Ranieri, Annamaria
Early colonizing annual plants are rapidly suppressed in secondary succession on fertile midwestern old fields, while later colonizing perennials persist. Differences in competitive ability for above- and belowground resources may be partly responsible for differences in species persistence during succession, as both light and nutrient availability may change rapidly. We found that, although both above- and belowground competition suppress growth of colonizing plants, belowground competition was the dominant factor in the suppression of the annual Ambrosia artemisiifolia in 2nd-year-old fields near the W.K. Kellogg Biological Station in southwestern Michigan. Despite an ability to persist in later successional fields, seedling transplants of the perennial Achillea millefolium were also suppressed by above- and belowground competition, with belowground competition having the strongest effect. As in many old fields, nitrogen availability is the primary factor limiting plant productivity. There was no clear difference between the species in ability to compete for (15)N from an enriched patch, although there was an indication of greater precision of foraging by Achillea. Life history differences between these species and consequent differences in the phenology of root growth relative to other old-field plants are likely to play a large role in the persistence of Achillea in successional fields where Ambrosia is suppressed. PMID:20135162
Kosola, K R; Gross, K L
Historically, Hangman Creek produced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the Upper Columbia Basin Tribes. One weir, located at the mouth of Hangman Creek was reported to catch 1,000 salmon a day for a period of 30 days a year (Scholz et al. 1985). The current town of Tekoa, Washington, near the state border with Idaho, was the location of one of the principle anadromous fisheries for the Coeur d'Alene Tribe (Scholz et al. 1985). The construction, in 1909, of Little Falls Dam, which was not equipped with a fish passage system, blocked anadromous fish access to the Hangman Watershed. The fisheries were further removed with the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. As a result, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as Redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri), Westslope Cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii), Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and other terrestrial wildlife. Historically, Redband and Cutthroat trout comprised a great deal of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's diet (Power 1997).
Peters, Ronald; Kinkead, Bruce; Stanger, Mark
Two sister species of monkey flower are pollinated by different pollinators; this difference is a major factor in their reproductive isolation. One species Mimulus cardinalis has small red flowers with high nectar levels and is pollinated by hummingbirds while the other species, Mimulus lewisii, has large pink flowers with low levels of nectar and is pollinated by bumblebees. Although the mechanism of species maintenance is clear, what is less clear is the process that led to the speciation in the first place. We have developed an Excel spreadsheet that models the interaction of the two pollinators with monkeyflowers that have varying color and nectar production phenotypes. Users can specify: * the starting color and nectar genotypes of the population * the color and nectar preferences of the birds * the color and nectar preferences of the bees * the relative visitation rates of the birds and bees The spreadsheet then runs a standard Hardy-Weinberg simulation for 20 generations under the specified conditions and plots the results. This model follows the frequencies of the alleles in two "gene pools": the alleles carried by the bees and the alleles carried by the birds. At each generation, each pool is calculated, used to produce offspring, and the resulting offspring are then pooled.
Joyce Cadwallader (Saint-Mary-of-the-Woods College;); Brian White (University of Massachusetts;); Christine Tuaillon (Nassau Community College;)
A paradigm of evolutionary biology is that adaptation and reproductive isolation are caused by a nearly infinite number of mutations of individually small effect. Here, we test this hypothesis by investigating the genetic basis of pollinator discrimination in two closely related species of monkeyflowers that differ in their major pollinators. This system provides a unique opportunity to investigate the genetic architecture of adaptation and speciation because floral traits that confer pollinator specificity also contribute to premating reproductive isolation. We asked: (i) What floral traits cause pollinator discrimination among plant species? and (ii) What is the genetic basis of these traits? We examined these questions by using data obtained from a large-scale field experiment where genetic markers were employed to determine the genetic basis of pollinator visitation. Observations of F2 hybrids produced by crossing bee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii with hummingbird-pollinated Mimulus cardinalis revealed that bees preferred large flowers low in anthocyanin and carotenoid pigments, whereas hummingbirds favored nectar-rich flowers high in anthocyanins. An allele that increases petal carotenoid concentration reduced bee visitation by 80%, whereas an allele that increases nectar production doubled hummingbird visitation. These results suggest that genes of large effect on pollinator preference have contributed to floral evolution and premating reproductive isolation in these monkeyflowers. This work contributes to growing evidence that adaptation and reproductive isolation may often involve major genes.
Schemske, Douglas W.; Bradshaw, H. D.
Essential oils (EOs) of Achillea millefolium, Myrtus communis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare and Lavandula angustifolia were analysed with GC-FID and GC-MS in order to define their aromatic profiles and then their toxicity and repellent activity against Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera Dryophthoridae) with specific bioassays were evaluated. Results from topical applications on insects showed that all EOs had variable and significant insecticidal activity. Mortality rate never exceeded 76%. Results of repellency tests are indicated for M. communis and L. angustifolia EOs, displaying high repellent activity to S. zeamais adults. PMID:21861644
Bertoli, Alessandra; Conti, Barbara; Mazzoni, Valerio; Meini, Laura; Pistelli, Luisa
In an extensive ethnobotanical survey (130 informants) of the medicinal plants of Israel, 16 species were found to be used for hypoglycaemic treatments. The list includes Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch.-Bip, Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam, Atriplex halimus L., Capparis spinosa L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Cleome droserifolia (Forssk.) Del., Eryngium creticum Lam., Inula viscosa (L.) Ait., Matricaria aurea (Loefl.) Sch.-Bip, Origanum syriaca L., Paronychia argentea Lam, Prosopis farcta (Banks et Sol.) Macbride, Salvia fruticosa Mill., Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Sp., and Teucrium polium L.; eight of them (marked with an asterisk) are first recorded here as used for this purpose. PMID:3613607
Yaniv, Z; Dafni, A; Friedman, J; Palevitch, D
Historic introductions of nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss into the native habitats of cutthroat trout O. clarkii have impacted cutthroat trout populations through introgressive hybridization, creating challenges and concerns for cutthroat trout conservation. We examined the effects of rainbow trout introductions on the native westslope cutthroat trout O. c. lewisii within the Stehekin River drainage, North Cascades National Park, Washington, by analyzing 1,763 salmonid DNA samples from 18 locations with nine diagnostic nuclear DNA markers and one diagnostic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker. Pure westslope cutthroat trout populations only occurred above upstream migration barriers in the Stehekin River and Park Creek. Two categories of rainbow trout admixture were observed: (1) less than 10% within the Stehekin River drainage above the Bridge Creek confluence and the middle and upper Bridge Creek drainage and (2) greater than 30% within the Stehekin River below the Bridge Creek confluence and in lower Bridge Creek. Hybrid indices and multilocus genotypes revealed an absence of rainbow trout and reduced hybrid diversity within the Stehekin River above the Bridge Creek confluence relative to hybrid diversity in the Stehekin River below the confluence and within lower Bridge Creek. Cytonuclear disequilibrium statistics revealed assortative mating between westslope cutthroat and rainbow trout but not among hybrids within the same locations. This suggests that a randomly mating hybrid swarm does not currently exist. However, continual migration of parental genotypes into the study location could also create significant cytonuclear disequilibria. The Stehekin River represents a novel and unique example of a dynamic hybridization zone where the invasion of rainbow trout alleles into the Stehekin River westslope cutthroat trout population above the Bridge Creek confluence appears to be impeded, suggesting that divergent ecological or evolutionary mechanisms promote the population structure within the Stehekin River drainage, depending upon location.
Ostberg, C. O.; Rodriguez, R. J.
Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera helix and Alchemilla vulgaris are fed for retained placenta. Conclusion Some of the plants showing high levels of validity were Hedera helix for retained placenta and Euphrasia officinalis for eye problems. Plants with high validity for wounds and injuries included Hypericum perforatum, Malva parviflora and Prunella vulgaris. Treatments with high validity against endoparasites included those with Juniperus communis and Pinus ponderosa. Anxiety and pain are well treated with Melissa officinalis and Nepeta caesarea.
Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard; Boepple, Willi
Trace and major elements were determined in medicinal herbs (Cynara scolymus, Matricaria chamomilla, Artemisia absinthium L., Achillea millefolium, and Inula britannica) as well as in rhizosphere soil samples. Based on the results obtained after microwave-acid-assisted digestion (nitric acid + hydrogen peroxide) and single-step extraction (ammonium acetate), the real and potential acidity and redox potential of the soils, uptake, mobility, and bioavailability of potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, nickel, chromium, lead, and cadmium are discussed. By calculating the bioconcentration factors and their deviation from the recommended values, elevated concentrations, were explained in terms of contamination and pollution. The concentrations measured in both plants and soil samples were below maximum allowable concentration ranges considered for the European Union. PMID:18408895
Razi?, Slavica; Dogo, Svetlana; Slavkovi?, Latinka
The California Academy of Sciences's (CAS) Botany Department hosts this interesting and beautiful site on California's wildflowers. Spectacular color photographs of over 125 species of wildflowers serve as illustrations to this electronic field guide. Users may browse species by flower color (white through brown), common name (Alpine Lily to Yerba Mansa), latin name (Achillea millefolium to Zigadenus fremontii), or family name (Alismataceae through Violaceae). Additionally, floristic regions are provided in a color-coded map of California. For each species, the taxonomic identity (common, Latin, and family names), a description, photographs, and distribution information are provided. Educators and students of botany will find this site particularly useful; others will want to go see California in bloom.
The extracts obtained by 80% EtOH from some Asteraceae plants (Calendula officinalis, Inula helenium, Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium and Achillea millefolium) were studied. Rosmarinic acid, one of the main compounds identified in all extracts, was determined quantitatively by using HPLC. In addition, spectrophotometric methods were evaluated as an alternative for rosmarinic acid content determination. Total phenolic content was also established for all extracts. A. millefolium extract was found to have the highest content of rosmarinic acid as well as total phenols. All extracts were tested for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. A. millefolium was shown to possess the best antioxidant activity (for all tested methods) as well as acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Highly positive linear relationships were obtained between antioxidant/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and the determined rosmarinic acid content indicating its significance for the observed activities. PMID:23738456
Mekini?, Ivana Generali?; Burcul, Franko; Blazevi?, Ivica; Skroza, Danijela; Kerum, Daniela; Katalini?, Visnja
High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389
Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal
Three of the four major Anglo-Saxon collections reporting medicinal formulations in England from the 10th century, the Old English Herbarium, Bald's Leechbook and the Lacnunga, could contain leads and insights into new medicinal uses. Previous pharmacological studies of medicinal plants mentioned in Anglo-Saxon medical texts suggested that some were effective and led to the identification and isolation of natural compounds. For example, matricin from yarrow Achillea millefolium L., is a proprionic acid analogue that yields chamazulene carboxylic acid with cyclooxygenase-2 activity similar to that of ibuprofen. As we discuss here, multidisciplinary projects could further explore historical texts to discover additional plant metabolites with potential pharmacological applications. PMID:21782968
Watkins, Frances; Pendry, Barbara; Corcoran, Olivia; Sanchez-Medina, Alberto
High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time.
Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal
The community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonizing the roots of Festuca pratensis and Achillea millefolium was characterized in a Swedish pasture at different times, along a gradient of fertilization. The small subunit ribosomal RNA gene was subjected to PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The sequences found in this study clustered in 10 discrete sequence groups, seven belonging to Glomus, two to Scutellospora and one to Diversispora. A negative correlation was observed between soil mineral nitrogen and the number of AMF sequence groups in the roots. The frequency of occurrence of AMF in roots decreased dramatically between June and September. No plant-host specificity could be detected. PMID:16945098
Santos, Juan C; Finlay, Roger D; Tehler, Anders
In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791
We studied the mechanism of anti-tumor activity of the flavonoid Casticin, derived from Achillea millefolium. Casticin anti-tumor activity results in cell growth arrest in G2/M and in apoptotic death. As a tubulin-binding agent (TBA), Casticin induces p21, which in turn inhibits Cdk1. Moreover, Casticin appears to down regulate cyclin A. These observations could explain Casticin-induced G2/M arrest. Following Casticin exposure, Bcl-2 depletion occurs in cancer cells, and a sub-G1 accumulation occurs in the cell cycle. Moreover, following a transient transfection with Bcl-2, MN1 cells are resistant to Casticin. A number of features suggest that Casticin could be important in cancer therapy. Indeed, Pgp over expressing cells are not resistant to Casticin, and its cell killing effect is observed even in p53 mutant or null cell lines. PMID:16387422
Haïdara, Khadidja; Zamir, Lolita; Shi, Qui-Wen; Batist, Gerald
In this study the effects of some selected medical plants (Pimpinella anisum L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Achillea millefolium L., Acorus calamus L., Hypericum perforatum L.) on the development of Drosophila melanogaster have been investigated. When the different concentration of plant extracts were applied to the cultures of Drosophila melanogaster, they did not caused an elongation of metamorphosis of F1 progeny. Furthermore, depending on an increase of plant extract on the application groups, the number of offsprings increased. But this increasing (for application groups no. I, II and IV) was not statistically significant (p > 0.05) according to control group. The highest increase in the total number of offspring of F1 progeny obtained from applications of Acorus calamus extracts and the 10 mL/100 mL medium concentration of the extract of Hypericum perforatum. PMID:19086522
Uysal, Handan; Kara, Ay?e Aydan; Algur, Omer Faruk; Dumlupinar, Rahmi; Aydogan, Mehmet Nuri
The aim of this study was to explore the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition of several Icelandic medicinal herbs. Ethanolic extracts of Angelica archangelica seeds and the aerial parts of Geranium sylvaticum proved effective, with IC50 values of 2.20 mg/ml and 3.56 mg/ml, respectively. The activity of imperatorin and xanthotoxin from A. archangelica was measured. Xanthotoxin proved much more potent than imperatorin, with an IC50 value of 155 microg/ml (0.72 mM) but that for imperatorin was above 274 microg/ml (1.01 mM). However, furanocoumarins seem to have a minor part in the total activity of this extract. Synergistic interaction was observed between the extracts of A. archangelica and G. sylvaticum. Several medicinal herbs (Achillea millefolium, Filipendula ulmaria, Thymus praecox and Matricaria maritima) did not show AChE inhibitory activity. PMID:18069242
Sigurdsson, Steinthor; Gudbjarnason, Sigmundur
Aqueous extracts of nine plants, known to have medicinal activity, were tested for their toxicity against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleurodidae) compared to the toxicity of the insecticide, Imidacloprid. Extracts of Lepidiuim sativum L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) killed 71 % of early stage nymphs, which was not significantly different from mortality caused by Imidacloprid. Treatment of pupae with three plant extracts, L. sativum, Achillea biebersteinii L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), or Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb and Berthel (Fabales: Fabaceae) prevented adult development, and treatment with R. raetam extract killed adults, at levels that were not significantly different from Imidacloprid. None of the other plants showed significant toxicity. However extracts of four plants, Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), Galium longifolium (Sibth. and SM.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), R. raetam and Ballota undulata Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) had a repellent effect. PMID:19613450
Ateyyat, Mazen A; Al-Mazra'awi, Mohammad; Abu-Rjai, Talal; Shatnawi, Mohamad A
Aqueous extracts of nine plants, known to have medicinal activity, were tested for their toxicity against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleurodidae) compared to the toxicity of the insecticide, Imidacloprid. Extracts of Lepidiuim sativum L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) killed 71 % of early stage nymphs, which was not significantly different from mortality caused by Imidacloprid. Treatment of pupae with three plant extracts, L. sativum, Achillea biebersteinii L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), or Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb and Berthel (Fabales: Fabaceae) prevented adult development, and treatment with R. raetam extract killed adults, at levels that were not significantly different from Imidacloprid. None of the other plants showed significant toxicity. However extracts of four plants, Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), Galium longifolium (Sibth. and SM.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), R. raetam and Ballota undulata Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) had a repellent effect.
Ateyyat, Mazen A.; Al-Mazra'awi, Mohammad; Abu-Rjai, Talal; Shatnawi, Mohamad A.
HerbMed is "an interactive, electronic herbal database" that provides scientific and general information on the biochemical action of herbs. A project of the Alternative Medicine Foundation, Inc., HerbMed includes a searchable interface, as well as a manual option for browsing the HerbMed database by plant Genus. From Achillea (Yarrow) to Ziziphus (Jujube), the HerbMed database provides detailed information on each herb's biochemical action, the mechanism of action, and warnings for human health. Of special interest to researchers will be the hyperlinks to abstracts in PubMed (reviewed in the July 18, 1997 Scout Report), providing published evidence of the scientific information contained in this database. For researchers and educators alike, HerbMed promises to be a useful resource.
The construction of hydroelectric facilities in the Columbia Basin resulted in the extirpation of anadromous fish stocks in Hangman Creek and its tributaries within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation. Thus, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss garideini), westslope cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) as well as local wildlife populations. Additionally, the Tribe was forced to convert prime riparian habitat into agricultural lands to supply sustenance for their changed needs. Wildlife habitats within the portion of the Hangman Creek Watershed that lies within the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation have been degraded from a century of land management practices that include widespread conversion of native habitats to agricultural production and intensive silvicultural practices. Currently, wildlife and fish populations have been marginalized and water quality is significantly impaired. In the fall of 2000 the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Wildlife Program, in coordination with the Tribal Fisheries Program, submitted a proposal to begin addressing the degradations to functioning habitats within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation in the Hangman Watershed. That proposal led to the implementation of this project during BPA's FY2001 through FY2003 funding cycle. The project is intended to protect, restore and/or enhance priority riparian, wetland and upland areas within the headwaters of Hangman Creek and its tributaries in order to promote healthy self-sustaining fish and wildlife populations. A key goal of this project is the implementation of wildlife habitat protection efforts in a manner that also secures areas with the potential to provide stream and wetland habitats essential to native salmonid populations. This goal is critical in our efforts to address both resident fish and wildlife habitat needs in the Hangman Watershed. All proposed implementation activities are conducted in the headwaters of the system and are expected to prove beneficial to the natural functions of the entire Hangman Watershed. The following is the FY2001 annual report of Project activities and is submitted as partial fulfillment of Operation and Maintenance Task 2.a. The Objectives and Tasks for this first year were designed to position this Project for a long-term habitat restoration effort. As such, efforts were largely directed at information gathering and project orientation. The major task for this first year was development of a Habitat Prioritization Plan (attached) to guide implementation efforts by selecting areas that will be of greatest benefit to the native ecology. Completion of the first year tasks has positioned the project to move forward with implementing restoration activities using the latest information to accomplish the greatest possible results. The Project will be looking to implement on-the-ground protection and restoration efforts in the coming fiscal year using the data and information gathered in the last fiscal year. Continually refining our understanding of the natural watershed functions and fish and wildlife habitats within the Project Area will result in an increase in the efficiency of project implementation. Research and data gathering efforts will remain a strong emphasis in the coming fiscal year, as it will throughout the life of this Project.
Green, Gerald I.; Coeur D'Alene Tribe.
We have previously shown that the two sesquiterpene lactones, salograviolide A (Sal A) and iso-seco-tanapartholide (TNP), isolated from the Middle Eastern indigenous plants Centaurea ainetensis and Achillea falcata, respectively, possess selective antitumor properties. Here, we aimed to assess the anticancer effects of the separate compounds and their combination, study their potential to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and investigate their underlying antitumor mechanisms in human colon cancer cell lines. Cells were treated with Sal A and TNP alone or in combination, and cell viability, cell cycle profile, apoptosis, ROS generation and changes in protein expression were monitored. Sal A and TNP in combination caused 80% decrease in HCT-116 and DLD-1 cell viability versus only 25% reduction when the drugs were used separately. The antitumor mechanism involved triggering ROS-dependent apoptosis as well as disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further studies showed that apoptosis by the Sal A and TNP combination was caspase-independent and that ERK, JNK and p38 of the serine/threonine MAPKs signaling pathway were involved in the cell death mechanism. Taken together, our data suggest that the combination of Sal A and TNP may be of therapeutic interest against colon cancer. PMID:22976170
Salla, Mohamed; Fakhoury, Isabelle; Saliba, Najat; Darwiche, Nadine; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala
Chromosome evolution in flowering plants is often punctuated by polyploidy, genome duplication events that fundamentally alter DNA content, chromosome number, and gene dosage. Polyploidy confers postzygotic reproductive isolation and is thought to drive ecological divergence and range expansion. The adaptive value of polyploidy, however, remains uncertain; ecologists have traditionally relied on observational methods that cannot distinguish effects of polyploidy per se from genic differences that accumulate after genome duplication. Here I use an experimental approach to test how polyploidy mediates ecological divergence in Achillea borealis (Asteraceae), a widespread tetraploid plant with localized hexaploid populations. In coastal California, tetraploids and hexaploids occupy mesic grassland and xeric dune habitats, respectively. Using field transplant experiments with wild-collected plants, I show that hexaploids have a fivefold fitness advantage over tetraploids in dune habitats. Parallel experiments with neohexaploids--first-generation mutants screened from a tetraploid genetic background--reveal that a 70% fitness advantage is achieved via genome duplication per se. These results suggest that genome duplication transforms features of A. borealis in a manner that confers adaptation to a novel environment. PMID:21402904
Allotetraploid speciation, that is, the generation of a hybrid tetraploid species from two diploid species, and the long-term evolution of tetraploid populations and species are important in plants. We developed a population genetic model to infer population genetic parameters of tetraploid populations from data of the progenitor and descendant species. Two yarrow species, Achillea alpina-4x and A. wilsoniana-4x, arose by allotetraploidization from the diploid progenitors, A. acuminata-2x and A. asiatica-2x. Yet, the population genetic process has not been studied in detail. We applied the model to sequences of three nuclear genes in populations of the four yarrow species and compared their pattern of variability with that in four plastid regions. The plastid data indicated that the two tetraploid species probably originated from multiple independent allopolyploidization events and have accumulated many mutations since. With the nuclear data, we found a low rate of homeologous recombination or gene conversion and a reduction in diversity relative to the level of both diploid species combined. The present analysis with a novel probabilistic model suggests a genetic bottleneck during tetraploid speciation, that the two tetraploid species have a long evolutionary history, and that they have a small amount of genetic exchange between the homeologous genomes. PMID:23574432
Guo, Yan-Ping; Tong, Xiao-Yuan; Wang, Lan-Wei; Vogl, Claus
Interspecific plant competition has been hypothesized to alter effects of early-season ozone (O3) stress. A phytometer-based approach was utilized to investigate O3 effects on growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis grown in monoculture and in mixed cultures with four competitor-plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Rumex acetosa and Veronica chamaedrys). Mesocosms were exposed during April/May 2000-2002 to charcoal-filtered air+25 ppb O3 (control) or non-filtered air+50 ppb O3 (elevated O3). Biomass production was not affected by O3, but foliar injury symptoms were observed in May 2002. Early-season O3 exposure decreased relative food value of P. pratensis by an average of 8%, which is sufficient to have nutritional implications for its utilization by herbivores. However, forage quality response to O3 was not changed by interspecific competition. Lack of injury and nutritive quality response in P. pratensis harvested in September may reflect recovery from early-season O3 exposure. PMID:16290915
Bender, J; Muntifering, R B; Lin, J C; Weigel, H J
In grassland communities, plants can be classified as dominants or subordinates according to their relative abundances, but the factors controlling such distributions remain unclear. Here, we test whether the presence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices affects the competitiveness of two dominant (Taraxacum officinale and Agrostis capillaris) and two subordinate species (Prunella vulgaris and Achillea millefolium). Plants were grown in pots in the presence or absence of the fungus, in monoculture and in mixtures of both species groups with two and four species. In the absence of G. intraradices, dominants were clearly more competitive than subordinates. In inoculated pots, the fungus acted towards the parasitic end of the mutualism-parasitism continuum and had an overall negative effect on the growth of the plant species. However, the negative effects of the AM fungus were more pronounced on dominant species reducing the differences in competitiveness between dominant and subordinate species. The effects of G. intraradices varied with species composition highlighting the importance of plant community to mediate the effects of AM fungi. Dominant species were negatively affected from the AM fungus in mixtures, while subordinates grew identically with and without the fungus. Therefore, our findings predict that the plant dominance hierarchy may flatten out when dominant species are more reduced than subordinate species in an unfavourable AM fungal relationship (parasitism). PMID:23064770
Mariotte, Pierre; Meugnier, Claire; Johnson, David; Thébault, Aurélie; Spiegelberger, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre
The most important attention is paid to the search of natural antioxidants and their evaluation in medicinal and food raw materials of plant origin. A number of plants, their extracts, food products, and medicinal preparations appear to be the objects of scientific research. Effectiveness and informative character of research, undoubtedly, depend on relevance, sensitivity, and efficiency of the methods chosen. The aim of this work was to develop and validate the postcolumn high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-DPPH method as well as its application in the evaluation of antioxidant activity of known and unknown compounds scavenging free radicals and existing in medicinal plant raw materials. HPLC-separated compounds were identified at the wavelength of 275 nm, and then the mobile phase with analytes flowed through a mixing tee to the reaction coil, where DPPH reagent solution was supplied. The solution flow rate was 0.4 mL/min. The reaction coil was connected with UV/VIS type detector, which measured absorption of flowing solution at the wavelength of 520 nm. It was determined that vitexin rhamnoside, the dominant compound in the leaves of Crataegus monogyna, was not a significant radical scavenger. The most active antioxidant in the leaves and flowers of Crataegus monogyna was chlorogenic acid. The most active antioxidant in Origanum vulgare raw material was rosmarinic acid. Identified analytes in the extracts of Achillea millefolium that possessed radical-scavenging properties were chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, rutin, and luteolin. PMID:19535885
Raudonis, Raimondas; Jakstas, Valdas; Burdulis, Deividas; Benetis, Raimondas; Janulis, Valdimaras
Chromosome evolution in flowering plants is often punctuated by polyploidy, genome duplication events that fundamentally alter DNA content, chromosome number, and gene dosage. Polyploidy confers postzygotic reproductive isolation and is thought to drive ecological divergence and range expansion. The adaptive value of polyploidy, however, remains uncertain; ecologists have traditionally relied on observational methods that cannot distinguish effects of polyploidy per se from genic differences that accumulate after genome duplication. Here I use an experimental approach to test how polyploidy mediates ecological divergence in Achillea borealis (Asteraceae), a widespread tetraploid plant with localized hexaploid populations. In coastal California, tetraploids and hexaploids occupy mesic grassland and xeric dune habitats, respectively. Using field transplant experiments with wild-collected plants, I show that hexaploids have a fivefold fitness advantage over tetraploids in dune habitats. Parallel experiments with neohexaploids—first-generation mutants screened from a tetraploid genetic background—reveal that a 70% fitness advantage is achieved via genome duplication per se. These results suggest that genome duplication transforms features of A. borealis in a manner that confers adaptation to a novel environment.
Research conducted in 2003/2004 documented and validated (in a non-experimental way) ethnoveterinary medicines used by small-scale, organic livestock farmers in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Interviews were conducted with 60 participants who were organic farmers or holistic medicinal/veterinary practitioners. A workshop was held with selected participants to discuss the plant-based treatments. This paper reports on the medicinal plants used for fleas in cats and dogs. Fleas and flies are treated with Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae), Citrus x limon (L.), Juniperus communis L. var. depressa Pursh. (Cupressaceae), Lavandula officinalis L. (Labiatae), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), and Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don (Cupressaceae). All of the plants used have insecticidal activity. Ear problems are treated with Achillea millefolium L., Calendula officinalis L., and Helichrysum angustifolium (Roth.) G. Don. (Asteraceae), Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Berberis aquifolium Pursh./Mahonia aquifolium (Berberidaceae), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), Lobelia inflata L. (Campanulaceae), Matricaria recutita L., Melaleuca alternifolia L. (Myrtaceae), Origanum vulgare L. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry (Myrtaceae), Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae), and Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae). PMID:18563443
Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya
We investigated the antioxidant activity of methanolic and water extracts of Slovene accessions of four medicinal plant species (Salvia officinalis, Achillea millefolium, Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare and Gentiana lutea). Their free radical-scavenging activity against the DPPH. free radical was studied with a spectrophotometric assay, while their biological activity with the help of a laboratory-made biosensor based on immobilized fibroblast cells (assay duration: 3 min). The observed antioxidant activity of the extracts from the four investigated medicinal plant species was dependent on both the solvent used for extraction and the assay method (conventional or biosensor-based). Independently from the assay method and the solvent used for extraction, the lowest scavenging activity was observed in root extracts of G. lutea. Treatment of the immobilized cells with the plant extracts resulted in an increase of the cell membrane potential (membrane hyperpolarization), possibly due to the reduction of membrane damage due to oxidation. The novel cell biosensor could be utilized as a rapid, high throughput tool for screening the antioxidant properties of plant-derived compounds. PMID:20541883
Kintzios, Spiridon; Papageorgiou, Katerina; Yiakoumettis, Iakovos; Baricevic, Dea; Kusar, Anita
Ethnopharmacological relevance: This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on medicinal plant uses in the Zlatibor district, South-Western Serbia. Materials and methods: A survey was performed using questionnaires with 220 informants (mean age 47, 79% female, 21% male). In addition, the use value and the relative importance of species were determined and the informant consensus factor was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. Intended plants usage was compared with previous ethnobotanical literature, with reference to the neighboring areas of Zlatibor district. Results: The informants provided data for 69 medicinal plants belonging to 36 families. Rosaceae, Lamiaceae and Asteraceae were the predominant locally used families. The species with the highest use value were Mentha piperita, Matricaria chamomilla, Hypericum perforatum and Achillea millefolium. The most frequently reported medicinal uses were ones for treating gastrointestinal ailments, respiratory problems and skin diseases. Usually, the administration was primarily oral followed by topical applications. All different plant parts were utilized, however leaves were the most exploited parts of the plants. Conclusions: Folk medicine in South-Western Serbia, Zlatibor district is intended mainly as a mode of primary health care in healing of minor illnesses. The results indicate a slight reduction in the ethnobotanical and medical knowledge in this area, when compared with neighboring regions. PMID:23422337
Savikin, Katarina; Zduni?, Gordana; Menkovi?, Nebojša; Zivkovi?, Jelena; Cuji?, Nada; Tereš?enko, Milena; Bigovi?, Dubravka
Acute, subchronic and chronic effects of the P-9801091 plant mixture extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg body mass were assessed in serum of healthy CBA/HZg mice at 24 hours, 7 days, 3 months and 6 months of treatment (experimental group), and compared with the values obtained in the control group of untreated healthy CBA/HZg mice. The P-9801091 plant mixture extract is an antihyperglycemic preparation containing Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli fructus sine semine (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Millefolii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Mori folium (Morus nigra L.), Valerianae radix (Valeriana officinalis L.) and Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L). Toxic effect of the P-9801091 plant mixture extract was assessed by the following biochemical parameters: urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and cholesterol. Also, histopathological examination of the kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas, testes and lungs was performed. Results of biochemical testing performed at specified time points generally showed no statistically significant differences from control values, with the only exception of the catalytic concentration of AST in the experimental group measured on day 7, which was significantly increased as compared with the control group (p<0.05). Pathohistological examination including characteristic organ and tissue structure, and parenchyma relationship to the adjacent blood vessels and connective tissue in the examined organs revealed no major pathologic changes. PMID:18756913
Petlevski, Roberta; Hadzija, Mirko; Slijepcevi?, Milivoj; Jureti?, Dubravka
The hydroxycinnamates of the leaves of 12 plants of the Astreraceae family, Achillea millefolium, Arnica montana, Artemesia dracunculus, Cichorium intybus, Cnicus benedictus, Cynara scolymus, Echinops humilis, Inula helenium, Lactuca sativa, Petasites hybridus, Solidago virgaurea, and Tanacetum parthenium were investigated qualitatively by LC-MS(n). Thirty-nine chlorogenic acids were detected and all characterized to regioisomeric level on the basis of their fragmentation pattern in the tandem MS spectra, most of them for the first time from these sources with two of them previously not reported in nature. Both chlorogenic acids based on trans and cis-cinnamic acid substituents were identified. Assignment to the level of individual regioisomers was possible for seven caffeoylquinic acids (1-7), 11 dicaffeoylquinic acids (17-27), six feruloylquinic acids (9-14), two p-coumaroylquinic acids (15-16), two caffeoyl-feruloylquinic acids (28 and 29), four caffeoyl-p-coumaroylquinic acids (30-33), three dicaffeoyl-succinoylquinic acids (34-36), two dicaffeoyl-methoxyoxaloylquinic acids (37 and 38), and one tricaffeoylquinic acid (39). Furthermore, one caffeoylshikimic acid (40), one caffeoyltartaric acid (41), three dicaffeoyltartaric acids (42-44), and three caffeoyl-feruloyltartaric acids (45-47) were detected and shown to possess characteristic tandem MS spectra and were tentatively assigned on the basis of their retention time and previously developed hierarchical keys. PMID:21453943
Jaiswal, Rakesh; Kiprotich, Joseph; Kuhnert, Nikolai
Arsenic, cadmium and lead were determined for quality control monitoring purposes of Bulgarian herbs and their infusions by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Twelve samples of yarrow (Achillea millefolium), 18 of chamomile (Flores Chamomillae), 8 of bearberry leaves (Folia uvae ursi), 24 of peppermint (Mentha piperitae folium), 10 of hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa), 14 of oregano (Origanum vulgare) and 12 of thyme (Thymus serpyllum) were analyzed. The studied toxic elements were present in the medicinal plants (12-225 microg/kg As, 15-268 microg/kg Cd, 0.2-8.6 mg/kg Pb). Arsenic was found in all herbal infusions at levels up to 0.4 microg/l. Cadmium was present in infusions of chamomile, hibiscus, peppermint and thyme at levels up to 0.7 microg/l. Lead was detected only in hibiscus infusions (2-3 microg/l). It was established that the major part of arsenic and lead in herbal infusions existed in biomacromolecular fraction. Cadmium appears to be present mainly in cationic form at pH 1 (stomach acidity), but at pH 7.6 (intestine acidity) there is a non-cationic fraction as well. PMID:18614270
Arpadjan, S; Celik, G; Ta?kesen, S; Güçer, S
Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation has been increasing in temperate latitudes in recent decades and is expected to continue rising for some time. Enhanced UV-B radiation can change plant chemistry, yet the effects of these changes on mammalian herbivores are unknown. To examine the influence of enhanced UV-B radiation on nutrition of a specialist and generalist hindgut fermenter, we measured nutritional and chemical constituents of three common North American range plants, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), yarrow (Achillea millefolium), and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoregneria spicata), and how these changes influenced in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vivo digestibility by pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) and eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus). Forages were irradiated for 3 mo with ambient (1x) or supplemental (1.6x) UV-B radiation representing a 15% ozone depletion for Pullman, WA, USA. Enhanced UV-B radiation had minimal effects on the nutritional content and the tannin-binding capacity of forages. Similarly, the terpene concentration in sagebrush and yarrow was not affected by higher UV-B irradiances. Flavonoid compounds increased in sagebrush but decreased in yarrow. Rabbit preference and intake was not affected by treatment levels for any forage species and no differences were found between treatments for dry matter, fiber, protein digestibility, and apparent digestible energy. PMID:17406969
Thines, Nicole J; Shipley, Lisa A; Bassman, John H; Fellman, John K; Mattison, D Scott; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei
Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae), the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory. PMID:22253728
Wallinger, Corinna; Juen, Anita; Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Thalinger, Bettina; Traugott, Michael
Plum pox virus (family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus, PPV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of plants in the genus Prunus, particularly Prunus persica L. The role of the Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as a vector of PPV-M, and its role in spreading PPV-M, was investigated. PPV-M-infected peach trees were used as inoculum sources, and transmission to 15 herbaceous species commonly present in and around peach orchards was evaluated. The presence of PPV-M in secondary hosts after aphid transmission was verified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests. The results indicate that Saponaria ocymoides L., Pisum sativum L., Trifolium repens L., Trifolium pratense L., Lepidium sativum L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Centaurea cyanus L., Bellis perennis L., Papaver rhoeas L., and Zinnia elegans L. became infected. Although Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley, Taraxacum officinale L., Achillea millefolium L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., and Linum rubrum L. did not become infected, they are hosts of M. persicae. Among the 10 positive species that were infected, the species most common in peach orchards, T. pratense, T. repens, B. perennis, and M. chamomilla, were used as source plants for the transmission studies to the peach tree. Our study reveals the ability of M. persicae to transmit PPV-M from herbaceous hosts to peach trees, describes PPV-M symptoms in herbaceous species, and discusses the role of M. persicae and its hosts as a source of PPV-M in peach orchards. PMID:17849850
Manachini, B; Casati, P; Cinanni, L; Bianco, P
Laboratory bioassays on insecticidal activity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from six Mediterranean plants (Achillea millefolium, Lavandula angustifolia, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare, Myrtus communis, and Rosmarinus officinalis) were carried out against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito Aedes albopictus. The chemical composition of the six EOs was also investigated. Results from applications showed that all tested oils had insecticidal activity, with differences in mortality rates as a function of both oil and dosage. At the highest dosage (300 ppm), EOs from H. italicum, A. millefolium, and F. vulgare caused higher mortality than the other three oils, with mortality rates ranging from 98.3% to 100%. M. communis EO induced only 36.7% larval mortality at the highest dosage (300 ppm), a similar value to those recorded at the same dosage by using R. officinalis and L. angustifolia (51.7% and 55%, respectively). Identified compounds ranged from 91% to 99%. The analyzed EOs had higher content of monoterpenoids (80-99%) than sesquiterpenes (1-15%), and they can be categorized into three groups on the basis of their composition. Few EOs showed the hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes, and these volatile compounds were generally predominant in comparison with the oxygenated forms, which were detected in lower quantities only in H. italicum (1.80%) and in M. communis (1%). PMID:20697909
Conti, Barbara; Canale, Angelo; Bertoli, Alessandra; Gozzini, Francesca; Pistelli, Luisa
Ten herbaceous perennials and groundcovers were grown in raised beds from June to September in a dry, hot desert environment and micro-spray drip irrigated with synthesized saline solutions at electrical conductivity of 0.8 (tap water), 3.2, or 5.4 dS/m. Plant height and two perpendicular widths were recorded monthly to calculate the growth index. Landscape performance was assessed monthly by visual scores. Salinity did not affect the visual scores in Achillea millefolium L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Lantana x hybrida 'New Gold', Lonicera japonica Thunb. 'Halliana', and Rosmarinus officinalis L. 'Huntington Carpet' throughout the experiment. Glandularia canadensis (L.) Nutt. 'Homestead Purple' performed better than Glandularia x hybrida (Grönland & Rümpler) G. L. Nesom & Pruski. Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Brig. had lower visual scores at 5.4 dS/m compared to the control and 3.2 dS/m. Most plants of Rudbeckia hirta L. did not survive when irrigated at 3.2 dS/m or 5.4 dS/m. Shoot biomass of A. millefolium, G. aristata, L. x hybrida, L. japonica, R. officinalis, and V. macdougalii was not influenced by the salinity of irrigation water. Therefore, A. millefolium, G. aristata, L. x hybrida, L. japonica, and R. officinalis can be irrigated with non-potable water at salinity up to 5.4 dS/m with little reduction in growth and aesthetic appearance. PMID:20585473
Niu, Genhua; Rodriguez, Denise S; Aguiniga, Lizzie
Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly those with an activated exocyclic methylene group, are important allergens in Asteraceae (Compositae) plants. As a screening tool, the Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae plant extracts with allergenic potential (feverfew, tansy, arnica, yarrow, and German chamomile) is part of several national patch test baseline series. However, the SL content of the Compositae mix may vary due to the source material. Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method for the quantitative measurement of SLs with the ?-methylene-?-butyrolactone moiety was developed, giving the percentage of allergenic compounds in plant extracts. The method has been validated and five Asteraceae extracts, namely feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert) that have been used in routine patch test screening were evaluated. A good correlation could be found between the results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method and the corresponding clinical results. Thus, the introduced method is a valuable tool for evaluating the allergenic potential and for the simple and efficient quality control of plant extracts with allergenic potential.
Salapovic, Helena; Geier, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried
By using BIOLOG technique, this paper studied the microbial carbon utilization in the rhizosphere soils of six kinds of secondary plants in Fuyun earthquake fault zone of Xinjiang. Most of the rhizosphere soils had significantly higher nutrient contents, and all of them had a higher AWCD, as compared with the control. There was a distinct difference in the AWCD among the six rhizosphere soils. Secondary plants less affected the richness but changed the dominance and evenness of the microbial carbon sources in the rhizosphere soils. The carbon sources utilization by the microorganisms in the rhizosphere soils differed with the kinds of secondary plants, and was mainly manifested in the utilization of carbohydrates, amino acids, and carboxylic acids. The appearance of secondary plants in the earthquake fault zone made the types of carbon sources utilized by the microorganisms changed from phenols to carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. In addition, the available K content in rhizosphere soils had a negative correlation with the microbial utilization of polymers (r = -0.84) and amines (r = -0.83). It was suggested that the secondary plants in the earthquake fault zone of Xinjiang could significantly enhance the capability of soil microorganisms in carbon sources utilization, and change the types of carbon sources utilized by the microorganisms. Rosa spinosissima and Achillea millefolium played the best roles in enhancing the carbon source utilization capability of soil microorganisms and in improving soil nutrient status. PMID:22126039
Lin, Qing; Zeng, Jun; Ma, Jing; Wang, Zhong; Zhang, Tao; Li, Shan; Lou, Kai
Chamazulene carboxylic acid (1) is a natural profen with anti-inflammatory activity and a degradation product of proazulenic sesquiterpene lactones, e.g., matricin. Both 1 and proazulenes occur in chamomile (Matricaria recutita), yarrow (Achillea millefolium), and a few other Asteraceae species. It was isolated in improved yields, characterized physicochemically, and found to be an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, but not of cyclooxygenase-1. It had anti-inflammatory activity in several animal models with local and systemic application. When human volunteers were given matricin orally, plasma levels of 1 were found to be in the micromolar range. Matricin was converted to 1 in artificial gastric fluid, but not in artificial intestinal fluid. Matricin and the yarrow proazulenes are proposed to be anti-inflammatory through conversion to 1. Intriguingly, the biological activity of the natural compound 1 was found because of its similarity to fully synthetic drug substances. This is the reverse process of the common lead function of natural compounds in drug discovery. PMID:16872141
Ramadan, Mai; Goeters, Susanne; Watzer, Bernhard; Krause, Eva; Lohmann, Klaus; Bauer, Rudolf; Hempel, Bernd; Imming, Peter
In laboratory tests, ethyl acetate extracts of Hyptis suaveolens Poit. from Guinea-Bissau and Rhododendon tomentosum (Stokes) H. Harmaja (formerly Ledum palustre L.) and Myrica gale L. significantly reduced probing activity of Aedes aegypti (L.). In the field in southern Sweden, extracts of leaves of R. tomentosum, M. gale, and Achillea millefolium L. significantly reduced biting by Aedes mosquitoes. Volatile compounds from M. gale, R. tomentosum, A. millefolium, and H. suaveolens were collected by solid phase microextraction (SPME). Alternatively, compounds in the plants were subjected to extraction by organic solvents of different polarities or by steam distillation and collection by SPME. Compounds collected were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Leaves of H. suaveolens contained mainly beta-caryophyllene, bergamotene, and terpinolene. The volatile fraction of an ethyl acetate extract of H. suaveolens was collected by SPME and included beta-caryophyllene, (-) -sabinene, beta-pinene, limonene, alpha-pinene, and bergamotene. The main volatiles detected were alpha-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, myrcene, and limonene from M. gale leaves or inflorescences; pcymene, sabinene, and terpinyl acetate from leaves of R. tomentosum; and (-)-germacrene D, beta-pinene, sabinene, and alpha-pinene from A. millefolium leaves or inflorescences. The selected plant species contained numerous volatiles known to have insecticidal, acaricidal, "pesticidal," and/ or insect repellent properties. PMID:16506457
Jaenson, Thomas G T; Pålsson, Katinka; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
An ethnobotanical survey was carried out on the territory of the highest mountain in Central Serbia, Kopaonik, which is characterized by great plant diversity. In total, 83 wild species from 41 families and 96 preparations for use in human therapy were recorded. Among those wild plants which are most commonly used for medicinal purposes, Hypericum perforatum L., Urtica dioica L., Achillea millefolium L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Sambucus nigra L., and Thymus serpyllum L. were particularly highly recommended by the majority of informants as being 'beneficial for all ailments'. The most frequently reported medicinal uses were for treating gastrointestinal ailments (50%), skin injuries and problems (25.6%), followed by respiratory, urinary-genital and cardiovascular problems (20.5%, 20.5%, 19.2%, respectively). Plants with unusual phytotherapeutic uses are Galium verum L. (sedative properties) and Eupatorium cannabinum L. (influenza-like illnesses), while plants with interesting but lesser-known properties include Daphne laureola L. (rheumatism and skin ailments) and Ficaria verna Huds. (tubers for treating haemorrhoids). In addition, 10 wild species used in veterinary medicine, as well as 25 herbs used for human nourishment were noted. PMID:17145148
Jari?, Snezana; Popovi?, Zorica; Macukanovi?-Joci?, Marina; Djurdjevi?, Lola; Mijatovi?, Miroslava; Karadzi?, Branko; Mitrovi?, Miroslava; Pavlovi?, Pavle
This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses. PMID:17628343
Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard
Ten herbaceous perennials and groundcovers were grown in raised beds from June to September in a dry, hot desert environment and micro-spray drip irrigated with synthesized saline solutions at electrical conductivity of 0.8 (tap water), 3.2, or 5.4 dS/m. Plant height and two perpendicular widths were recorded monthly to calculate the growth index. Landscape performance was assessed monthly by visual scores. Salinity did not affect the visual scores in Achillea millefolium L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Lantana x hybrida ‘New Gold’, Lonicera japonica Thunb. ‘Halliana’, and Rosmarinus officinalis L. ‘Huntington Carpet’ throughout the experiment. Glandularia canadensis (L.) Nutt. ‘Homestead Purple’ performed better than Glandularia x hybrida (Grönland & Rümpler) G. L. Nesom & Pruski. Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Brig. had lower visual scores at 5.4 dS/m compared to the control and 3.2 dS/m. Most plants of Rudbeckia hirta L. did not survive when irrigated at 3.2 dS/m or 5.4 dS/m. Shoot biomass of A. millefolium, G. aristata, L. x hybrida, L. japonica, R. officinalis, and V. macdougalii was not influenced by the salinity of irrigation water. Therefore, A. millefolium, G. aristata, L. x hybrida, L. japonica, and R. officinalis can be irrigated with non-potable water at salinity up to 5.4 dS/m with little reduction in growth and aesthetic appearance.
Niu, Genhua; Rodriguez, Denise S.; Aguiniga, Lizzie
Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae), the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory.
Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Thalinger, Bettina; Traugott, Michael
Traditionally, methane (CH4) emission from terrestrial plants is thought to originate from belowground microbial metabolism under anaerobic conditions, with subsequent transport to the atmosphere through stems. However, a recent study reported aerobic CH4 emission from plants by an unrecognized process, a result that has since been questioned. We investigated CH4 emissions under aerobic conditions from aboveground tissues of 44 species indigenous to the temperate Inner Mongolia steppe. Ten herbaceous hydrophytes (wetland-adapted plants) were examined, two of which--Glyceria spiculosa and Scirpus yagara--emitted CH4 from stems but not from detached leaves. Of 34 xerophytes (arid-adapted plants) examined, 7 out of 9 shrub species emitted CH4 from detached leaves but not stems, whereas none of 25 herbaceous xerophytes emitted CH4. The herbaceous hydrophyte, S. yagara, emitted highly 13C-depleted CH4, suggesting a microbial origin. Achillea frigida exhibited the highest CH4 emission rates among the shrubs and continuously emitted relatively 13C-enriched CH4 from detached leaves, indicating that CH4 was derived directly from plant tissues under aerobic conditions. Because woody species are relatively rare in the Inner Mongolia steppe, aerobic, plant-derived CH4 emission is probably negligible in this region. Our results may imply a larger role for aerobic CH4 production in upland ecosystems dominated by woody species or in ecosystems where woody encroachment is occurring as a result of global change. PMID:18350876
Wang, Zhi-Ping; Han, Xing-Guo; Wang, G Geoff; Song, Yang; Gulledge, Jay
Chamomile (German Chamomile, Matricaria recutita L., Asteraceae) is one of the most popular medicinal plants in use as an herbal tea for food purposes and in folk medicine. Qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of the volatile fraction of chamomile herbal tea were performed. Volatile constituents of the infusion were isolated by two different methods, namely hydrodistillation and solid phase extraction (SPE), and analysed by GC-MS. The relative proportions of particular chemical classes, present in the essential oil and volatile fractions of the infusion showed remarkable differences. The proportion of mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in the infusion, as compared to the essential oil, was significantly lower. Strikingly, the dichloromethane extract of the infusion contained a lower amount of bisabolol oxides and chamazulene, but higher amounts of spiroethers, sesquiterpene lactones and coumarins, as compared to the hydrodistillates of the herbal drug and the infusion. In addition to the previously known guaianolides matricarin and achillin, acetoxyachillin and leucodin (= desacetoxymatricarin), corresponding C-11 stereoisomers with various biological activities typically occurring in Achillea species, were identified in the dichloromethane extract of chamomile tea for the first time. PMID:22410959
Tschiggerl, Christine; Bucar, Franz
The present study reports a part of the findings of an ethnobotanical research project conducted in the Catalan region of the high river Ter valley (Iberian Peninsula), concerning the use of wild vascular plants as food and the medicinal uses of both wild and cultivated food plants. We have detected 100 species which are or have been consumed in this region, 83 of which are treated here (the remaining are the cultivated food plants without additional medicinal uses). Some of them, such as Achillea ptarmica subsp. pyrenaica, Convolvulus arvensis, Leontodon hispidus, Molopospermum peloponnesiacum and Taraxacum dissectum, have not been previously reported, or have only very rarely been cited or indicated as plant foods in very restricted geographical areas. Several of these edible wild plants have a therapeutic use attributed to them by local people, making them a kind of functional food. They are usually eaten raw, dressed in salads or cooked; the elaboration of products from these species such as liquors or marmalades is a common practice in the region. The consumption of these resources is still fairly alive in popular practice, as is the existence of homegardens, where many of these plants are cultivated for private consumption. PMID:21883071
Rigat, Montse; Bonet, Maria Àngels; Garcia, Sònia; Garnatje, Teresa; Vallès, Joan
Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases. PMID:12471432
Holetz, Fabíola Barbiéri; Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Sanches, Neviton Rogério; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias
Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly those with an activated exocyclic methylene group, are important allergens in Asteraceae (Compositae) plants. As a screening tool, the Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae plant extracts with allergenic potential (feverfew, tansy, arnica, yarrow, and German chamomile) is part of several national patch test baseline series. However, the SL content of the Compositae mix may vary due to the source material. Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method for the quantitative measurement of SLs with the ?-methylene-?-butyrolactone moiety was developed, giving the percentage of allergenic compounds in plant extracts. The method has been validated and five Asteraceae extracts, namely feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert) that have been used in routine patch test screening were evaluated. A good correlation could be found between the results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method and the corresponding clinical results. Thus, the introduced method is a valuable tool for evaluating the allergenic potential and for the simple and efficient quality control of plant extracts with allergenic potential. PMID:24106675
Salapovic, Helena; Geier, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried
Cirrhosis is the irreversible sequel of various disorders that damage liver cells permanently over time. Presently, the use of herbal medicines for prevention and control of chronic liver diseases is in the focus of attention for both the physicians and the patients; the reasons for such shift toward the use of herbals include the expensive cost of conventional drugs, adverse drug reactions, and their inefficacy. In the present study, the efficacy of herbal medicine Liv-52 (consisting of Mandur basma, Tamarix gallica and herbal extracts of Capparis spinosa, Cichorium intybus, Solanum nigrum, Terminalia arjuna and Achillea millefolium) on liver cirrhosis outcomes was compared with the placebo for 6 months in 36 cirrhotic patients referred to Tehran Hepatic Center. The outcome measures included child-pugh score, ascites, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total billirubin, albumin, prothrombin time, platelet and white blood cells counts. The indices were recorded in all patients before and after 6 months of drug or placebo treatment. The results demonstrated that the patients treated with Liv-52 for 6 months had significantly better child-pugh score, decreased ascites, decreased serum ALT and AST. In placebo administered patients all the clinical parameters recorded at beginning of the study were not significantly different than after 6 months. We conclude that Liv-52 possess hepatoprotective effect in cirrhotic patients. This protective effect of Liv-52 can be attributed to the diuretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and immunomodulating properties of the component herbs. PMID:16194047
Huseini, H Fallah; Alavian, S M; Heshmat, R; Heydari, M R; Abolmaali, K
Methylene chloride extracts of flowers from 4 plants (common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L; ox-eye daisy, Leucanthemum vulgare Lamarck; Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis L.; and yarrow, Achillea millefolium L.) were tested in a dual-port olfactometer for attractiveness to female northern house mosquitoes, Culex pipiens pipiens L. Fifty milligrams of extract was used for each test, which was equivalent to the amount of extract from flowers of 0.58 common milkweed inflorescences, 1.75 ox-eye daisy flower heads, 0.33 Canada goldenrod plants, or 3.14 yarrow plants. Significantly more Cx. pipiens responded to the common milkweed flower extract than to a control. Ox-eye daisy, Canada goldenrod and yarrow flower extracts were not significantly attractive to this species. A headspace sample of the common milkweed extract was collected by solid phase microextraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The most abundant compounds in the headspace sample were 2-phenylethanol and benzyl alcohol. Analysis of the common milkweed extract and standards of 2-phenylethanol and benzyl alcohol by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection confirmed that these compounds were present in the extract. Cx. pipiens did not respond to synthetic blends of these 2 compounds when tested in a dual-port olfactometer. PMID:10467780
Mauer, D J; Rowley, W A
Plant species create aggregations of conspecifics as a consequence of limited seed dispersal, clonal growth and heterogeneous environment. Such intraspecific aggregation increases the importance of intraspecific competition relative to interspecific competition which may slow down competitive exclusion and promote species coexistence. To examine how spatial aggregation impacts the functioning of experimental assemblages of varying species richness, eight perennial grassland species of different growth form were grown in random and aggregated patterns in monocultures, two-, four-, and eight-species mixtures. In mixtures with an aggregated pattern, monospecific clumps were interspecifically segregated. Mixed model ANOVA was used to test (i) how the total productivity and productivity of individual species is affected by the number of species in a mixture, and (ii) how these relationships are affected by spatial pattern of sown plants. The main patterns of productivity response to species richness conform to other studies: non-transgressive overyielding is omnipresent (the productivity of mixtures is higher than the average of its constituent species so that the net diversity, selection and complementarity effects are positive), whereas transgressive overyielding is found only in a minority of cases (average of log(overyielding) being close to zero or negative). The theoretical prediction that plants in a random pattern should produce more than in an aggregated pattern (the distances to neighbours are smaller and consequently the competition among neighbours stronger) was confirmed in monocultures of all the eight species. The situation is more complicated in mixtures, probably as a consequence of complicated interplay between interspecific and intraspecific competition. The most productive species ( Achillea, Holcus, Plantago) were competitively superior and increased their relative productivity with mixture richness. The intraspecific competition of these species is stronger than that of most other species. The aggregated pattern in the full mixture increased the survival of subordinate species, and consequently, we conclude that an aggregated pattern can promote species coexistence (or at least postpone competitive exclusion), particularly in comparison with homogeneously sown mixtures.
Lamošová, Tereza; Doležal, Ji?í; Lanta, Vojt?ch; Lepš, Jan
Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against this pathogen. Conclusions Our data suggest that further screening of plants used in traditional Haudenosaunee medicine is warranted, and we put forward several species for further investigation of activity against S. typhimurium (A. millefolium, H. matronalis, I. pandurata, H. pilosella, R. multiflora, S. canadensis).
Plant species richness and productivity often show a positive relationship, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, especially at the plant species level. We examined how growing plants in species mixture influences intraspecific rates of short-term carbon (C-) translocation, and determined whether such short-term responses are reflected in biomass yields. We grew monocultures and mixtures of six common C3 grassland plant species in outdoor mesocosms, applied a 13C-CO2 pulse in situ to trace assimilated C through plants, into the soil, and back to the atmosphere, and quantified species-specific biomass. Pulse derived 13C enrichment was highest in the legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens, and relocation (i.e. transport from the leaves to other plant parts) of the recently assimilated 13C was most rapid in T. repens grown in 6-species mixtures. The grass Anthoxanthum odoratum also showed high levels of 13C enrichment in 6-species mixtures, while 13C enrichment was low in Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata and Achillea millefolium. Rates of C loss through respiration were highest in monocultures of T. repens and relatively low in species mixtures, while the proportion of 13C in the respired CO2 was similar in monocultures and mixtures. The grass A. odoratum and legume T. repens were most promoted in 6-species mixtures, and together with L. corniculatus, caused the net biomass increase in 6-species mixtures. These plant species also had highest rates of 13C-label translocation, and for A. odoratum and T. repens this effect was greatest in plant individuals grown in species mixtures. Our study reveals that short-term plant C translocation can be accelerated in plant individuals of legume and C3 grass species when grown in mixtures, and that this is strongly positively related to overyielding. These results demonstrate a mechanistic coupling between changes in intraspecific plant carbon physiology and increased community level productivity in grassland systems.
De Deyn, Gerlinde B.; Quirk, Helen; Oakley, Simon; Ostle, Nick J.; Bardgett, Richard D.
As primary producers, plants are known to influence higher trophic interactions by initiating food chains. However, as architects, plants may bypass consumers to directly affect predators with important but underappreciated trophic ramifications. Invasion of western North American grasslands by the perennial forb, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa), has fundamentally altered the architecture of native grassland vegetation. Here, I use long-term monitoring, observational studies, and field experiments to document how changes in vegetation architecture have affected native web spider populations and predation rates. Native spiders that use vegetation as web substrates were collectively 38 times more abundant in C. maculosa-invaded grasslands than in uninvaded grasslands. This increase in spider abundance was accompanied by a large shift in web spider community structure, driven primarily by the strong response of Dictyna spiders to C. maculosa invasion. Dictyna densities were 46-74 times higher in C. maculosa-invaded than native grasslands, a pattern that persisted over 6 years of monitoring. C. maculosa also altered Dictyna web building behavior and foraging success. Dictyna webs on C. maculosa were 2.9-4.0 times larger and generated 2.0-2.3 times higher total prey captures than webs on Achillea millefolium, their primary native substrate. Dictyna webs on C. maculosa also captured 4.2 times more large prey items, which are crucial for reproduction. As a result, Dictyna were nearly twice as likely to reproduce on C. maculosa substrates compared to native substrates. The overall outcome of C. maculosa invasion and its transformative effects on vegetation architecture on Dictyna density and web building behavior were to increase Dictyna predation on invertebrate prey >/=89 fold. These results indicate that invasive plants that change the architecture of native vegetation can substantially impact native food webs via nontraditional plant --> predator --> consumer linkages. PMID:19082630
Pearson, Dean E
Human activities have resulted in increased nitrogen deposition and atmospheric CO(2) concentrations in the biosphere, potentially causing significant changes in many ecological processes. In addition to these ongoing perturbations of the abiotic environment, human-induced losses of biodiversity are also of major concern and may interact in important ways with biogeochemical perturbations to affect ecosystem structure and function. We have evaluated the effects of these perturbations on plant biomass stoichiometric composition (C:N:P ratios) within the framework of the BioCON experimental setup (biodiversity, CO(2), N) conducted at the Cedar Creek Natural History Area, Minnesota. Here we present data for five plant species: Solidago rigida, Achillea millefolium, Amorpha canescens, Lespedeza capitata, and Lupinus perennis. We found significantly higher C:N and C:P ratios under elevated CO(2) treatments, but species responded idiosyncratically to the treatment. Nitrogen addition decreased C:N ratios, but this response was greater in the ambient CO(2) treatments than under elevated CO(2). Higher plant species diversity generally lowered both C:N and C:P ratios. Importantly, increased diversity also led to a more modest increase in the C:N ratio with elevated CO(2) levels. In addition, legumes exhibited lower C:N and higher C:P and N:P ratios than non-legumes, highlighting the effect of physiological characteristics defining plant functional types. These data suggest that atmospheric CO(2) levels, N availability, and plant species diversity interact to affect both aboveground and belowground processes by altering plant elemental composition. PMID:17106721
Novotny, Amy M; Schade, John D; Hobbie, Sarah E; Kay, Adam D; Kyle, Marcia; Reich, Peter B; Elser, James J
Global levels of reactive nitrogen are predicted to rise in the coming decades as a result of increased deposition from the burning of fossil fuels and the large-scale conversion of nitrogen into a useable form for agriculture. Many plant communities respond strongly to increases in soil nitrogen, particularly in northern ecosystems where nitrogen levels are naturally very low. An experiment in northern Canada that was initiated in 1990 has been investigating the effects of long-term nutrient enrichment (fertilizer added annually) on a boreal forest understory community. We used this experiment to investigate why some species increase in abundance under nutrient enrichment whereas others decline. We focused on four species that differed in their responses to fertilization: Mertensia paniculata and Epilobium angustifolium increased in abundance, Achillea millefolium remained relatively constant and Festuca altaica declined. We hypothesized that the two species that were successful in the new high-nutrient, light-limited environment would be taller, have higher specific leaf area, change phenology by growing earlier in the season and be more morphologically plastic than their less successful counterparts. We compared plant height, specific leaf area, growth spurt date and allocation to leaves in plants grown in control and fertilized plots. We demonstrated that each of the two species that came to dominate fertilized plots has a different combination of traits and responses that likely gave them a competitive advantage; M. paniculata has the highest specific leaf area of the four species whereas E. angustifolium is tallest and exhibits morphological plasticity when fertilized by increasing biomass allocation to leaves. These results indicate that rather than one strategy determining success when nutrients become available, a variety of traits and responses may contribute to a species' ability to persist in a nutrient-enriched boreal forest understory. PMID:23573298
Grainger, Tess Nahanni; Turkington, Roy
Insect root herbivores can alter plant community structure by affecting the competitive ability of single plants. However, their effects can be modified by the soil environment. Root herbivory itself may induce changes in the soil biota community, and it has recently been shown that these changes can affect plant growth in a subsequent season or plant generation. However, so far it is not known whether these root herbivore history effects (i) are detectable at the plant community level and/or (ii) also determine plant species and plant community responses to new root herbivore attack. The present greenhouse study determined root herbivore history effects of click beetle larvae (Elateridae, Coleoptera, genus Agriotes) in a model grassland plant community consisting of six common species (Achillea millefolium, Plantago lanceolata, Taraxacum officinale, Holcus lanatus, Poa pratensis, Trifolium repens). Root herbivore history effects were generated in a first phase of the experiment by growing the plant community in soil with or without Agriotes larvae, and investigated in a second phase by growing it again in the soils that were either Agriotes trained or not. The root herbivore history of the soil affected plant community productivity (but not composition), with communities growing in root herbivore trained soil producing more biomass than those growing in untrained soil. Additionally, it influenced the response of certain plant species to new root herbivore attack. Effects may partly be explained by herbivore-induced shifts in the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The root herbivore history of the soil proved to be a stronger driver of plant growth on the community level than an actual root herbivore attack which did not affect plant community parameters. History effects have to be taken into account when predicting the impact of root herbivores on grasslands. PMID:23441201
Sonnemann, Ilja; Hempel, Stefan; Beutel, Maria; Hanauer, Nicola; Reidinger, Stefan; Wurst, Susanne
Insect root herbivores can alter plant community structure by affecting the competitive ability of single plants. However, their effects can be modified by the soil environment. Root herbivory itself may induce changes in the soil biota community, and it has recently been shown that these changes can affect plant growth in a subsequent season or plant generation. However, so far it is not known whether these root herbivore history effects (i) are detectable at the plant community level and/or (ii) also determine plant species and plant community responses to new root herbivore attack. The present greenhouse study determined root herbivore history effects of click beetle larvae (Elateridae, Coleoptera, genus Agriotes) in a model grassland plant community consisting of six common species (Achillea millefolium, Plantago lanceolata, Taraxacum officinale, Holcus lanatus, Poa pratensis, Trifolium repens). Root herbivore history effects were generated in a first phase of the experiment by growing the plant community in soil with or without Agriotes larvae, and investigated in a second phase by growing it again in the soils that were either Agriotes trained or not. The root herbivore history of the soil affected plant community productivity (but not composition), with communities growing in root herbivore trained soil producing more biomass than those growing in untrained soil. Additionally, it influenced the response of certain plant species to new root herbivore attack. Effects may partly be explained by herbivore-induced shifts in the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The root herbivore history of the soil proved to be a stronger driver of plant growth on the community level than an actual root herbivore attack which did not affect plant community parameters. History effects have to be taken into account when predicting the impact of root herbivores on grasslands.
Sonnemann, Ilja; Hempel, Stefan; Beutel, Maria; Hanauer, Nicola; Reidinger, Stefan; Wurst, Susanne
Since herbal teas, infusions and decoctions prepared from medicinal plants are popular remedies, it remains a topical question whether these herbal drugs can be treated as sources of essential elements for humans, who often use them in their everyday diet. Therefore, total and water-extractable contents of Mg, Mn and Cu were determined in 41 leaves originating from four botanical species of Plantago lanceolata, Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi, Rubus fruticosus and Betula sp., as well as in 33 samples of herbs represented by three species of Urtica dioica, Hypericum perforatum and Achillea millefolium. The highest level was determined in the case of Mg (in a range from 2.0 to 7.0 mg/g of dry mass [d.m.]), followed by Mn (from 50.0 to 1300.0 mg/kg d.m.), and lowest of all, Cu (from 3.5 to 19.5 mg/kg d.m.). Student's t-test showed that a statistically significant difference exists between samples originating from different plant species regarding the total content and water-extractable forms of Mg, Mn and Cu. By analysis of the relations between elements, it was observed that total level of Cu correlated with total levels of Mg and Mn, which indicates a synergistic interaction between the essential elements under study. With regard to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), the leaves of Rubus fruticosus contained the highest amounts of a water-extractable bioavailable form of Mn, which guarantees from 160 to 200% of the daily requirement of Mn for women and men, respectively. On the other hand, the extract obtained from Urticae folium gave water-extractable Mg in the amount of 76 mg/500 mL, which constitutes about 20% of daily requirement. The plant material richest in water-extractable Cu was Hyperici herba, containing 154.5 microg/500 mL, or 17% of DRI for both sexes. PMID:22574504
Konieczy?ski, Pawe?; Weso?owski, Marek
Background Possibly due to the small size of the olfactory bulb (OB) as compared to rodents, it was generally believed that songbirds lack a well-developed sense of smell. This belief was recently revised by several studies showing that various bird species, including passerines, use olfaction in many respects of life. During courtship and nest building, male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) incorporate aromatic herbs that are rich in volatile compounds (e.g., milfoil, Achillea millefolium) into the nests and they use olfactory cues to identify these plants. Interestingly, European starlings show seasonal differences in their ability to respond to odour cues: odour sensitivity peaks during nest-building in the spring, but is almost non-existent during the non-breeding season. Methodology/Principal Findings This study used repeated in vivo Manganese-enhanced MRI to quantify for the first time possible seasonal changes in the anatomy and activity of the OB in starling brains. We demonstrated that the OB of the starling exhibits a functional seasonal plasticity of certain plant odour specificity and that the OB is only able to detect milfoil odour during the breeding season. Volumetric analysis showed that this seasonal change in activity is not linked to a change in OB volume. By subsequently experimentally elevating testosterone (T) in half of the males during the non-breeding season we showed that the OB volume was increased compared to controls. Conclusions/Significance By investigating the neural substrate of seasonal olfactory sensitivity changes we show that the starlings' OB loses its ability during the non-breeding season to detect a natural odour of a plant preferred as green nest material by male starlings. We found that testosterone, applied during the non-breeding season, does not restore the discriminatory ability of the OB but has an influence on its size.
De Groof, Geert; Gwinner, Helga; Steiger, Silke; Kempenaers, Bart; Van der Linden, Annemie
Research on hedgerow design for supporting communities of natural enemies for biological control lags behind farmer innovation in California, where assemblages of perennial plant species have been used on crop field margins in the last decade. We compared natural enemy to pest ratios between fields with hedgerows and fields with weedy margins by sampling beneficial insects and key pests of vegetables on sticky cards. We used biweekly vacuum samples to measure the distribution of key insect taxa among native perennial plant species with respect to the timing and intensity of bloom. Sticky cards indicated a trend that field margins with hedgerows support a higher ratio of natural enemies to pests compared with weedy borders. Hedgerow plant species hosted different relative densities of a generally overlapping insect community, and the timing and intensity of bloom only explained a small proportion of the variation in insect abundance at plant species and among hedgerows, with the exception of Orius spp. on Achillea millefolium L. and Baccharis pilularis De Candolle. Indicator Species Analysis showed an affinity of parasitic wasps, especially in the super-family Chalcidoidea, for B. pilularis whether or not it was in flower. A. millefolium was attractive to predatory and herbivorous homopterans; Heteromeles arbutifolia (Lindley) Roemer and B. pilularis to Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim; and Rhamnus californica Eschsch to Hemerobiidae. Perennial hedgerows can be designed through species selection to support particular beneficial insect taxa, but plant resources beyond floral availability may be critical in providing structural refuges, alternative prey, and other attractive qualities that are often overlooked. PMID:23905731
Gareau, Tara L Pisani; Letourneau, Deborah K; Shennan, Carol
Stratospheric ozone depletion has caused ground-level ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation to rise in temperate latitudes of both hemispheres. Because the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the nutrition of food consumed by mammalian herbivores are unknown, we measured nutritional and chemical constituents of 18 forages and related changes to in vitro dry matter digestibility. We also measured intake and in vivo digestibility of Pacific willow (Salix lasiandra) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) by blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola). Forages were irradiated for 3 months with ambient (1x) or supplemental (1.6 x) UV-B radiation representing a 15% ozone depletion for Pullman, Washington, USA. Enhanced UV-B radiation had minimal and inconsistent effects on the nutritional content, in vitro dry matter digestibility, and protein-binding capacity of forages. However, flavonoid compounds increased in seven of the 13 forbs and woody dicots that were evaluated. Flavonoids were found to decrease only in yarrow (Achillea millefolium). When offered simultaneously, blue duikers preferred 1x and 1.6 x UV-B irradiated plants of alfalfa equally, but ate 26% less willow grown under 1.6 x UV-B radiation. However, when fed to duikers in separate feeding experiments, total dry matter intake and in vivo digestibility of dry matter, fiber, protein, and apparent energy did not differ between alfalfa and willow grown under 1x and 1.6 x UV-B radiation. We conclude that expected increases in UV-B radiation from ozone depletion would have minimal effects on intake and digestion of ruminant herbivores. PMID:18274780
Thines, Nicole J; Shipley, Lisa A; Bassman, John H; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei
Lots of plants belonging to Asteraceae family are very popular in folk medicine in Poland. These plants are also known as being rich in acidic polysaccharides, due to the presence of hexuronic acids or its derivatives. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the extract from Conyza canadensis L. possesses various biological activity, including antiplatelet, antiocoagulant and antioxidant properties. The aim of our study was to assess if macromolecular glycoconjugates from selected herbal plants of Asteraceae family: Achillea millefolium L., Arnica montana L., Echinacea purpurea L., Solidago virgaurea L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert., and Conyza canadensis L. protect platelet proteins against nitrative and oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite, which is responsible for oxidative/nitrative modifications of platelet proteins: the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups. These modifications may lead to changes of blood platelet functions and can have pathological consequences. The role of these different medicinal plants in the defence against oxidative/nitrative stress in human platelets is still unknown, therefore the oxidative damage to platelet proteins induced by peroxynitrite and protectory effects of tested conjugates by the estimation of carbonyl group level and nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of protein nitration) were studied in vitro. The antioxidative properties of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). The obtained results demonstrate that the compounds from herbal plants: A. millefolium, A. montana, E. purpurea, C. recutita, S. virgaurea, possess antioxidative properties and protect platelet proteins against peroxynitrite toxicity in vitro, similar to the glycoconjugates from C. canadensis. However, in the comparative studies, the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were not found to be more effective antioxidant, than the solution of pure resveratrol. PMID:20869393
Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Olas, Beata; Ko?odziejczyk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal; Nowak, Pawel; Tsirigotis-Wo?oszczak, Marta; Wachowicz, Barbara; Gancarz, Roman
Plant species richness and productivity often show a positive relationship, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, especially at the plant species level. We examined how growing plants in species mixture influences intraspecific rates of short-term carbon (C-) translocation, and determined whether such short-term responses are reflected in biomass yields. We grew monocultures and mixtures of six common C3 grassland plant species in outdoor mesocosms, applied a (13)C-CO(2) pulse in situ to trace assimilated C through plants, into the soil, and back to the atmosphere, and quantified species-specific biomass. Pulse derived (13)C enrichment was highest in the legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens, and relocation (i.e. transport from the leaves to other plant parts) of the recently assimilated (13)C was most rapid in T. repens grown in 6-species mixtures. The grass Anthoxanthum odoratum also showed high levels of (13)C enrichment in 6-species mixtures, while (13)C enrichment was low in Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata and Achillea millefolium. Rates of C loss through respiration were highest in monocultures of T. repens and relatively low in species mixtures, while the proportion of (13)C in the respired CO(2) was similar in monocultures and mixtures. The grass A. odoratum and legume T. repens were most promoted in 6-species mixtures, and together with L. corniculatus, caused the net biomass increase in 6-species mixtures. These plant species also had highest rates of (13)C-label translocation, and for A. odoratum and T. repens this effect was greatest in plant individuals grown in species mixtures. Our study reveals that short-term plant C translocation can be accelerated in plant individuals of legume and C3 grass species when grown in mixtures, and that this is strongly positively related to overyielding. These results demonstrate a mechanistic coupling between changes in intraspecific plant carbon physiology and increased community level productivity in grassland systems. PMID:23049893
De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Quirk, Helen; Oakley, Simon; Ostle, Nick J; Bardgett, Richard D
Plant roots provide various forms of soil labile carbon (i.e., rhizodeposition), which stimulate the growth of heterotrophic bacteria in the rhizosphere. This, in turn, provides a food source for phagotrophic protozoa and other bacterivores, whose carbon:nutrient ratios are generally higher than those of their food source. In order to maintain their stoichiometric composition, bacterivores release their extra nutrients into the rhizosphere, where they may be absorbed by plant roots. Thus, rhizodeposition should reduce carbon limitation, but increase nutrient demand, of the soil microbial biomass. We hypothesized that this shift towards nutrient deficiency would stimulate the production of microbial enzymes that depolymerise soil organic matter into microbial available forms. In other words, roots should stimulate the decomposition of soil organic matter. We report on experiment where we tested such a "root-priming" effect using 3 contrasting plant species (Achillea millefolium, Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens). An agricultural soil, with a delta-13C value of approximately -14 ‰ , was transferred into 30 pots and planted with seeds of each species. A ring was inserted in the middle of each pot, and no seeds were planted within the ring. Plants were grown in a growth chamber designed to deliver 13C-depleted air. The resulting plant biomass had a delta-13C value of approximately -52 ‰ . On 7 occasions during the growth trial, pots were sampled for the flux and delta-13C value of soil CO2. Using similar data from control pots without plants, we compared the expected vs. observed contributions of CO2 from roots and soil organic matter. Results from this study revealed a negative root-priming effect for all three species. We discuss the experimental conditions that could have led to this observation, as well as the novelty and potential of our experimental protocol.
Bradley, Robert; Paterson, Eric; Chapman, Steve; Thornton, Barry; Sim, Allan
Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase or glutamic acid decarboxylase inhibition; a range of monoaminergic effects; and potential cannabinoid receptor modulation. Future research should focus on conducting human clinical trials on the plants reviewed with promising anxiolytic activity. PMID:23436255
Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A
Background and Aims High alpine environments are characterized by short growing seasons, stochastic climatic conditions and fluctuating pollinator visits. These conditions are rather unfavourable for sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Apomixis, asexual reproduction via seed, provides reproductive assurance without the need of pollinators and potentially accelerates seed development. Therefore, apomixis is expected to provide selective advantages in high-alpine biota. Indeed, apomictic species occur frequently in the subalpine to alpine grassland zone of the European Alps, but the mode of reproduction of the subnival to nival flora was largely unknown. Methods The mode of reproduction in 14 species belonging to seven families was investigated via flow cytometric seed screen. The sampling comprised 12 species typical for nival to subnival plant communities of the European Alps without any previous information on apomixis (Achillea atrata, Androsace alpina, Arabis caerulea, Erigeron uniflorus, Gnaphalium hoppeanum, Leucanthemopsis alpina, Oxyria digyna, Potentilla frigida, Ranunculus alpestris, R. glacialis, R. pygmaeus and Saxifraga bryoides), and two high-alpine species with apomixis reported from other geographical areas (Leontopodium alpinum and Potentilla crantzii). Key Results Flow cytometric data were clearly interpretable for all 46 population samples, confirming the utility of the method for broad screenings on non-model organisms. Formation of endosperm in all species of Asteraceae was documented. Ratios of endosperm : embryo showed pseudogamous apomixis for Potentilla crantzii (ratio approx. 3), but sexual reproduction for all other species (ratios approx. 1·5). Conclusions The occurrence of apomixis is not correlated to high altitudes, and cannot be readily explained by selective forces due to environmental conditions. The investigated species have probably other adaptations to high altitudes to maintain reproductive assurance via sexuality. We hypothesize that shifts to apomixis are rather connected to frequencies of polyploidization than to ecological conditions.
Horandl, Elvira; Dobes, Christoph; Suda, Jan; Vit, Petr; Urfus, Tomas; Temsch, Eva M.; Cosendai, Anne-Caroline; Wagner, Johanna; Ladinig, Ursula
The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (HP), identified in 1982, is now recognized as the primary etiological factor associated with the development of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, HP infections are also associated with chronic gastritis, gastric carcinoma and primary gastric B-cell lymphoma. For centuries, herbals have been used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of ailments, including gastrointestinal (GI) disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, the mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic effects has not been completely elucidated. As part of an ongoing screening program, the study assessed the in vitro susceptibility of 15 HP strains to botanical extracts, which have a history of traditional use in the treatment of GI disorders. Methanol extracts of Myristica fragrans (seed) had a MIC of 12.5 microg/mL; Zingiber officinale (ginger rhizome/root) and Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary leaf) had an MIC of 25 microg/mL. Methanol extracts of botanicals with a MIC of 50 microg/mL included Achillea millefolium, Foeniculum vulgare (seed), Passiflora incarnata (herb), Origanum majorana (herb) and a (1:1) combination of Curcuma longa (root) and ginger rhizome. Botanical extracts with a MIC of 100 microg/mL included Carum carvi (seed), Elettaria cardamomum (seed), Gentiana lutea (roots), Juniper communis (berry), Lavandula angustifolia (flowers), Melissa officinalis (leaves), Mentha piperita (leaves) and Pimpinella anisum (seed). Methanol extracts of Matricaria recutita (flowers) and Ginkgo biloba (leaves) had a MIC > 100 microg/mL. PMID:16317658
Mahady, Gail B; Pendland, Susan L; Stoia, Adenia; Hamill, Frank A; Fabricant, Daniel; Dietz, Birgit M; Chadwick, Lucas R
Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338
The Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is an international research network whose purpose is to assess climate change impacts on vegetation in alpine environments worldwide. A standard protocol was developed by the international office in Vienna, Austria, and has specific site requirements and techniques that allow sites to be compared worldwide. This protocol requires four summits to be selected within a target region, covering zonal differences of subalpine to nival, and on each of these summits intensive vegetation plots are set up and monitored on a five year interval. Only three target regions in North America have been completed to date, one in Glacier National Park, Montana, and the other two in the Sierra Nevada and White Mountains, California. The four GLORIA summit plots in Glacier National Park were completed over the summers of 2003 and 2004. Because the Continental Divide bisects Glacier National Park (north to south), we chose summits only East of the divide to stay within a similar climatic pattern. Establishing sites was difficult due to the steep and rocky glaciated terrain and the remoteness of suitable sites that required multi-day approaches. Our highest summit (Seward Mtn. 2717 m) is the northernmost and our lowest summit (Dancing Lady Mtn. 2245 m) is southernmost. Treeline is strongly influenced by terrain and is significantly more variable than in the central Rocky Mountains. This also was true of zonal differences of alpine vegetation. Subalpine and even grassland species were found on the same summits as upper alpine species and areas considered subnival. While different zonal areas often occurred on one summit, they were highly influenced by the aspect and slope of that summit area. Between 51 and 82 vascular plants were documented on each summit. There was a high degree of variability in species diversity and percent cover on each summit that was correlated to directional exposure. The summit morphology caused loose vegetative associations, or micro-communities, that varied with exposure, slope angle, and substrate character. Species that exhibited dominance within the target region were Smelowskia calycina var. americana, Polemonium viscosum, Achillea millefolium, Erigeron compositus var. glabratus, and Potentilla fruticosa L. These species reflected the same variability in percent cover on the four sides of the summit areas as did the vegetation as a whole, but were present on all sides.
Holzer, K.; Fagre, D.
The soil-water balance in temperate climates can be sensitively characterised by the water exchange between soil and groundwater. Particularly in mountain environments, where the soil and the water table depth are shallow, both percolation and water rise from the water table can happen, but these latter extimate is still a major challenge for hydrological applications. Aiming at contributing to better characterise the soil-water balance and the water exchange between soil and groundwater, at the local scale in an Alpine valley, a micrometeorological station was installed during summer 2012 at Cividate Camuno (Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, 274ma.s.l.), in a mountain environment with complex orography and Alpine sublitoranean climate. The soil upper layers, lying on an anthropised loose rock, are about 40cm deep and mainly covered by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), wild carrot (Daucus carota) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium). The station is equipped with longwave and shortwave radiometers, a thermo-hygrometer, two rain-gauges, eddy correlation devices (Gill WindMaster sonic anemometer and Licor Li7500 gas analyser, sampling at 20Hz), a TDR with multiplexer apparatus and four probes at different depths, three soil-thermometers and a heat exchanger plate. Field and laboratory tests were performed to characterise the main soil hydraulic properties (i.e. hydraulic conductivity at saturation by means of infiltration tests and falling head permeameter, porosity, residual water content and water content at saturation, soil-water retention relationships, organic matter content and grain size distribution curve). Three different hypothesis to model the water exchange between soil-water and groundwater were introduced. They are (i) a null exchange rate which accounts for a shortage of precipitation and for representing the underlying soil as a capillary barrier, (ii) a pure percolation with unitary gradient of the total hydraulic potential and (iii) a percolation or water rise induced by an estimate of the local gradient on the basis of the measurements of water content. As the lateral fluxes were negligible due to the site orography, accounting for the measurement of rainfall, evapotranspiration and soil-water content, the closure of the water balance allowed to assess the effectiveness of the different hypotheses to estimate the exchange between soil-water and groundwater. The results shows that the water balance is not closed without estimating the water exchange between soil and groundwater, but assessing its value was found to be strongly sensitive to the accuracy of the adopted soil model and constitutive laws.
Negm, Amro; Falocchi, Marco; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto; Bacchi, Baldassare
The level of mercury bioaccumulation in wild plants; the distribution of bioavailable Hg, elemental Hg, and total Hg in soil; and the concentration of total gaseous Hg (TGM) in ambient air was studied at three different mining sites (SiKeng [SK], WuKeng [WK], and GouXi [GX]) in the Wanshan mercury mining district of China. Results of the present study showed that the distribution of soil total Hg, elemental Hg, bioavailable Hg, and TGM varies across the three mining sites. Higher soil total Hg (29.4-1,972.3 mg/kg) and elemental Hg (19.03-443.8 mg/kg) concentrations were recorded for plots SK and WK than for plot GX. Bioavailable Hg was lower at plot SK and GX (SK, 3-12 ng/g; GX, 9-14 ng/g) than at plot WK (11-1,063 ng/g), although the TGM concentration in the ambient air was significantly higher for plot GX (52,723 ng/m(3) ) relative to WK (106 ng/m(3) ) and SK (43 ng/m(3)). Mercury in sampled herbage was elevated and ranged from 0.8 to 4.75 mg/kg (SK), from 2.17 to 34.38 mg/kg (WK), and from 47.45 to 136.5 mg/kg (GX). Many of the sampled plants are used as fodder or for medicinal purposes. High shoot Hg concentrations may therefore pose an unacceptable human health risk. Statistical analysis of the recorded data showed that the Hg concentration in plant shoots was positively correlated with TGM and that the Hg concentration in roots was positively correlated with the bioavailable Hg concentration in the soil. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the present study was defined with reference to the concentration of bioavailable Hg in the soil (Hg([root]) /Hg([bioavail])). Three plant species, Macleaya cordata L., Achillea millefolium L., and Pteris vittata L., showed enhanced accumulation of Hg and therefore may have potential for use in the phytoremediation of soils of the Wanshan mining area. PMID:21935979
Wang, Jianxu; Feng, Xinbin; Anderson, Christopher W N; Zhu, Wei; Yin, Runsheng; Wang, Heng
Medicinal plants are being used extensively in Jordanian traditional medicinal system for the treatment of diabetes symptoms. Twenty one plant samples were collected from different Jordanian locations and used for antioxidant evaluation. The level of antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays in relation to the total phenolic contents of the medically used parts. The most frequently used plant parts as medicines were fruit, shoot and leaves. The total phenolic contents of methanol and aqueous extracts, from plants parts, ranged from 6.6 to 103.0 and 3.0 to 98.6 GAE mg g(-1) of plant part dry weight, respectively. DPPH-TEAC of the methanol extracts of plants parts were varied from 4.1 to 365.0 mg g(-1) of plant dry weight versus 0.6 to 267.0 mg g(-1) in aqueous extracts. Moreover, the mean values of ABTS*- (IC50) varied from 6.9 to 400.0 microg dry weight mL(-1) ABTS in methanol extracts versus 9.8 to 580.5 microg mL(-1) in aqueous extracts. According to their antioxidant capacity, the plants were divided into three categories: high (DPPH-TEAC > or = 80 mg g(-1) ), (i.e., Punica granatum peel, Quercus calliprinos leave, Quercus calliprinos fruit, Cinchona ledgeriana and Juniperus communis leave), moderate (DPPH-TEAC range 20-80 mg g(-1)) (i.e., Salvia fruticosa shoot, Crataegus azarolus stem, Crataegus azarolus leave, Varthemia iphionoides shoot, Artemisia herba-alba shoot, Thymus capitatus shoot, Morus nigra leaves and Arum palaestinum leaves) and low antioxidant plants (DPPH-TEAC < 20 mg g(-1)), (i.e., Matricaria aurea shoot, Artemisia judaica shoot, Teucrium polium shoot, Pinus halepenss pollen grains, Sarcopoterium spinosum root, Crataegus azarolus fruit, Inula viscose shoot and Achillea fragrantissima shoot). The antioxidant activity of these plant's extracts and their potential rule in radical scavenging agreed with their potential use by Jordanian population as a traditional anti-diabetic agents. PMID:18817155
Al-Mustafa, Ahmed H; Al-Thunibat, Osama Y
Background Escherichia coli occurs naturally in the human gut; however, certain strains that can cause infections, are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant E. coli that produce extended-spectrum ? lactamases (ESBLs), such as the CTX-M enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and bloodstream infections may be associated with these community-onsets. This is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying activity of nineteen Jordanian plants against multidrug-resistant E. coli. Methods The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was tested by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using a broth microdilution method. Nineteen Jordanian plant extracts (Capparis spinosa L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Echinops polyceras Boiss., Gundelia tournefortii L, Varthemia iphionoides Boiss. & Blanche, Eruca sativa Mill., Euphorbia macroclada L., Hypericum trequetrifolium Turra, Achillea santolina L., Mentha longifolia Host, Origanum syriacum L., Phlomis brachydo(Boiss.) Zohary, Teucrium polium L., Anagyris foetida L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Thea sinensis L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lepidium sativum L., Pimpinella anisum L.) were combined with antibiotics, from different classes, and the inhibitory effect of the combinations was estimated. Results Methanolic extracts of the plant materials enhanced the inhibitory effects of chloramphenicol, neomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin and nalidixic acid against both the standard strain and to a lesser extent the resistant strain of E. coli. Two edible plant extracts (Gundelia tournefortii L. and Pimpinella anisum L.) generally enhanced activity against resistant strain. Some of the plant extracts like Origanum syriacum L.(Labiateae), Trigonella foenum- graecum L.(Leguminosae), Euphorbia macroclada (Euphorbiaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae) did not enhance the activity of amoxicillin against both standard and resistant E. coli. On the other hand combinations of amoxicillin with other plant extracts used showed variable effect between standard and resistant strains. Plant extracts like Anagyris foetida (Leguminosae) and Lepidium sativum (Umbelliferae) reduced the activity of amoxicillin against the standard strain but enhanced the activity against resistant strains. Three edible plants; Gundelia tournefortii L. (Compositae) Eruca sativa Mill. (Cruciferae), and Origanum syriacum L. (Labiateae), enhanced activity of clarithromycin against the resistant E. coli strain. Conclusion This study probably suggests possibility of concurrent use of these antibiotics and plant extracts in treating infections caused by E. coli or at least the concomitant administration may not impair the antimicrobial activity of these antibiotics.
Background Sesquiterpene lactones (SL) are plant secondary metabolites that are known for their anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties. Considering that several SL-derived drugs are currently in cancer clinical trials, we have tested two SL molecules, 3-?-methoxy-iso-seco-tanapartholide (?-tan) isolated from Achillea falcata and salograviolide A (Sal A) isolated from Centaurea ainetensis, for their anti-tumor properties. We used the mouse epidermal JB6P?+?cells as a model for tumor promotion and cellular transformation. Key players that are involved in cellular transformation and tumorigenesis are the AP-1 and NF-?B transcription factors; therefore, we assessed how ?-tan and Sal A modulate their signaling pathways in JB6P?+?cells. Methods The effects of ?-tan and Sal A on the growth of normal and neoplastic keratinocytes and on the tumor promotion-responsive JB6P?+?cells were determined using the MTT assay. Anchorage-independent cell growth transformation assays were used to evaluate the anti-tumor promoting properties of these SL molecules in JB6P?+?cells and dual luciferase reporter assays and western blot analysis were used to investigate their effects on tumor promoter-induced AP-1 and NF-?B activities and protein levels of key AP-1 and NF-?B target genes. Results ?-tan and Sal A selectively inhibited tumor promoter-induced cell growth and transformation of JB6P?+?cells at concentrations that do not affect JB6P?+?and primary keratinocytes basal cell growth. In addition, both molecules reduced basal and tumor promoter-induced NF-?B transcriptional activities, differentially regulated basal and tumor promoter-induced AP-1 transcriptional activities, and modulated key players of the AP-1 and NF-?B signaling pathways. Conclusions These results highlight the anti-tumor promoting properties of ?-tan and Sal A. These SL molecules isolated from two plant species native to the Middle East may provide opportunities for complementary medicine practices.
CERN, ESA and ESO Put Physics On Stage  Summary Can you imagine how much physics is in a simple match of ping-pong, in throwing a boomerang, or in a musical concert? Physics is all around us and governs our lives. The World-Wide Web and mobile communication are only two examples of technologies that have rapidly found their way from science into the everyday life. [Go to Physics On Stage Website at CERN] But who is going to maintain these technologies and develop new ones in the future? Probably not young Europeans, as recent surveys show a frightening decline of interest in physics and technology among Europe's citizens, especially schoolchildren. Fewer and fewer young people enrol in physics courses at university. The project "Physics on Stage" tackles this problem head on. An international festival of 400 physics educators from 22 European countries  gather at CERN in Geneva from 6 to 10 November to show how fascinating and entertaining physics can be . In a week-long event innovative methods of teaching physics and demonstrations of the fun that lies in physics are presented in a fair, in 10 spectacular performances, and presentations. Workshops on 14 key themes will give the delegates - teachers, professors, artists and other physics educators - the chance to discuss and come up with solutions for the worrying situation of disenchantment with Science in Europe. The European Science and Technology Week 2000 "Physics on Stage" is a joint project organised by the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , Europe's leading physics research organisations. This is the first time that these three organisations have worked together in such close collaboration to catalyse a change in attitude towards science and technology education. Physics on Stage is funded in part by the European Commission and happens as an event in the European Science and Technology Week 2000, an initiative of the EC to raise public awareness of science and technology. Other partners are the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). European Commissioner Busquin to Visit Physics On Stage On Thursday, November 9, Philippe Busquin , Commissioner for Research, European Commission, Prof. Luciano Maiani , Director-General of CERN, Antonio Rodota , Director-General of ESA, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , Director-General of ESO, and Dr. Achilleas Mitsos , Director-General of the Research DG in the European Commission, will participate in the activities of the Physics on Stage Festival. On this occasion, Commissioner Busquin will address conference delegates and the Media on the importance of Science and of innovative science and technology education. The Festival Each of the more than 400 delegates of the festival has been selected during the course of the year by committees in each of the 22 countries for outstanding projects promoting science. For example, a group of Irish physics teachers and their students will give a concert on instruments made exclusively of plumbing material, explaining the physics of sound at the same time. A professional theatre company from Switzerland stages a play on antimatter. Or two young Germans invite spectators to their interactive physics show where they juggle, eat fire and perform stunning physics experiments on stage. The colourful centrepiece of this week is the Physics Fair. Every country has its own stands where delegates show their projects, programmes or experiments and gain inspiration from the exhibits from other countries. Physics on Stage is a unique event. Nothing like it has ever happened in terms of international exchange, international collaboration and state of the art science and technology education methods. The Nobel prizewinners of 2030 are at school today. What ideas can Europe's teachers put forward to boost their interest in science? An invitation to the media We invite journalists to take part in this both politically and visually interesting