Sample records for achillea lewisii

  1. Chemotaxonomic relevance of sesquiterpenes within the Achillea millefolium group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Kubelka; Ulrike Kastner; Sabine Glasl; Johannes Saukel; Johann Jurenitsch

    1999-01-01

    The chemotaxonomic relevance of sesquiterpenoids within the Achillea millefolium group has been evaluated by means of morphological, anatomical, cytological and phytochemical data. The sesquiterpene patterns of Achillea setacea Waldst. & Kit, Achillea asplenifolia Vent., Achillea roseoalba Ehrend., Achillea collina Becker, Achillea ceretanica Sennen, Achillea pratensis Saukel & Länger, Achillea distans subsp. styriaca Saukel in edit., Achillea millefolium L. and Achillea

  2. Minireview on Achillea millefolium Linn.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad

    2013-09-01

    Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) is an important medicinal plant with different pharmaceutical uses. A. millefolium has been used for centuries to treat various diseases including malaria, hepatitis and jaundice. A. millefolium is commonly prescribed to treat liver disorders. It is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent and is a hepatoprotective herb. A. millefolium is considered safe for supplemental use. It has antihepatotoxic effects also. It is prescribed as an astringent agent. It is prescribed in hemorrhoids, headache, bleeding disorders, bruises, cough, influenza, pneumonia, kidney stones, high blood pressure, menstrual disorders, fever, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, osteoarthritis, hemorrhagic disorders, chicken pox, cystitis, diabetes mellitus, indigestion, dyspepsia, eczema, psoriasis and boils. PMID:23959026

  3. Flavonoids from Achillea nobilis L.

    PubMed

    Krenn, Liselotte; Miron, Anca; Pemp, Enne; Petr, Ursula; Kopp, Brigitte

    2003-01-01

    The detailed investigation of a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Achillea nobilis resulted in the isolation of 10 flavonoids. A new C-glycosylflavone, luteolin-6-C-apiofuranosyl-(1'''-->2'')-glucoside, was isolated besides orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isoschaftoside, luteolin-7-O-beta-glucuronide, luteolin-4'-O-beta-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-methyl ether and two rare flavonolglycosides, quercetin-3-O-alpha-arabinosyl-(1'''-->6'')-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-methylether-7-O-beta-glucoside. The structures were established either by comparison with authentic substances or by UV, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic methods including 2D-NMR techniques and ESI-MS. PMID:12622219

  4. Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Achillea crithmifolia and Achillea nobilis Essential Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radosav Pali?; Gordana Stojanovi?; Tanja Naskovi?; Novica Ranelovi?

    2003-01-01

    The composition of the essential oils of Achillea crithmifolia and Achillea nobilis was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. The main compounds of the A. crithmifolia essential oil were camphor (27.6%), 1,8-cineole (26.5%) and trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (18.8%), while the most abundant compounds in the A. nobilis oil were ?-thujone (25.7%), artemisia ketone (14.8%), borneol (9.9%) and camphor (8.2%). The antibacterial activity

  5. LC–MS Analysis of the Essential Oils of Achillea millefolium and Achillea crithmifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrija Smelcerovic; Marc Lamshoeft; Niko Radulovic; Danijela Ilic; Radosav Palic

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition of the hydro-distilled essential oils of Achillea millefolium and Achillea crithmifolia was analyzed by GC, GC–MS, 13C NMR and high resolution LC–MS. For the first time, the use of the combination of different chromatographic and spectral\\u000a methods, primarily the advantage of LC-Orbitrap over standard methods, enabled the detection of azulenes and their progenitors,\\u000a in minute quantities, in

  6. Anolide — A new guaianolide from Achillea nobilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Trudybekov; A. Zh. Turmukhambetov; S. M. Adekenov; Yu. T. Struchkov

    1994-01-01

    The new sesquiterpene lactone anolide has been isolated from the epigeal part ofAchillea nobilis. From its spectral characteristics and the results of an x-ray structural investigation, the structure of 3?,4?-dihydroxy-1,5,7?(H),6?(H)-guaia-10(14),11(13)-dien-6,12-olide\\u000a is proposed for anolide.

  7. A chemical investigation of Achillea nobilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Adekenov; M. N. Mukhametzhanov; A. D. Kagarlitskii; A. Zh. Turmukhambetov

    1984-01-01

    From the flower heads and leaves ofAchillea nobilis collected in the flowering phase close to Balytkykol, Egindybulak region, Karaganda Province, Kazakh SSR, by extraction with chloroform and chromatography of the combined substances on a column of silica gel we have isolated a new sesquiterpene lactone anobin C15H20O5, mp 175.5–177.5°C and have identified for the first time estafiatin, C15H18O3, mp 102–104°C

  8. Cytogeography of achillea millefolium in Western Oregon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald J. Tyrl

    1969-01-01

    A cytogeographic study was made of the tetraploid and hexaploid forms ofAchillea millefolium L. in western Oregon in order to clarify their distributions, to determine whether pentaploid hybrids are present at zones\\u000a of contact between the two, and to correlate environmental conditions with the presence of the tetraploid in the coastal areas\\u000a of Coos and Curry Counties, Oregon. The distributional

  9. Vasoprotective activity of standardized Achillea millefolium extract.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Bolego, Chiara; Cignarella, Andrea; Gaion, Rosa Maria; Innocenti, Gabbriella

    2011-09-15

    We investigated the effects of Achillea millefolium extract in vitro on the growth of primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as the potential involvement of estrogen receptors (ERs) in this process. In addition, the ability of A. millefolium extract to modulate the NF-?B pathway was tested in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The fingerprinting of the extract was carried out by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS(n) and main constituents were flavonoids (10%) and dicaffeolylquinic acid derivatives (12%). The extract enhanced VSMC growth at least in part by acting through ERs and impaired NF-?B signaling in HUVECs. The various compounds may act with different mode of actions thus contributing to the final effect of the extract. Our findings support some of the traditional uses of A. millefolium, and suggest potential modes of action as related to its effects on vascular inflammation. Therefore, A. millefolium may induce novel potential actions in the cardiovascular system. PMID:21684130

  10. Guaianolide-endoperoxide and monoterpene-hydroperoxides from Achillea nobilis.

    PubMed

    Kastner, U; Breuer, J; Glasl, S; Baumann, A; Robien, W; Jurenitsch, J; Rücker, G; Kubelka, W

    1995-02-01

    From flower heads of Achillea nobilis two chrysanthemol derivatives (1, 2), tanaparthin-beta-peroxide (3), and 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (4) were isolated by repeated column chromatography and HPLC. Structure elucidation has been performed by means of MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and 2D-NMR experiments. PMID:17238063

  11. In vitro estrogenic activity of Achillea millefolium L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Innocenti; E. Vegeto; S. Dall’Acqua; P. Ciana; M. Giorgetti; E. Agradi; A. Sozzi; G. Fico; F. Tomè

    2007-01-01

    Isolation and biological characterization of pure compounds was used to identify and characterize estrogenic activity and estrogen receptors (ER) preference in chemical components of Achillea millefolium. This medicinal plant is used in folk medicine as an emmenagogue. In vitro assay, based on recombinant MCF-7 cells, showed estrogenic activity in a crude extract of the aerial parts of A. millefolium. After

  12. Betaines and free proline within the Achillea millefolium group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michaela Mehlführer; Karin Troll; Johann Jurenitsch; Helga Auer; Wolfgang Kubelka

    1997-01-01

    From above ground parts of Achillea collina L., proline, stachydrine, betonicine, betaine and choline were isolated as the major nitrogen containing compounds. The TLC screening of 11 different species belonging to A. millefolium group showed qualitatively identical betaine patterns but quantitative differences were observed.

  13. Composition of Achillea distans Willd. subsp. distans root essential oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jelena Lazarevi?; Niko Radulovi?; Bojan Zlatkovi?; Radosav Pali?

    2010-01-01

    Gas chromatography and gas chromatography\\/mass specteometry analyses of root volatiles of Achillea distans Willd. subsp. distans, collected from wild populations in Serbia, enabled the identification of 185 constituents, accounting for 93.6% of the total oil. Main constituents of the oil were ?-cadinol (17.6%), alismol (14.1%), ?-cadinol (9.1%) and caryophyllene oxide (5.0%). The root oil was additionally characterised by the presence

  14. Essential Oils and Chromosome Numbers From Italian Achillea Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Maffei; Franco Chialva; Arnaldo Codignola

    1989-01-01

    Essential oils of five Achillea species, A. ptarmica, A. erba-rotta, A. moschata, A. nana and A. nobilis, growing spontaneously in the Northwest Italian Alps were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Several monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and phenols were identified. Camphor and 1,8 cineole were the major constituents of A. erba-rotta, whereas germacrene D was particularly abundant in A. ptarmica and A. nobilis.

  15. Antispermatogenic effect of Achillea millefolium L. in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiana Montanari; João Ernesto de Carvalho; Heidi Dolder

    1998-01-01

    The effect of an ethanolic extract (200 mg\\/kg\\/day, intraperitoneally, for 20 days) and a hydroalcoholic extract (300 mg\\/kg\\/day, orally, for 30 days) of Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow) flowers on the spermatogenesis of Swiss mice was studied by evaluating morphologic characteristics with the light and electron microscopes. The alterations observed were exfoliation of immature germ cells, germ cell necrosis, and seminiferous

  16. Ethnobotany and phytochemistry of yarrow, Achillea millefolium , compositae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Chandler; S. N. Hooper; M. J. Harvey

    1982-01-01

    The data reported in the literature concerning the uses and composition of yarrow,Achillea millefolium aggr., Compositae, are compiled and discussed. Historically, this plant has been extensively used as a herbal remedy for\\u000a numerous afflictions by many cultures on several continents. It has also been the subject of a considerable number of scientific\\u000a investigations. It has, however, not been previously reviewed.

  17. Predicting presence of proazulenes in the Achillea millefolium group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Michler; Carl-Gerold Arnold

    1999-01-01

    Phytosociological classification of vegetation is often justified on the grounds it provides a means of predicting properties\\u000a other than floristic composition. It is difficult to find examples inliterature where this possibility of prediction is actually\\u000a used. In this paper, we examine the qualitative variation in proazulenes of theAchillea millefolium group as a function of cytological, abiotic and floristic factors. Sixty-six

  18. Achillea millefolium (yarrow) cell suspension cultures: Establishment and growth conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cristina S. Figueiredo; M. Salomé S. Pais

    1991-01-01

    Summary Friable calli were obtained fromAchillea millefolium L. hypocotyls, in Gamborg B5 medium, supplemented with 1.5mg.1-1 2,4-D \\/ 0.1mg.1-1 Kin, and used for the production of cell suspension cultures in the same liquid medium. The growth pattern of the cultures was determined in permanent light or dark conditions and with different inoculum densities, basal media, growth regulators and sucrose concentrations.

  19. Spontane Chromosomenaberrationen und andere Meiosestörungen bei diploiden Sippen des Achillea millefolium-Komplexes (Zur Phylogenie der Gattung Achillea, II.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedrich Ehrendorfer

    1959-01-01

    1.Ausmaß, Verbreitung und Wesen der spontanen Störungen der Pollenmeiose bei diploiden Sippen von Achillea wurden an Hand cytologischer Analysen von 43 Wildformen (davon 1 Triploide) und 22 F1und F2-Pflanzen untersucht. Die Daten beziehen sich auf A. setacea, A. asplenifolia und spontane Introgressionspopulationen (A. roseo-alba) sowie experimentelle Hybriden zwischen diesen beiden Basissippen des A. millefolium-Komplexes, weiters auf die verwandtschaftlich etwas ferner

  20. Spindeldefekte, mangelhafte Zellwandbildung und andere Meiosestörungen bei polyploiden Sippen des Achillea millefolium-Komplexes (Zur Phylogenie der Gattung Achillea, III)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedrich Ehrendorfer

    1959-01-01

    1.Ausmaß, Verbreitung und Wesen der spontanen Störungen der Pollenmeiose bei polyploiden Sippen des Achillea millefolium-Komplexes wurden an Hand cytologischer Analysen von 139 Wildformen untersucht (jeweils mindestens 50–100 PMZ). Die Daten beziehen sich auf die tetraploiden A. roseo-alba (Introgressionspopulationen), A. collina und A. lanulosa, auf die hexaploiden A. millefolium s. str., A. borealis und die±hybridogene A. distans, ferner auf die oktoploiden

  1. Biotransformation of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes by cell suspension cultures of Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cristina Figueiredo; M. João Almendra; José G. Barroso; Johannes J. C. Scheffer

    1996-01-01

    The transformation capacity of Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium (yarrow) cell suspension cultures was investigated using geraniol (50mg\\/l) and borneol, menthol, thymol and farnesols (25mg\\/l) as substrates. Apart from converting these substrates into several biotransformation products, the cell suspension cultures were also able to glycosylate both the substrates and the biotransformation products. aa]Key Words bb]Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium bb]Yarrow

  2. In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Ethanol Extract of Three Hypericum and Three Achillea Species From Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deniz Bar??; Murat K?z?l; Çetin Aytekin; Göksel K?z?l; Murat Yavuz; Bircan Çeken; A. Selçuk Ertekin

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial, antifungal and antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of Hypericum scabrum L (HSm), Hypericum lysimachioides var. lysimachioides (HL), and Hypericum retusum Aucher (HR) and ethanol extracts of Achillea aleppica D.C. subsp. aleppica (AA), Achillea aleppica D.C. subsp. zederbaueri (Hayek) Hub.-Mor (AZ), and Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (AB). The antioxidant properties of extracts

  3. A review on phytochemistry and medicinal properties of the genus Achillea

    PubMed Central

    Saeidnia, S.; Gohari, AR.; Mokhber-Dezfuli, N.; Kiuchi, F.

    2011-01-01

    Achillea L. (Compositae or Asteraceae) is a widely distributed medicinal plant throughout the world and has been used since ancient time. Popular indications of the several species of this genus include treatment of wounds, bleedings, headache, inflammation, pains, spasmodic diseases, flatulence and dyspepsia. Phytochemical investigations of Achillea species have revealed that many components from this genus are highly bioactive. There are many reports on the mentioned folk and traditional effects. Although, the medicinal properties of Achillea plants are recognized worldwide, there are only one review article mainly about the structures of the phytochemical constituents of Achillea. The present paper reviews the medicinal properties of various species of Achillea, which have been examined on the basis of the scientific in vitro, in vivo or clinical evaluations. Various effects of these plants may be due to the presence of a broad range of secondary active metabolites such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, terpenoids (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes) and sterols which have been frequently reported from Achillea species. PMID:22615655

  4. In Vitro Anti-rotaviral Activity of Achillea kellalensis

    PubMed Central

    Taherkhani, Reza; Farshadpour, Fatemeh; Makvandi, Manoochehr

    2013-01-01

    Background Achillea kellalensis, which is frequently used by Chaharmahal va Bakhtiarians residing in, Southwest of Iran, as a traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of acute diarrhea, has been selected to examine its antiviral activities against bovine rotavirus and cell toxicity activity in MA-104 cells. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic and anti-rotavirus properties of crude extracts of A. kellalensis. Materials and Methods The dried and powdered flowers of Achillea kellalensis were extracted with hot water and ethanol 50% (v/v). The cell viability and toxicity of the extracts were evaluated on MA-104 cells using four methods; trypan blue dye, NR, crystal violet and MTT assay. The in vitro anti-rotavirus properties were determined via four different assays, in order to evaluate the direct inhibition and/or the inhibition of viral replication. Results Cytotoxicity of two A. kellalensis extracts showed different concentrations. Hydro-alcoholic extract had low CC50 at 600 µg/mL by the NR assay while the aqueous extract had high CC50 at 1000µg/mL by the crystal violet method. In the simultaneous treatment assay and post treatment assay, the extracts were able to prevent viral replication and inhibit the viral CPE on MA-104 cells at 10 TCID50, but the extracts did not exhibit direct antiviral activity on rotavirus adsorption. The effective concentration (EC50) of both extracts was observed to be 100 µg/mL. Conclusions These results indicate that A. kellalensis extracts exert potent anti-rotaviral activity only after viral adsorption. The two extracts from A. kellalensis showed a good selectivity index. Also these results suggest that extracts prepared from the flowers of A. kellalensis may be potential anti-rotaviral agents in vivo and be useful in veterinary medicine. PMID:24624203

  5. Separation of Sesquiterpenes from Yarrow ( Achillea millefolium L. s. l.) by LCMS on Non-Porous Columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gergely Montsko; Borbala Boros; Aniko Takatsy; Robert Ohmacht; Sabine Glasl; Liselotte Krenn; Laszlo Mark; Gottfried Reznicek

    2008-01-01

    Species of the genus Achillea have been used in traditional folk medicine for centuries. In Europe taxa of the Achillea millefolium group are widely spread, their correct taxonomic differentiation by morphological and anatomical characteristics encounters\\u000a some difficulties. Several species of the polyploid A. millefolium group however, can be characterised by their distinct sesquiterpene pattern. Analysis is usually performed by LC

  6. The Volatile Compounds and Bioactivity of Achillea sieheana Stapf. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Sevil

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Achillea sieheana Staf. (Asteraceae) were investigated in this study. The chemical composition of the essential oil isolated by hydro-distillation from the aerial parts of A. sieheana was analyzed by GC–MS. Camphor (43.36%), Artemisia ketone (25.95%), 1.8-cineole (6.29%) and camphene (4.77%) were the main components in the essential oil. Their antioxidant activities were also evaluated using phosphomolybdenum, ?-carotene bleaching and 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. A. sieheana methanolic extract showed an effective DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 87.04 ?g/mL). The extract had also a high reducing effect (71.08%) on the oxidation of ?-carotene. In addition to evaluating the antioxidant activity of this plant, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured in the extract. The antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extract and the oil were also tested against 13 bacteria and two yeasts. The results showed that both had strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. PMID:24250570

  7. Phenolic compounds from Achillea millefolium L. and their bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Vitalini, Sara; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Iriti, Marcello; Orsenigo, Simone; Basilico, Nicoletta; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Iorizzi, Maria; Fico, Gelsomina

    2011-01-01

    Since antiquity, Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) has been used in traditional medicine of several cultures, from Europe to Asia. Its richness in bioactive compounds contributes to a wide range of medicinal properties. In this study, we assessed A. millefolium methanolic extract and its isolated components for free radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-pycrilhydrazyl, total antioxidant capacity (based on the reduction of Cu(++) to Cu(+)), and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation. The activity against chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum was also tested. Chlorogenic acid, its derivatives and some flavonoids isolated by semipreparative HPLC and identified by NMR and spectrometric techniques were the major bioactive constituents of the methanolic extract. The latter exhibited significant antioxidant properties, as well as its flavonol glycosides and chlorogenic acids. With regard to the antiplasmodial activity, apigenin 7-glucoside was the most effective compound, followed by luteolin 7-glucoside, whereas chlorogenic acids were completely inactive. On the whole, our results confirmed A. millefolium as an important source of bioactive metabolites, justifying its pharmaceutical and ethnobotanical use. PMID:21503279

  8. Systematische und zytogenetische Untersuchungen an europäischen Rassen des Achillea millefolium -Komplexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Ehrendorfer

    1953-01-01

    Zusammenfassung 1.Die Stellung desAchillea millefolium-Rassenkomplexes innerhalb der Gattung, seine Verbreitung, Merkmale und seine Abgrenzung gegenüber nächst verwandten südeuropäischen Gruppen (A. tomentosa, A. nobilis s. l.,A. crithmifolia, A. virescens undA. tanacetifolia s. l.) wird besprochen.2.FürA. tomentosa wirdn=9, fürA. stricta (A. tanacetifolia s. l.)n=27 festgestellt.3.Für europäische Sippen desAchillea-millefolium-Komplexes werden 29 neue Chromosomenzahlen mitgeteilt, die sich einer Polyploidieserie 2x, 4x, 5x, 6x, 8x

  9. Volatile compounds from Achillea tenorii (Grande) growing in the Majella National Park (Italy).

    PubMed

    Venditti, Alessandro; Maggi, Filippo; Vittori, Sauro; Papa, Fabrizio; Serrilli, Anna Maria; Di Cecco, Mirella; Ciaschetti, Giampiero; Mandrone, Manuela; Poli, Ferruccio; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the first reported phytochemical study on the hydro-distilled essential oil from Achillea tenorii (Grande), collected in the protected area of Majella National Park (Italy). The composition of the essential oil was very different from those reported for the other species of Achillea nobilis group, being constituted mainly by oxygenated monoterpenes, among which ketones, alcohols and acetates compounds were the most representative. The marker compounds of A. nobilis group were not detected while the most abundant phytoconstituents were ?-thujone (29.7%), trans-sabinol (18.6%) and trans-sabinyl acetate (15.7%), revealing a composition quite similar to that of Artemisia absinthium. PMID:25103502

  10. Unterschiedliche Störungssyndrome der Meiose bei diploiden und polyploiden Sippen des Achillea millefolium-Komplexes und ihre Bedeutung für die Mikro-Evolution (Zur Phylogenie der Gattung Achillea, IV)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedrich Ehrendorfer; A. Einleitung

    1959-01-01

    1.Die unterschiedliche Verteilung der Störungssyndrome der Pollenmeiose bei Diploiden (2x) und Polyploiden (4x, 6x, 8x) des Achillea millefolium-Komplexes und einiger nahestehender Arten (vgl. die speziellen Beiträge Ehrendorfer 1959b und c) wurde auf Grund der cytologischen Analyse von 186 Wildformen quantitativ dargestellt (Tabelle 1 und 2, Abb. 1).2.Zwischen den Störungserscheinungen und den Normalprozessen der cytogenetischen Differenzierung als Mechanismen der Mikro-Evolution ergeben

  11. Context dependence in foraging behaviour of Achillea millefolium.

    PubMed

    Karst, Justine D; Belter, Pamela R; Bennett, Jonathan A; Cahill, James F

    2012-12-01

    Context-dependent foraging behaviour is acknowledged and well documented for a diversity of animals and conditions. The contextual determinants of plant foraging behaviour, however, are poorly understood. Plant roots encounter patchy distributions of nutrients and soil fungi. Both of these features affect root form and function, but how they interact to affect foraging behaviour is unknown. We extend the use of the marginal value theorem to make predictions about the foraging behaviour of roots, and test our predictions by manipulating soil resource distribution and inoculation by soil fungi. We measured plant movement as both distance roots travelled and time taken to grow through nutrient patches of varied quality. To do this, we grew Achillea millefolium in the centers of modified pots with a high-nutrient patch and a low-nutrient patch on either side of the plant (heterogeneous) or patch-free conditions (homogeneous). Fungal inoculation, but not resource distribution, altered the time it took roots to reach nutrient patches. When in nutrient patches, root growth decreased relative to homogeneous soils. However, this change in foraging behaviour was not contingent upon patch quality or fungal inoculation. Root system breadth was larger in homogeneous than in heterogeneous soils, until measures were influenced by pot edges. Overall, we find that root foraging behaviour is modified by resource heterogeneity but not fungal inoculation. We find support for predictions of the marginal value theorem that organisms travel faster through low-quality than through high-quality environments, with the caveat that roots respond to nutrient patches per se rather than the quality of those patches. PMID:22622873

  12. Antispasmodic effect of Achillea nobilis L. subsp. sipylea (O. Schwarz) Bässler on the rat isolated duodenum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Canan Karamenderes; Sebnem Apaydin

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antispasmodic effect of the total extract of Achillea nobilis L. subsp. sipylea (Schwarz) Bässler (Asteraceae) on rat duodenum. In the first part of experiments, cumulative dose–response curves for acetylcholine (Ach) were obtained and then dose–response curves are repeated after addition of atropine, papaverine and different doses of the extract. In

  13. THE FATTY ACIDS FROM PLANTS OF THE GENUS ACHILLEA UDC 665.12:582

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Pali?; G. Stojanovi?; N. Ran?elovi?; V. Ran?elovi?; J. Veli?kovi?

    The content and composition of fatty acids of three species of Achillea L.: A. lingulata W. et K., A. nobilis L. and A. crithmifolia W. et K. have been analyzed by GC. It was found that unsaturated acids were prevailing compounds (average U\\/S was 1.6) and the major components are: palmitic, linoleic and linolenic acids. The ratio of linolenic and

  14. Antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of infusions from leaves and inflorescences of Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Annamaria; Bombelli, Raffaella; Luini, Alessandra; Speranza, Giovanna; Cosentino, Marco; Lecchini, Sergio; Cocucci, Maurizio

    2009-04-01

    Plants are the main source of molecules with antioxidant and radical scavenging properties that aid the natural defence systems of cells and may be involved in the preservation of human health, particularly preventing all the physiopathological conditions where oxidative damage is a hallmark. Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb. is a medicinal plant of the Achillea millefolium aggregate (yarrow) traditionally used, particularly in mountain areas, as an infusion or alcohol extract for its digestive, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and wound healing properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity and cytoprotective activity against oxidative stress of infusions obtained from the leaves and inflorescences of Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb., assessed by chemical (free radical scavenging activity by DPPH and Folin Ciocalteu assay) and biological assays (in vitro model of cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in PC12 cells line). Infusions of leaves had the highest antioxidant properties and cytoprotective activity. The antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated with the total phenolic content but not with the cytoprotective profile. Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb. has good antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, suggesting further investigations on its chemical composition and potential health value, particularly for traditionally prepared infusions of leaves. PMID:19067389

  15. An Ascaridole Containing Essential Oil of the Achillea millefolium L. Complex Growing Wild in Northern Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pashalina Chatzopoulou; Stavros T. Katsiotis; Anders Baerheim Svendsen

    1992-01-01

    The essential oil of the Achillea millefolium L. complex growing wild in Northern Greece was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Several monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were identified, although the main component was ascaridole (47.2%). Lesser amounts of 1, 8-cineole (10.5%), p-cymene (7.4%), ?-terpinene (7.0%) and camphor (8.1%) were also found.

  16. Safety and antiulcer efficacy studies of Achillea millefolium L. after chronic treatment in Wistar rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Maria Cavalcanti; Cristiane Hatsuko Baggio; Cristina Setim Freitas; Lia Rieck; Renato Silva de Sousa; José Eduardo Da Silva-Santos; Sonia Mesia-Vela; Maria Consuelo Andrade Marques

    2006-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), popularly known as yarrow, has been used in folk medicine to treat complaints such as inflammation, pain, wounds, hemorrhages and gastrointestinal disturbances. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the aqueous extract (AE) of the plant after chronic exposure. Indeed, the AE was effective in protecting the gastric mucosa

  17. Review on ecology and control of Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow) on arable land in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. BourdôT; R. J. Field

    1988-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow), a perennial competitive ruderal, has become an increasing problem on arable land in New Zealand as a result of reduced cultivation, horticultural development, and the ineffectiveness of herbicides. Research conducted mainly in Canterbury, on aspects of the seed and rhizome biology of A. millefolium, is considered in relation to its control. It is concluded that major

  18. Comparative responses of Achillea millefolium ecotypes to competition and soil type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Higgins; R. N. Mack

    1987-01-01

    Achillea millefolium populations from adjacent sites with zonal and serpentime soil were used to test predictions about the relation between growth and the competitive ability of plants in productive and unproductive environments. Under greenhouse conditions, individually-grown plants from both sources grew larger in serpentine soil than in zonal soil; serpentine plants accumulated 72% more biomass than zonal plants. In zonal

  19. Chromosome numbers within the Achillea millefolium and the A. distans Groups in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji?í Danihelka; Olga Rotreklová

    2001-01-01

    TheAchillea millefolium group is represented in the Czech Republic and Slovakia by six species.Achillea setacea andA. asplenifolia are diploid;A. collina andA. pratensis are tetraploid;A. millefolium is hexaploid; andA. pannonica is octoploid. The populations from Slovakia of theA. distans group, distributed mainly in Central and south-eastern Europe, were all hexaploid. The presence of these taxa in the area\\u000a studied was documented

  20. The protective effects of Achillea L. species native in Turkey against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage in human erythrocytes and leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Konyalioglu, Sibel; Karamenderes, Canan

    2005-11-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of infusions prepared from 15 Achillea (Asteraceae) species against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage in human erythrocytes and leucocytes used in traditional Turkish medicine. CAT, SOD and GPx activities, effects of LPO and GSH levels of the infusions on erythrocytes and leucocytes were assessed. The results indicated that all infusions of Achillea species were effective on antioxidant enzyme systems of erythrocytes and leucocytes when compared with H(2)O(2) group. Achillea falcata was the most effective one on CAT, GPx and SOD enzyme systems of erythrocytes. Among plant infusions, Achillea crithmifolia and Achillea nobilis subsp. neilrechii showed the highest activities on CAT, while Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica on SOD, Achillea teretifolia on GPx and Achillea nobilis subsp. sipylea on LPO enzyme systems of leucocytes. The present results demonstrate that infusions of Achillea species are a potential source of natural antioxidants for treatment and prevention of diseases in which LPO takes place. PMID:16118043

  1. Cytological investigations and new chromosome number reports in yarrow (Achillea millefolium Linnaeus, 1753) accessions from Iran.

    PubMed

    Afshari, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Akbari, Mohammad; Farajpour, Mostafa

    2013-10-24

    In this study, a new chromosome number for Iranian yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) accessions was reported. Cytological analyses on four Achillea millefolium accessions, indicated that two accessions were diploids (2n=2x=18) and two tetraploids (2n=4x=36). Cluster analysis based on chromosomal characteristics and karyotype asymmetry, categorized the four accessions separated into two groups. In terms of the Stebbins' system, the karyotype of diploid accessions grouped in 2A class. The average value of the total form percentage (TF%) in the group one (diploid accessions) and two (tetraploid accessions) were 40.85 and 41.15, respectively. The group one had the highest mean value for the symmetry index (S%=57.5). Consequently, it can be inferred that diploids belonging to the group one are the earlier evolutionary forms. PMID:24455101

  2. Cytological investigations and new chromosome number reports in yarrow (Achillea millefolium Linnaeus, 1753) accessions from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Afshari, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Akbari, Mohammad; Farajpour, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this study, a new chromosome number for Iranian yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) accessions was reported. Cytological analyses on four Achillea millefolium accessions, indicated that two accessions were diploids (2n=2x=18) and two tetraploids (2n=4x=36). Cluster analysis based on chromosomal characteristics and karyotype asymmetry, categorized the four accessions separated into two groups. In terms of the Stebbins’ system, the karyotype of diploid accessions grouped in 2A class. The average value of the total form percentage (TF%) in the group one (diploid accessions) and two (tetraploid accessions) were 40.85 and 41.15, respectively. The group one had the highest mean value for the symmetry index (S%=57.5). Consequently, it can be inferred that diploids belonging to the group one are the earlier evolutionary forms. PMID:24455101

  3. Morphogenesis in callus tissue cultures of some Matricaria and Achillea Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva ?ellárová; Klára Greláková; M. Rep?ák; R. Hon?ariv

    1982-01-01

    In the present paper we deal with the possibility of morphogenesis induction in callus tissue cultures of some representatives\\u000a ofMatricaria andAchillea species. Shoot regeneration from calli ofMatricaria chamomilla andM. inodora has been induced by 0.1 mg l-1 kinetin or by combination of 0.5 mg l-1 kinetin and 0.5 mg l-1 NAA added to Murashige-Skoog culture medium. Rhizogenesis took place without

  4. Comparative Study of the Essential Oils of Three Achillea Species from Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdolhossein Rustaiyan; Hossein Komeilizadeh; Mercedeh Sanei Shariatpanahi; Amir-reza Jassbi; Shiva Masoudi

    1998-01-01

    The composition of the oils from leaves and flowers of three Iranian Achillea species (A. talagonica Boiss., A. vermicularis Trin and A. biebersteinii Afan.) was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. During the flowering period, all three oils consisted mainly of monoterpenes. 1,8-Cineole and camphor were the predominant compounds in the oils of A. talagonica (27% and 20%) and A vermicularis

  5. Comparative Study of the Essential Oils of Three Achillea Species from Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jaimand; M. B. Rezaee

    2001-01-01

    The composition of the oils from flowers of three Iranian Achillea species (A. tenuifolia Lam, A. biebersteinii Afan., A. filipendulina Lam.) were collected during the flowering period. The essential oils obtained by steam distillation. The percentage of all three oils were 0.20% v\\/w calculated on the dry weight, analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS, all three oils consisted mainly of monoterpenes.

  6. Achillinin A, a cytotoxic guaianolide from the flower of Yarrow, Achillea millefolium.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Man-Li; Cong, Bin; Wang, Si-Ming; Dong, Mei; Sauriol, Françoise; Huo, Chang-Hong; Shi, Qing-Wen; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Kiyota, Hiromasa

    2011-01-01

    Achillinin A (2?,3?-epoxy-1?,4?,10?-trihydroxyguai-11(13)-en-12,6?-olide, 1), a new guaianolide isolated from the flower of Achillea millefolium, exhibited potential antiproliferative activity to A549, RERF-LC-kj and QG-90 cells with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 5.8, 10 and 0.31 µM, respectively. PMID:21821943

  7. Composition of the essential oil from cell suspension cultures of Achillea millefolium ssp. millefolium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cristina Figueiredo; M. Salomé; S. Pais; Johannes J. C. Scheffer

    1995-01-01

    The composition of the essential oil isolated from Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium cell suspension cultures was analysed by GC and GC-MS. The yield of the oil obtained by hydrodistillation or a simultaneous distillation -extraction of these cultures, harvested at days 8–10 (end of exponential phase), was 0.001 % (w\\/w). The analysis of the volatiles showed the presence of thirteen

  8. New chromosome numbers and remarks on the Achillea millefolium polyploid complex in North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedrich Ehrendorfer

    1973-01-01

    Summary 1.For 79 North American populations of the N. Hemisphere polyploid complexAchillea millefolium agg. (Asteraceae-Anthemideae) new tetraploid and hexaploid chromosome counts (n=18, 27 resp. 2 n=36, 54) are documented.2.Together with literature references this adds to our knowledge of the distribution and affinities ofA. millefolium agg. cytotypes and races in North America. While 4 x types are widespread, autochthonous 6 x

  9. Mosquito repelling activity of compounds occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (asteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Tunón; W. Thorsell; L. Bohlin

    1994-01-01

    An ethanol extract ofAchillea millefolium L. showed repelling properties against the mosquito,Aedes aegypti L. Prepared fractions from the extract contained several active compounds which were characterized by thin layer chromatography,\\u000a high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Of 35 compounds tested, the most active\\u000a were the nitrogen containing compound stachydrine, the carboxylic acids, caffeic, chlorogenic, and salicylic acids,

  10. Chemotypes of Achillea millefolium transferred from 14 different locations in Lithuania to the controlled environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Odeta Gudaityt?; Petras Rimantas Venskutonis

    2007-01-01

    The composition of essential oils hydrodistilled from 19 samples of inflorescences and leaves of Achillea millefolium L. plants, which were transferred from 14 natural habitats in Lithuania to the field collection, is reported. Total content of oil was 0.15–0.55% in inflorescences and 0.06–0.19% (v\\/w) in leaves. In total 117 compounds were identified positively or tentatively. Data obtained clearly indicate the

  11. Variation in Essential Oil Composition and Chiral Monoterpenes of Achillea millefolium s.l. from Kaliningrad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela Orth; Franz-C. Czygan; Viktor P. Dedkov

    1999-01-01

    Five clones of the Achillea millefolium-“complex” from different sites at Kaliningrad were cultivated in the Botanical Garden of Würzburg to investigate the oil composition of the flowerheads. The oil was obtained by steam distillation and the headspace method. Gas chromatography with an M.C.S.S. system (moving-capillary-stream-switching) was used to analyze chiral monoterpenes. The variability of the major components was examined by

  12. Phytochemical analysis of the essential oil of Achillea millefolium L. from various European Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Orav; Elmar Arak; Ain Raal

    2006-01-01

    Variations in the essential oil composition of Achillea millefolium L. growing in Estonia and in other European countries, were determined. The oils were obtained in yields of 0.9–9.5?mL?kg. A total of 102 components were identified. The quantitatively most important components of yarrow were sabinene, ?-pinene, 1,8-cineole, artemisia ketone, linalool, ?-thujone, ?-thujone, camphor, borneol, fenchyl acetate, bornyl acetate, (E)-?-caryophyllene, germacrene D,

  13. Reproductive evaluation of aqueous crude extract of Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) in Wistar rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo R Dalsenter; Ana M Cavalcanti; Anderson J. M Andrade; Samanta L Araújo; Maria C. A Marques

    2004-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity of the exposure to the aqueous extract from leaves (AE) of Achillea millefolium L. on reproductive endpoints in Wistar rats. Adult male rats were treated daily with yarrow extract (0.3, 0.6 and 1.2g\\/kg\\/day) during 90 days by oral gavage. Endpoints including reproductive organ weights, sperm and spermatid numbers as well as

  14. Extraction and GC\\/MS Analysis of the Essential Oil of Achillea millefolium L. complex (Compositae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marie Hachey; Guy-J. Collin; Michel-J. Gagnon; Sandra Simard; Sylvain Dufour; France-Ida Jean; Gaston Vernin; Daniel Fraisse

    1990-01-01

    The essential oil, which was obtained by hydrodistillation from aerial parts of Achillea millefolium L. complex (Compositae), was analyzed using both GC\\/MS and Kovat's indices. The major components extracted from the stems, leaves and inflorescences were found to be ?-thujone (8.3–21.7%), camphor (8.6–11.7%), 1, 8-cineole (7.7–15.2%), ?-pinene (3.8–7.8%) and sabinene (5.7–8.9%). More than sixty components have been identified; forty of

  15. Achillea millefolium L. s.l. – Is the anti-inflammatory activity mediated by protease inhibition?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit Benedek; Brigitte Kopp; Matthias F. Melzig

    2007-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. s.l. is traditionally used not only in the treatment of gastro-intestinal and hepato-biliary disorders, but also as an antiphlogistic drug. As various proteases, for instance human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9), are associated with the inflammatory process, the aim of this study was to test a crude plant extract in in vitro-protease inhibition

  16. Choleretic effects of yarrow ( Achillea millefolium s.l.) in the isolated perfused rat liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Benedek; N. Geisz; W. Jäger; T. Thalhammer; B. Kopp

    2006-01-01

    Different species from the Achillea millefolium aggregate are used against gastrointestinal and hepato-biliary disorders in traditional European medicine. In this work, a fraction enriched in dicaffeoylquinic acids (DCCAs) and luteolin-7-O-?-d-glucuronide was investigated on its choleretic effect in the isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL) compared to cynarin (1,3-DCCA), the main choleretic compound of Cynara scolymus L. A fraction containing 3,4-, 3,5-

  17. Essential oils from hairy root cultures and from plant roots of Achillea millefolium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. L Lourenço; A. C Figueiredo; J. G Barroso; L. G Pedro; M. M Oliveira; S. G Deans; J. J. C Scheffer

    1999-01-01

    The essential oils isolated from roots of two Achillea millefolium populations (BGL and CGA) and from two hairy root cultures (A4 and LBA) derived from one of these were analysed by GC and GC–mass spectrometry. The essential oils from the plant roots were obtained in a yield of 0.10% (BGL) and 0.05% (CGA) (v\\/w), whereas that of both hairy root

  18. Comparison of capillary electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography for determination of flavonoids in Achillea millefolium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina Ko?evar; Igor Glava?; Rade Injac; Samo Kreft

    2008-01-01

    Flavonoids represent an important bioactive component in Achillea millefolium. The comparison of the most commonly used analytical methods for the identification and quantification of flavonoids, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), is presented. The methods were optimized and validated. Using a 20mM borate buffer with 30% (v\\/v) of methanol (pH 9.3) in the CE analysis and a

  19. GIS-facilitated in vitro propagation and ex situ conservation of Achillea occulta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katerina Grigoriadou; Nikos Krigas; Eleni Maloupa

    A Geographical Information Systems (GIS)-facilitated approach for the in vitro propagation and ex situ conservation of the\\u000a conservation priority species Achillea occulta is presented. To realize the species’ ecological requirements, the coordinates of the original habitat were linked with thematic\\u000a layers derived from digital databases in a GIS environment. From wild plants, shoot tips were established in vitro in a

  20. Blood pressure lowering, cardiovascular inhibitory and bronchodilatory actions of Achillea millefolium.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif-ullah; Gilani, Anwarul Hasan

    2011-04-01

    Achillea millefolium Linn. (Asteraceae) is used in folk medicine for the treatment of overactive cardiovascular and respiratory ailments. This study describes its hypotensive, cardio-depressant, vasodilatory and bronchodilatory activities. The crude extract of Achillea millefolium (Am.Cr) caused a dose-dependent (1-100?mg/kg) fall in arterial blood pressure of rats under anaesthesia. In spontaneously beating guinea-pig atrial tissues, Am.Cr exhibited negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. In isolated rabbit aortic rings, Am.Cr at 0.3-10?mg/mL relaxed phenylephrine (PE, 1?µm) and high K(+) (80?mm)-induced contractions, as well as suppressed the PE (1?µm) control peaks obtained in Ca(++) -free medium, like that caused by verapamil. The vasodilator effect of Am.Cr was partially blocked by N(?) -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester in endothelium intact preparations. In guinea-pig tracheal strips, Am.Cr inhibited carbachol (CCh, 1?µm) and K(+) -induced contractions. These results indicate that Achillea millefolium exhibits hypotensive, cardiovascular inhibitory and bronchodilatory effects, thus explaining its medicinal use in hyperactive cardiovascular and airway disorders, such as hypertension and asthma. PMID:20857434

  1. Comparative Study of Essential Oil of Three Achillea Species from Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nada N. Kova?evi?; Mihailo S. Risti?; Slavoljub R. Tasi?; Nebojša R. Menkovi?; Dragoljub V. Grubiši?; Dejan D. ?okovi?

    2005-01-01

    The composition of the essential oils from herbs of Achillea alexandri-regis, A. holosericea and A. lingulata was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. The predominant compounds in the oil of A. alexandri-regis were: ?-pinene (14.415.7%), isopinocamphone (5.4–23.5%), ?-phellandrene epoxide (5.0–19.0%), borneol (3.6–7.7%) and spathulenol (1.4–9.7%). The major components in the herb oil of A. holosericea were: borneol (17.3–18.1%), camphor (9.7–15.1%), terpinen-4-ol

  2. Composition of the Essential Oil from Achillea millefolium L. from Estonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Orav; Tiiu Kailas; Kaire Ivask

    2001-01-01

    The essential oil obtained by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) from air-dried aerial parts of plant species Achillea millefolium L. yarrow was analyzed by capillary GC and GC\\/MS. Sixty-six components were identified. The major constituents in the oil extracts were ?-pinene (14.9–29.2%), sabinene (2.9–17.6%), 1,8-cineole (6.9–18.3%), ?-caryophyllene (3.3–6.2%), (E)-nerolidol (0.5–6.4%), guaiol (0.3–11.8%) and chamazulene (0.1–13.3%). The monoterpene fraction represented

  3. Achillea millefolium L. s.l. revisited: Recent findings confirm the traditional use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit Benedek; Brigitte Kopp

    2007-01-01

    \\u000a Zusammenfassung  Die Schafgarbe (Achillea millefolium L. s.l.) wird traditionell bei krampfartigen und entzündlichen Magen-Darm-Erkrankungen, als Gallenmittel und äußerlich bei\\u000a Entzündungen eingesetzt. In neuesten Untersuchungen konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Flavonoide aus der Schafgarbe spasmolytisch\\u000a wirken, während die Dicaffeoylchinasäuren choleretisch aktiv sind. Außerdem wurde eine in vitro-Hemmung der humanen neutrophilen Elastase, einer am Entzündungsgeschehen beteiligten Protease, durch Extrakte und Fraktionen\\u000a aus der

  4. Variability of the essential oils composition of Achillea millefolium ssp. millefolium growing wild in Lithuania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danute Mockute; Asta Judzentiene

    2003-01-01

    Forty samples of inflorescences and leaves of Achillea millefolium ssp. millefolium with white flowers were collected in 21 habitats (1999 and 2000) in Lithuania. Essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. The volatile oils according to the cluster analysis were divided into four groups containing the same major constituents: I (four samples)—borneol (11.5–13.2%)+camphor (7.2–13.1%); II (four samples)—chamazulene (9.8–23.2%)+?-pinene (9.7–26.5%);

  5. Assessment of two medicinal plants, Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L., in in vitro and in vivo assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosangela de Oliveira Teixeira; Marjori Leiva Camparoto; Mário Sérgio Mantovani; Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini

    2003-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants by the general population is an old and still widespread practice, which makes studies of their genotoxicity essential. Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L. are examples of plants commonly used in popular medicine. P. guajava L. is indicated for diarrhea and also as an antiseptic, while A. millefolium L. is indicated as an analgesic,

  6. Development of an RP?HPLC Method for the Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Achillea millefolium L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raimondas Benetis; Jolita Radušien?; Valdas Jakštas; Valdimaras Janulis; Faustas Malinauskas

    2008-01-01

    Several major phenolic constituents present in yarrow (Achillea millefolium L. s.l.) were determined for a homogenized plant sample. In order to optimize the conditions for sample preparation of the botanical matrix two different solvent extraction methods (maceration and ultrasonic agitation) were assayed. The preliminary maceration studies were performed to determine the influence of extracting solvents on the recovery of phenolics

  7. Variability of phenolic compounds in flowers of Achillea millefolium wild populations in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Benetis, Raimondas; Radusiene, Jolita; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2008-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. sensu lato (yarrow) is the best-known species of the genus Achillea due to numerous medicinal applications both in folk and conventional medicine. Phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and phenol carbonic acids are present in yarrow and constitute one of the most important groups of pharmacologically active substances. In the present study, yarrow flowers gathered from native populations in different locations of Lithuania were analyzed for phenolic compound composition. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for chemical analyses. Eight phenolic compounds--chlorogenic acid and flavonoids, namely vicenin-2, luteolin-3',7-di-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, rutin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, and apigenin--were identified in the extracts from yarrow flowers. Considerable variation in accumulation of phenolic compounds among the flowers from different locations was observed. The samples were divided into two main groups based on chemical composition: the first group was characterized by lower than the mean total amount of the identified phenolics; the second was formed from samples accumulating higher concentrations of investigated secondary metabolites. The total amount of the identified phenolics in yarrow flowers from different populations varied from 13.290 to 27.947 mg/g. PMID:19001835

  8. Rapid adaptive divergence in new world achillea, an autopolyploid complex of ecological races.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Justin; Robertson, Alexander; Husband, Brian

    2008-03-01

    Adaptive evolution is often associated with speciation. In plants, however, ecotypic differentiation is common within widespread species, suggesting that climatic and edaphic specialization can outpace cladogenesis and the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation. We used cpDNA sequence (5 noncoding regions, 3.5 kb) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs: 4 primer pairs, 1,013 loci) to evaluate the history of ecological differentiation in the North American Achillea millefolium, an autopolyploid complex of "ecological races" exhibiting morphological, physiological, and life-history adaptations to diverse environments. Phylogenetic analyses reveal North American A. millefolium to be a monophyletic group distinct from its European and Asian relatives. Based on patterns of sequence divergence, as well as fossil and paleoecological data, colonization of North America appears to have occurred via the Bering Land Bridge during the Pleistocene (1.8 MYA to 11,500 years ago). Population genetic analyses indicate negligible structure within North American A. millefolium associated with varietal identity, geographic distribution, or ploidy level. North American populations, moreover, exhibit the signature of demographic expansion. These results affirm the "ecotype" concept of the North American Achillea advocated by classical research and demonstrate the rapid rate of ecological differentiation that sometimes occurs in plants. PMID:18039326

  9. Sources of Variation in Leaf Shape among Two Populations of Achillea Lanulosa

    PubMed Central

    Gurevitch, J.

    1992-01-01

    Achillea lanulosa has complex, highly dissected leaves that vary in shape and size along an altitudinal gradient. Plants from a high and an intermediate altitude population were clonally replicated and grown in a controlled environment at warm and cool conditions under bright light. There were genetic differences among populations and among individuals within populations in leaf size and shape. Heritabilities for leaf size and shape characters were moderate. Leaves of the lower altitude population were larger and differed from the higher altitude plants in both coarse and fine shape. Plastic response to temperature of the growth environment paralleled the genetic differentiation between low and high altitude populations. There was no apparent trade-off between genetic control over morphology and the capacity for directional plastic response to the environment. Differences in leaf dissection and size at contrasting altitudes in this species are the result of both genetic divergence among populations and of acclimative responses to local environments. PMID:1541395

  10. Evaluating the Efficacy of Achillea millefolium and Thymus vulgaris Extracts Against Newcastle Disease Virus in Ovo

    PubMed Central

    Rezatofighi, Seyedeh Elham; Seydabadi, Akram; Seyyed Nejad, Seyyed Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays natural products such as pure compounds and plant extract scan provide unlimited opportunities for new antiviral drugs. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is one of the most important viral diseases in poultry industry. Vaccination could provide protection against NDV outbreaks, but it is not sufficient because infections by NDVs have remained frequent around the world. Objectives: The current research aimed to study Achillea millefolium and Thymus vulgaris antiviral activity against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Materials and Methods: The antiviral activity of the plants was measured by the reduction assay of viral titer, and explained by inhibition percentage (IP). Results: Inhibition percentage was determined as 10 1.75, which indicated the ability of the extracts to reduce the viral potency by more than 56 folds. Conclusions: Both plants were found effective against Newcastle disease virus. PMID:25147678

  11. Comparison of capillary electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography for determination of flavonoids in Achillea millefolium.

    PubMed

    Kocevar, Nina; Glavac, Igor; Injac, Rade; Kreft, Samo

    2008-02-13

    Flavonoids represent an important bioactive component in Achillea millefolium. The comparison of the most commonly used analytical methods for the identification and quantification of flavonoids, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), is presented. The methods were optimized and validated. Using a 20 mM borate buffer with 30% (v/v) of methanol (pH 9.3) in the CE analysis and a gradient elution with water-acetonitrile mobile phase in the HPLC analysis, sufficient separation of the analytes was achieved. A relatively high injection volume in the CE analysis (30 mbar x 30s) enabled low limit of detection (LOD) (0.3-0.7 mg/L). Repeatability of both methods was acceptable (relative standard deviation of peak area were <6%). Additionally, the amount of flavonoids in a real sample of the dried herbal drug was determined. PMID:18164574

  12. Evaluation of the Wound Healing Potential of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae) by In Vivo Excision and Incision Models

    PubMed Central

    Akkol, Esra Küpeli; Koca, Ufuk; Pesin, Ipek; Yilmazer, Demet

    2011-01-01

    Achillea species are widely used for diarrhea, abdominal pain, stomachache and healing of wounds in folk medicine. To evaluate the wound healing activity of the plant, extracts were prepared with different solvents; hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively from the roots of Achillea biebersteinii. Linear incision by using tensiometer and circular excision wound models were employed on mice and rats. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with the standard skin ointment Madecassol. The n-hexane extract treated groups of animals showed 84.2% contraction, which was close to contraction value of the reference drug Madecassol (100%). On the other hand the same extract on incision wound model demonstrated a significant increase (40.1%) in wound tensile strength as compared to other groups. The results of histoptological examination supported the outcome of linear incision and circular excision wound models as well. The experimental data demonstrated that A. biebersteinii displayed remarkable wound healing activity. PMID:19546149

  13. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982) at test concentrations of 1000 ?g/ml, 100 ?g/ml, 10 ?g/ml, 7.5 ?g/ml, 5.0 ?g/ml, 2.5 ?g/ml and 1.25 ?g/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA) and Teucrium stocksianum (CST) had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 ?g/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity) was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST) has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development. PMID:22051373

  14. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferda Candan; Mehmet Unlu; Bekta? Tepe; Dimitra Daferera; Moschos Polissiou; Atalay Sökmen; H. A?k?n Akpulat

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae) were investigated. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 36 compounds constituting 90.8% of the total oil. Eucalyptol, camphor, ?-terpineol, ?-pinene, and borneol were the principal components comprising 60.7% of the oil. The oil strongly

  15. AFLP analyses demonstrate genetic divergence, hybridization, and multiple polyploidization in the evolution of Achillea (Asteraceae-Anthemideae).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Ping; Saukel, Johannes; Mittermayr, Reginsa; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich

    2005-04-01

    Achillea, a temperate genus of herbaceous allogamous perennials, is a model for evolutionary radiation through hybridization and polyploidization. AFLP analyses were performed on 300 individuals of 66 populations and 27 taxa/cytotypes, mainly from the polyploid A. millefolium aggregate and its suspected hybrid links with other clades of the genus. The mosaic genetic structure of hybrids and polyploids is revealed by specific AFLP bands shared with their assumed parents. In E Asia, A. alpina-4x and A. wilsoniana-4x are allotetraploids between A. acuminata-2x (sect. Ptarmica) and A. asiatica-2x (sect. Achillea-A. millefolium agg.). A. virescens-4x is a hybrid species linking A. nobilis agg. and A. millefolium agg. in S Europe. The hybrid swarm A. clypeolata-2x yen A. collina-4x recently formed in Bulgaria shows no AFLP bands additive to its parents; by contrast, other more ancient allopolyploids exhibit genetic innovations. Relationships within A. millefolium agg. are complex. Five 2x-taxa, mostly well separated and regressive, are limited to Eurasia; seven 4x- and 6x-taxa are intimately linked by hybridization, are expansive, and through A. asiatica-2x/4x have formed the N American polyploids. All these results from AFLPs correspond well to other evidence, and indicate a long history of reticulate evolution in Achillea. PMID:15760370

  16. Phytochemical Analysis and Metal-chelation Activity of Achillea tenuifolia Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Moradkhani, Shirin; Ayatollahi, Abdul Majid; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Moin, Mohammad Reza; Razavizadeh, Masoud; Shahlaei, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Achillea tenuifolia Lam. (Asteraceae) afforded a dichloromethane fraction from which three known compounds ?-sitosterol (compound1), 5-hydroxy, 4',6,7– trimethoxy flavone (salvigenin compound 2), and methyl-gallate (compound 3) were isolated for the first time. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by different spectroscopic methods. Applying the molar-ratio method, the complexation of salvigenin with Fe (III), Cu(II) and Zn(II), the most abundant type of metal ions in the body, were then evaluated. It was determined that stoichiometric ratio of salvigenin with these cations were as Fe(Salvigenin)2 (H2O)2 and Cu(Salvigenin)2(H2O)2 in methanolic solution without pH control, while zinc ions didn`t form significant complexes. The results were confirmed more, by computational molecular modeling of the structure of proposed ligand-complexes by semi-imperical PM3 calculations, which determined negative heat of formation for the complexes Fe(III) and Cu(II) ions as -689.7 and -573.5, respectively and proposed chelating affinity of salvigenin in the following order: Fe(III) > Cu(II) >> Zn(II). PMID:24250440

  17. Composition at different development stages of the essential oil of four Achillea species grown in Iran.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Majid; Chizzola, Remigius; Ghani, Askar; Oroojalian, Fatemeh

    2010-02-01

    Four Achillea species, A. millefolium, A. nobilis, A. eriophora and A. biebersteinii, were grown in small field plots in Iran and harvested at four developmental stages: vegetative, at the appearance of the first flower heads, at full flowering, and at late flowering. The composition of the main volatile compounds in dichloromethane extracts and the essential oil obtained by microdistillation was established by GC/MS and GC. 1,8-Cineole (27-41%) was the main compound in the oils from A. millefolium and A. biebersteinii. These two species reached the highest amount of volatile compounds at the full blooming stage. alpha-Thujone was the main compound in A. nobilis oil (25-64%). Fully blooming plants of this species also had a high proportion of artemisia ketone (up to 40%) in the oil. The main oil compounds of A. eriophora were camphor (about 35%) and 1,8-cineol (about 30%). This species produces only a small number of flower heads and the composition of the essential oil did not change during development. PMID:20334145

  18. Antispasmodic effect of Achillea nobilis L. subsp. sipylea (O. Schwarz) Bässler on the rat isolated duodenum.

    PubMed

    Karamenderes, Canan; Apaydin, Sebnem

    2003-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antispasmodic effect of the total extract of Achillea nobilis L. subsp. sipylea (Schwarz) Bässler (Asteraceae) on rat duodenum. In the first part of experiments, cumulative dose-response curves for acetylcholine (Ach) were obtained and then dose-response curves are repeated after addition of atropine, papaverine and different doses of the extract. In the second part, cumulative dose-response curves to CaCl(2) were obtained in the absence and presence of verapamil and different doses of the extract. In the third part, papaverine and extract were applied to the tissues after contraction with K(+). The extract has exhibited an inhibitory effect on the dose-response curves induced by Ach and CaCl(2) on rat duodenum and significantly reduced the maximal response in a concentration-dependent manner. A similar effect was observed with papaverine but not with atropine on the dose-response curves obtained by ACh. Verapamil also reduced the maximal response in curves induced by CaCl(2). The present results demonstrate that total extract of A. nobilis subsp. sipylea exerts antispasmodic activity on rat duodenum. PMID:12648812

  19. Chemical composition and antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities of the essential oil of Achillea ligustica all.

    PubMed

    Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Kowalczyk, Adam; Coroneo, Valentina; Russo, Maria Teresa; Dessì, Sandro; Cabras, Paolo

    2005-12-28

    The chemical composition of the essential oil from flowering tops of Achillea ligustica All. was studied. Samples were collected in different localities of Sardinia (Italy) and hydrodistilled both with Clevenger-type and with simultaneous distillation-extraction apparatus. The yields ranged between 0.88 +/- 0.06 and 0.43 +/- 0.02% (vol/dry wt). The essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS, and a total of 96 components were detected. From a qualitative point of view, irrelevant differences between samples were observed. Strong chemical variability depending on the origin of the samples was observed. The major compounds found were santolina alcohol (6.7-21.8%, for the first time detected in A. ligustica), borneol (3.4-20.8%), sabinol (2.1-15.5%), trans-sabinyl acetate (0.9-17.6%), alpha-thujone (0.4-25.8%), and, among sesquiterpenes, viridiflorol (0.7-3.6%). No significant differences were detected between essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation-extraction with CH2Cl2 and n-hexane. Antioxidant activity as DPPH radical scavenging activity was expressed in TEAC and ranged between 0.40 and 0.88 mmol/L. The antimicrobial and antifungal activities were investigated on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Penicillium commune, Fusarium oxysporum, Rizoctonia solani, and Aspergillus flavus, showing low activity. PMID:16366708

  20. Antimutagenic Effect of Medicinal Plants Achillea millefolium and Bauhinia forficata In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Coelho, Ana Carolina; Balbi, Thiago José; Düsman Tonin, Lilian Tatiani; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is valuable both as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs and as a measure of safety for the continued use of these medicinal plants. Achillea millefolium L. (AM) is an ancient remedial herb native to Europe that is used to treat wounds, gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders, inflammation, headaches, and pain. Bauhinia forficata Link (BF), an Asiatic plant, is one of the most commonly used plants in folk medicine against diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimutagenic potential of aqueous extracts of AM and BF on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats treated in vivo. These plant extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. These compounds were determinants to noncytotoxic and antimutagenic/protective action of these plants, that reduced statistically the percentage of chromosomal alterations induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide in simultaneous (AM, 68%; BF, 91%), pre- (AM, 68%; BF, 71%), and post-treatment (AM, 67%; BF, 95%). Therefore, the results of this study indicate that extracts of A. millefolium and B. forficata have antimutagenic potential and that their consumption can benefit the health of those using them as an alternative therapy. PMID:24459532

  1. Genotoxicity of Achillea millefolium essential oil in diploid cells of Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    de Sant'anna, Juliane Rocha; Franco, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva; Miyamoto, Claudia Tiemi; Cunico, Miriam Machado; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes; Côcco, Lílian Cristina; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; Junior, Cirino Corrêa; de Castro-Prado, Marialba Avezum Alves

    2009-02-01

    The essential oil of Achillea millefolium is commonly used in folk medicine for the treatment of several diseases and has been demonstrated previously to exert an in vitro antimicrobial activity against human pathogens. Current study investigates the genotoxic activity of A. millefolium oil. The oil's major constituents are: chamazulene (42.15%), sabinene (19.72%), terpin-4-ol (5.22%), beta-caryophyllene (4.44%) and eucalyptol (3.10%), comprising 74.63% of the total. The oil's genotoxic evaluation was performed at concentrations of 0.13 microL/mL, 0.19 microL/mL and 0.25 microL/mL with a heterozygous diploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans, named A757//UT448, with green conidia. A statistically significant increasing number of yellow and white mitotic recombinants, per colony, of the diploid strain was reported after oil treatment with 0.19 microL/mL and 0.25 microL/mL concentrations. The genotoxicity of the oil was associated with the induction of mitotic non-disjunction or crossing-over by oil. PMID:18803228

  2. Antileishmanial activity of an essential oil from the leaves and flowers of Achillea millefolium.

    PubMed

    Santos, A O; Santin, A C; Yamaguchi, M U; Cortez, L E R; Ueda-Nakamura, T; Dias-Filho, B P; Nakamura, C V

    2010-09-01

    An essential oil was recently extracted from the leaves and flowers of yarrow (Achillea millefolium) and tested for in-vitro activity against Leishmania amazonensis and murine macrophages (i.e. the J774G8 cell line). The median inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) against L. amazonensis promastigotes was 7.8 ?g/ml whereas the survival of amastigotes of this pathogen, within peritoneal murine macrophages, was halved by treatment with the oil at 6.5 ?g/ml. The mean value for the median cytotoxic concentration of the oil, measured against adherent (uninfected) J774G8 macrophages, was 72.0 ?g/ml (i.e. 9.2 and 11.0 times higher, respectively, than the IC(50) against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the oil caused morphological changes in the treated parasites, including alterations in their shape and size. In transmission electron microscopy, promastigotes treated with the oil (at the IC(50) of 7.8 ?g/ml) showed various ultrastructural alterations, including changes in the flagellar membrane, abnormal membrane structures, rupture of the plasma membrane, atypical vacuoles, myelin-like figures, and vesicles that resembled autophagic vacuoles. PMID:20863436

  3. The Effect of Hydroethanol Extract of Achillea Millefolium on ?-adrenoceptors of Guinea Pig Tracheal Smooth Muscle.

    PubMed

    Koushyar, H; Koushyar, M M; Byrami, G; Feizpour, A; Golamnezhad, Z; Boskabady, M H

    2013-07-01

    Different pharmacological effects of Achillea millefolium including its relaxant effect on smooth muscle have been shown previously. In the present study the stimulatory effect of the plant extract on ?-adrenoceptor of tracheal muscle was examined in order to investigate one possible mechanism for its observed relaxant effect. Effect of three concentrations of hydroethanol extract, 10 nM propranolol, and saline on ?-adrenoceptor was tested in two experimental groups including; nonincubated tracheal smooth muscles (group 1) and incubated tracheal smooth muscle with chlorpheniramine (group 2). Concentration response curves to isoprenaline were performed in precontracted tracheal smooth muscle in the presence of the extract, propranolol and saline. Values of EC50 and CR-1 were measured. Leftward shifts in isoprenaline curves were observed in the presence of medium and high concentrations of the extract compared with saline in both groups. The values of EC50 obtained in the presence of medium and high concentrations of the extract only in group 1 were nonsignificantly lower than that of saline. The values of CR-1 obtained in the presence of all concentrations of the extract in both groups were negative and significantly different with that of propranolol. The results indicated a small stimulatory effect of the extract on ß2-adrenoceptors. PMID:24302793

  4. Antimutagenic Effect of Medicinal Plants Achillea millefolium and Bauhinia forficata In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Düsman, Elisângela; de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Coelho, Ana Carolina; Balbi, Thiago José; Düsman Tonin, Lilian Tatiani; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is valuable both as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs and as a measure of safety for the continued use of these medicinal plants. Achillea millefolium L. (AM) is an ancient remedial herb native to Europe that is used to treat wounds, gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders, inflammation, headaches, and pain. Bauhinia forficata Link (BF), an Asiatic plant, is one of the most commonly used plants in folk medicine against diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimutagenic potential of aqueous extracts of AM and BF on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats treated in vivo. These plant extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. These compounds were determinants to noncytotoxic and antimutagenic/protective action of these plants, that reduced statistically the percentage of chromosomal alterations induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide in simultaneous (AM, 68%; BF, 91%), pre- (AM, 68%; BF, 71%), and post-treatment (AM, 67%; BF, 95%). Therefore, the results of this study indicate that extracts of A. millefolium and B. forficata have antimutagenic potential and that their consumption can benefit the health of those using them as an alternative therapy. PMID:24459532

  5. N -(2-methylpropyl)-( E,E )-2,4-decadienamide a mosquito larvicide from Achillea millefolium L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T. Lalonde; C. F. Wong; S. J. Hofstead; C. D. Morris; L. C. Gardner

    1980-01-01

    A methanol extract ofAchillea millefolium L. showed activity against 24-hr-old larvae ofAedes triseriatus. Bioassay- and TLC-monitored fractionation yielded a neutral fraction which was refined further by column chromatography to afford the antilarvalN-(2-methlpropyl)-(E,E)-2,4-decadienamide which was identified by spectral methods and through comparisons with a synthesized sample. Isolated and synthesized amides at 5 ppm resulted in 98 and 100% mortality of 24-hr-oldA.

  6. Mechanism of vasorelaxation induced by Achillea wilhelmsii in rat isolated thoracic aorta

    PubMed Central

    Niazmand, Saeed; Harandizadeh, Fatemeh; Mahmoudabady, Maryam; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Hasanzadeh, Mehdi; Fereidouni, Elahe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii) is used in Iraninan folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension; also, in previous reports, the hypotensive and antihypertensive effects of this plant have been indicated. The aim of the present study is to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of the hydroalcholic extract of A. wilhelmsii and its underlying mechanisms in isolated rat aorta. Materials and Methods: The effect of the hydroalcholic A. wilhelmsii extract was tested on the contractile response of Wistar rat aorta induced by potassium chloride (KCl) and phenylephrine (PE) using a pressure transducer that is connected to the PowerLab. Results: The cumulative concentrations of A. wilhelmsii (0.5-8 mg/ml) induced a vasorelaxation both in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted by high K+ (6 × 10?2 M) or 10?6 M PE. A. wilhelmsii, at a concentration of 4 mg/ml, reduced Ca2+-induced contraction (P < 0.001 vs. control) after PE or KCl had generated a stable contraction in the Ca2+-free solution. Furthermore, after incubation with diltiazem, the vasorelaxant effect of A. wilhelmsii reduced in the endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted by PE or KCl (P < 0.001 vs. control). In contrast, A. wilhelmsii-induced relaxation was not affected by glibenclamide, BaCl2, ruthenium red, methylene blue, or heparin. Conclusions: The results showed that A. wilhelmsii had a vasorelaxation effect, which was not endothelium-dependent. The relaxation was mediated by inhibition of extracellular Ca2+ influx through voltage- and receptor-operated Ca2+ channels (VDDCs and ROCCs) in vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:24761399

  7. The effect of Achillea millefolium extract on spermatogenesis of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Takzare, Nasrin; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Hamideh Mortazavi, Seyedeh; Safaie, Sahar; Moradi, Rayhaneh

    2011-04-01

    Achillea millefolium or yarrow, a native plant in many countries, has been recognized in historical medicine, mainly because of its astringent effects. However, some aspects of the toxicity of yarrow such as possible effects on male reproductive system are not well established. In this investigation, the effects of A. millefolium L. extract on spermatogenesis in adult male wistar rats were studied. Eighty-five male Wistar rats were divided into nine experimental groups (10 in each group except the ninth group). Extract was administered at the dose of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day by intraperitoneal (IP) injection or through gavage for 22 days, on every other day. Three groups were determined as sham and control groups. Five rats from each group were killed and the rest of the rats were kept for 40 days later, but with no injection, to assess the reversibility of extract effect on spermatogenesis. The results of the study showed scattered immature cells on basal membrane in seminiferous tubules at the dose of 400 mg/kg/day IP. Moreover, a significant decrease in cell accumulation and vacuolization in seminiferous tubule was seen. At the dose of 800 mg/kg, IP, thickened seminiferous tubules on basal membrane, decrease in cell accumulation in seminiferous tubule, severe disarrangement, degenerative cells and severe decrease in sperm count were seen. At the dose of 800 mg/kg/day, orally, basal membrane was thickened and the disarrangement in cells was demonstrated. As a conclusion, our results suggest that the total extract of A. millefolium L. exhibit temporary antifertile activity in adult male animals. PMID:20515984

  8. The Polyploid Series of the Achillea millefolium Aggregate in the Iberian Peninsula Investigated Using Microsatellites.

    PubMed

    López-Vinyallonga, Sara; Soriano, Ignasi; Susanna, Alfonso; Montserra, Josep Maria; Roquet, Cristina; Garcia-Jacas, Núria

    2015-01-01

    The Achillea millefolium aggregate is one of the most diverse polyploid complexes of the Northern hemisphere and has its western Eurasian boundary in the Iberian Peninsula. Four ploidy levels have been detected in A. millefolium, three of which have already been found in Iberia (diploid, hexaploid and octoploid), and a fourth (tetraploid) reported during the preparation of this paper. We collected a sample from 26 Iberian populations comprising all ploidy levels, and we used microsatellite markers analyzed as dominant in view of the high ploidy levels. Our goals were to quantify the genetic diversity of A. millefolium in the Iberian Peninsula, to elucidate its genetic structure, to investigate the differences in ploidy levels, and to analyse the dispersal of the species. The lack of spatial genetic structure recovered is linked to both high levels of gene flow between populations and to the fact that most genetic variability occurs within populations. This in turn suggests the existence of a huge panmictic yarrow population in the Iberian Peninsula. This is consistent with the assumption that recent colonization and rapid expansion occurred throughout this area. Likewise, the low levels of genetic variability recovered suggest that bottlenecks and/or founder events may have been involved in this process, and clonal reproduction may have played an important role in maintaining this genetic impoverishment. Indeed, the ecological and phenologic uniformity present in the A. millefolium agg. in Iberia compared to Eurasia and North America may be responsible for the low number of representatives of this complex of species present in the Iberian Peninsula. The low levels of genetic differentiation between ploidy levels recovered in our work suggest the absence of barriers between them. PMID:26091537

  9. Chemical composition and biological activity of the volatile extracts of Achillea millefolium.

    PubMed

    Falconieri, Danilo; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Marongiu, Bruno; Gonçalves, Maria J; Cabral, Célia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia

    2011-10-01

    In this study, flowering aerial parts of wild Achillea millefolium growing on the Mediterranean coast (Sardinia Island, Italy) and on the Atlantic coast (Portugal- Serra de Montemuro) were used as a matrix for supercritical extraction of volatile oil with CO2 (SFE). The collected extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods and their composition were compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation. A strong chemical variability in essential oils depending on the origin of the samples was observed. The results showed the presence of two type oils. The Italian volatile extracts (SFE and essential oil) are predominantly composed by alpha-asarone (25.6-33.3%, in the SFE extract and in the HD oil, respectively), beta-bisabolene (27.3-16.6%) and alpha-pinene (10.0-17.0%); whereas the main components of the Portuguese extracts are trans-thujone (31.4-29.0%), trans-crhysanthenyl acetate (19.8-15.8%) and beta-pinene (1.2-11.1%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guillermondii, C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. verrucosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and A. flavus. The oils showed the highest activity against dermatophyte strains, with MIC values ranging from 0.32-1.25 microL mL(-1). PMID:22164800

  10. The role for nitric oxide on the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Achillea wilhelmsii on seizure

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mahmoud; Harandizadeh, Fatemeh; Niazmand, Saeed; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Faizpour, Azadeh; Ghasemabady, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Objective : Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role both as a consequence and as a cause of epileptic seizures. Regarding the central nervous system depressant effects of Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii), as well the effects of the plant on NO, this study was aimed to elucidate the possible role for nitric oxide on the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups (n=8 in each group) and treated with (1) normal saline, (2) normal saline before pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 90 mg/kg), (3-7) A. wilhelmsii extract (100, 200, 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg) before PTZ. Latency to first minimal colonic seizure (MCS) and the first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) as well as the mortality rate were recorded. The brain tissues were then removed for biochemical measurements. Fisher’s exact probability test as well as analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey’s test were used for statistical evaluation. Results: Treatment with 100- 1200 mg/kg of the extract did not affect MCS latencies. 400 mg/kg of the extract prolonged GTCS latency (p<0.001), however, the lower and higher doses were not effective. Nitric oxide metabolites concentrations in the hippocampal tissues of the animals treated with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract were increased compared with saline (p<0.05-p<0.01). Conclusion: The present study showed that hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii affects NO metabolites in brain tissues as well the severity of seizures in PTZ-induced seizure model. PMID:25068139

  11. Antispasmodic effects of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) extract in the isolated ileum of rat.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Rafieian-Koupaei, Mahmoud; Imani-Rastabi, Reza; Nasiri, Jafar; Shahrani, Mehrdad; Rabiei, Zahra; Alibabaei, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. is cultivated in Iran and widely used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. millefolium on the contraction and relaxation of isolated ileum in rat. In this experimental study, aerial parts of A. millefolium were extracted by maceration in ethanol 70% for 72 h. Terminal portion of ileum in 100 male Wistar rats was dissected and its contractions were recorded isotonically in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution (37 °C, pH 7.4) under one gram tension. Acetylcholine (1mM) and KCl (60mM) were used to create isotonic contractions. Propranolol and N?-Nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride (L-NAME) were used to investigate the mechanisms of action prior to giving the extract to the relevant groups. Data were compared by ANOVA and Turkey's post hoc test.. The results showed that the ileum contraction was induced by KCl and acetylcholine induced contraction was significantly reduced by A. millefolium extract. The cumulative concentrations of A. millefolium relaxed the KCl and acetylcholine induced contractions (n=14, p<0.001). The inhibitory effect of extract on contraction induced by KCl and acetylcholine was not significantly affected neither by propranolol (1µM) nor by L-NAME (100 µM). There was no significant difference in the rate of relaxation by propranolol and L-NAME between the two groups. In conclusion, A. millefolium can inhibit contraction of smooth muscle of ileum in rat, and it can be used for eliminating intestinal spasms. These results suggest that the relaxatory effect of A. millefolium on ileum contractions can be due to the blockade of voltage dependent calcium channels. In addition, the ?-adrenoceptors, cholinergic receptors and nitric oxide production are not powerful actors in inhibitory effect of A. millefolium. So, the nitric oxide and adrenergic systems may also be involved in the antispasmodic effect of A. millefolium. PMID:24311877

  12. The Polyploid Series of the Achillea millefolium Aggregate in the Iberian Peninsula Investigated Using Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    López-Vinyallonga, Sara; Soriano, Ignasi; Susanna, Alfonso; Montserra, Josep Maria; Roquet, Cristina; Garcia-Jacas, Núria

    2015-01-01

    The Achillea millefolium aggregate is one of the most diverse polyploid complexes of the Northern hemisphere and has its western Eurasian boundary in the Iberian Peninsula. Four ploidy levels have been detected in A. millefolium, three of which have already been found in Iberia (diploid, hexaploid and octoploid), and a fourth (tetraploid) reported during the preparation of this paper. We collected a sample from 26 Iberian populations comprising all ploidy levels, and we used microsatellite markers analyzed as dominant in view of the high ploidy levels. Our goals were to quantify the genetic diversity of A. millefolium in the Iberian Peninsula, to elucidate its genetic structure, to investigate the differences in ploidy levels, and to analyse the dispersal of the species. The lack of spatial genetic structure recovered is linked to both high levels of gene flow between populations and to the fact that most genetic variability occurs within populations. This in turn suggests the existence of a huge panmictic yarrow population in the Iberian Peninsula. This is consistent with the assumption that recent colonization and rapid expansion occurred throughout this area. Likewise, the low levels of genetic variability recovered suggest that bottlenecks and/or founder events may have been involved in this process, and clonal reproduction may have played an important role in maintaining this genetic impoverishment. Indeed, the ecological and phenologic uniformity present in the A. millefolium agg. in Iberia compared to Eurasia and North America may be responsible for the low number of representatives of this complex of species present in the Iberian Peninsula. The low levels of genetic differentiation between ploidy levels recovered in our work suggest the absence of barriers between them. PMID:26091537

  13. The protective effects of Achillea L. species native in Turkey against H 2O 2-induced oxidative damage in human erythrocytes and leucocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sibel Konyalioglu; Canan Karamenderes

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of infusions prepared from 15 Achillea (Asteraceae) species against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in human erythrocytes and leucocytes used in traditional Turkish medicine. CAT, SOD and GPx activities, effects of LPO and GSH levels of the infusions on erythrocytes and leucocytes were assessed. The results indicated that all infusions

  14. Trypanosoma cruzi: Activity of essential oils from Achillea millefolium L., Syzygium aromaticum L. and Ocimum basilicum L. on epimastigotes and trypomastigotes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giani F. Santoro; Maria G. Cardoso; Luiz Gustavo L. Guimarães; Lidiany Z. Mendonça; Maurilio J. Soares

    2007-01-01

    Trypanocidal activity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) essential oils and some of their constituents (eugenol and linalool) was investigated on Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote and bloodstream trypomastigote forms. Steam distillation was used to isolate the essential oils, with chemical analyses performed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS).

  15. Heavy metal uptake in transplanted and in situ yarrow ( Achillea millefolium ) and epiphytic cryptogams at rural, urban and industrial localities in Denmark

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ib Johnsen; Kim Pilegaard; Erik Nymand

    1983-01-01

    Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) and 3 cryptogamic epiphytes were collected from and transplanted to 10 various locations in Denmark. The spatial and temporal variation in Pb and Cd concentrations of yarrow leaves and the cryptogams were determined. The physical structure of the plant parts, the mobility differences between the metals and the atmospheric fallout of metals at the growing site

  16. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products?-?part 1: Achillea millefolium-Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Calapai, Gioacchino; Miroddi, Marco; Minciullo, Paola L; Caputi, Achille P; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 1: Achillea millefolium L.-Curcuma longa L. PMID:24621152

  17. Antiproliferative effect of flavonoids and sesquiterpenoids from Achillea millefolium s.l. on cultured human tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Csupor-Löffler, Boglárka; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Zupkó, István; Réthy, Borbála; Falkay, George; Forgo, Peter; Hohmann, Judit

    2009-05-01

    The antiproliferative activities of n-hexane, chloroform, aqueous-methanol and aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of the Achillea millefolium aggregate on three human tumour cell lines were investigated by means of MTT assays. The chloroform-soluble extract exerted high tumour cell proliferation inhibitory activities on HeLa and MCF-7 cells, and a moderate effect on A431 cells; accordingly, it was subjected to detailed bioactivity-guided fractionation. As a result of the multistep chromatographic purifications (VLC, CPC, PLC, gel filtration), five flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, centaureidin, casticin and artemetin) and five sesquiterpenoids (paulitin, isopaulitin, psilostachyin C, desacetylmatricarin and sintenin) were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. The antiproliferative assay demonstrated that centaureidin is the most effective constituent of the aerial parts of yarrow: high cell growth inhibitory activities were observed especially on HeLa (IC(50) 0.0819 microm) and MCF-7 (IC(50) 0.1250 microm) cells. Casticin and paulitin were also highly effective against all three tumour cell lines (IC(50) 1.286-4.76 microm), while apigenin, luteolin and isopaulitin proved to be moderately active (IC(50) 6.95-32.88 microm). Artemetin, psilostachyin C, desacetylmatricarin and sintenin did not display antiproliferative effects against these cell lines. This is the first report on the occurrence of seco-pseudoguaianolides (paulitin, isopaulitin and psilostachyin C) in the Achillea genus. PMID:19107850

  18. Toxic essential oils: anxiolytic, antinociceptive and antimicrobial properties of the yarrow Achillea umbellata Sibth. et Sm. (Asteraceae) volatiles.

    PubMed

    Radulovi?, Niko S; Deki?, Milan S; Ran?elovi?, Pavle J; Stojanovi?, Nikola M; Zarubica, Aleksandra R; Stojanovi?-Radi?, Zorica Z

    2012-06-01

    Many plant species are used for medicinal purposes without the knowledge of their possible toxic effect. The ethnopharmacologically renowned genus Achillea L. (Asteraceae) is even more troublesome in this respect since different taxa are believed to have the same beneficial properties as A. millefolium. According to the median lethal i.p. dose (LD(50)=853 mg/kg, mice), the volatiles of Achillea umbellata Sibth. et Sm. are more toxic than the thujone-containing essential oils (LD(50)>960 mg/kg). A GC-MS analysis of A. umbellata oil revealed the presence of a series of fragranyl esters (six new natural products). The major constituents of this oil, the rare monoterpene alcohol fragranol and fragranyl acetate, and one more ester (benzoate), as well as the oil itself, showed antianxiety, analgesic and, in some instances, paralyzing properties at 50-150 mg/kg but these are very likely sign of intoxication and not of possible beneficial effects of the plant volatiles. Testing of antimicrobial activity demonstrated that the oil possesses moderate activity against pathogenic microorganisms, but the effect of the oil differs in pro- and eukaryotic cells. According to the results obtained, fragranol may be considered as the main active principle responsible for the observed activity/toxicity. PMID:22449535

  19. Achillea Millefolium L. Hydro- Alcoholic Extract Protects Pancreatic Cells by Down Regulating IL- 1? and iNOS Gene Expression in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zolghadri, Yalda; Fazeli, Mehdi; Kooshki, Marzieh; Shomali, Tahoora; Karimaghayee, Negar; Dehghani, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) has a role in ?- cell destruction in autoimmune diabetes by stimulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that generates the free radical nitric oxide. We aimed to investigate the effect of Achillea millefolium L, as a traditional hypoglycemic agent, on IL-1? and iNOS gene expression of pancreatic tissue in the STZ- induced diabetic rats. Forty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1. diabetic control; 2. diabetic rats treated with Achillea millefolium L. extract; 3. normal rats received only extract and 4. negative control (n= 10 each). Diabetes was induced by single i.p. injection of 45 mg/ kg streptozotocin (STZ). Rats in groups 2 and 3 were treated with i.p. injection of Achillea millefolium L. extract (100 mg/ kg/ day) for 14 days. Body weight, serum glucose and insulin levels were assayed at baseline and on days 3, 7, 10 and 14 of the experiment. Finally, the quantity of pancreatic IL-1? and iNOS mRNA was determined by real- time PCR. The mRNA expression level of IL-1? and iNOS genes, was significantly (p<0.001) increased in diabetic rats of group 1. Treatment with Achillea millefolium L. caused a significant (p<0.01) reduction in both IL-1? and iNOS genes expression. Moreover, rats in group 2 had higher insulin level associated with lower glucose level and higher body weight compared to control diabetic group. It seems that beneficial effect of Achillea millefolium L. on STZ- induced diabetes is at least partly due to amelioration of IL-1? and iNOS gene over expression which can have a ?-cell protective effect. PMID:25635252

  20. Achillea Millefolium L. Hydro- Alcoholic Extract Protects Pancreatic Cells by Down Regulating IL- 1? and iNOS Gene Expression in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Zolghadri, Yalda; Fazeli, Mehdi; Kooshki, Marzieh; Shomali, Tahoora; Karimaghayee, Negar; Dehghani, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) has a role in ?- cell destruction in autoimmune diabetes by stimulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that generates the free radical nitric oxide. We aimed to investigate the effect of Achillea millefolium L, as a traditional hypoglycemic agent, on IL-1? and iNOS gene expression of pancreatic tissue in the STZ- induced diabetic rats. Forty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1. diabetic control; 2. diabetic rats treated with Achillea millefolium L. extract; 3. normal rats received only extract and 4. negative control (n= 10 each). Diabetes was induced by single i.p. injection of 45 mg/ kg streptozotocin (STZ). Rats in groups 2 and 3 were treated with i.p. injection of Achillea millefolium L. extract (100 mg/ kg/ day) for 14 days. Body weight, serum glucose and insulin levels were assayed at baseline and on days 3, 7, 10 and 14 of the experiment. Finally, the quantity of pancreatic IL-1? and iNOS mRNA was determined by real- time PCR. The mRNA expression level of IL-1? and iNOS genes, was significantly (p<0.001) increased in diabetic rats of group 1. Treatment with Achillea millefolium L. caused a significant (p<0.01) reduction in both IL-1? and iNOS genes expression. Moreover, rats in group 2 had higher insulin level associated with lower glucose level and higher body weight compared to control diabetic group. It seems that beneficial effect of Achillea millefolium L. on STZ- induced diabetes is at least partly due to amelioration of IL-1? and iNOS gene over expression which can have a ?-cell protective effect. PMID:25635252

  1. Aromatic Plants of Yugoslavia. I. Chemical Composition of Oils of Achillea millefolium L. ssp. pannonica (Scheele) Hayak, A. crithmifolia W. et K., A. serbica Nym. and A. tanacetifolia All

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Claude Chalchat; M. S. Gorunovic; S. D. Petrovic

    1999-01-01

    We used GC\\/MS to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of wild Achillea plants native to Yugoslavia: Achillea millefolium L. ssp. pannonica (Scheele) Hayak, A. crithmifolia W. et K., A. serbica Nym. and A. tanacetifolia All. Seventy-four components were identified. All four oils contained camphor (4–16%), 1,8-cineole (6–23%) and borneol (4–16%). In addition, artemisia ketone (4%) was found

  2. Hypotensive mechanism of the extracts and artemetin isolated from Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) in rats.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Priscila; Gasparotto, Arquimedes; Crestani, Sandra; Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade; da Silva-Santos, José Eduardo; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite

    2011-07-15

    Traditional uses of Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) include the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we used anesthetized rats to assess the hypotensive effect of a hydroethanolic extract (HEAM), and its dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), butanolic (BT), and dichloromethane-2 (DCM-2) fractions, besides the flavonoid artemetin, isolated from A. millefolium. The oral administration of HEAM (100-300 mg/kg), DCM (20mg/kg), DCM-2 (10-30 mg/kg), but not EA (10 mg/kg) and BT (50 mg/kg) fractions significantly reduced the mean arterial pressure (MAP) of normotensive rats. The phytochemical analysis by NMR (1)H of DCM and DCM-2 fractions revealed high amounts of artemetin, that was isolated and administered by either oral (1.5 mg/kg) or intravenous (0.15-1.5 mg/kg) routes in rats. This flavonoid was able to dose-dependently reduce the MAP, up to 11.47 ± 1.5 mmHg (1.5 mg/kg, i.v.). To investigate if artemetin-induced hypotension was related to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, we evaluated the influence of this flavonoid on the vascular effects of both angiotensin I and bradykinin. Intravenous injection of artemetin (0.75 mg/kg) significantly reduced the hypertensive response to angiotensin I while increased the average length of bradykinin-induced hypotension. Artemetin (1.5 mg/kg, p.o.) was also able to reduce plasma (about 37%) and vascular (up to 63%) ACE activity in vitro, compared to control group. On the other hand, artemetin did not change angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Our study is the first showing the hypotensive effects induced by the extract and fractions obtained from A. millefollium. In addition, our results disclosed that this effect may be, at least in part, associated with high levels of artemetin and its ability to decrease angiotensin II generation in vivo, by ACE inhibition. PMID:21420289

  3. Repellent Effect and Metabolite Volatile Profile of the Essential Oil of Achillea millefolium Against Aegorhinus nodipennis (Hope) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Tampe, J; Parra, L; Huaiquil, K; Mutis, A; Quiroz, A

    2015-06-01

    Aegorhinus nodipennis (Hope) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important native pest in fruit crops that is mainly found in European hazelnut fields in the south of Chile. We investigated the behavioral response of A. nodipennis to volatile compounds released from the essential oil of Achillea millefolium and its main constituent using olfactometric bioassays. Gas chromatographic and mass spectral analysis of the A. millefolium essential oil revealed the presence of 11 compounds. Monoterpene ?-thujone (96.2%) was the main component of the oil. Other compounds identified were ?-thujone, 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, and 4-terpineol, all with percentages below 1%. Both A. millefolium essential oil and thujone exhibited a repellent activity against this insect at the higher doses tested (285.7 ng/cm(2)), demonstrating their potential as repellents for this species. PMID:26013273

  4. Allopolyploid speciation and ongoing backcrossing between diploid progenitor and tetraploid progeny lineages in the Achillea millefolium species complex: analyses of single-copy nuclear genes and genomic AFLP

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the flowering plants, many polyploid species complexes display evolutionary radiation. This could be facilitated by gene flow between otherwise separate evolutionary lineages in contact zones. Achillea collina is a widespread tetraploid species within the Achillea millefolium polyploid complex (Asteraceae-Anthemideae). It is morphologically intermediate between the relic diploids, A. setacea-2x in xeric and A. asplenifolia-2x in humid habitats, and often grows in close contact with either of them. By analyzing DNA sequences of two single-copy nuclear genes and the genomic AFLP data, we assess the allopolyploid origin of A. collina-4x from ancestors corresponding to A. setacea-2x and A. asplenifolia-2x, and the ongoing backcross introgression between these diploid progenitor and tetraploid progeny lineages. Results In both the ncpGS and the PgiC gene tree, haplotype sequences of the diploid A. setacea-2x and A. asplenifolia-2x group into two clades corresponding to the two species, though lineage sorting seems incomplete for the PgiC gene. In contrast, A. collina-4x and its suspected backcross plants show homeologous gene copies: sequences from the same tetraploid individual plant are placed in both diploid clades. Semi-congruent splits of an AFLP Neighbor Net link not only A. collina-4x to both diploid species, but some 4x individuals in a polymorphic population with mixed ploidy levels to A. setacea-2x on one hand and to A. collina-4x on the other, indicating allopolyploid speciation as well as hybridization across ploidal levels. Conclusions The findings of this study clearly demonstrate the hybrid origin of Achillea collina-4x, the ongoing backcrossing between the diploid progenitor and their tetraploid progeny lineages. Such repeated hybridizations are likely the cause of the great genetic and phenotypic variation and ecological differentiation of the polyploid taxa in Achillea millefolium agg. PMID:20388203

  5. Characterization of Volatile Compounds of Eleven Achillea Species from Turkey and Biological Activities of Essential Oil and Methanol Extract of A. hamzaoglui Arabac? & Budak.

    PubMed

    Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar; Agar, Osman Tuncay; Akaydin, Galip; Hayran, Mutlu; Demirci, Betul

    2015-01-01

    According to distribution of genus Achillea, two main centers of diversity occur in S.E. Europe and S.W. Asia. Diversified essential oil compositions from Balkan Peninsula have been numerously reported. However, report on essential oils of Achillea species growing in Turkey, which is one of the main centers of diversity, is very limited. This paper represents the chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of eleven Achillea species, identified simultaneously by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components were found to be 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, viridiflorol, nonacosane, ?-bisabolol, caryophyllene oxide, ?-bisabolon oxide A, ?-eudesmol, 15-hexadecanolide and camphor. The chemical principal component analysis based on thirty compounds identified three species groups and a subgroup, where each group constituted a chemotype. This is the first report on the chemical composition of A. hamzaoglui essential oil; as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial evaluation of its essential oil and methanolic extract. PMID:26111175

  6. Possible Mechanism(s) of the Relaxant Effects of Achillea wilhelmsii on Guinea-Pig Tracheal Chains

    PubMed Central

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Eftekhar, Naeima; Kaveh, Mahsa

    2013-01-01

    Achillea wilhelmsii have been used in folk remedies. The relaxant effects of the extract of A. wilhelmsii on tracheal chains of guinea pigs were examined. The relaxant effects of four cumulative concentrations of the extract, theophylline and saline were examined by their relaxant effects on precontracted tracheal chains of guinea pig by KCl (group 1), 10 ?M methacholine (group 2), incubated tissues by atropine, propranolol and chlorpheniramine and contracted by KCl (group 3) and incubated tissues by propranolol and chlorpheniramine and contracted by methacholine (group 4). In group 1 and 2, all concentrations of theophylline and three higher concentrations (4, 6 and 8 mg/mL) of the extract showed significant relaxant effects compared to that of saline. In groups 3 and 4 experiments also all concentrations of the extract showed significant relaxant effects compared to that of saline. The relaxant effect of three higher concentrations (4, 6 and 8 mg/mL) of the extract in group 1 were significantly greater than those of group 2 and in group 3 were significantly lower than those of group 1. There were significant positive correlations between the relaxant effects and concentrations for theophylline in groups 1 and 2 and the extract in all four groups of experiments. These results showed a potent relaxant effect for the extract from A. wilhelmsii on tracheal chains of guinea pigs. A muscarinc receptor blockade was also suggested for the extract. PMID:24250612

  7. Chemical composition of wild and commercial Achillea millefolium L. and bioactivity of the methanolic extract, infusion and decoction.

    PubMed

    Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Pereira, Eliana; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-12-15

    Medicinal plants used in folk medicine are being increasingly studied and used on pharmaceutical, food and nutraceutical fields. Herein, wild and commercial samples of Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow) were chemically characterized with respect to their macronutrients, free sugars, organic acids, fatty acids and tocopherols. Furthermore, in vitro antioxidant properties (free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and antitumour potential (against breast, lung, cervical and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines) of their methanolic extract, infusion and decoction (the most consumed forms) was evaluated and compared to the corresponding phenolic profile obtained by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Data obtained showed that the chemical profiles of wild and commercial samples, and also their methanolic extract, infusion and decoction were similar, varying only in the quantities found. Commercial yarrow have higher content of fat and saturated fatty acids, proteins, ash, energy value, sugars and flavonoids, while the wild sample revealed higher levels of carbohydrates, organic acids, unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and phenolic acids. The heterogeneity among the antioxidant and antitumour results of the samples and some low correlations with total phenolic compounds indicates that specific compounds, rather than the totality of them, are involved in the bioactive properties of samples. PMID:23993599

  8. Variation in terpene and linear-chain hydrocarbon content in yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) germplasm from the Rhaetian Alps, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pecetti, Luciano; Tava, Aldo; Romani, Massimo; Cecotti, Roberto; Mella, Mariella

    2012-10-01

    Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) is a herbaceous species common in the Alpine region of Europe and used in folk medicine since antiquity. Its organs are rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, two subclasses of plant terpenoids with relevant ecological significance, which were reported as valuable markers for the traceability of mountain dairy products. The variability in chemical composition of yarrow germplasm may be related with its genetic diversity, accounting for possible differences in medical properties, and supporting its use as a specific territorial marker. Aim of this work was to assess the leaf chemical composition of 16 yarrow populations collected at altitudes exceeding 1600 m in three valleys of the Rhaetian Alps, Italy, and jointly evaluated in a lowland site. The most abundant compounds detected generally differed from those of the germplasm from other countries. A trend of valley-specific pattern of composition was evident. However, the variability among individual populations was even more remarkable, regardless of their valley of origin. The concentrations of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, and oxygenated sesquiterpenes discriminated the populations in multivariate analysis. A few prevailing chemotypes were characterized, which differed from those previously reported in the literature. The geographic isolation from other germplasms, and the local ecotypization, likely originated a chemically distinct gene pool. PMID:23081927

  9. Essential oil composition of five collections of Achillea biebersteinii from central Turkey and their antifungal and insecticidal activity.

    PubMed

    Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betül; Gürbüz, Ilhan; Demirci, Fatih; Becnel, James J; Wedge, David E; Ba?er, Kemal Hüsnü Can

    2011-05-01

    The composition of the essential oils hydrodistilled from the aerial parts of five Achillea biebersteinii Afan samples, collected in central Turkey from Konya, Isparta and Ankara, were analyzed both by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eighty-four components were identified, representing 87 to 99% of the total oil composition. The identified major components were 1,8-cineole (9-37%), camphor (16-30%) and p-cymene (1-27%). Two samples differed in piperitone (11%) and ascaridol (4%) content. The five A. biebersteinii essential oils were subsequently evaluated for their antifungal activity against the strawberry anthracnose-causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides using the direct overlay bioautography assay. The essential oils showed no antifungal activity at 80 and 160 microg/spot. In addition, A. biebersteinii oils and their major compounds were subsequently investigated against Aedes aegypti first instar larvae in a high throughput bioassay. Among the oils, only one sample from Ankara showed a notable larvacidal effect on Ae. aegypti larvae. The major compounds, 1,8-cineole, camphor and p-cymene, exhibited low mosquito larval activity, and thus the minor compounds are probably responsible for the observed activity against Ae. aegypti larvae. The oils showed weak activity against adult Ae. aegypti. PMID:21615036

  10. Volatile Constituents of Achillea ligustica All. by HS-SPME\\/GC\\/GC-MS. Comparison with Essential Oils Obtained by Hydrodistillation from Corsica and Sardinia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Muselli; Marta Pau; Jean-Marie Desjobert; Marcia Foddai; Marianna Usai; Jean Costa

    2009-01-01

    The volatile components extracted from the headspace (HS) of Achillea ligustica All. samples and their separated organs using solid phase microextraction (SPME) were investigated by gas chromatography\\u000a and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fiftyseven compounds were identified, the main components were camphor (14.2–29.8%),\\u000a artemisia ketone (0.3–26.7%), santolina alcohol (0.5–9.4%), camphene (3.0–9.0%) and trans-sabinyl acetate (1.6–5.5%). Moreover,\\u000a the chemical composition of Corsican and

  11. Nuclear and plastid haplotypes suggest rapid diploid and polyploid speciation in the N Hemisphere Achillea millefolium complex (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Species complexes or aggregates consist of a set of closely related species often of different ploidy levels, whose relationships are difficult to reconstruct. The N Hemisphere Achillea millefolium aggregate exhibits complex morphological and genetic variation and a broad ecological amplitude. To understand its evolutionary history, we study sequence variation at two nuclear genes and three plastid loci across the natural distribution of this species complex and compare the patterns of such variations to the species tree inferred earlier from AFLP data. Results Among the diploid species of A. millefolium agg., gene trees of the two nuclear loci, ncpGS and SBP, and the combined plastid fragments are incongruent with each other and with the AFLP tree likely due to incomplete lineage sorting or secondary introgression. In spite of the large distributional range, no isolation by distance is found. Furthermore, there is evidence for intragenic recombination in the ncpGS gene. An analysis using a probabilistic model for population demographic history indicates large ancestral effective population sizes and short intervals between speciation events. Such a scenario explains the incongruence of the gene trees and species tree we observe. The relationships are particularly complex in the polyploid members of A. millefolium agg. Conclusions The present study indicates that the diploid members of A. millefolium agg. share a large part of their molecular genetic variation. The findings of little lineage sorting and lack of isolation by distance is likely due to short intervals between speciation events and close proximity of ancestral populations. While previous AFLP data provide species trees congruent with earlier morphological classification and phylogeographic considerations, the present sequence data are not suited to recover the relationships of diploid species in A. millefolium agg. For the polyploid taxa many hybrid links and introgression from the diploids are suggested. PMID:22214230

  12. Biochemical and Pathological Study of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Achillea millefolium L. on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Nephrolithiasis in Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bafrani, Hassan Hassani; Parsa, Yekta; Yadollah-Damavandi, Soheila; Jangholi, Ehsan; Ashkani-Esfahani, Soheil; Gharehbeglou, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nephrolithiasis is of the most prevalent urinary tract disease. It seems worthwhile to replace the conventional treatments with more beneficial and safer agents, particularly herbal medicines which are receiving an increasing interest nowadays. Aims: In this study, we investigated the protective and curative effects of Achillea millefolium L. on ethylene glycol (EG)-induced nephrolithiasis in rats. Materials and Methods: The extract of A. millefolium was prepared by soxhlet method. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (N = 8) as follows. The negative control (group A) received tap drinking water. Rats in sham (positive control group B), curative (group C and D), and preventive (group E) groups all received 1% EG in drinking water according to the experimental protocol for 30 days. In the curative groups, dosages of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (BW) of A. millefolium extract were administered orally from day 15 to the end of the experiment, group C and D, respectively. Group E received 200 mg/kg A. millefolium extract from the 1st day throughout the experiment. Urinary oxalate and citrate concentrations were measured by spectrophotometer on the first and 30th days. On day 31, the kidneys were removed and examined histopathologically for counting the calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposits in 50 microscopic fields. Results: In the curative and preventive groups, administration of A. millefolium extract showed significant reduction in urinary oxalate concentration (P < 0.05). Also, urinary citrate concentration was significantly increased in group C, D, and E. The CaOx deposits significantly decreased in group C to E compared with the group B. Conclusions: According to our results, A. millefolium extract had preventive and curative effects on EG-induced renal calculi. PMID:25599052

  13. Effect of aqueous extract of Achillea millefolium on the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Vazirinejad, Reza; Ayoobi, Fateme; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Eftekharian, Mohammad M.; Darekordi, Ali; Goudarzvand, Mahdi; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein; Taghavi, Mohammad Mohsen; Ahmadabadi, Behzad Nasiri; Kennedy, Derek; Shamsizadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Achillea millefolium (A. millefolium) is widely used as an anti-inflammatory remedy in traditional and herbal medicine. In this study, we investigated the effect of an aqueous extract from A. millefolium on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and on the serum cytokine levels in C57BL/6 mice. Materials and Methods: EAE was induced in 63 C57BL/6 mice weighing 20-25 g (8 weeks old). Following immunization, the treatment protocol was initiated by using different doses of an aqueous extract from A. millefolium (1, 5, and 10 mg/mouse/day). Histopathologic assessments were performed by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and luxol fast blue (LFB) staining. Behavioral disabilities were recorded by a camera. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-? were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: On average, mice developed classical behavioral disabilities of EAE, 13.2 ± 1.9 days following immunization. Treatment of mice with A. millefolium led to delay the appearance of behavioral disabilities along with reduced severity of the behavioral disabilities. Treatment with A. millefolium prevented weight loss and increased serum levels of TGF-? in immunized mice with MOG35-55. EAE-induced mice, which were treated with A. millefolium, had less cerebral infiltration of inflammatory cells. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that treatment with aqueous extract of A. millefolium may attenuate disease severity, inflammatory responses, and demyelinating lesions in EAE-induced mice. In addition, following treatment with A. millefolium, serum levels of TGF-?were increased in EAE-induced mice. PMID:24987178

  14. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Achillea biebersteinii flower extract and its anti-angiogenic properties in the rat aortic ring model.

    PubMed

    Baharara, Javad; Namvar, Farideh; Ramezani, Tayebe; Hosseini, Nasrin; Mohamad, Rosfarizan

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles display unique physical and biological properties which have attracted intensive research interest because of their important medical applications. In this study silver nanoparticles (Ab.Ag-NPs) were synthesized for biomedical applications using a completely green biosynthetic method using Achillea biebersteinii flowers extract. The structure and properties of Ab.Ag-NPs were investigated using UV-visible spectroscopic techniques, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta potential and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS). The UV-visible spectroscopic analysis showed the absorbance peak at 460 nm, which indicates the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The average particle diameter as determined by TEM was found to be 12±2 nm. The zeta potential analysis indicated that Ab.Ag-NPs have good stability EDX analysis also exhibits presentation of silver element. As angiogenesis is an important phenomenon and as growth factors imbalance in this process causes the acceleration of several diseases including cancer, the anti-angiogenic properties of Ab.Ag-NPs were evaluated using the rat aortic ring model. The results showed that Ab.Ag-NPs (200 ?g/mL) lead to a 50% reduction in the length and number of vessel-like structures. The synthesized silver nanoparticles from the Achillea biebersteinii flowers extract, which do not involve any harmful chemicals were well-dispersed and stabilized through this green method and showed potential therapeutic benefits against angiogenesis. PMID:24739926

  15. The Melanogenesis Alteration Effects of Achillea millefolium L. Essential Oil and Linalyl Acetate: Involvement of Oxidative Stress and the JNK and ERK Signaling Pathways in Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Chih-Chien; Wang, Hsun-Yen; Shih, Ying; Chou, Su-Tze

    2014-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2 and p38 MAPK, is known to be activated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation in melanocytes to regulate melanin production. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the pathway of ERK and JNK activation. It has been established that the essential oil of Achillea millefolium L. (AM-EO) has activities that suppress the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Thus, we analyzed the effects of AM-EO on melanogenesis in melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH) treated melanoma cells. The results demonstrated that AM-EO suppresses melanin production by decreasing tyrosinase activity through the regulation of the JNK and ERK signaling pathways. This effect might be associated with the AM-EO activity leading to the suppression of ROS, and linalyl acetate is its major functional component. Therefore, we propose that AM-EO has the potential to treat hyperpigmentation in the future. PMID:24743745

  16. Chemical composition and biological activities of Iranian Achillea wilhelmsii L. essential oil: a high effectiveness against Candida spp. and Escherichia strains.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Rostami, Hajar

    2015-02-01

    In the case of Achillea wilhelmsii, 30 compounds were identified representing 94.48% of the total oil with a yield of 0.82% w/w. The major constituents of the oil were described as ?-thujene (6.11%), ?-pinene (5.11%), sabinene (5.23%), p-cymene (7%), 1,8-cineole (6%), linalool (10%), camphor (8.43%), thymol (18.98%) and carvacrol (20.13%). A. wilhelmsii oil exhibited higher antibacterial and antifungal activities with a high effectiveness against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans with the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration/minimum fungicidal concentration value (2 ± 0.0-2 ± 0.0 g/mL, 1 ± 0.5-1 ± 0.5 g/mL), respectively. Results showed that A. wilhelmsii oil exhibits a higher activity in each antioxidant system with a special attention for ?-carotene bleaching test (IC50: 19 ?g/mL) and reducing power (EC50: 10 ?g/mL). Antioxidant activity-guided fractionation of the oil was carried out by TLC-bioautography screening and fractionation resulted in the separation of main antioxidant compounds which were identified as thymol (65%) and carvacrol (19%). In conclusion, these results support the use of the essential oil and its main compounds for their antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity. PMID:25209950

  17. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Achillea collina Becker ex Heimerl s.l. and A. pannonica Scheele essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bozin, Biljana; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Bogavac, Mirjana; Suvajdzic, Ljiljana; Simin, Natasa; Samojlik, Isidora; Couladis, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of two Achillea millefolium (Adanson) Koch s.l species essential oils (A. collina Becker ex Heimerl s.l. and A. pannonica Scheele, Asteraceae) originating from the Golija and Radan mountains (Serbia) were investigated. The chemical profiles of the essential oils were evaluated by GC-MS. Antioxidant activity was assessed as free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) towards 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radicals, together with effects on lipid peroxidation (LP). Antibacterial activity was examined on 21 bacterial strains. Based on the chemical composition of the essential oil, A. collina s.l. from Mount Golija was classified as a chamazulene chemotype (tetraploid). The high percentage of oxygenated monoterpenes and absence of azulene in the essential oil obtained from A. pannonica from Radan pointing that this population is octaploid. Essential oil of A. pannonica expressed stronger antimicrobial activity on almost all tested bacteria. Furthermore, this essential oil expressed higher scavenging effects on DPPH radical (IC(50) = 0.52 comparing to 0.62 mug/mL). Only in the LP evaluation, essential oil of A. collina s.l. from Golija exhibited stronger antioxidant activity (IC(50) = 0.75 comparing to 2.12 mug/mL). PMID:18830141

  18. Achillea millefolium L. Essential Oil Inhibits LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chou, Su-Tze; Peng, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Jaw-Cherng; Lin, Chih-Chien; Shih, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. is a member of the Asteraceae family and has been used in folk medicine in many countries. In this study, 19 compounds in A. millefolium essential oil (AM-EO) have been identified; the major components are artemisia ketone (14.92%), camphor (11.64%), linalyl acetate (11.51%) and 1,8-cineole (10.15%). AM-EO can suppress the inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, including decreased levels of cellular nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion production, lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) concentration. This antioxidant activity is not a result of increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, but rather occurs as a result of the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, thus reducing the inflammatory response. Therefore, AM-EO can be utilized in many applications, including the treatment of inflammatory diseases in the future. PMID:23797659

  19. Antinociceptive peripheral effect of Achillea millefolium L. and Artemisia vulgaris L.: both plants known popularly by brand names of analgesic drugs.

    PubMed

    Pires, Júlia Movilla; Mendes, Fúlvio R; Negri, Giuseppina; Duarte-Almeida, Joaquim M; Carlini, Elisaldo A

    2009-02-01

    The hydroalcohol extracts of Achillea millefolium L. (AM) and Artemisia vulgaris L. (AV), both belonging to the Asteraceae family, were evaluated by the hot plate, writhing, formalin and intestinal transit tests in an attempt to confirm their folk use as analgesic, antiinflammatory and antispasmodic agents. AM 500 and 1000 mg/kg significantly inhibited abdominal contortions by 65% and 23%, respectively, whereas AV 500 and 1000 mg/kg inhibited them by 48% and 59%, respectively. None of the extracts produced differences in the intestinal transit in mice, nor in the response time in the hot plate or in the immediate or late responses in the formalin test. In HPLC/DAD analyses 'fingerprint', monitored at 360 and 270 nm, both hydroalcohol extracts showed the same flavonoid glycoside as a principal constituent, which was identified as rutin. A high content of caffeic acid derivatives were also found in both extracts. The main differences were observed at 240 nm: AM had a higher content of rutin, while in AV the hydroxybenzoic acid derivative was the major component. PMID:18844327

  20. The melanogenesis alteration effects of Achillea millefolium L. essential oil and linalyl acetate: involvement of oxidative stress and the JNK and ERK signaling pathways in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Chih-Chien; Wang, Hsun-Yen; Shih, Ying; Chou, Su-Tze

    2014-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2 and p38 MAPK, is known to be activated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation in melanocytes to regulate melanin production. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the pathway of ERK and JNK activation. It has been established that the essential oil of Achillea millefolium L. (AM-EO) has activities that suppress the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Thus, we analyzed the effects of AM-EO on melanogenesis in melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH) treated melanoma cells. The results demonstrated that AM-EO suppresses melanin production by decreasing tyrosinase activity through the regulation of the JNK and ERK signaling pathways. This effect might be associated with the AM-EO activity leading to the suppression of ROS, and linalyl acetate is its major functional component. Therefore, we propose that AM-EO has the potential to treat hyperpigmentation in the future. PMID:24743745

  1. Germacrene A synthase in yarrow (Achillea millefolium) is an enzyme with mixed substrate specificity: gene cloning, functional characterization and expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pazouki, Leila; Memari, Hamid R.; Kännaste, Astrid; Bichele, Rudolf; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoid synthases constitute a highly diverse gene family producing a wide range of cyclic and acyclic molecules consisting of isoprene (C5) residues. Often a single terpene synthase produces a spectrum of molecules of given chain length, but some terpene synthases can use multiple substrates, producing products of different chain length. Only a few such enzymes has been characterized, but the capacity for multiple-substrate use can be more widespread than previously thought. Here we focused on germacrene A synthase (GAS) that is a key cytosolic enzyme in the sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis pathway in the important medicinal plant Achillea millefolium (AmGAS). The full length encoding gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), functionally characterized, and its in vivo expression was analyzed. The recombinant protein catalyzed formation of germacrene A with the C15 substrate farnesyl diphosphate (FDP), while acyclic monoterpenes were formed with the C10 substrate geranyl diphosphate (GDP) and cyclic monoterpenes with the C10 substrate neryl diphosphate (NDP). Although monoterpene synthesis has been assumed to be confined exclusively to plastids, AmGAS can potentially synthesize monoterpenes in cytosol when GDP or NDP become available. AmGAS enzyme had high homology with GAS sequences from other Asteraceae species, suggesting that multi-substrate use can be more widespread among germacrene A synthases than previously thought. Expression studies indicated that AmGAS was expressed in both autotrophic and heterotrophic plant compartments with the highest expression levels in leaves and flowers. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the cloning and characterization of germacrene A synthase coding gene in A. millefolium, and multi-substrate use of GAS enzymes. PMID:25784918

  2. Silver nanoparticles biosynthesized using Achillea biebersteinii flower extract: apoptosis induction in MCF-7 cells via caspase activation and regulation of Bax and Bcl-2 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Baharara, Javad; Namvar, Farideh; Ramezani, Tayebe; Mousavi, Marzieh; Mohamad, Rosfarizan

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), the most popular nanoparticles, possess unique properties. Achillea biebersteinii is a plant of the Asteraceae family rich in active antitumor components. The aim of this research was the characterization and investigation of the cytotoxic properties of Ag-NPs synthesized using A. biebersteinii flower extract, on a human breast cancer cell line. The Ag-NPs were synthesized after approximately 180 min of reaction at 40 °C, then they were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The anti-apoptosis effect of Ag-NPs on the MCF-7 cell line was investigated by MTT assay, DAPI and acridine orange staining and caspase activity. The transcriptional expression of bax, bcl-2, caspase-3, -8 and -9 were also evaluated by RT-PCR. The TEM images revealed that the Ag-NPs morphology had a different shape. The DLS indicated that the average hydrodynamic diameter of the biosynthesized Ag-NPs was around 12 nm. By UV-visible spectroscopy the strongest absorbance peak was observed at 460 nm. The FTIR results also showed interaction between the plant extract and Ag-NPs due to the similarity in the peak patterns. The EDS results showed that Ag-NPs display an absorption peak at 3 keV, indicating the presence of the element silver. The Ag-NPs caused a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, fragmentation in nucleic acid, inhibited the proliferation and induction of apoptosis on MCF-7 by suppressing specific cell cycle genes, and simulation programmed cell dead genes. Further investigation is required to establish the potential of this novel and promising approach in cancer therapy. PMID:25665064

  3. Germacrene A synthase in yarrow (Achillea millefolium) is an enzyme with mixed substrate specificity: gene cloning, functional characterization and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Pazouki, Leila; Memari, Hamid R; Kännaste, Astrid; Bichele, Rudolf; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoid synthases constitute a highly diverse gene family producing a wide range of cyclic and acyclic molecules consisting of isoprene (C5) residues. Often a single terpene synthase produces a spectrum of molecules of given chain length, but some terpene synthases can use multiple substrates, producing products of different chain length. Only a few such enzymes has been characterized, but the capacity for multiple-substrate use can be more widespread than previously thought. Here we focused on germacrene A synthase (GAS) that is a key cytosolic enzyme in the sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis pathway in the important medicinal plant Achillea millefolium (AmGAS). The full length encoding gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), functionally characterized, and its in vivo expression was analyzed. The recombinant protein catalyzed formation of germacrene A with the C15 substrate farnesyl diphosphate (FDP), while acyclic monoterpenes were formed with the C10 substrate geranyl diphosphate (GDP) and cyclic monoterpenes with the C10 substrate neryl diphosphate (NDP). Although monoterpene synthesis has been assumed to be confined exclusively to plastids, AmGAS can potentially synthesize monoterpenes in cytosol when GDP or NDP become available. AmGAS enzyme had high homology with GAS sequences from other Asteraceae species, suggesting that multi-substrate use can be more widespread among germacrene A synthases than previously thought. Expression studies indicated that AmGAS was expressed in both autotrophic and heterotrophic plant compartments with the highest expression levels in leaves and flowers. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the cloning and characterization of germacrene A synthase coding gene in A. millefolium, and multi-substrate use of GAS enzymes. PMID:25784918

  4. Insecticide Activity of Essential Oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii Against Two Stored Product Pests, the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), ?-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC50 values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC50 = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC50 = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

  5. [Operative treatment of paratenonitis achilleae in athletes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Biehl, G; Harms, J

    1977-03-31

    This is a report about indications, technics of operation, treatment after the operations and the results of the paratenonitis at the Achilles-tendon. Our 21 patients were top-sportsmen and the treatment conservative had no succes. All patients were able to continue their sportive activity after the excision of the paratenon. PMID:871268

  6. Sesquiterpenes and Flavonoid Aglycones from a Hungarian Taxon of the Achillea millefolium Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Glasl; Pavel Mucaji; Ingrid Werner; Armin Presser; Johann Jurenitsch

    1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic methods as well as by 2D-NMR studies and by selective 1D-NOE experiments. Besides apigenin, luteolin and centaureidin, ? -sitosterol, 3? -hydroxy-11?,13-dihydro-costunolide, desacetylmatricarin, leucodin, achillin, 8?-angeloxy-leucodin and 8?-angeloxy-achillin were isolated. Both latter substances are re- ported here for the first time. Their NMR data were compared with those of the other guaianolides. The stereochemistry of

  7. Anti-inflammatory Activity of New Guaiane Acid Derivatives from Achillea Coarctata

    E-print Network

    Paré, Paul W.

    ]. An essential oil is traditionally obtained for medical uses [4]. Previous chemical studies on A. coarctata revealed a wide range of sesquiterpene lactones [5]. Essential oils [6] and flavonoids [7] have also been , Joe Karchesyf , Mohamed S. Kamelb and Ahmed A. Ahmedg a Chemistry of Medicinal Plants Department

  8. Working Groups Integrated fruit protection in fruit crops

    E-print Network

    Lucas, Éric

    (Solidago canadensis) and the common yarrow (Achillea millefolium), two native plants known to attract: habitat management, Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Aranea, Chrysopidae, Coccinellidae canadensis) and common yarrow (Achillea millefolium). Each orchard contained two or four flower strips. Each

  9. Common name Genus Species Family Water use Annuals. These are seasonal and will not be in the garden year-round.

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    perennials Yarrow 'Callistoga' Achillea millefolium 'Calistoga' Asteraceae L Yarrow 'Credo' Achillea millefolium 'Credo' Asteraceae L #12;Common name Genus Species millefolium 'Island Pink' Asteraceae L Yarrow Inland Form Achillea millefolium Inland for

  10. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Achillea nobilis L. subsp. sipylea and subsp. neilreichii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Karamenderes; N. U. Karabay Yavasoglu; U. Zeybek

    2007-01-01

    plant materials are not known in some studies. The present study was carried out for the first time to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of A. nobilis subsp. sipylea and A. nobilis subsp. neilreichii collected from Turkey, and their antimicrobial activities were tested against eight Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria strains and Candida albicans. The percentage

  11. Serpentine and Nonserpentine Achillea millefolium Accessions Differ in Serpentine Substrate Tolerance and Response to Organic and Inorganic Amendments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan E. O’Dell; Victor P. Claassen

    2006-01-01

    Subgrade serpentine substrates are exceptionally difficult to revegetate due to multiple limitations including low N, P, and\\u000a K, low Ca:Mg molar ratios, high levels of heavy metals including Ni, Cr, and Co, low organic matter, low CEC, and low water\\u000a holding capacity. To examine the influence of plant origin on the success of the revegetation of serpentine substrates, granite\\u000a and

  12. Three floral volatiles contribute to differential pollinator attraction in monkeyflowers (Mimulus)

    PubMed Central

    Byers, Kelsey J. R. P.; Bradshaw, H. D.; Riffell, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Flowering plants employ a wide variety of signals, including scent, to attract the attention of pollinators. In this study we investigated the role of floral scent in mediating differential attraction between two species of monkeyflowers (Mimulus) reproductively isolated by pollinator preference. The emission rate and chemical identity of floral volatiles differ between the bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated M. cardinalis. Mimulus lewisii flowers produce an array of volatiles dominated by d-limonene, ?-myrcene and E-?-ocimene. Of these three monoterpenes, M. cardinalis flowers produce only d-limonene, released at just 0.9% the rate of M. lewisii flowers. Using the Bombus vosnesenskii bumblebee, an important pollinator of M. lewisii, we conducted simultaneous gas chromatography with extracellular recordings in the bumblebee antennal lobe. Results from these experiments revealed that these three monoterpenes evoke significant neural responses, and that a synthetic mixture of the three volatiles evokes the same responses as the natural scent. Furthermore, the neural population shows enhanced responses to the M. lewisii scent over the scent of M. cardinalis. This neural response is reflected in behavior; in two-choice assays, bumblebees investigate artificial flowers scented with M. lewisii more frequently than ones scented with M. cardinalis, and in synthetic mixtures the three monoterpenes are necessary and sufficient to recapitulate responses to the natural scent of M. lewisii. In this system, floral scent alone is sufficient to elicit differential visitation by bumblebees, implying a strong role of scent in the maintenance of reproductive isolation between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. PMID:24198269

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Unreduced gametes and neopolyploids in natural

    E-print Network

    Ramsey, Justin

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Unreduced gametes and neopolyploids in natural populations of Achillea borealis of Achillea borealis (Asteraceae), an autopolyploid complex consisting of tetraploid and hexaploid cytotypes borealis (Asteraceae), a taxonomic species consisting of tetraploid and hexaploid populatio

  14. F E Entomologie Faunistique Faunistic Entomology 2014 67, 133-146 Absence d'effet de l'amnagement de plates-bandes

    E-print Network

    Lucas, Éric

    'achillée millefeuille (Achillea millefolium L.) et de verge d'or du Canada (Solidago canadensis L.) (Asteraceae), sur le: management, floral strips, Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, apple orchard, predator, Araneae prédateurs n'était pas différente du couvre-sol naturel. Mots-clés: aménagement, bandes fleuries, Achillea

  15. Acta rerum naturalium 8: 5960, 2010 ISSN 1803-1587 Neobvykl lokalita chruplavnku rolnho (Polycnemum arvense)

    E-print Network

    Role?ek, Jan

    arvensis 1, Polycnemum arvense 1, Sedum sexangulare 1, Achillea millefolium agg. +, Arenaria serpyllifolia +, Bromus hordeaceus +, Elytrigia repens +, Polygonum aviculare agg. +, Rumex acetosella +, Setaria viridis

  16. INTER-MOUNTAIN BASINS MONTANE SAGEBRUSH STEPPE R.Rondeau extent exaggerated for display

    E-print Network

    . trachycaulus Shrubland Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana / Balsamorhiza sagittata Shrubland Artemisia, Geum, Lupinus, and Eriogonum species, Balsamorhiza sagittata, Achillea millefolium, Antennaria rosea

  17. Hybridization and Cytonuclear Associations among Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout, Introduced Rainbow Trout, and Their Hybrids within the Stehekin River Drainage, North Cascades National Park

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl O. Ostberg; Rusty J. Rodriguez

    2006-01-01

    Historic introductions of nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss into the native habitats of cutthroat trout O. clarkii have impacted cutthroat trout populations through introgressive hybridization, creating challenges and concerns for cutthroat trout conservation. We examined the effects of rainbow trout introductions on the native westslope cutthroat trout O. c. lewisii within the Stehekin River drainage, North Cascades National Park, Washington,

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLE doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2007.00264.x

    E-print Network

    Ramsey, Justin

    of ecological differentiation in the North American Achillea millefolium, an autopolyploid complex ACHILLEA, AN AUTOPOLYPLOID COMPLEX OF ECOLOGICAL RACES Justin Ramsey,1,2,3 Alexander Robertson,1 and Brian environments. Phy- logenetic analyses reveal North American A. millefolium to be a monophyletic group distinct

  19. Electronic Supplementary Material 2: Complementary results.

    E-print Network

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    with good prediction accuracy. Topo BS Topo+BS VI Topo+VI FR CH FR CH FR CH FR CH FR CH Achillea millefolium 0.686 - 0.807 - 0.811 - 0.8 - 0.827 - Achillea nana 0.8 - 0.703 - 0.783 - 0.737 - 0.746 - Alchemilla

  20. Antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms by extracts from herbal Jordanian plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amjad Khalil; Basem F. Dababneh; Ahmad H. Al-Gabbiesh

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to study antimicrobial activity of a group of herbal medicinal plants, including Achillea biebersteinii, Phlomis viscosa, Ainworthia trachycarpa, Solanum elaeagnifolium, Arum hygrophilum, Varthemia iphionoides, Crupina crupinastrum, Teucrium polium, Achillea santolina, Micromeria nervosa, Chenopodium murate, Ballota philistaea, Onosma roussaei, Fagonia mollis, Marrubium vulgare, Calotropis procera, Salvia hierosolymitana, Ballota undulata, Hallogeton alopecuroides, Scrophularia hierochuntica and Nonea melanocarpa, grown in

  1. txH20: Volume 6, Number 3 (Complete)

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    low-maintenance and colorful landscape plants, which can save water, add to landscape appearance, and reduce costs.? Some of the plants Niu is researching are yallow (Achillea millefolium), blanket owers, lantana, honeysuckle (Lonicera haliana...

  2. Finite-Length and Asymptotic Analysis and Design of LDPC Codes for Binary Erasure and

    E-print Network

    Anastasopoulos, Achilleas

    Committee: Associate Professor Achilleas Anastasopoulos, Chair Professor Peter L. Duren Professor Wayne E, Professors Wayne Stark, Sandeep Pradhan, and Peter Duren, for dedicating their time and effort to be on my

  3. Experimental addition of greenery reduces flea loads in nests of a non-greenery using species, the tree swallow Tachycineta bicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dave Shutler; Adam A. Campbell

    2007-01-01

    Several bird species, including cavity-nesters such as European starlings Sturnus vulgaris , add to their nests green sprigs of plants such as yarrow Achillea millefolium that are rich in volatile compounds. In this field study on another cavity-nester, tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor , we tested whether yarrow reduced ectoparasite loads (the nest protection hypothesis), stimulated nestling immune systems (the drug

  4. Competitive and Soil Fertility Effects of Forbs and Legumes as Companion Plants or Living Mulch in Wide Spaced Organically Grown Cereals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Ulrich Germeier

    2006-01-01

    Effects of forbs and legumes intercropped with organically grown winter cereals on plant productivity and fertility related soil parameters were determined. Yarrow (Achillea millefolium), cornflower (Centaureo cyanus), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), white clover (Trifolium repens) and subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) were established between wide spaced cereal rows as companion plants or as perennial living mulch, where cereals were

  5. Medicinal plants used in K?rklareli Province (Turkey)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?ükran Kültür

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from K?rklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica,

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ach5.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Cho, Shu-Ting; Lo, Wen-Sui; Wang, Yi-Chieh; Lai, Erh-Min; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes crown gall disease. The strain Ach5 was isolated from yarrow (Achillea ptarmica L.) and is the wild-type progenitor of other derived strains widely used for plant transformation. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium. PMID:26044425

  7. Koutsou, A., Christodoulou, C. , Bugmann, G. and Kanev, J. (2012). Distinguishing the Causes of Firing with the Membrane Potential Slope. Neural Computation, doi: 10.1162/NECO a 00323

    E-print Network

    Christodoulou, Chris

    2012-01-01

    of Firing with the Membrane Potential Slope. Neural Computation, doi: 10.1162/NECO a 00323 (accepted March 1, 2012, in press) 1 Distinguishing the Causes of Firing with the Membrane Potential Slope Achilleas Universit¨at Berlin, 10587 Berlin, Germany Keywords: membrane potential slope, coincidence detection

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ach5

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Cho, Shu-Ting; Lo, Wen-Sui; Wang, Yi-Chieh; Lai, Erh-Min

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes crown gall disease. The strain Ach5 was isolated from yarrow (Achillea ptarmica L.) and is the wild-type progenitor of other derived strains widely used for plant transformation. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium. PMID:26044425

  9. Deer Resistant Plants Botanical Name Common Name Height Comments

    E-print Network

    Blanchette, Robert A.

    14 Deer Resistant Plants Botanical Name Common Name Height Comments Annuals & Perennials Achillea and deer; can be planted under trees. Paeonia lactiflora peony 2-3' Long lasting perennial; may need 12-18' Native shrub; fruits turn from red to blue; shade tolerant. Deer damage to ornamental plants

  10. Influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on common weeds in Scandinavian agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne Saebø; Leiv M. Mortensen

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of elevated CO2 on three perennial weed species (Achillea millefolium, Leontodon autumnalis and Rumex acetosa) and seven annual species (Chenopodium album, Matricaria matricarioides, Poa annua, Polygoniini persicaria, Senecio vulgaris, Spergula arvensis and Stellaria media). The study was carried out during the period 3 May to 5 August in ten field chamber units of 9 m

  11. REGISTRATION OF YAKIMA WESTERN YARROW GERMPLASM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yakima western yarrow (Achillea millefolium L) germplasm was released on 12 Oct. 2004 by the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service and the Utah Agricultural Experiment Station as a source identified class (natural track) germplasm, which is eligible for seed certifi...

  12. Effect of ‘antidiabetis’ herbal preparation on serum glucose and fructosamine in NOD mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Petlevski; M. Hadžija; M. Slijep?evi?; D. Jureti?

    2001-01-01

    The antihyperglycemic effect of the Antidiabetis herbal preparation ((Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris), Millefollii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Morii folium (Morus nigra L.), Valeriane radix (Valleriana officinalis L.), Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L.)), patent

  13. Plant quality or quantity? Host exploitation strategies in three Chrysomelidae species associated with Asteraceae host plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth Obermaier; Helmut Zwolfer

    1999-01-01

    Phytophagous insects which feed on the leaves of herbaceous host plants have to adapt their life histories to the fact that protein nitrogen is usually highest in growing tissues in spring. We monitored field populations of larvae and adults of three chrysomelid species (Galeruca tanaceti (L.) (main host Achillea millefolium (L.) Yarrow), Cassida rubiginosa (Mueller) (main host Cirsium arvense (L.)

  14. Note critiche sulla Flora d'Italia. VI. Ultimi appunti miscellanei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandro Pignatti

    1979-01-01

    Critical notes on the flora of Italy. VI. Final miscellaneous remarks. – The present paper includes a number of changes of rank and nomen-clatural transfers in the genera Jovibarba, Saxifraga, Buglossoides, Stachys, Scabiosa, Helichrysum, Anthemis, Leucanthemopsis, Centaurea, Avenula some of them proposed by other Authors (B. Anzalone, W. Greuter, P. Marchi). Achillea lucana Pign. from the Southern Apennines near Potenza

  15. New chorological records of vascular plants for Bulgaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetlana Bancheva; Malina Delchev

    New locations of 17 taxa for the Bulgarian fl ora are reported. Of these, six taxa are new for Mt. Sredna Gora: Achillea depressa, Astragalus glycyphylloides, Dianthus stribrnyi, Nardus stricta, Ranunculus sartorianus, and Rumex patientia subsp. recurvatus. Five species are new for the Valley of Strouma River: Carduus thracicus, Genista carinalis, Onosma arenaria, Silene densifl ora, and Stipa tirsa. Six

  16. Impact of ozone on understory plants of the aspen zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Harward; M. Treshow

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to learn how ozone might affect the growth and reproduction of understory species of the aspen community, and thereby influence its stability and composition. Plants of 15 representative species of the aspen community were grown in chambers and fumigated 4 hours each day, 5 days per week throughout their growing seasons. These included: Achillea

  17. FIELD STUDY OF PLANT SURVIVAL AS AFFECTED BY AMENDMENTS TO BENTONITE SPOIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel W. Uresk; Teruo Yamamoto

    1994-01-01

    Effort s to reclaim amended and raw bentonite spoils with six plant species (two forbs, three shrubs, and one tree) were evaluated over a 4-year period. Plant species included four-win g saltbush (Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.), big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata tridentata Nutt.), Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum Sarg.), Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.), common yarrow (Achillea millifolium L.), and scarlet

  18. Mastoparan induces apoptosis in B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and displays antitumor activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Ricardo A; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Ferreira, Adilson K; Matsuo, Alisson L; Massaoka, Mariana H; Girola, Natalia; Auada, Aline V V; Farias, Camyla F; Pasqualoto, Kerly F M; Rodrigues, Cecília P; Barbuto, José A; Levy, Debora; Bydlowski, Sérgio P; de Sá-Junior, Paulo L; Travassos, Luiz R; Lebrun, Ivo

    2015-06-01

    Mastoparan is an ?-helical and amphipathic tetradecapeptide obtained from the venom of the wasp Vespula lewisii. This peptide exhibits a wide variety of biological effects, including antimicrobial activity, increased histamine release from mast cells, induction of a potent mitochondrial permeability transition and tumor cell cytotoxicity. Here, the effects of mastoparan in malignant melanoma were studied using the murine model of B16F10-Nex2 cells. In vitro, mastoparan caused melanoma cell death by the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, as evidenced by the Annexin V-FITC/PI assay, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), generation of reactive oxygen species, DNA degradation and cell death signaling. Most importantly, mastoparan reduced the growth of subcutaneous melanoma in syngeneic mice and increased their survival. The present results show that mastoparan induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in melanoma cells through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway protecting the mice against tumor development. PMID:25305549

  19. Beiträge zur Systematischen Anatomie der Asteraceae-Anthemideae : Die Trichome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Napp-Zinn; Marianne Eble

    1980-01-01

    Biseriate glandular trichomes and uniseriate flagellar covering hairs occur in all or most of the 20 genera examined and thus do not provide important taxonomical hints. In contrast, T- or Y-shaped hairs have been found inSantolina, Anthemis, Leucanthemopsis, Dendranthema, Tanacetum,Balsamita, Sphaeromeria (?),Artemisia, andAchillea clavenae only. Stellate hairs appear to be rare (inSantolina andArtemisia sect.Dracunculus). For details, additional hair types, and

  20. Mediterranean essential oils as effective weapons against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens and the Echinostoma intermediate host Physella acuta: what happens around? An acute toxicity survey on non-target mayflies.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Bedini, Stefano; Flamini, Guido; Cosci, Francesca; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Amira, Smain; Benchikh, Fatima; Laouer, Hocine; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Conti, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for important pathogens, including malaria, yellow fever, dengue and West Nile. Second to malaria as the world's most widespread parasitic disease, infection by trematodes is a devastating public health problem. In this study, we proposed two essential oils from plants cultivated in Mediterranean regions as effective chemicals against mosquitoes and freshwater snails vectors of Echinostoma trematodes. Chemical composition of essential oils from Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae) and Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Rutaceae) was investigated. Acute toxicity was evaluated against larvae of the West Nile vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) and the invasive freshwater snail Physella acuta (Mollusca: Physidae), an important intermediate host of many parasites, including Echinostoma revolutum (Echinostomidae). Acute toxicity of essential oils was assessed also on a non-target aquatic organism, the mayfly Cloeon dipterum (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum essentials oils were mainly composed by oxygenated monoterpenes (59.3 and 71.0 % of the whole oil, respectively). Chrysanthenone and borneol were the two major constituents of Achillea millefolium essential oil (24.1 and 14.2 %, respectively). Major compounds of H. tuberculatum essential oil were cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol and trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (22.9 and 16.1 %, respectively). In acute toxicity assays, C. pipiens LC50 was 154.190 and 175.268 ppm for Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum, respectively. P. acuta LC50 was 112.911 and 73.695 ppm for Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum, respectively, while the same values were 198.116 and 280.265 ppm for C. dipterum. Relative median potency analysis showed that both tested essential oils were more toxic to P. acuta over C. dipterum. This research adds knowledge on plant-borne chemicals toxic against invertebrates of medical importance, allowing us to propose the tested oils as effective candidates to develop newer and safer vector control tools. PMID:25563605

  1. Essential oil content and composition, nutrient and mycorrhizal status of some aromatic and medicinal plants of northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Karagiannidis, Nikitas; Panou-Filotheou, Hellen; Lazari, Diamando; Ipsilantis, Ioannis; Karagiannidou, Christina

    2010-05-01

    A field survey was conducted in three northern Greek mountain areas (Chortiatis, Ossa, and Pieria) to investigate the mycorrhizal and nutritional status, and the essential oil content and composition of common medicinal and aromatic plants. A range of values for nutrient status and essential oil contents and composition was established. All plants were found to be mycorrhizal, including Achillea coarctata Poir., Micromeria juliana (L.) Bentham ex Reichenb., and Salvia sclarea L.;. these three are reported as being mycorrhizal for the first time. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal root colonization was highest in Pieria, exceeding 80% for all 15 plants sampled, and lower in Chortiatis and Ossa. PMID:20521556

  2. Evaluation of the inhibitory activities of the extracts of Indonesian traditional medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum and Babesia gibsoni.

    PubMed

    Murnigsih, Tri; Subeki; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Kosaku; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Yamato, Osamu; Maede, Yoshimitsu; Katakura, Ken; Suzuki, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Sumiko; Chairul; Yoshihara, Teruhiko

    2005-08-01

    Twenty-four kinds of water extracts derived from 22 plants that are traditionally used for the treatment of malaria on Java Island, Indonesia, were screened for their antibabesial and antimalarial activities. Among the extracts, 8 extracts displayed strong antimalarial activity, with an inhibition range from 89.6 to 100%, and 15 showed strong antibabesial activity, with an inhibition range from 84.2 to 98.1%. The extracts of Achillea millefolium, Baeckea frutenscens, Brucea javanica, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Strychnos lucida and Swietenia macrophylla showed both strong antibabesial and antimalarial activities. The antimalarial activities paralleled the antibabesial activities, but the converse was not true. PMID:16141673

  3. Medicinal plants in a Middle Paleolithic grave Shanidar IV?

    PubMed

    Lietava, J

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with phytopharmacological evaluation of the therapeutic potential of the plants found in the Neanderthal grave of a Shanidar IV individual (Iraq), where the palynological analysis of some other authors discovered the following flowers: Achillea-type, Centaurea solstitialis, Senecio-type, Muscari-type, Ephedra altissima, Althea-type. The purpose of our theoretical analysis was to evaluate the objective healing activity of the flowers. The result of the research revealed that Shanidar IV flowers possess considerable therapeutic effects with marked medical activity, which could be an intentional reason for the selection of the flowers in Middle Paleolithic Shanidar Neanderthals. PMID:1548898

  4. Volatile chemical composition and bioactivity of six essential oils against the stored food insect Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera Dryophthoridae).

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Alessandra; Conti, Barbara; Mazzoni, Valerio; Meini, Laura; Pistelli, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) of Achillea millefolium, Myrtus communis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare and Lavandula angustifolia were analysed with GC-FID and GC-MS in order to define their aromatic profiles and then their toxicity and repellent activity against Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera Dryophthoridae) with specific bioassays were evaluated. Results from topical applications on insects showed that all EOs had variable and significant insecticidal activity. Mortality rate never exceeded 76%. Results of repellency tests are indicated for M. communis and L. angustifolia EOs, displaying high repellent activity to S. zeamais adults. PMID:21861644

  5. Fisheries Enhancement on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation; Hangman Creek, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Ronald; Kinkead, Bruce; Stanger, Mark

    2003-07-01

    Historically, Hangman Creek produced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the Upper Columbia Basin Tribes. One weir, located at the mouth of Hangman Creek was reported to catch 1,000 salmon a day for a period of 30 days a year (Scholz et al. 1985). The current town of Tekoa, Washington, near the state border with Idaho, was the location of one of the principle anadromous fisheries for the Coeur d'Alene Tribe (Scholz et al. 1985). The construction, in 1909, of Little Falls Dam, which was not equipped with a fish passage system, blocked anadromous fish access to the Hangman Watershed. The fisheries were further removed with the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. As a result, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as Redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri), Westslope Cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii), Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and other terrestrial wildlife. Historically, Redband and Cutthroat trout comprised a great deal of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's diet (Power 1997).

  6. A Simple Electrochemical Method for the Rapid Estimation of Antioxidant Potentials of Some Selected Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Amidi, Salimeh; Mojab, Faraz; Bayandori Moghaddam, Abdolmajid; Tabib, Kimia; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and Epidemiological studies have shown that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancers and other related disorders. These beneficial health effects have been attributed in part to the presence of antioxidants in dietary plants. Therefore screening for antioxidant properties of plant extracts has been one of the interests of scientists in this field. Different screening methods have been reported for the evaluation of antioxidant properties of plant extracts in the literature. In the present research a rapid screening method has been introduced based on cyclic voltammetry for antioxidant screening of some selected medicinal plant extracts. Cyclic Voltammetry of methanolic extracts of seven medicinal plants: Buxus hyrcana, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium, Zataria multiflora, Ginkgo biloba, Lippia citriodora and Heptaptera anisoptera was carried out at different scan rates. Based on the interpretation of voltammograms, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium and Ginkgo biloba showed higher antioxidant capability than the others while Lippia citriodora contained the highest amount of antioxidants. Cyclic voltammetry is expected to be a simple method for screening antioxidants and estimating the antioxidant activity of foods and medicinal plants. PMID:25317192

  7. The influence of plant species on the plant/air partitioning coefficients of PCBs and chlorinated benzenes

    SciTech Connect

    Koemp, P.; McLachlan, M.S. [Univ. of Bayreuth (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The plant/air partitioning coefficients (K{sub PA}) of pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene and 16 PCB congeners were determined in five different grass and herb species common to Central Europe (Lolium multiflorum, Trifolium repens, Plantago lanceolata, Crepis biennis, Achillea millefolium). The measurements were conducted between 5 C and 35 C using a solid phase fugacity meter. Octanol/air partition coefficients (K{sub OA}) were also measured over a similar temperature range. In all cases an excellent linear relationship between log K{sub PA} and log K{sub OA} was observed (r{sup 2} between 0.80 and 0.99). However, while the slope of this relationship was 1 for Lolium multiflorum (ryegrass), in agreement with previous work, the slopes of the log K{sub PA} vs. log K{sub OA} plot were less than 1 for the other 4 species, lying as low as 0.49 for Achillea millefolium (yarrow). Large differences in the enthalpy of phase change (plant/air) were also observed between the different species, but these differences were not related to the differences in the partition coefficients. These observations demonstrate that the contaminant storage properties of plants are variable, and that the lipophilic compartment in some plants is considerably more polar than octanol. This places constraints on the applicability of current models of plant uptake, almost all of which assume that the lipophilic compartment behaves like octanol, and reinforces the need for more research into the contaminant storage properties of plants.

  8. Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. An annotated list of aquatic insects of Fort Sill, Oklahoma, excluding diptera with notes on several new state records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuellig, R.E.; Kondratieff, B.C.; Schmidt, J.P.; Durfee, R.S.; Ruiter, D.E.; Prather, I.E.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative collections of aquatic insects were made at Fort Sill, Lawton, Oklahoma, between 2002 and 2004. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Odonata, Coleoptera, aquatic Heteroptera, Neuroptera, and Megaloptera were targeted. Additional records are included from a survey that took place in 1999. More than 11,000 specimens from more than 290 collections were examined. Based on the current understanding of aquatic insect systematics, 276 taxa distributed over 8 orders, 46 families, and 141 genera were identified. Twenty-three of the 276 taxa, Plauditus texanus Wiersema, Tricorythodes allectus (Needham), Palmacorixa nana walleyi Hungerford, Climacia chapini Partin and Gurney, Oxyethira forcipata Mosely, Oxyethira janella Denning, Triaenodes helo Milne, Ylodes frontalis (Banks), Acilius fraternus Harris, Coptotomus loticus Hilsenhoff, Coptotomus venustus (Say), Desmopachria dispersa Crotch, Graphoderus liberus (Say), Hydrovatus pustulatus (Melsheimer), Hygrotus acaroides (LeConte), Liodessus flavicollis (LeConte), Uvarus texanus (Sharp), Gyrinus woodruffi Fall, Haliplus fasciatus Aube, Haliplus lewisii Crotch, Haliplus tortilipenis Brigham & Sanderson, Chaetarthria bicolor Sharp, Epimetopus costatus complex, and Hydrochus simplex LeConte are reported from Oklahoma for the first time. The three most diverse orders included Coleoptera (86 species), Odonata (67 species) and Trichoptera (59 species), and the remaining taxa were distributed among Heteroptera, (30 species), Ephemeroptera (21 species), Plecoptera (6 species), Megaloptera (4 species), and Neuroptera (3 species). Based on previous published records, many of the species collected during this study were expected to be found at Fort Sill; however, 276 taxa of aquatic insects identified from such a small geographic area is noteworthy, especially when considering local climatic conditions and the relatively small size of Fort Sill (38,300 ha). Despite agricultural practices in Oklahoma, the dust bowl days, and the development of water-based recreation at Fort Sill, a high percentage of the total known aquatic insect fauna of Oklahoma can be found in a small geographic area. ?? 2006 Kansas Entomological Society.

  10. California Wildflowers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The California Academy of Sciences's (CAS) Botany Department hosts this interesting and beautiful site on California's wildflowers. Spectacular color photographs of over 125 species of wildflowers serve as illustrations to this electronic field guide. Users may browse species by flower color (white through brown), common name (Alpine Lily to Yerba Mansa), latin name (Achillea millefolium to Zigadenus fremontii), or family name (Alismataceae through Violaceae). Additionally, floristic regions are provided in a color-coded map of California. For each species, the taxonomic identity (common, Latin, and family names), a description, photographs, and distribution information are provided. Educators and students of botany will find this site particularly useful; others will want to go see California in bloom.

  11. Identification, Characterization, and Palynology of High-Valued Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389

  12. Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389

  13. Anglo-Saxon pharmacopoeia revisited: a potential treasure in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Frances; Pendry, Barbara; Corcoran, Olivia; Sanchez-Medina, Alberto

    2011-12-01

    Three of the four major Anglo-Saxon collections reporting medicinal formulations in England from the 10th century, the Old English Herbarium, Bald's Leechbook and the Lacnunga, could contain leads and insights into new medicinal uses. Previous pharmacological studies of medicinal plants mentioned in Anglo-Saxon medical texts suggested that some were effective and led to the identification and isolation of natural compounds. For example, matricin from yarrow Achillea millefolium L., is a proprionic acid analogue that yields chamazulene carboxylic acid with cyclooxygenase-2 activity similar to that of ibuprofen. As we discuss here, multidisciplinary projects could further explore historical texts to discover additional plant metabolites with potential pharmacological applications. PMID:21782968

  14. HerbMed

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    HerbMed is "an interactive, electronic herbal database" that provides scientific and general information on the biochemical action of herbs. A project of the Alternative Medicine Foundation, Inc., HerbMed includes a searchable interface, as well as a manual option for browsing the HerbMed database by plant Genus. From Achillea (Yarrow) to Ziziphus (Jujube), the HerbMed database provides detailed information on each herb's biochemical action, the mechanism of action, and warnings for human health. Of special interest to researchers will be the hyperlinks to abstracts in PubMed (reviewed in the July 18, 1997 Scout Report), providing published evidence of the scientific information contained in this database. For researchers and educators alike, HerbMed promises to be a useful resource.

  15. Host Status of Herbaceous Perennials to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria.

    PubMed

    Walker, J T; Melin, J B

    1998-12-01

    Twenty-two different herbaceous perennials were studied for their reaction to separate inoculations of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita under greenhouse conditions. Perennial taxa that did not develop root-galls following inoculation, and therefore are considered as nonhosts of both nematode species, included species and cultivars of Aethionema, Fragaria, Phlox, and Polygonum. Echinacea, Monarda, and Patrinia developed only a few galls. Root-galls developed on species and cultivars of Achillea, Geranium, Heuchera, Heucherella, Linaria, Nepeta, Nierembergia, Penstemon, and Salvia. There was no difference in the number of root-galls caused by M. arenaria or M. incognita on most plants except for Penstemon cultivars. Plant heights and dry weights varied between species and nematode density. PMID:19274254

  16. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by extracts and constituents from Angelica archangelica and Geranium sylvaticum.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, Steinthor; Gudbjarnason, Sigmundur

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition of several Icelandic medicinal herbs. Ethanolic extracts of Angelica archangelica seeds and the aerial parts of Geranium sylvaticum proved effective, with IC50 values of 2.20 mg/ml and 3.56 mg/ml, respectively. The activity of imperatorin and xanthotoxin from A. archangelica was measured. Xanthotoxin proved much more potent than imperatorin, with an IC50 value of 155 microg/ml (0.72 mM) but that for imperatorin was above 274 microg/ml (1.01 mM). However, furanocoumarins seem to have a minor part in the total activity of this extract. Synergistic interaction was observed between the extracts of A. archangelica and G. sylvaticum. Several medicinal herbs (Achillea millefolium, Filipendula ulmaria, Thymus praecox and Matricaria maritima) did not show AChE inhibitory activity. PMID:18069242

  17. Cytotoxicity, mode of action and antibacterial activities of selected Saudi Arabian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The flora of Saudi Arabia is one of the richest biodiversity areas in the Arabian Peninsula and comprises very important genetic resources of crop and medicinal plants. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity and the antibacterial activities of the organic extracts from twenty six Saudi Arabian medicinal plants. The study was also extended to the investigation of the effects of the extracts from the four best plants, Ononis serrata (SY160), Haplophyllum tuberculatum (SY177), Pulicaria crispa (SY179), and Achillea beiberstenii (SY-200) on cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, caspases activities and mitochondrial function in leukemia CCRF-CEM cell line. Methods A resazurin assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of the extracts on a panel of human cancer cell lines whilst the microbroth dilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the samples against twelve bacterial strains belonging to four species, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results The best activity on leukemia cell lines were recorded with SY177 (IC50 of 9.94 ?g/mL) and SY179 (IC50 of 1.81 ?g/mL) against CCRF-CEM as well as Ach-b (IC50 of 9.30 ?g/mL) and SY160 (IC50 of 5.06 ?g/mL) against HL60 cells. The extracts from SY177 and SY179 were also toxic against the seven solid cancer cell lines studied with the highest IC50 values of 31.64 ?g/mL (SY177 against Hep-G2 cells). SY177 and Ach-b induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and S phases whilst SY160 and SY179 induced arrest in G0/G1 phase. All the four plant extracts induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells with the alteration of the mitochondrial membrane potential. In the antibacterial assays, only Ach-b displayed moderate antibacterial activities against E. coli and E. aerogenes ATCC strains (MIC of 256 ?g/mL), AG100ATeT and K. pneumoniae ATCC strains (MIC of 128 ?g/mL). Conclusions Finally, the results of the present investigation provided supportive data for the possible use of some Saudi Arabian plants investigated herein, and mostly Haplophyllum tuberculatum, Pulicaria crispa, Ononis serrata and Achillea beiberstenii in the control of cancer diseases. PMID:24330397

  18. The efficacy of Liv-52 on liver cirrhotic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled first approach.

    PubMed

    Huseini, H Fallah; Alavian, S M; Heshmat, R; Heydari, M R; Abolmaali, K

    2005-09-01

    Cirrhosis is the irreversible sequel of various disorders that damage liver cells permanently over time. Presently, the use of herbal medicines for prevention and control of chronic liver diseases is in the focus of attention for both the physicians and the patients; the reasons for such shift toward the use of herbals include the expensive cost of conventional drugs, adverse drug reactions, and their inefficacy. In the present study, the efficacy of herbal medicine Liv-52 (consisting of Mandur basma, Tamarix gallica and herbal extracts of Capparis spinosa, Cichorium intybus, Solanum nigrum, Terminalia arjuna and Achillea millefolium) on liver cirrhosis outcomes was compared with the placebo for 6 months in 36 cirrhotic patients referred to Tehran Hepatic Center. The outcome measures included child-pugh score, ascites, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total billirubin, albumin, prothrombin time, platelet and white blood cells counts. The indices were recorded in all patients before and after 6 months of drug or placebo treatment. The results demonstrated that the patients treated with Liv-52 for 6 months had significantly better child-pugh score, decreased ascites, decreased serum ALT and AST. In placebo administered patients all the clinical parameters recorded at beginning of the study were not significantly different than after 6 months. We conclude that Liv-52 possess hepatoprotective effect in cirrhotic patients. This protective effect of Liv-52 can be attributed to the diuretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and immunomodulating properties of the component herbs. PMID:16194047

  19. Solid-phase microextraction of volatile components from natural grassland plants.

    PubMed

    Cornu, A; Carnat, A; Martin, B; Coulon, J; Lamaison, J; Berdagué, J

    2001-01-01

    The volatile components from nine plants growing on natural grasslands in Auvergne, central France, selected for the broad qualitative and quantitative diversity of their terpenoid fractions, were analyzed by high-resolution gas-phase chromatography and mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS) after static headspace solid-phase microextraction (SHS-SPME). SHS-SPME allowed all the plant material to be analyzed under the same conditions despite its wide-ranging composition. This is not always possible with other extraction methods. Using an apolar poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) phase, numerous terpenoid hydrocarbons, together with alcohols, cyclic ethers, and esters, were extracted. Its ease of use and the high resolution of the chromatographic profiles obtained make SHS-SPME well suited to the rapid characterization of the main components of the volatile fraction of plants. Of the nine plants studied, four (Meum athamanticum, Pimpinella saxifraga, Achillea millefolium, and Thymus pulegioides) exhaled more than 60 different volatile components. Certain terpenes present in large amounts in these plants might help link dairy products to grazing pasture, thus improving food traceability. PMID:11170578

  20. Bioactivity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against the Cotton Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  1. Growth and Landscape Performance of Ten Herbaceous Species in Response to Saline Water Irrigation1

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Genhua; Rodriguez, Denise S.; Aguiniga, Lizzie

    2009-01-01

    Ten herbaceous perennials and groundcovers were grown in raised beds from June to September in a dry, hot desert environment and micro-spray drip irrigated with synthesized saline solutions at electrical conductivity of 0.8 (tap water), 3.2, or 5.4 dS/m. Plant height and two perpendicular widths were recorded monthly to calculate the growth index. Landscape performance was assessed monthly by visual scores. Salinity did not affect the visual scores in Achillea millefolium L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Lantana x hybrida ‘New Gold’, Lonicera japonica Thunb. ‘Halliana’, and Rosmarinus officinalis L. ‘Huntington Carpet’ throughout the experiment. Glandularia canadensis (L.) Nutt. ‘Homestead Purple’ performed better than Glandularia x hybrida (Grönland & Rümpler) G. L. Nesom & Pruski. Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Brig. had lower visual scores at 5.4 dS/m compared to the control and 3.2 dS/m. Most plants of Rudbeckia hirta L. did not survive when irrigated at 3.2 dS/m or 5.4 dS/m. Shoot biomass of A. millefolium, G. aristata, L. x hybrida, L. japonica, R. officinalis, and V. macdougalii was not influenced by the salinity of irrigation water. Therefore, A. millefolium, G. aristata, L. x hybrida, L. japonica, and R. officinalis can be irrigated with non-potable water at salinity up to 5.4 dS/m with little reduction in growth and aesthetic appearance. PMID:20585473

  2. Growth and Landscape Performance of Ten Herbaceous Species in Response to Saline Water Irrigation.

    PubMed

    Niu, Genhua; Rodriguez, Denise S; Aguiniga, Lizzie

    2007-01-01

    Ten herbaceous perennials and groundcovers were grown in raised beds from June to September in a dry, hot desert environment and micro-spray drip irrigated with synthesized saline solutions at electrical conductivity of 0.8 (tap water), 3.2, or 5.4 dS/m. Plant height and two perpendicular widths were recorded monthly to calculate the growth index. Landscape performance was assessed monthly by visual scores. Salinity did not affect the visual scores in Achillea millefolium L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Lantana x hybrida 'New Gold', Lonicera japonica Thunb. 'Halliana', and Rosmarinus officinalis L. 'Huntington Carpet' throughout the experiment. Glandularia canadensis (L.) Nutt. 'Homestead Purple' performed better than Glandularia x hybrida (Grönland & Rümpler) G. L. Nesom & Pruski. Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Brig. had lower visual scores at 5.4 dS/m compared to the control and 3.2 dS/m. Most plants of Rudbeckia hirta L. did not survive when irrigated at 3.2 dS/m or 5.4 dS/m. Shoot biomass of A. millefolium, G. aristata, L. x hybrida, L. japonica, R. officinalis, and V. macdougalii was not influenced by the salinity of irrigation water. Therefore, A. millefolium, G. aristata, L. x hybrida, L. japonica, and R. officinalis can be irrigated with non-potable water at salinity up to 5.4 dS/m with little reduction in growth and aesthetic appearance. PMID:20585473

  3. Application of RAPD for molecular characterization of plant species of medicinal value from an arid environment.

    PubMed

    Arif, I A; Bakir, M A; Khan, H A; Al Farhan, A H; Al Homaidan, A A; Bahkali, A H; Al Sadoon, M; Shobrak, M

    2010-01-01

    The use of highly discriminatory methods for the identification and characterization of genotypes is essential for plant protection and appropriate use. We utilized the RAPD method for the genetic fingerprinting of 11 plant species of desert origin (seven with known medicinal value). Andrachne telephioides, Zilla spinosa, Caylusea hexagyna, Achillea fragrantissima, Lycium shawii, Moricandia sinaica, Rumex vesicarius, Bassia eriophora, Zygophyllum propinquum subsp migahidii, Withania somnifera, and Sonchus oleraceus were collected from various areas of Saudi Arabia. The five primers used were able to amplify the DNA from all the plant species. The amplified products of the RAPD profiles ranged from 307 to 1772 bp. A total of 164 bands were observed for 11 plant species, using five primers. The number of well-defined and major bands for a single plant species for a single primer ranged from 1 to 10. The highest pair-wise similarities (0.32) were observed between A. fragrantissima and L. shawii, when five primers were combined. The lowest similarities (0) were observed between A. telephioides and Z. spinosa; Z. spinosa and B. eriophora; B. eriophora and Z. propinquum. In conclusion, the RAPD method successfully discriminates among all the plant species, therefore providing an easy and rapid tool for identification, conservation and sustainable use of these plants. PMID:21064026

  4. Soil-to-plant transfer of native selenium for wild vegetation cover at selected locations of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Száková, Ji?ina; Tremlová, Jana; Pegová, Kristýna; Najmanová, Jana; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-06-01

    Total selenium (Se) contents were determined in aboveground biomass of wild plant species growing in two uncultivated meadows at two different locations. The soils in these locations had pseudototal (Aqua Regia soluble) Se in concentration ranges of between 0.2 and 0.3 mg kg(-1) at the first location, and between 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg(-1) at the second location. The plant species represented 29 plant families where the most numerous ones were Poaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae , and Asteraceae. The selenium contents in the plants varied between undetectable levels (Aegopodium podagraria, Achillea millefolium, Lotus corniculatus) and 0.158 mg kg(-1) (Veronica arvensis, Veronicaceae). The Se levels were roughly one order of magnitude lower compared to other elements with similar soil content, such as cadmium and molybdenum. The transfer factors of Se, quantifying the element transfer from soil to plants, varied between <0.001 and 0.146 with no significant differences between the locations, confirming the limited soil-plant selenium transfer regardless of location, soil Se level, and plant species. Among the plant families, no unambiguous trend to potential elevated Se uptake was observed. Low Se content in the soil and its plant availability was comparable to other Se-deficient areas within Europe. PMID:25975239

  5. Rapid Plant Identification Using Species- and Group-Specific Primers Targeting Chloroplast DNA

    PubMed Central

    Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Thalinger, Bettina; Traugott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae), the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory. PMID:22253728

  6. Root Foraging Influences Plant Growth Responses to Earthworm Foraging

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Erin K.; Cahill, James F.; Bayne, Erin M.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503

  7. Chamazulene carboxylic acid and matricin: a natural profen and its natural prodrug, identified through similarity to synthetic drug substances.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Mai; Goeters, Susanne; Watzer, Bernhard; Krause, Eva; Lohmann, Klaus; Bauer, Rudolf; Hempel, Bernd; Imming, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Chamazulene carboxylic acid (1) is a natural profen with anti-inflammatory activity and a degradation product of proazulenic sesquiterpene lactones, e.g., matricin. Both 1 and proazulenes occur in chamomile (Matricaria recutita), yarrow (Achillea millefolium), and a few other Asteraceae species. It was isolated in improved yields, characterized physicochemically, and found to be an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, but not of cyclooxygenase-1. It had anti-inflammatory activity in several animal models with local and systemic application. When human volunteers were given matricin orally, plasma levels of 1 were found to be in the micromolar range. Matricin was converted to 1 in artificial gastric fluid, but not in artificial intestinal fluid. Matricin and the yarrow proazulenes are proposed to be anti-inflammatory through conversion to 1. Intriguingly, the biological activity of the natural compound 1 was found because of its similarity to fully synthetic drug substances. This is the reverse process of the common lead function of natural compounds in drug discovery. PMID:16872141

  8. Guaianolides and volatile compounds in chamomile tea.

    PubMed

    Tschiggerl, Christine; Bucar, Franz

    2012-06-01

    Chamomile (German Chamomile, Matricaria recutita L., Asteraceae) is one of the most popular medicinal plants in use as an herbal tea for food purposes and in folk medicine. Qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of the volatile fraction of chamomile herbal tea were performed. Volatile constituents of the infusion were isolated by two different methods, namely hydrodistillation and solid phase extraction (SPE), and analysed by GC-MS. The relative proportions of particular chemical classes, present in the essential oil and volatile fractions of the infusion showed remarkable differences. The proportion of mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in the infusion, as compared to the essential oil, was significantly lower. Strikingly, the dichloromethane extract of the infusion contained a lower amount of bisabolol oxides and chamazulene, but higher amounts of spiroethers, sesquiterpene lactones and coumarins, as compared to the hydrodistillates of the herbal drug and the infusion. In addition to the previously known guaianolides matricarin and achillin, acetoxyachillin and leucodin (= desacetoxymatricarin), corresponding C-11 stereoisomers with various biological activities typically occurring in Achillea species, were identified in the dichloromethane extract of chamomile tea for the first time. PMID:22410959

  9. Transgenerational soil-mediated differences between plants experienced or naïve to a grass invasion.

    PubMed

    Deck, Anna; Muir, Adrianna; Strauss, Sharon

    2013-10-01

    Invasive species may undergo rapid change as they invade. Native species persisting in invaded areas may also experience rapid change over this short timescale relative to native populations in uninvaded areas. We investigated the response of the native Achillea millefolium to soil from Holcus lanatus-invaded and uninvaded areas, and we sought to determine whether differential responses between A. millefolium from invaded (invader experienced) and uninvaded (invader naïve) areas were mediated by soil community changes. Plants grown from seed from experienced and naïve areas responded differently to invaded and uninvaded soil with respect to germination time, biomass, and height. Overall, experienced plants grew faster and taller than their naïve counterparts. Naïve native plants showed negative feedbacks with their home soil and positive feedbacks with invaded soil; experienced plants were less responsive to soil differences. Our results suggest that native plants naïve to invasion may be more sensitive to soil communities than experienced plants, consistent with recent studies. While differences between naïve and experienced plants are transgenerational, our design cannot differentiate between differences that are genetically based, plastic, or both. Regardless, our results highlight the importance of seed source and population history in restoration, emphasizing the restoration potential of experienced seed sources. PMID:24198931

  10. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Their Isolated Constituents against Cariogenic Bacteria: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Freires, Irlan Almeida; Denny, Carina; Benso, Bruna; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries remains the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide. Several methods have been employed to prevent this biofilm-dependent disease, including the use of essential oils (EOs). In this systematic review, we discuss the antibacterial activity of EOs and their isolated constituents in view of a potential applicability in novel dental formulations. Seven databases were systematically searched for clinical trials, in situ, in vivo and in vitro studies addressing the topic published up to date. Most of the knowledge in the literature is based on in vitro studies assessing the effects of EOs on caries-related streptococci (mainly Streptococcus mutans) and lactobacilli, and on a limited number of clinical trials. The most promising species with antibacterial potential against cariogenic bacteria are: Achillea ligustica, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Croton cajucara, Cryptomeria japonica, Coriandrum sativum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Lippia sidoides, Ocimum americanum, and Rosmarinus officinalis. In some cases, the major phytochemical compounds determine the biological properties of EOs. Menthol and eugenol were considered outstanding compounds demonstrating an antibacterial potential. Only L. sidoides mouthwash (1%) has shown clinical antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens thus far. This review suggests avenues for further non-clinical and clinical studies with the most promising EOs and their isolated constituents bioprospected worldwide. PMID:25911964

  11. Transgenerational soil-mediated differences between plants experienced or naïve to a grass invasion

    PubMed Central

    Deck, Anna; Muir, Adrianna; Strauss, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species may undergo rapid change as they invade. Native species persisting in invaded areas may also experience rapid change over this short timescale relative to native populations in uninvaded areas. We investigated the response of the native Achillea millefolium to soil from Holcus lanatus-invaded and uninvaded areas, and we sought to determine whether differential responses between A. millefolium from invaded (invader experienced) and uninvaded (invader naïve) areas were mediated by soil community changes. Plants grown from seed from experienced and naïve areas responded differently to invaded and uninvaded soil with respect to germination time, biomass, and height. Overall, experienced plants grew faster and taller than their naïve counterparts. Naïve native plants showed negative feedbacks with their home soil and positive feedbacks with invaded soil; experienced plants were less responsive to soil differences. Our results suggest that native plants naïve to invasion may be more sensitive to soil communities than experienced plants, consistent with recent studies. While differences between naïve and experienced plants are transgenerational, our design cannot differentiate between differences that are genetically based, plastic, or both. Regardless, our results highlight the importance of seed source and population history in restoration, emphasizing the restoration potential of experienced seed sources. PMID:24198931

  12. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae),Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25373231

  13. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  14. Root foraging influences plant growth responses to earthworm foraging.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Erin K; Cahill, James F; Bayne, Erin M

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503

  15. Medicinal plant extracts can variously modify biofilm formation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Samoilova, Zoya; Muzyka, Nadezda; Lepekhina, Elena; Oktyabrsky, Oleg; Smirnova, Galina

    2014-04-01

    Low concentrations of black tea and water extracts from medicinal plants Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Tilia cordata, Betula pendula and Zea mays stimulated biofilm formation in Escherichia coli BW25113 up to three times. Similar effect was observed for tannic acid and low concentrations of quercetin. In contrast, the extract from Urtica dioica reduced biofilm production. Pretreatment with plant extracts variously modified antibiotic effects on specific biofilm formation (SBF). Extract from V. vitis-idaea increased SBF, while the extracts from Achillea millefolium, Laminaria japonica and U. dioica considerably decreased SBF in the presence of ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and cefotaxime. Stimulatory effect of the extracts and pure polyphenols on biofilm formation was probably related to their prooxidant properties. The rpoS deletion did not affect SBF significantly, but stimulation of biofilm formation by the compounds tested was accompanied by inhibition of rpoS expression, suggesting that a RpoS-independent signal transduction pathway was apparently used. PMID:24500005

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce the differences in competitiveness between dominant and subordinate plant species.

    PubMed

    Mariotte, Pierre; Meugnier, Claire; Johnson, David; Thébault, Aurélie; Spiegelberger, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre

    2013-05-01

    In grassland communities, plants can be classified as dominants or subordinates according to their relative abundances, but the factors controlling such distributions remain unclear. Here, we test whether the presence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices affects the competitiveness of two dominant (Taraxacum officinale and Agrostis capillaris) and two subordinate species (Prunella vulgaris and Achillea millefolium). Plants were grown in pots in the presence or absence of the fungus, in monoculture and in mixtures of both species groups with two and four species. In the absence of G. intraradices, dominants were clearly more competitive than subordinates. In inoculated pots, the fungus acted towards the parasitic end of the mutualism-parasitism continuum and had an overall negative effect on the growth of the plant species. However, the negative effects of the AM fungus were more pronounced on dominant species reducing the differences in competitiveness between dominant and subordinate species. The effects of G. intraradices varied with species composition highlighting the importance of plant community to mediate the effects of AM fungi. Dominant species were negatively affected from the AM fungus in mixtures, while subordinates grew identically with and without the fungus. Therefore, our findings predict that the plant dominance hierarchy may flatten out when dominant species are more reduced than subordinate species in an unfavourable AM fungal relationship (parasitism). PMID:23064770

  17. Evaluation of the antioxidants activities of four Slovene medicinal plant species by traditional and novel biosensory assays.

    PubMed

    Kintzios, Spiridon; Papageorgiou, Katerina; Yiakoumettis, Iakovos; Baricevic, Dea; Kusar, Anita

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the antioxidant activity of methanolic and water extracts of Slovene accessions of four medicinal plant species (Salvia officinalis, Achillea millefolium, Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare and Gentiana lutea). Their free radical-scavenging activity against the DPPH. free radical was studied with a spectrophotometric assay, while their biological activity with the help of a laboratory-made biosensor based on immobilized fibroblast cells (assay duration: 3 min). The observed antioxidant activity of the extracts from the four investigated medicinal plant species was dependent on both the solvent used for extraction and the assay method (conventional or biosensor-based). Independently from the assay method and the solvent used for extraction, the lowest scavenging activity was observed in root extracts of G. lutea. Treatment of the immobilized cells with the plant extracts resulted in an increase of the cell membrane potential (membrane hyperpolarization), possibly due to the reduction of membrane damage due to oxidation. The novel cell biosensor could be utilized as a rapid, high throughput tool for screening the antioxidant properties of plant-derived compounds. PMID:20541883

  18. [Microbial carbon utilization in rhizosphere soils of secondary plants in earthquake fault zone of Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Lin, Qing; Zeng, Jun; Ma, Jing; Wang, Zhong; Zhang, Tao; Li, Shan; Lou, Kai

    2011-09-01

    By using BIOLOG technique, this paper studied the microbial carbon utilization in the rhizosphere soils of six kinds of secondary plants in Fuyun earthquake fault zone of Xinjiang. Most of the rhizosphere soils had significantly higher nutrient contents, and all of them had a higher AWCD, as compared with the control. There was a distinct difference in the AWCD among the six rhizosphere soils. Secondary plants less affected the richness but changed the dominance and evenness of the microbial carbon sources in the rhizosphere soils. The carbon sources utilization by the microorganisms in the rhizosphere soils differed with the kinds of secondary plants, and was mainly manifested in the utilization of carbohydrates, amino acids, and carboxylic acids. The appearance of secondary plants in the earthquake fault zone made the types of carbon sources utilized by the microorganisms changed from phenols to carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. In addition, the available K content in rhizosphere soils had a negative correlation with the microbial utilization of polymers (r = -0.84) and amines (r = -0.83). It was suggested that the secondary plants in the earthquake fault zone of Xinjiang could significantly enhance the capability of soil microorganisms in carbon sources utilization, and change the types of carbon sources utilized by the microorganisms. Rosa spinosissima and Achillea millefolium played the best roles in enhancing the carbon source utilization capability of soil microorganisms and in improving soil nutrient status. PMID:22126039

  19. Essential oil composition and larvicidal activity of six Mediterranean aromatic plants against the mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Conti, Barbara; Canale, Angelo; Bertoli, Alessandra; Gozzini, Francesca; Pistelli, Luisa

    2010-11-01

    Laboratory bioassays on insecticidal activity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from six Mediterranean plants (Achillea millefolium, Lavandula angustifolia, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare, Myrtus communis, and Rosmarinus officinalis) were carried out against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito Aedes albopictus. The chemical composition of the six EOs was also investigated. Results from applications showed that all tested oils had insecticidal activity, with differences in mortality rates as a function of both oil and dosage. At the highest dosage (300 ppm), EOs from H. italicum, A. millefolium, and F. vulgare caused higher mortality than the other three oils, with mortality rates ranging from 98.3% to 100%. M. communis EO induced only 36.7% larval mortality at the highest dosage (300 ppm), a similar value to those recorded at the same dosage by using R. officinalis and L. angustifolia (51.7% and 55%, respectively). Identified compounds ranged from 91% to 99%. The analyzed EOs had higher content of monoterpenoids (80-99%) than sesquiterpenes (1-15%), and they can be categorized into three groups on the basis of their composition. Few EOs showed the hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes, and these volatile compounds were generally predominant in comparison with the oxygenated forms, which were detected in lower quantities only in H. italicum (1.80%) and in M. communis (1%). PMID:20697909

  20. Rapid plant identification using species- and group-specific primers targeting chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Wallinger, Corinna; Juen, Anita; Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Thalinger, Bettina; Traugott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae), the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory. PMID:22253728

  1. Quantification of Sesquiterpene Lactones in Asteraceae Plant Extracts: Evaluation of their Allergenic Potential.

    PubMed

    Salapovic, Helena; Geier, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly those with an activated exocyclic methylene group, are important allergens in Asteraceae (Compositae) plants. As a screening tool, the Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae plant extracts with allergenic potential (feverfew, tansy, arnica, yarrow, and German chamomile) is part of several national patch test baseline series. However, the SL content of the Compositae mix may vary due to the source material. Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method for the quantitative measurement of SLs with the ?-methylene-?-butyrolactone moiety was developed, giving the percentage of allergenic compounds in plant extracts. The method has been validated and five Asteraceae extracts, namely feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert) that have been used in routine patch test screening were evaluated. A good correlation could be found between the results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method and the corresponding clinical results. Thus, the introduced method is a valuable tool for evaluating the allergenic potential and for the simple and efficient quality control of plant extracts with allergenic potential. PMID:24106675

  2. Compositae dermatitis in childhood.

    PubMed

    Guin, J D; Skidmore, G

    1987-04-01

    Compositae dermatitis occurred in a 9-year-old boy with a strong personal and family history of atopy. Positive patch test reactions were 2+ for dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), false ragweed (Ambrosia acanthicarpa), giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida), short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisifolia), sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), wild feverfew (Parthenium hysterophorus), yarrow (Achillea millifolium), and tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and 1+ for Dahlia species and English ivy (Hedera helix). Patch tests were negative for another 30 plants, including cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium), dog fennel (Anthemis cotula, fleabane (Erigeron strigosus), sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale), and feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium). The eruption resembled atopic dermatitis morphologically but was prominent on the palms and face and dramatically spared the area of the boy's feet covered by his shoes. The condition has always been seasonal, worsening in summer, especially July, and it clears on avoidance of contact. This case is believed to represent a contact dermatitis to oleoresins of Compositae plants; inhalants as a cause of systemic aggravation are not likely to be important in this patient. PMID:3827282

  3. Quantification of Sesquiterpene Lactones in Asteraceae Plant Extracts: Evaluation of their Allergenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Salapovic, Helena; Geier, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly those with an activated exocyclic methylene group, are important allergens in Asteraceae (Compositae) plants. As a screening tool, the Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae plant extracts with allergenic potential (feverfew, tansy, arnica, yarrow, and German chamomile) is part of several national patch test baseline series. However, the SL content of the Compositae mix may vary due to the source material. Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method for the quantitative measurement of SLs with the ?-methylene-?-butyrolactone moiety was developed, giving the percentage of allergenic compounds in plant extracts. The method has been validated and five Asteraceae extracts, namely feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert) that have been used in routine patch test screening were evaluated. A good correlation could be found between the results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method and the corresponding clinical results. Thus, the introduced method is a valuable tool for evaluating the allergenic potential and for the simple and efficient quality control of plant extracts with allergenic potential. PMID:24106675

  4. A Novel Reduction Strategy of Clarithromycin Resistance in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Tadjrobehkar, Omid; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic resistance is a major therapeutic problem in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori clarithromycin resistant mutants have been evolved during antibiotic therapy, this is mainly due to 23s rRNA point mutations. Objectives: In the present study, we investigated anti-mutational features of four traditionally Iranian medicinal plants on three local isolated H. pylori strains. Materials and Methods: In this study clarithromycin resistance was used as a mutation indicator. Frequencies of such mutations in the presence and absence of plant extracts were evaluated. Mutation incidence was evaluated by Luria Delbruck fluctuation assay. Results: The mean mutation frequency in H. pylori isolates was 27 × 10-9 which decreased at the presence of Mirtus communis, Teucrium polium, Achillea millefolium and Thymus vulgaris of plant extract, this amount was 97.4%, 95.2%, 63.7% and 19.6% respectively. Moreover, A-to-G transition at 2143 position (A2143G) was detected by PCR-sequencing as major point mutation causing clarithromycin resistant mutants. Conclusions: The efficacy of these plant extracts in prohibiting resistance showed considerable results. This finding should be considered to use plant extracts with antibiotics to develop more effective eradication regimens. PMID:25741431

  5. Anyone for an aperitif? Yes, but only a Braulio DOC with its certified proteome.

    PubMed

    Fasoli, Elisa; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Citterio, Attilio; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2012-06-18

    The trace proteome of a Braulio aperitif (a 21% alcohol beverage, named after a mountain in the Val di Stelvio, Italy) has been investigated via capture with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL, ProteoMiner). This aperitif is made with an infusion of 13 mountain herbs and berries, among which four are officially indicated in the label: Achillea moschata, juniper (Juniperus communis subsp. alpina) berries, absinthe (Artemisia absinthium) and gentian (Gentiana alpina) roots. Via capture with CPLLs at pH 7.0 and 2.2 we were able to identify 29 unique gene products, among which the PR5 (parasite resistance) allergen Jun r 3.2, a 25kDa species from Juniperus rigida. Due to the paucity of data on these alpine herbs, it was difficult to attribute these proteins to the specific plant extracts presumably present in this beverage; however most of the species identified indeed belong to alpine herbs and plants, living in a habitat between 1000 and 2000m of elevation. Most of them are enzymes, spanning a Mr range from 10 to 65kDa. It is hoped that such a proteomic signature should help tracking counterfeited products sold on the market. PMID:22554908

  6. Toxicological assessment of P-9801091 plant mixture extract after chronic administration in CBA/HZg mice--a biochemical and histological study.

    PubMed

    Petlevski, Roberta; Hadzija, Mirko; Slijepcevi?, Milivoj; Jureti?, Dubravka

    2008-06-01

    Acute, subchronic and chronic effects of the P-9801091 plant mixture extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg body mass were assessed in serum of healthy CBA/HZg mice at 24 hours, 7 days, 3 months and 6 months of treatment (experimental group), and compared with the values obtained in the control group of untreated healthy CBA/HZg mice. The P-9801091 plant mixture extract is an antihyperglycemic preparation containing Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli fructus sine semine (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Millefolii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Mori folium (Morus nigra L.), Valerianae radix (Valeriana officinalis L.) and Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L). Toxic effect of the P-9801091 plant mixture extract was assessed by the following biochemical parameters: urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and cholesterol. Also, histopathological examination of the kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas, testes and lungs was performed. Results of biochemical testing performed at specified time points generally showed no statistically significant differences from control values, with the only exception of the catalytic concentration of AST in the experimental group measured on day 7, which was significantly increased as compared with the control group (p<0.05). Pathohistological examination including characteristic organ and tissue structure, and parenchyma relationship to the adjacent blood vessels and connective tissue in the examined organs revealed no major pathologic changes. PMID:18756913

  7. Compositional analysis and in vitro protective activity against oxidative stress of essential oils from egyptian plants used in traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Eissa, Tarek F; González-Burgos, Elena; Carretero, M Emilia; Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar

    2014-09-01

    The Sinai desert in Egypt contains great variability in plants extensively used for traditional medicines such as Achillea fragrantissima, Chiliadenus montanus, Mentha longifolia and Haplophyllum tuberculatum. The essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts have been analyzed. Subsequently, their potential protective activity against oxidative stress has been evaluated, employing H2O2 as oxidant inductor and astrocytes as the cell model. The chemical composition of the essential oils was analyzed by GC/MS. Most of the compounds identified in A. fragrantissima and M. longifolia samples were oxygenated monoterpene derivatives, whereas for H. tuberculatum they were monoterpenes hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds, and for C. montanus oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes predominated. The in vitro evaluation of antioxidant properties, using ORAC assay, revealed that M. longifolia essential oil possessed the highest scavenging activity against peroxyl radicals, following by H. tuberculatum, A. fragrantissima and C. montanus. Under oxidative stress conditions, M. longifolia and H. tuberculatum essential oils were the only ones that protected human astrocytoma U373-MG cells against H2O2 damage. Both essential oils prevented cell death and inhibited ROS production caused by H2O2. M. longifolia essential oil was the most active, suggesting an interesting prevention role in those CNS disorders associated with oxidative stress. PMID:25918816

  8. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on plant chemistry: nutritional consequences for a specialist and generalist lagomorph.

    PubMed

    Thines, Nicole J; Shipley, Lisa A; Bassman, John H; Fellman, John K; Mattison, D Scott; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei

    2007-05-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation has been increasing in temperate latitudes in recent decades and is expected to continue rising for some time. Enhanced UV-B radiation can change plant chemistry, yet the effects of these changes on mammalian herbivores are unknown. To examine the influence of enhanced UV-B radiation on nutrition of a specialist and generalist hindgut fermenter, we measured nutritional and chemical constituents of three common North American range plants, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), yarrow (Achillea millefolium), and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoregneria spicata), and how these changes influenced in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vivo digestibility by pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) and eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus). Forages were irradiated for 3 mo with ambient (1x) or supplemental (1.6x) UV-B radiation representing a 15% ozone depletion for Pullman, WA, USA. Enhanced UV-B radiation had minimal effects on the nutritional content and the tannin-binding capacity of forages. Similarly, the terpene concentration in sagebrush and yarrow was not affected by higher UV-B irradiances. Flavonoid compounds increased in sagebrush but decreased in yarrow. Rabbit preference and intake was not affected by treatment levels for any forage species and no differences were found between treatments for dry matter, fiber, protein digestibility, and apparent digestible energy. PMID:17406969

  9. Hangman Restoration Project : Annual Report, August 1, 2001 - July 31, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Gerald I.; Coeur D'Alene Tribe.

    2002-06-01

    The construction of hydroelectric facilities in the Columbia Basin resulted in the extirpation of anadromous fish stocks in Hangman Creek and its tributaries within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation. Thus, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss garideini), westslope cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) as well as local wildlife populations. Additionally, the Tribe was forced to convert prime riparian habitat into agricultural lands to supply sustenance for their changed needs. Wildlife habitats within the portion of the Hangman Creek Watershed that lies within the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation have been degraded from a century of land management practices that include widespread conversion of native habitats to agricultural production and intensive silvicultural practices. Currently, wildlife and fish populations have been marginalized and water quality is significantly impaired. In the fall of 2000 the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Wildlife Program, in coordination with the Tribal Fisheries Program, submitted a proposal to begin addressing the degradations to functioning habitats within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation in the Hangman Watershed. That proposal led to the implementation of this project during BPA's FY2001 through FY2003 funding cycle. The project is intended to protect, restore and/or enhance priority riparian, wetland and upland areas within the headwaters of Hangman Creek and its tributaries in order to promote healthy self-sustaining fish and wildlife populations. A key goal of this project is the implementation of wildlife habitat protection efforts in a manner that also secures areas with the potential to provide stream and wetland habitats essential to native salmonid populations. This goal is critical in our efforts to address both resident fish and wildlife habitat needs in the Hangman Watershed. All proposed implementation activities are conducted in the headwaters of the system and are expected to prove beneficial to the natural functions of the entire Hangman Watershed. The following is the FY2001 annual report of Project activities and is submitted as partial fulfillment of Operation and Maintenance Task 2.a. The Objectives and Tasks for this first year were designed to position this Project for a long-term habitat restoration effort. As such, efforts were largely directed at information gathering and project orientation. The major task for this first year was development of a Habitat Prioritization Plan (attached) to guide implementation efforts by selecting areas that will be of greatest benefit to the native ecology. Completion of the first year tasks has positioned the project to move forward with implementing restoration activities using the latest information to accomplish the greatest possible results. The Project will be looking to implement on-the-ground protection and restoration efforts in the coming fiscal year using the data and information gathered in the last fiscal year. Continually refining our understanding of the natural watershed functions and fish and wildlife habitats within the Project Area will result in an increase in the efficiency of project implementation. Research and data gathering efforts will remain a strong emphasis in the coming fiscal year, as it will throughout the life of this Project.

  10. Apomixis is not prevalent in subnival to nival plants of the European Alps

    PubMed Central

    Hörandl, Elvira; Dobeš, Christoph; Suda, Jan; Vít, Petr; Urfus, Tomáš; Temsch, Eva M.; Cosendai, Anne-Caroline; Wagner, Johanna; Ladinig, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims High alpine environments are characterized by short growing seasons, stochastic climatic conditions and fluctuating pollinator visits. These conditions are rather unfavourable for sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Apomixis, asexual reproduction via seed, provides reproductive assurance without the need of pollinators and potentially accelerates seed development. Therefore, apomixis is expected to provide selective advantages in high-alpine biota. Indeed, apomictic species occur frequently in the subalpine to alpine grassland zone of the European Alps, but the mode of reproduction of the subnival to nival flora was largely unknown. Methods The mode of reproduction in 14 species belonging to seven families was investigated via flow cytometric seed screen. The sampling comprised 12 species typical for nival to subnival plant communities of the European Alps without any previous information on apomixis (Achillea atrata, Androsace alpina, Arabis caerulea, Erigeron uniflorus, Gnaphalium hoppeanum, Leucanthemopsis alpina, Oxyria digyna, Potentilla frigida, Ranunculus alpestris, R. glacialis, R. pygmaeus and Saxifraga bryoides), and two high-alpine species with apomixis reported from other geographical areas (Leontopodium alpinum and Potentilla crantzii). Key Results Flow cytometric data were clearly interpretable for all 46 population samples, confirming the utility of the method for broad screenings on non-model organisms. Formation of endosperm in all species of Asteraceae was documented. Ratios of endosperm : embryo showed pseudogamous apomixis for Potentilla crantzii (ratio approx. 3), but sexual reproduction for all other species (ratios approx. 1·5). Conclusions The occurrence of apomixis is not correlated to high altitudes, and cannot be readily explained by selective forces due to environmental conditions. The investigated species have probably other adaptations to high altitudes to maintain reproductive assurance via sexuality. We hypothesize that shifts to apomixis are rather connected to frequencies of polyploidization than to ecological conditions. PMID:21724654

  11. Testing the root-priming of soil organic matter decomposition using the isotopic signature of fossil fuel CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Robert; Paterson, Eric; Chapman, Steve; Thornton, Barry; Sim, Allan

    2013-04-01

    Plant roots provide various forms of soil labile carbon (i.e., rhizodeposition), which stimulate the growth of heterotrophic bacteria in the rhizosphere. This, in turn, provides a food source for phagotrophic protozoa and other bacterivores, whose carbon:nutrient ratios are generally higher than those of their food source. In order to maintain their stoichiometric composition, bacterivores release their extra nutrients into the rhizosphere, where they may be absorbed by plant roots. Thus, rhizodeposition should reduce carbon limitation, but increase nutrient demand, of the soil microbial biomass. We hypothesized that this shift towards nutrient deficiency would stimulate the production of microbial enzymes that depolymerise soil organic matter into microbial available forms. In other words, roots should stimulate the decomposition of soil organic matter. We report on experiment where we tested such a "root-priming" effect using 3 contrasting plant species (Achillea millefolium, Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens). An agricultural soil, with a delta-13C value of approximately -14 ‰ , was transferred into 30 pots and planted with seeds of each species. A ring was inserted in the middle of each pot, and no seeds were planted within the ring. Plants were grown in a growth chamber designed to deliver 13C-depleted air. The resulting plant biomass had a delta-13C value of approximately -52 ‰ . On 7 occasions during the growth trial, pots were sampled for the flux and delta-13C value of soil CO2. Using similar data from control pots without plants, we compared the expected vs. observed contributions of CO2 from roots and soil organic matter. Results from this study revealed a negative root-priming effect for all three species. We discuss the experimental conditions that could have led to this observation, as well as the novelty and potential of our experimental protocol.

  12. Effect of Elevated Tropospheric Ozone on the Structure of Bacterial Communities Inhabiting the Rhizosphere of Herbaceous Plants Native to Germany†

    PubMed Central

    Dohrmann, Anja B.; Tebbe, Christoph C.

    2005-01-01

    Current elevated concentrations of ozone in the atmosphere, as they are observed during summer seasons, can cause severe effects on plant vegetation. This study was initiated to analyze whether ozone-stressed plants also transfer signals below ground and thereby alter the bacterial community composition in their rhizospheres. Herbaceous plants, native to Germany, with tolerance (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Poa pratensis, Rumex acetosa, and Veronica chamaedrys) and sensitivity (Matricaria chamomilla, Sonchus asper, and Tanacetum vulgare) to ozone, raised in the greenhouse, were exposed in open-top chambers to two different ozone regimes, i.e., “summer stress” and a normal ozone background. DNA of bacterial cells from the rhizospheres was directly extracted, and partial sequences of the 16S rRNA genes were PCR amplified with primers targeting the following phylogenetic groups: Bacteria, ?-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Pseudomonas, respectively. The diversity of the amplified products was analyzed by genetic profiling based on single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Neither the tolerant nor the sensitive plants, the latter with visible above-ground damage, showed ozone-induced differences in any of the SSCP profiles, with the single exception of Actinobacteria-targeted profiles from S. asper. To increase the stress, S. asper was germinated and raised in the continuous presence of an elevated level of ozone. SSCP profiles with Bacteria-specific primers combined with gene probe hybridizations indicated an ozone-related increase in a Xanthomonas-related 16S rRNA gene and a decrease in the respective gene from the plant plastids. The fact that only this latter unrealistic scenario caused a detectable effect demonstrated that ozone stress has a surprisingly small effect on the structural diversity of the bacterial community in rhizospheres. PMID:16332747

  13. Increased Plant Carbon Translocation Linked to Overyielding in Grassland Species Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    De Deyn, Gerlinde B.; Quirk, Helen; Oakley, Simon; Ostle, Nick J.; Bardgett, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Plant species richness and productivity often show a positive relationship, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, especially at the plant species level. We examined how growing plants in species mixture influences intraspecific rates of short-term carbon (C-) translocation, and determined whether such short-term responses are reflected in biomass yields. We grew monocultures and mixtures of six common C3 grassland plant species in outdoor mesocosms, applied a 13C-CO2 pulse in situ to trace assimilated C through plants, into the soil, and back to the atmosphere, and quantified species-specific biomass. Pulse derived 13C enrichment was highest in the legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens, and relocation (i.e. transport from the leaves to other plant parts) of the recently assimilated 13C was most rapid in T. repens grown in 6-species mixtures. The grass Anthoxanthum odoratum also showed high levels of 13C enrichment in 6-species mixtures, while 13C enrichment was low in Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata and Achillea millefolium. Rates of C loss through respiration were highest in monocultures of T. repens and relatively low in species mixtures, while the proportion of 13C in the respired CO2 was similar in monocultures and mixtures. The grass A. odoratum and legume T. repens were most promoted in 6-species mixtures, and together with L. corniculatus, caused the net biomass increase in 6-species mixtures. These plant species also had highest rates of 13C-label translocation, and for A. odoratum and T. repens this effect was greatest in plant individuals grown in species mixtures. Our study reveals that short-term plant C translocation can be accelerated in plant individuals of legume and C3 grass species when grown in mixtures, and that this is strongly positively related to overyielding. These results demonstrate a mechanistic coupling between changes in intraspecific plant carbon physiology and increased community level productivity in grassland systems. PMID:23049893

  14. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-01

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338

  15. The role of mass spectrometry in medicinal plant research.

    PubMed

    Héthelyi, E; Tétényi, P; Dabi, E; Dános, B

    1987-11-01

    In phytochemical and chemotaxonomic research work mass spectrometry plays an outstandingly important role. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we established the chemotaxa of Tanacetum vulgare L. Chemotypes with essential oils containing 60-90% of artemisia ketone, carveol, dihydrocarvone, myrtenol, umbellulone, terpinen-4-ol, davanone, and Tagetes species containing various essential oils can be clearly distinguished by their spectra; we examined many variations of Tagetes erecta, T. lucida, T. minuta, T. patula and T. tenuifolia. We have identified alpha-beta-pinene-, 1,8-cineol-, linalool-, camphor-, nerol-, geraniol- and gamma-gurjonene as components of Achillea distans L. Injecting the essential oil direct from the oil-secreting organs of T. minuta plants we identified using GC/MS 6-10 and 16% eugenol from the involucral bract and hypsophyll, respectively, as well as beta-ocimene, dihydrotagetone, tagetone, Z- and E-ocimenones. In the course of studies on essential fatty acids Borago officinalis and Lappula squarrosa were selected from 70 species of the family Boraginaceae to obtain seed oil as a source of gamma-linolenic acid, and for the PG synthesis we isolated several grams of gamma-linolenic acid, as well as C18:4, i.e. octadecatetraenic acid, from L. squarrosa on the basis of the mass spectra. From the seed oil of Aquilegia vulgaris C18:3 (5) from the oil of Limnanthes dougloasii C20:1 (5) and from the seed oils of Delphinium consolida and of Tropaeolum species (T. majus, T. minus, T. peregrinum) C20:1 (11) fatty acids were identified on the basis of spectra. PMID:2962668

  16. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase or glutamic acid decarboxylase inhibition; a range of monoaminergic effects; and potential cannabinoid receptor modulation. Future research should focus on conducting human clinical trials on the plants reviewed with promising anxiolytic activity. PMID:23436255

  17. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against this pathogen. Conclusions Our data suggest that further screening of plants used in traditional Haudenosaunee medicine is warranted, and we put forward several species for further investigation of activity against S. typhimurium (A. millefolium, H. matronalis, I. pandurata, H. pilosella, R. multiflora, S. canadensis). PMID:21054887

  18. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to botanical extracts used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Mahady, Gail B; Pendland, Susan L; Stoia, Adenia; Hamill, Frank A; Fabricant, Daniel; Dietz, Birgit M; Chadwick, Lucas R

    2005-11-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (HP), identified in 1982, is now recognized as the primary etiological factor associated with the development of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, HP infections are also associated with chronic gastritis, gastric carcinoma and primary gastric B-cell lymphoma. For centuries, herbals have been used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of ailments, including gastrointestinal (GI) disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, the mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic effects has not been completely elucidated. As part of an ongoing screening program, the study assessed the in vitro susceptibility of 15 HP strains to botanical extracts, which have a history of traditional use in the treatment of GI disorders. Methanol extracts of Myristica fragrans (seed) had a MIC of 12.5 microg/mL; Zingiber officinale (ginger rhizome/root) and Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary leaf) had an MIC of 25 microg/mL. Methanol extracts of botanicals with a MIC of 50 microg/mL included Achillea millefolium, Foeniculum vulgare (seed), Passiflora incarnata (herb), Origanum majorana (herb) and a (1:1) combination of Curcuma longa (root) and ginger rhizome. Botanical extracts with a MIC of 100 microg/mL included Carum carvi (seed), Elettaria cardamomum (seed), Gentiana lutea (roots), Juniper communis (berry), Lavandula angustifolia (flowers), Melissa officinalis (leaves), Mentha piperita (leaves) and Pimpinella anisum (seed). Methanol extracts of Matricaria recutita (flowers) and Ginkgo biloba (leaves) had a MIC > 100 microg/mL. PMID:16317658

  19. The root herbivore history of the soil affects the productivity of a grassland plant community and determines plant response to new root herbivore attack.

    PubMed

    Sonnemann, Ilja; Hempel, Stefan; Beutel, Maria; Hanauer, Nicola; Reidinger, Stefan; Wurst, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Insect root herbivores can alter plant community structure by affecting the competitive ability of single plants. However, their effects can be modified by the soil environment. Root herbivory itself may induce changes in the soil biota community, and it has recently been shown that these changes can affect plant growth in a subsequent season or plant generation. However, so far it is not known whether these root herbivore history effects (i) are detectable at the plant community level and/or (ii) also determine plant species and plant community responses to new root herbivore attack. The present greenhouse study determined root herbivore history effects of click beetle larvae (Elateridae, Coleoptera, genus Agriotes) in a model grassland plant community consisting of six common species (Achillea millefolium, Plantago lanceolata, Taraxacum officinale, Holcus lanatus, Poa pratensis, Trifolium repens). Root herbivore history effects were generated in a first phase of the experiment by growing the plant community in soil with or without Agriotes larvae, and investigated in a second phase by growing it again in the soils that were either Agriotes trained or not. The root herbivore history of the soil affected plant community productivity (but not composition), with communities growing in root herbivore trained soil producing more biomass than those growing in untrained soil. Additionally, it influenced the response of certain plant species to new root herbivore attack. Effects may partly be explained by herbivore-induced shifts in the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The root herbivore history of the soil proved to be a stronger driver of plant growth on the community level than an actual root herbivore attack which did not affect plant community parameters. History effects have to be taken into account when predicting the impact of root herbivores on grasslands. PMID:23441201

  20. The Root Herbivore History of the Soil Affects the Productivity of a Grassland Plant Community and Determines Plant Response to New Root Herbivore Attack

    PubMed Central

    Sonnemann, Ilja; Hempel, Stefan; Beutel, Maria; Hanauer, Nicola; Reidinger, Stefan; Wurst, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Insect root herbivores can alter plant community structure by affecting the competitive ability of single plants. However, their effects can be modified by the soil environment. Root herbivory itself may induce changes in the soil biota community, and it has recently been shown that these changes can affect plant growth in a subsequent season or plant generation. However, so far it is not known whether these root herbivore history effects (i) are detectable at the plant community level and/or (ii) also determine plant species and plant community responses to new root herbivore attack. The present greenhouse study determined root herbivore history effects of click beetle larvae (Elateridae, Coleoptera, genus Agriotes) in a model grassland plant community consisting of six common species (Achillea millefolium, Plantago lanceolata, Taraxacum officinale, Holcus lanatus, Poa pratensis, Trifolium repens). Root herbivore history effects were generated in a first phase of the experiment by growing the plant community in soil with or without Agriotes larvae, and investigated in a second phase by growing it again in the soils that were either Agriotes trained or not. The root herbivore history of the soil affected plant community productivity (but not composition), with communities growing in root herbivore trained soil producing more biomass than those growing in untrained soil. Additionally, it influenced the response of certain plant species to new root herbivore attack. Effects may partly be explained by herbivore-induced shifts in the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The root herbivore history of the soil proved to be a stronger driver of plant growth on the community level than an actual root herbivore attack which did not affect plant community parameters. History effects have to be taken into account when predicting the impact of root herbivores on grasslands. PMID:23441201

  1. Invasive plant architecture alters trophic interactions by changing predator abundance and behavior.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Dean E

    2009-03-01

    As primary producers, plants are known to influence higher trophic interactions by initiating food chains. However, as architects, plants may bypass consumers to directly affect predators with important but underappreciated trophic ramifications. Invasion of western North American grasslands by the perennial forb, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa), has fundamentally altered the architecture of native grassland vegetation. Here, I use long-term monitoring, observational studies, and field experiments to document how changes in vegetation architecture have affected native web spider populations and predation rates. Native spiders that use vegetation as web substrates were collectively 38 times more abundant in C. maculosa-invaded grasslands than in uninvaded grasslands. This increase in spider abundance was accompanied by a large shift in web spider community structure, driven primarily by the strong response of Dictyna spiders to C. maculosa invasion. Dictyna densities were 46-74 times higher in C. maculosa-invaded than native grasslands, a pattern that persisted over 6 years of monitoring. C. maculosa also altered Dictyna web building behavior and foraging success. Dictyna webs on C. maculosa were 2.9-4.0 times larger and generated 2.0-2.3 times higher total prey captures than webs on Achillea millefolium, their primary native substrate. Dictyna webs on C. maculosa also captured 4.2 times more large prey items, which are crucial for reproduction. As a result, Dictyna were nearly twice as likely to reproduce on C. maculosa substrates compared to native substrates. The overall outcome of C. maculosa invasion and its transformative effects on vegetation architecture on Dictyna density and web building behavior were to increase Dictyna predation on invertebrate prey >/=89 fold. These results indicate that invasive plants that change the architecture of native vegetation can substantially impact native food webs via nontraditional plant --> predator --> consumer linkages. PMID:19082630

  2. UV-B effects on the nutritional chemistry of plants and the responses of a mammalian herbivore.

    PubMed

    Thines, Nicole J; Shipley, Lisa A; Bassman, John H; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei

    2008-05-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion has caused ground-level ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation to rise in temperate latitudes of both hemispheres. Because the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the nutrition of food consumed by mammalian herbivores are unknown, we measured nutritional and chemical constituents of 18 forages and related changes to in vitro dry matter digestibility. We also measured intake and in vivo digestibility of Pacific willow (Salix lasiandra) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) by blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola). Forages were irradiated for 3 months with ambient (1x) or supplemental (1.6 x) UV-B radiation representing a 15% ozone depletion for Pullman, Washington, USA. Enhanced UV-B radiation had minimal and inconsistent effects on the nutritional content, in vitro dry matter digestibility, and protein-binding capacity of forages. However, flavonoid compounds increased in seven of the 13 forbs and woody dicots that were evaluated. Flavonoids were found to decrease only in yarrow (Achillea millefolium). When offered simultaneously, blue duikers preferred 1x and 1.6 x UV-B irradiated plants of alfalfa equally, but ate 26% less willow grown under 1.6 x UV-B radiation. However, when fed to duikers in separate feeding experiments, total dry matter intake and in vivo digestibility of dry matter, fiber, protein, and apparent energy did not differ between alfalfa and willow grown under 1x and 1.6 x UV-B radiation. We conclude that expected increases in UV-B radiation from ozone depletion would have minimal effects on intake and digestion of ruminant herbivores. PMID:18274780

  3. Mechanisms for success after long-term nutrient enrichment in a boreal forest understory.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Tess Nahanni; Turkington, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Global levels of reactive nitrogen are predicted to rise in the coming decades as a result of increased deposition from the burning of fossil fuels and the large-scale conversion of nitrogen into a useable form for agriculture. Many plant communities respond strongly to increases in soil nitrogen, particularly in northern ecosystems where nitrogen levels are naturally very low. An experiment in northern Canada that was initiated in 1990 has been investigating the effects of long-term nutrient enrichment (fertilizer added annually) on a boreal forest understory community. We used this experiment to investigate why some species increase in abundance under nutrient enrichment whereas others decline. We focused on four species that differed in their responses to fertilization: Mertensia paniculata and Epilobium angustifolium increased in abundance, Achillea millefolium remained relatively constant and Festuca altaica declined. We hypothesized that the two species that were successful in the new high-nutrient, light-limited environment would be taller, have higher specific leaf area, change phenology by growing earlier in the season and be more morphologically plastic than their less successful counterparts. We compared plant height, specific leaf area, growth spurt date and allocation to leaves in plants grown in control and fertilized plots. We demonstrated that each of the two species that came to dominate fertilized plots has a different combination of traits and responses that likely gave them a competitive advantage; M. paniculata has the highest specific leaf area of the four species whereas E. angustifolium is tallest and exhibits morphological plasticity when fertilized by increasing biomass allocation to leaves. These results indicate that rather than one strategy determining success when nutrients become available, a variety of traits and responses may contribute to a species' ability to persist in a nutrient-enriched boreal forest understory. PMID:23573298

  4. Neural Correlates of Behavioural Olfactory Sensitivity Changes Seasonally in European Starlings

    PubMed Central

    De Groof, Geert; Gwinner, Helga; Steiger, Silke; Kempenaers, Bart; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2010-01-01

    Background Possibly due to the small size of the olfactory bulb (OB) as compared to rodents, it was generally believed that songbirds lack a well-developed sense of smell. This belief was recently revised by several studies showing that various bird species, including passerines, use olfaction in many respects of life. During courtship and nest building, male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) incorporate aromatic herbs that are rich in volatile compounds (e.g., milfoil, Achillea millefolium) into the nests and they use olfactory cues to identify these plants. Interestingly, European starlings show seasonal differences in their ability to respond to odour cues: odour sensitivity peaks during nest-building in the spring, but is almost non-existent during the non-breeding season. Methodology/Principal Findings This study used repeated in vivo Manganese-enhanced MRI to quantify for the first time possible seasonal changes in the anatomy and activity of the OB in starling brains. We demonstrated that the OB of the starling exhibits a functional seasonal plasticity of certain plant odour specificity and that the OB is only able to detect milfoil odour during the breeding season. Volumetric analysis showed that this seasonal change in activity is not linked to a change in OB volume. By subsequently experimentally elevating testosterone (T) in half of the males during the non-breeding season we showed that the OB volume was increased compared to controls. Conclusions/Significance By investigating the neural substrate of seasonal olfactory sensitivity changes we show that the starlings' OB loses its ability during the non-breeding season to detect a natural odour of a plant preferred as green nest material by male starlings. We found that testosterone, applied during the non-breeding season, does not restore the discriminatory ability of the OB but has an influence on its size. PMID:21179464

  5. The acceptability of meadow plants to the slug Deroceras reticulatum and implications for grassland restoration

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Sarah E.; Close, Andrew J.; Port, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite the selective pressure slugs may exert on seedling recruitment there is a lack of information in this context within grassland restoration studies. Selective grazing is influenced by interspecific differences in acceptability. As part of a larger study of how slug–seedling interactions may influence upland hay meadow restoration, an assessment of relative acceptability is made for seedlings of meadow plants to the slug, Deroceras reticulatum. Methods Slug feeding damage to seedling monocultures of 23 meadow species and Brassica napus was assessed in microcosms over 14 d. The severity and rate of damage incurred by each plant species was analysed with a generalized additive mixed model. Plant species were then ranked for their relative acceptability. Key Results Interspecific variation in relative acceptability suggested seedlings of meadow species form a hierarchy of acceptability to D. reticulatum. The four most acceptable species were Achillea millefolium and the grasses Holcus lanatus, Poa trivialis and Festuca rubra. Trifolium pratense was acceptable to D. reticulatum and was the second highest ranking forb species. The most unacceptable species were mainly forbs associated with the target grassland, and included Geranium sylvaticum, Rumex acetosa, Leontodon hispidus and the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum. A strong positive correlation was found for mean cumulative feeding damage and cumulative seedling mortality at day 14. Conclusions Highly unacceptable species to D. reticulatum are unlikely to be selectively grazed by slugs during the seedling recruitment phase, and were predominantly target restoration species. Seedlings of highly acceptable species may be less likely to survive slug herbivory and contribute to seedling recruitment at restoration sites. Selective slug herbivory, influenced by acceptability, may influence community-level processes if seedling recruitment and establishment of key functional species, such as T. pratense is reduced. PMID:23632124

  6. The effect of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected medicinal plants of Asteraceae family on the peroxynitrite-induced changes in blood platelet proteins.

    PubMed

    Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Olas, Beata; Ko?odziejczyk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal; Nowak, Pawel; Tsirigotis-Wo?oszczak, Marta; Wachowicz, Barbara; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-12-01

    Lots of plants belonging to Asteraceae family are very popular in folk medicine in Poland. These plants are also known as being rich in acidic polysaccharides, due to the presence of hexuronic acids or its derivatives. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the extract from Conyza canadensis L. possesses various biological activity, including antiplatelet, antiocoagulant and antioxidant properties. The aim of our study was to assess if macromolecular glycoconjugates from selected herbal plants of Asteraceae family: Achillea millefolium L., Arnica montana L., Echinacea purpurea L., Solidago virgaurea L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert., and Conyza canadensis L. protect platelet proteins against nitrative and oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite, which is responsible for oxidative/nitrative modifications of platelet proteins: the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups. These modifications may lead to changes of blood platelet functions and can have pathological consequences. The role of these different medicinal plants in the defence against oxidative/nitrative stress in human platelets is still unknown, therefore the oxidative damage to platelet proteins induced by peroxynitrite and protectory effects of tested conjugates by the estimation of carbonyl group level and nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of protein nitration) were studied in vitro. The antioxidative properties of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). The obtained results demonstrate that the compounds from herbal plants: A. millefolium, A. montana, E. purpurea, C. recutita, S. virgaurea, possess antioxidative properties and protect platelet proteins against peroxynitrite toxicity in vitro, similar to the glycoconjugates from C. canadensis. However, in the comparative studies, the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were not found to be more effective antioxidant, than the solution of pure resveratrol. PMID:20869393

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Various Plants Extracts Against Antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Al Laham, Shaza Anwar; Al Fadel, Frdoos Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aeromonas hydrophila cause one of the most important diseases in fishes and lead to economic losses, and may be contaminated human beings. Objectives: The current research aimed to investigate the anti-bacterial activity shown by the extracts prepared from different parts of Olea europea, Myrtus communis, Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinuis officinalis, and Achillea falcata that grow in Syria against A. hydrophila that causes the most dangerous bacterial diseases in fish. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in four stages: First of all, the presence of A. hydrophila was investigated in 450 Samples of Cyprinus Carpio fish using blood agar, Trypticase soya agar, and Analytical Profile Index (API20E). Secondly, the plants extract was obtained using water, absolute alcohol, then ether using Soxhlet extraction apparatus and rotary vacuum evaporator. Thirdly, the antibacterial activity of some antibiotics on these bacteria was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Finally, the antibacterial effect of the extracts was determined by disk diffusion method. Results: The studied antibiotics showed no antibacterial activity against these bacteria, except amikacin which had an acceptable effectiveness. However, the ethanol extracts of the studied plants revealed different antibacterial effects against A. hydrophila which showed antibiotic resistant. T. vulgaris extract had the strongest effect, whereas O. europea extract had the weakest activity. The water and ether petroleum extracts had no antibacterial activities. Conclusions: Ethanol extracts of the studied plants had different antibacterial effects against antibiotic-resistant A. hydrophila. T. vulgaris had the highest activity, R. officinalis had the second, and M. communis and A. falcate were in the third place, while the O. europea had the weakest antibacterial activity. PMID:25368797

  8. The Glacier National Park GLORIA Project: A new US Target Region for Alpine Plant Monitoring Installed in the Northern Rocky Mountains, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, K.; Fagre, D.

    2004-12-01

    The Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is an international research network whose purpose is to assess climate change impacts on vegetation in alpine environments worldwide. A standard protocol was developed by the international office in Vienna, Austria, and has specific site requirements and techniques that allow sites to be compared worldwide. This protocol requires four summits to be selected within a target region, covering zonal differences of subalpine to nival, and on each of these summits intensive vegetation plots are set up and monitored on a five year interval. Only three target regions in North America have been completed to date, one in Glacier National Park, Montana, and the other two in the Sierra Nevada and White Mountains, California. The four GLORIA summit plots in Glacier National Park were completed over the summers of 2003 and 2004. Because the Continental Divide bisects Glacier National Park (north to south), we chose summits only East of the divide to stay within a similar climatic pattern. Establishing sites was difficult due to the steep and rocky glaciated terrain and the remoteness of suitable sites that required multi-day approaches. Our highest summit (Seward Mtn. 2717 m) is the northernmost and our lowest summit (Dancing Lady Mtn. 2245 m) is southernmost. Treeline is strongly influenced by terrain and is significantly more variable than in the central Rocky Mountains. This also was true of zonal differences of alpine vegetation. Subalpine and even grassland species were found on the same summits as upper alpine species and areas considered subnival. While different zonal areas often occurred on one summit, they were highly influenced by the aspect and slope of that summit area. Between 51 and 82 vascular plants were documented on each summit. There was a high degree of variability in species diversity and percent cover on each summit that was correlated to directional exposure. The summit morphology caused loose vegetative associations, or micro-communities, that varied with exposure, slope angle, and substrate character. Species that exhibited dominance within the target region were Smelowskia calycina var. americana, Polemonium viscosum, Achillea millefolium, Erigeron compositus var. glabratus, and Potentilla fruticosa L. These species reflected the same variability in percent cover on the four sides of the summit areas as did the vegetation as a whole, but were present on all sides.

  9. Water dynamics and groundwater contributions in a young mountain soil under different meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negm, Amro; Falocchi, Marco; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater contribution to the soil-water content and to the evapotranspiration is a major uncertainty to assess the water balance. Particularly in mountain environments, where the soil and the depth of the water table are shallow, both percolation and water rise from the water table can happen. Aiming at better understanding these processes at the local scale, a micrometeorological station, equipped with both traditional sensors, an eddy covariance (EC) apparatus with a 20Hz sonic anemometer and infrared CO2 and H2O gas analyser, and four multiplexed TDR probes, was installed at Cividate Camuno (Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, Italy, 274ma.s.l.), in a mountain environment with complex topography and Alpine sublitoranean climate. The young, anthropised, soil upper layers are about 40cm deep and mainly covered by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), wild carrot (Daucus carota) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium). Field and laboratory tests were performed to characterise the soil hydraulic properties. Particularly the soil-water retention relationships were measured by means of a low- and a high-pressure Richards' apparatus, and the hydraulic conductivity at saturation of each soil layer was estimated by 2-dimensional, axis-symmetrical, inverse modelling of field infiltration tests from single ring infiltrometer. The measurements were performed during Summer 2012 and Summer 2013. The groundwater exchange was numerically estimated both in wet (Summer 2012) and in dry meteorlogical conditions (Summer 2013). Evapotranspiration was assessed by means of Penman-Monteith method, which was found to be in the range between EC-estimated fluxes and an indirect estimate based on the Bowen ratio correction for Summer 2012. The two seasons are meteorologically very different and it results also in the soil-water regime. During Summer 2012, the weather was relatively wet, the soil did not reach very small water contents, so that precipitation was able to percolate towards the groundwater table and the groundwater table to meaningfully contribute to the evapotranspirative fluxes. Summer 2013 was instead much drier, precipitation was not able to meaningfully change the water content of the lowest soil layer and to percolate toward the water table. As a consequence of the very small water contents of the soil, also a very small water rise had place.

  10. Mercury distribution in the soil-plant-air system at the Wanshan mercury mining district in Guizhou, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianxu; Feng, Xinbin; Anderson, Christopher W N; Zhu, Wei; Yin, Runsheng; Wang, Heng

    2011-12-01

    The level of mercury bioaccumulation in wild plants; the distribution of bioavailable Hg, elemental Hg, and total Hg in soil; and the concentration of total gaseous Hg (TGM) in ambient air was studied at three different mining sites (SiKeng [SK], WuKeng [WK], and GouXi [GX]) in the Wanshan mercury mining district of China. Results of the present study showed that the distribution of soil total Hg, elemental Hg, bioavailable Hg, and TGM varies across the three mining sites. Higher soil total Hg (29.4-1,972.3 mg/kg) and elemental Hg (19.03-443.8 mg/kg) concentrations were recorded for plots SK and WK than for plot GX. Bioavailable Hg was lower at plot SK and GX (SK, 3-12 ng/g; GX, 9-14 ng/g) than at plot WK (11-1,063 ng/g), although the TGM concentration in the ambient air was significantly higher for plot GX (52,723 ng/m(3) ) relative to WK (106 ng/m(3) ) and SK (43 ng/m(3)). Mercury in sampled herbage was elevated and ranged from 0.8 to 4.75 mg/kg (SK), from 2.17 to 34.38 mg/kg (WK), and from 47.45 to 136.5 mg/kg (GX). Many of the sampled plants are used as fodder or for medicinal purposes. High shoot Hg concentrations may therefore pose an unacceptable human health risk. Statistical analysis of the recorded data showed that the Hg concentration in plant shoots was positively correlated with TGM and that the Hg concentration in roots was positively correlated with the bioavailable Hg concentration in the soil. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the present study was defined with reference to the concentration of bioavailable Hg in the soil (Hg([root]) /Hg([bioavail])). Three plant species, Macleaya cordata L., Achillea millefolium L., and Pteris vittata L., showed enhanced accumulation of Hg and therefore may have potential for use in the phytoremediation of soils of the Wanshan mining area. PMID:21935979

  11. Assessment of the water exchange between soil and groundwater in an Alpine valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negm, Amro; Falocchi, Marco; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2013-04-01

    The soil-water balance in temperate climates can be sensitively characterised by the water exchange between soil and groundwater. Particularly in mountain environments, where the soil and the water table depth are shallow, both percolation and water rise from the water table can happen, but these latter extimate is still a major challenge for hydrological applications. Aiming at contributing to better characterise the soil-water balance and the water exchange between soil and groundwater, at the local scale in an Alpine valley, a micrometeorological station was installed during summer 2012 at Cividate Camuno (Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, 274ma.s.l.), in a mountain environment with complex orography and Alpine sublitoranean climate. The soil upper layers, lying on an anthropised loose rock, are about 40cm deep and mainly covered by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), wild carrot (Daucus carota) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium). The station is equipped with longwave and shortwave radiometers, a thermo-hygrometer, two rain-gauges, eddy correlation devices (Gill WindMaster sonic anemometer and Licor Li7500 gas analyser, sampling at 20Hz), a TDR with multiplexer apparatus and four probes at different depths, three soil-thermometers and a heat exchanger plate. Field and laboratory tests were performed to characterise the main soil hydraulic properties (i.e. hydraulic conductivity at saturation by means of infiltration tests and falling head permeameter, porosity, residual water content and water content at saturation, soil-water retention relationships, organic matter content and grain size distribution curve). Three different hypothesis to model the water exchange between soil-water and groundwater were introduced. They are (i) a null exchange rate which accounts for a shortage of precipitation and for representing the underlying soil as a capillary barrier, (ii) a pure percolation with unitary gradient of the total hydraulic potential and (iii) a percolation or water rise induced by an estimate of the local gradient on the basis of the measurements of water content. As the lateral fluxes were negligible due to the site orography, accounting for the measurement of rainfall, evapotranspiration and soil-water content, the closure of the water balance allowed to assess the effectiveness of the different hypotheses to estimate the exchange between soil-water and groundwater. The results shows that the water balance is not closed without estimating the water exchange between soil and groundwater, but assessing its value was found to be strongly sensitive to the accuracy of the adopted soil model and constitutive laws.

  12. Antioxidant activity of some Jordanian medicinal plants used traditionally for treatment of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Al-Mustafa, Ahmed H; Al-Thunibat, Osama Y

    2008-02-01

    Medicinal plants are being used extensively in Jordanian traditional medicinal system for the treatment of diabetes symptoms. Twenty one plant samples were collected from different Jordanian locations and used for antioxidant evaluation. The level of antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays in relation to the total phenolic contents of the medically used parts. The most frequently used plant parts as medicines were fruit, shoot and leaves. The total phenolic contents of methanol and aqueous extracts, from plants parts, ranged from 6.6 to 103.0 and 3.0 to 98.6 GAE mg g(-1) of plant part dry weight, respectively. DPPH-TEAC of the methanol extracts of plants parts were varied from 4.1 to 365.0 mg g(-1) of plant dry weight versus 0.6 to 267.0 mg g(-1) in aqueous extracts. Moreover, the mean values of ABTS*- (IC50) varied from 6.9 to 400.0 microg dry weight mL(-1) ABTS in methanol extracts versus 9.8 to 580.5 microg mL(-1) in aqueous extracts. According to their antioxidant capacity, the plants were divided into three categories: high (DPPH-TEAC > or = 80 mg g(-1) ), (i.e., Punica granatum peel, Quercus calliprinos leave, Quercus calliprinos fruit, Cinchona ledgeriana and Juniperus communis leave), moderate (DPPH-TEAC range 20-80 mg g(-1)) (i.e., Salvia fruticosa shoot, Crataegus azarolus stem, Crataegus azarolus leave, Varthemia iphionoides shoot, Artemisia herba-alba shoot, Thymus capitatus shoot, Morus nigra leaves and Arum palaestinum leaves) and low antioxidant plants (DPPH-TEAC < 20 mg g(-1)), (i.e., Matricaria aurea shoot, Artemisia judaica shoot, Teucrium polium shoot, Pinus halepenss pollen grains, Sarcopoterium spinosum root, Crataegus azarolus fruit, Inula viscose shoot and Achillea fragrantissima shoot). The antioxidant activity of these plant's extracts and their potential rule in radical scavenging agreed with their potential use by Jordanian population as a traditional anti-diabetic agents. PMID:18817155

  13. Effects of Dilatancy on the Shearing Behaviour of Root-Permeated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Anil; Graf, Frank; Rickli, Christian; Springman, Sarah M.

    2015-04-01

    The effects of vegetation and, in particular, of forests on the stability of slopes are well recognized and have been widely investigated. However, there is still a considerable lack of understanding on the underlying processes that contribute to triggering superficial soil failure in root-permeated soil. Therefore, it comes as no surprise that a period of heavy rainfall in August 2005, affecting an extensive area in Praettigau region in canton Grisons, resulted in numerous shallow landslides of which about half, 26 out of 50 events, occurred in the forest area. Thus, quantification of the vegetation effects on the shear strength of soil is important in order to be able to evaluate the contribution of root reinforcement to slope stability. Root reinforcement has been investigated through different approaches, including laboratory or in-situ shear tests of root-permeated soil, and analytical models of soil-root interaction. Traditional methods, generally, consider roots passing through the shear surface with full development of the roots' tensile strength. However, it has been shown that lateral roots contribute to strength as well, and that roots and soil do not necessarily fail simultaneously, and hence the strengths of both components of root-permeated soil are displacement dependent. A robust inclinable large-scale direct shear apparatus (ILDSA) was constructed in order to evaluate the combined effects of the root system on the shearing behaviour of soil. Two different sets of planted samples, a first set consisting of Alnus incana, Trifolium pratense, Poa pratensis and a latter set, consisting of these three species complemented with Salix appendiculata, Achillea millefolium, Anthyllis vulneraria, have been prepared in moraine (SP-SM) from a recent landslide area in Central Switzerland. Planted samples are maintained in shear boxes (500x500x400 mm) inclined at 30°, simulating a slope, and the corresponding natural growth of roots on it. Direct shear tests have been conducted on unplanted and planted soil samples at a constant rate of horizontal displacement of 1 mm/min to a maximum horizontal displacement of 200 mm. Three different applied normal stress levels, namely 6 kPa, 11 kPa and 16 kPa, were chosen to be comparable to the average depth of shallow landslides. An artificial rainfall at a constant intensity (100 mm/h) was applied prior to shearing in order to simulate the loss of strength after a heavy rainfall period under continuous monitoring of the matric suction with tensiometers, which was brought as close as possible to 0 kPa around the shear surface to ensure saturation. Dependence of contribution of root reinforcement to the additional shear strength of soil due to dilatancy was investigated in this study, and a comparison between the two levels of number of plant species, in terms of shear strength parameters, was presented.