Sample records for achillea lewisii

  1. Chemotaxonomic relevance of sesquiterpenes within the Achillea millefolium group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Kubelka; Ulrike Kastner; Sabine Glasl; Johannes Saukel; Johann Jurenitsch

    1999-01-01

    The chemotaxonomic relevance of sesquiterpenoids within the Achillea millefolium group has been evaluated by means of morphological, anatomical, cytological and phytochemical data. The sesquiterpene patterns of Achillea setacea Waldst. & Kit, Achillea asplenifolia Vent., Achillea roseoalba Ehrend., Achillea collina Becker, Achillea ceretanica Sennen, Achillea pratensis Saukel & Länger, Achillea distans subsp. styriaca Saukel in edit., Achillea millefolium L. and Achillea

  2. The Genetic Basis of a Rare Flower Color Polymorphism in Mimulus lewisii Provides Insight into the Repeatability

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    The Genetic Basis of a Rare Flower Color Polymorphism in Mimulus lewisii Provides Insight of a Rare Flower Color Polymorphism in Mimulus lewisii Provides Insight into the Repeatability of Evolution are predictable. Here, we identify a genetic change associated with segregating variation in flower color within

  3. Chromosomal rearrangements directly cause underdominant F1 pollen sterility in Mimulus lewisii-Mimulus cardinalis hybrids.

    PubMed

    Stathos, Angela; Fishman, Lila

    2014-11-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements can contribute to the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation directly, by disrupting meiosis in F1 hybrids, or indirectly, by suppressing recombination among genic incompatibilities. Because direct effects of rearrangements on fertility imply fitness costs during their spread, understanding the mechanism of F1 hybrid sterility is integral to reconstructing the role(s) of rearrangements in speciation. In hybrids between monkeyflowers Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewisii, rearrangements contain all quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for both premating barriers and pollen sterility, suggesting that they may have facilitated speciation in this model system. We used artificial chromosome doubling and comparative mapping to test whether heterozygous rearrangements directly cause underdominant male sterility in M. lewisii-M. cardinalis hybrids. Consistent with a direct chromosomal basis for hybrid sterility, synthetic tetraploid F1 s showed highly restored fertility (83.4% pollen fertility) relative to diploids F1 s (36.0%). Additional mapping with Mimulus parishii-M. cardinalis and M. parishii-M. lewisii hybrids demonstrated that underdominant male sterility is caused by one M. lewisii specific and one M. cardinalis specific reciprocal translocation, but that inversions had no direct effects on fertility. We discuss the importance of translocations as causes of reproductive isolation, and consider models for how underdominant rearrangements spread and fix despite intrinsic fitness costs. PMID:25125144

  4. Minireview on Achillea millefolium Linn.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad

    2013-09-01

    Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) is an important medicinal plant with different pharmaceutical uses. A. millefolium has been used for centuries to treat various diseases including malaria, hepatitis and jaundice. A. millefolium is commonly prescribed to treat liver disorders. It is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent and is a hepatoprotective herb. A. millefolium is considered safe for supplemental use. It has antihepatotoxic effects also. It is prescribed as an astringent agent. It is prescribed in hemorrhoids, headache, bleeding disorders, bruises, cough, influenza, pneumonia, kidney stones, high blood pressure, menstrual disorders, fever, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, osteoarthritis, hemorrhagic disorders, chicken pox, cystitis, diabetes mellitus, indigestion, dyspepsia, eczema, psoriasis and boils. PMID:23959026

  5. Components of reproductive isolation between the monkeyflowers Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis (Phrymaceae).

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Justin; Bradshaw, H D; Schemske, Douglas W

    2003-07-01

    Evolutionists have long recognized the role of reproductive isolation in speciation, but the relative contributions of different reproductive barriers are poorly understood. We examined the nature of isolation between Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis, sister species of monkeyflowers. Studied reproductive barriers include: ecogeographic isolation; pollinator isolation (pollinator fidelity in a natural mixed population); pollen competition (seed set and hybrid production from experimental interspecific, intraspecific, and mixed pollinations in the greenhouse); and relative hybrid fitness (germination, survivorship, percent flowering, biomass, pollen viability, and seed mass in the greenhouse). Additionally, the rate of hybridization in nature was estimated from seed collections in a sympatric population. We found substantial reproductive barriers at multiple stages in the life history of M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. Using range maps constructed from herbarium collections, we estimated that the different ecogeographic distributions of the species result in 58.7% reproductive isolation. Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis are visited by different pollinators, and in a region of sympatry 97.6% of pollinator foraging bouts were specific to one species or the other. In the greenhouse, interspecific pollinations generated nearly 50% fewer seeds than intraspecific controls. Mixed pollinations of M. cardinalis flowers yielded >75% parentals even when only one-quarter of the pollen treatment consisted of M. cardinalis pollen. In contrast, both species had similar siring success on M. lewisii flowers. The observed 99.915% occurrence of parental M. lewisii and M. cardinalis in seeds collected from a sympatric population is nearly identical to that expected, based upon our field observations of pollinator behavior and our laboratory experiments of pollen competition. F1 hybrids exhibited reduced germination rates, high survivorship and reproduction, and low pollen and ovule fertility. In aggregate, the studied reproductive barriers prevent, on average, 99.87% of gene flow, with most reproductive isolation occurring prior to hybrid formation. Our results suggest that ecological factors resulting from adaptive divergence are the primary isolating barriers in this system. Additional studies of taxa at varying degrees of evolutionary divergence are needed to identify the relative importance of pre- and postzygotic isolating mechanisms in speciation. PMID:12940357

  6. Demography of central and marginal populations of monkeyflowers (Mimulus cardinalis and M. lewisii).

    PubMed

    Angert, Amy Lauren

    2006-08-01

    Every species occupies a limited geographic area, but how spatiotemporal environmental variation affects individual and population fitness to create range limits is not well understood. Because range boundaries arise where, on average, populations are more likely to go extinct than to persist, range limits are an inherently population-level problem for which a demographic framework is useful. In this study, I compare demographic parameters and population dynamics between central and marginal populations of monkeyflowers, Mimulus cardinalis and M. lewisii, along an elevation gradient spanning both species' ranges. Central and marginal populations of both species differed in survival and fecundity. For M. lewisii, these components of fitness were higher in central than in marginal populations, but for M. cardinalis the converse was true. To assess spatiotemporal variation in population dynamics, I used transition matrix models to estimate asymptotic population growth rates (lambda) and found that population growth rates of M. lewisii were highest at the range center and reduced at the range margin. Population growth rates of M. cardinalis were highest at the range margin and greatly reduced at the range center. Life table response analysis decomposed spatiotemporal variation in lambda into contributions from each transition between life stages, finding that transitions from large nonreproductive and reproductive plants to the seed class and stasis in the reproductive class made the largest contributions to spatial differences in lambda. These transitions had only low to moderate sensitivities, indicating that differences in projected population growth rates resulted mainly from observed differences in transition matrix parameters and their underlying vital rates. PMID:16937641

  7. LC–MS Analysis of the Essential Oils of Achillea millefolium and Achillea crithmifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrija Smelcerovic; Marc Lamshoeft; Niko Radulovic; Danijela Ilic; Radosav Palic

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition of the hydro-distilled essential oils of Achillea millefolium and Achillea crithmifolia was analyzed by GC, GC–MS, 13C NMR and high resolution LC–MS. For the first time, the use of the combination of different chromatographic and spectral\\u000a methods, primarily the advantage of LC-Orbitrap over standard methods, enabled the detection of azulenes and their progenitors,\\u000a in minute quantities, in

  8. Germacranes and flavonoids from Achillea ageratum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis M. Vieira; Anake Kijjoa; José A. Pereira; Thomas E. Gedris; Werner Herz

    1997-01-01

    Aerial parts of Achillea ageratum yielded, in addition to ageratriol 9-O-acetylageratriol, 1-dehydroageratriol, a 1(10)-epoxygermacra-5,9-diol, and its monoacetate, as well as 5,4?-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy-flavone, chrysosplenetin, penduletin, hispidulin and cirsileol.

  9. Bulk Segregant Analysis of an Induced Floral Mutant Identifies a MIXTA-Like R2R3 MYB Controlling Nectar Guide Formation in Mimulus lewisii

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Sagawa, Janelle M.; Di Stilio, Verónica S.; Bradshaw, H. D.

    2013-01-01

    The genetic and developmental basis of many ecologically important floral traits (e.g., carotenoid pigmentation, corolla tube structure, nectar volume, pistil and stamen length) remains poorly understood. Here we analyze a chemically induced floral mutant of Mimulus lewisii through bulk segregant analysis and transgenic experiments and identify a MIXTA-like R2R3 MYB gene that controls nectar guide formation in M. lewisii flowers, which involves epidermal cell development and carotenoid pigmentation. PMID:23564201

  10. Cytogeography of achillea millefolium in Western Oregon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald J. Tyrl

    1969-01-01

    A cytogeographic study was made of the tetraploid and hexaploid forms ofAchillea millefolium L. in western Oregon in order to clarify their distributions, to determine whether pentaploid hybrids are present at zones\\u000a of contact between the two, and to correlate environmental conditions with the presence of the tetraploid in the coastal areas\\u000a of Coos and Curry Counties, Oregon. The distributional

  11. The effects of nutrient addition on floral characters and pollination in two subalpine plants, Ipomopsis aggregata and Linum lewisii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura A. Burkle; Rebecca E. Irwin

    2009-01-01

    The availability of soil and pollination resources are main determinants of fitness in many flowering plants, but the degree\\u000a to which each is limiting and how they interact to affect plant fitness is unknown for many species. We performed resource\\u000a (water and nutrients) and pollination (open and supplemental) treatments on two species of flowering plants, Ipomopsis aggregata and Linum lewisii,

  12. The genetic basis of a rare flower color polymorphism in Mimulus lewisii provides insight into the repeatability of evolution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Carrie A; Streisfeld, Matthew A; Nutter, Laura I; Cross, Kaitlyn A

    2013-01-01

    A long-standing question in evolutionary biology asks whether the genetic changes contributing to phenotypic evolution are predictable. Here, we identify a genetic change associated with segregating variation in flower color within a population of Mimulus lewisii. To determine whether these types of changes are predictable, we combined this information with data from other species to investigate whether the spectrum of mutations affecting flower color transitions differs based on the evolutionary time-scale since divergence. We used classic genetic techniques, along with gene expression and population genetic approaches, to identify the putative, loss-of-function mutation that generates rare, white flowers instead of the common, pink color in M. lewisii. We found that a frameshift mutation in an anthocyanin pathway gene is responsible for the white-flowered polymorphism found in this population of M. lewisii. Comparison of our results with data from other species reveals a broader spectrum of flower color mutations segregating within populations relative to those that fix between populations. These results suggest that the genetic basis of fixed differences in flower color may be predictable, but that for segregating variation is not. PMID:24312531

  13. The evolution of species' distributions: reciprocal transplants across the elevation ranges of Mimulus cardinalis and M. lewisii.

    PubMed

    Angert, A L; Schemske, D W

    2005-08-01

    Every species occupies a limited geographic area, but it remains unclear why traits that limit distribution do not evolve to allow range expansion. Hypotheses for the evolutionary stability of geographic ranges assume that species are maladapted at the range boundary and unfit beyond the current range, but this assumption has rarely been tested. To examine how fitness varies across species' ranges, we reciprocally transplanted two species of monkeyflowers, Mimulus cardinalis and M. lewisii, within and beyond their present elevation ranges. We used individuals of known parentage from populations collected across the elevation ranges of both species to examine whether populations are adapted to position within the range. For both species we found the greatest average fitness at elevations central within the range, reduced fitness at the range margin, and zero or near-zero fitness when transplanted beyond their present elevation range limits. However, the underlying causes of fitness variation differed between the species. At high elevations beyond its range, M. cardinalis displayed reduced growth and fecundity, whereas at low elevations M. lewisii experienced high mortality. Weak differences in performance were observed among populations within each species and these were not related to elevation of origin. Low fitness of both species at their range margin and weak differentiation among populations within each species suggest that adaptation to the environment at and beyond the range margin is hindered, illustrating that range margins provide an interesting system in which to study limits to adaptation. PMID:16329239

  14. Anti-inflammatory Activity of New Guaiane Acid Derivatives from Achillea Coarctata

    E-print Network

    Paré, Paul W.

    Anti-inflammatory Activity of New Guaiane Acid Derivatives from Achillea Coarctata Mohamed-Elamir F of Achillea coarctata afforded two new guaiane acid derivatives, 1 ,6 ,8 -trihydroxy-5 ,7 H-guaia-3 oxide assay. Keywords: Achillea coarctata, Asteraceae, sesquiterpenes, macrophage proliferation, anti

  15. Vasoprotective activity of standardized Achillea millefolium extract.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Bolego, Chiara; Cignarella, Andrea; Gaion, Rosa Maria; Innocenti, Gabbriella

    2011-09-15

    We investigated the effects of Achillea millefolium extract in vitro on the growth of primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as the potential involvement of estrogen receptors (ERs) in this process. In addition, the ability of A. millefolium extract to modulate the NF-?B pathway was tested in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The fingerprinting of the extract was carried out by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS(n) and main constituents were flavonoids (10%) and dicaffeolylquinic acid derivatives (12%). The extract enhanced VSMC growth at least in part by acting through ERs and impaired NF-?B signaling in HUVECs. The various compounds may act with different mode of actions thus contributing to the final effect of the extract. Our findings support some of the traditional uses of A. millefolium, and suggest potential modes of action as related to its effects on vascular inflammation. Therefore, A. millefolium may induce novel potential actions in the cardiovascular system. PMID:21684130

  16. Surface rejuvenating effect of Achillea millefolium extract.

    PubMed

    Pain, S; Altobelli, C; Boher, A; Cittadini, L; Favre-Mercuret, M; Gaillard, C; Sohm, B; Vogelgesang, B; André-Frei, V

    2011-12-01

    Proopiomelanocortin is a precursor peptide that gives rise to several neuropeptides including adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and ?-endorphin. POMC-derived peptides have been shown to be synthesized in human epidermis where they modulate numerous skin functions. Because we previously observed that melanocortin receptor-2 and ?-opioid receptor 1, the respective receptors for ACTH and ?-endorphin decreased with ageing in human epidermis, we have selected an active ingredient (INCI name: Achillea millefolium extract) able to upregulate receptor expressions. The aim of the present work was first to evaluate the effect of A. millefolium extract on the expression pattern of various epidermal differentiation markers ex vivo in normal human skin biopsies using quantitative image analysis and second to evaluate its capacity to rejuvenate the appearance of skin surface in vivo. Results show an improved expression profile of cytokeratin 10, transglutaminase-1 and filaggrin in cultured skin biopsies as well as an increased epidermal thickness. In vivo, a 2-month treatment with A. millefolium extract at 2% significantly improved the appearance of wrinkles and pores compared with placebo. Results were also directionally better than those of glycolic acid that was chosen as reference resurfacing molecule. PMID:21711463

  17. In vitro estrogenic activity of Achillea millefolium L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Innocenti; E. Vegeto; S. Dall’Acqua; P. Ciana; M. Giorgetti; E. Agradi; A. Sozzi; G. Fico; F. Tomè

    2007-01-01

    Isolation and biological characterization of pure compounds was used to identify and characterize estrogenic activity and estrogen receptors (ER) preference in chemical components of Achillea millefolium. This medicinal plant is used in folk medicine as an emmenagogue. In vitro assay, based on recombinant MCF-7 cells, showed estrogenic activity in a crude extract of the aerial parts of A. millefolium. After

  18. Betaines and free proline within the Achillea millefolium group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michaela Mehlführer; Karin Troll; Johann Jurenitsch; Helga Auer; Wolfgang Kubelka

    1997-01-01

    From above ground parts of Achillea collina L., proline, stachydrine, betonicine, betaine and choline were isolated as the major nitrogen containing compounds. The TLC screening of 11 different species belonging to A. millefolium group showed qualitatively identical betaine patterns but quantitative differences were observed.

  19. Achillea millefolium (yarrow) cell suspension cultures: Establishment and growth conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cristina S. Figueiredo; M. Salomé S. Pais

    1991-01-01

    Summary Friable calli were obtained fromAchillea millefolium L. hypocotyls, in Gamborg B5 medium, supplemented with 1.5mg.1-1 2,4-D \\/ 0.1mg.1-1 Kin, and used for the production of cell suspension cultures in the same liquid medium. The growth pattern of the cultures was determined in permanent light or dark conditions and with different inoculum densities, basal media, growth regulators and sucrose concentrations.

  20. Predicting presence of proazulenes in the Achillea millefolium group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Michler; Carl-Gerold Arnold

    1999-01-01

    Phytosociological classification of vegetation is often justified on the grounds it provides a means of predicting properties\\u000a other than floristic composition. It is difficult to find examples inliterature where this possibility of prediction is actually\\u000a used. In this paper, we examine the qualitative variation in proazulenes of theAchillea millefolium group as a function of cytological, abiotic and floristic factors. Sixty-six

  1. Antispermatogenic effect of Achillea millefolium L. in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiana Montanari; João Ernesto de Carvalho; Heidi Dolder

    1998-01-01

    The effect of an ethanolic extract (200 mg\\/kg\\/day, intraperitoneally, for 20 days) and a hydroalcoholic extract (300 mg\\/kg\\/day, orally, for 30 days) of Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow) flowers on the spermatogenesis of Swiss mice was studied by evaluating morphologic characteristics with the light and electron microscopes. The alterations observed were exfoliation of immature germ cells, germ cell necrosis, and seminiferous

  2. Ethnobotany and phytochemistry of yarrow, Achillea millefolium , compositae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Chandler; S. N. Hooper; M. J. Harvey

    1982-01-01

    The data reported in the literature concerning the uses and composition of yarrow,Achillea millefolium aggr., Compositae, are compiled and discussed. Historically, this plant has been extensively used as a herbal remedy for\\u000a numerous afflictions by many cultures on several continents. It has also been the subject of a considerable number of scientific\\u000a investigations. It has, however, not been previously reviewed.

  3. Spontane Chromosomenaberrationen und andere Meiosestörungen bei diploiden Sippen des Achillea millefolium-Komplexes (Zur Phylogenie der Gattung Achillea, II.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedrich Ehrendorfer

    1959-01-01

    1.Ausmaß, Verbreitung und Wesen der spontanen Störungen der Pollenmeiose bei diploiden Sippen von Achillea wurden an Hand cytologischer Analysen von 43 Wildformen (davon 1 Triploide) und 22 F1und F2-Pflanzen untersucht. Die Daten beziehen sich auf A. setacea, A. asplenifolia und spontane Introgressionspopulationen (A. roseo-alba) sowie experimentelle Hybriden zwischen diesen beiden Basissippen des A. millefolium-Komplexes, weiters auf die verwandtschaftlich etwas ferner

  4. Spindeldefekte, mangelhafte Zellwandbildung und andere Meiosestörungen bei polyploiden Sippen des Achillea millefolium-Komplexes (Zur Phylogenie der Gattung Achillea, III)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedrich Ehrendorfer

    1959-01-01

    1.Ausmaß, Verbreitung und Wesen der spontanen Störungen der Pollenmeiose bei polyploiden Sippen des Achillea millefolium-Komplexes wurden an Hand cytologischer Analysen von 139 Wildformen untersucht (jeweils mindestens 50–100 PMZ). Die Daten beziehen sich auf die tetraploiden A. roseo-alba (Introgressionspopulationen), A. collina und A. lanulosa, auf die hexaploiden A. millefolium s. str., A. borealis und die±hybridogene A. distans, ferner auf die oktoploiden

  5. Biotransformation of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes by cell suspension cultures of Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cristina Figueiredo; M. João Almendra; José G. Barroso; Johannes J. C. Scheffer

    1996-01-01

    The transformation capacity of Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium (yarrow) cell suspension cultures was investigated using geraniol (50mg\\/l) and borneol, menthol, thymol and farnesols (25mg\\/l) as substrates. Apart from converting these substrates into several biotransformation products, the cell suspension cultures were also able to glycosylate both the substrates and the biotransformation products. aa]Key Words bb]Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium bb]Yarrow

  6. A review on phytochemistry and medicinal properties of the genus Achillea

    PubMed Central

    Saeidnia, S.; Gohari, AR.; Mokhber-Dezfuli, N.; Kiuchi, F.

    2011-01-01

    Achillea L. (Compositae or Asteraceae) is a widely distributed medicinal plant throughout the world and has been used since ancient time. Popular indications of the several species of this genus include treatment of wounds, bleedings, headache, inflammation, pains, spasmodic diseases, flatulence and dyspepsia. Phytochemical investigations of Achillea species have revealed that many components from this genus are highly bioactive. There are many reports on the mentioned folk and traditional effects. Although, the medicinal properties of Achillea plants are recognized worldwide, there are only one review article mainly about the structures of the phytochemical constituents of Achillea. The present paper reviews the medicinal properties of various species of Achillea, which have been examined on the basis of the scientific in vitro, in vivo or clinical evaluations. Various effects of these plants may be due to the presence of a broad range of secondary active metabolites such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, terpenoids (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes) and sterols which have been frequently reported from Achillea species. PMID:22615655

  7. Antifungal and herbicidal properties of essential oils and n-hexane extracts of Achillea gypsicola Hub-Mor. and Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saban Kordali; Ahmet Cakir; Tulay Aytas Akcin; Ebru Mete; Adnan Akcin; Tuba Aydin; Hamdullah Kilic

    2009-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Achillea gypsicola Hub-Mor., Achillea biebersteinii Afan. and n-hexane extracts obtained from the flowers of A. gypsicola and A. biebersteinii Afan. was analyzed by GC and GC–MS. Camphor (40.17–23.56%, respectively), 1,8-cineole (22.01–38.09%, respectively), piperitone (11.29–0.37%, respectively), borneol (9.50–5.88%, respectively) and ?-terpineol (1.56–5.15%, respectively) were found to be

  8. In Vitro Anti-rotaviral Activity of Achillea kellalensis

    PubMed Central

    Taherkhani, Reza; Farshadpour, Fatemeh; Makvandi, Manoochehr

    2013-01-01

    Background Achillea kellalensis, which is frequently used by Chaharmahal va Bakhtiarians residing in, Southwest of Iran, as a traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of acute diarrhea, has been selected to examine its antiviral activities against bovine rotavirus and cell toxicity activity in MA-104 cells. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic and anti-rotavirus properties of crude extracts of A. kellalensis. Materials and Methods The dried and powdered flowers of Achillea kellalensis were extracted with hot water and ethanol 50% (v/v). The cell viability and toxicity of the extracts were evaluated on MA-104 cells using four methods; trypan blue dye, NR, crystal violet and MTT assay. The in vitro anti-rotavirus properties were determined via four different assays, in order to evaluate the direct inhibition and/or the inhibition of viral replication. Results Cytotoxicity of two A. kellalensis extracts showed different concentrations. Hydro-alcoholic extract had low CC50 at 600 µg/mL by the NR assay while the aqueous extract had high CC50 at 1000µg/mL by the crystal violet method. In the simultaneous treatment assay and post treatment assay, the extracts were able to prevent viral replication and inhibit the viral CPE on MA-104 cells at 10 TCID50, but the extracts did not exhibit direct antiviral activity on rotavirus adsorption. The effective concentration (EC50) of both extracts was observed to be 100 µg/mL. Conclusions These results indicate that A. kellalensis extracts exert potent anti-rotaviral activity only after viral adsorption. The two extracts from A. kellalensis showed a good selectivity index. Also these results suggest that extracts prepared from the flowers of A. kellalensis may be potential anti-rotaviral agents in vivo and be useful in veterinary medicine. PMID:24624203

  9. Separation of Sesquiterpenes from Yarrow ( Achillea millefolium L. s. l.) by LCMS on Non-Porous Columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gergely Montsko; Borbala Boros; Aniko Takatsy; Robert Ohmacht; Sabine Glasl; Liselotte Krenn; Laszlo Mark; Gottfried Reznicek

    2008-01-01

    Species of the genus Achillea have been used in traditional folk medicine for centuries. In Europe taxa of the Achillea millefolium group are widely spread, their correct taxonomic differentiation by morphological and anatomical characteristics encounters\\u000a some difficulties. Several species of the polyploid A. millefolium group however, can be characterised by their distinct sesquiterpene pattern. Analysis is usually performed by LC

  10. Phenolic compounds from Achillea millefolium L. and their bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Vitalini, Sara; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Iriti, Marcello; Orsenigo, Simone; Basilico, Nicoletta; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Iorizzi, Maria; Fico, Gelsomina

    2011-01-01

    Since antiquity, Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) has been used in traditional medicine of several cultures, from Europe to Asia. Its richness in bioactive compounds contributes to a wide range of medicinal properties. In this study, we assessed A. millefolium methanolic extract and its isolated components for free radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-pycrilhydrazyl, total antioxidant capacity (based on the reduction of Cu(++) to Cu(+)), and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation. The activity against chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum was also tested. Chlorogenic acid, its derivatives and some flavonoids isolated by semipreparative HPLC and identified by NMR and spectrometric techniques were the major bioactive constituents of the methanolic extract. The latter exhibited significant antioxidant properties, as well as its flavonol glycosides and chlorogenic acids. With regard to the antiplasmodial activity, apigenin 7-glucoside was the most effective compound, followed by luteolin 7-glucoside, whereas chlorogenic acids were completely inactive. On the whole, our results confirmed A. millefolium as an important source of bioactive metabolites, justifying its pharmaceutical and ethnobotanical use. PMID:21503279

  11. The Volatile Compounds and Bioactivity of Achillea sieheana Stapf. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Sevil

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Achillea sieheana Staf. (Asteraceae) were investigated in this study. The chemical composition of the essential oil isolated by hydro-distillation from the aerial parts of A. sieheana was analyzed by GC–MS. Camphor (43.36%), Artemisia ketone (25.95%), 1.8-cineole (6.29%) and camphene (4.77%) were the main components in the essential oil. Their antioxidant activities were also evaluated using phosphomolybdenum, ?-carotene bleaching and 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. A. sieheana methanolic extract showed an effective DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 87.04 ?g/mL). The extract had also a high reducing effect (71.08%) on the oxidation of ?-carotene. In addition to evaluating the antioxidant activity of this plant, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured in the extract. The antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extract and the oil were also tested against 13 bacteria and two yeasts. The results showed that both had strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. PMID:24250570

  12. Systematische und zytogenetische Untersuchungen an europäischen Rassen des Achillea millefolium -Komplexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Ehrendorfer

    1953-01-01

    Zusammenfassung 1.Die Stellung desAchillea millefolium-Rassenkomplexes innerhalb der Gattung, seine Verbreitung, Merkmale und seine Abgrenzung gegenüber nächst verwandten südeuropäischen Gruppen (A. tomentosa, A. nobilis s. l.,A. crithmifolia, A. virescens undA. tanacetifolia s. l.) wird besprochen.2.FürA. tomentosa wirdn=9, fürA. stricta (A. tanacetifolia s. l.)n=27 festgestellt.3.Für europäische Sippen desAchillea-millefolium-Komplexes werden 29 neue Chromosomenzahlen mitgeteilt, die sich einer Polyploidieserie 2x, 4x, 5x, 6x, 8x

  13. Volatile compounds from Achillea tenorii (Grande) growing in the Majella National Park (Italy).

    PubMed

    Venditti, Alessandro; Maggi, Filippo; Vittori, Sauro; Papa, Fabrizio; Serrilli, Anna Maria; Di Cecco, Mirella; Ciaschetti, Giampiero; Mandrone, Manuela; Poli, Ferruccio; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the first reported phytochemical study on the hydro-distilled essential oil from Achillea tenorii (Grande), collected in the protected area of Majella National Park (Italy). The composition of the essential oil was very different from those reported for the other species of Achillea nobilis group, being constituted mainly by oxygenated monoterpenes, among which ketones, alcohols and acetates compounds were the most representative. The marker compounds of A. nobilis group were not detected while the most abundant phytoconstituents were ?-thujone (29.7%), trans-sabinol (18.6%) and trans-sabinyl acetate (15.7%), revealing a composition quite similar to that of Artemisia absinthium. PMID:25103502

  14. Inter- and intra-specific genetic diversity of Iranian yarrow species Achillea santolina and Achillea tenuifolia based on ISSR and RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, M; Farajpour, M; Rahimmalek, M

    2012-01-01

    Cultivation and preservation of yarrow has recently attracted wide attention due to its beneficial properties; however, genetic variation of Achillea species is still relatively unknown. We used RAPD and ISSR markers to assess genetic diversity in 16 accessions of yarrow belonging to two species native to Iran. Seven ISSR and nine RAPD primers generated 187 amplified fragments, of which 159 were polymorphic. The similarity coefficient among Achillea tenuifolia accessions ranged from 61 to 86%, and from 40 to 84% among A. santolina accessions. A low similarity was observed between these two species (mean similarity = 0.36%). This low similarity is consistent with their geographical distribution. According to the results of cluster and PCA analyses, the two species completely separated from each other. These markers will aid in the identification of elite genotypes for domestication and breeding programs. PMID:23007980

  15. Unterschiedliche Störungssyndrome der Meiose bei diploiden und polyploiden Sippen des Achillea millefolium-Komplexes und ihre Bedeutung für die Mikro-Evolution (Zur Phylogenie der Gattung Achillea, IV)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedrich Ehrendorfer; A. Einleitung

    1959-01-01

    1.Die unterschiedliche Verteilung der Störungssyndrome der Pollenmeiose bei Diploiden (2x) und Polyploiden (4x, 6x, 8x) des Achillea millefolium-Komplexes und einiger nahestehender Arten (vgl. die speziellen Beiträge Ehrendorfer 1959b und c) wurde auf Grund der cytologischen Analyse von 186 Wildformen quantitativ dargestellt (Tabelle 1 und 2, Abb. 1).2.Zwischen den Störungserscheinungen und den Normalprozessen der cytogenetischen Differenzierung als Mechanismen der Mikro-Evolution ergeben

  16. Context dependence in foraging behaviour of Achillea millefolium.

    PubMed

    Karst, Justine D; Belter, Pamela R; Bennett, Jonathan A; Cahill, James F

    2012-12-01

    Context-dependent foraging behaviour is acknowledged and well documented for a diversity of animals and conditions. The contextual determinants of plant foraging behaviour, however, are poorly understood. Plant roots encounter patchy distributions of nutrients and soil fungi. Both of these features affect root form and function, but how they interact to affect foraging behaviour is unknown. We extend the use of the marginal value theorem to make predictions about the foraging behaviour of roots, and test our predictions by manipulating soil resource distribution and inoculation by soil fungi. We measured plant movement as both distance roots travelled and time taken to grow through nutrient patches of varied quality. To do this, we grew Achillea millefolium in the centers of modified pots with a high-nutrient patch and a low-nutrient patch on either side of the plant (heterogeneous) or patch-free conditions (homogeneous). Fungal inoculation, but not resource distribution, altered the time it took roots to reach nutrient patches. When in nutrient patches, root growth decreased relative to homogeneous soils. However, this change in foraging behaviour was not contingent upon patch quality or fungal inoculation. Root system breadth was larger in homogeneous than in heterogeneous soils, until measures were influenced by pot edges. Overall, we find that root foraging behaviour is modified by resource heterogeneity but not fungal inoculation. We find support for predictions of the marginal value theorem that organisms travel faster through low-quality than through high-quality environments, with the caveat that roots respond to nutrient patches per se rather than the quality of those patches. PMID:22622873

  17. Review on ecology and control of Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow) on arable land in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. BourdôT; R. J. Field

    1988-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow), a perennial competitive ruderal, has become an increasing problem on arable land in New Zealand as a result of reduced cultivation, horticultural development, and the ineffectiveness of herbicides. Research conducted mainly in Canterbury, on aspects of the seed and rhizome biology of A. millefolium, is considered in relation to its control. It is concluded that major

  18. Safety and antiulcer efficacy studies of Achillea millefolium L. after chronic treatment in Wistar rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Maria Cavalcanti; Cristiane Hatsuko Baggio; Cristina Setim Freitas; Lia Rieck; Renato Silva de Sousa; José Eduardo Da Silva-Santos; Sonia Mesia-Vela; Maria Consuelo Andrade Marques

    2006-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), popularly known as yarrow, has been used in folk medicine to treat complaints such as inflammation, pain, wounds, hemorrhages and gastrointestinal disturbances. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the aqueous extract (AE) of the plant after chronic exposure. Indeed, the AE was effective in protecting the gastric mucosa

  19. Comparative responses of Achillea millefolium ecotypes to competition and soil type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Higgins; R. N. Mack

    1987-01-01

    Achillea millefolium populations from adjacent sites with zonal and serpentime soil were used to test predictions about the relation between growth and the competitive ability of plants in productive and unproductive environments. Under greenhouse conditions, individually-grown plants from both sources grew larger in serpentine soil than in zonal soil; serpentine plants accumulated 72% more biomass than zonal plants. In zonal

  20. An Ascaridole Containing Essential Oil of the Achillea millefolium L. Complex Growing Wild in Northern Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pashalina Chatzopoulou; Stavros T. Katsiotis; Anders Baerheim Svendsen

    1992-01-01

    The essential oil of the Achillea millefolium L. complex growing wild in Northern Greece was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Several monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were identified, although the main component was ascaridole (47.2%). Lesser amounts of 1, 8-cineole (10.5%), p-cymene (7.4%), ?-terpinene (7.0%) and camphor (8.1%) were also found.

  1. Antimotility effect of hydroalcoholic extract of yarrow (Achillea millefolium) on the guinea-pig ileum.

    PubMed

    Babaei, Mehdi; Abarghoei, Mitra Emmami; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Ansari, Reza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Taherian, Abbas Ali; Mousavi, Shahrokh; Toussy, Jafar

    2007-10-15

    The use of medicinal herbs among the general population gives rise to the possibility of therapeutic or toxic effects in patients that use these plants. The effects of Achillea millefolium hydroalcoholic extract on the contractile responses of the isolated guinea-pig ileum were investigated. The effect of the Achillea millefolium extracts at five concentrations ranging form 0.05 to 5 mg mL(-1) was tested. The terminal ileum was removed. Segments were fixed in an organ bath containing in Tyrode solution. Contraction changes in the tissues were monitored using force displacement transducer amplifier connected to physiograph. Each segment served as its own control. Achillea millefolium inhibited the contractile response in a dose-dependent manner. The 50% effective concentration values (EC50) were calculated, which was 1.5 mg mL(-1). Regression analysis had shown that with increasing in extract concentration the effect of extract was increased. The coefficient of extract dose was 0.031 mg. Present results demonstrate that extract prepared from the plant of Achillea millefolium inhibited electrical induced contractions of the guinea-pig ileum when tested in vitro. This effect is dose dependent and reversible. PMID:19093480

  2. Antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of infusions from leaves and inflorescences of Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Annamaria; Bombelli, Raffaella; Luini, Alessandra; Speranza, Giovanna; Cosentino, Marco; Lecchini, Sergio; Cocucci, Maurizio

    2009-04-01

    Plants are the main source of molecules with antioxidant and radical scavenging properties that aid the natural defence systems of cells and may be involved in the preservation of human health, particularly preventing all the physiopathological conditions where oxidative damage is a hallmark. Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb. is a medicinal plant of the Achillea millefolium aggregate (yarrow) traditionally used, particularly in mountain areas, as an infusion or alcohol extract for its digestive, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and wound healing properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity and cytoprotective activity against oxidative stress of infusions obtained from the leaves and inflorescences of Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb., assessed by chemical (free radical scavenging activity by DPPH and Folin Ciocalteu assay) and biological assays (in vitro model of cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in PC12 cells line). Infusions of leaves had the highest antioxidant properties and cytoprotective activity. The antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated with the total phenolic content but not with the cytoprotective profile. Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb. has good antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, suggesting further investigations on its chemical composition and potential health value, particularly for traditionally prepared infusions of leaves. PMID:19067389

  3. Growth Responses of Alpine Potentilla diversifolia and Achillea lanulosa to Gibberellic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanette S. Pelton

    1956-01-01

    Applications of gibberellic acid have been shown to alter the growth patterns of genetic dwarfs in mize and in peas. Since the dwarf alpine habits of some native species have been demonstrated also to be genetically conditioned, among which are included certain species of Potentilla and Achillea, the present study was an attempt to investigate the possibility of growth alterations

  4. Chromosome numbers within the Achillea millefolium and the A. distans Groups in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji?í Danihelka; Olga Rotreklová

    2001-01-01

    TheAchillea millefolium group is represented in the Czech Republic and Slovakia by six species.Achillea setacea andA. asplenifolia are diploid;A. collina andA. pratensis are tetraploid;A. millefolium is hexaploid; andA. pannonica is octoploid. The populations from Slovakia of theA. distans group, distributed mainly in Central and south-eastern Europe, were all hexaploid. The presence of these taxa in the area\\u000a studied was documented

  5. Cytological investigations and new chromosome number reports in yarrow (Achillea millefolium Linnaeus, 1753) accessions from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Afshari, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Akbari, Mohammad; Farajpour, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this study, a new chromosome number for Iranian yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) accessions was reported. Cytological analyses on four Achillea millefolium accessions, indicated that two accessions were diploids (2n=2x=18) and two tetraploids (2n=4x=36). Cluster analysis based on chromosomal characteristics and karyotype asymmetry, categorized the four accessions separated into two groups. In terms of the Stebbins’ system, the karyotype of diploid accessions grouped in 2A class. The average value of the total form percentage (TF%) in the group one (diploid accessions) and two (tetraploid accessions) were 40.85 and 41.15, respectively. The group one had the highest mean value for the symmetry index (S%=57.5). Consequently, it can be inferred that diploids belonging to the group one are the earlier evolutionary forms. PMID:24455101

  6. Cytological investigations and new chromosome number reports in yarrow (Achillea millefolium Linnaeus, 1753) accessions from Iran.

    PubMed

    Afshari, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Akbari, Mohammad; Farajpour, Mostafa

    2013-10-24

    In this study, a new chromosome number for Iranian yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) accessions was reported. Cytological analyses on four Achillea millefolium accessions, indicated that two accessions were diploids (2n=2x=18) and two tetraploids (2n=4x=36). Cluster analysis based on chromosomal characteristics and karyotype asymmetry, categorized the four accessions separated into two groups. In terms of the Stebbins' system, the karyotype of diploid accessions grouped in 2A class. The average value of the total form percentage (TF%) in the group one (diploid accessions) and two (tetraploid accessions) were 40.85 and 41.15, respectively. The group one had the highest mean value for the symmetry index (S%=57.5). Consequently, it can be inferred that diploids belonging to the group one are the earlier evolutionary forms. PMID:24455101

  7. Comparison of capillary electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography for determination of flavonoids in Achillea millefolium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina Ko?evar; Igor Glava?; Rade Injac; Samo Kreft

    2008-01-01

    Flavonoids represent an important bioactive component in Achillea millefolium. The comparison of the most commonly used analytical methods for the identification and quantification of flavonoids, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), is presented. The methods were optimized and validated. Using a 20mM borate buffer with 30% (v\\/v) of methanol (pH 9.3) in the CE analysis and a

  8. New chromosome numbers and remarks on the Achillea millefolium polyploid complex in North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedrich Ehrendorfer

    1973-01-01

    Summary 1.For 79 North American populations of the N. Hemisphere polyploid complexAchillea millefolium agg. (Asteraceae-Anthemideae) new tetraploid and hexaploid chromosome counts (n=18, 27 resp. 2 n=36, 54) are documented.2.Together with literature references this adds to our knowledge of the distribution and affinities ofA. millefolium agg. cytotypes and races in North America. While 4 x types are widespread, autochthonous 6 x

  9. Essential oils from hairy root cultures and from plant roots of Achillea millefolium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. L Lourenço; A. C Figueiredo; J. G Barroso; L. G Pedro; M. M Oliveira; S. G Deans; J. J. C Scheffer

    1999-01-01

    The essential oils isolated from roots of two Achillea millefolium populations (BGL and CGA) and from two hairy root cultures (A4 and LBA) derived from one of these were analysed by GC and GC–mass spectrometry. The essential oils from the plant roots were obtained in a yield of 0.10% (BGL) and 0.05% (CGA) (v\\/w), whereas that of both hairy root

  10. Chemotypes of Achillea millefolium transferred from 14 different locations in Lithuania to the controlled environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Odeta Gudaityt?; Petras Rimantas Venskutonis

    2007-01-01

    The composition of essential oils hydrodistilled from 19 samples of inflorescences and leaves of Achillea millefolium L. plants, which were transferred from 14 natural habitats in Lithuania to the field collection, is reported. Total content of oil was 0.15–0.55% in inflorescences and 0.06–0.19% (v\\/w) in leaves. In total 117 compounds were identified positively or tentatively. Data obtained clearly indicate the

  11. Variation in Essential Oil Composition and Chiral Monoterpenes of Achillea millefolium s.l. from Kaliningrad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela Orth; Franz-C. Czygan; Viktor P. Dedkov

    1999-01-01

    Five clones of the Achillea millefolium-“complex” from different sites at Kaliningrad were cultivated in the Botanical Garden of Würzburg to investigate the oil composition of the flowerheads. The oil was obtained by steam distillation and the headspace method. Gas chromatography with an M.C.S.S. system (moving-capillary-stream-switching) was used to analyze chiral monoterpenes. The variability of the major components was examined by

  12. Mosquito repelling activity of compounds occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (asteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Tunón; W. Thorsell; L. Bohlin

    1994-01-01

    An ethanol extract ofAchillea millefolium L. showed repelling properties against the mosquito,Aedes aegypti L. Prepared fractions from the extract contained several active compounds which were characterized by thin layer chromatography,\\u000a high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Of 35 compounds tested, the most active\\u000a were the nitrogen containing compound stachydrine, the carboxylic acids, caffeic, chlorogenic, and salicylic acids,

  13. Extraction and GC\\/MS Analysis of the Essential Oil of Achillea millefolium L. complex (Compositae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marie Hachey; Guy-J. Collin; Michel-J. Gagnon; Sandra Simard; Sylvain Dufour; France-Ida Jean; Gaston Vernin; Daniel Fraisse

    1990-01-01

    The essential oil, which was obtained by hydrodistillation from aerial parts of Achillea millefolium L. complex (Compositae), was analyzed using both GC\\/MS and Kovat's indices. The major components extracted from the stems, leaves and inflorescences were found to be ?-thujone (8.3–21.7%), camphor (8.6–11.7%), 1, 8-cineole (7.7–15.2%), ?-pinene (3.8–7.8%) and sabinene (5.7–8.9%). More than sixty components have been identified; forty of

  14. Reproductive evaluation of aqueous crude extract of Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) in Wistar rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo R Dalsenter; Ana M Cavalcanti; Anderson J. M Andrade; Samanta L Araújo; Maria C. A Marques

    2004-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity of the exposure to the aqueous extract from leaves (AE) of Achillea millefolium L. on reproductive endpoints in Wistar rats. Adult male rats were treated daily with yarrow extract (0.3, 0.6 and 1.2g\\/kg\\/day) during 90 days by oral gavage. Endpoints including reproductive organ weights, sperm and spermatid numbers as well as

  15. Achillea millefolium L. s.l. – Is the anti-inflammatory activity mediated by protease inhibition?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit Benedek; Brigitte Kopp; Matthias F. Melzig

    2007-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. s.l. is traditionally used not only in the treatment of gastro-intestinal and hepato-biliary disorders, but also as an antiphlogistic drug. As various proteases, for instance human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9), are associated with the inflammatory process, the aim of this study was to test a crude plant extract in in vitro-protease inhibition

  16. Phytochemical analysis of the essential oil of Achillea millefolium L. from various European Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Orav; Elmar Arak; Ain Raal

    2006-01-01

    Variations in the essential oil composition of Achillea millefolium L. growing in Estonia and in other European countries, were determined. The oils were obtained in yields of 0.9–9.5?mL?kg. A total of 102 components were identified. The quantitatively most important components of yarrow were sabinene, ?-pinene, 1,8-cineole, artemisia ketone, linalool, ?-thujone, ?-thujone, camphor, borneol, fenchyl acetate, bornyl acetate, (E)-?-caryophyllene, germacrene D,

  17. Composition of the essential oil from cell suspension cultures of Achillea millefolium ssp. millefolium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cristina Figueiredo; M. Salomé; S. Pais; Johannes J. C. Scheffer

    1995-01-01

    The composition of the essential oil isolated from Achillea millefolium L. ssp. millefolium cell suspension cultures was analysed by GC and GC-MS. The yield of the oil obtained by hydrodistillation or a simultaneous distillation -extraction of these cultures, harvested at days 8–10 (end of exponential phase), was 0.001 % (w\\/w). The analysis of the volatiles showed the presence of thirteen

  18. Choleretic effects of yarrow ( Achillea millefolium s.l.) in the isolated perfused rat liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Benedek; N. Geisz; W. Jäger; T. Thalhammer; B. Kopp

    2006-01-01

    Different species from the Achillea millefolium aggregate are used against gastrointestinal and hepato-biliary disorders in traditional European medicine. In this work, a fraction enriched in dicaffeoylquinic acids (DCCAs) and luteolin-7-O-?-d-glucuronide was investigated on its choleretic effect in the isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL) compared to cynarin (1,3-DCCA), the main choleretic compound of Cynara scolymus L. A fraction containing 3,4-, 3,5-

  19. Achillinin A, a cytotoxic guaianolide from the flower of Yarrow, Achillea millefolium.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Man-Li; Cong, Bin; Wang, Si-Ming; Dong, Mei; Sauriol, Françoise; Huo, Chang-Hong; Shi, Qing-Wen; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Kiyota, Hiromasa

    2011-01-01

    Achillinin A (2?,3?-epoxy-1?,4?,10?-trihydroxyguai-11(13)-en-12,6?-olide, 1), a new guaianolide isolated from the flower of Achillea millefolium, exhibited potential antiproliferative activity to A549, RERF-LC-kj and QG-90 cells with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 5.8, 10 and 0.31 µM, respectively. PMID:21821943

  20. GIS-facilitated in vitro propagation and ex situ conservation of Achillea occulta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katerina Grigoriadou; Nikos Krigas; Eleni Maloupa

    A Geographical Information Systems (GIS)-facilitated approach for the in vitro propagation and ex situ conservation of the\\u000a conservation priority species Achillea occulta is presented. To realize the species’ ecological requirements, the coordinates of the original habitat were linked with thematic\\u000a layers derived from digital databases in a GIS environment. From wild plants, shoot tips were established in vitro in a

  1. Achillea millefolium L. s.l. -- is the anti-inflammatory activity mediated by protease inhibition?

    PubMed

    Benedek, Birgit; Kopp, Brigitte; Melzig, Matthias F

    2007-09-01

    Achillea millefolium L. s.l. is traditionally used not only in the treatment of gastro-intestinal and hepato-biliary disorders, but also as an antiphlogistic drug. As various proteases, for instance human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9), are associated with the inflammatory process, the aim of this study was to test a crude plant extract in in vitro-protease inhibition assays for understanding the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory action. Furthermore, two fractions enriched in flavonoids and dicaffeoylquinic acids (DCQAs), respectively, were also tested in order to evaluate their contribution to the antiphlogistic activity of the plant. The extract and the flavonoid fraction inhibited HNE showing IC(50) values of approximately 20 microg/ml, whereas the DCQA fraction was less active (IC(50)=72 microg/ml). The inhibitory activity on MMP-2 and -9 was observed at IC(50) values from 600 to 800 microg/ml, whereas the DCQA fraction showed stronger effects than the flavonoid fraction and the extract. In conclusion, the in vitro-antiphlogistic activity of Achillea is at least partly mediated by inhibition of HNE and MMP-2 and -9. After the recently described spasmolytic and choleretic effects the obtained results give further insights into the pharmacological activity of Achillea and confirm the traditional application as antiphlogistic drug. PMID:17689902

  2. Blood pressure lowering, cardiovascular inhibitory and bronchodilatory actions of Achillea millefolium.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif-ullah; Gilani, Anwarul Hasan

    2011-04-01

    Achillea millefolium Linn. (Asteraceae) is used in folk medicine for the treatment of overactive cardiovascular and respiratory ailments. This study describes its hypotensive, cardio-depressant, vasodilatory and bronchodilatory activities. The crude extract of Achillea millefolium (Am.Cr) caused a dose-dependent (1-100?mg/kg) fall in arterial blood pressure of rats under anaesthesia. In spontaneously beating guinea-pig atrial tissues, Am.Cr exhibited negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. In isolated rabbit aortic rings, Am.Cr at 0.3-10?mg/mL relaxed phenylephrine (PE, 1?µm) and high K(+) (80?mm)-induced contractions, as well as suppressed the PE (1?µm) control peaks obtained in Ca(++) -free medium, like that caused by verapamil. The vasodilator effect of Am.Cr was partially blocked by N(?) -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester in endothelium intact preparations. In guinea-pig tracheal strips, Am.Cr inhibited carbachol (CCh, 1?µm) and K(+) -induced contractions. These results indicate that Achillea millefolium exhibits hypotensive, cardiovascular inhibitory and bronchodilatory effects, thus explaining its medicinal use in hyperactive cardiovascular and airway disorders, such as hypertension and asthma. PMID:20857434

  3. Achillea millefolium L. s.l. revisited: Recent findings confirm the traditional use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit Benedek; Brigitte Kopp

    2007-01-01

    \\u000a Zusammenfassung  Die Schafgarbe (Achillea millefolium L. s.l.) wird traditionell bei krampfartigen und entzündlichen Magen-Darm-Erkrankungen, als Gallenmittel und äußerlich bei\\u000a Entzündungen eingesetzt. In neuesten Untersuchungen konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Flavonoide aus der Schafgarbe spasmolytisch\\u000a wirken, während die Dicaffeoylchinasäuren choleretisch aktiv sind. Außerdem wurde eine in vitro-Hemmung der humanen neutrophilen Elastase, einer am Entzündungsgeschehen beteiligten Protease, durch Extrakte und Fraktionen\\u000a aus der

  4. Variability of the essential oils composition of Achillea millefolium ssp. millefolium growing wild in Lithuania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danute Mockute; Asta Judzentiene

    2003-01-01

    Forty samples of inflorescences and leaves of Achillea millefolium ssp. millefolium with white flowers were collected in 21 habitats (1999 and 2000) in Lithuania. Essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. The volatile oils according to the cluster analysis were divided into four groups containing the same major constituents: I (four samples)—borneol (11.5–13.2%)+camphor (7.2–13.1%); II (four samples)—chamazulene (9.8–23.2%)+?-pinene (9.7–26.5%);

  5. Composition of the Essential Oil from Achillea millefolium L. from Estonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Orav; Tiiu Kailas; Kaire Ivask

    2001-01-01

    The essential oil obtained by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) from air-dried aerial parts of plant species Achillea millefolium L. yarrow was analyzed by capillary GC and GC\\/MS. Sixty-six components were identified. The major constituents in the oil extracts were ?-pinene (14.9–29.2%), sabinene (2.9–17.6%), 1,8-cineole (6.9–18.3%), ?-caryophyllene (3.3–6.2%), (E)-nerolidol (0.5–6.4%), guaiol (0.3–11.8%) and chamazulene (0.1–13.3%). The monoterpene fraction represented

  6. Assessment of two medicinal plants, Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L., in in vitro and in vivo assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosangela de Oliveira Teixeira; Marjori Leiva Camparoto; Mário Sérgio Mantovani; Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini

    2003-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants by the general population is an old and still widespread practice, which makes studies of their genotoxicity essential. Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L. are examples of plants commonly used in popular medicine. P. guajava L. is indicated for diarrhea and also as an antiseptic, while A. millefolium L. is indicated as an analgesic,

  7. Development of an RP?HPLC Method for the Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Achillea millefolium L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raimondas Benetis; Jolita Radušien?; Valdas Jakštas; Valdimaras Janulis; Faustas Malinauskas

    2008-01-01

    Several major phenolic constituents present in yarrow (Achillea millefolium L. s.l.) were determined for a homogenized plant sample. In order to optimize the conditions for sample preparation of the botanical matrix two different solvent extraction methods (maceration and ultrasonic agitation) were assayed. The preliminary maceration studies were performed to determine the influence of extracting solvents on the recovery of phenolics

  8. Essential oil composition of five collections of Achillea biebersteinii from central Turkey and their antifungal and insecticidal activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The composition of the essential oils hydrodistilled from the aerial parts of five Achillea biebersteinii Afan samples, collected in central Turkey from Konya, Isparta and Ankara, were analyzed both by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eighty-four componen...

  9. Variability of phenolic compounds in flowers of Achillea millefolium wild populations in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Benetis, Raimondas; Radusiene, Jolita; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2008-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. sensu lato (yarrow) is the best-known species of the genus Achillea due to numerous medicinal applications both in folk and conventional medicine. Phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and phenol carbonic acids are present in yarrow and constitute one of the most important groups of pharmacologically active substances. In the present study, yarrow flowers gathered from native populations in different locations of Lithuania were analyzed for phenolic compound composition. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for chemical analyses. Eight phenolic compounds--chlorogenic acid and flavonoids, namely vicenin-2, luteolin-3',7-di-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, rutin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, and apigenin--were identified in the extracts from yarrow flowers. Considerable variation in accumulation of phenolic compounds among the flowers from different locations was observed. The samples were divided into two main groups based on chemical composition: the first group was characterized by lower than the mean total amount of the identified phenolics; the second was formed from samples accumulating higher concentrations of investigated secondary metabolites. The total amount of the identified phenolics in yarrow flowers from different populations varied from 13.290 to 27.947 mg/g. PMID:19001835

  10. Rapid adaptive divergence in new world achillea, an autopolyploid complex of ecological races.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Justin; Robertson, Alexander; Husband, Brian

    2008-03-01

    Adaptive evolution is often associated with speciation. In plants, however, ecotypic differentiation is common within widespread species, suggesting that climatic and edaphic specialization can outpace cladogenesis and the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation. We used cpDNA sequence (5 noncoding regions, 3.5 kb) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs: 4 primer pairs, 1,013 loci) to evaluate the history of ecological differentiation in the North American Achillea millefolium, an autopolyploid complex of "ecological races" exhibiting morphological, physiological, and life-history adaptations to diverse environments. Phylogenetic analyses reveal North American A. millefolium to be a monophyletic group distinct from its European and Asian relatives. Based on patterns of sequence divergence, as well as fossil and paleoecological data, colonization of North America appears to have occurred via the Bering Land Bridge during the Pleistocene (1.8 MYA to 11,500 years ago). Population genetic analyses indicate negligible structure within North American A. millefolium associated with varietal identity, geographic distribution, or ploidy level. North American populations, moreover, exhibit the signature of demographic expansion. These results affirm the "ecotype" concept of the North American Achillea advocated by classical research and demonstrate the rapid rate of ecological differentiation that sometimes occurs in plants. PMID:18039326

  11. Presence of phthalate derivatives in the essential oils of a medicinal plant Achillea tenuifolia.

    PubMed

    Manayi, Azadeh; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh; Gohari, Ahmad R; Ajani, Yousef; Saeidnia, Soodabeh

    2014-11-28

    BackgroundPhthalate, esters of phthalic acid, are mainly applied as plasticizers and cause several human health and environment hazards. The essential oils of Achillea species have attracted a great concern, since several biological activities have been reported from varieties of these medicinal species. On the other side, due to the problems regarding the waste disposal in developing countries, phthalate derivatives can easily release from waste disposal to the water and soil resulting in probable absorption and accumulation by medicinal and dietary plants. As a matter of fact, although the toxicity of phthalate derivatives in human is well-known, food crops and medicinal plants have been exposing to phthalates that can be detected in their extracts and essential oils. Achillea tenuifolia (Compositea) is one of these herbaceous plants with traditional applications which widely growing in Iran.FindingThe plant root was subjected to hydro-distillation for 4 h using Clevenger type apparatus to obtain its essential oil before and after acid treatment. Both of the hydro-distilled essential oils were analysed by GC-MS method resulted in recognition of their constituent. Phthalate contamination as (1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis (2-methylpropyl) ester (5.4%) and phthalic acid (4.5%), were identified in the first and second extracted oils, respectively.ConclusionAs a warning, due to the potential role of phthalates to cause reproductive toxicity, disturb of endocrine system and causing cancers, medicinal plants have to be considered through quality control for detection of these compounds. PMID:25429772

  12. Comparison of capillary electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography for determination of flavonoids in Achillea millefolium.

    PubMed

    Kocevar, Nina; Glavac, Igor; Injac, Rade; Kreft, Samo

    2008-02-13

    Flavonoids represent an important bioactive component in Achillea millefolium. The comparison of the most commonly used analytical methods for the identification and quantification of flavonoids, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), is presented. The methods were optimized and validated. Using a 20 mM borate buffer with 30% (v/v) of methanol (pH 9.3) in the CE analysis and a gradient elution with water-acetonitrile mobile phase in the HPLC analysis, sufficient separation of the analytes was achieved. A relatively high injection volume in the CE analysis (30 mbar x 30s) enabled low limit of detection (LOD) (0.3-0.7 mg/L). Repeatability of both methods was acceptable (relative standard deviation of peak area were <6%). Additionally, the amount of flavonoids in a real sample of the dried herbal drug was determined. PMID:18164574

  13. Evaluating the Efficacy of Achillea millefolium and Thymus vulgaris Extracts Against Newcastle Disease Virus in Ovo

    PubMed Central

    Rezatofighi, Seyedeh Elham; Seydabadi, Akram; Seyyed Nejad, Seyyed Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays natural products such as pure compounds and plant extract scan provide unlimited opportunities for new antiviral drugs. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is one of the most important viral diseases in poultry industry. Vaccination could provide protection against NDV outbreaks, but it is not sufficient because infections by NDVs have remained frequent around the world. Objectives: The current research aimed to study Achillea millefolium and Thymus vulgaris antiviral activity against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Materials and Methods: The antiviral activity of the plants was measured by the reduction assay of viral titer, and explained by inhibition percentage (IP). Results: Inhibition percentage was determined as 10 1.75, which indicated the ability of the extracts to reduce the viral potency by more than 56 folds. Conclusions: Both plants were found effective against Newcastle disease virus. PMID:25147678

  14. Herbal remedies of the Maritime Indians: sterols and triterpenes of Achillea millefolium L. (Yarrow).

    PubMed

    Chandler, R F; Hooper, S N; Hooper, D L; Jamieson, W D; Flinn, C G; Safe, L M

    1982-06-01

    As part of ongoing studies of the medicinal aspects of Maritime flora, particularly the herbal remedies of the Micmac and Malecite Indians, the sterols and triterpenes of Achillea millefolium L. (Compositae), a widely used herbal remedy known commonly as yarrow, were determined. Using modern techniques, including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and combined GC-mass spectrometry, beta-sitosterol was identified as the major sterol and alpha-amyrin as the major triterpene of this plant. The sterols stigmasterol, campesterol, and cholesterol and the triterpenses beta-amyrin, taraxasterol, and pseudotaraxasterol were also identified. Successful therapeutic application of yarrow may be partly due to the presence of one or more of these compounds since many sterols and triterpenes exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. This is the first reported occurrence of cholesterol, campesterol, and the four triterpenes in yarrow. PMID:7097536

  15. Distribution and chemical polymorphism of the essential oils of Achillea cartilaginea growing wild in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Gudaityt?, O; Venskutonis, P R; Maždžierien?, R

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils from 14 Achillea cartilaginea samples (leaves and flowers) collected from natural habitats in Lithuania were analysed by GC-MS. In total, 97 compounds were identified, 69 of which have not been reported previously in this species. In general, the essential oils of A. cartilaginea were rich in oxygenated monoterpenes. Remarkable chemical polymorphism was observed within the population of A. cartilaginea in Lithuania. It was observed that 1,8-cineole, camphor, cis-chrysanthenol, ?-thujone, sabinol, chrysanthenone, terpinen-4-ol, bornyl acetate and ?-sesquiphellandrene were the major constituents in the oils of the analysed plants. Hierarchical cluster analysis, which was based on the 19 major components exceeding 5% in the total oil, indicates the presence of several main chemical groups in the analysed plant populations. PMID:22011043

  16. Antimony accumulation in Achillea ageratum, Plantago lanceolata and Silene vulgaris growing in an old Sb-mining area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Baroni; A Boscagli; G Protano; F Riccobono

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary data of a biogeochemical survey concerning antimony transfer from soil to plants in an abandoned Sb-mining area are presented. Achillea ageratum, Plantago lanceolata and Silene vulgaris can strongly accumulate antimony when its extractable fraction in the soil is high (139–793 mg\\/kg). A. ageratum accumulates in basal leaves (1367 mg\\/kg) and inflorescences (1105 mg\\/kg), P. lanceolata in roots (1150 mg\\/kg)

  17. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferda Candan; Mehmet Unlu; Bekta? Tepe; Dimitra Daferera; Moschos Polissiou; Atalay Sökmen; H. A?k?n Akpulat

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae) were investigated. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 36 compounds constituting 90.8% of the total oil. Eucalyptol, camphor, ?-terpineol, ?-pinene, and borneol were the principal components comprising 60.7% of the oil. The oil strongly

  18. Composition at different development stages of the essential oil of four Achillea species grown in Iran.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Majid; Chizzola, Remigius; Ghani, Askar; Oroojalian, Fatemeh

    2010-02-01

    Four Achillea species, A. millefolium, A. nobilis, A. eriophora and A. biebersteinii, were grown in small field plots in Iran and harvested at four developmental stages: vegetative, at the appearance of the first flower heads, at full flowering, and at late flowering. The composition of the main volatile compounds in dichloromethane extracts and the essential oil obtained by microdistillation was established by GC/MS and GC. 1,8-Cineole (27-41%) was the main compound in the oils from A. millefolium and A. biebersteinii. These two species reached the highest amount of volatile compounds at the full blooming stage. alpha-Thujone was the main compound in A. nobilis oil (25-64%). Fully blooming plants of this species also had a high proportion of artemisia ketone (up to 40%) in the oil. The main oil compounds of A. eriophora were camphor (about 35%) and 1,8-cineol (about 30%). This species produces only a small number of flower heads and the composition of the essential oil did not change during development. PMID:20334145

  19. Antimutagenic Effect of Medicinal Plants Achillea millefolium and Bauhinia forficata In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Düsman, Elisângela; de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Coelho, Ana Carolina; Balbi, Thiago José; Düsman Tonin, Lilian Tatiani; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is valuable both as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs and as a measure of safety for the continued use of these medicinal plants. Achillea millefolium L. (AM) is an ancient remedial herb native to Europe that is used to treat wounds, gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders, inflammation, headaches, and pain. Bauhinia forficata Link (BF), an Asiatic plant, is one of the most commonly used plants in folk medicine against diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimutagenic potential of aqueous extracts of AM and BF on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats treated in vivo. These plant extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. These compounds were determinants to noncytotoxic and antimutagenic/protective action of these plants, that reduced statistically the percentage of chromosomal alterations induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide in simultaneous (AM, 68%; BF, 91%), pre- (AM, 68%; BF, 71%), and post-treatment (AM, 67%; BF, 95%). Therefore, the results of this study indicate that extracts of A. millefolium and B. forficata have antimutagenic potential and that their consumption can benefit the health of those using them as an alternative therapy. PMID:24459532

  20. Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L. s.l.): pharmaceutical quality of commercial samples.

    PubMed

    Benedek, B; Rothwangl-Wiltschnigg, K; Rozema, E; Gjoncaj, N; Reznicek, G; Jurenitsch, J; Kopp, B; Glasl, S

    2008-01-01

    Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L. s.l.) is traditionally used against inflammatory and spasmodic gastrointestinal complaints, hepato-biliary disorders, as an appetite enhancing drug, against skin inflammations and for wound healing due to its antiphlogistic, choleretic and spasmolytic properties. The main pharmacologically active principles were shown to be the essential oil (antimicrobial), proazulenes and other sesquiterpene lactones (antiphlogistic), dicaffeoylquinic acids (choleretic) and flavonoids (antispasmodic). In order to assess the pharmaceutical quality of the drug we evaluated the content of these bioactive compounds in 40 commercial drug samples. The essential oil and the proazulenes were analysed according to the European Pharmacopoeia, whereas the content of dicaffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids was determined by solid phase extraction (SPE)-HPLC. This comprehensive survey revealed that the quality of the drug material was very heterogenous, and only 50% of the samples met the standards of the European Pharmacopoeia. Moreover, this study gives information about the content of phenolic compounds in the drug and allowed to establish tentative reference values which may be used as additional parameters in the quality control of the drug. PMID:18271298

  1. The Effect of Hydroethanol Extract of Achillea Millefolium on ?-adrenoceptors of Guinea Pig Tracheal Smooth Muscle.

    PubMed

    Koushyar, H; Koushyar, M M; Byrami, G; Feizpour, A; Golamnezhad, Z; Boskabady, M H

    2013-07-01

    Different pharmacological effects of Achillea millefolium including its relaxant effect on smooth muscle have been shown previously. In the present study the stimulatory effect of the plant extract on ?-adrenoceptor of tracheal muscle was examined in order to investigate one possible mechanism for its observed relaxant effect. Effect of three concentrations of hydroethanol extract, 10 nM propranolol, and saline on ?-adrenoceptor was tested in two experimental groups including; nonincubated tracheal smooth muscles (group 1) and incubated tracheal smooth muscle with chlorpheniramine (group 2). Concentration response curves to isoprenaline were performed in precontracted tracheal smooth muscle in the presence of the extract, propranolol and saline. Values of EC50 and CR-1 were measured. Leftward shifts in isoprenaline curves were observed in the presence of medium and high concentrations of the extract compared with saline in both groups. The values of EC50 obtained in the presence of medium and high concentrations of the extract only in group 1 were nonsignificantly lower than that of saline. The values of CR-1 obtained in the presence of all concentrations of the extract in both groups were negative and significantly different with that of propranolol. The results indicated a small stimulatory effect of the extract on ß2-adrenoceptors. PMID:24302793

  2. Antimutagenic Effect of Medicinal Plants Achillea millefolium and Bauhinia forficata In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Coelho, Ana Carolina; Balbi, Thiago José; Düsman Tonin, Lilian Tatiani; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is valuable both as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs and as a measure of safety for the continued use of these medicinal plants. Achillea millefolium L. (AM) is an ancient remedial herb native to Europe that is used to treat wounds, gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders, inflammation, headaches, and pain. Bauhinia forficata Link (BF), an Asiatic plant, is one of the most commonly used plants in folk medicine against diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimutagenic potential of aqueous extracts of AM and BF on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats treated in vivo. These plant extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. These compounds were determinants to noncytotoxic and antimutagenic/protective action of these plants, that reduced statistically the percentage of chromosomal alterations induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide in simultaneous (AM, 68%; BF, 91%), pre- (AM, 68%; BF, 71%), and post-treatment (AM, 67%; BF, 95%). Therefore, the results of this study indicate that extracts of A. millefolium and B. forficata have antimutagenic potential and that their consumption can benefit the health of those using them as an alternative therapy. PMID:24459532

  3. Antileishmanial activity of an essential oil from the leaves and flowers of Achillea millefolium.

    PubMed

    Santos, A O; Santin, A C; Yamaguchi, M U; Cortez, L E R; Ueda-Nakamura, T; Dias-Filho, B P; Nakamura, C V

    2010-09-01

    An essential oil was recently extracted from the leaves and flowers of yarrow (Achillea millefolium) and tested for in-vitro activity against Leishmania amazonensis and murine macrophages (i.e. the J774G8 cell line). The median inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) against L. amazonensis promastigotes was 7.8 ?g/ml whereas the survival of amastigotes of this pathogen, within peritoneal murine macrophages, was halved by treatment with the oil at 6.5 ?g/ml. The mean value for the median cytotoxic concentration of the oil, measured against adherent (uninfected) J774G8 macrophages, was 72.0 ?g/ml (i.e. 9.2 and 11.0 times higher, respectively, than the IC(50) against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the oil caused morphological changes in the treated parasites, including alterations in their shape and size. In transmission electron microscopy, promastigotes treated with the oil (at the IC(50) of 7.8 ?g/ml) showed various ultrastructural alterations, including changes in the flagellar membrane, abnormal membrane structures, rupture of the plasma membrane, atypical vacuoles, myelin-like figures, and vesicles that resembled autophagic vacuoles. PMID:20863436

  4. Genotoxicity of Achillea millefolium essential oil in diploid cells of Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    de Sant'anna, Juliane Rocha; Franco, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva; Miyamoto, Claudia Tiemi; Cunico, Miriam Machado; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes; Côcco, Lílian Cristina; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; Junior, Cirino Corrêa; de Castro-Prado, Marialba Avezum Alves

    2009-02-01

    The essential oil of Achillea millefolium is commonly used in folk medicine for the treatment of several diseases and has been demonstrated previously to exert an in vitro antimicrobial activity against human pathogens. Current study investigates the genotoxic activity of A. millefolium oil. The oil's major constituents are: chamazulene (42.15%), sabinene (19.72%), terpin-4-ol (5.22%), beta-caryophyllene (4.44%) and eucalyptol (3.10%), comprising 74.63% of the total. The oil's genotoxic evaluation was performed at concentrations of 0.13 microL/mL, 0.19 microL/mL and 0.25 microL/mL with a heterozygous diploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans, named A757//UT448, with green conidia. A statistically significant increasing number of yellow and white mitotic recombinants, per colony, of the diploid strain was reported after oil treatment with 0.19 microL/mL and 0.25 microL/mL concentrations. The genotoxicity of the oil was associated with the induction of mitotic non-disjunction or crossing-over by oil. PMID:18803228

  5. Chemical composition and anxiolytic evaluation of Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch essential oil in rat.

    PubMed

    Majnooni, M B; Mohammadi-Farani, A; Gholivand, M B; Nikbakht, M R; Bahrami, G R

    2013-10-01

    Herbal based remedies are used worldwide to treat psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to analyse the essential oil composition of Achillea Wilhemsii C. Koch (Asteraceae) and to evaluate its anxiolytic effects in the elevated plus maze (EPM) model of anxiety in rat. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the essential oil showed that the main compounds of the oil were p-ocimen (23%), 1, 8-cineole (20.8%) and carvone (19.13%). The EPM results showed that 1 mg/kg (i.p.) of the oil significantly (P<0.05) increased the percentage of the time spent and the number of entries in the open arms of the maze while it did not change the total number of entries in the maze arms. These effects were not reversed with 2 mg/kg flumazenil and 5 mg/kg naloxone. We concluded that a minimum dose of 1 mg/kg of the oil has anxiolytic effects which are not probably mediated through GABA and opioid receptors. PMID:24082896

  6. Inhibitory effect of lactone fractions and individual components from three species of the Achillea millefolium complex of Bulgarian origin on the human neutrophils respiratory burst activity.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Jalil, Saima; Todorova, M; Trendafilova, A; Mikhova, B; Duddeck, H; Atta-ur-Rahman

    2007-09-01

    Achillea species are widely used in folk medicine for treatment of inflammatory diseases. The inhibitory effect on the human neutrophils respiratory burst activity of total extracts, their fractions and some main constituents of the flower heads from Achillea asplenifolia, A. collina and A. distans belonging to A. millefolium complex of Bulgarian origin, were tested by the modified method of Tan and Berridge. Seven from the investigated fractions showed activity similar or higher than that of indomethacine and might be evaluated as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:17691054

  7. N -(2-methylpropyl)-( E,E )-2,4-decadienamide a mosquito larvicide from Achillea millefolium L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T. Lalonde; C. F. Wong; S. J. Hofstead; C. D. Morris; L. C. Gardner

    1980-01-01

    A methanol extract ofAchillea millefolium L. showed activity against 24-hr-old larvae ofAedes triseriatus. Bioassay- and TLC-monitored fractionation yielded a neutral fraction which was refined further by column chromatography to afford the antilarvalN-(2-methlpropyl)-(E,E)-2,4-decadienamide which was identified by spectral methods and through comparisons with a synthesized sample. Isolated and synthesized amides at 5 ppm resulted in 98 and 100% mortality of 24-hr-oldA.

  8. Antispasmodic effects of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) extract in the isolated ileum of rat.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Rafieian-Koupaei, Mahmoud; Imani-Rastabi, Reza; Nasiri, Jafar; Shahrani, Mehrdad; Rabiei, Zahra; Alibabaei, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. is cultivated in Iran and widely used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. millefolium on the contraction and relaxation of isolated ileum in rat. In this experimental study, aerial parts of A. millefolium were extracted by maceration in ethanol 70% for 72 h. Terminal portion of ileum in 100 male Wistar rats was dissected and its contractions were recorded isotonically in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution (37 °C, pH 7.4) under one gram tension. Acetylcholine (1mM) and KCl (60mM) were used to create isotonic contractions. Propranolol and N?-Nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride (L-NAME) were used to investigate the mechanisms of action prior to giving the extract to the relevant groups. Data were compared by ANOVA and Turkey's post hoc test.. The results showed that the ileum contraction was induced by KCl and acetylcholine induced contraction was significantly reduced by A. millefolium extract. The cumulative concentrations of A. millefolium relaxed the KCl and acetylcholine induced contractions (n=14, p<0.001). The inhibitory effect of extract on contraction induced by KCl and acetylcholine was not significantly affected neither by propranolol (1µM) nor by L-NAME (100 µM). There was no significant difference in the rate of relaxation by propranolol and L-NAME between the two groups. In conclusion, A. millefolium can inhibit contraction of smooth muscle of ileum in rat, and it can be used for eliminating intestinal spasms. These results suggest that the relaxatory effect of A. millefolium on ileum contractions can be due to the blockade of voltage dependent calcium channels. In addition, the ?-adrenoceptors, cholinergic receptors and nitric oxide production are not powerful actors in inhibitory effect of A. millefolium. So, the nitric oxide and adrenergic systems may also be involved in the antispasmodic effect of A. millefolium. PMID:24311877

  9. The effect of Achillea millefolium extract on spermatogenesis of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Takzare, Nasrin; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Hamideh Mortazavi, Seyedeh; Safaie, Sahar; Moradi, Rayhaneh

    2011-04-01

    Achillea millefolium or yarrow, a native plant in many countries, has been recognized in historical medicine, mainly because of its astringent effects. However, some aspects of the toxicity of yarrow such as possible effects on male reproductive system are not well established. In this investigation, the effects of A. millefolium L. extract on spermatogenesis in adult male wistar rats were studied. Eighty-five male Wistar rats were divided into nine experimental groups (10 in each group except the ninth group). Extract was administered at the dose of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day by intraperitoneal (IP) injection or through gavage for 22 days, on every other day. Three groups were determined as sham and control groups. Five rats from each group were killed and the rest of the rats were kept for 40 days later, but with no injection, to assess the reversibility of extract effect on spermatogenesis. The results of the study showed scattered immature cells on basal membrane in seminiferous tubules at the dose of 400 mg/kg/day IP. Moreover, a significant decrease in cell accumulation and vacuolization in seminiferous tubule was seen. At the dose of 800 mg/kg, IP, thickened seminiferous tubules on basal membrane, decrease in cell accumulation in seminiferous tubule, severe disarrangement, degenerative cells and severe decrease in sperm count were seen. At the dose of 800 mg/kg/day, orally, basal membrane was thickened and the disarrangement in cells was demonstrated. As a conclusion, our results suggest that the total extract of A. millefolium L. exhibit temporary antifertile activity in adult male animals. PMID:20515984

  10. Mechanism of vasorelaxation induced by Achillea wilhelmsii in rat isolated thoracic aorta

    PubMed Central

    Niazmand, Saeed; Harandizadeh, Fatemeh; Mahmoudabady, Maryam; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Hasanzadeh, Mehdi; Fereidouni, Elahe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii) is used in Iraninan folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension; also, in previous reports, the hypotensive and antihypertensive effects of this plant have been indicated. The aim of the present study is to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of the hydroalcholic extract of A. wilhelmsii and its underlying mechanisms in isolated rat aorta. Materials and Methods: The effect of the hydroalcholic A. wilhelmsii extract was tested on the contractile response of Wistar rat aorta induced by potassium chloride (KCl) and phenylephrine (PE) using a pressure transducer that is connected to the PowerLab. Results: The cumulative concentrations of A. wilhelmsii (0.5-8 mg/ml) induced a vasorelaxation both in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted by high K+ (6 × 10?2 M) or 10?6 M PE. A. wilhelmsii, at a concentration of 4 mg/ml, reduced Ca2+-induced contraction (P < 0.001 vs. control) after PE or KCl had generated a stable contraction in the Ca2+-free solution. Furthermore, after incubation with diltiazem, the vasorelaxant effect of A. wilhelmsii reduced in the endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted by PE or KCl (P < 0.001 vs. control). In contrast, A. wilhelmsii-induced relaxation was not affected by glibenclamide, BaCl2, ruthenium red, methylene blue, or heparin. Conclusions: The results showed that A. wilhelmsii had a vasorelaxation effect, which was not endothelium-dependent. The relaxation was mediated by inhibition of extracellular Ca2+ influx through voltage- and receptor-operated Ca2+ channels (VDDCs and ROCCs) in vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:24761399

  11. The role for nitric oxide on the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Achillea wilhelmsii on seizure

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mahmoud; Harandizadeh, Fatemeh; Niazmand, Saeed; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Faizpour, Azadeh; Ghasemabady, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Objective : Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role both as a consequence and as a cause of epileptic seizures. Regarding the central nervous system depressant effects of Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii), as well the effects of the plant on NO, this study was aimed to elucidate the possible role for nitric oxide on the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups (n=8 in each group) and treated with (1) normal saline, (2) normal saline before pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 90 mg/kg), (3-7) A. wilhelmsii extract (100, 200, 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg) before PTZ. Latency to first minimal colonic seizure (MCS) and the first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) as well as the mortality rate were recorded. The brain tissues were then removed for biochemical measurements. Fisher’s exact probability test as well as analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey’s test were used for statistical evaluation. Results: Treatment with 100- 1200 mg/kg of the extract did not affect MCS latencies. 400 mg/kg of the extract prolonged GTCS latency (p<0.001), however, the lower and higher doses were not effective. Nitric oxide metabolites concentrations in the hippocampal tissues of the animals treated with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract were increased compared with saline (p<0.05-p<0.01). Conclusion: The present study showed that hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii affects NO metabolites in brain tissues as well the severity of seizures in PTZ-induced seizure model. PMID:25068139

  12. Aqueous extract of Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) inflorescences suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Burk; Zbigniew A. Cichacz; Sasha M. Daskalova

    Yarrow Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), is a perennial herb highly recognized in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory properties. However, studies on molecular mechanisms underlying these properties are scarce. The present work focuses on examining the effect of aqueous extract of A. millefolium L. inflorescences on the inflammatory responses of RAW 264.7 macrophages challenged with LPS. Applied at a concentration range

  13. Trypanosoma cruzi: Activity of essential oils from Achillea millefolium L., Syzygium aromaticum L. and Ocimum basilicum L. on epimastigotes and trypomastigotes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giani F. Santoro; Maria G. Cardoso; Luiz Gustavo L. Guimarães; Lidiany Z. Mendonça; Maurilio J. Soares

    2007-01-01

    Trypanocidal activity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) essential oils and some of their constituents (eugenol and linalool) was investigated on Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote and bloodstream trypomastigote forms. Steam distillation was used to isolate the essential oils, with chemical analyses performed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS).

  14. Heavy metal uptake in transplanted and in situ yarrow ( Achillea millefolium ) and epiphytic cryptogams at rural, urban and industrial localities in Denmark

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ib Johnsen; Kim Pilegaard; Erik Nymand

    1983-01-01

    Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) and 3 cryptogamic epiphytes were collected from and transplanted to 10 various locations in Denmark. The spatial and temporal variation in Pb and Cd concentrations of yarrow leaves and the cryptogams were determined. The physical structure of the plant parts, the mobility differences between the metals and the atmospheric fallout of metals at the growing site

  15. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products?-?part 1: Achillea millefolium-Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Calapai, Gioacchino; Miroddi, Marco; Minciullo, Paola L; Caputi, Achille P; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 1: Achillea millefolium L.-Curcuma longa L. PMID:24621152

  16. Soil antimony pollution and plant growth stage affect the biodiversity of auxin-producing bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Achillea ageratum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Picard; Marco Bosco

    2003-01-01

    A total of 4512 rhizobacteria were isolated at three stages of plant growth from Achillea ageratum colonizing a polluted site with an antimony concentration gradient. For 222 of these isolates auxin production (aux+) was verified in vitro. The percentage of aux+ isolates increased with soil antimony concentration, as well as with plant growth stage. An amplified rDNA restriction analysis clustered

  17. Toxic essential oils: anxiolytic, antinociceptive and antimicrobial properties of the yarrow Achillea umbellata Sibth. et Sm. (Asteraceae) volatiles.

    PubMed

    Radulovi?, Niko S; Deki?, Milan S; Ran?elovi?, Pavle J; Stojanovi?, Nikola M; Zarubica, Aleksandra R; Stojanovi?-Radi?, Zorica Z

    2012-06-01

    Many plant species are used for medicinal purposes without the knowledge of their possible toxic effect. The ethnopharmacologically renowned genus Achillea L. (Asteraceae) is even more troublesome in this respect since different taxa are believed to have the same beneficial properties as A. millefolium. According to the median lethal i.p. dose (LD(50)=853 mg/kg, mice), the volatiles of Achillea umbellata Sibth. et Sm. are more toxic than the thujone-containing essential oils (LD(50)>960 mg/kg). A GC-MS analysis of A. umbellata oil revealed the presence of a series of fragranyl esters (six new natural products). The major constituents of this oil, the rare monoterpene alcohol fragranol and fragranyl acetate, and one more ester (benzoate), as well as the oil itself, showed antianxiety, analgesic and, in some instances, paralyzing properties at 50-150 mg/kg but these are very likely sign of intoxication and not of possible beneficial effects of the plant volatiles. Testing of antimicrobial activity demonstrated that the oil possesses moderate activity against pathogenic microorganisms, but the effect of the oil differs in pro- and eukaryotic cells. According to the results obtained, fragranol may be considered as the main active principle responsible for the observed activity/toxicity. PMID:22449535

  18. Antiproliferative effect of flavonoids and sesquiterpenoids from Achillea millefolium s.l. on cultured human tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Csupor-Löffler, Boglárka; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Zupkó, István; Réthy, Borbála; Falkay, George; Forgo, Peter; Hohmann, Judit

    2009-05-01

    The antiproliferative activities of n-hexane, chloroform, aqueous-methanol and aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of the Achillea millefolium aggregate on three human tumour cell lines were investigated by means of MTT assays. The chloroform-soluble extract exerted high tumour cell proliferation inhibitory activities on HeLa and MCF-7 cells, and a moderate effect on A431 cells; accordingly, it was subjected to detailed bioactivity-guided fractionation. As a result of the multistep chromatographic purifications (VLC, CPC, PLC, gel filtration), five flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, centaureidin, casticin and artemetin) and five sesquiterpenoids (paulitin, isopaulitin, psilostachyin C, desacetylmatricarin and sintenin) were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. The antiproliferative assay demonstrated that centaureidin is the most effective constituent of the aerial parts of yarrow: high cell growth inhibitory activities were observed especially on HeLa (IC(50) 0.0819 microm) and MCF-7 (IC(50) 0.1250 microm) cells. Casticin and paulitin were also highly effective against all three tumour cell lines (IC(50) 1.286-4.76 microm), while apigenin, luteolin and isopaulitin proved to be moderately active (IC(50) 6.95-32.88 microm). Artemetin, psilostachyin C, desacetylmatricarin and sintenin did not display antiproliferative effects against these cell lines. This is the first report on the occurrence of seco-pseudoguaianolides (paulitin, isopaulitin and psilostachyin C) in the Achillea genus. PMID:19107850

  19. Achillea Millefolium L. Hydro- Alcoholic Extract Protects Pancreatic Cells by Down Regulating IL- 1? and iNOS Gene Expression in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zolghadri, Yalda; Fazeli, Mehdi; Kooshki, Marzieh; Shomali, Tahoora; Karimaghayee, Negar; Dehghani, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) has a role in ?- cell destruction in autoimmune diabetes by stimulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that generates the free radical nitric oxide. We aimed to investigate the effect of Achillea millefolium L, as a traditional hypoglycemic agent, on IL-1? and iNOS gene expression of pancreatic tissue in the STZ- induced diabetic rats. Forty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1. diabetic control; 2. diabetic rats treated with Achillea millefolium L. extract; 3. normal rats received only extract and 4. negative control (n= 10 each). Diabetes was induced by single i.p. injection of 45 mg/ kg streptozotocin (STZ). Rats in groups 2 and 3 were treated with i.p. injection of Achillea millefolium L. extract (100 mg/ kg/ day) for 14 days. Body weight, serum glucose and insulin levels were assayed at baseline and on days 3, 7, 10 and 14 of the experiment. Finally, the quantity of pancreatic IL-1? and iNOS mRNA was determined by real- time PCR. The mRNA expression level of IL-1? and iNOS genes, was significantly (p<0.001) increased in diabetic rats of group 1. Treatment with Achillea millefolium L. caused a significant (p<0.01) reduction in both IL-1? and iNOS genes expression. Moreover, rats in group 2 had higher insulin level associated with lower glucose level and higher body weight compared to control diabetic group. It seems that beneficial effect of Achillea millefolium L. on STZ- induced diabetes is at least partly due to amelioration of IL-1? and iNOS gene over expression which can have a ?-cell protective effect. PMID:25635252

  20. Achillea Millefolium L. Hydro- Alcoholic Extract Protects Pancreatic Cells by Down Regulating IL- 1? and iNOS Gene Expression in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Zolghadri, Yalda; Fazeli, Mehdi; Kooshki, Marzieh; Shomali, Tahoora; Karimaghayee, Negar; Dehghani, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) has a role in ?- cell destruction in autoimmune diabetes by stimulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that generates the free radical nitric oxide. We aimed to investigate the effect of Achillea millefolium L, as a traditional hypoglycemic agent, on IL-1? and iNOS gene expression of pancreatic tissue in the STZ- induced diabetic rats. Forty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1. diabetic control; 2. diabetic rats treated with Achillea millefolium L. extract; 3. normal rats received only extract and 4. negative control (n= 10 each). Diabetes was induced by single i.p. injection of 45 mg/ kg streptozotocin (STZ). Rats in groups 2 and 3 were treated with i.p. injection of Achillea millefolium L. extract (100 mg/ kg/ day) for 14 days. Body weight, serum glucose and insulin levels were assayed at baseline and on days 3, 7, 10 and 14 of the experiment. Finally, the quantity of pancreatic IL-1? and iNOS mRNA was determined by real- time PCR. The mRNA expression level of IL-1? and iNOS genes, was significantly (p<0.001) increased in diabetic rats of group 1. Treatment with Achillea millefolium L. caused a significant (p<0.01) reduction in both IL-1? and iNOS genes expression. Moreover, rats in group 2 had higher insulin level associated with lower glucose level and higher body weight compared to control diabetic group. It seems that beneficial effect of Achillea millefolium L. on STZ- induced diabetes is at least partly due to amelioration of IL-1? and iNOS gene over expression which can have a ?-cell protective effect. PMID:25635252

  1. Aromatic Plants of Yugoslavia. I. Chemical Composition of Oils of Achillea millefolium L. ssp. pannonica (Scheele) Hayak, A. crithmifolia W. et K., A. serbica Nym. and A. tanacetifolia All

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Claude Chalchat; M. S. Gorunovic; S. D. Petrovic

    1999-01-01

    We used GC\\/MS to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of wild Achillea plants native to Yugoslavia: Achillea millefolium L. ssp. pannonica (Scheele) Hayak, A. crithmifolia W. et K., A. serbica Nym. and A. tanacetifolia All. Seventy-four components were identified. All four oils contained camphor (4–16%), 1,8-cineole (6–23%) and borneol (4–16%). In addition, artemisia ketone (4%) was found

  2. Hypotensive mechanism of the extracts and artemetin isolated from Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) in rats.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Priscila; Gasparotto, Arquimedes; Crestani, Sandra; Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade; da Silva-Santos, José Eduardo; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite

    2011-07-15

    Traditional uses of Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) include the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we used anesthetized rats to assess the hypotensive effect of a hydroethanolic extract (HEAM), and its dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), butanolic (BT), and dichloromethane-2 (DCM-2) fractions, besides the flavonoid artemetin, isolated from A. millefolium. The oral administration of HEAM (100-300 mg/kg), DCM (20mg/kg), DCM-2 (10-30 mg/kg), but not EA (10 mg/kg) and BT (50 mg/kg) fractions significantly reduced the mean arterial pressure (MAP) of normotensive rats. The phytochemical analysis by NMR (1)H of DCM and DCM-2 fractions revealed high amounts of artemetin, that was isolated and administered by either oral (1.5 mg/kg) or intravenous (0.15-1.5 mg/kg) routes in rats. This flavonoid was able to dose-dependently reduce the MAP, up to 11.47 ± 1.5 mmHg (1.5 mg/kg, i.v.). To investigate if artemetin-induced hypotension was related to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, we evaluated the influence of this flavonoid on the vascular effects of both angiotensin I and bradykinin. Intravenous injection of artemetin (0.75 mg/kg) significantly reduced the hypertensive response to angiotensin I while increased the average length of bradykinin-induced hypotension. Artemetin (1.5 mg/kg, p.o.) was also able to reduce plasma (about 37%) and vascular (up to 63%) ACE activity in vitro, compared to control group. On the other hand, artemetin did not change angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Our study is the first showing the hypotensive effects induced by the extract and fractions obtained from A. millefollium. In addition, our results disclosed that this effect may be, at least in part, associated with high levels of artemetin and its ability to decrease angiotensin II generation in vivo, by ACE inhibition. PMID:21420289

  3. Qualitative and quantitative determination of sesquiterpenoids in Achillea species by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, mass-spectrometry and thin-layer chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Glasl; Ulrike Kastner; Johann Jurenitsch; Wolfgang Kubelka

    1999-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed as a universal analysis system in order to determine and quantify antiphlogistic sesquiterpenoids in different Achillea species. Identification was performed by HPLC and diode array detection as well as by monitoring the HPLC fractions by TLC and MS. Using santonin as internal standard, HPLC separations were achieved with a methanol–water gradient system

  4. Chemical composition of wild and commercial Achillea millefolium L. and bioactivity of the methanolic extract, infusion and decoction.

    PubMed

    Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Pereira, Eliana; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-12-15

    Medicinal plants used in folk medicine are being increasingly studied and used on pharmaceutical, food and nutraceutical fields. Herein, wild and commercial samples of Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow) were chemically characterized with respect to their macronutrients, free sugars, organic acids, fatty acids and tocopherols. Furthermore, in vitro antioxidant properties (free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and antitumour potential (against breast, lung, cervical and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines) of their methanolic extract, infusion and decoction (the most consumed forms) was evaluated and compared to the corresponding phenolic profile obtained by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Data obtained showed that the chemical profiles of wild and commercial samples, and also their methanolic extract, infusion and decoction were similar, varying only in the quantities found. Commercial yarrow have higher content of fat and saturated fatty acids, proteins, ash, energy value, sugars and flavonoids, while the wild sample revealed higher levels of carbohydrates, organic acids, unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and phenolic acids. The heterogeneity among the antioxidant and antitumour results of the samples and some low correlations with total phenolic compounds indicates that specific compounds, rather than the totality of them, are involved in the bioactive properties of samples. PMID:23993599

  5. Variation in terpene and linear-chain hydrocarbon content in yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) germplasm from the Rhaetian Alps, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pecetti, Luciano; Tava, Aldo; Romani, Massimo; Cecotti, Roberto; Mella, Mariella

    2012-10-01

    Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) is a herbaceous species common in the Alpine region of Europe and used in folk medicine since antiquity. Its organs are rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, two subclasses of plant terpenoids with relevant ecological significance, which were reported as valuable markers for the traceability of mountain dairy products. The variability in chemical composition of yarrow germplasm may be related with its genetic diversity, accounting for possible differences in medical properties, and supporting its use as a specific territorial marker. Aim of this work was to assess the leaf chemical composition of 16 yarrow populations collected at altitudes exceeding 1600 m in three valleys of the Rhaetian Alps, Italy, and jointly evaluated in a lowland site. The most abundant compounds detected generally differed from those of the germplasm from other countries. A trend of valley-specific pattern of composition was evident. However, the variability among individual populations was even more remarkable, regardless of their valley of origin. The concentrations of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, and oxygenated sesquiterpenes discriminated the populations in multivariate analysis. A few prevailing chemotypes were characterized, which differed from those previously reported in the literature. The geographic isolation from other germplasms, and the local ecotypization, likely originated a chemically distinct gene pool. PMID:23081927

  6. Biochemical and Pathological Study of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Achillea millefolium L. on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Nephrolithiasis in Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bafrani, Hassan Hassani; Parsa, Yekta; Yadollah-Damavandi, Soheila; Jangholi, Ehsan; Ashkani-Esfahani, Soheil; Gharehbeglou, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nephrolithiasis is of the most prevalent urinary tract disease. It seems worthwhile to replace the conventional treatments with more beneficial and safer agents, particularly herbal medicines which are receiving an increasing interest nowadays. Aims: In this study, we investigated the protective and curative effects of Achillea millefolium L. on ethylene glycol (EG)-induced nephrolithiasis in rats. Materials and Methods: The extract of A. millefolium was prepared by soxhlet method. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (N = 8) as follows. The negative control (group A) received tap drinking water. Rats in sham (positive control group B), curative (group C and D), and preventive (group E) groups all received 1% EG in drinking water according to the experimental protocol for 30 days. In the curative groups, dosages of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (BW) of A. millefolium extract were administered orally from day 15 to the end of the experiment, group C and D, respectively. Group E received 200 mg/kg A. millefolium extract from the 1st day throughout the experiment. Urinary oxalate and citrate concentrations were measured by spectrophotometer on the first and 30th days. On day 31, the kidneys were removed and examined histopathologically for counting the calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposits in 50 microscopic fields. Results: In the curative and preventive groups, administration of A. millefolium extract showed significant reduction in urinary oxalate concentration (P < 0.05). Also, urinary citrate concentration was significantly increased in group C, D, and E. The CaOx deposits significantly decreased in group C to E compared with the group B. Conclusions: According to our results, A. millefolium extract had preventive and curative effects on EG-induced renal calculi. PMID:25599052

  7. Effect of aqueous extract of Achillea millefolium on the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Vazirinejad, Reza; Ayoobi, Fateme; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Eftekharian, Mohammad M.; Darekordi, Ali; Goudarzvand, Mahdi; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein; Taghavi, Mohammad Mohsen; Ahmadabadi, Behzad Nasiri; Kennedy, Derek; Shamsizadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Achillea millefolium (A. millefolium) is widely used as an anti-inflammatory remedy in traditional and herbal medicine. In this study, we investigated the effect of an aqueous extract from A. millefolium on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and on the serum cytokine levels in C57BL/6 mice. Materials and Methods: EAE was induced in 63 C57BL/6 mice weighing 20-25 g (8 weeks old). Following immunization, the treatment protocol was initiated by using different doses of an aqueous extract from A. millefolium (1, 5, and 10 mg/mouse/day). Histopathologic assessments were performed by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and luxol fast blue (LFB) staining. Behavioral disabilities were recorded by a camera. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-? were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: On average, mice developed classical behavioral disabilities of EAE, 13.2 ± 1.9 days following immunization. Treatment of mice with A. millefolium led to delay the appearance of behavioral disabilities along with reduced severity of the behavioral disabilities. Treatment with A. millefolium prevented weight loss and increased serum levels of TGF-? in immunized mice with MOG35-55. EAE-induced mice, which were treated with A. millefolium, had less cerebral infiltration of inflammatory cells. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that treatment with aqueous extract of A. millefolium may attenuate disease severity, inflammatory responses, and demyelinating lesions in EAE-induced mice. In addition, following treatment with A. millefolium, serum levels of TGF-?were increased in EAE-induced mice. PMID:24987178

  8. Trypanosoma cruzi: activity of essential oils from Achillea millefolium L., Syzygium aromaticum L. and Ocimum basilicum L. on epimastigotes and trypomastigotes.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Giani F; Cardoso, Maria G; Guimarães, Luiz Gustavo L; Mendonça, Lidiany Z; Soares, Maurilio J

    2007-07-01

    Trypanocidal activity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) essential oils and some of their constituents (eugenol and linalool) was investigated on Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote and bloodstream trypomastigote forms. Steam distillation was used to isolate the essential oils, with chemical analyses performed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The IC(50) (concentration that inhibits 50% parasite growth) of the oils and constituents upon T. cruzi was determined by cell counting in a Neubauer chamber. Cell morphology alterations were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Treatment with oils and constituents demonstrated that they inhibit parasite growth, with clove essential being the most effective one (IC(50)=99.5 microg/ml for epimastigotes and 57.5 microg/ml for trypomastigotes). Ultrastructural alterations were observed mainly in the nucleus. PMID:17349626

  9. Achillea lanulosa western yarrow

    E-print Network

    -flower · Umbel inflorescence · Leaves at base of plant · Bracts at base of inflorescence · Stoloniferous · Stems · Umbel inflorescence · Yellow flowers · Highly dissected leaf #12;Helianthus pumilus dwarf sunflower

  10. Achillea millefolium L. Essential Oil Inhibits LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Su-Tze; Peng, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Jaw-Cherng; Lin, Chih-Chien; Shih, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. is a member of the Asteraceae family and has been used in folk medicine in many countries. In this study, 19 compounds in A. millefolium essential oil (AM-EO) have been identified; the major components are artemisia ketone (14.92%), camphor (11.64%), linalyl acetate (11.51%) and 1,8-cineole (10.15%). AM-EO can suppress the inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, including decreased levels of cellular nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion production, lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) concentration. This antioxidant activity is not a result of increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, but rather occurs as a result of the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, thus reducing the inflammatory response. Therefore, AM-EO can be utilized in many applications, including the treatment of inflammatory diseases in the future. PMID:23797659

  11. The melanogenesis alteration effects of Achillea millefolium L. essential oil and linalyl acetate: involvement of oxidative stress and the JNK and ERK signaling pathways in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Chih-Chien; Wang, Hsun-Yen; Shih, Ying; Chou, Su-Tze

    2014-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2 and p38 MAPK, is known to be activated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation in melanocytes to regulate melanin production. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the pathway of ERK and JNK activation. It has been established that the essential oil of Achillea millefolium L. (AM-EO) has activities that suppress the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Thus, we analyzed the effects of AM-EO on melanogenesis in melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH) treated melanoma cells. The results demonstrated that AM-EO suppresses melanin production by decreasing tyrosinase activity through the regulation of the JNK and ERK signaling pathways. This effect might be associated with the AM-EO activity leading to the suppression of ROS, and linalyl acetate is its major functional component. Therefore, we propose that AM-EO has the potential to treat hyperpigmentation in the future. PMID:24743745

  12. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Achillea collina Becker ex Heimerl s.l. and A. pannonica Scheele essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bozin, Biljana; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Bogavac, Mirjana; Suvajdzic, Ljiljana; Simin, Natasa; Samojlik, Isidora; Couladis, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of two Achillea millefolium (Adanson) Koch s.l species essential oils (A. collina Becker ex Heimerl s.l. and A. pannonica Scheele, Asteraceae) originating from the Golija and Radan mountains (Serbia) were investigated. The chemical profiles of the essential oils were evaluated by GC-MS. Antioxidant activity was assessed as free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) towards 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radicals, together with effects on lipid peroxidation (LP). Antibacterial activity was examined on 21 bacterial strains. Based on the chemical composition of the essential oil, A. collina s.l. from Mount Golija was classified as a chamazulene chemotype (tetraploid). The high percentage of oxygenated monoterpenes and absence of azulene in the essential oil obtained from A. pannonica from Radan pointing that this population is octaploid. Essential oil of A. pannonica expressed stronger antimicrobial activity on almost all tested bacteria. Furthermore, this essential oil expressed higher scavenging effects on DPPH radical (IC(50) = 0.52 comparing to 0.62 mug/mL). Only in the LP evaluation, essential oil of A. collina s.l. from Golija exhibited stronger antioxidant activity (IC(50) = 0.75 comparing to 2.12 mug/mL). PMID:18830141

  13. Achillea millefolium L. Essential Oil Inhibits LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chou, Su-Tze; Peng, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Jaw-Cherng; Lin, Chih-Chien; Shih, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. is a member of the Asteraceae family and has been used in folk medicine in many countries. In this study, 19 compounds in A. millefolium essential oil (AM-EO) have been identified; the major components are artemisia ketone (14.92%), camphor (11.64%), linalyl acetate (11.51%) and 1,8-cineole (10.15%). AM-EO can suppress the inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, including decreased levels of cellular nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion production, lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) concentration. This antioxidant activity is not a result of increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, but rather occurs as a result of the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, thus reducing the inflammatory response. Therefore, AM-EO can be utilized in many applications, including the treatment of inflammatory diseases in the future. PMID:23797659

  14. Antinociceptive peripheral effect of Achillea millefolium L. and Artemisia vulgaris L.: both plants known popularly by brand names of analgesic drugs.

    PubMed

    Pires, Júlia Movilla; Mendes, Fúlvio R; Negri, Giuseppina; Duarte-Almeida, Joaquim M; Carlini, Elisaldo A

    2009-02-01

    The hydroalcohol extracts of Achillea millefolium L. (AM) and Artemisia vulgaris L. (AV), both belonging to the Asteraceae family, were evaluated by the hot plate, writhing, formalin and intestinal transit tests in an attempt to confirm their folk use as analgesic, antiinflammatory and antispasmodic agents. AM 500 and 1000 mg/kg significantly inhibited abdominal contortions by 65% and 23%, respectively, whereas AV 500 and 1000 mg/kg inhibited them by 48% and 59%, respectively. None of the extracts produced differences in the intestinal transit in mice, nor in the response time in the hot plate or in the immediate or late responses in the formalin test. In HPLC/DAD analyses 'fingerprint', monitored at 360 and 270 nm, both hydroalcohol extracts showed the same flavonoid glycoside as a principal constituent, which was identified as rutin. A high content of caffeic acid derivatives were also found in both extracts. The main differences were observed at 240 nm: AM had a higher content of rutin, while in AV the hydroxybenzoic acid derivative was the major component. PMID:18844327

  15. The Melanogenesis Alteration Effects of Achillea millefolium L. Essential Oil and Linalyl Acetate: Involvement of Oxidative Stress and the JNK and ERK Signaling Pathways in Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Chih-Chien; Wang, Hsun-Yen; Shih, Ying; Chou, Su-Tze

    2014-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2 and p38 MAPK, is known to be activated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation in melanocytes to regulate melanin production. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the pathway of ERK and JNK activation. It has been established that the essential oil of Achillea millefolium L. (AM-EO) has activities that suppress the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Thus, we analyzed the effects of AM-EO on melanogenesis in melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH) treated melanoma cells. The results demonstrated that AM-EO suppresses melanin production by decreasing tyrosinase activity through the regulation of the JNK and ERK signaling pathways. This effect might be associated with the AM-EO activity leading to the suppression of ROS, and linalyl acetate is its major functional component. Therefore, we propose that AM-EO has the potential to treat hyperpigmentation in the future. PMID:24743745

  16. Germacrene A synthase in yarrow (Achillea millefolium) is an enzyme with mixed substrate specificity: gene cloning, functional characterization and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Pazouki, Leila; Memari, Hamid R; Kännaste, Astrid; Bichele, Rudolf; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoid synthases constitute a highly diverse gene family producing a wide range of cyclic and acyclic molecules consisting of isoprene (C5) residues. Often a single terpene synthase produces a spectrum of molecules of given chain length, but some terpene synthases can use multiple substrates, producing products of different chain length. Only a few such enzymes has been characterized, but the capacity for multiple-substrate use can be more widespread than previously thought. Here we focused on germacrene A synthase (GAS) that is a key cytosolic enzyme in the sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis pathway in the important medicinal plant Achillea millefolium (AmGAS). The full length encoding gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), functionally characterized, and its in vivo expression was analyzed. The recombinant protein catalyzed formation of germacrene A with the C15 substrate farnesyl diphosphate (FDP), while acyclic monoterpenes were formed with the C10 substrate geranyl diphosphate (GDP) and cyclic monoterpenes with the C10 substrate neryl diphosphate (NDP). Although monoterpene synthesis has been assumed to be confined exclusively to plastids, AmGAS can potentially synthesize monoterpenes in cytosol when GDP or NDP become available. AmGAS enzyme had high homology with GAS sequences from other Asteraceae species, suggesting that multi-substrate use can be more widespread among germacrene A synthases than previously thought. Expression studies indicated that AmGAS was expressed in both autotrophic and heterotrophic plant compartments with the highest expression levels in leaves and flowers. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the cloning and characterization of germacrene A synthase coding gene in A. millefolium, and multi-substrate use of GAS enzymes. PMID:25784918

  17. Germacrene A synthase in yarrow (Achillea millefolium) is an enzyme with mixed substrate specificity: gene cloning, functional characterization and expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pazouki, Leila; Memari, Hamid R.; Kännaste, Astrid; Bichele, Rudolf; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoid synthases constitute a highly diverse gene family producing a wide range of cyclic and acyclic molecules consisting of isoprene (C5) residues. Often a single terpene synthase produces a spectrum of molecules of given chain length, but some terpene synthases can use multiple substrates, producing products of different chain length. Only a few such enzymes has been characterized, but the capacity for multiple-substrate use can be more widespread than previously thought. Here we focused on germacrene A synthase (GAS) that is a key cytosolic enzyme in the sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis pathway in the important medicinal plant Achillea millefolium (AmGAS). The full length encoding gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), functionally characterized, and its in vivo expression was analyzed. The recombinant protein catalyzed formation of germacrene A with the C15 substrate farnesyl diphosphate (FDP), while acyclic monoterpenes were formed with the C10 substrate geranyl diphosphate (GDP) and cyclic monoterpenes with the C10 substrate neryl diphosphate (NDP). Although monoterpene synthesis has been assumed to be confined exclusively to plastids, AmGAS can potentially synthesize monoterpenes in cytosol when GDP or NDP become available. AmGAS enzyme had high homology with GAS sequences from other Asteraceae species, suggesting that multi-substrate use can be more widespread among germacrene A synthases than previously thought. Expression studies indicated that AmGAS was expressed in both autotrophic and heterotrophic plant compartments with the highest expression levels in leaves and flowers. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the cloning and characterization of germacrene A synthase coding gene in A. millefolium, and multi-substrate use of GAS enzymes. PMID:25784918

  18. Insecticide Activity of Essential Oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii Against Two Stored Product Pests, the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), ?-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC50 values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC50 = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC50 = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

  19. Components of Reproductive Isolation between the Monkeyflowers Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis (Phrymaceae)

    E-print Network

    Ramsey, Justin

    competition (seed set and hybrid production from experimental interspecific, intraspecific, and mixed or the other. In the greenhouse, interspecific pollinations generated nearly 50% fewer seeds than intraspecific of pollinator behavior and our laboratory experimentsof pollen competition. F1

  20. Energy-Delay tradeoff in Multiple Access Achilleas Anastasopoulos

    E-print Network

    Anastasopoulos, Achilleas

    . INTRODUCTION Information theory has been extremely successful in characterizing the maximum information rate of number of messages (i.e., the code rates). As the codeword length grows to infinity, a concentration only if one user transmits; otherwise a catastrophic collision occurs. Every tra

  1. Latin Name Common Name Achillea millefolium 'Summer Pastels' Yarrow

    E-print Network

    ' Bluestar Anthemis tinctoria 'Charme' Golden Marguerite Aquilegia vulgarus Blue Columbine Aralia cordata-leaved Bellflower Centaurea montana Mountain Bluet Coreopsis 'Sienna Sunset' Tickseed Coreopsis x hybrida 'Crème

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2008.00471.x

    E-print Network

    Bradshaw, Toby

    limits. Here we examine sister species of the monkeyflowers Mimulus cardinalis and M. lewisii to identify of California, M. cardinalis is found from low to mid elevation and M. lewisii is found from mid to high

  3. The effects of nutrient addition on floral characters and pollination in two subalpine plants, Ipomopsis aggregata

    E-print Network

    Burkle, Laura

    , Ipomopsis aggregata and Linum lewisii Laura A. Burkle Ã? Rebecca E. Irwin Received: 19 February 2008 and supplemental) treatments on two species of flowering plants, Ipomopsis aggregata and Linum lewisii. Resource addition affected I. aggregata and L. lewisii differently. Ipomopsis aggregata, a mono- carp

  4. PII:S0305-1978(97)00027-6 BiochemicalSystematicsandEcology,Vol.25, No.5, pp.437-443,1997

    E-print Network

    Bradshaw, Toby

    --Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis are closely related, but M. lewisii is pink-flowered and pollinated by bumblebees while M. cardinalis is red-flowered and pollinated by hummingbirds. Pollinator preference are characterized from M. lewisii and 114.cardinalis petal lobes by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC

  5. The genetics of adaptive evolution

    E-print Network

    Bradshaw, Toby

    /anther #12;Components of reproductive isolation between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis Geography and ecology 58-1534. #12;Components of reproductive isolation between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis Geography and ecology 58 lewisii 1200-3100m cardinalis 30-1400m #12;#12;Jamestown (lo = cardinalis habitat) White Wolf (hi

  6. Sesquiterpenes and Flavonoid Aglycones from a Hungarian Taxon of the Achillea millefolium Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Glasl; Pavel Mucaji; Ingrid Werner; Armin Presser; Johann Jurenitsch

    1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic methods as well as by 2D-NMR studies and by selective 1D-NOE experiments. Besides apigenin, luteolin and centaureidin, ? -sitosterol, 3? -hydroxy-11?,13-dihydro-costunolide, desacetylmatricarin, leucodin, achillin, 8?-angeloxy-leucodin and 8?-angeloxy-achillin were isolated. Both latter substances are re- ported here for the first time. Their NMR data were compared with those of the other guaianolides. The stereochemistry of

  7. Working Groups Integrated fruit protection in fruit crops

    E-print Network

    Lucas, Ã?ric

    (Solidago canadensis) and the common yarrow (Achillea millefolium), two native plants known to attract: habitat management, Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Aranea, Chrysopidae, Coccinellidae canadensis) and common yarrow (Achillea millefolium). Each orchard contained two or four flower strips. Each

  8. Common name Genus Species Family Water use Annuals. These are seasonal and will not be in the garden year-round.

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    perennials Yarrow 'Callistoga' Achillea millefolium 'Calistoga' Asteraceae L Yarrow 'Credo' Achillea millefolium 'Credo' Asteraceae L #12;Common name Genus Species millefolium 'Island Pink' Asteraceae L Yarrow Inland Form Achillea millefolium Inland for

  9. Serpentine and Nonserpentine Achillea millefolium Accessions Differ in Serpentine Substrate Tolerance and Response to Organic and Inorganic Amendments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan E. O’Dell; Victor P. Claassen

    2006-01-01

    Subgrade serpentine substrates are exceptionally difficult to revegetate due to multiple limitations including low N, P, and\\u000a K, low Ca:Mg molar ratios, high levels of heavy metals including Ni, Cr, and Co, low organic matter, low CEC, and low water\\u000a holding capacity. To examine the influence of plant origin on the success of the revegetation of serpentine substrates, granite\\u000a and

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLE doi:10.1111/evo.12503

    E-print Network

    Wood, Spencer

    pollen sterility in Mimulus lewisii­Mimulus cardinalis hybrids Angela Stathos1,2 and Lila Fishman1 1 to reconstructing the role(s) of rearrangements in speciation. In hybrids between monkeyflowers Mimulus cardinalis cause underdominant male sterility in M. lewisii­M. cardinalis hybrids. Consistent with a di- rect

  11. SPECIAL SECTION doi:10.1111/evo.12154

    E-print Network

    Wood, Spencer

    the sister monkeyflowers Mimulus lewisii and Mimulus cardinalis, which are textbook examples of ecological suppression in the M. lewisii Ã? M. cardinalis hybrid map compared to a relatively collinear Mimulus parishii. cardinalis. These inferences were supported by targeted intraspecific mapping, which also implied a M

  12. Have you ever seen a landscape in the Arboretum and thought to yourself, "I

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    ACCENT LOW B7 Mexican wall daisy Erigeron karvinskianus A16 island pink yarrow Achillea millefolium drummondii B7 fern leaf yarrow (Blooms in spring.) Achillea `Coronation Gold' C11 monch aster (Blooms

  13. F E Entomologie Faunistique Faunistic Entomology 2014 67, 133-146 Absence d'effet de l'amnagement de plates-bandes

    E-print Network

    Lucas, Ã?ric

    'achillée millefeuille (Achillea millefolium L.) et de verge d'or du Canada (Solidago canadensis L.) (Asteraceae), sur le: management, floral strips, Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, apple orchard, predator, Araneae prédateurs n'était pas différente du couvre-sol naturel. Mots-clés: aménagement, bandes fleuries, Achillea

  14. Plant and Soil 255: 475486, 2003. 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    ) and a non-fixing forb (Achillea millefolium) in controlled-chamberenvironments. To evaluate the effects with CO2enrichment, but this response was mediated by N supply only for the non-fixer, Achillea. Its%). N addition facilitated increased A in Achillea, however, in neither species did additional N

  15. Energetics of Yellow-Bellied Marmot Populations

    E-print Network

    Kilgore, Delbert L.; Armitage, Kenneth

    1978-01-01

    millefolium, Mer- tensia viridis, Lathyrus leucanthus, Linum lewisii, Melica spectabilis, and Agoseris glauca. Artemisia tridentata appears throughout the area but is more prominent in the southern portion of the valley at lower elevations. Nomenclature...

  16. Pollinator preference and the evolution of floral traits in monkeyflowers (Mimulus)

    E-print Network

    Bradshaw, Toby

    with hummingbird-pollinated Mimulus cardinalis revealed that bees preferred large flowers low in anthocyanin are the predominantly bee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and its hummingbird-pollinated congener Mimulus cardinalis. M

  17. Three floral volatiles contribute to differential pollinator attraction in monkeyflowers (Mimulus).

    PubMed

    Byers, Kelsey J R P; Bradshaw, H D; Riffell, Jeffrey A

    2014-02-15

    Flowering plants employ a wide variety of signals, including scent, to attract the attention of pollinators. In this study we investigated the role of floral scent in mediating differential attraction between two species of monkeyflowers (Mimulus) reproductively isolated by pollinator preference. The emission rate and chemical identity of floral volatiles differ between the bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated M. cardinalis. Mimulus lewisii flowers produce an array of volatiles dominated by d-limonene, ?-myrcene and E-?-ocimene. Of these three monoterpenes, M. cardinalis flowers produce only d-limonene, released at just 0.9% the rate of M. lewisii flowers. Using the Bombus vosnesenskii bumblebee, an important pollinator of M. lewisii, we conducted simultaneous gas chromatography with extracellular recordings in the bumblebee antennal lobe. Results from these experiments revealed that these three monoterpenes evoke significant neural responses, and that a synthetic mixture of the three volatiles evokes the same responses as the natural scent. Furthermore, the neural population shows enhanced responses to the M. lewisii scent over the scent of M. cardinalis. This neural response is reflected in behavior; in two-choice assays, bumblebees investigate artificial flowers scented with M. lewisii more frequently than ones scented with M. cardinalis, and in synthetic mixtures the three monoterpenes are necessary and sufficient to recapitulate responses to the natural scent of M. lewisii. In this system, floral scent alone is sufficient to elicit differential visitation by bumblebees, implying a strong role of scent in the maintenance of reproductive isolation between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. PMID:24198269

  18. WILDLIFE RESPONSE TO STAND STRUCTURE OF DECIDUOUS WOODLANDS

    E-print Network

    of western snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis). The ground cover is mostly Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) and forbs (dandelion [Taraxacum of- ficinale] and yarrow [Achillea millifolium]) (Hansen 1985

  19. Electronic Supplementary Material 2: Complementary results.

    E-print Network

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    with good prediction accuracy. Topo BS Topo+BS VI Topo+VI FR CH FR CH FR CH FR CH FR CH Achillea millefolium 0.686 - 0.807 - 0.811 - 0.8 - 0.827 - Achillea nana 0.8 - 0.703 - 0.783 - 0.737 - 0.746 - Alchemilla

  20. Hybridization and Cytonuclear Associations among Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout, Introduced Rainbow Trout, and Their Hybrids within the Stehekin River Drainage, North Cascades National Park

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl O. Ostberg; Rusty J. Rodriguez

    2006-01-01

    Historic introductions of nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss into the native habitats of cutthroat trout O. clarkii have impacted cutthroat trout populations through introgressive hybridization, creating challenges and concerns for cutthroat trout conservation. We examined the effects of rainbow trout introductions on the native westslope cutthroat trout O. c. lewisii within the Stehekin River drainage, North Cascades National Park, Washington,

  1. Origin of the Flax Cultivar ‘Appar’ and Its Position within the Linum perenne Complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joann Mudge

    2008-01-01

    The 'Appar' flax germplasm was originally released by the USDA Soil Conservation Service as a cultivar of Linum lewisii. The observation that 'Appar' is heterostylic, a key taxonomic character distinguishing Lewis flax from other members of the Linum perenne complex, created a need for further study in order to resolve the taxonomic position of both Lewis flax and the 'Appar'

  2. The 'Appar' Flax Release: Origin, Distinguishing Characteristics, And Use; And A Native Alternative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary L Pendleton; Stanley G Kitchen; E Durant McArthur; Joann E Mudge

    2008-01-01

    This article summarizes information on the taxonomy of 'Appar', a perennial blue flax cultivar (Linum perenne L. [Linaceae]), and characteristics that distinguish it from native Lewis flax (Linum lewisii Pursh [Linaceae]). 'Appar' apparently originated as a European flax that escaped from garden cultivation. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis places 'Appar' with other collections of European Linum perenne and separates

  3. Response of Lewis Flax Seedlings to Inoculation With Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Cyanobacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Pendleton; B. K. Pendleton; G. L. Howard; S. D. Warren

    Forbs comprise an important though understudied com- ponent of western rangelands. Little is known about the depen- dence of forb species on associated soil microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In 1996 and 1998, we conducted two experiments examining the response of Lewis flax (Linum lewisii Pursh) to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under a variety of soil conditions. Lewis

  4. Copyright 1998 by the Genetics Society of America Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Differences in Floral Morphology

    E-print Network

    Bradshaw, Toby

    . cardinalis flowers are visited mostly by hummingbirds. The genetic control of 12 morphological differences between the flowers of M. lewisii and M. cardinalis was explored in a large linkage mapping population pollination, but they of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling adaptive are exserted in M. cardinalis

  5. Chromosomal rearrangements and the genetics of reproductive barriers in mimulus (monkey flowers).

    PubMed

    Fishman, Lila; Stathos, Angela; Beardsley, Paul M; Williams, Charles F; Hill, Jeffrey P

    2013-09-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements may directly cause hybrid sterility and can facilitate speciation by preserving local adaptation in the face of gene flow. We used comparative linkage mapping with shared gene-based markers to identify potential chromosomal rearrangements between the sister monkeyflowers Mimulus lewisii and Mimulus cardinalis, which are textbook examples of ecological speciation. We then remapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for floral traits and flowering time (premating isolation) and hybrid sterility (postzygotic isolation). We identified three major regions of recombination suppression in the M. lewisii × M. cardinalis hybrid map compared to a relatively collinear Mimulus parishii × M. lewisii map, consistent with a reciprocal translocation and two inversions specific to M. cardinalis. These inferences were supported by targeted intraspecific mapping, which also implied a M. lewisii-specific reciprocal translocation causing chromosomal pseudo-linkage in both hybrid mapping populations. Floral QTLs mapped in this study, along with previously mapped adaptive QTLs, were clustered in putatively rearranged regions. All QTLs for male sterility, including two underdominant loci, mapped to regions of recombination suppression. We argue that chromosomal rearrangements may have played an important role in generating and consolidating barriers to gene flow as natural selection drove the dramatic ecological and morphological divergence of these species. PMID:24033166

  6. INVESTIGATION Genetic Dissection of a Major Anthocyanin QTL

    E-print Network

    Bradshaw, Toby

    . cardinalis represent a classic example of pollinator-mediated prezygotic isolation between two sister species difference between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. Together with the genomic resources and stable transgenic and contrasting yellow nectar guides (Figure 1A). The hummingbird-pollinated M. cardinalis has red flowers

  7. Balmelli, L., Nentwig, W. & Airoldi, J.-P. (1999). Food preferences of the common vole Microtus arvalis in the agricultural landscape with regard to nutritional components of plants. Z.

    E-print Network

    Airoldi, Jean-Pierre

    altissima (roots) among cultivated plants, and Achillea millefolium (leaves) and Trifolium pratense (leaves at high frequency only for T. pratense and B. napus. T. pratense may therefore be suitable for preventing

  8. txH20: Volume 6, Number 3 (Complete)

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    low-maintenance and colorful landscape plants, which can save water, add to landscape appearance, and reduce costs.? Some of the plants Niu is researching are yallow (Achillea millefolium), blanket owers, lantana, honeysuckle (Lonicera haliana...

  9. POPULATION ECOLOGY Sex Ratios of Fleas (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae) in Nests of Tree

    E-print Network

    Dawson, Russell D.

    that received unknown chemical inputs, from nests fumigated with insecticidal vegetation (yarrow, Achillea millefolium L.), from nests treated with both commercial Ã?ea powder and diatomaceous earth, and from control

  10. The PA Flora from a M l ti dMacroevolutionary and

    E-print Network

    Hardy, Christopher R.

    .Important Families ·Asteraceae (327) Aster (Symphyotrichum) novae-angliae (aster) A hill ill f li ( ilf il)Achillea millefolium (yarrow, milfoil) Helianthus annuus (sunflower) Solidago canadensis (goldenrod) #12;Overview of PA

  11. : 502.5:633.2.033(575.2)(04) . 87%

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    leporinum. ­ , , , - -Artemisia dracunculus, -Artemisia absinthium, -Marrubium) tectorum Cap1-2 Bromus oxyodon Sp-Cap1-2 Taeniatherum crinitum Sp Artemisia absinthium Sp-Cap1), (Artemisia absinthium), (Utrica dioica), - (Rumex tianschanicus), (Achillea asiatika), (Onopordum

  12. Ecography E5789 Engler, R., Randin, C. F., Vittoz, P., Czka, T.,

    E-print Network

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    Myosotis alpestris 4 2 5 Anthriscus sylvestris 6 2 5 Myosotis arvensis 7 1 0 Anthyllis vulneraria s.l. 6 1 30 50 Knautia arvensis 7 2 5 Achillea atrata 1 3 5 Knautia dipsacifolia s.str. 3 2 5 Achillea 5 Myosotis decumbens 6 1 5 Aposeris foetida 3 2 5 Nardus stricta 7 2 5 Arabis alpina s.str. 1 2 5

  13. Montane meadow change during drought varies with background hydrologic regime and plant functional group

    E-print Network

    Debinski, Diane M.; Wickham, Hadley; Kindscher, Kelly; Caruthers, Jennet C.; Germino, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    .01 Geum triflorum T M3 0.84 0.01 Linum lewisii G M3 0.83 0.00 Lupinus argenteus T M3 0.86 0.04 Perideridia gairdneri G M3 0.90 0.02 Potentilla gracilis G M3 0.89 0.05 Potentilla gracilis G M4 0.86 0.01 Notes: The M1 and M2 meadows are willow (Salix spp..., and Erigonium all provide forage for mammals such as pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides) (Keith et al. 1959). Linum lewisii provides forage for wildlife during spring and winter and birds use the seed and capsules in fall and winter (USDA NRCS 2006). Achillia...

  14. Lignans from Linum species of sections Syllinum and Linum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Konuklugil; I. Ionkova; N. Vasilev; T. J. Schmidt; J. Windhövel; E. Fuss; A. W. Alfermann

    2007-01-01

    The aryltetralin lignans 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin, 5?-demethoxy-6-methoxypodophyllotoxin as well as the corresponding 8?-epimers 6-methoxypicropodophyllin, and 5?-demethoxy-6-methoxypicropodophyllin were isolated from suspension cultures of Linum cariense, and 4?-demethyl-6-methoxypodophyllotoxin together with 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin from plants of L. tauricum, which both belong to section Syllinum of the genus Linum. Cell cultures of L. altaicum, L. austriacum ssp. euxinum and L. lewisii belonging to section Linum accumulate the

  15. Growth and leaf physiology of monkeyflowers with different altitude ranges.

    PubMed

    Angert, Amy Lauren

    2006-06-01

    Every species is limited both geographically and ecologically to a subset of available habitats, yet for many species the causes of distribution limits are unknown. Temperature is thought to be one of the primary determinants of species distributions along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients. This study examined leaf physiology and plant performance under contrasting temperature regimes of sister species of monkeyflower, Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewisii (Phrymaceae), that differ in altitude distribution to test the hypothesis that temperature is the primary determinant of differences in fitness versus altitude. Each species attained greatest aboveground biomass, net photosynthetic rate, and effective quantum yield of photosystem II when grown under temperatures characteristic of the altitudinal range center. Although both species exhibited greater stem length, stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO2 concentration in hot than in cold temperatures, these traits showed much greater reductions under cold temperature for M. cardinalis than for M. lewisii. Survival of M. lewisii was also sensitive to temperature, showing a striking decrease in hot temperatures. Within each temperature regime, the species native to that temperature displayed greatest growth and leaf physiological capacity. Populations from the altitude range center and range margin of each species were used to examine population differentiation, but central and marginal populations did not differ in most growth or leaf physiological responses to temperature. This study provides evidence that M. cardinalis and M. lewisii differ in survival, growth, and leaf physiology under temperature regimes characterizing their contrasting low and high altitude range centers, and suggests that the species' altitude range limits may arise, in part, due to metabolic limitations on growth that ultimately decrease survival and limit reproduction. PMID:16468056

  16. Allele substitution at a flower colour locus produces a pollinator shift in monkeyflowers.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, H D; Schemske, Douglas W

    2003-11-13

    The role of major mutations in adaptive evolution has been debated for more than a century. The classical view is that adaptive mutations are nearly infinite in number with infinitesimally small phenotypic effect, but recent theory suggests otherwise. To provide empirical estimates of the magnitude of adaptive mutations in wild plants, we conducted field studies to determine the adaptive value of alternative alleles at a single locus, YELLOW UPPER (YUP). YUP controls the presence or absence of yellow carotenoid pigments in the petals of pink-flowered Mimulus lewisii, which is pollinated by bumblebees, and its red-flowered sister species M. cardinalis, which is pollinated by hummingbirds. We bred near-isogenic lines (NILs) in which the YUP allele from each species was substituted into the other. M. cardinalis NILs with the M. lewisii YUP allele had dark pink flowers and received 74-fold more bee visits than the wild type, whereas M. lewisii NILs with the M. cardinalis yup allele had yellow-orange flowers and received 68-fold more hummingbird visits than the wild type. These results indicate that an adaptive shift in pollinator preference may be initiated by a single major mutation. PMID:14614505

  17. Transcriptional control of floral anthocyanin pigmentation in monkeyflowers (Mimulus).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Sagawa, Janelle M; Frost, Laura; Vela, James P; Bradshaw, Harvey D

    2014-12-01

    A molecular description of the control of floral pigmentation in a multi-species group displaying various flower color patterns is of great interest for understanding the molecular bases of phenotypic diversification and pollinator-mediated speciation. Through transcriptome profiling, mutant analyses and transgenic experiments, we aim to establish a 'baseline' floral anthocyanin regulation model in Mimulus lewisii and to examine the different ways of tinkering with this model in generating the diversity of floral anthocyanin patterns in other Mimulus species. We find one WD40 and one bHLH gene controlling anthocyanin pigmentation in the entire corolla of M. lewisii and two R2R3-MYB genes, PELAN and NEGAN, controlling anthocyanin production in the petal lobe and nectar guide, respectively. The autoregulation of NEGAN might be a critical property to generate anthocyanin spots. Independent losses of PELAN expression (via different mechanisms) explain two natural yellow-flowered populations of M. cardinalis (typically red-flowered). The NEGAN ortholog is the only anthocyanin-activating MYB expressed in the M. guttatus flowers. The mutant lines and transgenic tools available for M. lewisii will enable gene-by-gene replacement experiments to dissect the genetic and developmental bases of more complex floral color patterns, and to test hypotheses on phenotypic evolution in general. PMID:25103615

  18. Uptake of 2,4-D in higher plants from artificial rain

    SciTech Connect

    Lokke, H.

    1984-02-01

    Sinapis alba L., Lapsana communis L., Achillea millefolium L., Brassica napus L., Lactuca sativa L., and Lycopersicum esculentum L. were exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxy (2-/sup 14/C)acetic acid (2,4-D) at 10 micrograms liter-1 in artificial rain, pH 6.5 and 3.3. The 2,4-D was absorbed in all species tested. Concentrations of parent 2,4-D appeared at the highest level in Achillea (0.1 mg kg-1 dry wt), and at zero level in Lycopersicum. Twenty-one daily treatments at pH 6.5 for 30-min periods increased dry-matter concentrations in the leaves of Achillea and decreased those in Brassica. No change in dry-matter concentration was observed in the leaves of Brassica by seven daily treatments for 30-min periods at pH 3.3.

  19. Comparative linkage maps suggest that fission, not polyploidy, underlies near-doubling of chromosome number within monkeyflowers (Mimulus; Phrymaceae).

    PubMed

    Fishman, L; Willis, J H; Wu, C A; Lee, Y-W

    2014-05-01

    Changes in chromosome number and structure are important contributors to adaptation, speciation and macroevolution. In flowering plants, polyploidy and subsequent reductions in chromosome number by fusion are major sources of chromosomal evolution, but chromosome number increase by fission has been relatively unexplored. Here, we use comparative linkage mapping with gene-based markers to reconstruct chromosomal synteny within the model flowering plant genus Mimulus (monkeyflowers). Two sections of the genus with haploid numbers ? 14 have been inferred to be relatively recent polyploids because they are phylogenetically nested within numerous taxa with low base numbers (n=8-10). We combined multiple data sets to build integrated genetic maps of the M. guttatus species complex (section Simiolus, n=14) and the M. lewisii group (section Erythranthe; n=8), and then aligned the two integrated maps using >100 shared markers. We observed strong segmental synteny between M. lewisii and M. guttatus maps, with essentially 1-to-1 correspondence across each of 16 chromosomal blocks. Assuming that the M. lewisii (and widespread) base number of 8 is ancestral, reconstruction of 14 M. guttatus chromosomes requires at least eight fission events (likely shared by Simiolus and sister section Paradanthus (n=16)), plus two fusion events. This apparent burst of fission in the yellow monkeyflower lineages raises new questions about mechanisms and consequences of chromosomal fission in plants. Our comparative maps also provide insight into the origins of a chromosome exhibiting centromere-associated female meiotic drive and create a framework for transferring M. guttatus genome resources across the entire genus. PMID:24398885

  20. Lignans from Linum species of sections Syllinum and Linum.

    PubMed

    Konuklugil, B; Ionkova, I; Vasilev, N; Schmidt, T J; Windhövel, J; Fuss, E; Alfermann, A W

    2007-01-01

    The aryltetralin lignans 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin, 5'-demethoxy-6-methoxypodophyllotoxin as well as the corresponding 8'-epimers 6-methoxypicropodophyllin, and 5'-demethoxy-6-methoxypicropodophyllin were isolated from suspension cultures of Linum cariense, and 4'-demethyl-6-methoxypodophyllotoxin together with 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin from plants of L. tauricum, which both belong to section Syllinum of the genus Linum. Cell cultures of L. altaicum, L. austriacum ssp. euxinum and L. lewisii belonging to section Linum accumulate the naphthalene lignans justicidin B and isojusticidin B. The different lignans were identified by HPLC and spectroscopic methods. PMID:17365680

  1. Effect of Elevated Tropospheric Ozone on the Structure of Bacterial Communities Inhabiting the Rhizosphere of Herbaceous Plants Native to Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anja B. Dohrmann; Christoph C. Tebbe

    2005-01-01

    Current elevated concentrations of ozone in the atmosphere, as they are observed during summer seasons, can cause severe effects on plant vegetation. This study was initiated to analyze whether ozone-stressed plants also transfer signals below ground and thereby alter the bacterial community composition in their rhizo- spheres. Herbaceous plants, native to Germany, with tolerance (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Poa pratensis,

  2. REGISTRATION OF YAKIMA WESTERN YARROW GERMPLASM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yakima western yarrow (Achillea millefolium L) germplasm was released on 12 Oct. 2004 by the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service and the Utah Agricultural Experiment Station as a source identified class (natural track) germplasm, which is eligible for seed certifi...

  3. The influence of distilled water on the fluidity of protoplasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Stålfelt

    1957-01-01

    Summary It is found that if distilled water is allowed to flow through the leaves of terrestrial plants (Achillea millefolium, Chenopodium album, Rumex acetosella, Ficaria verna), the protoplasm of the cells exhibits increased fluidity. The terrestrial plants thus react in the same way as the earlier investigatedHelodea. The cause is not the absence of nutrient salts or of microelements, since

  4. EFEITO DE EXTRATOS AQUOSOS DE PLANTAS NA OVIPOSIÇÃO DA TRAÇA-DAS-CRUCÍFERAS, EM COUVE (1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CESAR AUGUSTO; MANFRÉ MEDEIROS; ARLINDO LEAL

    2005-01-01

    RESUMO Avaliou-se o efeito de extratos aquosos de Achillea millefolium L. (folhas), Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas), Bidens pilosa L. (folhas, frutos e ramos), Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (folhas), Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (folhas, frutos e ramos), Datura suaveolens Humb & Bonpl. ex. Willd (folhas), Enterolobium contortisilliquum (Vell.) Morong (frutos), Mentha crispa L. (folhas e ramos), Nicotiana tabacum L. (folhas), Piper nigrum

  5. Glandular hairs of the ovary: a helpful character for Asteroideae (Asteraceae) taxonomy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Ciccarelli; Fabio Garbari; Anna M. Pagni

    Surface microcharacters of the ovary of the Asteraceae were studied, especially biseriate glandular hairs. Of 34 species belonging to the Asteroideae, only Dittrichia viscosa, Pulicaria dysenterica, Bellis perennis, Tanacetum parthenium, Achillea mar- itima, Matricaria chamomilla, and Eupatorium cannabinum possess glandular hairs on the ovary. Additional characters considered are hair morphology and distribution, cell number, and presence of subcuticular chambers and

  6. FIELD STUDY OF PLANT SURVIVAL AS AFFECTED BY AMENDMENTS TO BENTONITE SPOIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel W. Uresk; Teruo Yamamoto

    1994-01-01

    Effort s to reclaim amended and raw bentonite spoils with six plant species (two forbs, three shrubs, and one tree) were evaluated over a 4-year period. Plant species included four-win g saltbush (Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.), big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata tridentata Nutt.), Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum Sarg.), Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.), common yarrow (Achillea millifolium L.), and scarlet

  7. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gislene G. F. Nascimento; Juliana Locatelli; Paulo C. Freitas; Giuliana L. Silva

    2000-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. In addition, the possible synergistic effects when associated with antibiotics were studied. Extracts from the following plants were utilized: Achillea millifolium (yarrow), Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove), Melissa offficinalis (lemon-balm), Ocimun basilucum (basil), Psidium guajava (guava), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Salvia officinalis (sage), Syzygyum

  8. Determination of the hydroxycinnamate profile of 12 members of the Asteraceae family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakesh Jaiswal; Joseph Kiprotich; Nikolai Kuhnert

    2011-01-01

    The hydroxycinnamates of the leaves of 12 plants of the Astreraceae family, Achillea millefolium, Arnica montana, Artemesia dracunculus, Cichorium intybus, Cnicus benedictus, Cynara scolymus, Echinops humilis, Inula helenium, Lactuca sativa, Petasites hybridus, Solidago virgaurea, and Tanacetum parthenium were investigated qualitatively by LC–MSn. Thirty-nine chlorogenic acids were detected and all characterized to regioisomeric level on the basis of their fragmentation pattern

  9. Medicinal plants used in K?rklareli Province (Turkey)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?ükran Kültür

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from K?rklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica,

  10. Morphological variation of plants on the uprising islands of northern Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Serebryanaya; Alexey Shipunov

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to test whether any signifi cant morphological differences exist between island and mainland plant populations of the north European White Sea. Six polymorphic species were studied: Atriplex nudicaulis (Chenopodiaceae), Euphra- sia wettsteinii (Orobanchaceae), Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae), Parnassia palus- tris (Parnassiaceae), Potentilla egedii (Rosaceae) and Rhodiola rosea (Crassulaceae). Based on the multivariate analyses of our

  11. Genetic Dissection of a Major Anthocyanin QTL Contributing to Pollinator-Mediated Reproductive Isolation Between Sister Species of Mimulus

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Sagawa, Janelle M.; Young, Riane C.; Christensen, Brian J.; Bradshaw, Harvey D.

    2013-01-01

    Prezygotic barriers play a major role in the evolution of reproductive isolation, which is a prerequisite for speciation. However, despite considerable progress in identifying genes and mutations responsible for postzygotic isolation, little is known about the genetic and molecular basis underlying prezygotic barriers. The bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated M. cardinalis represent a classic example of pollinator-mediated prezygotic isolation between two sister species in sympatry. Flower color differences resulting from both carotenoid and anthocyanin pigments contribute to pollinator discrimination between the two species in nature. Through fine-scale genetic mapping, site-directed mutagenesis, and transgenic experiments, we demonstrate that a single-repeat R3 MYB repressor, ROSE INTENSITY1 (ROI1), is the causal gene underlying a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) with the largest effect on anthocyanin concentration and that cis-regulatory change rather than coding DNA mutations cause the allelic difference between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. Together with the genomic resources and stable transgenic tools developed here, these results suggest that Mimulus is an excellent platform for studying the genetics of pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation and the molecular basis of morphological evolution at the most fundamental level—gene by gene, mutation by mutation. PMID:23335333

  12. Quantitative trait loci affecting differences in floral morphology between two species of monkeyflower (Mimulus).

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, H D; Otto, K G; Frewen, B E; McKay, J K; Schemske, D W

    1998-05-01

    Conspicuous differences in floral morphology are partly responsible for reproductive isolation between two sympatric species of monkeyflower because of their effect on visitation of the flowers by different pollinators. Mimulus lewisii flowers are visited primarily by bumblebees, whereas M. cardinalis flowers are visited mostly by hummingbirds. The genetic control of 12 morphological differences between the flowers of M. lewisii and M. cardinalis was explored in a large linkage mapping population of F2 plants n = 465 to provide an accurate estimate of the number and magnitude of effect of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing each character. Between one and six QTLs were identified for each trait. Most (9/12) traits appear to be controlled in part by at least one major QTL explaining >/=25% of the total phenotypic variance. This implies that either single genes of individually large effect or linked clusters of genes with a large cumulative effect can play a role in the evolution of reproductive isolation and speciation. PMID:9584110

  13. Genetic dissection of a major anthocyanin QTL contributing to pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation between sister species of Mimulus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Sagawa, Janelle M; Young, Riane C; Christensen, Brian J; Bradshaw, Harvey D

    2013-05-01

    Prezygotic barriers play a major role in the evolution of reproductive isolation, which is a prerequisite for speciation. However, despite considerable progress in identifying genes and mutations responsible for postzygotic isolation, little is known about the genetic and molecular basis underlying prezygotic barriers. The bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated M. cardinalis represent a classic example of pollinator-mediated prezygotic isolation between two sister species in sympatry. Flower color differences resulting from both carotenoid and anthocyanin pigments contribute to pollinator discrimination between the two species in nature. Through fine-scale genetic mapping, site-directed mutagenesis, and transgenic experiments, we demonstrate that a single-repeat R3 MYB repressor, ROSE INTENSITY1 (ROI1), is the causal gene underlying a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) with the largest effect on anthocyanin concentration and that cis-regulatory change rather than coding DNA mutations cause the allelic difference between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. Together with the genomic resources and stable transgenic tools developed here, these results suggest that Mimulus is an excellent platform for studying the genetics of pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation and the molecular basis of morphological evolution at the most fundamental level-gene by gene, mutation by mutation. PMID:23335333

  14. The flavonoid Casticin has multiple mechanisms of tumor cytotoxicity action

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khadidja Haïdara; Lolita Zamir; Qui-Wen Shi; Gerald Batist

    2006-01-01

    We studied the mechanism of anti-tumor activity of the flavonoid Casticin, derived from Achillea millefolium. Casticin anti-tumor activity results in cell growth arrest in G2\\/M and in apoptotic death. As a tubulin-binding agent (TBA), Casticin induces p21, which in turn inhibits Cdk1. Moreover, Casticin appears to down regulate cyclin A. These observations could explain Casticin-induced G2\\/M arrest. Following Casticin exposure,

  15. The dynamics of leaf extension in plants with diverse altitudinal ranges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. I. Woodward; Ch. Körner; R. C. Crabtree

    1986-01-01

    Rates of leaf extension have been studied with electronic auxanometers at mid-altitude in the Austrian Alps, where both low and high altitude species co-occur. The results demonstrate a clear differentiation in the temperature responses of extension between these two groups of species. For the low or mid-altitude species of Achillea millefolium, Agrostis stolonifera, Poa alpina and Rumex arifolius, the average

  16. Growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis as influenced by ozone and competition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bender; R. B. Muntifering; J. C. Lin; H. J. Weigel

    2006-01-01

    Interspecific plant competition has been hypothesized to alter effects of early-season ozone (O3) stress. A phytometer-based approach was utilized to investigate O3 effects on growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis grown in monoculture and in mixed cultures with four competitor-plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Rumex acetosa and Veronica chamaedrys). Mesocosms were exposed during April\\/May 2000–2002 to charcoal-filtered air+25ppb

  17. Microfungi on compositae in the Ruhr Basin.

    PubMed

    Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Dachowski, M

    2002-01-01

    Forty-three microfungi have been observed on thirty species of the Compositae occurring in several locations in the Ruhr Basin in North Rhine-Westphalia. Many fungi belong to the Ascomycetes (Erysiphales, Diaporthales, Dothideales, Leotiales and Pleosporales) and to the Deuteromycetes (Melanconiales, Moniliales and Sphaeropsidales). Other fungi wich were found in our investigation belong to the Basidiomycetes (Uredinales) and to the Oomycetes (Peronosporales). Some recorded microfungi have been discovered on new hosts in North Rhine-Westphalia and also in Germany for the first time. New for North Rhine-Westphalia are Ascochyta spec. Libert on Matricaria recutita L., Phoma exigua var. linicola (Naumov & Vassilevski) Maas on Tripleurospermum maritimum (L.) W. D. J. Koch, Phomopsis achillea (Sacc.) Höhn. on Achillea ageratum L., Diaporthe aff. arctii (Lasch) Nitschke on Solidago canadensis L. and on Achillea ageratum L., Lophiostoma caulium (Fr.) Ces. & De Not. on Anthemis tinctoria L. and Ophiobolus fructicum (Rob. ex Desm.) on Serratula tinctoria L. New for Germany are Ophiobolus cirsii (P. Karst.) Sacc. on Cichorium intybus L., Phomopsis cirsii Grove on Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten., Pleospora kansensis J. P. Ellis & M. B. Ellis and Pleospora phaeocomoides cf. var. infectoria on Centaurea jacea L. PMID:12701426

  18. Physiological and biochemical stress responses in grassland species are influenced by both early-season ozone exposure and interspecific competition.

    PubMed

    Scebba, Francesca; Canaccini, Francesca; Castagna, Antonella; Bender, Jürgen; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2006-08-01

    The effects of two-year early season ozone exposure on physiological and biochemical stress response were investigated in model plant communities. Achillea millefolium and Veronica chamaedrys target plants were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Poa pratensis (phytometer) and exposed in open-top chambers over two years for five weeks to charcoal-filtered (CF) air plus 25 nl l(-1) O3 (control) and non-filtered (NF) air plus 50 nl l(-1) O3. Significant O3 effects were detected in different physiological and biochemical parameters, evidencing interspecific differences in metabolic stress responses and a strong influence of the competition factor. O3 induced strong oxidative effects in Achillea irrespective to the different growth modality. Veronica showed less O3-induced effects in monoculture than when grown in competition with the phytometer. Poa exhibited a different behaviour against O3 depending on the species in competition, showing an overall higher sensitivity to O3 when in mixture with Achillea. PMID:16321463

  19. The niche, limits to species' distributions, and spatiotemporal variation in demography across the elevation ranges of two monkeyflowers

    PubMed Central

    Angert, Amy L.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the processes that create and maintain species' geographic range limits has implications for many questions in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. Many expectations for the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of populations at the range margin rest on the concordance of geographic limits and the limits of a species' ecological niche. If range limits are coincident with niche limits, then marginal populations should have lower and/or more variable vital rates and population growth rates than central populations. Using data from 8 annual censuses of marked individuals, I investigated the demography of Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewisii across the species' elevation ranges. Central and marginal populations exhibited striking demographic differences, but only for one species were differences in expected directions. Marginal populations from the M. lewisii lower elevation range limit had lower and more variable survival than central populations and appeared to be demographic sinks. In contrast, marginal populations from the M. cardinalis upper elevation limit had higher fecundity and higher population growth rates than central populations. Although the species differed with respect to central-marginal patterns, they were concordant with respect to elevation; that is, both species had higher fitness in higher reaches of their examined ranges. Potential explanations for these patterns include source-sink dynamics, with asymmetrical gene flow mediated by river currents, and climate change, with recent warming shifting the species' climatic envelopes to higher elevations. Hence, assessment of spatiotemporal variation in both demography and dispersal is necessary to fully understand the relationship between the niche and species' distributions. PMID:19805178

  20. The niche, limits to species' distributions, and spatiotemporal variation in demography across the elevation ranges of two monkeyflowers.

    PubMed

    Angert, Amy L

    2009-11-17

    Understanding the processes that create and maintain species' geographic range limits has implications for many questions in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. Many expectations for the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of populations at the range margin rest on the concordance of geographic limits and the limits of a species' ecological niche. If range limits are coincident with niche limits, then marginal populations should have lower and/or more variable vital rates and population growth rates than central populations. Using data from 8 annual censuses of marked individuals, I investigated the demography of Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewisii across the species' elevation ranges. Central and marginal populations exhibited striking demographic differences, but only for one species were differences in expected directions. Marginal populations from the M. lewisii lower elevation range limit had lower and more variable survival than central populations and appeared to be demographic sinks. In contrast, marginal populations from the M. cardinalis upper elevation limit had higher fecundity and higher population growth rates than central populations. Although the species differed with respect to central-marginal patterns, they were concordant with respect to elevation; that is, both species had higher fitness in higher reaches of their examined ranges. Potential explanations for these patterns include source-sink dynamics, with asymmetrical gene flow mediated by river currents, and climate change, with recent warming shifting the species' climatic envelopes to higher elevations. Hence, assessment of spatiotemporal variation in both demography and dispersal is necessary to fully understand the relationship between the niche and species' distributions. PMID:19805178

  1. Using experimental evolution to investigate geographic range limits in monkeyflowers.

    PubMed

    Angert, Amy L; Bradshaw, H D; Schemske, Douglas W

    2008-10-01

    Every species occupies a restricted geographic distribution, but it is unclear why natural selection at the range margin fails to increase tolerance to limiting environmental variables and thereby allow continual range expansion. Models indicate that the interplay of demographic asymmetries, dispersal, divergent natural selection, and adaptive trade-offs across spatially varying environments can give rise to stable range limits. Here we examine sister species of the monkeyflowers Mimulus cardinalis and M. lewisii to identify traits that might contribute to the evolution of the species' ranges and to ask whether adaptive trade-offs between environments can limit their geographic distribution. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, M. cardinalis is found from low to mid elevation and M. lewisii is found from mid to high elevation. We transplanted segregating populations of interspecific hybrids to low and high elevation and cross-pollinated those that survived to flowering to create selected populations that evolved at low or high elevation. When grown in a common environment, the progeny of hybrids selected at high elevation flowered earlier compared to a greenhouse control population, whereas hybrids selected at low elevation displayed increased warm-temperature photosynthetic capacity. If adaptation to one environment entails a cost to adaptation in other environments, then selected hybrid populations should display reduced fitness, relative to an unselected control population, when grown in an environment in which they were not selected. Two such trade-offs were observed in this study, where hybrids selected at high elevation displayed reduced biomass when grown in temperatures characteristic of low elevation and hybrids selected at low elevation showed reduced resistance to freezing. These results identify traits under selection for range expansion and suggest that adaptive trade-offs can contribute to limiting the geographic distribution of species. PMID:18647337

  2. Mediterranean essential oils as effective weapons against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens and the Echinostoma intermediate host Physella acuta: what happens around? An acute toxicity survey on non-target mayflies.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Bedini, Stefano; Flamini, Guido; Cosci, Francesca; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Amira, Smain; Benchikh, Fatima; Laouer, Hocine; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Conti, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for important pathogens, including malaria, yellow fever, dengue and West Nile. Second to malaria as the world's most widespread parasitic disease, infection by trematodes is a devastating public health problem. In this study, we proposed two essential oils from plants cultivated in Mediterranean regions as effective chemicals against mosquitoes and freshwater snails vectors of Echinostoma trematodes. Chemical composition of essential oils from Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae) and Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Rutaceae) was investigated. Acute toxicity was evaluated against larvae of the West Nile vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) and the invasive freshwater snail Physella acuta (Mollusca: Physidae), an important intermediate host of many parasites, including Echinostoma revolutum (Echinostomidae). Acute toxicity of essential oils was assessed also on a non-target aquatic organism, the mayfly Cloeon dipterum (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum essentials oils were mainly composed by oxygenated monoterpenes (59.3 and 71.0 % of the whole oil, respectively). Chrysanthenone and borneol were the two major constituents of Achillea millefolium essential oil (24.1 and 14.2 %, respectively). Major compounds of H. tuberculatum essential oil were cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol and trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (22.9 and 16.1 %, respectively). In acute toxicity assays, C. pipiens LC50 was 154.190 and 175.268 ppm for Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum, respectively. P. acuta LC50 was 112.911 and 73.695 ppm for Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum, respectively, while the same values were 198.116 and 280.265 ppm for C. dipterum. Relative median potency analysis showed that both tested essential oils were more toxic to P. acuta over C. dipterum. This research adds knowledge on plant-borne chemicals toxic against invertebrates of medical importance, allowing us to propose the tested oils as effective candidates to develop newer and safer vector control tools. PMID:25563605

  3. Essential oil content and composition, nutrient and mycorrhizal status of some aromatic and medicinal plants of northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Karagiannidis, Nikitas; Panou-Filotheou, Hellen; Lazari, Diamando; Ipsilantis, Ioannis; Karagiannidou, Christina

    2010-05-01

    A field survey was conducted in three northern Greek mountain areas (Chortiatis, Ossa, and Pieria) to investigate the mycorrhizal and nutritional status, and the essential oil content and composition of common medicinal and aromatic plants. A range of values for nutrient status and essential oil contents and composition was established. All plants were found to be mycorrhizal, including Achillea coarctata Poir., Micromeria juliana (L.) Bentham ex Reichenb., and Salvia sclarea L.;. these three are reported as being mycorrhizal for the first time. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal root colonization was highest in Pieria, exceeding 80% for all 15 plants sampled, and lower in Chortiatis and Ossa. PMID:20521556

  4. Evaluation of the inhibitory activities of the extracts of Indonesian traditional medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum and Babesia gibsoni.

    PubMed

    Murnigsih, Tri; Subeki; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Kosaku; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Yamato, Osamu; Maede, Yoshimitsu; Katakura, Ken; Suzuki, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Sumiko; Chairul; Yoshihara, Teruhiko

    2005-08-01

    Twenty-four kinds of water extracts derived from 22 plants that are traditionally used for the treatment of malaria on Java Island, Indonesia, were screened for their antibabesial and antimalarial activities. Among the extracts, 8 extracts displayed strong antimalarial activity, with an inhibition range from 89.6 to 100%, and 15 showed strong antibabesial activity, with an inhibition range from 84.2 to 98.1%. The extracts of Achillea millefolium, Baeckea frutenscens, Brucea javanica, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Strychnos lucida and Swietenia macrophylla showed both strong antibabesial and antimalarial activities. The antimalarial activities paralleled the antibabesial activities, but the converse was not true. PMID:16141673

  5. Volatile chemical composition and bioactivity of six essential oils against the stored food insect Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera Dryophthoridae).

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Alessandra; Conti, Barbara; Mazzoni, Valerio; Meini, Laura; Pistelli, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) of Achillea millefolium, Myrtus communis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare and Lavandula angustifolia were analysed with GC-FID and GC-MS in order to define their aromatic profiles and then their toxicity and repellent activity against Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera Dryophthoridae) with specific bioassays were evaluated. Results from topical applications on insects showed that all EOs had variable and significant insecticidal activity. Mortality rate never exceeded 76%. Results of repellency tests are indicated for M. communis and L. angustifolia EOs, displaying high repellent activity to S. zeamais adults. PMID:21861644

  6. Transpiration in seven plant species colonizing a fishpond shore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kv?t

    1975-01-01

    In 7 species (Eleocharis palustris\\u000a R. Br.,Juncus bufonius L.,Gypsophila muralis L.,Trifolium repens L.,Agrostis stolonifera L.,Potentilla anserina L. andAchillea millefolium L.) growing in a gradient of habitats from aquatic to terrestrial, on a sandy fishpond shore in Southern Bohemia, Czechoslovakia,\\u000a the daily course of transpiration rate and water content was assessed gravimetrically in their cut-off transpiring parts on\\u000a two typical summer

  7. Medicinal plants in a Middle Paleolithic grave Shanidar IV?

    PubMed

    Lietava, J

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with phytopharmacological evaluation of the therapeutic potential of the plants found in the Neanderthal grave of a Shanidar IV individual (Iraq), where the palynological analysis of some other authors discovered the following flowers: Achillea-type, Centaurea solstitialis, Senecio-type, Muscari-type, Ephedra altissima, Althea-type. The purpose of our theoretical analysis was to evaluate the objective healing activity of the flowers. The result of the research revealed that Shanidar IV flowers possess considerable therapeutic effects with marked medical activity, which could be an intentional reason for the selection of the flowers in Middle Paleolithic Shanidar Neanderthals. PMID:1548898

  8. The influence of plant species on the plant/air partitioning coefficients of PCBs and chlorinated benzenes

    SciTech Connect

    Koemp, P.; McLachlan, M.S. [Univ. of Bayreuth (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The plant/air partitioning coefficients (K{sub PA}) of pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene and 16 PCB congeners were determined in five different grass and herb species common to Central Europe (Lolium multiflorum, Trifolium repens, Plantago lanceolata, Crepis biennis, Achillea millefolium). The measurements were conducted between 5 C and 35 C using a solid phase fugacity meter. Octanol/air partition coefficients (K{sub OA}) were also measured over a similar temperature range. In all cases an excellent linear relationship between log K{sub PA} and log K{sub OA} was observed (r{sup 2} between 0.80 and 0.99). However, while the slope of this relationship was 1 for Lolium multiflorum (ryegrass), in agreement with previous work, the slopes of the log K{sub PA} vs. log K{sub OA} plot were less than 1 for the other 4 species, lying as low as 0.49 for Achillea millefolium (yarrow). Large differences in the enthalpy of phase change (plant/air) were also observed between the different species, but these differences were not related to the differences in the partition coefficients. These observations demonstrate that the contaminant storage properties of plants are variable, and that the lipophilic compartment in some plants is considerably more polar than octanol. This places constraints on the applicability of current models of plant uptake, almost all of which assume that the lipophilic compartment behaves like octanol, and reinforces the need for more research into the contaminant storage properties of plants.

  9. A simple electrochemical method for the rapid estimation of antioxidant potentials of some selected medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Amidi, Salimeh; Mojab, Faraz; Bayandori Moghaddam, Abdolmajid; Tabib, Kimia; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and Epidemiological studies have shown that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancers and other related disorders. These beneficial health effects have been attributed in part to the presence of antioxidants in dietary plants. Therefore screening for antioxidant properties of plant extracts has been one of the interests of scientists in this field. Different screening methods have been reported for the evaluation of antioxidant properties of plant extracts in the literature. In the present research a rapid screening method has been introduced based on cyclic voltammetry for antioxidant screening of some selected medicinal plant extracts. CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SEVEN MEDICINAL PLANTS: Buxus hyrcana, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium, Zataria multiflora, Ginkgo biloba, Lippia citriodora and Heptaptera anisoptera was carried out at different scan rates. Based on the interpretation of voltammograms, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium and Ginkgo biloba showed higher antioxidant capability than the others while Lippia citriodora contained the highest amount of antioxidants. Cyclic voltammetry is expected to be a simple method for screening antioxidants and estimating the antioxidant activity of foods and medicinal plants. PMID:25317192

  10. Food for Sex: or how to attract a pollinator.

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joyce Cadwallader (Saint-Mary-of-the-Woods College; )

    2007-06-17

    Two sister species of monkey flower are pollinated by different pollinators; this difference is a major factor in their reproductive isolation. One species Mimulus cardinalis has small red flowers with high nectar levels and is pollinated by hummingbirds while the other species, Mimulus lewisii, has large pink flowers with low levels of nectar and is pollinated by bumblebees. Although the mechanism of species maintenance is clear, what is less clear is the process that led to the speciation in the first place. We have developed an Excel spreadsheet that models the interaction of the two pollinators with monkeyflowers that have varying color and nectar production phenotypes. Users can specify: * the starting color and nectar genotypes of the population * the color and nectar preferences of the birds * the color and nectar preferences of the bees * the relative visitation rates of the birds and bees The spreadsheet then runs a standard Hardy-Weinberg simulation for 20 generations under the specified conditions and plots the results. This model follows the frequencies of the alleles in two "gene pools": the alleles carried by the bees and the alleles carried by the birds. At each generation, each pool is calculated, used to produce offspring, and the resulting offspring are then pooled.

  11. Molecular phylogenies in angiosperm evolution.

    PubMed

    Martin, W; Lydiate, D; Brinkmann, H; Forkmann, G; Saedler, H; Cerff, R

    1993-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced cDNAs for the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of glycolysis, gapC, from a bryophyte, a gymnosperm, and three angiosperms. Phylogenetic analyses are presented for these data in the context of other gapC sequences and in parallel with published nucleotide sequences for the chloroplast encoded gene for the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL). Relative-rate tests were performed for these genes in order to assess variation in substitution rate for coding regions, along individual plant lineages studied. The results of both gene analyses suggest that the deepest dichotomy within the angiosperms separates not magnoliids from remaining angiosperms, but monocotyledons from dicotyledons, in sharp contrast to prediction from the Euanthial theory for angiosperm evolution. Furthermore, these chloroplast and nuclear sequence data taken together suggest that the separation of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous lineages took place in late Carboniferous times [approximately 300 Myr before the present (Mybp)]. This date would exceed but be compatible with the late-Triassic (approximately 220 Mybp) occurrence of fossil reproductive structures of the primitive angiosperm Sanmiguelia lewisii. PMID:8095691

  12. Fisheries Enhancement on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation; Hangman Creek, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Ronald; Kinkead, Bruce; Stanger, Mark

    2003-07-01

    Historically, Hangman Creek produced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the Upper Columbia Basin Tribes. One weir, located at the mouth of Hangman Creek was reported to catch 1,000 salmon a day for a period of 30 days a year (Scholz et al. 1985). The current town of Tekoa, Washington, near the state border with Idaho, was the location of one of the principle anadromous fisheries for the Coeur d'Alene Tribe (Scholz et al. 1985). The construction, in 1909, of Little Falls Dam, which was not equipped with a fish passage system, blocked anadromous fish access to the Hangman Watershed. The fisheries were further removed with the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. As a result, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as Redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri), Westslope Cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii), Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and other terrestrial wildlife. Historically, Redband and Cutthroat trout comprised a great deal of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's diet (Power 1997).

  13. The genetic architecture of traits associated with the evolution of self-pollination in Mimulus.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Lila; Beardsley, Paul M; Stathos, Angela; Williams, Charles F; Hill, Jeffrey P

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping is a first step toward understanding the genetic basis of adaptive evolution and may also reveal reproductive incompatibilities unique to hybrids. In plants, the shift from outcrossing to self-pollination is common, providing the opportunity for comparisons of QTL architecture among parallel evolutionary transitions. We used QTL mapping in hybrids between the bee-pollinated monkeyflower Mimulus lewisii and the closely related selfer Mimulus parishii to determine the genetic basis of divergence in floral traits and flowering time associated with mating-system evolution, and to characterize hybrid anther sterility. We found a moderately polygenic and highly directional basis for floral size evolution, suggesting adaptation from standing variation or in pursuit of a moving optimum, whereas only a few major loci accounted for substantial flowering-time divergence. Cytonuclear incompatibilities caused hybrid anther sterility, confounding estimation of reproductive organ QTLs. The genetic architecture of floral traits associated with selfing in M. parishii was primarily polygenic, as in other QTL studies of this transition, but in contrast to the previously characterized oligogenic basis of a pollinator shift in close relatives. Hybrid anther sterility appeared parallel at the molecular level to previously characterized incompatibilities, but also raised new questions about cytonuclear co-evolution in plants. PMID:25306861

  14. Pollinator preference and the evolution of floral traits in monkeyflowers (Mimulus).

    PubMed

    Schemske, D W; Bradshaw, H D

    1999-10-12

    A paradigm of evolutionary biology is that adaptation and reproductive isolation are caused by a nearly infinite number of mutations of individually small effect. Here, we test this hypothesis by investigating the genetic basis of pollinator discrimination in two closely related species of monkeyflowers that differ in their major pollinators. This system provides a unique opportunity to investigate the genetic architecture of adaptation and speciation because floral traits that confer pollinator specificity also contribute to premating reproductive isolation. We asked: (i) What floral traits cause pollinator discrimination among plant species? and (ii) What is the genetic basis of these traits? We examined these questions by using data obtained from a large-scale field experiment where genetic markers were employed to determine the genetic basis of pollinator visitation. Observations of F2 hybrids produced by crossing bee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii with hummingbird-pollinated Mimulus cardinalis revealed that bees preferred large flowers low in anthocyanin and carotenoid pigments, whereas hummingbirds favored nectar-rich flowers high in anthocyanins. An allele that increases petal carotenoid concentration reduced bee visitation by 80%, whereas an allele that increases nectar production doubled hummingbird visitation. These results suggest that genes of large effect on pollinator preference have contributed to floral evolution and premating reproductive isolation in these monkeyflowers. This work contributes to growing evidence that adaptation and reproductive isolation may often involve major genes. PMID:10518550

  15. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard; Boepple, Willi

    2007-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera helix and Alchemilla vulgaris are fed for retained placenta. Conclusion Some of the plants showing high levels of validity were Hedera helix for retained placenta and Euphrasia officinalis for eye problems. Plants with high validity for wounds and injuries included Hypericum perforatum, Malva parviflora and Prunella vulgaris. Treatments with high validity against endoparasites included those with Juniperus communis and Pinus ponderosa. Anxiety and pain are well treated with Melissa officinalis and Nepeta caesarea. PMID:17324258

  16. Recovering effects of aqueous extracts of some selected medical plants on the teratogenic effects during the development of D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Handan; Kara, Ay?e Aydan; Algur, Omer Faruk; Dumlupinar, Rahmi; Aydogan, Mehmet Nuri

    2007-05-15

    In this study the effects of some selected medical plants (Pimpinella anisum L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Achillea millefolium L., Acorus calamus L., Hypericum perforatum L.) on the development of Drosophila melanogaster have been investigated. When the different concentration of plant extracts were applied to the cultures of Drosophila melanogaster, they did not caused an elongation of metamorphosis of F1 progeny. Furthermore, depending on an increase of plant extract on the application groups, the number of offsprings increased. But this increasing (for application groups no. I, II and IV) was not statistically significant (p > 0.05) according to control group. The highest increase in the total number of offspring of F1 progeny obtained from applications of Acorus calamus extracts and the 10 mL/100 mL medium concentration of the extract of Hypericum perforatum. PMID:19086522

  17. Anglo-Saxon pharmacopoeia revisited: a potential treasure in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Frances; Pendry, Barbara; Corcoran, Olivia; Sanchez-Medina, Alberto

    2011-12-01

    Three of the four major Anglo-Saxon collections reporting medicinal formulations in England from the 10th century, the Old English Herbarium, Bald's Leechbook and the Lacnunga, could contain leads and insights into new medicinal uses. Previous pharmacological studies of medicinal plants mentioned in Anglo-Saxon medical texts suggested that some were effective and led to the identification and isolation of natural compounds. For example, matricin from yarrow Achillea millefolium L., is a proprionic acid analogue that yields chamazulene carboxylic acid with cyclooxygenase-2 activity similar to that of ibuprofen. As we discuss here, multidisciplinary projects could further explore historical texts to discover additional plant metabolites with potential pharmacological applications. PMID:21782968

  18. Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389

  19. Investigation on bioavailability of some essential and toxic elements in medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Razi?, Slavica; Dogo, Svetlana; Slavkovi?, Latinka

    2008-07-01

    Trace and major elements were determined in medicinal herbs (Cynara scolymus, Matricaria chamomilla, Artemisia absinthium L., Achillea millefolium, and Inula britannica) as well as in rhizosphere soil samples. Based on the results obtained after microwave-acid-assisted digestion (nitric acid + hydrogen peroxide) and single-step extraction (ammonium acetate), the real and potential acidity and redox potential of the soils, uptake, mobility, and bioavailability of potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, nickel, chromium, lead, and cadmium are discussed. By calculating the bioconcentration factors and their deviation from the recommended values, elevated concentrations, were explained in terms of contamination and pollution. The concentrations measured in both plants and soil samples were below maximum allowable concentration ranges considered for the European Union. PMID:18408895

  20. Antioxidative/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Asteraceae plants.

    PubMed

    Mekini?, Ivana Generali?; Burcul, Franko; Blazevi?, Ivica; Skroza, Danijela; Kerum, Daniela; Katalini?, Visnja

    2013-04-01

    The extracts obtained by 80% EtOH from some Asteraceae plants (Calendula officinalis, Inula helenium, Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium and Achillea millefolium) were studied. Rosmarinic acid, one of the main compounds identified in all extracts, was determined quantitatively by using HPLC. In addition, spectrophotometric methods were evaluated as an alternative for rosmarinic acid content determination. Total phenolic content was also established for all extracts. A. millefolium extract was found to have the highest content of rosmarinic acid as well as total phenols. All extracts were tested for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. A. millefolium was shown to possess the best antioxidant activity (for all tested methods) as well as acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Highly positive linear relationships were obtained between antioxidant/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and the determined rosmarinic acid content indicating its significance for the observed activities. PMID:23738456

  1. Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Kültür, Sükran

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791

  2. California Wildflowers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The California Academy of Sciences's (CAS) Botany Department hosts this interesting and beautiful site on California's wildflowers. Spectacular color photographs of over 125 species of wildflowers serve as illustrations to this electronic field guide. Users may browse species by flower color (white through brown), common name (Alpine Lily to Yerba Mansa), latin name (Achillea millefolium to Zigadenus fremontii), or family name (Alismataceae through Violaceae). Additionally, floristic regions are provided in a color-coded map of California. For each species, the taxonomic identity (common, Latin, and family names), a description, photographs, and distribution information are provided. Educators and students of botany will find this site particularly useful; others will want to go see California in bloom.

  3. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by extracts and constituents from Angelica archangelica and Geranium sylvaticum.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, Steinthor; Gudbjarnason, Sigmundur

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition of several Icelandic medicinal herbs. Ethanolic extracts of Angelica archangelica seeds and the aerial parts of Geranium sylvaticum proved effective, with IC50 values of 2.20 mg/ml and 3.56 mg/ml, respectively. The activity of imperatorin and xanthotoxin from A. archangelica was measured. Xanthotoxin proved much more potent than imperatorin, with an IC50 value of 155 microg/ml (0.72 mM) but that for imperatorin was above 274 microg/ml (1.01 mM). However, furanocoumarins seem to have a minor part in the total activity of this extract. Synergistic interaction was observed between the extracts of A. archangelica and G. sylvaticum. Several medicinal herbs (Achillea millefolium, Filipendula ulmaria, Thymus praecox and Matricaria maritima) did not show AChE inhibitory activity. PMID:18069242

  4. Identification, Characterization, and Palynology of High-Valued Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389

  5. Aqueous extracts of some medicinal plants are as toxic as Imidacloprid to the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Ateyyat, Mazen A; Al-Mazra'awi, Mohammad; Abu-Rjai, Talal; Shatnawi, Mohamad A

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of nine plants, known to have medicinal activity, were tested for their toxicity against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleurodidae) compared to the toxicity of the insecticide, Imidacloprid. Extracts of Lepidiuim sativum L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) killed 71 % of early stage nymphs, which was not significantly different from mortality caused by Imidacloprid. Treatment of pupae with three plant extracts, L. sativum, Achillea biebersteinii L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), or Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb and Berthel (Fabales: Fabaceae) prevented adult development, and treatment with R. raetam extract killed adults, at levels that were not significantly different from Imidacloprid. None of the other plants showed significant toxicity. However extracts of four plants, Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), Galium longifolium (Sibth. and SM.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), R. raetam and Ballota undulata Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) had a repellent effect. PMID:19613450

  6. Aqueous Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants are as Toxic as Lmidacloprid to the Sweet Potato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Ateyyat, Mazen A.; Al-Mazra'awi, Mohammad; Abu-Rjai, Talal; Shatnawi, Mohamad A.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of nine plants, known to have medicinal activity, were tested for their toxicity against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleurodidae) compared to the toxicity of the insecticide, Imidacloprid. Extracts of Lepidiuim sativum L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) killed 71 % of early stage nymphs, which was not significantly different from mortality caused by Imidacloprid. Treatment of pupae with three plant extracts, L. sativum, Achillea biebersteinii L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), or Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb and Berthel (Fabales: Fabaceae) prevented adult development, and treatment with R. raetam extract killed adults, at levels that were not significantly different from Imidacloprid. None of the other plants showed significant toxicity. However extracts of four plants, Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), Galium longifolium (Sibth. and SM.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), R. raetam and Ballota undulata Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) had a repellent effect. PMID:19613450

  7. An annotated list of aquatic insects of Fort Sill, Oklahoma, excluding diptera with notes on several new state records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuellig, R.E.; Kondratieff, B.C.; Schmidt, J.P.; Durfee, R.S.; Ruiter, D.E.; Prather, I.E.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative collections of aquatic insects were made at Fort Sill, Lawton, Oklahoma, between 2002 and 2004. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Odonata, Coleoptera, aquatic Heteroptera, Neuroptera, and Megaloptera were targeted. Additional records are included from a survey that took place in 1999. More than 11,000 specimens from more than 290 collections were examined. Based on the current understanding of aquatic insect systematics, 276 taxa distributed over 8 orders, 46 families, and 141 genera were identified. Twenty-three of the 276 taxa, Plauditus texanus Wiersema, Tricorythodes allectus (Needham), Palmacorixa nana walleyi Hungerford, Climacia chapini Partin and Gurney, Oxyethira forcipata Mosely, Oxyethira janella Denning, Triaenodes helo Milne, Ylodes frontalis (Banks), Acilius fraternus Harris, Coptotomus loticus Hilsenhoff, Coptotomus venustus (Say), Desmopachria dispersa Crotch, Graphoderus liberus (Say), Hydrovatus pustulatus (Melsheimer), Hygrotus acaroides (LeConte), Liodessus flavicollis (LeConte), Uvarus texanus (Sharp), Gyrinus woodruffi Fall, Haliplus fasciatus Aube, Haliplus lewisii Crotch, Haliplus tortilipenis Brigham & Sanderson, Chaetarthria bicolor Sharp, Epimetopus costatus complex, and Hydrochus simplex LeConte are reported from Oklahoma for the first time. The three most diverse orders included Coleoptera (86 species), Odonata (67 species) and Trichoptera (59 species), and the remaining taxa were distributed among Heteroptera, (30 species), Ephemeroptera (21 species), Plecoptera (6 species), Megaloptera (4 species), and Neuroptera (3 species). Based on previous published records, many of the species collected during this study were expected to be found at Fort Sill; however, 276 taxa of aquatic insects identified from such a small geographic area is noteworthy, especially when considering local climatic conditions and the relatively small size of Fort Sill (38,300 ha). Despite agricultural practices in Oklahoma, the dust bowl days, and the development of water-based recreation at Fort Sill, a high percentage of the total known aquatic insect fauna of Oklahoma can be found in a small geographic area. ?? 2006 Kansas Entomological Society.

  8. Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. Hybridization and cytonuclear associations among native westslope cutthroat trout, introduced rainbow trout, and their hybrids within the Stehekin River drainage, North Cascades National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostberg, C.O.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Historic introductions of nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss into the native habitats of cutthroat trout O. clarkii have impacted cutthroat trout populations through introgressive hybridization, creating challenges and concerns for cutthroat trout conservation. We examined the effects of rainbow trout introductions on the native westslope cutthroat trout O. c. lewisii within the Stehekin River drainage, North Cascades National Park, Washington, by analyzing 1,763 salmonid DNA samples from 18 locations with nine diagnostic nuclear DNA markers and one diagnostic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker. Pure westslope cutthroat trout populations only occurred above upstream migration barriers in the Stehekin River and Park Creek. Two categories of rainbow trout admixture were observed: (1) less than 10% within the Stehekin River drainage above the Bridge Creek confluence and the middle and upper Bridge Creek drainage and (2) greater than 30% within the Stehekin River below the Bridge Creek confluence and in lower Bridge Creek. Hybrid indices and multilocus genotypes revealed an absence of rainbow trout and reduced hybrid diversity within the Stehekin River above the Bridge Creek confluence relative to hybrid diversity in the Stehekin River below the confluence and within lower Bridge Creek. Cytonuclear disequilibrium statistics revealed assortative mating between westslope cutthroat and rainbow trout but not among hybrids within the same locations. This suggests that a randomly mating hybrid swarm does not currently exist. However, continual migration of parental genotypes into the study location could also create significant cytonuclear disequilibria. The Stehekin River represents a novel and unique example of a dynamic hybridization zone where the invasion of rainbow trout alleles into the Stehekin River westslope cutthroat trout population above the Bridge Creek confluence appears to be impeded, suggesting that divergent ecological or evolutionary mechanisms promote the population structure within the Stehekin River drainage, depending upon location.

  10. Isolation and molecular cloning of venom peptides from Orancistrocerus drewseni (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae).

    PubMed

    Baek, Ji Hyeong; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2010-04-01

    Three venom peptides (OdVP1, OdVP2 and OdVP3) were isolated from the venom of the solitary wasp Orancistrocerus drewseni (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae). The mature venom peptide sequences were determined via ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS and by searching the O. drewseni venom gland/sac-specific EST library. All of the OdVPs shared the typical characteristics of amidated C-termini proteins and contained a high content of hydrophobic and positively charged amino acids, suggesting that they adopt an amphipathic alpha-helical secondary structure, as is the case for mastoparan from Vespula lewisii. The cDNA sequence of the OdVP1 precursor was obtained by 5'- and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and the OdVP2 and OdVP3 precursor transcripts were identified from the venom gland/sac-specific EST library. While the mature peptide sequences were distinct from one another, the overall transcript structure of the OdVPs showed a high homology to that of mastoparan-B from Vespa basalis in that they contained a signal sequence, a prosequence, a mature peptide and a C-terminal glycine. The OdVPs, particularly OdVP2 and OdVP2L (an analog of OdVP2), exhibited strong antifungal activities, but poor antibacterial activities. OdVP2L, which possessed additional Glu-Pro residues, did not have antimicrobial activity against bacteria or Gram-positive yeast but retained activity against Botrytis cinerea. PMID:19857508

  11. Cytotoxicity, mode of action and antibacterial activities of selected Saudi Arabian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The flora of Saudi Arabia is one of the richest biodiversity areas in the Arabian Peninsula and comprises very important genetic resources of crop and medicinal plants. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity and the antibacterial activities of the organic extracts from twenty six Saudi Arabian medicinal plants. The study was also extended to the investigation of the effects of the extracts from the four best plants, Ononis serrata (SY160), Haplophyllum tuberculatum (SY177), Pulicaria crispa (SY179), and Achillea beiberstenii (SY-200) on cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, caspases activities and mitochondrial function in leukemia CCRF-CEM cell line. Methods A resazurin assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of the extracts on a panel of human cancer cell lines whilst the microbroth dilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the samples against twelve bacterial strains belonging to four species, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results The best activity on leukemia cell lines were recorded with SY177 (IC50 of 9.94 ?g/mL) and SY179 (IC50 of 1.81 ?g/mL) against CCRF-CEM as well as Ach-b (IC50 of 9.30 ?g/mL) and SY160 (IC50 of 5.06 ?g/mL) against HL60 cells. The extracts from SY177 and SY179 were also toxic against the seven solid cancer cell lines studied with the highest IC50 values of 31.64 ?g/mL (SY177 against Hep-G2 cells). SY177 and Ach-b induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and S phases whilst SY160 and SY179 induced arrest in G0/G1 phase. All the four plant extracts induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells with the alteration of the mitochondrial membrane potential. In the antibacterial assays, only Ach-b displayed moderate antibacterial activities against E. coli and E. aerogenes ATCC strains (MIC of 256 ?g/mL), AG100ATeT and K. pneumoniae ATCC strains (MIC of 128 ?g/mL). Conclusions Finally, the results of the present investigation provided supportive data for the possible use of some Saudi Arabian plants investigated herein, and mostly Haplophyllum tuberculatum, Pulicaria crispa, Ononis serrata and Achillea beiberstenii in the control of cancer diseases. PMID:24330397

  12. Polyploidy and ecological adaptation in wild yarrow

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome evolution in flowering plants is often punctuated by polyploidy, genome duplication events that fundamentally alter DNA content, chromosome number, and gene dosage. Polyploidy confers postzygotic reproductive isolation and is thought to drive ecological divergence and range expansion. The adaptive value of polyploidy, however, remains uncertain; ecologists have traditionally relied on observational methods that cannot distinguish effects of polyploidy per se from genic differences that accumulate after genome duplication. Here I use an experimental approach to test how polyploidy mediates ecological divergence in Achillea borealis (Asteraceae), a widespread tetraploid plant with localized hexaploid populations. In coastal California, tetraploids and hexaploids occupy mesic grassland and xeric dune habitats, respectively. Using field transplant experiments with wild-collected plants, I show that hexaploids have a fivefold fitness advantage over tetraploids in dune habitats. Parallel experiments with neohexaploids—first-generation mutants screened from a tetraploid genetic background—reveal that a 70% fitness advantage is achieved via genome duplication per se. These results suggest that genome duplication transforms features of A. borealis in a manner that confers adaptation to a novel environment. PMID:21402904

  13. Influence of soil composition on the major, minor and trace metal content of Velebit biomedical plants.

    PubMed

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranovi? Cindri?, Iva; Požgaj, Martina; Pirkl, Raimund; Šili?, Tea; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2015-03-15

    The use of medical herbs for the treatment of many human diseases is increasing nowadays due to their mild features and low side effects. Not only for their healing properties, but also for their nutritive value supplementation of diet with various herbs is recommended. Thus also their analysis is of rising importance. While total elemental compositions are published for many common herbs, the origin of toxic as well as beneficial elements is not yet well investigated. Thus different indigenous medicinal plants, namely Croatian spruce (Picea abies), savory (Satureja montana L.), mountain yarrow (Achillea clavennae), showy calamint (Calamintha grandiflora), micromeria (Micromeria croatica), yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea) and fir (Abies alba) together with soil samples were collected in the National Park Northern Velebit. The macro- and trace elements content, after microwave digestion, was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The study focuses on the one hand on essential elements and on the other hand on non-essential elements which are considered as toxic for humans, covering in total Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn. PMID:25454388

  14. Compositae dermatitis in childhood.

    PubMed

    Guin, J D; Skidmore, G

    1987-04-01

    Compositae dermatitis occurred in a 9-year-old boy with a strong personal and family history of atopy. Positive patch test reactions were 2+ for dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), false ragweed (Ambrosia acanthicarpa), giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida), short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisifolia), sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), wild feverfew (Parthenium hysterophorus), yarrow (Achillea millifolium), and tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and 1+ for Dahlia species and English ivy (Hedera helix). Patch tests were negative for another 30 plants, including cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium), dog fennel (Anthemis cotula, fleabane (Erigeron strigosus), sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale), and feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium). The eruption resembled atopic dermatitis morphologically but was prominent on the palms and face and dramatically spared the area of the boy's feet covered by his shoes. The condition has always been seasonal, worsening in summer, especially July, and it clears on avoidance of contact. This case is believed to represent a contact dermatitis to oleoresins of Compositae plants; inhalants as a cause of systemic aggravation are not likely to be important in this patient. PMID:3827282

  15. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on plant chemistry: nutritional consequences for a specialist and generalist lagomorph.

    PubMed

    Thines, Nicole J; Shipley, Lisa A; Bassman, John H; Fellman, John K; Mattison, D Scott; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei

    2007-05-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation has been increasing in temperate latitudes in recent decades and is expected to continue rising for some time. Enhanced UV-B radiation can change plant chemistry, yet the effects of these changes on mammalian herbivores are unknown. To examine the influence of enhanced UV-B radiation on nutrition of a specialist and generalist hindgut fermenter, we measured nutritional and chemical constituents of three common North American range plants, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), yarrow (Achillea millefolium), and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoregneria spicata), and how these changes influenced in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vivo digestibility by pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) and eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus). Forages were irradiated for 3 mo with ambient (1x) or supplemental (1.6x) UV-B radiation representing a 15% ozone depletion for Pullman, WA, USA. Enhanced UV-B radiation had minimal effects on the nutritional content and the tannin-binding capacity of forages. Similarly, the terpene concentration in sagebrush and yarrow was not affected by higher UV-B irradiances. Flavonoid compounds increased in sagebrush but decreased in yarrow. Rabbit preference and intake was not affected by treatment levels for any forage species and no differences were found between treatments for dry matter, fiber, protein digestibility, and apparent digestible energy. PMID:17406969

  16. Modulation of Cox-1, 5-, 12- and 15-Lox by Popular Herbal Remedies Used in Southern Italy Against Psoriasis and Other Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Ammar; Martini, Francesca; Schinella, Guillermo R; Rios, Jose L; Prieto, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Acanthus mollis (Acanthaceae), Achillea ligustica, Artemisia arborescens and Inula viscosa (Asteraceae) are used in Southern Italy against psoriasis and other skin diseases that occur with an imbalanced production of eicosanoids. We here assessed their in vitro effects upon 5-, 12-, 15-LOX and COX-1 enzymes as well as NF?B activation in intact cells as their possible therapeutic targets. All methanol crude extracts inhibited both 5-LOX and COX-1 activities under 200?µg/mL, without significant effects on the 12-LOX pathway or any relevant in vitro free radical scavenging activity. NF?B activation was prevented by all extracts but A. mollis. Interestingly, A. ligustica, A. arborescens and A. mollis increased the biosynthesis of 15(S)-HETE, an anti-inflammatory eicosanoid. A. ligustica (IC50?=?49.5?µg/mL) was superior to Silybum marianum (IC50?=?147.8?µg/mL), which we used as antipsoriatic herbal medicine of reference. Its n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions had also inhibitory effects on the LTB4 biosynthesis (IC50s?=?9.6, 20.3 and 68?µg/mL, respectively) evidencing that the apolar extracts of A. ligustica are promising active herbal ingredients for future phytotherapeutical products targeting psoriasis. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25278440

  17. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses. PMID:17628343

  18. Error Exponent for Discrete Memoryless Multiple-Access Channels

    E-print Network

    Ali Nazari; Morteza Nick; Sepehr Entezari

    2011-01-01

    is my pleasure to thank the many people who made this thesis possible. I would like to sincerely thank my research advisors Professor Sandeep Pradhan and Professor Achilleas Anastasopoulos for their continuous support and encouragement, for the opportunity they gave me to conduct independent research, and for their exemplary respect. Even when I became frustrated with research, meetings with them always left me with new ideas and renewed optimism. Their high standards in research, creativity and insistence on high-level understanding of a problem are qualities I hope to emulate in my own career. I would also like to thank my dissertation committee members, Professor David Neuhoff, Professor Erhan Bayraktar, and Professor Jussi Keppo for accepting to be on my dissertation committee. I am grateful to Professor David Neuhoff for his interest in my research and for sharing his deep knowledge. I am indebted to Professor Bayraktar and Professor Keppo for introducing Mathematical Finance to me, which is related to my future career. I feel grateful to Professor Jussi Keppo for accepting to be on my dissertation committee despite the fact that he was going to be out of

  19. Root Foraging Influences Plant Growth Responses to Earthworm Foraging

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Erin K.; Cahill, James F.; Bayne, Erin M.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503

  20. Rapid plant identification using species- and group-specific primers targeting chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Wallinger, Corinna; Juen, Anita; Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Thalinger, Bettina; Traugott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae), the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory. PMID:22253728

  1. Transgenerational soil-mediated differences between plants experienced or naïve to a grass invasion.

    PubMed

    Deck, Anna; Muir, Adrianna; Strauss, Sharon

    2013-10-01

    Invasive species may undergo rapid change as they invade. Native species persisting in invaded areas may also experience rapid change over this short timescale relative to native populations in uninvaded areas. We investigated the response of the native Achillea millefolium to soil from Holcus lanatus-invaded and uninvaded areas, and we sought to determine whether differential responses between A. millefolium from invaded (invader experienced) and uninvaded (invader naïve) areas were mediated by soil community changes. Plants grown from seed from experienced and naïve areas responded differently to invaded and uninvaded soil with respect to germination time, biomass, and height. Overall, experienced plants grew faster and taller than their naïve counterparts. Naïve native plants showed negative feedbacks with their home soil and positive feedbacks with invaded soil; experienced plants were less responsive to soil differences. Our results suggest that native plants naïve to invasion may be more sensitive to soil communities than experienced plants, consistent with recent studies. While differences between naïve and experienced plants are transgenerational, our design cannot differentiate between differences that are genetically based, plastic, or both. Regardless, our results highlight the importance of seed source and population history in restoration, emphasizing the restoration potential of experienced seed sources. PMID:24198931

  2. Role of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its secondary hosts in plum pox virus propagation.

    PubMed

    Manachini, B; Casati, P; Cinanni, L; Bianco, P

    2007-08-01

    Plum pox virus (family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus, PPV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of plants in the genus Prunus, particularly Prunus persica L. The role of the Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as a vector of PPV-M, and its role in spreading PPV-M, was investigated. PPV-M-infected peach trees were used as inoculum sources, and transmission to 15 herbaceous species commonly present in and around peach orchards was evaluated. The presence of PPV-M in secondary hosts after aphid transmission was verified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests. The results indicate that Saponaria ocymoides L., Pisum sativum L., Trifolium repens L., Trifolium pratense L., Lepidium sativum L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Centaurea cyanus L., Bellis perennis L., Papaver rhoeas L., and Zinnia elegans L. became infected. Although Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley, Taraxacum officinale L., Achillea millefolium L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., and Linum rubrum L. did not become infected, they are hosts of M. persicae. Among the 10 positive species that were infected, the species most common in peach orchards, T. pratense, T. repens, B. perennis, and M. chamomilla, were used as source plants for the transmission studies to the peach tree. Our study reveals the ability of M. persicae to transmit PPV-M from herbaceous hosts to peach trees, describes PPV-M symptoms in herbaceous species, and discusses the role of M. persicae and its hosts as a source of PPV-M in peach orchards. PMID:17849850

  3. [Microbial carbon utilization in rhizosphere soils of secondary plants in earthquake fault zone of Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Lin, Qing; Zeng, Jun; Ma, Jing; Wang, Zhong; Zhang, Tao; Li, Shan; Lou, Kai

    2011-09-01

    By using BIOLOG technique, this paper studied the microbial carbon utilization in the rhizosphere soils of six kinds of secondary plants in Fuyun earthquake fault zone of Xinjiang. Most of the rhizosphere soils had significantly higher nutrient contents, and all of them had a higher AWCD, as compared with the control. There was a distinct difference in the AWCD among the six rhizosphere soils. Secondary plants less affected the richness but changed the dominance and evenness of the microbial carbon sources in the rhizosphere soils. The carbon sources utilization by the microorganisms in the rhizosphere soils differed with the kinds of secondary plants, and was mainly manifested in the utilization of carbohydrates, amino acids, and carboxylic acids. The appearance of secondary plants in the earthquake fault zone made the types of carbon sources utilized by the microorganisms changed from phenols to carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. In addition, the available K content in rhizosphere soils had a negative correlation with the microbial utilization of polymers (r = -0.84) and amines (r = -0.83). It was suggested that the secondary plants in the earthquake fault zone of Xinjiang could significantly enhance the capability of soil microorganisms in carbon sources utilization, and change the types of carbon sources utilized by the microorganisms. Rosa spinosissima and Achillea millefolium played the best roles in enhancing the carbon source utilization capability of soil microorganisms and in improving soil nutrient status. PMID:22126039

  4. Determination of the hydroxycinnamate profile of 12 members of the Asteraceae family.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Rakesh; Kiprotich, Joseph; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2011-06-01

    The hydroxycinnamates of the leaves of 12 plants of the Astreraceae family, Achillea millefolium, Arnica montana, Artemesia dracunculus, Cichorium intybus, Cnicus benedictus, Cynara scolymus, Echinops humilis, Inula helenium, Lactuca sativa, Petasites hybridus, Solidago virgaurea, and Tanacetum parthenium were investigated qualitatively by LC-MS(n). Thirty-nine chlorogenic acids were detected and all characterized to regioisomeric level on the basis of their fragmentation pattern in the tandem MS spectra, most of them for the first time from these sources with two of them previously not reported in nature. Both chlorogenic acids based on trans and cis-cinnamic acid substituents were identified. Assignment to the level of individual regioisomers was possible for seven caffeoylquinic acids (1-7), 11 dicaffeoylquinic acids (17-27), six feruloylquinic acids (9-14), two p-coumaroylquinic acids (15-16), two caffeoyl-feruloylquinic acids (28 and 29), four caffeoyl-p-coumaroylquinic acids (30-33), three dicaffeoyl-succinoylquinic acids (34-36), two dicaffeoyl-methoxyoxaloylquinic acids (37 and 38), and one tricaffeoylquinic acid (39). Furthermore, one caffeoylshikimic acid (40), one caffeoyltartaric acid (41), three dicaffeoyltartaric acids (42-44), and three caffeoyl-feruloyltartaric acids (45-47) were detected and shown to possess characteristic tandem MS spectra and were tentatively assigned on the basis of their retention time and previously developed hierarchical keys. PMID:21453943

  5. Essential oil composition and larvicidal activity of six Mediterranean aromatic plants against the mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Conti, Barbara; Canale, Angelo; Bertoli, Alessandra; Gozzini, Francesca; Pistelli, Luisa

    2010-11-01

    Laboratory bioassays on insecticidal activity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from six Mediterranean plants (Achillea millefolium, Lavandula angustifolia, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare, Myrtus communis, and Rosmarinus officinalis) were carried out against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito Aedes albopictus. The chemical composition of the six EOs was also investigated. Results from applications showed that all tested oils had insecticidal activity, with differences in mortality rates as a function of both oil and dosage. At the highest dosage (300 ppm), EOs from H. italicum, A. millefolium, and F. vulgare caused higher mortality than the other three oils, with mortality rates ranging from 98.3% to 100%. M. communis EO induced only 36.7% larval mortality at the highest dosage (300 ppm), a similar value to those recorded at the same dosage by using R. officinalis and L. angustifolia (51.7% and 55%, respectively). Identified compounds ranged from 91% to 99%. The analyzed EOs had higher content of monoterpenoids (80-99%) than sesquiterpenes (1-15%), and they can be categorized into three groups on the basis of their composition. Few EOs showed the hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes, and these volatile compounds were generally predominant in comparison with the oxygenated forms, which were detected in lower quantities only in H. italicum (1.80%) and in M. communis (1%). PMID:20697909

  6. Arsenic, cadmium and lead in medicinal herbs and their fractionation.

    PubMed

    Arpadjan, S; Celik, G; Ta?kesen, S; Güçer, S

    2008-08-01

    Arsenic, cadmium and lead were determined for quality control monitoring purposes of Bulgarian herbs and their infusions by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Twelve samples of yarrow (Achillea millefolium), 18 of chamomile (Flores Chamomillae), 8 of bearberry leaves (Folia uvae ursi), 24 of peppermint (Mentha piperitae folium), 10 of hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa), 14 of oregano (Origanum vulgare) and 12 of thyme (Thymus serpyllum) were analyzed. The studied toxic elements were present in the medicinal plants (12-225 microg/kg As, 15-268 microg/kg Cd, 0.2-8.6 mg/kg Pb). Arsenic was found in all herbal infusions at levels up to 0.4 microg/l. Cadmium was present in infusions of chamomile, hibiscus, peppermint and thyme at levels up to 0.7 microg/l. Lead was detected only in hibiscus infusions (2-3 microg/l). It was established that the major part of arsenic and lead in herbal infusions existed in biomacromolecular fraction. Cadmium appears to be present mainly in cationic form at pH 1 (stomach acidity), but at pH 7.6 (intestine acidity) there is a non-cationic fraction as well. PMID:18614270

  7. Higher-order interaction between molluscs and sheep affecting seedling numbers in grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clear Hill, B. H.; Silvertown, J.

    Vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores are both important in mesotrophic grasslands and these two different classes of herbivore potentially interact in their effect upon plant populations. We used two field experiments to test for higher order interactions (HOIs) among sheep, slugs and seedlings, using the mechanistic definition that an HOI occurs when the presence of one species modifies the interaction between two others. In each experiment slug addition and slug-removal treatments were nested inside treatments that altered sheep grazing intensity and timing, and the emergence, of seedlings from experimentally sown seeds was monitored. In Experiment 1, seedling numbers of Cerastium fontanum were increased by intense summer grazing by sheep in both slug-addition and slugremoval treatment, but winter grazing by sheep only increased seedling emergence if slugs were removed. In Experiment 2, winter grazing by sheep significantly reduced total seedling emergence of four species sown ( Lotus corniculatus, Plantago lanceolata, Leucanthemum vulgare, Achillea millefolium), but the effect was only seen where slugs were removed. Though the experimental system is a relatively simple one with only four components (sheep, slugs, seedlings and the matrix vegetation), higher order interactions, a combination of direct and indirect effects and possible switching behaviour by slugs are all suggested by our results.

  8. Quantification of Sesquiterpene Lactones in Asteraceae Plant Extracts: Evaluation of their Allergenic Potential.

    PubMed

    Salapovic, Helena; Geier, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly those with an activated exocyclic methylene group, are important allergens in Asteraceae (Compositae) plants. As a screening tool, the Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae plant extracts with allergenic potential (feverfew, tansy, arnica, yarrow, and German chamomile) is part of several national patch test baseline series. However, the SL content of the Compositae mix may vary due to the source material. Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method for the quantitative measurement of SLs with the ?-methylene-?-butyrolactone moiety was developed, giving the percentage of allergenic compounds in plant extracts. The method has been validated and five Asteraceae extracts, namely feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert) that have been used in routine patch test screening were evaluated. A good correlation could be found between the results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method and the corresponding clinical results. Thus, the introduced method is a valuable tool for evaluating the allergenic potential and for the simple and efficient quality control of plant extracts with allergenic potential. PMID:24106675

  9. Evaluation of the antioxidants activities of four Slovene medicinal plant species by traditional and novel biosensory assays.

    PubMed

    Kintzios, Spiridon; Papageorgiou, Katerina; Yiakoumettis, Iakovos; Baricevic, Dea; Kusar, Anita

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the antioxidant activity of methanolic and water extracts of Slovene accessions of four medicinal plant species (Salvia officinalis, Achillea millefolium, Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare and Gentiana lutea). Their free radical-scavenging activity against the DPPH. free radical was studied with a spectrophotometric assay, while their biological activity with the help of a laboratory-made biosensor based on immobilized fibroblast cells (assay duration: 3 min). The observed antioxidant activity of the extracts from the four investigated medicinal plant species was dependent on both the solvent used for extraction and the assay method (conventional or biosensor-based). Independently from the assay method and the solvent used for extraction, the lowest scavenging activity was observed in root extracts of G. lutea. Treatment of the immobilized cells with the plant extracts resulted in an increase of the cell membrane potential (membrane hyperpolarization), possibly due to the reduction of membrane damage due to oxidation. The novel cell biosensor could be utilized as a rapid, high throughput tool for screening the antioxidant properties of plant-derived compounds. PMID:20541883

  10. A Novel Reduction Strategy of Clarithromycin Resistance in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Tadjrobehkar, Omid; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic resistance is a major therapeutic problem in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori clarithromycin resistant mutants have been evolved during antibiotic therapy, this is mainly due to 23s rRNA point mutations. Objectives: In the present study, we investigated anti-mutational features of four traditionally Iranian medicinal plants on three local isolated H. pylori strains. Materials and Methods: In this study clarithromycin resistance was used as a mutation indicator. Frequencies of such mutations in the presence and absence of plant extracts were evaluated. Mutation incidence was evaluated by Luria Delbruck fluctuation assay. Results: The mean mutation frequency in H. pylori isolates was 27 × 10-9 which decreased at the presence of Mirtus communis, Teucrium polium, Achillea millefolium and Thymus vulgaris of plant extract, this amount was 97.4%, 95.2%, 63.7% and 19.6% respectively. Moreover, A-to-G transition at 2143 position (A2143G) was detected by PCR-sequencing as major point mutation causing clarithromycin resistant mutants. Conclusions: The efficacy of these plant extracts in prohibiting resistance showed considerable results. This finding should be considered to use plant extracts with antibiotics to develop more effective eradication regimens. PMID:25741431

  11. Phytochemical attributes of four conventionally extracted medicinal plants and cytotoxic evaluation of their extracts on human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp2) cells.

    PubMed

    Belš?ak-Cvitanovi?, Ana; Durgo, Ksenija; Buši?, Arijana; Franeki?, Jasna; Komes, Draženka

    2014-02-01

    The bioactive composition and cytotoxic and antioxidative/prooxidative effects of four medicinal plants: yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L.), ground ivy (Glechoma hederacea L.), and olive (Olea europea L.) on human laryngeal carcinoma cell line (HEp2) were investigated. Water extracts of these plants obtained by infusion, maceration, and decoction were characterized for their polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. Based on the extraction efficiency of polyphenols, the final extracts were obtained whose polyphenolic profile, polysaccharides, mineral content, and cytoprotective activities were determined. The overall highest content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity was determined in hawthorn, followed by yarrow and ground ivy, and the lowest in olive leaves extract. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenolic acids, as the most abundant bioactive compounds, followed by flavonoids, flavons, and flavonols. All examined medicinal plants reduced the cell viability and reactive oxygen species formation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Ground ivy and yarrow containing a high content of phenolic acids and polysaccharides were more efficient to decrease the cell survival when compared to olive leaf and hawthorn. Experiments confirmed the importance of polyphenolic composition rather than content of investigated plants and revealed a relationship between the polyphenolic and polysaccharide contents and antioxidant/prooxidant characters of medicinal plants. PMID:24325458

  12. Quantification of Sesquiterpene Lactones in Asteraceae Plant Extracts: Evaluation of their Allergenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Salapovic, Helena; Geier, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly those with an activated exocyclic methylene group, are important allergens in Asteraceae (Compositae) plants. As a screening tool, the Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae plant extracts with allergenic potential (feverfew, tansy, arnica, yarrow, and German chamomile) is part of several national patch test baseline series. However, the SL content of the Compositae mix may vary due to the source material. Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method for the quantitative measurement of SLs with the ?-methylene-?-butyrolactone moiety was developed, giving the percentage of allergenic compounds in plant extracts. The method has been validated and five Asteraceae extracts, namely feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert) that have been used in routine patch test screening were evaluated. A good correlation could be found between the results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method and the corresponding clinical results. Thus, the introduced method is a valuable tool for evaluating the allergenic potential and for the simple and efficient quality control of plant extracts with allergenic potential. PMID:24106675

  13. Anyone for an aperitif? Yes, but only a Braulio DOC with its certified proteome.

    PubMed

    Fasoli, Elisa; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Citterio, Attilio; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2012-06-18

    The trace proteome of a Braulio aperitif (a 21% alcohol beverage, named after a mountain in the Val di Stelvio, Italy) has been investigated via capture with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL, ProteoMiner). This aperitif is made with an infusion of 13 mountain herbs and berries, among which four are officially indicated in the label: Achillea moschata, juniper (Juniperus communis subsp. alpina) berries, absinthe (Artemisia absinthium) and gentian (Gentiana alpina) roots. Via capture with CPLLs at pH 7.0 and 2.2 we were able to identify 29 unique gene products, among which the PR5 (parasite resistance) allergen Jun r 3.2, a 25kDa species from Juniperus rigida. Due to the paucity of data on these alpine herbs, it was difficult to attribute these proteins to the specific plant extracts presumably present in this beverage; however most of the species identified indeed belong to alpine herbs and plants, living in a habitat between 1000 and 2000m of elevation. Most of them are enzymes, spanning a Mr range from 10 to 65kDa. It is hoped that such a proteomic signature should help tracking counterfeited products sold on the market. PMID:22554908

  14. Phytoxicity of smelter-impacted soils in southwest Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Redente, Edward F; Zadeh, Holley; Paschke, Mark W

    2002-02-01

    A century of copper smelting in southwest Montana, USA, destroyed vegetation for many kilometers surrounding the Washoe Smelter. Once the vegetation was lost, exposed soils were subject to wind and water erosion, which removed topsoil and left soil surfaces paved with gravel. A greenhouse study was conducted using soils from smelter-impacted and non-smelter-impacted sites near Anaconda, Montana. Bluebunch wheatgrass, Agropyron spicatum (Pursh) Scribn., and western yarrow, Achillea lanulosa Nutt., were grown for 50 d in unamended, fertilized, or limed treatments to determine if soil fertility, pH, or trace elements were limiting plant growth on soil from the impacted site. The addition of fertilizer significantly increased plant biomass of both species in soils from impacted and nonimpacted sites when compared to unamended and limed soil. The addition of lime had no effect on plant growth. When plant growth in fertilized smelter-impacted soil was compared to unamended nonimpacted soil, significantly more plant biomass was observed in the fertilized smelter-impacted soil. Shoot and root concentrations of trace elements were higher in plants grown in impacted soil compared to nonimpacted soil. The only element that was found to occur in concentrations reported to be phytotoxic was arsenic (As). However, toxicity thresholds for As, reported in the literature, were generated in agricultural species and do not likely have application to the native perennials used in this study. PMID:11833794

  15. Growth and Landscape Performance of Ten Herbaceous Species in Response to Saline Water Irrigation.

    PubMed

    Niu, Genhua; Rodriguez, Denise S; Aguiniga, Lizzie

    2007-01-01

    Ten herbaceous perennials and groundcovers were grown in raised beds from June to September in a dry, hot desert environment and micro-spray drip irrigated with synthesized saline solutions at electrical conductivity of 0.8 (tap water), 3.2, or 5.4 dS/m. Plant height and two perpendicular widths were recorded monthly to calculate the growth index. Landscape performance was assessed monthly by visual scores. Salinity did not affect the visual scores in Achillea millefolium L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Lantana x hybrida 'New Gold', Lonicera japonica Thunb. 'Halliana', and Rosmarinus officinalis L. 'Huntington Carpet' throughout the experiment. Glandularia canadensis (L.) Nutt. 'Homestead Purple' performed better than Glandularia x hybrida (Grönland & Rümpler) G. L. Nesom & Pruski. Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Brig. had lower visual scores at 5.4 dS/m compared to the control and 3.2 dS/m. Most plants of Rudbeckia hirta L. did not survive when irrigated at 3.2 dS/m or 5.4 dS/m. Shoot biomass of A. millefolium, G. aristata, L. x hybrida, L. japonica, R. officinalis, and V. macdougalii was not influenced by the salinity of irrigation water. Therefore, A. millefolium, G. aristata, L. x hybrida, L. japonica, and R. officinalis can be irrigated with non-potable water at salinity up to 5.4 dS/m with little reduction in growth and aesthetic appearance. PMID:20585473

  16. Medicinal plant treatments for fleas and ear problems of cats and dogs in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya

    2008-09-01

    Research conducted in 2003/2004 documented and validated (in a non-experimental way) ethnoveterinary medicines used by small-scale, organic livestock farmers in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Interviews were conducted with 60 participants who were organic farmers or holistic medicinal/veterinary practitioners. A workshop was held with selected participants to discuss the plant-based treatments. This paper reports on the medicinal plants used for fleas in cats and dogs. Fleas and flies are treated with Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae), Citrus x limon (L.), Juniperus communis L. var. depressa Pursh. (Cupressaceae), Lavandula officinalis L. (Labiatae), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), and Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don (Cupressaceae). All of the plants used have insecticidal activity. Ear problems are treated with Achillea millefolium L., Calendula officinalis L., and Helichrysum angustifolium (Roth.) G. Don. (Asteraceae), Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Berberis aquifolium Pursh./Mahonia aquifolium (Berberidaceae), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), Lobelia inflata L. (Campanulaceae), Matricaria recutita L., Melaleuca alternifolia L. (Myrtaceae), Origanum vulgare L. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry (Myrtaceae), Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae), and Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae). PMID:18563443

  17. Investigation of contribution of individual constituents to antioxidant activity in herbal drugs using postcolumn HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Raudonis, Raimondas; Jakstas, Valdas; Burdulis, Deividas; Benetis, Raimondas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2009-01-01

    The most important attention is paid to the search of natural antioxidants and their evaluation in medicinal and food raw materials of plant origin. A number of plants, their extracts, food products, and medicinal preparations appear to be the objects of scientific research. Effectiveness and informative character of research, undoubtedly, depend on relevance, sensitivity, and efficiency of the methods chosen. The aim of this work was to develop and validate the postcolumn high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-DPPH method as well as its application in the evaluation of antioxidant activity of known and unknown compounds scavenging free radicals and existing in medicinal plant raw materials. HPLC-separated compounds were identified at the wavelength of 275 nm, and then the mobile phase with analytes flowed through a mixing tee to the reaction coil, where DPPH reagent solution was supplied. The solution flow rate was 0.4 mL/min. The reaction coil was connected with UV/VIS type detector, which measured absorption of flowing solution at the wavelength of 520 nm. It was determined that vitexin rhamnoside, the dominant compound in the leaves of Crataegus monogyna, was not a significant radical scavenger. The most active antioxidant in the leaves and flowers of Crataegus monogyna was chlorogenic acid. The most active antioxidant in Origanum vulgare raw material was rosmarinic acid. Identified analytes in the extracts of Achillea millefolium that possessed radical-scavenging properties were chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, rutin, and luteolin. PMID:19535885

  18. Rapid Plant Identification Using Species- and Group-Specific Primers Targeting Chloroplast DNA

    PubMed Central

    Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Thalinger, Bettina; Traugott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae), the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory. PMID:22253728

  19. Bioactivity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against the Cotton Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  20. Aerobic methane emission from plants in the Inner Mongolia steppe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Ping; Han, Xing-Guo; Wang, G Geoff; Song, Yang; Gulledge, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, methane (CH4) emission from terrestrial plants is thought to originate from belowground microbial metabolism under anaerobic conditions, with subsequent transport to the atmosphere through stems. However, a recent study reported aerobic CH4 emission from plants by an unrecognized process, a result that has since been questioned. We investigated CH4 emissions under aerobic conditions from aboveground tissues of 44 species indigenous to the temperate Inner Mongolia steppe. Ten herbaceous hydrophytes (wetland-adapted plants) were examined, two of which--Glyceria spiculosa and Scirpus yagara--emitted CH4 from stems but not from detached leaves. Of 34 xerophytes (arid-adapted plants) examined, 7 out of 9 shrub species emitted CH4 from detached leaves but not stems, whereas none of 25 herbaceous xerophytes emitted CH4. The herbaceous hydrophyte, S. yagara, emitted highly 13C-depleted CH4, suggesting a microbial origin. Achillea frigida exhibited the highest CH4 emission rates among the shrubs and continuously emitted relatively 13C-enriched CH4 from detached leaves, indicating that CH4 was derived directly from plant tissues under aerobic conditions. Because woody species are relatively rare in the Inner Mongolia steppe, aerobic, plant-derived CH4 emission is probably negligible in this region. Our results may imply a larger role for aerobic CH4 production in upland ecosystems dominated by woody species or in ecosystems where woody encroachment is occurring as a result of global change. PMID:18350876

  1. Prehibernation diet and reproductive condition of female Anopheles messeae in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jaenson, T G; Ameneshewa, B

    1991-04-01

    1. Blood and sugar feeding in the mosquito Anopheles messeae Falleroni were investigated near Uppsala, Sweden, from 1981 to 1985, with emphasis on prehibernation diet. 2. Fructose, indicating plant feeding, was present in females of all ovarian stages, from April to October, and contributed to fat body development in non-gonoactive females before hibernation. 3. An.messeae males and females (inseminated and uninseminated) were observed feeding on floral nectaries of the plants Achillea millefolium L. and Tanacetum vulgare L. at night during August. 4. Gonotrophic dissociation started in some females in July, and by the end of September all females were inseminated and nulliparous but non-gonoactive. 5. Animal sheds were used as diurnal resting sites of non-gonoactive, prehibernating female An.messeae. Among recently fed mosquitoes in that group, 85% were gut positive for fructose and 15% for blood. Most of them showed negative host tropism, indicating that bloodfeeding is not a prerequisite for hibernation. 6. Survival rates of bloodfed (48 +/- 31 days) and non-bloodfed (42 +/- 21 days) females, collected from a cattle shed in September and kept caged without food or water in a store house, were not significantly different. This indicates that bloodfeeding may occur facultatively before hibernation but does not affect longevity and survival. 7. If overwintering is possible for bloodfed An.messeae females, they would be more likely vectors of pathogens such as Batai virus. PMID:1768915

  2. Root foraging influences plant growth responses to earthworm foraging.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Erin K; Cahill, James F; Bayne, Erin M

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503

  3. In vitro anti-hepatoma activity of fifteen natural medicines from Canada.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Liu, Li-Teh; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2002-08-01

    Fifteen crude drugs, Stellaria media Cyrill. (Caryophyllaceae), Calendula officinalis L. (Compositae), Achillea millefolium L. (Compositae), Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae), Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae), Satureja hortensis L. (Labiatae), Coptis groenlandica Salisb. (Ranunculaceae), Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (Leguminosae), Origanum majorana L. (Labiatae), Centella asiatica L. (Umbelliferae), Caulophyllum thalictroides Mich. (Berberidaceae), Picea rubens Sargent. (Pinaceae), Rhamnus purshiana D.C. (Rhamnaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), which have been used as folk medicine in Canada, were evaluated for their anti-hepatoma activity on five human liver-cancer cell lines, i.e. HepG2/C3A, SK-HEP-1, HA22T/VGH, Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5. The samples were examined by in vitro evaluation for their cytotoxicity. The results showed that the effects of crude drugs on hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines were different from those against non hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines. C. groenlandica was observed to be the most effective against the growth of all five cell lines and its chemotherapeutic values will be of interest for further studies. PMID:12203264

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce the differences in competitiveness between dominant and subordinate plant species.

    PubMed

    Mariotte, Pierre; Meugnier, Claire; Johnson, David; Thébault, Aurélie; Spiegelberger, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre

    2013-05-01

    In grassland communities, plants can be classified as dominants or subordinates according to their relative abundances, but the factors controlling such distributions remain unclear. Here, we test whether the presence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices affects the competitiveness of two dominant (Taraxacum officinale and Agrostis capillaris) and two subordinate species (Prunella vulgaris and Achillea millefolium). Plants were grown in pots in the presence or absence of the fungus, in monoculture and in mixtures of both species groups with two and four species. In the absence of G. intraradices, dominants were clearly more competitive than subordinates. In inoculated pots, the fungus acted towards the parasitic end of the mutualism-parasitism continuum and had an overall negative effect on the growth of the plant species. However, the negative effects of the AM fungus were more pronounced on dominant species reducing the differences in competitiveness between dominant and subordinate species. The effects of G. intraradices varied with species composition highlighting the importance of plant community to mediate the effects of AM fungi. Dominant species were negatively affected from the AM fungus in mixtures, while subordinates grew identically with and without the fungus. Therefore, our findings predict that the plant dominance hierarchy may flatten out when dominant species are more reduced than subordinate species in an unfavourable AM fungal relationship (parasitism). PMID:23064770

  5. A population genetic model to infer allotetraploid speciation and long-term evolution applied to two yarrow species.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Ping; Tong, Xiao-Yuan; Wang, Lan-Wei; Vogl, Claus

    2013-07-01

    Allotetraploid speciation, that is, the generation of a hybrid tetraploid species from two diploid species, and the long-term evolution of tetraploid populations and species are important in plants. We developed a population genetic model to infer population genetic parameters of tetraploid populations from data of the progenitor and descendant species. Two yarrow species, Achillea alpina-4x and A. wilsoniana-4x, arose by allotetraploidization from the diploid progenitors, A. acuminata-2x and A. asiatica-2x. Yet, the population genetic process has not been studied in detail. We applied the model to sequences of three nuclear genes in populations of the four yarrow species and compared their pattern of variability with that in four plastid regions. The plastid data indicated that the two tetraploid species probably originated from multiple independent allopolyploidization events and have accumulated many mutations since. With the nuclear data, we found a low rate of homeologous recombination or gene conversion and a reduction in diversity relative to the level of both diploid species combined. The present analysis with a novel probabilistic model suggests a genetic bottleneck during tetraploid speciation, that the two tetraploid species have a long evolutionary history, and that they have a small amount of genetic exchange between the homeologous genomes. PMID:23574432

  6. Transgenerational soil-mediated differences between plants experienced or naïve to a grass invasion

    PubMed Central

    Deck, Anna; Muir, Adrianna; Strauss, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species may undergo rapid change as they invade. Native species persisting in invaded areas may also experience rapid change over this short timescale relative to native populations in uninvaded areas. We investigated the response of the native Achillea millefolium to soil from Holcus lanatus-invaded and uninvaded areas, and we sought to determine whether differential responses between A. millefolium from invaded (invader experienced) and uninvaded (invader naïve) areas were mediated by soil community changes. Plants grown from seed from experienced and naïve areas responded differently to invaded and uninvaded soil with respect to germination time, biomass, and height. Overall, experienced plants grew faster and taller than their naïve counterparts. Naïve native plants showed negative feedbacks with their home soil and positive feedbacks with invaded soil; experienced plants were less responsive to soil differences. Our results suggest that native plants naïve to invasion may be more sensitive to soil communities than experienced plants, consistent with recent studies. While differences between naïve and experienced plants are transgenerational, our design cannot differentiate between differences that are genetically based, plastic, or both. Regardless, our results highlight the importance of seed source and population history in restoration, emphasizing the restoration potential of experienced seed sources. PMID:24198931

  7. Solid-phase microextraction of volatile components from natural grassland plants.

    PubMed

    Cornu, A; Carnat, A; Martin, B; Coulon, J; Lamaison, J; Berdagué, J

    2001-01-01

    The volatile components from nine plants growing on natural grasslands in Auvergne, central France, selected for the broad qualitative and quantitative diversity of their terpenoid fractions, were analyzed by high-resolution gas-phase chromatography and mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS) after static headspace solid-phase microextraction (SHS-SPME). SHS-SPME allowed all the plant material to be analyzed under the same conditions despite its wide-ranging composition. This is not always possible with other extraction methods. Using an apolar poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) phase, numerous terpenoid hydrocarbons, together with alcohols, cyclic ethers, and esters, were extracted. Its ease of use and the high resolution of the chromatographic profiles obtained make SHS-SPME well suited to the rapid characterization of the main components of the volatile fraction of plants. Of the nine plants studied, four (Meum athamanticum, Pimpinella saxifraga, Achillea millefolium, and Thymus pulegioides) exhaled more than 60 different volatile components. Certain terpenes present in large amounts in these plants might help link dairy products to grazing pasture, thus improving food traceability. PMID:11170578

  8. Growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis as influenced by ozone and competition.

    PubMed

    Bender, J; Muntifering, R B; Lin, J C; Weigel, H J

    2006-07-01

    Interspecific plant competition has been hypothesized to alter effects of early-season ozone (O3) stress. A phytometer-based approach was utilized to investigate O3 effects on growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis grown in monoculture and in mixed cultures with four competitor-plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Rumex acetosa and Veronica chamaedrys). Mesocosms were exposed during April/May 2000-2002 to charcoal-filtered air+25 ppb O3 (control) or non-filtered air+50 ppb O3 (elevated O3). Biomass production was not affected by O3, but foliar injury symptoms were observed in May 2002. Early-season O3 exposure decreased relative food value of P. pratensis by an average of 8%, which is sufficient to have nutritional implications for its utilization by herbivores. However, forage quality response to O3 was not changed by interspecific competition. Lack of injury and nutritive quality response in P. pratensis harvested in September may reflect recovery from early-season O3 exposure. PMID:16290915

  9. Medicinal plant extracts can variously modify biofilm formation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Samoilova, Zoya; Muzyka, Nadezda; Lepekhina, Elena; Oktyabrsky, Oleg; Smirnova, Galina

    2014-04-01

    Low concentrations of black tea and water extracts from medicinal plants Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Tilia cordata, Betula pendula and Zea mays stimulated biofilm formation in Escherichia coli BW25113 up to three times. Similar effect was observed for tannic acid and low concentrations of quercetin. In contrast, the extract from Urtica dioica reduced biofilm production. Pretreatment with plant extracts variously modified antibiotic effects on specific biofilm formation (SBF). Extract from V. vitis-idaea increased SBF, while the extracts from Achillea millefolium, Laminaria japonica and U. dioica considerably decreased SBF in the presence of ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and cefotaxime. Stimulatory effect of the extracts and pure polyphenols on biofilm formation was probably related to their prooxidant properties. The rpoS deletion did not affect SBF significantly, but stimulation of biofilm formation by the compounds tested was accompanied by inhibition of rpoS expression, suggesting that a RpoS-independent signal transduction pathway was apparently used. PMID:24500005

  10. Apomixis is not prevalent in subnival to nival plants of the European Alps

    PubMed Central

    Hörandl, Elvira; Dobeš, Christoph; Suda, Jan; Vít, Petr; Urfus, Tomáš; Temsch, Eva M.; Cosendai, Anne-Caroline; Wagner, Johanna; Ladinig, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims High alpine environments are characterized by short growing seasons, stochastic climatic conditions and fluctuating pollinator visits. These conditions are rather unfavourable for sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Apomixis, asexual reproduction via seed, provides reproductive assurance without the need of pollinators and potentially accelerates seed development. Therefore, apomixis is expected to provide selective advantages in high-alpine biota. Indeed, apomictic species occur frequently in the subalpine to alpine grassland zone of the European Alps, but the mode of reproduction of the subnival to nival flora was largely unknown. Methods The mode of reproduction in 14 species belonging to seven families was investigated via flow cytometric seed screen. The sampling comprised 12 species typical for nival to subnival plant communities of the European Alps without any previous information on apomixis (Achillea atrata, Androsace alpina, Arabis caerulea, Erigeron uniflorus, Gnaphalium hoppeanum, Leucanthemopsis alpina, Oxyria digyna, Potentilla frigida, Ranunculus alpestris, R. glacialis, R. pygmaeus and Saxifraga bryoides), and two high-alpine species with apomixis reported from other geographical areas (Leontopodium alpinum and Potentilla crantzii). Key Results Flow cytometric data were clearly interpretable for all 46 population samples, confirming the utility of the method for broad screenings on non-model organisms. Formation of endosperm in all species of Asteraceae was documented. Ratios of endosperm : embryo showed pseudogamous apomixis for Potentilla crantzii (ratio approx. 3), but sexual reproduction for all other species (ratios approx. 1·5). Conclusions The occurrence of apomixis is not correlated to high altitudes, and cannot be readily explained by selective forces due to environmental conditions. The investigated species have probably other adaptations to high altitudes to maintain reproductive assurance via sexuality. We hypothesize that shifts to apomixis are rather connected to frequencies of polyploidization than to ecological conditions. PMID:21724654

  11. Increased Plant Carbon Translocation Linked to Overyielding in Grassland Species Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    De Deyn, Gerlinde B.; Quirk, Helen; Oakley, Simon; Ostle, Nick J.; Bardgett, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Plant species richness and productivity often show a positive relationship, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, especially at the plant species level. We examined how growing plants in species mixture influences intraspecific rates of short-term carbon (C-) translocation, and determined whether such short-term responses are reflected in biomass yields. We grew monocultures and mixtures of six common C3 grassland plant species in outdoor mesocosms, applied a 13C-CO2 pulse in situ to trace assimilated C through plants, into the soil, and back to the atmosphere, and quantified species-specific biomass. Pulse derived 13C enrichment was highest in the legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens, and relocation (i.e. transport from the leaves to other plant parts) of the recently assimilated 13C was most rapid in T. repens grown in 6-species mixtures. The grass Anthoxanthum odoratum also showed high levels of 13C enrichment in 6-species mixtures, while 13C enrichment was low in Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata and Achillea millefolium. Rates of C loss through respiration were highest in monocultures of T. repens and relatively low in species mixtures, while the proportion of 13C in the respired CO2 was similar in monocultures and mixtures. The grass A. odoratum and legume T. repens were most promoted in 6-species mixtures, and together with L. corniculatus, caused the net biomass increase in 6-species mixtures. These plant species also had highest rates of 13C-label translocation, and for A. odoratum and T. repens this effect was greatest in plant individuals grown in species mixtures. Our study reveals that short-term plant C translocation can be accelerated in plant individuals of legume and C3 grass species when grown in mixtures, and that this is strongly positively related to overyielding. These results demonstrate a mechanistic coupling between changes in intraspecific plant carbon physiology and increased community level productivity in grassland systems. PMID:23049893

  12. The Root Herbivore History of the Soil Affects the Productivity of a Grassland Plant Community and Determines Plant Response to New Root Herbivore Attack

    PubMed Central

    Sonnemann, Ilja; Hempel, Stefan; Beutel, Maria; Hanauer, Nicola; Reidinger, Stefan; Wurst, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Insect root herbivores can alter plant community structure by affecting the competitive ability of single plants. However, their effects can be modified by the soil environment. Root herbivory itself may induce changes in the soil biota community, and it has recently been shown that these changes can affect plant growth in a subsequent season or plant generation. However, so far it is not known whether these root herbivore history effects (i) are detectable at the plant community level and/or (ii) also determine plant species and plant community responses to new root herbivore attack. The present greenhouse study determined root herbivore history effects of click beetle larvae (Elateridae, Coleoptera, genus Agriotes) in a model grassland plant community consisting of six common species (Achillea millefolium, Plantago lanceolata, Taraxacum officinale, Holcus lanatus, Poa pratensis, Trifolium repens). Root herbivore history effects were generated in a first phase of the experiment by growing the plant community in soil with or without Agriotes larvae, and investigated in a second phase by growing it again in the soils that were either Agriotes trained or not. The root herbivore history of the soil affected plant community productivity (but not composition), with communities growing in root herbivore trained soil producing more biomass than those growing in untrained soil. Additionally, it influenced the response of certain plant species to new root herbivore attack. Effects may partly be explained by herbivore-induced shifts in the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The root herbivore history of the soil proved to be a stronger driver of plant growth on the community level than an actual root herbivore attack which did not affect plant community parameters. History effects have to be taken into account when predicting the impact of root herbivores on grasslands. PMID:23441201

  13. Comparative evaluation of antioxidant and insecticidal properties of essential oils from five Moroccan aromatic herbs.

    PubMed

    Kasrati, Ayoub; Alaoui Jamali, Chaima; Bekkouche, Khalid; Wohlmuth, Hans; Leach, David; Abbad, Abdelaziz

    2015-04-01

    This study describes the antioxidant and insecticidal activities of essential oils (EOs) of Mentha suaveolens subsp. timija, Thymus satureioides, Achillea ageratum, Cotula cinerea and Salvia officinalis widely used in Morocco as flavorings, food additives and preservatives. Sixty seven components were identified accounting for more than 95.0 % of the total oils. M. suaveolens subsp. timija oil had as main components menthone and pulegone. A. ageratum oil was particularly rich in artemisyl acetate and yomogi alcohol. The essential oil of T. satureioides was characterized by high contents of carvacrol and borneol. C. cinerea oil contained trans-thujone and cis-verbenyl acetate as major constituents, whereas S. officinalis oil was characterized by trans-thujone and camphor. Antioxidant activities were examined by means of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), reducing power, ?-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching and ABTS radical tests. In all assays, the highest antioxidant potency was observed in T. satureioides EO with IC50 values ranging from 0.15?±?0.36 ?g mL(-1) to 0.23?±?0.67 ?g mL(-1) across the four assays. The in vitro evaluation of the insecticidal activity showed that M. suaveolens subsp. timija EO present the highest insecticidal efficiency against adults of Tribolium castaneum with LD50 and LD90 values of 0.17 ?L cm(-2) and 0.26 ?L cm(-2), respectively and LT50, LT90 values ranged from 44.19 h to 2.98 h and 98.14 h to 6.02 h, respectively. Our data support the possible use of T. satureioides oil as potential antioxidant agent, while M. suaveolens subsp. timija oil can be developed as a new natural bio-insecticide. PMID:25829614

  14. Increased plant carbon translocation linked to overyielding in grassland species mixtures.

    PubMed

    De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Quirk, Helen; Oakley, Simon; Ostle, Nick J; Bardgett, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Plant species richness and productivity often show a positive relationship, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, especially at the plant species level. We examined how growing plants in species mixture influences intraspecific rates of short-term carbon (C-) translocation, and determined whether such short-term responses are reflected in biomass yields. We grew monocultures and mixtures of six common C3 grassland plant species in outdoor mesocosms, applied a (13)C-CO(2) pulse in situ to trace assimilated C through plants, into the soil, and back to the atmosphere, and quantified species-specific biomass. Pulse derived (13)C enrichment was highest in the legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens, and relocation (i.e. transport from the leaves to other plant parts) of the recently assimilated (13)C was most rapid in T. repens grown in 6-species mixtures. The grass Anthoxanthum odoratum also showed high levels of (13)C enrichment in 6-species mixtures, while (13)C enrichment was low in Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata and Achillea millefolium. Rates of C loss through respiration were highest in monocultures of T. repens and relatively low in species mixtures, while the proportion of (13)C in the respired CO(2) was similar in monocultures and mixtures. The grass A. odoratum and legume T. repens were most promoted in 6-species mixtures, and together with L. corniculatus, caused the net biomass increase in 6-species mixtures. These plant species also had highest rates of (13)C-label translocation, and for A. odoratum and T. repens this effect was greatest in plant individuals grown in species mixtures. Our study reveals that short-term plant C translocation can be accelerated in plant individuals of legume and C3 grass species when grown in mixtures, and that this is strongly positively related to overyielding. These results demonstrate a mechanistic coupling between changes in intraspecific plant carbon physiology and increased community level productivity in grassland systems. PMID:23049893

  15. Mechanisms for success after long-term nutrient enrichment in a boreal forest understory.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Tess Nahanni; Turkington, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Global levels of reactive nitrogen are predicted to rise in the coming decades as a result of increased deposition from the burning of fossil fuels and the large-scale conversion of nitrogen into a useable form for agriculture. Many plant communities respond strongly to increases in soil nitrogen, particularly in northern ecosystems where nitrogen levels are naturally very low. An experiment in northern Canada that was initiated in 1990 has been investigating the effects of long-term nutrient enrichment (fertilizer added annually) on a boreal forest understory community. We used this experiment to investigate why some species increase in abundance under nutrient enrichment whereas others decline. We focused on four species that differed in their responses to fertilization: Mertensia paniculata and Epilobium angustifolium increased in abundance, Achillea millefolium remained relatively constant and Festuca altaica declined. We hypothesized that the two species that were successful in the new high-nutrient, light-limited environment would be taller, have higher specific leaf area, change phenology by growing earlier in the season and be more morphologically plastic than their less successful counterparts. We compared plant height, specific leaf area, growth spurt date and allocation to leaves in plants grown in control and fertilized plots. We demonstrated that each of the two species that came to dominate fertilized plots has a different combination of traits and responses that likely gave them a competitive advantage; M. paniculata has the highest specific leaf area of the four species whereas E. angustifolium is tallest and exhibits morphological plasticity when fertilized by increasing biomass allocation to leaves. These results indicate that rather than one strategy determining success when nutrients become available, a variety of traits and responses may contribute to a species' ability to persist in a nutrient-enriched boreal forest understory. PMID:23573298

  16. The effect of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected medicinal plants of Asteraceae family on the peroxynitrite-induced changes in blood platelet proteins.

    PubMed

    Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Olas, Beata; Ko?odziejczyk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal; Nowak, Pawel; Tsirigotis-Wo?oszczak, Marta; Wachowicz, Barbara; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-12-01

    Lots of plants belonging to Asteraceae family are very popular in folk medicine in Poland. These plants are also known as being rich in acidic polysaccharides, due to the presence of hexuronic acids or its derivatives. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the extract from Conyza canadensis L. possesses various biological activity, including antiplatelet, antiocoagulant and antioxidant properties. The aim of our study was to assess if macromolecular glycoconjugates from selected herbal plants of Asteraceae family: Achillea millefolium L., Arnica montana L., Echinacea purpurea L., Solidago virgaurea L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert., and Conyza canadensis L. protect platelet proteins against nitrative and oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite, which is responsible for oxidative/nitrative modifications of platelet proteins: the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups. These modifications may lead to changes of blood platelet functions and can have pathological consequences. The role of these different medicinal plants in the defence against oxidative/nitrative stress in human platelets is still unknown, therefore the oxidative damage to platelet proteins induced by peroxynitrite and protectory effects of tested conjugates by the estimation of carbonyl group level and nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of protein nitration) were studied in vitro. The antioxidative properties of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). The obtained results demonstrate that the compounds from herbal plants: A. millefolium, A. montana, E. purpurea, C. recutita, S. virgaurea, possess antioxidative properties and protect platelet proteins against peroxynitrite toxicity in vitro, similar to the glycoconjugates from C. canadensis. However, in the comparative studies, the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were not found to be more effective antioxidant, than the solution of pure resveratrol. PMID:20869393

  17. Relative densities of natural enemy and pest insects within California hedgerows.

    PubMed

    Gareau, Tara L Pisani; Letourneau, Deborah K; Shennan, Carol

    2013-08-01

    Research on hedgerow design for supporting communities of natural enemies for biological control lags behind farmer innovation in California, where assemblages of perennial plant species have been used on crop field margins in the last decade. We compared natural enemy to pest ratios between fields with hedgerows and fields with weedy margins by sampling beneficial insects and key pests of vegetables on sticky cards. We used biweekly vacuum samples to measure the distribution of key insect taxa among native perennial plant species with respect to the timing and intensity of bloom. Sticky cards indicated a trend that field margins with hedgerows support a higher ratio of natural enemies to pests compared with weedy borders. Hedgerow plant species hosted different relative densities of a generally overlapping insect community, and the timing and intensity of bloom only explained a small proportion of the variation in insect abundance at plant species and among hedgerows, with the exception of Orius spp. on Achillea millefolium L. and Baccharis pilularis De Candolle. Indicator Species Analysis showed an affinity of parasitic wasps, especially in the super-family Chalcidoidea, for B. pilularis whether or not it was in flower. A. millefolium was attractive to predatory and herbivorous homopterans; Heteromeles arbutifolia (Lindley) Roemer and B. pilularis to Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim; and Rhamnus californica Eschsch to Hemerobiidae. Perennial hedgerows can be designed through species selection to support particular beneficial insect taxa, but plant resources beyond floral availability may be critical in providing structural refuges, alternative prey, and other attractive qualities that are often overlooked. PMID:23905731

  18. UV-B effects on the nutritional chemistry of plants and the responses of a mammalian herbivore.

    PubMed

    Thines, Nicole J; Shipley, Lisa A; Bassman, John H; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei

    2008-05-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion has caused ground-level ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation to rise in temperate latitudes of both hemispheres. Because the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the nutrition of food consumed by mammalian herbivores are unknown, we measured nutritional and chemical constituents of 18 forages and related changes to in vitro dry matter digestibility. We also measured intake and in vivo digestibility of Pacific willow (Salix lasiandra) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) by blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola). Forages were irradiated for 3 months with ambient (1x) or supplemental (1.6 x) UV-B radiation representing a 15% ozone depletion for Pullman, Washington, USA. Enhanced UV-B radiation had minimal and inconsistent effects on the nutritional content, in vitro dry matter digestibility, and protein-binding capacity of forages. However, flavonoid compounds increased in seven of the 13 forbs and woody dicots that were evaluated. Flavonoids were found to decrease only in yarrow (Achillea millefolium). When offered simultaneously, blue duikers preferred 1x and 1.6 x UV-B irradiated plants of alfalfa equally, but ate 26% less willow grown under 1.6 x UV-B radiation. However, when fed to duikers in separate feeding experiments, total dry matter intake and in vivo digestibility of dry matter, fiber, protein, and apparent energy did not differ between alfalfa and willow grown under 1x and 1.6 x UV-B radiation. We conclude that expected increases in UV-B radiation from ozone depletion would have minimal effects on intake and digestion of ruminant herbivores. PMID:18274780

  19. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against this pathogen. Conclusions Our data suggest that further screening of plants used in traditional Haudenosaunee medicine is warranted, and we put forward several species for further investigation of activity against S. typhimurium (A. millefolium, H. matronalis, I. pandurata, H. pilosella, R. multiflora, S. canadensis). PMID:21054887

  20. The acceptability of meadow plants to the slug Deroceras reticulatum and implications for grassland restoration

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Sarah E.; Close, Andrew J.; Port, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite the selective pressure slugs may exert on seedling recruitment there is a lack of information in this context within grassland restoration studies. Selective grazing is influenced by interspecific differences in acceptability. As part of a larger study of how slug–seedling interactions may influence upland hay meadow restoration, an assessment of relative acceptability is made for seedlings of meadow plants to the slug, Deroceras reticulatum. Methods Slug feeding damage to seedling monocultures of 23 meadow species and Brassica napus was assessed in microcosms over 14 d. The severity and rate of damage incurred by each plant species was analysed with a generalized additive mixed model. Plant species were then ranked for their relative acceptability. Key Results Interspecific variation in relative acceptability suggested seedlings of meadow species form a hierarchy of acceptability to D. reticulatum. The four most acceptable species were Achillea millefolium and the grasses Holcus lanatus, Poa trivialis and Festuca rubra. Trifolium pratense was acceptable to D. reticulatum and was the second highest ranking forb species. The most unacceptable species were mainly forbs associated with the target grassland, and included Geranium sylvaticum, Rumex acetosa, Leontodon hispidus and the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum. A strong positive correlation was found for mean cumulative feeding damage and cumulative seedling mortality at day 14. Conclusions Highly unacceptable species to D. reticulatum are unlikely to be selectively grazed by slugs during the seedling recruitment phase, and were predominantly target restoration species. Seedlings of highly acceptable species may be less likely to survive slug herbivory and contribute to seedling recruitment at restoration sites. Selective slug herbivory, influenced by acceptability, may influence community-level processes if seedling recruitment and establishment of key functional species, such as T. pratense is reduced. PMID:23632124

  1. Stoichiometric response of nitrogen-fixing and non-fixing dicots to manipulations of CO2, nitrogen, and diversity.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Amy M; Schade, John D; Hobbie, Sarah E; Kay, Adam D; Kyle, Marcia; Reich, Peter B; Elser, James J

    2007-04-01

    Human activities have resulted in increased nitrogen deposition and atmospheric CO(2) concentrations in the biosphere, potentially causing significant changes in many ecological processes. In addition to these ongoing perturbations of the abiotic environment, human-induced losses of biodiversity are also of major concern and may interact in important ways with biogeochemical perturbations to affect ecosystem structure and function. We have evaluated the effects of these perturbations on plant biomass stoichiometric composition (C:N:P ratios) within the framework of the BioCON experimental setup (biodiversity, CO(2), N) conducted at the Cedar Creek Natural History Area, Minnesota. Here we present data for five plant species: Solidago rigida, Achillea millefolium, Amorpha canescens, Lespedeza capitata, and Lupinus perennis. We found significantly higher C:N and C:P ratios under elevated CO(2) treatments, but species responded idiosyncratically to the treatment. Nitrogen addition decreased C:N ratios, but this response was greater in the ambient CO(2) treatments than under elevated CO(2). Higher plant species diversity generally lowered both C:N and C:P ratios. Importantly, increased diversity also led to a more modest increase in the C:N ratio with elevated CO(2) levels. In addition, legumes exhibited lower C:N and higher C:P and N:P ratios than non-legumes, highlighting the effect of physiological characteristics defining plant functional types. These data suggest that atmospheric CO(2) levels, N availability, and plant species diversity interact to affect both aboveground and belowground processes by altering plant elemental composition. PMID:17106721

  2. Spatial pattern affects diversity-productivity relationships in experimental meadow communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamošová, Tereza; Doležal, Ji?í; Lanta, Vojt?ch; Lepš, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Plant species create aggregations of conspecifics as a consequence of limited seed dispersal, clonal growth and heterogeneous environment. Such intraspecific aggregation increases the importance of intraspecific competition relative to interspecific competition which may slow down competitive exclusion and promote species coexistence. To examine how spatial aggregation impacts the functioning of experimental assemblages of varying species richness, eight perennial grassland species of different growth form were grown in random and aggregated patterns in monocultures, two-, four-, and eight-species mixtures. In mixtures with an aggregated pattern, monospecific clumps were interspecifically segregated. Mixed model ANOVA was used to test (i) how the total productivity and productivity of individual species is affected by the number of species in a mixture, and (ii) how these relationships are affected by spatial pattern of sown plants. The main patterns of productivity response to species richness conform to other studies: non-transgressive overyielding is omnipresent (the productivity of mixtures is higher than the average of its constituent species so that the net diversity, selection and complementarity effects are positive), whereas transgressive overyielding is found only in a minority of cases (average of log(overyielding) being close to zero or negative). The theoretical prediction that plants in a random pattern should produce more than in an aggregated pattern (the distances to neighbours are smaller and consequently the competition among neighbours stronger) was confirmed in monocultures of all the eight species. The situation is more complicated in mixtures, probably as a consequence of complicated interplay between interspecific and intraspecific competition. The most productive species ( Achillea, Holcus, Plantago) were competitively superior and increased their relative productivity with mixture richness. The intraspecific competition of these species is stronger than that of most other species. The aggregated pattern in the full mixture increased the survival of subordinate species, and consequently, we conclude that an aggregated pattern can promote species coexistence (or at least postpone competitive exclusion), particularly in comparison with homogeneously sown mixtures.

  3. Effect of Elevated Tropospheric Ozone on the Structure of Bacterial Communities Inhabiting the Rhizosphere of Herbaceous Plants Native to Germany†

    PubMed Central

    Dohrmann, Anja B.; Tebbe, Christoph C.

    2005-01-01

    Current elevated concentrations of ozone in the atmosphere, as they are observed during summer seasons, can cause severe effects on plant vegetation. This study was initiated to analyze whether ozone-stressed plants also transfer signals below ground and thereby alter the bacterial community composition in their rhizospheres. Herbaceous plants, native to Germany, with tolerance (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Poa pratensis, Rumex acetosa, and Veronica chamaedrys) and sensitivity (Matricaria chamomilla, Sonchus asper, and Tanacetum vulgare) to ozone, raised in the greenhouse, were exposed in open-top chambers to two different ozone regimes, i.e., “summer stress” and a normal ozone background. DNA of bacterial cells from the rhizospheres was directly extracted, and partial sequences of the 16S rRNA genes were PCR amplified with primers targeting the following phylogenetic groups: Bacteria, ?-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Pseudomonas, respectively. The diversity of the amplified products was analyzed by genetic profiling based on single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Neither the tolerant nor the sensitive plants, the latter with visible above-ground damage, showed ozone-induced differences in any of the SSCP profiles, with the single exception of Actinobacteria-targeted profiles from S. asper. To increase the stress, S. asper was germinated and raised in the continuous presence of an elevated level of ozone. SSCP profiles with Bacteria-specific primers combined with gene probe hybridizations indicated an ozone-related increase in a Xanthomonas-related 16S rRNA gene and a decrease in the respective gene from the plant plastids. The fact that only this latter unrealistic scenario caused a detectable effect demonstrated that ozone stress has a surprisingly small effect on the structural diversity of the bacterial community in rhizospheres. PMID:16332747

  4. Testing the root-priming of soil organic matter decomposition using the isotopic signature of fossil fuel CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Robert; Paterson, Eric; Chapman, Steve; Thornton, Barry; Sim, Allan

    2013-04-01

    Plant roots provide various forms of soil labile carbon (i.e., rhizodeposition), which stimulate the growth of heterotrophic bacteria in the rhizosphere. This, in turn, provides a food source for phagotrophic protozoa and other bacterivores, whose carbon:nutrient ratios are generally higher than those of their food source. In order to maintain their stoichiometric composition, bacterivores release their extra nutrients into the rhizosphere, where they may be absorbed by plant roots. Thus, rhizodeposition should reduce carbon limitation, but increase nutrient demand, of the soil microbial biomass. We hypothesized that this shift towards nutrient deficiency would stimulate the production of microbial enzymes that depolymerise soil organic matter into microbial available forms. In other words, roots should stimulate the decomposition of soil organic matter. We report on experiment where we tested such a "root-priming" effect using 3 contrasting plant species (Achillea millefolium, Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens). An agricultural soil, with a delta-13C value of approximately -14 ‰ , was transferred into 30 pots and planted with seeds of each species. A ring was inserted in the middle of each pot, and no seeds were planted within the ring. Plants were grown in a growth chamber designed to deliver 13C-depleted air. The resulting plant biomass had a delta-13C value of approximately -52 ‰ . On 7 occasions during the growth trial, pots were sampled for the flux and delta-13C value of soil CO2. Using similar data from control pots without plants, we compared the expected vs. observed contributions of CO2 from roots and soil organic matter. Results from this study revealed a negative root-priming effect for all three species. We discuss the experimental conditions that could have led to this observation, as well as the novelty and potential of our experimental protocol.

  5. The role of mass spectrometry in medicinal plant research.

    PubMed

    Héthelyi, E; Tétényi, P; Dabi, E; Dános, B

    1987-11-01

    In phytochemical and chemotaxonomic research work mass spectrometry plays an outstandingly important role. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we established the chemotaxa of Tanacetum vulgare L. Chemotypes with essential oils containing 60-90% of artemisia ketone, carveol, dihydrocarvone, myrtenol, umbellulone, terpinen-4-ol, davanone, and Tagetes species containing various essential oils can be clearly distinguished by their spectra; we examined many variations of Tagetes erecta, T. lucida, T. minuta, T. patula and T. tenuifolia. We have identified alpha-beta-pinene-, 1,8-cineol-, linalool-, camphor-, nerol-, geraniol- and gamma-gurjonene as components of Achillea distans L. Injecting the essential oil direct from the oil-secreting organs of T. minuta plants we identified using GC/MS 6-10 and 16% eugenol from the involucral bract and hypsophyll, respectively, as well as beta-ocimene, dihydrotagetone, tagetone, Z- and E-ocimenones. In the course of studies on essential fatty acids Borago officinalis and Lappula squarrosa were selected from 70 species of the family Boraginaceae to obtain seed oil as a source of gamma-linolenic acid, and for the PG synthesis we isolated several grams of gamma-linolenic acid, as well as C18:4, i.e. octadecatetraenic acid, from L. squarrosa on the basis of the mass spectra. From the seed oil of Aquilegia vulgaris C18:3 (5) from the oil of Limnanthes dougloasii C20:1 (5) and from the seed oils of Delphinium consolida and of Tropaeolum species (T. majus, T. minus, T. peregrinum) C20:1 (11) fatty acids were identified on the basis of spectra. PMID:2962668

  6. Mechanisms for Success after Long-term Nutrient Enrichment in a Boreal Forest Understory

    PubMed Central

    Grainger, Tess Nahanni; Turkington, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Global levels of reactive nitrogen are predicted to rise in the coming decades as a result of increased deposition from the burning of fossil fuels and the large-scale conversion of nitrogen into a useable form for agriculture. Many plant communities respond strongly to increases in soil nitrogen, particularly in northern ecosystems where nitrogen levels are naturally very low. An experiment in northern Canada that was initiated in 1990 has been investigating the effects of long-term nutrient enrichment (fertilizer added annually) on a boreal forest understory community. We used this experiment to investigate why some species increase in abundance under nutrient enrichment whereas others decline. We focused on four species that differed in their responses to fertilization: Mertensia paniculata and Epilobium angustifolium increased in abundance, Achillea millefolium remained relatively constant and Festuca altaica declined. We hypothesized that the two species that were successful in the new high-nutrient, light-limited environment would be taller, have higher specific leaf area, change phenology by growing earlier in the season and be more morphologically plastic than their less successful counterparts. We compared plant height, specific leaf area, growth spurt date and allocation to leaves in plants grown in control and fertilized plots. We demonstrated that each of the two species that came to dominate fertilized plots has a different combination of traits and responses that likely gave them a competitive advantage; M. paniculata has the highest specific leaf area of the four species whereas E. angustifolium is tallest and exhibits morphological plasticity when fertilized by increasing biomass allocation to leaves. These results indicate that rather than one strategy determining success when nutrients become available, a variety of traits and responses may contribute to a species' ability to persist in a nutrient-enriched boreal forest understory. PMID:23573298

  7. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase or glutamic acid decarboxylase inhibition; a range of monoaminergic effects; and potential cannabinoid receptor modulation. Future research should focus on conducting human clinical trials on the plants reviewed with promising anxiolytic activity. PMID:23436255

  8. The root herbivore history of the soil affects the productivity of a grassland plant community and determines plant response to new root herbivore attack.

    PubMed

    Sonnemann, Ilja; Hempel, Stefan; Beutel, Maria; Hanauer, Nicola; Reidinger, Stefan; Wurst, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Insect root herbivores can alter plant community structure by affecting the competitive ability of single plants. However, their effects can be modified by the soil environment. Root herbivory itself may induce changes in the soil biota community, and it has recently been shown that these changes can affect plant growth in a subsequent season or plant generation. However, so far it is not known whether these root herbivore history effects (i) are detectable at the plant community level and/or (ii) also determine plant species and plant community responses to new root herbivore attack. The present greenhouse study determined root herbivore history effects of click beetle larvae (Elateridae, Coleoptera, genus Agriotes) in a model grassland plant community consisting of six common species (Achillea millefolium, Plantago lanceolata, Taraxacum officinale, Holcus lanatus, Poa pratensis, Trifolium repens). Root herbivore history effects were generated in a first phase of the experiment by growing the plant community in soil with or without Agriotes larvae, and investigated in a second phase by growing it again in the soils that were either Agriotes trained or not. The root herbivore history of the soil affected plant community productivity (but not composition), with communities growing in root herbivore trained soil producing more biomass than those growing in untrained soil. Additionally, it influenced the response of certain plant species to new root herbivore attack. Effects may partly be explained by herbivore-induced shifts in the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The root herbivore history of the soil proved to be a stronger driver of plant growth on the community level than an actual root herbivore attack which did not affect plant community parameters. History effects have to be taken into account when predicting the impact of root herbivores on grasslands. PMID:23441201

  9. Effect of elevated tropospheric ozone on the structure of bacterial communities inhabiting the rhizosphere of herbaceous plants native to Germany.

    PubMed

    Dohrmann, Anja B; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2005-12-01

    Current elevated concentrations of ozone in the atmosphere, as they are observed during summer seasons, can cause severe effects on plant vegetation. This study was initiated to analyze whether ozone-stressed plants also transfer signals below ground and thereby alter the bacterial community composition in their rhizospheres. Herbaceous plants, native to Germany, with tolerance (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Poa pratensis, Rumex acetosa, and Veronica chamaedrys) and sensitivity (Matricaria chamomilla, Sonchus asper, and Tanacetum vulgare) to ozone, raised in the greenhouse, were exposed in open-top chambers to two different ozone regimes, i.e., "summer stress" and a normal ozone background. DNA of bacterial cells from the rhizospheres was directly extracted, and partial sequences of the 16S rRNA genes were PCR amplified with primers targeting the following phylogenetic groups: Bacteria, alpha-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Pseudomonas, respectively. The diversity of the amplified products was analyzed by genetic profiling based on single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Neither the tolerant nor the sensitive plants, the latter with visible above-ground damage, showed ozone-induced differences in any of the SSCP profiles, with the single exception of Actinobacteria-targeted profiles from S. asper. To increase the stress, S. asper was germinated and raised in the continuous presence of an elevated level of ozone. SSCP profiles with Bacteria-specific primers combined with gene probe hybridizations indicated an ozone-related increase in a Xanthomonas-related 16S rRNA gene and a decrease in the respective gene from the plant plastids. The fact that only this latter unrealistic scenario caused a detectable effect demonstrated that ozone stress has a surprisingly small effect on the structural diversity of the bacterial community in rhizospheres. PMID:16332747

  10. Invasive plant architecture alters trophic interactions by changing predator abundance and behavior.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Dean E

    2009-03-01

    As primary producers, plants are known to influence higher trophic interactions by initiating food chains. However, as architects, plants may bypass consumers to directly affect predators with important but underappreciated trophic ramifications. Invasion of western North American grasslands by the perennial forb, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa), has fundamentally altered the architecture of native grassland vegetation. Here, I use long-term monitoring, observational studies, and field experiments to document how changes in vegetation architecture have affected native web spider populations and predation rates. Native spiders that use vegetation as web substrates were collectively 38 times more abundant in C. maculosa-invaded grasslands than in uninvaded grasslands. This increase in spider abundance was accompanied by a large shift in web spider community structure, driven primarily by the strong response of Dictyna spiders to C. maculosa invasion. Dictyna densities were 46-74 times higher in C. maculosa-invaded than native grasslands, a pattern that persisted over 6 years of monitoring. C. maculosa also altered Dictyna web building behavior and foraging success. Dictyna webs on C. maculosa were 2.9-4.0 times larger and generated 2.0-2.3 times higher total prey captures than webs on Achillea millefolium, their primary native substrate. Dictyna webs on C. maculosa also captured 4.2 times more large prey items, which are crucial for reproduction. As a result, Dictyna were nearly twice as likely to reproduce on C. maculosa substrates compared to native substrates. The overall outcome of C. maculosa invasion and its transformative effects on vegetation architecture on Dictyna density and web building behavior were to increase Dictyna predation on invertebrate prey >/=89 fold. These results indicate that invasive plants that change the architecture of native vegetation can substantially impact native food webs via nontraditional plant --> predator --> consumer linkages. PMID:19082630

  11. Water-extractable magnesium, manganese and copper in leaves and herbs of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Konieczy?ski, Pawe?; Weso?owski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Since herbal teas, infusions and decoctions prepared from medicinal plants are popular remedies, it remains a topical question whether these herbal drugs can be treated as sources of essential elements for humans, who often use them in their everyday diet. Therefore, total and water-extractable contents of Mg, Mn and Cu were determined in 41 leaves originating from four botanical species of Plantago lanceolata, Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi, Rubus fruticosus and Betula sp., as well as in 33 samples of herbs represented by three species of Urtica dioica, Hypericum perforatum and Achillea millefolium. The highest level was determined in the case of Mg (in a range from 2.0 to 7.0 mg/g of dry mass [d.m.]), followed by Mn (from 50.0 to 1300.0 mg/kg d.m.), and lowest of all, Cu (from 3.5 to 19.5 mg/kg d.m.). Student's t-test showed that a statistically significant difference exists between samples originating from different plant species regarding the total content and water-extractable forms of Mg, Mn and Cu. By analysis of the relations between elements, it was observed that total level of Cu correlated with total levels of Mg and Mn, which indicates a synergistic interaction between the essential elements under study. With regard to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), the leaves of Rubus fruticosus contained the highest amounts of a water-extractable bioavailable form of Mn, which guarantees from 160 to 200% of the daily requirement of Mn for women and men, respectively. On the other hand, the extract obtained from Urticae folium gave water-extractable Mg in the amount of 76 mg/500 mL, which constitutes about 20% of daily requirement. The plant material richest in water-extractable Cu was Hyperici herba, containing 154.5 microg/500 mL, or 17% of DRI for both sexes. PMID:22574504

  12. Levels of some microelements and essential heavy metals in herbal teas in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mihaljev, Zeljko; Zivkov-Balos, Milica; Cupi?, Zeljko; Jaksi?, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Levels of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Co, Ni, Se, Sn and Al were determined in 14 medicinal plants from Serbia, which are widely used in phytopharmacy as herbal teas. The following plants were investigated: yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), basil (Ocimum hasilicum L.), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.), field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.), thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.), maize silk (Zea mays L. - Maydis stigma), hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), rosehip/dog rose (Rosa canina L.), winter savory (Satureja montana L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). A total of 16 samples of different parts of medicinal plants (root, leaf, flower, herba) were examined, whereby 13 samples were delivered in original package and three samples were loose leaf herbs. Samples were prepared using the microwave digestion technique, and measurements were performed applying the atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Contents of microelements in the examined samples were in the range: Mn (23.86 - 453.71 mg/kg); Fe (61.87 - 673.0 mg/kg); Cu (6.68 - 24.46 mg/kg); Zn (16.11 - 113.81 mg/kg); Mo (0.576 - 4.265 mg/kg); Co (0.039 - 0.532 mg/kg); Se (0.036 - 0.146 mg/kg); Ni (0.738 - 6.034 mg/kg); Al (154.0 - 3015.0 mg/kg) and Sn (2.68 - 10.22 mg/kg). According to determined amounts of microelements, the investigated samples of herbal teas are considered safe for human consumption. PMID:25265817

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Various Plants Extracts Against Antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Al Laham, Shaza Anwar; Al Fadel, Frdoos Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aeromonas hydrophila cause one of the most important diseases in fishes and lead to economic losses, and may be contaminated human beings. Objectives: The current research aimed to investigate the anti-bacterial activity shown by the extracts prepared from different parts of Olea europea, Myrtus communis, Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinuis officinalis, and Achillea falcata that grow in Syria against A. hydrophila that causes the most dangerous bacterial diseases in fish. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in four stages: First of all, the presence of A. hydrophila was investigated in 450 Samples of Cyprinus Carpio fish using blood agar, Trypticase soya agar, and Analytical Profile Index (API20E). Secondly, the plants extract was obtained using water, absolute alcohol, then ether using Soxhlet extraction apparatus and rotary vacuum evaporator. Thirdly, the antibacterial activity of some antibiotics on these bacteria was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Finally, the antibacterial effect of the extracts was determined by disk diffusion method. Results: The studied antibiotics showed no antibacterial activity against these bacteria, except amikacin which had an acceptable effectiveness. However, the ethanol extracts of the studied plants revealed different antibacterial effects against A. hydrophila which showed antibiotic resistant. T. vulgaris extract had the strongest effect, whereas O. europea extract had the weakest activity. The water and ether petroleum extracts had no antibacterial activities. Conclusions: Ethanol extracts of the studied plants had different antibacterial effects against antibiotic-resistant A. hydrophila. T. vulgaris had the highest activity, R. officinalis had the second, and M. communis and A. falcate were in the third place, while the O. europea had the weakest antibacterial activity. PMID:25368797

  14. Hangman Restoration Project : Annual Report, August 1, 2001 - July 31, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Gerald I.; Coeur D'Alene Tribe.

    2002-06-01

    The construction of hydroelectric facilities in the Columbia Basin resulted in the extirpation of anadromous fish stocks in Hangman Creek and its tributaries within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation. Thus, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss garideini), westslope cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) as well as local wildlife populations. Additionally, the Tribe was forced to convert prime riparian habitat into agricultural lands to supply sustenance for their changed needs. Wildlife habitats within the portion of the Hangman Creek Watershed that lies within the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation have been degraded from a century of land management practices that include widespread conversion of native habitats to agricultural production and intensive silvicultural practices. Currently, wildlife and fish populations have been marginalized and water quality is significantly impaired. In the fall of 2000 the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Wildlife Program, in coordination with the Tribal Fisheries Program, submitted a proposal to begin addressing the degradations to functioning habitats within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation in the Hangman Watershed. That proposal led to the implementation of this project during BPA's FY2001 through FY2003 funding cycle. The project is intended to protect, restore and/or enhance priority riparian, wetland and upland areas within the headwaters of Hangman Creek and its tributaries in order to promote healthy self-sustaining fish and wildlife populations. A key goal of this project is the implementation of wildlife habitat protection efforts in a manner that also secures areas with the potential to provide stream and wetland habitats essential to native salmonid populations. This goal is critical in our efforts to address both resident fish and wildlife habitat needs in the Hangman Watershed. All proposed implementation activities are conducted in the headwaters of the system and are expected to prove beneficial to the natural functions of the entire Hangman Watershed. The following is the FY2001 annual report of Project activities and is submitted as partial fulfillment of Operation and Maintenance Task 2.a. The Objectives and Tasks for this first year were designed to position this Project for a long-term habitat restoration effort. As such, efforts were largely directed at information gathering and project orientation. The major task for this first year was development of a Habitat Prioritization Plan (attached) to guide implementation efforts by selecting areas that will be of greatest benefit to the native ecology. Completion of the first year tasks has positioned the project to move forward with implementing restoration activities using the latest information to accomplish the greatest possible results. The Project will be looking to implement on-the-ground protection and restoration efforts in the coming fiscal year using the data and information gathered in the last fiscal year. Continually refining our understanding of the natural watershed functions and fish and wildlife habitats within the Project Area will result in an increase in the efficiency of project implementation. Research and data gathering efforts will remain a strong emphasis in the coming fiscal year, as it will throughout the life of this Project.

  15. Water dynamics and groundwater contributions in a young mountain soil under different meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negm, Amro; Falocchi, Marco; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater contribution to the soil-water content and to the evapotranspiration is a major uncertainty to assess the water balance. Particularly in mountain environments, where the soil and the depth of the water table are shallow, both percolation and water rise from the water table can happen. Aiming at better understanding these processes at the local scale, a micrometeorological station, equipped with both traditional sensors, an eddy covariance (EC) apparatus with a 20Hz sonic anemometer and infrared CO2 and H2O gas analyser, and four multiplexed TDR probes, was installed at Cividate Camuno (Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, Italy, 274ma.s.l.), in a mountain environment with complex topography and Alpine sublitoranean climate. The young, anthropised, soil upper layers are about 40cm deep and mainly covered by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), wild carrot (Daucus carota) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium). Field and laboratory tests were performed to characterise the soil hydraulic properties. Particularly the soil-water retention relationships were measured by means of a low- and a high-pressure Richards' apparatus, and the hydraulic conductivity at saturation of each soil layer was estimated by 2-dimensional, axis-symmetrical, inverse modelling of field infiltration tests from single ring infiltrometer. The measurements were performed during Summer 2012 and Summer 2013. The groundwater exchange was numerically estimated both in wet (Summer 2012) and in dry meteorlogical conditions (Summer 2013). Evapotranspiration was assessed by means of Penman-Monteith method, which was found to be in the range between EC-estimated fluxes and an indirect estimate based on the Bowen ratio correction for Summer 2012. The two seasons are meteorologically very different and it results also in the soil-water regime. During Summer 2012, the weather was relatively wet, the soil did not reach very small water contents, so that precipitation was able to percolate towards the groundwater table and the groundwater table to meaningfully contribute to the evapotranspirative fluxes. Summer 2013 was instead much drier, precipitation was not able to meaningfully change the water content of the lowest soil layer and to percolate toward the water table. As a consequence of the very small water contents of the soil, also a very small water rise had place.

  16. Assessment of the water exchange between soil and groundwater in an Alpine valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negm, Amro; Falocchi, Marco; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2013-04-01

    The soil-water balance in temperate climates can be sensitively characterised by the water exchange between soil and groundwater. Particularly in mountain environments, where the soil and the water table depth are shallow, both percolation and water rise from the water table can happen, but these latter extimate is still a major challenge for hydrological applications. Aiming at contributing to better characterise the soil-water balance and the water exchange between soil and groundwater, at the local scale in an Alpine valley, a micrometeorological station was installed during summer 2012 at Cividate Camuno (Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, 274ma.s.l.), in a mountain environment with complex orography and Alpine sublitoranean climate. The soil upper layers, lying on an anthropised loose rock, are about 40cm deep and mainly covered by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), wild carrot (Daucus carota) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium). The station is equipped with longwave and shortwave radiometers, a thermo-hygrometer, two rain-gauges, eddy correlation devices (Gill WindMaster sonic anemometer and Licor Li7500 gas analyser, sampling at 20Hz), a TDR with multiplexer apparatus and four probes at different depths, three soil-thermometers and a heat exchanger plate. Field and laboratory tests were performed to characterise the main soil hydraulic properties (i.e. hydraulic conductivity at saturation by means of infiltration tests and falling head permeameter, porosity, residual water content and water content at saturation, soil-water retention relationships, organic matter content and grain size distribution curve). Three different hypothesis to model the water exchange between soil-water and groundwater were introduced. They are (i) a null exchange rate which accounts for a shortage of precipitation and for representing the underlying soil as a capillary barrier, (ii) a pure percolation with unitary gradient of the total hydraulic potential and (iii) a percolation or water rise induced by an estimate of the local gradient on the basis of the measurements of water content. As the lateral fluxes were negligible due to the site orography, accounting for the measurement of rainfall, evapotranspiration and soil-water content, the closure of the water balance allowed to assess the effectiveness of the different hypotheses to estimate the exchange between soil-water and groundwater. The results shows that the water balance is not closed without estimating the water exchange between soil and groundwater, but assessing its value was found to be strongly sensitive to the accuracy of the adopted soil model and constitutive laws.

  17. Mercury distribution in the soil-plant-air system at the Wanshan mercury mining district in Guizhou, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianxu; Feng, Xinbin; Anderson, Christopher W N; Zhu, Wei; Yin, Runsheng; Wang, Heng

    2011-12-01

    The level of mercury bioaccumulation in wild plants; the distribution of bioavailable Hg, elemental Hg, and total Hg in soil; and the concentration of total gaseous Hg (TGM) in ambient air was studied at three different mining sites (SiKeng [SK], WuKeng [WK], and GouXi [GX]) in the Wanshan mercury mining district of China. Results of the present study showed that the distribution of soil total Hg, elemental Hg, bioavailable Hg, and TGM varies across the three mining sites. Higher soil total Hg (29.4-1,972.3 mg/kg) and elemental Hg (19.03-443.8 mg/kg) concentrations were recorded for plots SK and WK than for plot GX. Bioavailable Hg was lower at plot SK and GX (SK, 3-12 ng/g; GX, 9-14 ng/g) than at plot WK (11-1,063 ng/g), although the TGM concentration in the ambient air was significantly higher for plot GX (52,723 ng/m(3) ) relative to WK (106 ng/m(3) ) and SK (43 ng/m(3)). Mercury in sampled herbage was elevated and ranged from 0.8 to 4.75 mg/kg (SK), from 2.17 to 34.38 mg/kg (WK), and from 47.45 to 136.5 mg/kg (GX). Many of the sampled plants are used as fodder or for medicinal purposes. High shoot Hg concentrations may therefore pose an unacceptable human health risk. Statistical analysis of the recorded data showed that the Hg concentration in plant shoots was positively correlated with TGM and that the Hg concentration in roots was positively correlated with the bioavailable Hg concentration in the soil. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the present study was defined with reference to the concentration of bioavailable Hg in the soil (Hg([root]) /Hg([bioavail])). Three plant species, Macleaya cordata L., Achillea millefolium L., and Pteris vittata L., showed enhanced accumulation of Hg and therefore may have potential for use in the phytoremediation of soils of the Wanshan mining area. PMID:21935979

  18. Effect of ethnomedicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Jordan as antibiotic resistant inhibitors on Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli occurs naturally in the human gut; however, certain strains that can cause infections, are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant E. coli that produce extended-spectrum ? lactamases (ESBLs), such as the CTX-M enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and bloodstream infections may be associated with these community-onsets. This is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying activity of nineteen Jordanian plants against multidrug-resistant E. coli. Methods The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was tested by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using a broth microdilution method. Nineteen Jordanian plant extracts (Capparis spinosa L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Echinops polyceras Boiss., Gundelia tournefortii L, Varthemia iphionoides Boiss. & Blanche, Eruca sativa Mill., Euphorbia macroclada L., Hypericum trequetrifolium Turra, Achillea santolina L., Mentha longifolia Host, Origanum syriacum L., Phlomis brachydo(Boiss.) Zohary, Teucrium polium L., Anagyris foetida L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Thea sinensis L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lepidium sativum L., Pimpinella anisum L.) were combined with antibiotics, from different classes, and the inhibitory effect of the combinations was estimated. Results Methanolic extracts of the plant materials enhanced the inhibitory effects of chloramphenicol, neomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin and nalidixic acid against both the standard strain and to a lesser extent the resistant strain of E. coli. Two edible plant extracts (Gundelia tournefortii L. and Pimpinella anisum L.) generally enhanced activity against resistant strain. Some of the plant extracts like Origanum syriacum L.(Labiateae), Trigonella foenum- graecum L.(Leguminosae), Euphorbia macroclada (Euphorbiaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae) did not enhance the activity of amoxicillin against both standard and resistant E. coli. On the other hand combinations of amoxicillin with other plant extracts used showed variable effect between standard and resistant strains. Plant extracts like Anagyris foetida (Leguminosae) and Lepidium sativum (Umbelliferae) reduced the activity of amoxicillin against the standard strain but enhanced the activity against resistant strains. Three edible plants; Gundelia tournefortii L. (Compositae) Eruca sativa Mill. (Cruciferae), and Origanum syriacum L. (Labiateae), enhanced activity of clarithromycin against the resistant E. coli strain. Conclusion This study probably suggests possibility of concurrent use of these antibiotics and plant extracts in treating infections caused by E. coli or at least the concomitant administration may not impair the antimicrobial activity of these antibiotics. PMID:20187978

  19. Physics in the Spotlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    CERN, ESA and ESO Put Physics On Stage [1] Summary Can you imagine how much physics is in a simple match of ping-pong, in throwing a boomerang, or in a musical concert? Physics is all around us and governs our lives. The World-Wide Web and mobile communication are only two examples of technologies that have rapidly found their way from science into the everyday life. [Go to Physics On Stage Website at CERN] But who is going to maintain these technologies and develop new ones in the future? Probably not young Europeans, as recent surveys show a frightening decline of interest in physics and technology among Europe's citizens, especially schoolchildren. Fewer and fewer young people enrol in physics courses at university. The project "Physics on Stage" tackles this problem head on. An international festival of 400 physics educators from 22 European countries [2] gather at CERN in Geneva from 6 to 10 November to show how fascinating and entertaining physics can be . In a week-long event innovative methods of teaching physics and demonstrations of the fun that lies in physics are presented in a fair, in 10 spectacular performances, and presentations. Workshops on 14 key themes will give the delegates - teachers, professors, artists and other physics educators - the chance to discuss and come up with solutions for the worrying situation of disenchantment with Science in Europe. The European Science and Technology Week 2000 "Physics on Stage" is a joint project organised by the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , Europe's leading physics research organisations. This is the first time that these three organisations have worked together in such close collaboration to catalyse a change in attitude towards science and technology education. Physics on Stage is funded in part by the European Commission and happens as an event in the European Science and Technology Week 2000, an initiative of the EC to raise public awareness of science and technology. Other partners are the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). European Commissioner Busquin to Visit Physics On Stage On Thursday, November 9, Philippe Busquin , Commissioner for Research, European Commission, Prof. Luciano Maiani , Director-General of CERN, Antonio Rodota , Director-General of ESA, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , Director-General of ESO, and Dr. Achilleas Mitsos , Director-General of the Research DG in the European Commission, will participate in the activities of the Physics on Stage Festival. On this occasion, Commissioner Busquin will address conference delegates and the Media on the importance of Science and of innovative science and technology education. The Festival Each of the more than 400 delegates of the festival has been selected during the course of the year by committees in each of the 22 countries for outstanding projects promoting science. For example, a group of Irish physics teachers and their students will give a concert on instruments made exclusively of plumbing material, explaining the physics of sound at the same time. A professional theatre company from Switzerland stages a play on antimatter. Or two young Germans invite spectators to their interactive physics show where they juggle, eat fire and perform stunning physics experiments on stage. The colourful centrepiece of this week is the Physics Fair. Every country has its own stands where delegates show their projects, programmes or experiments and gain inspiration from the exhibits from other countries. Physics on Stage is a unique event. Nothing like it has ever happened in terms of international exchange, international collaboration and state of the art science and technology education methods. The Nobel prizewinners of 2030 are at school today. What ideas can Europe's teachers put forward to boost their interest in science? An invitation to the media We invite journalists to take part in this both politically and visually interesting