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1

Components of Reproductive Isolation between the Monkeyflowers Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis (Phrymaceae)  

E-print Network

Components of Reproductive Isolation between the Monkeyflowers Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis ISOLATION BETWEEN THE MONKEYFLOWERS MIMULUS LEWISIIAND M. CARDINALIS(PHRYMACEAE) JUSTIN RAMSEY,1'2'3 H. D lewisii and M. cardinalis, sister species of monkeyflowers. Studied reproductive barriersinclude: ecogeo

Ramsey, Justin

2

Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Achillea crithmifolia and Achillea nobilis Essential Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the essential oils of Achillea crithmifolia and Achillea nobilis was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. The main compounds of the A. crithmifolia essential oil were camphor (27.6%), 1,8-cineole (26.5%) and trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (18.8%), while the most abundant compounds in the A. nobilis oil were ?-thujone (25.7%), artemisia ketone (14.8%), borneol (9.9%) and camphor (8.2%). The antibacterial activity

Radosav Pali?; Gordana Stojanovi?; Tanja Naskovi?; Novica Ranelovi?

2003-01-01

3

Cytotoxic Flavonoid from Achillea talagonica Bioss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Achillea talagonica (Asteraceae) is an endemic herbaceous plant in Iran with small yellow flowers and several times pinnately divided leaves in worm shape. The plant was found to be cytotoxic in our previous studies. Materials and Methods: A. talagonica was collected in May 2005 from Talegan in north of Iran during the full flowering stage. Dried aerial parts of

Moradi-Afrapoli F; Gohari AR

4

Components of reproductive isolation between the monkeyflowers Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis (Phrymaceae).  

PubMed

Evolutionists have long recognized the role of reproductive isolation in speciation, but the relative contributions of different reproductive barriers are poorly understood. We examined the nature of isolation between Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis, sister species of monkeyflowers. Studied reproductive barriers include: ecogeographic isolation; pollinator isolation (pollinator fidelity in a natural mixed population); pollen competition (seed set and hybrid production from experimental interspecific, intraspecific, and mixed pollinations in the greenhouse); and relative hybrid fitness (germination, survivorship, percent flowering, biomass, pollen viability, and seed mass in the greenhouse). Additionally, the rate of hybridization in nature was estimated from seed collections in a sympatric population. We found substantial reproductive barriers at multiple stages in the life history of M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. Using range maps constructed from herbarium collections, we estimated that the different ecogeographic distributions of the species result in 58.7% reproductive isolation. Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis are visited by different pollinators, and in a region of sympatry 97.6% of pollinator foraging bouts were specific to one species or the other. In the greenhouse, interspecific pollinations generated nearly 50% fewer seeds than intraspecific controls. Mixed pollinations of M. cardinalis flowers yielded >75% parentals even when only one-quarter of the pollen treatment consisted of M. cardinalis pollen. In contrast, both species had similar siring success on M. lewisii flowers. The observed 99.915% occurrence of parental M. lewisii and M. cardinalis in seeds collected from a sympatric population is nearly identical to that expected, based upon our field observations of pollinator behavior and our laboratory experiments of pollen competition. F1 hybrids exhibited reduced germination rates, high survivorship and reproduction, and low pollen and ovule fertility. In aggregate, the studied reproductive barriers prevent, on average, 99.87% of gene flow, with most reproductive isolation occurring prior to hybrid formation. Our results suggest that ecological factors resulting from adaptive divergence are the primary isolating barriers in this system. Additional studies of taxa at varying degrees of evolutionary divergence are needed to identify the relative importance of pre- and postzygotic isolating mechanisms in speciation. PMID:12940357

Ramsey, Justin; Bradshaw, H D; Schemske, Douglas W

2003-07-01

5

Demography of central and marginal populations of monkeyflowers (Mimulus cardinalis and M. lewisii).  

PubMed

Every species occupies a limited geographic area, but how spatiotemporal environmental variation affects individual and population fitness to create range limits is not well understood. Because range boundaries arise where, on average, populations are more likely to go extinct than to persist, range limits are an inherently population-level problem for which a demographic framework is useful. In this study, I compare demographic parameters and population dynamics between central and marginal populations of monkeyflowers, Mimulus cardinalis and M. lewisii, along an elevation gradient spanning both species' ranges. Central and marginal populations of both species differed in survival and fecundity. For M. lewisii, these components of fitness were higher in central than in marginal populations, but for M. cardinalis the converse was true. To assess spatiotemporal variation in population dynamics, I used transition matrix models to estimate asymptotic population growth rates (lambda) and found that population growth rates of M. lewisii were highest at the range center and reduced at the range margin. Population growth rates of M. cardinalis were highest at the range margin and greatly reduced at the range center. Life table response analysis decomposed spatiotemporal variation in lambda into contributions from each transition between life stages, finding that transitions from large nonreproductive and reproductive plants to the seed class and stasis in the reproductive class made the largest contributions to spatial differences in lambda. These transitions had only low to moderate sensitivities, indicating that differences in projected population growth rates resulted mainly from observed differences in transition matrix parameters and their underlying vital rates. PMID:16937641

Angert, Amy Lauren

2006-08-01

6

Bulk Segregant Analysis of an Induced Floral Mutant Identifies a MIXTA-Like R2R3 MYB Controlling Nectar Guide Formation in Mimulus lewisii  

PubMed Central

The genetic and developmental basis of many ecologically important floral traits (e.g., carotenoid pigmentation, corolla tube structure, nectar volume, pistil and stamen length) remains poorly understood. Here we analyze a chemically induced floral mutant of Mimulus lewisii through bulk segregant analysis and transgenic experiments and identify a MIXTA-like R2R3 MYB gene that controls nectar guide formation in M. lewisii flowers, which involves epidermal cell development and carotenoid pigmentation. PMID:23564201

Yuan, Yao-Wu; Sagawa, Janelle M.; Di Stilio, Veronica S.; Bradshaw, H. D.

2013-01-01

7

The effects of nutrient addition on floral characters and pollination in two subalpine plants, Ipomopsis aggregata and Linum lewisii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of soil and pollination resources are main determinants of fitness in many flowering plants, but the degree\\u000a to which each is limiting and how they interact to affect plant fitness is unknown for many species. We performed resource\\u000a (water and nutrients) and pollination (open and supplemental) treatments on two species of flowering plants, Ipomopsis aggregata and Linum lewisii,

Laura A. Burkle; Rebecca E. Irwin

2009-01-01

8

The evolution of species' distributions: reciprocal transplants across the elevation ranges of Mimulus cardinalis and M. lewisii.  

PubMed

Every species occupies a limited geographic area, but it remains unclear why traits that limit distribution do not evolve to allow range expansion. Hypotheses for the evolutionary stability of geographic ranges assume that species are maladapted at the range boundary and unfit beyond the current range, but this assumption has rarely been tested. To examine how fitness varies across species' ranges, we reciprocally transplanted two species of monkeyflowers, Mimulus cardinalis and M. lewisii, within and beyond their present elevation ranges. We used individuals of known parentage from populations collected across the elevation ranges of both species to examine whether populations are adapted to position within the range. For both species we found the greatest average fitness at elevations central within the range, reduced fitness at the range margin, and zero or near-zero fitness when transplanted beyond their present elevation range limits. However, the underlying causes of fitness variation differed between the species. At high elevations beyond its range, M. cardinalis displayed reduced growth and fecundity, whereas at low elevations M. lewisii experienced high mortality. Weak differences in performance were observed among populations within each species and these were not related to elevation of origin. Low fitness of both species at their range margin and weak differentiation among populations within each species suggest that adaptation to the environment at and beyond the range margin is hindered, illustrating that range margins provide an interesting system in which to study limits to adaptation. PMID:16329239

Angert, A L; Schemske, D W

2005-08-01

9

Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Achillea chrysocoma Essential Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil of Achillea chrysocoma Friv. was investigated for composition and antibacterial activity. Twenty-eight identified compounds constituted 91.5% of the oil. The main compounds of the oil were borneol (10.1%), terpinen-4-ol (9.2%), cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (8.2%) and trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (7.9%). Antibacterial tests showed pronounced activity of the oil against Gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Nebojsa Simic; Radosav Palic; Vlatka Vajs; Slobodan Milosavljevic; Dejan Djokovic

2000-01-01

10

Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Achillea asplenifolia Essential Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil of a wild growing population of Achillea asplenifolia Vent, was studied for yield, composition and antibacterial activity. The major components in the oil were ?-caryophyllene (17.6%), germacrene D (15.6%) and chamazulene (13.3%). In an antibacterial diffusion assay, the oil showed activity against all tested Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus.

Nebojsa Simic; Radosav Palic; Vlatka Vajs; Slobodan Milosavljevic; Dejan Djokovic

2002-01-01

11

Antispermatogenic effect of Achillea millefolium L. in mice.  

PubMed

The effect of an ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally, for 20 days) and a hydroalcoholic extract (300 mg/kg/day, orally, for 30 days) of Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow) flowers on the spermatogenesis of Swiss mice was studied by evaluating morphologic characteristics with the light and electron microscopes. The alterations observed were exfoliation of immature germ cells, germ cell necrosis, and seminiferous tubule vacuolization. Animals treated with the extracts had an increased number of metaphases in the germ epithelium that might be due to cytotoxic substances or substances stimulating cell proliferation. PMID:9883387

Montanari, T; de Carvalho, J E; Dolder, H

1998-11-01

12

Phytochemical Investigations on Chemical Constituents of Achillea tenuifolia Lam  

PubMed Central

Achillea tenuifolia Lam. (Asteraceae) afforded a methanolic extract from which after fractionation in solvents with different polarities, two known flavones 3’, 5- dihydroxy- 4’, 6, 7- trimethoxy flavone (eupatorine, compound 3), 5- hydroxy- 3’,4’, 6, 7- tetramethoxyflavone (compound 4), besides stearic acid (compound 1), lupeol (compound 2), daucosterol (?- sitosterol 3-O- ?- D- glucopyranoside, compound 5), 2, 4- dihydroxy methyl benzoate (compound 6) were isolated for the first time. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by means of different spectroscopic methods such as UV, IR, Mass and 1H- NMR (1D and 2D) and 13C-NMR. For further confirming the structures of isolated compounds, comparison of the spectral data of them with those reported in the litratures have been done.

Moradkhani, Shirin; Kobarfard, Farzad; Ayatollahi, Seyed Abdol Majid

2014-01-01

13

Antifungal and herbicidal properties of essential oils and n-hexane extracts of Achillea gypsicola Hub-Mor. and Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Achillea gypsicola Hub-Mor., Achillea biebersteinii Afan. and n-hexane extracts obtained from the flowers of A. gypsicola and A. biebersteinii Afan. was analyzed by GC and GC–MS. Camphor (40.17–23.56%, respectively), 1,8-cineole (22.01–38.09%, respectively), piperitone (11.29–0.37%, respectively), borneol (9.50–5.88%, respectively) and ?-terpineol (1.56–5.15%, respectively) were found to be

Saban Kordali; Ahmet Cakir; Tulay Aytas Akcin; Ebru Mete; Adnan Akcin; Tuba Aydin; Hamdullah Kilic

2009-01-01

14

Volatile compounds from Achillea tenorii (Grande) growing in the Majella National Park (Italy).  

PubMed

This work presents the first reported phytochemical study on the hydro-distilled essential oil from Achillea tenorii (Grande), collected in the protected area of Majella National Park (Italy). The composition of the essential oil was very different from those reported for the other species of Achillea nobilis group, being constituted mainly by oxygenated monoterpenes, among which ketones, alcohols and acetates compounds were the most representative. The marker compounds of A. nobilis group were not detected while the most abundant phytoconstituents were ?-thujone (29.7%), trans-sabinol (18.6%) and trans-sabinyl acetate (15.7%), revealing a composition quite similar to that of Artemisia absinthium. PMID:25103502

Venditti, Alessandro; Maggi, Filippo; Vittori, Sauro; Papa, Fabrizio; Serrilli, Anna Maria; Di Cecco, Mirella; Ciaschetti, Giampiero; Mandrone, Manuela; Poli, Ferruccio; Bianco, Armandodoriano

2014-01-01

15

Antibacterial activity of Achillea clavennae essential oil against respiratory tract pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of Achillea clavennae was investigated for its antibacterial activity against some respiratory tract pathogens. Maximum activity was observed against Klebsiella pneumoniae and penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. The oil also exhibited strong activity against Gram (?) Haemophilus influenzae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gram (+) Streptococcus pyogenes was the most resistant to the oil.

Mirjana Sko?ibuši?; Nada Bezi?; Valerija Dunki?; Ani Radoni?

2004-01-01

16

Anti-Neuroinflammatory effects of the extract of Achillea fragrantissima  

PubMed Central

Background The neuroinflammatory process plays a central role in the initiation and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, and involves the activation of brain microglial cells. During the neuroinflammatory process, microglial cells release proinflammatory mediators such as cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). In the present study, extracts from 66 different desert plants were tested for their effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - induced production of NO by primary microglial cells. The extract of Achillea fragrantissima (Af), which is a desert plant that has been used for many years in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases, was the most efficient extract, and was further studied for additional anti-neuroinflammatory effects in these cells. Methods In the present study, the ethanolic extract prepared from Af was tested for its anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated primary cultures of brain microglial cells. The levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin1? (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) secreted by the cells were determined by reverse transcriptase-PCR and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. NO levels secreted by the activate cells were measured using Griess reagent, ROS levels were measured by 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA), MMP-9 activity was measured using gel zymography, and the protein levels of the proinflammatory enzymes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured by Western blot analysis. Cell viability was assessed using Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the media conditioned by the cells or by the crystal violet cell staining. Results We have found that out of the 66 desert plants tested, the extract of Af was the most efficient extract and inhibited ~70% of the NO produced by the LPS-activated microglial cells, without affecting cell viability. In addition, this extract inhibited the LPS - elicited expression of the proinflammatory mediators IL-1?, TNF?, MMP-9, COX-2 and iNOS in these cells. Conclusions Thus, phytochemicals present in the Af extract could be beneficial in preventing/treating neurodegenerative diseases in which neuroinflammation is part of the pathophysiology. PMID:22018032

2011-01-01

17

The protective effects of Achillea L. species native in Turkey against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage in human erythrocytes and leucocytes.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of infusions prepared from 15 Achillea (Asteraceae) species against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage in human erythrocytes and leucocytes used in traditional Turkish medicine. CAT, SOD and GPx activities, effects of LPO and GSH levels of the infusions on erythrocytes and leucocytes were assessed. The results indicated that all infusions of Achillea species were effective on antioxidant enzyme systems of erythrocytes and leucocytes when compared with H(2)O(2) group. Achillea falcata was the most effective one on CAT, GPx and SOD enzyme systems of erythrocytes. Among plant infusions, Achillea crithmifolia and Achillea nobilis subsp. neilrechii showed the highest activities on CAT, while Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica on SOD, Achillea teretifolia on GPx and Achillea nobilis subsp. sipylea on LPO enzyme systems of leucocytes. The present results demonstrate that infusions of Achillea species are a potential source of natural antioxidants for treatment and prevention of diseases in which LPO takes place. PMID:16118043

Konyalioglu, Sibel; Karamenderes, Canan

2005-11-14

18

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Achillea millefolium L. Isolated by Different Distillation Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the essential oil from flowering tops of Achillea millefolium L. isolated by different distillation methods was studied. Samples were hydrodistilled with Clevenger-type (HD), simultaneous micro-distillation-extraction (SMDE), and microwave (MAHD) apparatus. The yields were 0.46% ± 0.03 for the HD and 0.48% ± 0.03 for the MAHD (v\\/w, volume\\/dry weight). The oils were analyzed by GC and

Carlo I. G. Tuberoso; Adam Kowalczyk

2009-01-01

19

Anti-inflammatory activity of Achillea and Ruscus topical gel on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory activity of Achillea and Ruscus extracts was studied in comparison with diclofenac sodium topical gel (diclosal Emulgel), using the carrageenan induced paw edema model in Albino rats. Gel formulation was prepared containing 6% of each extract in gel base, namely sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC). The kinetics of drug release from the prepared formulation was studied separately in each case. Results showed that the release follows the Higuchi square root equation. The pharmacological screening revealed that the percent reduction of edema for Achillea extract and Ruscus extract were 48.1% and 18.8%, respectively, while diclosal Emulgel produced 47% reduction of edema. PMID:17203864

Maswadeh, Hamzah M; Semreen, Mohammad H; Naddaf, Ahmad R

2006-01-01

20

Sources of Variation in Leaf Shape among Two Populations of Achillea Lanulosa  

PubMed Central

Achillea lanulosa has complex, highly dissected leaves that vary in shape and size along an altitudinal gradient. Plants from a high and an intermediate altitude population were clonally replicated and grown in a controlled environment at warm and cool conditions under bright light. There were genetic differences among populations and among individuals within populations in leaf size and shape. Heritabilities for leaf size and shape characters were moderate. Leaves of the lower altitude population were larger and differed from the higher altitude plants in both coarse and fine shape. Plastic response to temperature of the growth environment paralleled the genetic differentiation between low and high altitude populations. There was no apparent trade-off between genetic control over morphology and the capacity for directional plastic response to the environment. Differences in leaf dissection and size at contrasting altitudes in this species are the result of both genetic divergence among populations and of acclimative responses to local environments. PMID:1541395

Gurevitch, J.

1992-01-01

21

Evaluation of the Wound Healing Potential of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae) by In Vivo Excision and Incision Models  

PubMed Central

Achillea species are widely used for diarrhea, abdominal pain, stomachache and healing of wounds in folk medicine. To evaluate the wound healing activity of the plant, extracts were prepared with different solvents; hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively from the roots of Achillea biebersteinii. Linear incision by using tensiometer and circular excision wound models were employed on mice and rats. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with the standard skin ointment Madecassol. The n-hexane extract treated groups of animals showed 84.2% contraction, which was close to contraction value of the reference drug Madecassol (100%). On the other hand the same extract on incision wound model demonstrated a significant increase (40.1%) in wound tensile strength as compared to other groups. The results of histoptological examination supported the outcome of linear incision and circular excision wound models as well. The experimental data demonstrated that A. biebersteinii displayed remarkable wound healing activity. PMID:19546149

Akkol, Esra Kupeli; Koca, Ufuk; Pesin, Ipek; Yilmazer, Demet

2011-01-01

22

Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss  

PubMed Central

Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982) at test concentrations of 1000 ?g/ml, 100 ?g/ml, 10 ?g/ml, 7.5 ?g/ml, 5.0 ?g/ml, 2.5 ?g/ml and 1.25 ?g/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA) and Teucrium stocksianum (CST) had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 ?g/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity) was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST) has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development. PMID:22051373

2011-01-01

23

Antimony accumulation in Achillea ageratum, Plantago lanceolata and Silene vulgaris growing in an old Sb-mining area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary data of a biogeochemical survey concerning antimony transfer from soil to plants in an abandoned Sb-mining area are presented. Achillea ageratum, Plantago lanceolata and Silene vulgaris can strongly accumulate antimony when its extractable fraction in the soil is high (139–793 mg\\/kg). A. ageratum accumulates in basal leaves (1367 mg\\/kg) and inflorescences (1105 mg\\/kg), P. lanceolata in roots (1150 mg\\/kg)

F Baroni; A Boscagli; G Protano; F Riccobono

2000-01-01

24

Effects of Achillea wilhelmsii on rat's gastric acid output at basal, vagotomized, and vagal-stimulated conditions  

PubMed Central

Background: Achillea is a plant widely used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. There are some reports on gastrointestinal effects of Achillea, such as antiulcer, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, choleretic, and antispasmodic. To investigate the effects of aqueous–ethanol extract of Achillea wilhelmsii on rat’s gastric acid output in basal, vagotomized (VX), and vagal-stimulated conditions. Materials and Methods: 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: control and test. Gastroduodenostomy was performed for each rat. Gastric content was collected for 30 min by washout technique. One milliliter of 3 doses (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg) was introduced into the stomach of each rat in the test group and the same volume of saline was used in the control group. Total titratable acid was measured by a titrator. Results: The extract inhibited acid output significantly in basal condition by 1 and 2 mg/kg doses (P < 0.05) but in VX condition this inhibitory effect on acid output disappeared and the 1 and 2 mg/kg doses increased acid output significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). The extract showed a reduction in the acid output in vagal-stimulated condition by 1 and 2 mg/kg doses, which were not statistically significant. Conclusion: These results showed an inhibitory effect of A. wilhelmsii extract on acid output in basal condition. The inhibitory effect of the extract was exerted via gastric vagal parasympathetic nerve. PMID:21120029

Niazmand, S.; Khooshnood, E.; Derakhshan, M.

2010-01-01

25

A new ?-glucosidase inhibitor from Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch. Bip. growing in Egypt.  

PubMed

?-Glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) represent a class of oral antidiabetic drugs that delay the absorption of ingested carbohydrates, reducing the postprandial glucose and insulin peaks to reach normoglycaemia. In this study, a bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch. Bip. growing in Egypt led to the isolation of a new potent AGI; acacetin-6-C-(6?-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranoside)-8-C-?-L-arabinopyranoside (5) alongside with four known compounds: chondrillasterol (1), quercetin-3,6,7-trimethyl ether (chrysosplenol-D) (2), isovitexin-4'-methyl ether (3) and isovitexin (4). The structure of the new compound (5) was elucidated on the basis of its spectral data, including HR-FAB-MS, UV, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC and HMBC. The new compound (5) exhibited the most significant ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC?? 1.5 ± 0.09 ?g/mL). Under the assay conditions, all the tested compounds were more potent than the positive control acarbose (IC50 224 ± 2.31 ?g/mL). PMID:24666348

Ezzat, Shahira M; Salama, Maha M

2014-01-01

26

Antimicrobial efficacy of Achillea ligustica All. (Asteraceae) essential oils against reference and isolated oral microorganisms.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of Achillea ligustica essential oils against several oral microorganisms in comparison with a commercial essential oil-containing mouthrinse (Listerine(®)) and clove oil (containing 89% eugenol). The inhibition efficacy of A. ligustica essential oils alone and in combination with Listerine(®) was evaluated by the micro-dilution method. The most susceptible microorganisms were Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Candida albicans. The efficacy was similar to that of the clove oil. The antiseptic mouthwash Listerine(®) did not exert a strong inhibition on microbial strains tested, whereas its effectiveness increased significantly when essential oil was added. The study provides additional evidence for the in vitro inhibitory activity of A. ligustica essential oils on several pathogens, suggesting their usefulness in mouthrinse formulations as an adjunct to mechanical oral hygiene regimens. Essential oil-containing mouthrinses can be beneficial, safe components of daily oral health routines, representing an efficient and without side effect alternative to prevent and control oral infections. PMID:22253099

Cecchini, Cinzia; Silvi, Stefania; Cresci, Alberto; Piciotti, Andrea; Caprioli, Giovanni; Papa, Fabrizio; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

2012-01-01

27

Chemical composition and antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities of the essential oil of Achillea ligustica all.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oil from flowering tops of Achillea ligustica All. was studied. Samples were collected in different localities of Sardinia (Italy) and hydrodistilled both with Clevenger-type and with simultaneous distillation-extraction apparatus. The yields ranged between 0.88 +/- 0.06 and 0.43 +/- 0.02% (vol/dry wt). The essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS, and a total of 96 components were detected. From a qualitative point of view, irrelevant differences between samples were observed. Strong chemical variability depending on the origin of the samples was observed. The major compounds found were santolina alcohol (6.7-21.8%, for the first time detected in A. ligustica), borneol (3.4-20.8%), sabinol (2.1-15.5%), trans-sabinyl acetate (0.9-17.6%), alpha-thujone (0.4-25.8%), and, among sesquiterpenes, viridiflorol (0.7-3.6%). No significant differences were detected between essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation-extraction with CH2Cl2 and n-hexane. Antioxidant activity as DPPH radical scavenging activity was expressed in TEAC and ranged between 0.40 and 0.88 mmol/L. The antimicrobial and antifungal activities were investigated on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Penicillium commune, Fusarium oxysporum, Rizoctonia solani, and Aspergillus flavus, showing low activity. PMID:16366708

Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Kowalczyk, Adam; Coroneo, Valentina; Russo, Maria Teresa; Dessì, Sandro; Cabras, Paolo

2005-12-28

28

Antiprotozoal activity of Achillea ptarmica (Asteraceae) and its main alkamide constituents.  

PubMed

In the course of our ongoing screening of plants of the family Asteraceae for antiprotozoal activity, a CH2Cl2-extract from the flowering aerial parts of Achillea ptarmica L. (sneezewort yarrow) was found to be active in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC50 = 0.67 µg/mL) and Plasmodium falciparum (IC50 = 6.6 ?g/mL). Bioassay guided fractionation led to the isolation and identification of five alkamides from the most active fractions. Pellitorine and 8,9-Z-dehyropellitorine are the main components of the extract. Beside these olefinic acid amides, four alkamides with diene-diyne structures were isolated. All alkamides were tested for antiprotozoal activity in vitro. Pellitorine was the most active compound so far within this study against P. falciparum (IC50 = 3.3 µg/mL), while 8,9-Z-dehydropellitorine was most active against T. b. rhodesiense (IC50 = 2.0 µg/mL). The activity of pure pellitorine against Plasmodium is higher than that of the crude extract and thus explains the activity of the latter. None of the isolated alkamides, however, was as active against T. b. rhodesiense as the crude extract whose antitrypanosomal activity must therfore be due to a synergistic effect of the isolated compounds or to more active yet to be identified constituents. PMID:24853616

Althaus, Julia B; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Schmidt, Thomas J

2014-01-01

29

Misidentification of tansy, Tanacetum macrophyllum, as yarrow, Achillea grandifolia: a health risk or benefit?  

PubMed

Tansy, Tanacetum macrophyllum (Waldst. & Kit.) Sch. Bip., is often misidentified by herb collectors as yarrow, Achillea grandifolia Friv. With the former, cases of poisoning induced by its ingestion are well documented, but the latter is widely used for ethnopharmacological purposes. The aim of this study was to estimate, based on the volatile metabolite profiles of the two species, the potential health risk connected with their misidentification. GC and GC-MS analysis of the essential oils hydrodistilled using a Clevenger-type apparatus from A. grandifolia, T. macrophyllum, and two plant samples (reputedly of A. grandifolia, but in fact mixtures of A. grandifolia and T. macrophyllum) obtained from a local market, resulted in the identification of 215 different compounds. The main constituents of A. grandifolia oil were ascaridole (15.5%), alpha-thujone (7.5%), camphor (15.6%), borneol (5.2%) and (Z)-jasmone (6.4%), and of T. macrophyllum oil, 1,8-cineole (8.6%), camphor (6.4%), borneol (9.1%), isobornyl acetate (9.5%), copaborneol (4.2%) and gamma-eudesmol (6.2%). The compositions of the oils extracted from the samples obtained from the market were intermediate to those of A. grandifolia and T. macrophyllum. Significant differences in the corresponding volatile profiles and the literature data concerning the known activities of the pure constituents of the oils, suggested that the pharmacological action of the investigated species (or their unintentional mixtures) would be notably different. It seems, however, that misidentification of T. macrophyllum as A. grandifolia does not represent a health risk and that the absence of the toxic alpha-thujone from T. macrophyllum oil may in fact be regarded as a benefit. PMID:20184036

Radulovi?, Niko S; Blagojevi?, Polina D; Skropeta, Danielle; Zarubica, Aleksandra R; Zlatkovi?, Bojan K; Pali?, Radosav M

2010-01-01

30

Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products?-?part 1: Achillea millefolium-Curcuma longa.  

PubMed

This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 1: Achillea millefolium L.-Curcuma longa L. PMID:24621152

Calapai, Gioacchino; Miroddi, Marco; Minciullo, Paola L; Caputi, Achille P; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

2014-07-01

31

Antimony accumulation in Achillea ageratum, Plantago lanceolata and Silene vulgaris growing in an old Sb-mining area.  

PubMed

Preliminary data of a biogeochemical survey concerning antimony transfer from soil to plants in an abandoned Sb-mining area are presented. Achillea ageratum, Plantago lanceolata and Silene vulgaris can strongly accumulate antimony when its extractable fraction in the soil is high (139-793 mg/kg). A. ageratum accumulates in basal leaves (1367 mg/kg) and inflorescences (1105 mg/kg), P. lanceolata in roots (1150 mg/kg) and S. vulgaris in shoots (1164 mg/kg). In these plant species, the efficiency of antimony accumulation decreases when the antimony availability in the soil is high. In A. ageratum and S. vulgaris, the death of the epigeal target part at the end of the growing season contributes to a reduction of the antimony load in the plant. A study to test the use of these species as bioindicators of antimony availability in soil is suggested by our results. PMID:15092905

Baroni, F; Boscagli, A; Protano, G; Riccobono, F

2000-08-01

32

Differential growth inhibitory effects of highly oxygenated guaianolides isolated from the Middle Eastern indigenous plant Achillea falcata in HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants play a crucial role in traditional medicine and in the maintenance of human health worldwide. Sesquiterpene lactones represent an interesting group of plant-derived compounds that are currently being tested as lead drugs in cancer clinical trials. Achillea falcata is a medicinal plant indigenous to the Middle Eastern region and belongs to the Asteraceae family, which is known to be rich in sesquiterpene lactones. We subjected Achillea falcata extracts to bioassay-guided fractionation against the growth of HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells and identified four secotanapartholides, namely 3-?-methoxy-isosecotanapartholide (1), isosecotanapartholide (2), tanaphallin (3), and 8-hydroxy-3-methoxyisosecotanapartholide (4). Three highly oxygenated guaianolides were isolated for the first time from Achillea falcata, namely rupin A (5), chrysartemin B (6), and 1?, 2?-epoxy-3?,4?,10?-trihydroxyguaian-6?,12-olide (7). These sesquiterpene lactones showed no or minor cytotoxicity while exhibiting promising anticancer effects against HCT-116 cells. Further structure-activity relationship studies related the bioactivity of the tested compounds to their skeleton, their lipophilicity, and to the type of functional groups neighboring the main alkylating center of the molecule. PMID:23860275

Tohme, Rita; Al Aaraj, Lamis; Ghaddar, Tarek; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala; Saliba, Najat A; Darwiche, Nadine

2013-01-01

33

Essential oil composition of five collections of Achillea biebersteinii from central Turkey and their antifungal and insecticidal activity.  

PubMed

The composition of the essential oils hydrodistilled from the aerial parts of five Achillea biebersteinii Afan samples, collected in central Turkey from Konya, Isparta and Ankara, were analyzed both by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eighty-four components were identified, representing 87 to 99% of the total oil composition. The identified major components were 1,8-cineole (9-37%), camphor (16-30%) and p-cymene (1-27%). Two samples differed in piperitone (11%) and ascaridol (4%) content. The five A. biebersteinii essential oils were subsequently evaluated for their antifungal activity against the strawberry anthracnose-causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides using the direct overlay bioautography assay. The essential oils showed no antifungal activity at 80 and 160 microg/spot. In addition, A. biebersteinii oils and their major compounds were subsequently investigated against Aedes aegypti first instar larvae in a high throughput bioassay. Among the oils, only one sample from Ankara showed a notable larvacidal effect on Ae. aegypti larvae. The major compounds, 1,8-cineole, camphor and p-cymene, exhibited low mosquito larval activity, and thus the minor compounds are probably responsible for the observed activity against Ae. aegypti larvae. The oils showed weak activity against adult Ae. aegypti. PMID:21615036

Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betül; Gürbüz, Ilhan; Demirci, Fatih; Becnel, James J; Wedge, David E; Ba?er, Kemal Hüsnü Can

2011-05-01

34

Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of wild and cultivated Moroccan Achillea ageratum L.: a rare and threatened medicinal species.  

PubMed

The essential oils of leaves and flowers of the wild and cultivated Moroccan Achillea ageratum L., a rare and threatened medicinal species, were examined by GC/MS, and their chemical compositions were compared. At least nine components were identified in both wild and cultivated A. ageratum oils, representing more than 95% of the oils. Artemisyl acetate (62.34-78.79%), yomogi alcohol (4.89-12.40%), santolina alcohol (4.86-11.77%), and artemisia alcohol (3.36-7.04%) were the major compounds. Terpene-alcohol proportion was higher in wild A. ageratum than in cultivated A. ageratum. The antibacterial analysis showed that both oils presented high activity against all the studied Gram-positive strains in a range of MIC values from 2.55 to 7.02?mg/ml, but they appeared not effective against the tested Gram-negative ones (MIC values 20.40-41.10?mg/ml). They also exhibited remarkable antifungal activities against Candida species with MIC values ranging from 5.83 to 8.42?mg/ml. From these results, it was concluded that domestication of this threatened medicinal species using clonal propagation did not significantly affect its chemical composition and consequently its antimicrobial properties. PMID:22422527

El Bouzidi, Laila; Abbad, Abdelaziz; Hassani, Lahcen; Fattarsi, Karine; Leach, David; Markouk, Mohammed; Legendre, Laurent; Bekkouche, Khalid

2012-03-01

35

Antioxidant effect of Achillea wilhelmsii extract on pentylenetetrazole (seizure model)-induced oxidative brain damage in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

An important role for oxidative stress both as a consequence and as a cause of epileptic seizures has been suggested. Since Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii) has been considered to have the antioxidant effects as well as central nervous system depressant properties, the anti-seizure effects of the plant extract in addition to its effects on brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures model. Male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: (1) Control, (2) PTZ, (3-5) A. wilhelmsii extract groups (AWE). The animals in groups 2-5 were treated with saline or AWE (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg) before single injection of PTZ (90 mg/kg). Latency to first minimal clonic seizure (MCS) and the first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) were recorded. The brain tissues were then removed for biochemical measurements. MCS latencies in extract treated groups were not different from PTZ group. The animals treated by 200 mg/kg of AWE had a significant higher GTCS latency in comparison with PTZ group (P < 0.001). The MDA levels in PTZ group were significantly higher and the total thiol concentrations were lower than control animals. Pretreatment with all 3 doses of the extract resulted in a significant reduction in the MDA levels (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.001) and a significant elevation in total thiol concentration, as compared with PTZ group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). The present study showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii possesses an antioxidant effect in the brain in PTZ induced seizure model. PMID:24968581

Hosseini, Mahmoud; Harandizadeh, Fatemeh; Niazamand, Saeed; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Mahmoudabady, Maryam

2013-01-01

36

Chemical composition and free radical scavenging activity of the essential oil of Achillea ligustica growing wild in Lipari (Aeolian Islands, Sicily).  

PubMed

In the present study the chemical composition of the essential oils from aerial parts and flowers of Achillea ligustica All., collected in Lipari (Aeolian Islands) was evaluated by GC and GC-MS. (Z)-Chrysanthenyl acetate was the most abundant component of both oils (29.6% in A1 and 27.8% in F1), followed by viridiflorol (16.8% in A1 and 21.6% in F1), bornyl acetate (8.7% in A1 and 11.6% in F1) and 1,8-cineole (7.4% in A1 and 9.3% in F1). A comparison was made of the composition of the different populations studied so far. Futhermore, the free radical scavenging activity of the oil was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. PMID:24427958

Rouis, Zyed; Maggio, Antonella; Venditti, Alessandro; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

2013-11-01

37

Composition and biological activity of essential oil of Achillea ligustica All. (Asteraceae) naturalized in central Italy: ideal candidate for anti-cariogenic formulations.  

PubMed

Essential oil from flowers (FL) and vegetative parts (VP) of Achillea ligustica (Asteraceae), naturalized after cultivation in central Italy, was investigated by GC-FID and GC-MS. The most abundant components were linalool, viridiflorol, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineole and terpinen-4-ol. The antioxidant assays (DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays, and beta-carotene bleaching test) demonstrated a moderate activity of essential oils. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the broth micro-dilution method on 6 microbial strains and showed to be quite strong against the cariogenic Gram-positive Streptococcus mutans, suggesting that this essential oil could be a valid candidate for anti-cariogenic formulations. Moderate cytotoxic activity was observed in assays on four tumour cell lines by MTT assay. PMID:19379797

Maggi, Filippo; Bramucci, Massimo; Cecchini, Cinzia; Coman, Maria M; Cresci, Alberto; Cristalli, Gloria; Lupidi, Giulio; Papa, Fabrizio; Quassinti, Luana; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro

2009-09-01

38

Structure-activity relationship of seco-tanapartholides isolated from Achillea falcata for inhibition of HaCaT cell growth.  

PubMed

Four sesquiterpene lactones were isolated from Achillea falcata, through bioassay-guided fractionation, based on their differential ability to affect HaCaT cell growth. Identified seco-tanapartholides: 3-beta-methoxy-iso-seco-tanapartholide (1), tanaphillin (2), iso-seco-tanapartholide (3), and 8-hydroxy-3-methoxy-iso-seco-tanaparatholide (4) were found to differentially decrease keratinocyte cell viability. In addition, the stereoselectivity, lipophilicity, and number and position of hydroxyl groups present in these compounds were correlated with their biological activities for HaCaT cell growth inhibition. Statistical analyses confirmed an enhanced potency of the beta-OH iso-seco-tanapartholide over the alpha:beta-OH diastereoisomeric mixture. The highest potency, however, was mainly the function of the enhanced lipophilicity of the molecule. PMID:19464086

Ghantous, Akram; Nasser, Niveen; Saab, Ihab; Darwiche, Nadine; Saliba, Najat A

2009-09-01

39

Achillea lanulosa western yarrow  

E-print Network

, stoloniferous · Gray leaves · Heads of flowers resemble pads on cat's feet #12;Arnica cordifolia heartleaf arnica · Yellow flowers · Heart-shaped leaves · Opposite leaves · Long rhizomes #12;Artemisia ludoviciana

40

ORIGINAL PAPER Induced mutations affecting pollinator choice in Mimulus lewisii  

E-print Network

+Business Media B.V. 2011 Abstract The flowering plants are one of the most phe- notypically varied and wide and pollinator behavior, we observed the for- aging behavior of bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) when presented 29­80% of the rate rel- ative to wild-type flowers, suggesting that effective recruitment

Bradshaw, Toby

41

Plant List Carnegie Mellon University Achillea umbellate  

E-print Network

Southside Seedling Sedum acre `Aureum' Sedum cauticola `Bertram Anderson' Sedum floriferum Weihenstephaner Gold Sedum hybridum Immergrünchen Sedum refexum Sedum cristatum Sedum forsterianum Sedum sexangulare Sedum spurium Album Suberbum Sedum spurium Fuldaglut Sedum `Matrona' Silene maritime Thymus serpyllum

Andrews, Peter B.

42

Latin Name Common Name Achillea millefolium 'Summer Pastels' Yarrow  

E-print Network

' Butterfly Flower Geranium maculatum Wild Geranium Gypsophila paniculata 'Perfecta' Baby's Breath MSU Gardens Plant Sale 2013 Perennials Inventory #12;Latin Name Common Name Gypsophila repens White Prostrate Baby Penstemon x hybrida Dark Towers Beardstongue Persicaria polymorpha Giant Fleeceflower Phlox paniculata 'Nora

43

Anti-inflammatory Activity of New Guaiane Acid Derivatives from Achillea Coarctata  

E-print Network

, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt b Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia), in addition to three known compounds, ligustolide-A (3), arteludovicinolide-A (4) and austricin (5 enhanced by treatment with 1 and 2. Additionally, treatment with compounds 2 and 4 led to a potentially

Paré, Paul W.

44

ORIGINAL ARTICLE doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2008.00471.x  

E-print Network

limits. Here we examine sister species of the monkeyflowers Mimulus cardinalis and M. lewisii to identify of California, M. cardinalis is found from low to mid elevation and M. lewisii is found from mid to high

Bradshaw, Toby

45

The genetics of adaptive evolution  

E-print Network

/anther #12;Components of reproductive isolation between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis Geography and ecology 58-1534. #12;Components of reproductive isolation between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis Geography and ecology 58 lewisii 1200-3100m cardinalis 30-1400m #12;#12;Jamestown (lo = cardinalis habitat) White Wolf (hi

Bradshaw, Toby

46

PII:S0305-1978(97)00027-6 BiochemicalSystematicsandEcology,Vol.25, No.5, pp.437-443,1997  

E-print Network

--Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis are closely related, but M. lewisii is pink-flowered and pollinated by bumblebees while M. cardinalis is red-flowered and pollinated by hummingbirds. Pollinator preference are characterized from M. lewisii and 114.cardinalis petal lobes by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC

Bradshaw, Toby

47

The effects of nutrient addition on floral characters and pollination in two subalpine plants, Ipomopsis aggregata  

E-print Network

, Ipomopsis aggregata and Linum lewisii Laura A. Burkle Ã? Rebecca E. Irwin Received: 19 February 2008 and supplemental) treatments on two species of flowering plants, Ipomopsis aggregata and Linum lewisii. Resource addition affected I. aggregata and L. lewisii differently. Ipomopsis aggregata, a mono- carp

Burkle, Laura

48

Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Achillea nobilis L. subsp. sipylea and subsp. neilreichii  

Microsoft Academic Search

plant materials are not known in some studies. The present study was carried out for the first time to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of A. nobilis subsp. sipylea and A. nobilis subsp. neilreichii collected from Turkey, and their antimicrobial activities were tested against eight Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria strains and Candida albicans. The percentage

C. Karamenderes; N. U. Karabay Yavasoglu; U. Zeybek

2007-01-01

49

2003 The Society for the Study of Evolution. All rights reserved. Evolution, 57(7), 2003, pp. 15201534  

E-print Network

. CARDINALIS (PHRYMACEAE) JUSTIN RAMSEY,1,2,3 H. D. BRADSHAW, JR.,1,4 AND DOUGLAS W. SCHEMSKE1,5 1Biology understood. We examined the nature of isolation between Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis, sister species. lewisii and M. cardinalis. Using range maps constructed from herbarium collections, we estimated

Bradshaw, Toby

50

SPECIAL SECTION doi:10.1111/evo.12154  

E-print Network

the sister monkeyflowers Mimulus lewisii and Mimulus cardinalis, which are textbook examples of ecological suppression in the M. lewisii � M. cardinalis hybrid map compared to a relatively collinear Mimulus parishii. cardinalis. These inferences were supported by targeted intraspecific mapping, which also implied a M

Wood, Spencer

51

Frost hardiness of Philadelphus and Hydrangea clones during ecodormancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frost hardiness of clones of two ornamental shrubs, hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculata Sieb. ‘Grandiflora') and mock orange (Philadelphus lewisii Pursh. var. lewisii ’Waterton'), was measured after completion of endodormancy. In addition to actual hardiness, minimum and potential hardiness were examined with the aid of four artificial hardening and dehardening treatments. Logit models were used for determining the lethal temperature. Artificial

Terhi Suojala; Leena Lindén

1997-01-01

52

Three floral volatiles contribute to differential pollinator attraction in monkeyflowers (Mimulus).  

PubMed

Flowering plants employ a wide variety of signals, including scent, to attract the attention of pollinators. In this study we investigated the role of floral scent in mediating differential attraction between two species of monkeyflowers (Mimulus) reproductively isolated by pollinator preference. The emission rate and chemical identity of floral volatiles differ between the bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated M. cardinalis. Mimulus lewisii flowers produce an array of volatiles dominated by d-limonene, ?-myrcene and E-?-ocimene. Of these three monoterpenes, M. cardinalis flowers produce only d-limonene, released at just 0.9% the rate of M. lewisii flowers. Using the Bombus vosnesenskii bumblebee, an important pollinator of M. lewisii, we conducted simultaneous gas chromatography with extracellular recordings in the bumblebee antennal lobe. Results from these experiments revealed that these three monoterpenes evoke significant neural responses, and that a synthetic mixture of the three volatiles evokes the same responses as the natural scent. Furthermore, the neural population shows enhanced responses to the M. lewisii scent over the scent of M. cardinalis. This neural response is reflected in behavior; in two-choice assays, bumblebees investigate artificial flowers scented with M. lewisii more frequently than ones scented with M. cardinalis, and in synthetic mixtures the three monoterpenes are necessary and sufficient to recapitulate responses to the natural scent of M. lewisii. In this system, floral scent alone is sufficient to elicit differential visitation by bumblebees, implying a strong role of scent in the maintenance of reproductive isolation between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. PMID:24198269

Byers, Kelsey J R P; Bradshaw, H D; Riffell, Jeffrey A

2014-02-15

53

WILDLIFE RESPONSE TO STAND STRUCTURE OF DECIDUOUS WOODLANDS  

E-print Network

of western snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis). The ground cover is mostly Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) and forbs (dandelion [Taraxacum of- ficinale] and yarrow [Achillea millifolium]) (Hansen 1985

54

Hybridization and Cytonuclear Associations among Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout, Introduced Rainbow Trout, and Their Hybrids within the Stehekin River Drainage, North Cascades National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historic introductions of nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss into the native habitats of cutthroat trout O. clarkii have impacted cutthroat trout populations through introgressive hybridization, creating challenges and concerns for cutthroat trout conservation. We examined the effects of rainbow trout introductions on the native westslope cutthroat trout O. c. lewisii within the Stehekin River drainage, North Cascades National Park, Washington,

Carl O. Ostberg; Rusty J. Rodriguez

2006-01-01

55

Bulk Segregant Analysis of an Induced Floral Mutant Identifies a MIXTA-Like R2R3 MYB  

E-print Network

. lewisii flowers, which involves epidermal cell development and carotenoid pigmentation. THE rapid adaptive radiation of the .250,000 species of flowering plants has produced an astonishing diversity of flower pigmentation, corolla tube structure, nectar volume, pistil and stamen length) remains poorly understood. Here

Bradshaw, Toby

56

Sequential developmental programmes for retractor muscles of a caenogastropod: reappraisal of evolutionary homologues  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary changes in the development of shell-attached retractor muscles in gastropods are of fundamental importance to theories about the early evolution and subsequent diversification of this molluscan class. Development of the shell-attached retractor muscle (columellar muscle) in a caenogastropod has been studied at the ultrastructural level to test the hypothesis of homology with the post-torsional left retractor muscle (larval velar retractor) in vetigastropod larvae. The vetigastropod muscle has been implicated in the generation of ontogenetic torsion, a morphogenetic twist between body regions that is important to theories about early gastropod evolution. Two shell-attached retractor muscles develop sequentially in the caenogastropod, Polinices lewisii, which is a pattern that has been also identified in previous ultrastructural studies on a vetigastropod and several nudibranch gastropods. The pattern may be a basal and conserved characteristic of gastropods. I found that the first-formed retractor in larvae of P. lewisii is comparable to the larval velar retractor that exists at the time of ontogenetic torsion in the vetigastropod, Haliotis kamtschatkana. However, the post-metamorphic columellar muscle of P. lewisii is derived exclusively from part of the second-formed muscle, which is comparable to the second-formed pedal muscle system in the vetigastropod. I conclude that the post-metamorphic columellar muscle of P. lewisii, is not homologous to the larval velar retractor of the vetigastropod, H. kamtschatkana.

Page, L. R.

1998-01-01

57

Chromosomal rearrangements and the genetics of reproductive barriers in mimulus (monkey flowers).  

PubMed

Chromosomal rearrangements may directly cause hybrid sterility and can facilitate speciation by preserving local adaptation in the face of gene flow. We used comparative linkage mapping with shared gene-based markers to identify potential chromosomal rearrangements between the sister monkeyflowers Mimulus lewisii and Mimulus cardinalis, which are textbook examples of ecological speciation. We then remapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for floral traits and flowering time (premating isolation) and hybrid sterility (postzygotic isolation). We identified three major regions of recombination suppression in the M. lewisii × M. cardinalis hybrid map compared to a relatively collinear Mimulus parishii × M. lewisii map, consistent with a reciprocal translocation and two inversions specific to M. cardinalis. These inferences were supported by targeted intraspecific mapping, which also implied a M. lewisii-specific reciprocal translocation causing chromosomal pseudo-linkage in both hybrid mapping populations. Floral QTLs mapped in this study, along with previously mapped adaptive QTLs, were clustered in putatively rearranged regions. All QTLs for male sterility, including two underdominant loci, mapped to regions of recombination suppression. We argue that chromosomal rearrangements may have played an important role in generating and consolidating barriers to gene flow as natural selection drove the dramatic ecological and morphological divergence of these species. PMID:24033166

Fishman, Lila; Stathos, Angela; Beardsley, Paul M; Williams, Charles F; Hill, Jeffrey P

2013-09-01

58

Copyright 1998 by the Genetics Society of America Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Differences in Floral Morphology  

E-print Network

. cardinalis flowers are visited mostly by hummingbirds. The genetic control of 12 morphological differences between the flowers of M. lewisii and M. cardinalis was explored in a large linkage mapping population pollination, but they of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling adaptive are exserted in M. cardinalis

Bradshaw, Toby

59

INVESTIGATION Genetic Dissection of a Major Anthocyanin QTL  

E-print Network

. cardinalis represent a classic example of pollinator-mediated prezygotic isolation between two sister species difference between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. Together with the genomic resources and stable transgenic and contrasting yellow nectar guides (Figure 1A). The hummingbird-pollinated M. cardinalis has red flowers

Bradshaw, Toby

60

Selective sequestration of iridoid glycosides from their host plants in Longitarsus flea beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated in eight species of the flea beetles genus Longitarsus (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) whether the beetles take up iridoid glycosides from their host plants of the Lamiaceae, Plantaginaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. Five of the beetle species, L. australis, L. lewisii, L. melanocephalus, L. nigrofasciatus, and L. tabidus, could be shown to sequester iridoid glycosides in concentrations between 0.40 and 1.55% of

Gunther Willinger; Susanne Dobler

2001-01-01

61

Origin of the Flax Cultivar ‘Appar’ and Its Position within the Linum perenne Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 'Appar' flax germplasm was originally released by the USDA Soil Conservation Service as a cultivar of Linum lewisii. The observation that 'Appar' is heterostylic, a key taxonomic character distinguishing Lewis flax from other members of the Linum perenne complex, created a need for further study in order to resolve the taxonomic position of both Lewis flax and the 'Appar'

Joann Mudge

2008-01-01

62

The 'Appar' Flax Release: Origin, Distinguishing Characteristics, And Use; And A Native Alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes information on the taxonomy of 'Appar', a perennial blue flax cultivar (Linum perenne L. [Linaceae]), and characteristics that distinguish it from native Lewis flax (Linum lewisii Pursh [Linaceae]). 'Appar' apparently originated as a European flax that escaped from garden cultivation. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis places 'Appar' with other collections of European Linum perenne and separates

Rosemary L Pendleton; Stanley G Kitchen; E Durant McArthur; Joann E Mudge

2008-01-01

63

Response of Lewis Flax Seedlings to Inoculation With Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Cyanobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forbs comprise an important though understudied com- ponent of western rangelands. Little is known about the depen- dence of forb species on associated soil microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In 1996 and 1998, we conducted two experiments examining the response of Lewis flax (Linum lewisii Pursh) to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under a variety of soil conditions. Lewis

R. L. Pendleton; B. K. Pendleton; G. L. Howard; S. D. Warren

64

VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE LAKE TAHOE BASIN APPENDIX E  

E-print Network

"Stipa lettermanii" Dore's needlegrass, Williams needlegrass Nevada needlegrass Western needlegrass Acer glabrum var. torreyi Achillea millefolium Achnatherum hymenoides Achnatherum lemmonii Achnatherum. pubescens Elmer's needlegrass 1 X Achnatherum pinetorum Pine stipa 1 X Achnatherum thurberianum Thurber

Standiford, Richard B.

65

Clemson University Preservation master Plan appendix a cleMson university plant list FeBruary 2009 JMa, inc. a-1  

E-print Network

glossy abelia Acer negundo boxelder Acer nigrum black maple Acer palmatum Japanese maple Acer rubrum red maple Acer saccharinum silver maple Acer saccharum sugar maple Achillea spp. yarrow Adiantum pedatum

Duchowski, Andrew T.

66

Growth and leaf physiology of monkeyflowers with different altitude ranges.  

PubMed

Every species is limited both geographically and ecologically to a subset of available habitats, yet for many species the causes of distribution limits are unknown. Temperature is thought to be one of the primary determinants of species distributions along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients. This study examined leaf physiology and plant performance under contrasting temperature regimes of sister species of monkeyflower, Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewisii (Phrymaceae), that differ in altitude distribution to test the hypothesis that temperature is the primary determinant of differences in fitness versus altitude. Each species attained greatest aboveground biomass, net photosynthetic rate, and effective quantum yield of photosystem II when grown under temperatures characteristic of the altitudinal range center. Although both species exhibited greater stem length, stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO2 concentration in hot than in cold temperatures, these traits showed much greater reductions under cold temperature for M. cardinalis than for M. lewisii. Survival of M. lewisii was also sensitive to temperature, showing a striking decrease in hot temperatures. Within each temperature regime, the species native to that temperature displayed greatest growth and leaf physiological capacity. Populations from the altitude range center and range margin of each species were used to examine population differentiation, but central and marginal populations did not differ in most growth or leaf physiological responses to temperature. This study provides evidence that M. cardinalis and M. lewisii differ in survival, growth, and leaf physiology under temperature regimes characterizing their contrasting low and high altitude range centers, and suggests that the species' altitude range limits may arise, in part, due to metabolic limitations on growth that ultimately decrease survival and limit reproduction. PMID:16468056

Angert, Amy Lauren

2006-06-01

67

Lignans from Linum species of sections Syllinum and Linum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aryltetralin lignans 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin, 5?-demethoxy-6-methoxypodophyllotoxin as well as the corresponding 8?-epimers 6-methoxypicropodophyllin, and 5?-demethoxy-6-methoxypicropodophyllin were isolated from suspension cultures of Linum cariense, and 4?-demethyl-6-methoxypodophyllotoxin together with 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin from plants of L. tauricum, which both belong to section Syllinum of the genus Linum. Cell cultures of L. altaicum, L. austriacum ssp. euxinum and L. lewisii belonging to section Linum accumulate the

B. Konuklugil; I. Ionkova; N. Vasilev; T. J. Schmidt; J. Windhövel; E. Fuss; A. W. Alfermann

2007-01-01

68

Allele substitution at a flower colour locus produces a pollinator shift in monkeyflowers.  

PubMed

The role of major mutations in adaptive evolution has been debated for more than a century. The classical view is that adaptive mutations are nearly infinite in number with infinitesimally small phenotypic effect, but recent theory suggests otherwise. To provide empirical estimates of the magnitude of adaptive mutations in wild plants, we conducted field studies to determine the adaptive value of alternative alleles at a single locus, YELLOW UPPER (YUP). YUP controls the presence or absence of yellow carotenoid pigments in the petals of pink-flowered Mimulus lewisii, which is pollinated by bumblebees, and its red-flowered sister species M. cardinalis, which is pollinated by hummingbirds. We bred near-isogenic lines (NILs) in which the YUP allele from each species was substituted into the other. M. cardinalis NILs with the M. lewisii YUP allele had dark pink flowers and received 74-fold more bee visits than the wild type, whereas M. lewisii NILs with the M. cardinalis yup allele had yellow-orange flowers and received 68-fold more hummingbird visits than the wild type. These results indicate that an adaptive shift in pollinator preference may be initiated by a single major mutation. PMID:14614505

Bradshaw, H D; Schemske, Douglas W

2003-11-13

69

Transcriptional control of floral anthocyanin pigmentation in monkeyflowers (Mimulus).  

PubMed

A molecular description of the control of floral pigmentation in a multi-species group displaying various flower color patterns is of great interest for understanding the molecular bases of phenotypic diversification and pollinator-mediated speciation. Through transcriptome profiling, mutant analyses and transgenic experiments, we aim to establish a 'baseline' floral anthocyanin regulation model in Mimulus lewisii and to examine the different ways of tinkering with this model in generating the diversity of floral anthocyanin patterns in other Mimulus species. We find one WD40 and one bHLH gene controlling anthocyanin pigmentation in the entire corolla of M. lewisii and two R2R3-MYB genes, PELAN and NEGAN, controlling anthocyanin production in the petal lobe and nectar guide, respectively. The autoregulation of NEGAN might be a critical property to generate anthocyanin spots. Independent losses of PELAN expression (via different mechanisms) explain two natural yellow-flowered populations of M. cardinalis (typically red-flowered). The NEGAN ortholog is the only anthocyanin-activating MYB expressed in the M. guttatus flowers. The mutant lines and transgenic tools available for M. lewisii will enable gene-by-gene replacement experiments to dissect the genetic and developmental bases of more complex floral color patterns, and to test hypotheses on phenotypic evolution in general. PMID:25103615

Yuan, Yao-Wu; Sagawa, Janelle M; Frost, Laura; Vela, James P; Bradshaw, Harvey D

2014-12-01

70

Uptake of 2,4-D in higher plants from artificial rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sinapis alba L., Lapsana communis L., Achillea millefolium L., Brassica napus L., Lactuca sativa L., and Lycopersicum esculentum L. were exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxy (2-¹⁴C)acetic acid (2,4-D) at 10 micrograms liter-1 in artificial rain, pH 6.5 and 3.3. The 2,4-D was absorbed in all species tested. Concentrations of parent 2,4-D appeared at the highest level in Achillea (0.1 mg kg-1 dry

H LOKKE

1984-01-01

71

Palynology of the Monterey formation (Miocene) phosphatic facies at Lions head, Santa Maria area, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rich palynomorph assemblage of early Miocene age was obtained from the phosphatic facies mudstone samples of the lower Monterey Formation exposed in the basal Lions Head section in the Santa Maria area, California. Angiosperm pollen of Acer, Achillea, Bombacaceae, Carya, Ericaceae, Onagraceae, Salix, and Ulmus occurs commonly. Among conifers, bisaccate Pinus pollen is well represented. Azolla glochidia and spores

Satish K. Srivastava

1984-01-01

72

Extreme flooding events on the Rhine and the survival and distribution of riparian plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 Summer floods whose severity is affected by flooding duration, submergence depth and underwater light availability, have a large impact on the zonation of riparian plant species. 2 We analysed the range and variability of these flooding components in the River Rhine and quantified their effects on the ability of Arrhenatherum elatius , Achillea millefolium , Rumex acetosa and

P. J. A. Vervuren; C. W. P. M. Blom; H. de Kroon

2003-01-01

73

Experimental addition of greenery reduces flea loads in nests of a non-greenery using species, the tree swallow Tachycineta bicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several bird species, including cavity-nesters such as European starlings Sturnus vulgaris , add to their nests green sprigs of plants such as yarrow Achillea millefolium that are rich in volatile compounds. In this field study on another cavity-nester, tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor , we tested whether yarrow reduced ectoparasite loads (the nest protection hypothesis), stimulated nestling immune systems (the drug

Dave Shutler; Adam A. Campbell

2007-01-01

74

EFEITO DE EXTRATOS AQUOSOS DE PLANTAS NA OVIPOSIÇÃO DA TRAÇA-DAS-CRUCÍFERAS, EM COUVE (1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Avaliou-se o efeito de extratos aquosos de Achillea millefolium L. (folhas), Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas), Bidens pilosa L. (folhas, frutos e ramos), Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (folhas), Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (folhas, frutos e ramos), Datura suaveolens Humb & Bonpl. ex. Willd (folhas), Enterolobium contortisilliquum (Vell.) Morong (frutos), Mentha crispa L. (folhas e ramos), Nicotiana tabacum L. (folhas), Piper nigrum

CESAR AUGUSTO; MANFRÉ MEDEIROS; ARLINDO LEAL

2005-01-01

75

Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. In addition, the possible synergistic effects when associated with antibiotics were studied. Extracts from the following plants were utilized: Achillea millifolium (yarrow), Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove), Melissa offficinalis (lemon-balm), Ocimun basilucum (basil), Psidium guajava (guava), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Salvia officinalis (sage), Syzygyum

Gislene G. F. Nascimento; Juliana Locatelli; Paulo C. Freitas; Giuliana L. Silva

2000-01-01

76

DETERMINATION OF Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd AND Se CONTENT IN MEDICAL PLANTS BY X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS AND GALVANOSTATIC STRIPPING CHRONOPOTENTIOMETRIC ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contents of selected metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd and Se) in five species of medical plants (Melissa officinalis L., Agrimonia eupatoria L., Hypericum perforatum L., Salvia officinalis L. and Achillea millefolium L.) collected during the year 2006 in one Slovak locality, the region of Nitra, were studied in this work. The study was realized by the determination of the

Tomus LV

2008-01-01

77

FIELD STUDY OF PLANT SURVIVAL AS AFFECTED BY AMENDMENTS TO BENTONITE SPOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effort s to reclaim amended and raw bentonite spoils with six plant species (two forbs, three shrubs, and one tree) were evaluated over a 4-year period. Plant species included four-win g saltbush (Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.), big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata tridentata Nutt.), Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum Sarg.), Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.), common yarrow (Achillea millifolium L.), and scarlet

Daniel W. Uresk; Teruo Yamamoto

1994-01-01

78

Repelling properties of some plant materials on the tick Ixodes ricinus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The repellent effects on nymphal stages of Ixodes ricinus L. of some plant materials have been studied in the laboratory. The plant material consisted of an ethanolic extract from Achillea millefolium L., and volatile oils of birch and\\/or pine tar, citronella, cloves, eucalyptus, geranium, lavender, lily of the valley and peppermint. The most pronounced effects were observed for the oils

W. Thorsell; A. Mikiver; H. Tunón

2006-01-01

79

Volatile chemical composition and bioactivity of six essential oils against the stored food insect Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera Dryophthoridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils (EOs) of Achillea millefolium, Myrtus communis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare and Lavandula angustifolia were analysed with GC–FID and GC–MS in order to define their aromatic profiles and then their toxicity and repellent activity against Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera Dryophthoridae) with specific bioassays were evaluated. Results from topical applications on insects showed that all EOs had variable

Alessandra Bertoli; Barbara Conti; Valerio Mazzoni; Laura Meini; Luisa Pistelli

2011-01-01

80

Essential oil composition and larvicidal activity of six Mediterranean aromatic plants against the mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory bioassays on insecticidal activity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from six Mediterranean plants (Achillea millefolium, Lavandula angustifolia, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare, Myrtus communis, and Rosmarinus officinalis) were carried out against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito Aedes albopictus. The chemical composition of the six EOs was also investigated. Results from applications showed that all tested oils had\\u000a insecticidal activity,

Barbara Conti; Angelo Canale; Alessandra Bertoli; Francesca Gozzini; Luisa Pistelli

2010-01-01

81

Effect of residual distillation water of 15 plants and three plant hormones on Scotch spearmint ( Mentha × gracilis Sole)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillation waste water is a byproduct from steam distillation of aromatic crops, and is currently discharged into streams and rivers. We evaluated distillation waste water (extract) from 15 essential oil crops plus three plant hormones (methyl jasmonate, MJ; gibberellic acid, GA3; and salicylic acid, SA) as foliar spray for Scotch spearmint (Mentha×gracilis Sole). GA3 and Achillea millefolium extract decreased essential

Valtcho D. Zheljazkov; Tess Astatkie

2011-01-01

82

Effect of Elevated Tropospheric Ozone on the Structure of Bacterial Communities Inhabiting the Rhizosphere of Herbaceous Plants Native to Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current elevated concentrations of ozone in the atmosphere, as they are observed during summer seasons, can cause severe effects on plant vegetation. This study was initiated to analyze whether ozone-stressed plants also transfer signals below ground and thereby alter the bacterial community composition in their rhizo- spheres. Herbaceous plants, native to Germany, with tolerance (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Poa pratensis,

Anja B. Dohrmann; Christoph C. Tebbe

2005-01-01

83

Effect of ‘antidiabetis’ herbal preparation on serum glucose and fructosamine in NOD mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antihyperglycemic effect of the Antidiabetis herbal preparation ((Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris), Millefollii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Morii folium (Morus nigra L.), Valeriane radix (Valleriana officinalis L.), Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L.)), patent

R. Petlevski; M. Hadžija; M. Slijep?evi?; D. Jureti?

2001-01-01

84

Mycorrhizal plants of traditionally managed boreal grasslands in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the mycorrhizal status of 82 plant species growing in traditionally managed grasslands in three different locations in the boreal and boreo-nemoral vegetation zone in the eastern part of Norway. Seventy-four species were found to have arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). To our knowledge, we report AM for the first time in Achillea ptarmica, Ajuga pyramidalis, Alchemilla glaucescens, Carex

Marit Eriksen; Kristina E. Bjureke; Shivcharn S. Dhillion

2002-01-01

85

Impact of ozone on understory plants of the aspen zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to learn how ozone might affect the growth and reproduction of understory species of the aspen community, and thereby influence its stability and composition. Plants of 15 representative species of the aspen community were grown in chambers and fumigated 4 hours each day, 5 days per week throughout their growing seasons. These included: Achillea

M. R. Harward; M. Treshow

1971-01-01

86

Ethephon influences flowering, height, and branching of several herbaceous perennials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) were determined on flowering, plant height, and branching of Achillea millefolium L. ‘Weser River Sandstone’, Coreopsis verticillata L. ‘Moonbeam’, Echinacea purpurea Moench ‘Bravado’, Leucanthemum×superbum Bergmans ex. J. Ingram ‘Thomas Killen’, Liatris spicata Willd. ‘Kobold’, Monarda didyma L. ‘Blue Stocking’, Phlox paniculata L. ‘Mt. Fuji’, and Physostegia virginiana Bentham ‘Summer Snow’. Spraying ethephon three times at

Takahiro Hayashi; Royal D Heins; Arthur C Cameron; William H Carlson

2001-01-01

87

Glandular hairs of the ovary: a helpful character for Asteroideae (Asteraceae) taxonomy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface microcharacters of the ovary of the Asteraceae were studied, especially biseriate glandular hairs. Of 34 species belonging to the Asteroideae, only Dittrichia viscosa, Pulicaria dysenterica, Bellis perennis, Tanacetum parthenium, Achillea mar- itima, Matricaria chamomilla, and Eupatorium cannabinum possess glandular hairs on the ovary. Additional characters considered are hair morphology and distribution, cell number, and presence of subcuticular chambers and

Daniela Ciccarelli; Fabio Garbari; Anna M. Pagni

88

Comparative linkage maps suggest that fission, not polyploidy, underlies near-doubling of chromosome number within monkeyflowers (Mimulus; Phrymaceae).  

PubMed

Changes in chromosome number and structure are important contributors to adaptation, speciation and macroevolution. In flowering plants, polyploidy and subsequent reductions in chromosome number by fusion are major sources of chromosomal evolution, but chromosome number increase by fission has been relatively unexplored. Here, we use comparative linkage mapping with gene-based markers to reconstruct chromosomal synteny within the model flowering plant genus Mimulus (monkeyflowers). Two sections of the genus with haploid numbers ? 14 have been inferred to be relatively recent polyploids because they are phylogenetically nested within numerous taxa with low base numbers (n=8-10). We combined multiple data sets to build integrated genetic maps of the M. guttatus species complex (section Simiolus, n=14) and the M. lewisii group (section Erythranthe; n=8), and then aligned the two integrated maps using >100 shared markers. We observed strong segmental synteny between M. lewisii and M. guttatus maps, with essentially 1-to-1 correspondence across each of 16 chromosomal blocks. Assuming that the M. lewisii (and widespread) base number of 8 is ancestral, reconstruction of 14 M. guttatus chromosomes requires at least eight fission events (likely shared by Simiolus and sister section Paradanthus (n=16)), plus two fusion events. This apparent burst of fission in the yellow monkeyflower lineages raises new questions about mechanisms and consequences of chromosomal fission in plants. Our comparative maps also provide insight into the origins of a chromosome exhibiting centromere-associated female meiotic drive and create a framework for transferring M. guttatus genome resources across the entire genus. PMID:24398885

Fishman, L; Willis, J H; Wu, C A; Lee, Y-W

2014-05-01

89

Lignans from Linum species of sections Syllinum and Linum.  

PubMed

The aryltetralin lignans 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin, 5'-demethoxy-6-methoxypodophyllotoxin as well as the corresponding 8'-epimers 6-methoxypicropodophyllin, and 5'-demethoxy-6-methoxypicropodophyllin were isolated from suspension cultures of Linum cariense, and 4'-demethyl-6-methoxypodophyllotoxin together with 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin from plants of L. tauricum, which both belong to section Syllinum of the genus Linum. Cell cultures of L. altaicum, L. austriacum ssp. euxinum and L. lewisii belonging to section Linum accumulate the naphthalene lignans justicidin B and isojusticidin B. The different lignans were identified by HPLC and spectroscopic methods. PMID:17365680

Konuklugil, B; Ionkova, I; Vasilev, N; Schmidt, T J; Windhövel, J; Fuss, E; Alfermann, A W

2007-01-01

90

Quantitative trait loci affecting differences in floral morphology between two species of monkeyflower (Mimulus).  

PubMed

Conspicuous differences in floral morphology are partly responsible for reproductive isolation between two sympatric species of monkeyflower because of their effect on visitation of the flowers by different pollinators. Mimulus lewisii flowers are visited primarily by bumblebees, whereas M. cardinalis flowers are visited mostly by hummingbirds. The genetic control of 12 morphological differences between the flowers of M. lewisii and M. cardinalis was explored in a large linkage mapping population of F2 plants n = 465 to provide an accurate estimate of the number and magnitude of effect of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing each character. Between one and six QTLs were identified for each trait. Most (9/12) traits appear to be controlled in part by at least one major QTL explaining >/=25% of the total phenotypic variance. This implies that either single genes of individually large effect or linked clusters of genes with a large cumulative effect can play a role in the evolution of reproductive isolation and speciation. PMID:9584110

Bradshaw, H D; Otto, K G; Frewen, B E; McKay, J K; Schemske, D W

1998-05-01

91

Genetic Dissection of a Major Anthocyanin QTL Contributing to Pollinator-Mediated Reproductive Isolation Between Sister Species of Mimulus  

PubMed Central

Prezygotic barriers play a major role in the evolution of reproductive isolation, which is a prerequisite for speciation. However, despite considerable progress in identifying genes and mutations responsible for postzygotic isolation, little is known about the genetic and molecular basis underlying prezygotic barriers. The bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated M. cardinalis represent a classic example of pollinator-mediated prezygotic isolation between two sister species in sympatry. Flower color differences resulting from both carotenoid and anthocyanin pigments contribute to pollinator discrimination between the two species in nature. Through fine-scale genetic mapping, site-directed mutagenesis, and transgenic experiments, we demonstrate that a single-repeat R3 MYB repressor, ROSE INTENSITY1 (ROI1), is the causal gene underlying a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) with the largest effect on anthocyanin concentration and that cis-regulatory change rather than coding DNA mutations cause the allelic difference between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. Together with the genomic resources and stable transgenic tools developed here, these results suggest that Mimulus is an excellent platform for studying the genetics of pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation and the molecular basis of morphological evolution at the most fundamental level—gene by gene, mutation by mutation. PMID:23335333

Yuan, Yao-Wu; Sagawa, Janelle M.; Young, Riane C.; Christensen, Brian J.; Bradshaw, Harvey D.

2013-01-01

92

Genetic dissection of a major anthocyanin QTL contributing to pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation between sister species of Mimulus.  

PubMed

Prezygotic barriers play a major role in the evolution of reproductive isolation, which is a prerequisite for speciation. However, despite considerable progress in identifying genes and mutations responsible for postzygotic isolation, little is known about the genetic and molecular basis underlying prezygotic barriers. The bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated M. cardinalis represent a classic example of pollinator-mediated prezygotic isolation between two sister species in sympatry. Flower color differences resulting from both carotenoid and anthocyanin pigments contribute to pollinator discrimination between the two species in nature. Through fine-scale genetic mapping, site-directed mutagenesis, and transgenic experiments, we demonstrate that a single-repeat R3 MYB repressor, ROSE INTENSITY1 (ROI1), is the causal gene underlying a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) with the largest effect on anthocyanin concentration and that cis-regulatory change rather than coding DNA mutations cause the allelic difference between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. Together with the genomic resources and stable transgenic tools developed here, these results suggest that Mimulus is an excellent platform for studying the genetics of pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation and the molecular basis of morphological evolution at the most fundamental level-gene by gene, mutation by mutation. PMID:23335333

Yuan, Yao-Wu; Sagawa, Janelle M; Young, Riane C; Christensen, Brian J; Bradshaw, Harvey D

2013-05-01

93

Quantitative trait loci affecting differences in floral morphology between two species of monkeyflower (Mimulus).  

PubMed Central

Conspicuous differences in floral morphology are partly responsible for reproductive isolation between two sympatric species of monkeyflower because of their effect on visitation of the flowers by different pollinators. Mimulus lewisii flowers are visited primarily by bumblebees, whereas M. cardinalis flowers are visited mostly by hummingbirds. The genetic control of 12 morphological differences between the flowers of M. lewisii and M. cardinalis was explored in a large linkage mapping population of F2 plants n = 465 to provide an accurate estimate of the number and magnitude of effect of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing each character. Between one and six QTLs were identified for each trait. Most (9/12) traits appear to be controlled in part by at least one major QTL explaining >/=25% of the total phenotypic variance. This implies that either single genes of individually large effect or linked clusters of genes with a large cumulative effect can play a role in the evolution of reproductive isolation and speciation. PMID:9584110

Bradshaw, H D; Otto, K G; Frewen, B E; McKay, J K; Schemske, D W

1998-01-01

94

Beiträge zur Systematischen Anatomie der Asteraceae-Anthemideae : Die Trichome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biseriate glandular trichomes and uniseriate flagellar covering hairs occur in all or most of the 20 genera examined and thus do not provide important taxonomical hints. In contrast, T- or Y-shaped hairs have been found inSantolina, Anthemis, Leucanthemopsis, Dendranthema, Tanacetum,Balsamita, Sphaeromeria (?),Artemisia, andAchillea clavenae only. Stellate hairs appear to be rare (inSantolina andArtemisia sect.Dracunculus). For details, additional hair types, and

Klaus Napp-Zinn; Marianne Eble

1980-01-01

95

The flavonoid Casticin has multiple mechanisms of tumor cytotoxicity action  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the mechanism of anti-tumor activity of the flavonoid Casticin, derived from Achillea millefolium. Casticin anti-tumor activity results in cell growth arrest in G2\\/M and in apoptotic death. As a tubulin-binding agent (TBA), Casticin induces p21, which in turn inhibits Cdk1. Moreover, Casticin appears to down regulate cyclin A. These observations could explain Casticin-induced G2\\/M arrest. Following Casticin exposure,

Khadidja Haïdara; Lolita Zamir; Qui-Wen Shi; Gerald Batist

2006-01-01

96

Physiological and biochemical stress responses in grassland species are influenced by both early-season ozone exposure and interspecific competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of two-year early season ozone exposure on physiological and biochemical stress response were investigated in model plant communities. Achillea millefolium and Veronica chamaedrys target plants were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Poa pratensis (phytometer) and exposed in open-top chambers over two years for five weeks to charcoal-filtered (CF) air plus 25nll?1 O3 (control) and non-filtered

Francesca Scebba; Francesca Canaccini; Antonella Castagna; Jürgen Bender; Hans-Joachim Weigel; Annamaria Ranieri

2006-01-01

97

Energetics of Yellow-Bellied Marmot Populations  

E-print Network

to the Festuca thurberi community type (Langenheim 1956, 1962), dominated by Bromus richardsonii, Bromus porteri, and Poa spp. (primarily secunda and alpina). Also abundant is Potentilla gracilis, Taraxacum of- ficinale, Stipa lettermanii, Achillea... was provided known amounts of Potentilla gracilis, Taraxacum officinale, Agoseris glauca, and Bromus richardsonii, in various combinations, twice daily. A sample of each plant species fed on a particular day was weighed, dried to a constant weight...

Kilgore, Delbert L.; Armitage, Kenneth

1978-01-01

98

Search for novel antifungals from 49 indigenous medicinal plants: Foeniculum vulgare and Platycladus orientalis as strong inhibitors of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a search for novel antifungals from natural sources, essential oils (EOs) and extracts of 49 medicinal plants were studied\\u000a against an aflatoxin (AF)-producing Aspergillus parasiticus using a microbioassay technique. AF levels were measured in culture broth by high performance liquid chromatography. The\\u000a EOs were analyzed by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). Based on the results obtained, Achillea millefolium subsp. elborsensis,

Soheil Alinezhad; Azizollah Kamalzadeh; Masoomeh Shams-Ghahfarokhi; Mohammad-Bagher Rezaee; Kamkar Jaimand; Masanobu Kawachi; Zahra Zamani; Reza Tolouei; Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh

99

Growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis as influenced by ozone and competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific plant competition has been hypothesized to alter effects of early-season ozone (O3) stress. A phytometer-based approach was utilized to investigate O3 effects on growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis grown in monoculture and in mixed cultures with four competitor-plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Rumex acetosa and Veronica chamaedrys). Mesocosms were exposed during April\\/May 2000–2002 to charcoal-filtered air+25ppb

J. Bender; R. B. Muntifering; J. C. Lin; H. J. Weigel

2006-01-01

100

Uptake of 2,4-D in higher plants from artificial rain.  

PubMed

Sinapis alba L., Lapsana communis L., Achillea millefolium L., Brassica napus L., Lactuca sativa L., and Lycopersicum esculentum L. were exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxy [2-14C]acetic acid (2,4-D) at 10 micrograms liter-1 in artificial rain, pH 6.5 and 3.3. The 2,4-D was absorbed in all species tested. Concentrations of parent 2,4-D appeared at the highest level in Achillea (0.1 mg kg-1 dry wt), and at zero level in Lycopersicum. Twenty-one daily treatments at pH 6.5 for 30-min periods increased dry-matter concentrations (P less than or equal to 0.05) in the leaves of Achillea and decreased those in Brassica. No change in dry-matter concentration was observed in the leaves of Brassica by seven daily treatments for 30-min periods at pH 3.3. PMID:6428858

Løkke, H

1984-02-01

101

Physiological and biochemical stress responses in grassland species are influenced by both early-season ozone exposure and interspecific competition.  

PubMed

The effects of two-year early season ozone exposure on physiological and biochemical stress response were investigated in model plant communities. Achillea millefolium and Veronica chamaedrys target plants were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Poa pratensis (phytometer) and exposed in open-top chambers over two years for five weeks to charcoal-filtered (CF) air plus 25 nl l(-1) O3 (control) and non-filtered (NF) air plus 50 nl l(-1) O3. Significant O3 effects were detected in different physiological and biochemical parameters, evidencing interspecific differences in metabolic stress responses and a strong influence of the competition factor. O3 induced strong oxidative effects in Achillea irrespective to the different growth modality. Veronica showed less O3-induced effects in monoculture than when grown in competition with the phytometer. Poa exhibited a different behaviour against O3 depending on the species in competition, showing an overall higher sensitivity to O3 when in mixture with Achillea. PMID:16321463

Scebba, Francesca; Canaccini, Francesca; Castagna, Antonella; Bender, Jürgen; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Ranieri, Annamaria

2006-08-01

102

Using experimental evolution to investigate geographic range limits in monkeyflowers.  

PubMed

Every species occupies a restricted geographic distribution, but it is unclear why natural selection at the range margin fails to increase tolerance to limiting environmental variables and thereby allow continual range expansion. Models indicate that the interplay of demographic asymmetries, dispersal, divergent natural selection, and adaptive trade-offs across spatially varying environments can give rise to stable range limits. Here we examine sister species of the monkeyflowers Mimulus cardinalis and M. lewisii to identify traits that might contribute to the evolution of the species' ranges and to ask whether adaptive trade-offs between environments can limit their geographic distribution. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, M. cardinalis is found from low to mid elevation and M. lewisii is found from mid to high elevation. We transplanted segregating populations of interspecific hybrids to low and high elevation and cross-pollinated those that survived to flowering to create selected populations that evolved at low or high elevation. When grown in a common environment, the progeny of hybrids selected at high elevation flowered earlier compared to a greenhouse control population, whereas hybrids selected at low elevation displayed increased warm-temperature photosynthetic capacity. If adaptation to one environment entails a cost to adaptation in other environments, then selected hybrid populations should display reduced fitness, relative to an unselected control population, when grown in an environment in which they were not selected. Two such trade-offs were observed in this study, where hybrids selected at high elevation displayed reduced biomass when grown in temperatures characteristic of low elevation and hybrids selected at low elevation showed reduced resistance to freezing. These results identify traits under selection for range expansion and suggest that adaptive trade-offs can contribute to limiting the geographic distribution of species. PMID:18647337

Angert, Amy L; Bradshaw, H D; Schemske, Douglas W

2008-10-01

103

The niche, limits to species' distributions, and spatiotemporal variation in demography across the elevation ranges of two monkeyflowers.  

PubMed

Understanding the processes that create and maintain species' geographic range limits has implications for many questions in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. Many expectations for the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of populations at the range margin rest on the concordance of geographic limits and the limits of a species' ecological niche. If range limits are coincident with niche limits, then marginal populations should have lower and/or more variable vital rates and population growth rates than central populations. Using data from 8 annual censuses of marked individuals, I investigated the demography of Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewisii across the species' elevation ranges. Central and marginal populations exhibited striking demographic differences, but only for one species were differences in expected directions. Marginal populations from the M. lewisii lower elevation range limit had lower and more variable survival than central populations and appeared to be demographic sinks. In contrast, marginal populations from the M. cardinalis upper elevation limit had higher fecundity and higher population growth rates than central populations. Although the species differed with respect to central-marginal patterns, they were concordant with respect to elevation; that is, both species had higher fitness in higher reaches of their examined ranges. Potential explanations for these patterns include source-sink dynamics, with asymmetrical gene flow mediated by river currents, and climate change, with recent warming shifting the species' climatic envelopes to higher elevations. Hence, assessment of spatiotemporal variation in both demography and dispersal is necessary to fully understand the relationship between the niche and species' distributions. PMID:19805178

Angert, Amy L

2009-11-17

104

Medicinal plants in a Middle Paleolithic grave Shanidar IV?  

PubMed

This paper deals with phytopharmacological evaluation of the therapeutic potential of the plants found in the Neanderthal grave of a Shanidar IV individual (Iraq), where the palynological analysis of some other authors discovered the following flowers: Achillea-type, Centaurea solstitialis, Senecio-type, Muscari-type, Ephedra altissima, Althea-type. The purpose of our theoretical analysis was to evaluate the objective healing activity of the flowers. The result of the research revealed that Shanidar IV flowers possess considerable therapeutic effects with marked medical activity, which could be an intentional reason for the selection of the flowers in Middle Paleolithic Shanidar Neanderthals. PMID:1548898

Lietava, J

1992-01-01

105

Plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Israel.  

PubMed

In an extensive ethnobotanical survey (130 informants) of the medicinal plants of Israel, 16 species were found to be used for hypoglycaemic treatments. The list includes Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch.-Bip, Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam, Atriplex halimus L., Capparis spinosa L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Cleome droserifolia (Forssk.) Del., Eryngium creticum Lam., Inula viscosa (L.) Ait., Matricaria aurea (Loefl.) Sch.-Bip, Origanum syriaca L., Paronychia argentea Lam, Prosopis farcta (Banks et Sol.) Macbride, Salvia fruticosa Mill., Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Sp., and Teucrium polium L.; eight of them (marked with an asterisk) are first recorded here as used for this purpose. PMID:3613607

Yaniv, Z; Dafni, A; Friedman, J; Palevitch, D

1987-01-01

106

Evaluation of the inhibitory activities of the extracts of Indonesian traditional medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum and Babesia gibsoni.  

PubMed

Twenty-four kinds of water extracts derived from 22 plants that are traditionally used for the treatment of malaria on Java Island, Indonesia, were screened for their antibabesial and antimalarial activities. Among the extracts, 8 extracts displayed strong antimalarial activity, with an inhibition range from 89.6 to 100%, and 15 showed strong antibabesial activity, with an inhibition range from 84.2 to 98.1%. The extracts of Achillea millefolium, Baeckea frutenscens, Brucea javanica, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Strychnos lucida and Swietenia macrophylla showed both strong antibabesial and antimalarial activities. The antimalarial activities paralleled the antibabesial activities, but the converse was not true. PMID:16141673

Murnigsih, Tri; Subeki; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Kosaku; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Yamato, Osamu; Maede, Yoshimitsu; Katakura, Ken; Suzuki, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Sumiko; Chairul; Yoshihara, Teruhiko

2005-08-01

107

Transpiration in seven plant species colonizing a fishpond shore  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 7 species (Eleocharis palustris\\u000a R. Br.,Juncus bufonius L.,Gypsophila muralis L.,Trifolium repens L.,Agrostis stolonifera L.,Potentilla anserina L. andAchillea millefolium L.) growing in a gradient of habitats from aquatic to terrestrial, on a sandy fishpond shore in Southern Bohemia, Czechoslovakia,\\u000a the daily course of transpiration rate and water content was assessed gravimetrically in their cut-off transpiring parts on\\u000a two typical summer

J. Kv?t

1975-01-01

108

Mycorrhizal plants of traditionally managed boreal grasslands in Norway.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the mycorrhizal status of 82 plant species growing in traditionally managed grasslands in three different locations in the boreal and boreo-nemoral vegetation zone in the eastern part of Norway. Seventy-four species were found to have arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). To our knowledge, we report AM for the first time in Achillea ptarmica, Ajuga pyramidalis, Alchemilla glaucescens, Carex brunnescens, Carex pallescens, Crepis praemorsa, Hieracium lactucella, Rumex longifolius, Scorzonera humilis, Trifolium aureum and Trifolium spadiceum. The rare and threatened species Arnica montana, S. humilis, C. praemorsa, Gentianella campestris, Parnassia palustris, T. aureum and T. spadiceum, all confined to grasslands, were found to possess AM fungi. PMID:12072981

Eriksen, Marit; Bjureke, Kristina E; Dhillion, Shivcharn S

2002-06-01

109

The influence of plant species on the plant/air partitioning coefficients of PCBs and chlorinated benzenes  

SciTech Connect

The plant/air partitioning coefficients (K{sub PA}) of pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene and 16 PCB congeners were determined in five different grass and herb species common to Central Europe (Lolium multiflorum, Trifolium repens, Plantago lanceolata, Crepis biennis, Achillea millefolium). The measurements were conducted between 5 C and 35 C using a solid phase fugacity meter. Octanol/air partition coefficients (K{sub OA}) were also measured over a similar temperature range. In all cases an excellent linear relationship between log K{sub PA} and log K{sub OA} was observed (r{sup 2} between 0.80 and 0.99). However, while the slope of this relationship was 1 for Lolium multiflorum (ryegrass), in agreement with previous work, the slopes of the log K{sub PA} vs. log K{sub OA} plot were less than 1 for the other 4 species, lying as low as 0.49 for Achillea millefolium (yarrow). Large differences in the enthalpy of phase change (plant/air) were also observed between the different species, but these differences were not related to the differences in the partition coefficients. These observations demonstrate that the contaminant storage properties of plants are variable, and that the lipophilic compartment in some plants is considerably more polar than octanol. This places constraints on the applicability of current models of plant uptake, almost all of which assume that the lipophilic compartment behaves like octanol, and reinforces the need for more research into the contaminant storage properties of plants.

Koemp, P.; McLachlan, M.S. [Univ. of Bayreuth (Germany)

1995-12-31

110

A Simple Electrochemical Method for the Rapid Estimation of Antioxidant Potentials of Some Selected Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

Clinical and Epidemiological studies have shown that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancers and other related disorders. These beneficial health effects have been attributed in part to the presence of antioxidants in dietary plants. Therefore screening for antioxidant properties of plant extracts has been one of the interests of scientists in this field. Different screening methods have been reported for the evaluation of antioxidant properties of plant extracts in the literature. In the present research a rapid screening method has been introduced based on cyclic voltammetry for antioxidant screening of some selected medicinal plant extracts. Cyclic Voltammetry of methanolic extracts of seven medicinal plants: Buxus hyrcana, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium, Zataria multiflora, Ginkgo biloba, Lippia citriodora and Heptaptera anisoptera was carried out at different scan rates. Based on the interpretation of voltammograms, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium and Ginkgo biloba showed higher antioxidant capability than the others while Lippia citriodora contained the highest amount of antioxidants. Cyclic voltammetry is expected to be a simple method for screening antioxidants and estimating the antioxidant activity of foods and medicinal plants. PMID:25317192

Amidi, Salimeh; Mojab, Faraz; Bayandori Moghaddam, Abdolmajid; Tabib, Kimia; Kobarfard, Farzad

2012-01-01

111

Mucilage impact on gorgonians in the Tyrrhenian sea.  

PubMed

The mucilage phenomenon has affected the Tuscan Archipelago since its first appearance (1991) in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Mediterranean Sea) [Innamorati M, Raddi E, Buzzichelli A, Melley S, Demoulin M. Le mucillaggini nel Mar Tirreno. Biol Mar Suppl Notiz 1992;1:23-26; Sartoni G, Sonni C. Tribonema marinum J. Feldmann e Acinetospora crinita (Carmichael) Sauvageau nelle formazioni mucillaginose bentoniche osservate sulle coste toscane nell'estate 1991. Inf Bot Ital 1991;23:23-30; Sartoni G, Cinelli F, Boddi S. Ruolo di Tribonema marinum J. Feldmann ed Acinetospora crinita (Carmichael) Sauvageau negli aggregati mucillaginosi bentonici delle coste toscane. Biol Mar Suppl Notiz 1993;1:31-34]. Seasonally, these mucous aggregates become very common in the benthic domain. The gorgonians are the most exposed organisms because they provide the best support for mucilage growth; indeed, their long branches positioned in orthogonally with respect to the current so as to capture plankton, also trap the filamentous mucilage present in the water. A 3-year monitoring programme at Capo Calvo (Island of Elba) was carried out in order to study the appearance of the mucilage phenomenon and its impact on three species of gorgonians (Eunicella cavolinii, Eunicella singularis, and Paramuricea clavata). The composition of mucilage and the gorgonian recovery capacity, when damaged, were investigated. During the first year of study (1999), no relevant interactions between gorgonians and mucilages were recorded. Instead, massive presence of mucilages causing different types of damage to the different gorgonian species investigated was recorded during the second (2000) and third year (2001). The type and the extent of the impact of mucilages also depend on the season. Three species of algae (Nematochrysopsis marina, Chrysonephos lewisii and Acinetospora crinita) constitute the principal components of the mucilaginous aggregates. In general, the first two species occur during the spring season, down to 20 m, while A. crinita occurs at greater depths. In July, when the mucilages reach their maximum development, C. lewisii is the predominant species. This species mainly affects E. cavolinii and E. singularis while A. crinita mainly affects P. clavata, which colonizes greater depths. PMID:16289295

Giuliani, S; Virno Lamberti, C; Sonni, C; Pellegrini, D

2005-12-15

112

Pollinator preference and the evolution of floral traits in monkeyflowers (Mimulus)  

PubMed Central

A paradigm of evolutionary biology is that adaptation and reproductive isolation are caused by a nearly infinite number of mutations of individually small effect. Here, we test this hypothesis by investigating the genetic basis of pollinator discrimination in two closely related species of monkeyflowers that differ in their major pollinators. This system provides a unique opportunity to investigate the genetic architecture of adaptation and speciation because floral traits that confer pollinator specificity also contribute to premating reproductive isolation. We asked: (i) What floral traits cause pollinator discrimination among plant species? and (ii) What is the genetic basis of these traits? We examined these questions by using data obtained from a large-scale field experiment where genetic markers were employed to determine the genetic basis of pollinator visitation. Observations of F2 hybrids produced by crossing bee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii with hummingbird-pollinated Mimulus cardinalis revealed that bees preferred large flowers low in anthocyanin and carotenoid pigments, whereas hummingbirds favored nectar-rich flowers high in anthocyanins. An allele that increases petal carotenoid concentration reduced bee visitation by 80%, whereas an allele that increases nectar production doubled hummingbird visitation. These results suggest that genes of large effect on pollinator preference have contributed to floral evolution and premating reproductive isolation in these monkeyflowers. This work contributes to growing evidence that adaptation and reproductive isolation may often involve major genes. PMID:10518550

Schemske, Douglas W.; Bradshaw, H. D.

1999-01-01

113

Comparative study of the membrane-permeabilizing activities of mastoparans and related histamine-releasing agents in bacteria, erythrocytes, and mast cells.  

PubMed

The membrane-permeabilizing activities of mastoparans and related histamine-releasing agents were compared through measurements of K(+) efflux from bacteria, erythrocytes, and mast cells. Changes in bacterial cell viability, hemolysis, and histamine release, as well as in the shape of erythrocytes were also investigated. The compounds tested were mastoparans (HR1, a mastoparan from Polistes jadwagae, and a mastoparan from Vespula lewisii), granuliberin R, mast cell-degranulating peptide, and compound 48/80, as well as antimicrobial peptides, such as magainin I, magainin II, gramicidin S, and melittin. We used a K(+)-selective electrode to determine changes in the permeability to K(+) of the cytoplasmic membranes of cells. Consistent with the surface of mast cells becoming negatively charged during histamine release, due to the translocation of phosphatidylserine to the outer leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane, histamine-releasing agents induced K(+) efflux from mast cells, dependent on their ability to increase the permeability of bacterial cytoplasmic membranes rich in negatively charged phospholipids. The present results demonstrated that amphiphilic peptides, possessing both histamine-releasing and antimicrobial capabilities, induced the permeabilization of the cytoplasmic membranes of not only bacteria but mast cells. Mastoparans increased the permeability of membranes in human erythrocytes at higher concentrations, and changed the normal discoid shape to a crenated form. The structural requirement for making the crenated form was determined using compound 48/80 and its constituents (monomer, dimer, and trimer), changing systematically the number of cationic charges of the molecules. PMID:20955685

Nakao, Satoshi; Komagoe, Keiko; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Katsu, Takashi

2011-01-01

114

Pollinator preference and the evolution of floral traits in monkeyflowers (Mimulus).  

PubMed

A paradigm of evolutionary biology is that adaptation and reproductive isolation are caused by a nearly infinite number of mutations of individually small effect. Here, we test this hypothesis by investigating the genetic basis of pollinator discrimination in two closely related species of monkeyflowers that differ in their major pollinators. This system provides a unique opportunity to investigate the genetic architecture of adaptation and speciation because floral traits that confer pollinator specificity also contribute to premating reproductive isolation. We asked: (i) What floral traits cause pollinator discrimination among plant species? and (ii) What is the genetic basis of these traits? We examined these questions by using data obtained from a large-scale field experiment where genetic markers were employed to determine the genetic basis of pollinator visitation. Observations of F2 hybrids produced by crossing bee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii with hummingbird-pollinated Mimulus cardinalis revealed that bees preferred large flowers low in anthocyanin and carotenoid pigments, whereas hummingbirds favored nectar-rich flowers high in anthocyanins. An allele that increases petal carotenoid concentration reduced bee visitation by 80%, whereas an allele that increases nectar production doubled hummingbird visitation. These results suggest that genes of large effect on pollinator preference have contributed to floral evolution and premating reproductive isolation in these monkeyflowers. This work contributes to growing evidence that adaptation and reproductive isolation may often involve major genes. PMID:10518550

Schemske, D W; Bradshaw, H D

1999-10-12

115

Fisheries Enhancement on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation; Hangman Creek, Annual Report 2001-2002.  

SciTech Connect

Historically, Hangman Creek produced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the Upper Columbia Basin Tribes. One weir, located at the mouth of Hangman Creek was reported to catch 1,000 salmon a day for a period of 30 days a year (Scholz et al. 1985). The current town of Tekoa, Washington, near the state border with Idaho, was the location of one of the principle anadromous fisheries for the Coeur d'Alene Tribe (Scholz et al. 1985). The construction, in 1909, of Little Falls Dam, which was not equipped with a fish passage system, blocked anadromous fish access to the Hangman Watershed. The fisheries were further removed with the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. As a result, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as Redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri), Westslope Cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii), Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and other terrestrial wildlife. Historically, Redband and Cutthroat trout comprised a great deal of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's diet (Power 1997).

Peters, Ronald; Kinkead, Bruce; Stanger, Mark

2003-07-01

116

Food for Sex: or how to attract a pollinator.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two sister species of monkey flower are pollinated by different pollinators; this difference is a major factor in their reproductive isolation. One species Mimulus cardinalis has small red flowers with high nectar levels and is pollinated by hummingbirds while the other species, Mimulus lewisii, has large pink flowers with low levels of nectar and is pollinated by bumblebees. Although the mechanism of species maintenance is clear, what is less clear is the process that led to the speciation in the first place. We have developed an Excel spreadsheet that models the interaction of the two pollinators with monkeyflowers that have varying color and nectar production phenotypes. Users can specify: * the starting color and nectar genotypes of the population * the color and nectar preferences of the birds * the color and nectar preferences of the bees * the relative visitation rates of the birds and bees The spreadsheet then runs a standard Hardy-Weinberg simulation for 20 generations under the specified conditions and plots the results. This model follows the frequencies of the alleles in two "gene pools": the alleles carried by the bees and the alleles carried by the birds. At each generation, each pool is calculated, used to produce offspring, and the resulting offspring are then pooled.

Joyce Cadwallader (Saint-Mary-of-the-Woods College;); Brian White (University of Massachusetts;); Christine Tuaillon (Nassau Community College;)

2007-06-17

117

Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera helix and Alchemilla vulgaris are fed for retained placenta. Conclusion Some of the plants showing high levels of validity were Hedera helix for retained placenta and Euphrasia officinalis for eye problems. Plants with high validity for wounds and injuries included Hypericum perforatum, Malva parviflora and Prunella vulgaris. Treatments with high validity against endoparasites included those with Juniperus communis and Pinus ponderosa. Anxiety and pain are well treated with Melissa officinalis and Nepeta caesarea. PMID:17324258

Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard; Boepple, Willi

2007-01-01

118

Repelling properties of some plant materials on the tick Ixodes ricinus L.  

PubMed

The repellent effects on nymphal stages of Ixodes ricinus L. of some plant materials have been studied in the laboratory. The plant material consisted of an ethanolic extract from Achillea millefolium L., and volatile oils of birch and/or pine tar, citronella, cloves, eucalyptus, geranium, lavender, lily of the valley and peppermint. The most pronounced effects were observed for the oils of citronella, cloves and lily of the valley. They possessed repelling activities of the same magnitude as the reference repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide). Some major constituents of these oils, e.g. citronellol and geraniol (oil of citronella and lily of the valley) and eugenol (oil of cloves) showed pronounced repelling effects. This was also the case for phenethyl alcohol, a minor component in the oil from lily of the valley. PMID:16360943

Thorsell, W; Mikiver, A; Tunón, H

2006-01-01

119

Antioxidative/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Asteraceae plants.  

PubMed

The extracts obtained by 80% EtOH from some Asteraceae plants (Calendula officinalis, Inula helenium, Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium and Achillea millefolium) were studied. Rosmarinic acid, one of the main compounds identified in all extracts, was determined quantitatively by using HPLC. In addition, spectrophotometric methods were evaluated as an alternative for rosmarinic acid content determination. Total phenolic content was also established for all extracts. A. millefolium extract was found to have the highest content of rosmarinic acid as well as total phenols. All extracts were tested for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. A. millefolium was shown to possess the best antioxidant activity (for all tested methods) as well as acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Highly positive linear relationships were obtained between antioxidant/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and the determined rosmarinic acid content indicating its significance for the observed activities. PMID:23738456

Mekini?, Ivana Generali?; Burcul, Franko; Blazevi?, Ivica; Skroza, Danijela; Kerum, Daniela; Katalini?, Visnja

2013-04-01

120

Aqueous Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants are as Toxic as Lmidacloprid to the Sweet Potato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci  

PubMed Central

Aqueous extracts of nine plants, known to have medicinal activity, were tested for their toxicity against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleurodidae) compared to the toxicity of the insecticide, Imidacloprid. Extracts of Lepidiuim sativum L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) killed 71 % of early stage nymphs, which was not significantly different from mortality caused by Imidacloprid. Treatment of pupae with three plant extracts, L. sativum, Achillea biebersteinii L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), or Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb and Berthel (Fabales: Fabaceae) prevented adult development, and treatment with R. raetam extract killed adults, at levels that were not significantly different from Imidacloprid. None of the other plants showed significant toxicity. However extracts of four plants, Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), Galium longifolium (Sibth. and SM.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), R. raetam and Ballota undulata Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) had a repellent effect. PMID:19613450

Ateyyat, Mazen A.; Al-Mazra'awi, Mohammad; Abu-Rjai, Talal; Shatnawi, Mohamad A.

2009-01-01

121

HerbMed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HerbMed is "an interactive, electronic herbal database" that provides scientific and general information on the biochemical action of herbs. A project of the Alternative Medicine Foundation, Inc., HerbMed includes a searchable interface, as well as a manual option for browsing the HerbMed database by plant Genus. From Achillea (Yarrow) to Ziziphus (Jujube), the HerbMed database provides detailed information on each herb's biochemical action, the mechanism of action, and warnings for human health. Of special interest to researchers will be the hyperlinks to abstracts in PubMed (reviewed in the July 18, 1997 Scout Report), providing published evidence of the scientific information contained in this database. For researchers and educators alike, HerbMed promises to be a useful resource.

122

Experimental Evaluation of Seed Limitation in Alpine Snowbed Plants  

PubMed Central

Background The distribution and abundance of plants is controlled by the availability of seeds and of sites suitable for establishment. The relative importance of these two constraints is still contentious and possibly varies among species and ecosystems. In alpine landscapes, the role of seed limitation has traditionally been neglected, and the role of abiotic gradients emphasized. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the importance of seed limitation for the incidence of four alpine snowbed species (Achillea atrata L., Achillea clusiana Tausch, Arabis caerulea L., Gnaphalium hoppeanum W. D. J. Koch) in local plant communities by comparing seedling emergence, seedling, juvenile and adult survival, juvenile and adult growth, flowering frequency as well as population growth rates ? of experimental plants transplanted into snowbed patches which were either occupied or unoccupied by the focal species. In addition, we accounted for possible effects of competition or facilitation on these rates by including a measure of neighbourhood biomass into the analysis. We found that only A. caerulea had significantly lower seedling and adult survival as well as a lower population growth rate in unoccupied sites whereas the vital rates of the other three species did not differ among occupied and unoccupied sites. By contrast, all species were sensitive to competitive effects of the surrounding vegetation in terms of at least one of the studied rates. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that seed and site limitation jointly determine the species composition of these snowbed plant communities and that constraining site factors include both abiotic conditions and biotic interactions. The traditional focus on abiotic gradients for explaining alpine plant distribution hence appears lopsided. The influence of seed limitation on the current distribution of these plants casts doubt on their ability to readily track shifting habitats under climate change unless seed production is considerably enhanced under a warmer climate. PMID:21738694

2011-01-01

123

Rubus nigerrimus (Greene) Rydb. northwest raspberry Rosaceae (Rose Family) Rubus nigerrimus northwest raspberry Status: State Endangered, USFWS Species of Concern  

E-print Network

The stems are fairly densely armed with straight or hooked prickles, some of which are strongly flattened. The leaves are compound with toothed margins and essentially glabrous on both surfaces. The leaves on flowering stems are in groups of three and the petioles are armed with prickles. On first year stems the leaves are often in groups of five with the lower two lacking petioles. The flowers are white and loosely clustered at the ends of the branches. The fruit is a moderately succulent, blackish, raspberry-like, glabrous drupelet. Identification Tips: R. nigerrimus is very similar to R. leucodermis, which occupies the same geographic area. The former can be distinguished most readily by its leaves, which are glabrous on both surfaces, rather than pubescent on the underside. Phenology: Blooms in May and early June. Fruits begin to ripen in late June. By mid-July most fruits are mature or overmature. Range: Local endemic, restricted to an area approximately 20 by 4 miles along the Snake River in Whitman and Garfield cos., WA in the Columbia Basin physiographic province. Habitat: Occurs primarily along the bottom of steep, narrow drainages and somewhat moist areas on adjacent slopes on tributaries to the Snake River in the bluebunch wheatgrass/ Sandberg’s bluegrass association of Daubenmire (1970). Soils are generally derived from loess, volcanic ash, and weathered basalt. The associated vegetation typically consists of other shrubs, forbs, and grasses, with an occasional hardwood overstory component. Associated species include Lewis’s mockorange (Philadelphus lewisii), Himalayan blackberry (Rubus discolor), whitebark raspberry (Rubus leucodermis), smooth sumac (Rhus glabra), willow (Salix sp.), Wood’s rose (Rosa woodsii), black cottonwood (Populus tricocarpa), black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii), oceanspray (Holodiscus discolor), and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). Elevation: 700-2200 feet.

Rank Gs

124

Growth and Landscape Performance of Ten Herbaceous Species in Response to Saline Water Irrigation1  

PubMed Central

Ten herbaceous perennials and groundcovers were grown in raised beds from June to September in a dry, hot desert environment and micro-spray drip irrigated with synthesized saline solutions at electrical conductivity of 0.8 (tap water), 3.2, or 5.4 dS/m. Plant height and two perpendicular widths were recorded monthly to calculate the growth index. Landscape performance was assessed monthly by visual scores. Salinity did not affect the visual scores in Achillea millefolium L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Lantana x hybrida ‘New Gold’, Lonicera japonica Thunb. ‘Halliana’, and Rosmarinus officinalis L. ‘Huntington Carpet’ throughout the experiment. Glandularia canadensis (L.) Nutt. ‘Homestead Purple’ performed better than Glandularia x hybrida (Grönland & Rümpler) G. L. Nesom & Pruski. Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Brig. had lower visual scores at 5.4 dS/m compared to the control and 3.2 dS/m. Most plants of Rudbeckia hirta L. did not survive when irrigated at 3.2 dS/m or 5.4 dS/m. Shoot biomass of A. millefolium, G. aristata, L. x hybrida, L. japonica, R. officinalis, and V. macdougalii was not influenced by the salinity of irrigation water. Therefore, A. millefolium, G. aristata, L. x hybrida, L. japonica, and R. officinalis can be irrigated with non-potable water at salinity up to 5.4 dS/m with little reduction in growth and aesthetic appearance. PMID:20585473

Niu, Genhua; Rodriguez, Denise S.; Aguiniga, Lizzie

2009-01-01

125

Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal herbs in Jordan, the Ajloun Heights region.  

PubMed

The study of local knowledge about natural resources is becoming increasingly important in defining strategies and actions for conservation of medicinal plants. This study therefore sought to collect information from local population concerning the use of Ajloun Heights region medicinal plants; identify the most important species used; determine the relative importance of the species surveyed and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) in relation to medicinal plant use. Data collection relied predominantly on qualitative tools to record the interviewee's personal information and topics related to the medicinal use of specific plants. Our results revealed that 46 plant species grown in the study region are still in use in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Achillea falcata, Matricaria aurea, Majorana syriaca, Allium sativum and Allium cepa. The use of moderately unsafe or toxic plants was noted to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the locals. These plants include Ecballium elaterium, Euphorbia hierosolymitana, Mandragora autumnalis and Citrullus colocynthis. Kidney problems scored the highest ICF while Crocus hyemalis was the plant of highest use value. Searching the literature evidenced some concordance with the solicited plant uses mentioned by the informants. PMID:17097250

Aburjai, Talal; Hudaib, Mohammad; Tayyem, Rabab; Yousef, Mohammed; Qishawi, Maher

2007-03-21

126

Attraction of Culex pipiens pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) to flower volatiles.  

PubMed

Methylene chloride extracts of flowers from 4 plants (common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L; ox-eye daisy, Leucanthemum vulgare Lamarck; Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis L.; and yarrow, Achillea millefolium L.) were tested in a dual-port olfactometer for attractiveness to female northern house mosquitoes, Culex pipiens pipiens L. Fifty milligrams of extract was used for each test, which was equivalent to the amount of extract from flowers of 0.58 common milkweed inflorescences, 1.75 ox-eye daisy flower heads, 0.33 Canada goldenrod plants, or 3.14 yarrow plants. Significantly more Cx. pipiens responded to the common milkweed flower extract than to a control. Ox-eye daisy, Canada goldenrod and yarrow flower extracts were not significantly attractive to this species. A headspace sample of the common milkweed extract was collected by solid phase microextraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The most abundant compounds in the headspace sample were 2-phenylethanol and benzyl alcohol. Analysis of the common milkweed extract and standards of 2-phenylethanol and benzyl alcohol by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection confirmed that these compounds were present in the extract. Cx. pipiens did not respond to synthetic blends of these 2 compounds when tested in a dual-port olfactometer. PMID:10467780

Mauer, D J; Rowley, W A

1999-07-01

127

The efficacy of Liv-52 on liver cirrhotic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled first approach.  

PubMed

Cirrhosis is the irreversible sequel of various disorders that damage liver cells permanently over time. Presently, the use of herbal medicines for prevention and control of chronic liver diseases is in the focus of attention for both the physicians and the patients; the reasons for such shift toward the use of herbals include the expensive cost of conventional drugs, adverse drug reactions, and their inefficacy. In the present study, the efficacy of herbal medicine Liv-52 (consisting of Mandur basma, Tamarix gallica and herbal extracts of Capparis spinosa, Cichorium intybus, Solanum nigrum, Terminalia arjuna and Achillea millefolium) on liver cirrhosis outcomes was compared with the placebo for 6 months in 36 cirrhotic patients referred to Tehran Hepatic Center. The outcome measures included child-pugh score, ascites, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total billirubin, albumin, prothrombin time, platelet and white blood cells counts. The indices were recorded in all patients before and after 6 months of drug or placebo treatment. The results demonstrated that the patients treated with Liv-52 for 6 months had significantly better child-pugh score, decreased ascites, decreased serum ALT and AST. In placebo administered patients all the clinical parameters recorded at beginning of the study were not significantly different than after 6 months. We conclude that Liv-52 possess hepatoprotective effect in cirrhotic patients. This protective effect of Liv-52 can be attributed to the diuretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and immunomodulating properties of the component herbs. PMID:16194047

Huseini, H Fallah; Alavian, S M; Heshmat, R; Heydari, M R; Abolmaali, K

2005-09-01

128

Anyone for an aperitif? Yes, but only a Braulio DOC with its certified proteome.  

PubMed

The trace proteome of a Braulio aperitif (a 21% alcohol beverage, named after a mountain in the Val di Stelvio, Italy) has been investigated via capture with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL, ProteoMiner). This aperitif is made with an infusion of 13 mountain herbs and berries, among which four are officially indicated in the label: Achillea moschata, juniper (Juniperus communis subsp. alpina) berries, absinthe (Artemisia absinthium) and gentian (Gentiana alpina) roots. Via capture with CPLLs at pH 7.0 and 2.2 we were able to identify 29 unique gene products, among which the PR5 (parasite resistance) allergen Jun r 3.2, a 25kDa species from Juniperus rigida. Due to the paucity of data on these alpine herbs, it was difficult to attribute these proteins to the specific plant extracts presumably present in this beverage; however most of the species identified indeed belong to alpine herbs and plants, living in a habitat between 1000 and 2000m of elevation. Most of them are enzymes, spanning a Mr range from 10 to 65kDa. It is hoped that such a proteomic signature should help tracking counterfeited products sold on the market. PMID:22554908

Fasoli, Elisa; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Citterio, Attilio; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

2012-06-18

129

Application of RAPD for molecular characterization of plant species of medicinal value from an arid environment.  

PubMed

The use of highly discriminatory methods for the identification and characterization of genotypes is essential for plant protection and appropriate use. We utilized the RAPD method for the genetic fingerprinting of 11 plant species of desert origin (seven with known medicinal value). Andrachne telephioides, Zilla spinosa, Caylusea hexagyna, Achillea fragrantissima, Lycium shawii, Moricandia sinaica, Rumex vesicarius, Bassia eriophora, Zygophyllum propinquum subsp migahidii, Withania somnifera, and Sonchus oleraceus were collected from various areas of Saudi Arabia. The five primers used were able to amplify the DNA from all the plant species. The amplified products of the RAPD profiles ranged from 307 to 1772 bp. A total of 164 bands were observed for 11 plant species, using five primers. The number of well-defined and major bands for a single plant species for a single primer ranged from 1 to 10. The highest pair-wise similarities (0.32) were observed between A. fragrantissima and L. shawii, when five primers were combined. The lowest similarities (0) were observed between A. telephioides and Z. spinosa; Z. spinosa and B. eriophora; B. eriophora and Z. propinquum. In conclusion, the RAPD method successfully discriminates among all the plant species, therefore providing an easy and rapid tool for identification, conservation and sustainable use of these plants. PMID:21064026

Arif, I A; Bakir, M A; Khan, H A; Al Farhan, A H; Al Homaidan, A A; Bahkali, A H; Al Sadoon, M; Shobrak, M

2010-01-01

130

Efficacy of plant extracts and oils as mosquito repellents.  

PubMed

Some natural products, extract of Achillea millefolium (yarrow), birch/pine tar-, citronella-, clove-, eucalyptus-, geranium-, lavender-, lily of the valley- and peppermint oils have been tested for repellency in the laboratory against Aedes aegypti and in the field predominantly against Aedes communis and A. cinereus. The laboratory tests showed that yarrow extract exhibited a similar repellency as the reference substances N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide and N,N-diethyl-mandelic acid amide. A good repelling effect was also obtained with the oils of birch/pine tar and eucalyptus. The field tests revealed that the extracts and oils with good activity against Aedes aegypti also were effective against A. communis and A. cinereus. Furthermore oils of citronella and lily of the valley showed similar activity and were comparable with the used reference substances mentioned. Each of these natural products contained a great number of constituents when characterized by chromatography/mass spectrometry. Available data in the literature were gathered, both regarding mosquito repellency and toxicity for humans and larger animals, for each product as well as its major constituents. PMID:23195905

Thorsell, W; Mikiver, A; Malander, I; Tunón, H

1998-08-01

131

Contact allergy to Compositae plants in patients with atopic dermatitis.  

PubMed

To investigate the frequency of Compositae sensitivity is one of the most important goals of current dermatology and allergology. We have patch tested 30 adult patients suffering from "extrinsic" atopic dermatitis with sesquiterpene lactone mix and Compositae mix including Compositae mix individual ingredients, extracts of arnica (Arnica montana), chamomile (Chamomilla recutita), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare), fever few (Tanacetum parthenium) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium) as well as with specific series for patients with atopic dermatitis. All allergens were purchased from Hermal-Trolab (Reinbek, Germany). There were 6 (20%) patients positive to Compositae mix only, and 3 (10%) patients positive to both Compositae mix and sesquiterpene lactone mix. Among 9 Compositae mix-sensitive patients 8 (88.8%) were positive to at least 1 of its individual ingredients: 5 (55.5%) to chamomile, 4 (44.4%) to arnica, 2 (22.2%) to tansy, and 2 (22.2%) to fever few. Among Compositae-sensitive patients 78.8% had other contact allergies, most often to nickel (33.3%). Since our study represents the first report on contact allergy to Compositae among patients with "extrinsic" type of atopic dermatitis, it substantiates the statement that atopy represents a risk factor for Compositae allergy. In conclusion, the overall prevalence of 30% Compositae-sensitive among patients with "extrinsic" atopic dermatitis detected in our study represents a basal sesquiterpene lactone mix detection rate of 10%, reinforced and safely supplemented by 20% by testing with the Compositae mix. PMID:15503788

Jovanovi?, Marina; Poljacki, Mirjana; Duran, Verica; Vujanovi?, Ljuba; Sente, Ruza; Stojanovi?, Slobodan

2004-01-01

132

Prehibernation diet and reproductive condition of female Anopheles messeae in Sweden.  

PubMed

1. Blood and sugar feeding in the mosquito Anopheles messeae Falleroni were investigated near Uppsala, Sweden, from 1981 to 1985, with emphasis on prehibernation diet. 2. Fructose, indicating plant feeding, was present in females of all ovarian stages, from April to October, and contributed to fat body development in non-gonoactive females before hibernation. 3. An.messeae males and females (inseminated and uninseminated) were observed feeding on floral nectaries of the plants Achillea millefolium L. and Tanacetum vulgare L. at night during August. 4. Gonotrophic dissociation started in some females in July, and by the end of September all females were inseminated and nulliparous but non-gonoactive. 5. Animal sheds were used as diurnal resting sites of non-gonoactive, prehibernating female An.messeae. Among recently fed mosquitoes in that group, 85% were gut positive for fructose and 15% for blood. Most of them showed negative host tropism, indicating that bloodfeeding is not a prerequisite for hibernation. 6. Survival rates of bloodfed (48 +/- 31 days) and non-bloodfed (42 +/- 21 days) females, collected from a cattle shed in September and kept caged without food or water in a store house, were not significantly different. This indicates that bloodfeeding may occur facultatively before hibernation but does not affect longevity and survival. 7. If overwintering is possible for bloodfed An.messeae females, they would be more likely vectors of pathogens such as Batai virus. PMID:1768915

Jaenson, T G; Ameneshewa, B

1991-04-01

133

Compositae dermatitis in childhood.  

PubMed

Compositae dermatitis occurred in a 9-year-old boy with a strong personal and family history of atopy. Positive patch test reactions were 2+ for dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), false ragweed (Ambrosia acanthicarpa), giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida), short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisifolia), sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), wild feverfew (Parthenium hysterophorus), yarrow (Achillea millifolium), and tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and 1+ for Dahlia species and English ivy (Hedera helix). Patch tests were negative for another 30 plants, including cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium), dog fennel (Anthemis cotula, fleabane (Erigeron strigosus), sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale), and feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium). The eruption resembled atopic dermatitis morphologically but was prominent on the palms and face and dramatically spared the area of the boy's feet covered by his shoes. The condition has always been seasonal, worsening in summer, especially July, and it clears on avoidance of contact. This case is believed to represent a contact dermatitis to oleoresins of Compositae plants; inhalants as a cause of systemic aggravation are not likely to be important in this patient. PMID:3827282

Guin, J D; Skidmore, G

1987-04-01

134

Synergistic anticancer activities of the plant-derived sesquiterpene lactones salograviolide A and iso-seco-tanapartholide.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that the two sesquiterpene lactones, salograviolide A (Sal A) and iso-seco-tanapartholide (TNP), isolated from the Middle Eastern indigenous plants Centaurea ainetensis and Achillea falcata, respectively, possess selective antitumor properties. Here, we aimed to assess the anticancer effects of the separate compounds and their combination, study their potential to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and investigate their underlying antitumor mechanisms in human colon cancer cell lines. Cells were treated with Sal A and TNP alone or in combination, and cell viability, cell cycle profile, apoptosis, ROS generation and changes in protein expression were monitored. Sal A and TNP in combination caused 80% decrease in HCT-116 and DLD-1 cell viability versus only 25% reduction when the drugs were used separately. The antitumor mechanism involved triggering ROS-dependent apoptosis as well as disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further studies showed that apoptosis by the Sal A and TNP combination was caspase-independent and that ERK, JNK and p38 of the serine/threonine MAPKs signaling pathway were involved in the cell death mechanism. Taken together, our data suggest that the combination of Sal A and TNP may be of therapeutic interest against colon cancer. PMID:22976170

Salla, Mohamed; Fakhoury, Isabelle; Saliba, Najat; Darwiche, Nadine; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala

2013-07-01

135

Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.  

PubMed

Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

2014-01-01

136

Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.  

PubMed

Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae),Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25373231

Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

2014-01-01

137

Root foraging influences plant growth responses to earthworm foraging.  

PubMed

Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503

Cameron, Erin K; Cahill, James F; Bayne, Erin M

2014-01-01

138

In vitro anti-hepatoma activity of fifteen natural medicines from Canada.  

PubMed

Fifteen crude drugs, Stellaria media Cyrill. (Caryophyllaceae), Calendula officinalis L. (Compositae), Achillea millefolium L. (Compositae), Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae), Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae), Satureja hortensis L. (Labiatae), Coptis groenlandica Salisb. (Ranunculaceae), Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (Leguminosae), Origanum majorana L. (Labiatae), Centella asiatica L. (Umbelliferae), Caulophyllum thalictroides Mich. (Berberidaceae), Picea rubens Sargent. (Pinaceae), Rhamnus purshiana D.C. (Rhamnaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), which have been used as folk medicine in Canada, were evaluated for their anti-hepatoma activity on five human liver-cancer cell lines, i.e. HepG2/C3A, SK-HEP-1, HA22T/VGH, Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5. The samples were examined by in vitro evaluation for their cytotoxicity. The results showed that the effects of crude drugs on hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines were different from those against non hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines. C. groenlandica was observed to be the most effective against the growth of all five cell lines and its chemotherapeutic values will be of interest for further studies. PMID:12203264

Lin, Liang-Tzung; Liu, Li-Teh; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Lin, Chun-Ching

2002-08-01

139

Solid-phase microextraction of volatile components from natural grassland plants.  

PubMed

The volatile components from nine plants growing on natural grasslands in Auvergne, central France, selected for the broad qualitative and quantitative diversity of their terpenoid fractions, were analyzed by high-resolution gas-phase chromatography and mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS) after static headspace solid-phase microextraction (SHS-SPME). SHS-SPME allowed all the plant material to be analyzed under the same conditions despite its wide-ranging composition. This is not always possible with other extraction methods. Using an apolar poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) phase, numerous terpenoid hydrocarbons, together with alcohols, cyclic ethers, and esters, were extracted. Its ease of use and the high resolution of the chromatographic profiles obtained make SHS-SPME well suited to the rapid characterization of the main components of the volatile fraction of plants. Of the nine plants studied, four (Meum athamanticum, Pimpinella saxifraga, Achillea millefolium, and Thymus pulegioides) exhaled more than 60 different volatile components. Certain terpenes present in large amounts in these plants might help link dairy products to grazing pasture, thus improving food traceability. PMID:11170578

Cornu, A; Carnat, A; Martin, B; Coulon, J; Lamaison, J; Berdagué, J

2001-01-01

140

Bioactivity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against the Cotton Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci  

PubMed Central

Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

2014-01-01

141

Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases. PMID:12471432

Holetz, Fabíola Barbiéri; Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Sanches, Neviton Rogério; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

2002-10-01

142

Growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis as influenced by ozone and competition.  

PubMed

Interspecific plant competition has been hypothesized to alter effects of early-season ozone (O3) stress. A phytometer-based approach was utilized to investigate O3 effects on growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis grown in monoculture and in mixed cultures with four competitor-plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Rumex acetosa and Veronica chamaedrys). Mesocosms were exposed during April/May 2000-2002 to charcoal-filtered air+25 ppb O3 (control) or non-filtered air+50 ppb O3 (elevated O3). Biomass production was not affected by O3, but foliar injury symptoms were observed in May 2002. Early-season O3 exposure decreased relative food value of P. pratensis by an average of 8%, which is sufficient to have nutritional implications for its utilization by herbivores. However, forage quality response to O3 was not changed by interspecific competition. Lack of injury and nutritive quality response in P. pratensis harvested in September may reflect recovery from early-season O3 exposure. PMID:16290915

Bender, J; Muntifering, R B; Lin, J C; Weigel, H J

2006-07-01

143

Root Foraging Influences Plant Growth Responses to Earthworm Foraging  

PubMed Central

Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503

Cameron, Erin K.; Cahill, James F.; Bayne, Erin M.

2014-01-01

144

Rapid Plant Identification Using Species- and Group-Specific Primers Targeting Chloroplast DNA  

PubMed Central

Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae), the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory. PMID:22253728

Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Thalinger, Bettina; Traugott, Michael

2012-01-01

145

Levels of some microelements and essential heavy metals in herbal teas in Serbia.  

PubMed

Levels of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Co, Ni, Se, Sn and Al were determined in 14 medicinal plants from Serbia, which are widely used in phytopharmacy as herbal teas. The following plants were investigated: yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), basil (Ocimum hasilicum L.), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.), field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.), thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.), maize silk (Zea mays L. - Maydis stigma), hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), rosehip/dog rose (Rosa canina L.), winter savory (Satureja montana L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). A total of 16 samples of different parts of medicinal plants (root, leaf, flower, herba) were examined, whereby 13 samples were delivered in original package and three samples were loose leaf herbs. Samples were prepared using the microwave digestion technique, and measurements were performed applying the atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Contents of microelements in the examined samples were in the range: Mn (23.86 - 453.71 mg/kg); Fe (61.87 - 673.0 mg/kg); Cu (6.68 - 24.46 mg/kg); Zn (16.11 - 113.81 mg/kg); Mo (0.576 - 4.265 mg/kg); Co (0.039 - 0.532 mg/kg); Se (0.036 - 0.146 mg/kg); Ni (0.738 - 6.034 mg/kg); Al (154.0 - 3015.0 mg/kg) and Sn (2.68 - 10.22 mg/kg). According to determined amounts of microelements, the investigated samples of herbal teas are considered safe for human consumption. PMID:25265817

Mihaljev, Zeljko; Zivkov-Balos, Milica; Cupi?, Zeljko; Jaksi?, Sandra

2014-01-01

146

The role of mass spectrometry in medicinal plant research.  

PubMed

In phytochemical and chemotaxonomic research work mass spectrometry plays an outstandingly important role. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we established the chemotaxa of Tanacetum vulgare L. Chemotypes with essential oils containing 60-90% of artemisia ketone, carveol, dihydrocarvone, myrtenol, umbellulone, terpinen-4-ol, davanone, and Tagetes species containing various essential oils can be clearly distinguished by their spectra; we examined many variations of Tagetes erecta, T. lucida, T. minuta, T. patula and T. tenuifolia. We have identified alpha-beta-pinene-, 1,8-cineol-, linalool-, camphor-, nerol-, geraniol- and gamma-gurjonene as components of Achillea distans L. Injecting the essential oil direct from the oil-secreting organs of T. minuta plants we identified using GC/MS 6-10 and 16% eugenol from the involucral bract and hypsophyll, respectively, as well as beta-ocimene, dihydrotagetone, tagetone, Z- and E-ocimenones. In the course of studies on essential fatty acids Borago officinalis and Lappula squarrosa were selected from 70 species of the family Boraginaceae to obtain seed oil as a source of gamma-linolenic acid, and for the PG synthesis we isolated several grams of gamma-linolenic acid, as well as C18:4, i.e. octadecatetraenic acid, from L. squarrosa on the basis of the mass spectra. From the seed oil of Aquilegia vulgaris C18:3 (5) from the oil of Limnanthes dougloasii C20:1 (5) and from the seed oils of Delphinium consolida and of Tropaeolum species (T. majus, T. minus, T. peregrinum) C20:1 (11) fatty acids were identified on the basis of spectra. PMID:2962668

Héthelyi, E; Tétényi, P; Dabi, E; Dános, B

1987-11-01

147

T-lymphocyte cytokine profiles in compositae airborne dermatitis.  

PubMed

Compositae airborne dermatitis is a well-recognized disorder characterized by erythematosquamous lesions and papules on light-exposed areas. The presence of positive patch test reactions and the absence of specific serum IgE suggest delayed-type hypersensitivity, the murine model of which is characterized by a Th1 cytokine production profile [high amounts of interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2; little or no IL-4 and IL-5]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytokine profile of T-cell lines and T-cell clones from peripheral blood in a 38-year-old non-atopic male woodcutter affected by seasonal airborne contact dermatitis. The patient showed positive patch test reactions to several Compositae extracts (Achillea millefolium, Chamomilla recutita, Tanacetum parthenium, T. vulgare) and sesquiterpene lactone mix. On prick testing with Compositae and other plants, serum-specific IgE levels and phototesting were negative or normal. Allergen-specific T-cell lines produced with Compositae extracts showed a good in vitro cell proliferation only to C. recutita extract. Serial cloning performed using the C. recutita-specific T-cell lines revealed an alphabeta+CD4+ phenotype with high amounts of IFN-gamma and IL-4 in T-cell clones. Thus, these cells expressed a preferential Th0 phenotype. These data suggest that in addition to IFN-gamma, other T-cell derived cytokines, such as IL-4, may play a part in the immunopathogenesis of contact dermatitis. PMID:10583117

Stingeni, L; Agea, E; Lisi, P; Spinozzi, F

1999-10-01

148

Apomixis is not prevalent in subnival to nival plants of the European Alps  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims High alpine environments are characterized by short growing seasons, stochastic climatic conditions and fluctuating pollinator visits. These conditions are rather unfavourable for sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Apomixis, asexual reproduction via seed, provides reproductive assurance without the need of pollinators and potentially accelerates seed development. Therefore, apomixis is expected to provide selective advantages in high-alpine biota. Indeed, apomictic species occur frequently in the subalpine to alpine grassland zone of the European Alps, but the mode of reproduction of the subnival to nival flora was largely unknown. Methods The mode of reproduction in 14 species belonging to seven families was investigated via flow cytometric seed screen. The sampling comprised 12 species typical for nival to subnival plant communities of the European Alps without any previous information on apomixis (Achillea atrata, Androsace alpina, Arabis caerulea, Erigeron uniflorus, Gnaphalium hoppeanum, Leucanthemopsis alpina, Oxyria digyna, Potentilla frigida, Ranunculus alpestris, R. glacialis, R. pygmaeus and Saxifraga bryoides), and two high-alpine species with apomixis reported from other geographical areas (Leontopodium alpinum and Potentilla crantzii). Key Results Flow cytometric data were clearly interpretable for all 46 population samples, confirming the utility of the method for broad screenings on non-model organisms. Formation of endosperm in all species of Asteraceae was documented. Ratios of endosperm : embryo showed pseudogamous apomixis for Potentilla crantzii (ratio approx. 3), but sexual reproduction for all other species (ratios approx. 1·5). Conclusions The occurrence of apomixis is not correlated to high altitudes, and cannot be readily explained by selective forces due to environmental conditions. The investigated species have probably other adaptations to high altitudes to maintain reproductive assurance via sexuality. We hypothesize that shifts to apomixis are rather connected to frequencies of polyploidization than to ecological conditions. PMID:21724654

Horandl, Elvira; Dobes, Christoph; Suda, Jan; Vit, Petr; Urfus, Tomas; Temsch, Eva M.; Cosendai, Anne-Caroline; Wagner, Johanna; Ladinig, Ursula

2011-01-01

149

The acceptability of meadow plants to the slug Deroceras reticulatum and implications for grassland restoration  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Despite the selective pressure slugs may exert on seedling recruitment there is a lack of information in this context within grassland restoration studies. Selective grazing is influenced by interspecific differences in acceptability. As part of a larger study of how slug–seedling interactions may influence upland hay meadow restoration, an assessment of relative acceptability is made for seedlings of meadow plants to the slug, Deroceras reticulatum. Methods Slug feeding damage to seedling monocultures of 23 meadow species and Brassica napus was assessed in microcosms over 14 d. The severity and rate of damage incurred by each plant species was analysed with a generalized additive mixed model. Plant species were then ranked for their relative acceptability. Key Results Interspecific variation in relative acceptability suggested seedlings of meadow species form a hierarchy of acceptability to D. reticulatum. The four most acceptable species were Achillea millefolium and the grasses Holcus lanatus, Poa trivialis and Festuca rubra. Trifolium pratense was acceptable to D. reticulatum and was the second highest ranking forb species. The most unacceptable species were mainly forbs associated with the target grassland, and included Geranium sylvaticum, Rumex acetosa, Leontodon hispidus and the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum. A strong positive correlation was found for mean cumulative feeding damage and cumulative seedling mortality at day 14. Conclusions Highly unacceptable species to D. reticulatum are unlikely to be selectively grazed by slugs during the seedling recruitment phase, and were predominantly target restoration species. Seedlings of highly acceptable species may be less likely to survive slug herbivory and contribute to seedling recruitment at restoration sites. Selective slug herbivory, influenced by acceptability, may influence community-level processes if seedling recruitment and establishment of key functional species, such as T. pratense is reduced. PMID:23632124

Barlow, Sarah E.; Close, Andrew J.; Port, Gordon R.

2013-01-01

150

Glutathione S-transferases and malondialdehyde in the liver of NOD mice on short-term treatment with plant mixture extract P-9801091.  

PubMed

Changes in the concentration of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in the liver of normal and diabetic NOD mice with and without treatment with the plant extract P-9801091. The plant extract P-9801091 is an antihyperglycaemic preparation containing Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum of fi cinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Millefoliiherba (Achillea millefolium L.), Mori folium (Morus nigra L.), Valerianae radix (Valeriana of ficinalis L.) and Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L). Hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus is responsible for the development of oxidative stress (via glucose auto-oxidation and protein glycation), which is characterized by increased lipid peroxide production (MDA is a lipid peroxidation end product) and/or decreased antioxidative defence (GST in the liver is predominantly an alpha enzyme, which has antioxidative activity). The catalytic concentration of GSTs in the liver was significantly reduced in diabetic NOD mice compared with normal NOD mice (p < 0.01), while the concentration of MDA showed a rising tendency (not significant). The results showed that statistically significant changes in antioxidative defence occurred in the experimental model of short-term diabetes mellitus. A 7-day treatment with P-9801091 plant extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg body mass led to a significant increase in the catalytic concentration of GSTs in the liver of diabetic NOD mice (p < 0.01) and a decrease in MDA concentration (not significant), which could be explained by its antihyperglycaemic effect. PMID:12722130

Petlevski, R; Hadzija, M; Slijepcevi?, M; Jureti?, D; Petrik, J

2003-04-01

151

Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extracts of selected Jordanian medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background: The search for novel xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors with a higher therapeutic activity and fewer side effects are desired not only to treat gout but also to combat various other diseases associated with the XO activity. At present, the potential of developing successful natural products for the management of XO-related diseases is still largely unexplored. In the present study, we have screened the methanolic extracts of various Jordanian medicinal plants for their XO inhibitory activities using an optimized protocol. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, belonging to 12 families, were tested in vitro, at 200 ?g/ml concentrations, for their XO inhibitory potential. The dose-dependent inhibition profiles of the most active plants were further evaluated by estimating the IC50 values of their corresponding extracts. Results: Six plants were found most active (% inhibition more than 39%). These plants are Salvia spinosa L. (IC50 = 53.7 ?g/ml), Anthemis palestina Boiss. (168.0 ?g/ml), Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (199.5 ?g/ml), Achillea biebersteinii Afansiev (360.0 ?g/ml), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (650.0 ?g/ml), and Ginkgo biloba L. (595.8 ?g/ml). Moreover, four more plants, namely Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (28.7% inhibition), Helianthemum ledifolium (L.) Mill. (28.4%), Majorana syriaca (L.) Kostel. (25.1%), and Mentha spicata L. (22.5%) showed a XO inhibitory activity in the range of 22–30%. Conclusion: The study showed that many of the tested plant species are potential sources of natural XO inhibitors that can be developed, upon further investigation, into successful herbal drugs for treatment of gout and other XO-related disorders. PMID:22262935

Hudaib, Mohammad M.; Tawaha, Khaled A.; Mohammad, Mohammad K.; Assaf, Areej M.; Issa, Ala Y.; Alali, Feras Q.; Aburjai, Talal A.; Bustanji, Yasser K.

2011-01-01

152

Effect of Elevated Tropospheric Ozone on the Structure of Bacterial Communities Inhabiting the Rhizosphere of Herbaceous Plants Native to Germany†  

PubMed Central

Current elevated concentrations of ozone in the atmosphere, as they are observed during summer seasons, can cause severe effects on plant vegetation. This study was initiated to analyze whether ozone-stressed plants also transfer signals below ground and thereby alter the bacterial community composition in their rhizospheres. Herbaceous plants, native to Germany, with tolerance (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Poa pratensis, Rumex acetosa, and Veronica chamaedrys) and sensitivity (Matricaria chamomilla, Sonchus asper, and Tanacetum vulgare) to ozone, raised in the greenhouse, were exposed in open-top chambers to two different ozone regimes, i.e., “summer stress” and a normal ozone background. DNA of bacterial cells from the rhizospheres was directly extracted, and partial sequences of the 16S rRNA genes were PCR amplified with primers targeting the following phylogenetic groups: Bacteria, ?-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Pseudomonas, respectively. The diversity of the amplified products was analyzed by genetic profiling based on single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Neither the tolerant nor the sensitive plants, the latter with visible above-ground damage, showed ozone-induced differences in any of the SSCP profiles, with the single exception of Actinobacteria-targeted profiles from S. asper. To increase the stress, S. asper was germinated and raised in the continuous presence of an elevated level of ozone. SSCP profiles with Bacteria-specific primers combined with gene probe hybridizations indicated an ozone-related increase in a Xanthomonas-related 16S rRNA gene and a decrease in the respective gene from the plant plastids. The fact that only this latter unrealistic scenario caused a detectable effect demonstrated that ozone stress has a surprisingly small effect on the structural diversity of the bacterial community in rhizospheres. PMID:16332747

Dohrmann, Anja B.; Tebbe, Christoph C.

2005-01-01

153

Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State  

PubMed Central

Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against this pathogen. Conclusions Our data suggest that further screening of plants used in traditional Haudenosaunee medicine is warranted, and we put forward several species for further investigation of activity against S. typhimurium (A. millefolium, H. matronalis, I. pandurata, H. pilosella, R. multiflora, S. canadensis). PMID:21054887

2010-01-01

154

Effect of elevated tropospheric ozone on the structure of bacterial communities inhabiting the rhizosphere of herbaceous plants native to Germany.  

PubMed

Current elevated concentrations of ozone in the atmosphere, as they are observed during summer seasons, can cause severe effects on plant vegetation. This study was initiated to analyze whether ozone-stressed plants also transfer signals below ground and thereby alter the bacterial community composition in their rhizospheres. Herbaceous plants, native to Germany, with tolerance (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Poa pratensis, Rumex acetosa, and Veronica chamaedrys) and sensitivity (Matricaria chamomilla, Sonchus asper, and Tanacetum vulgare) to ozone, raised in the greenhouse, were exposed in open-top chambers to two different ozone regimes, i.e., "summer stress" and a normal ozone background. DNA of bacterial cells from the rhizospheres was directly extracted, and partial sequences of the 16S rRNA genes were PCR amplified with primers targeting the following phylogenetic groups: Bacteria, alpha-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Pseudomonas, respectively. The diversity of the amplified products was analyzed by genetic profiling based on single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Neither the tolerant nor the sensitive plants, the latter with visible above-ground damage, showed ozone-induced differences in any of the SSCP profiles, with the single exception of Actinobacteria-targeted profiles from S. asper. To increase the stress, S. asper was germinated and raised in the continuous presence of an elevated level of ozone. SSCP profiles with Bacteria-specific primers combined with gene probe hybridizations indicated an ozone-related increase in a Xanthomonas-related 16S rRNA gene and a decrease in the respective gene from the plant plastids. The fact that only this latter unrealistic scenario caused a detectable effect demonstrated that ozone stress has a surprisingly small effect on the structural diversity of the bacterial community in rhizospheres. PMID:16332747

Dohrmann, Anja B; Tebbe, Christoph C

2005-12-01

155

Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.  

PubMed

Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338

Al-Qura'n, S

2009-05-01

156

Antibacterial Activity of Various Plants Extracts Against Antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila  

PubMed Central

Background: Aeromonas hydrophila cause one of the most important diseases in fishes and lead to economic losses, and may be contaminated human beings. Objectives: The current research aimed to investigate the anti-bacterial activity shown by the extracts prepared from different parts of Olea europea, Myrtus communis, Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinuis officinalis, and Achillea falcata that grow in Syria against A. hydrophila that causes the most dangerous bacterial diseases in fish. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in four stages: First of all, the presence of A. hydrophila was investigated in 450 Samples of Cyprinus Carpio fish using blood agar, Trypticase soya agar, and Analytical Profile Index (API20E). Secondly, the plants extract was obtained using water, absolute alcohol, then ether using Soxhlet extraction apparatus and rotary vacuum evaporator. Thirdly, the antibacterial activity of some antibiotics on these bacteria was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Finally, the antibacterial effect of the extracts was determined by disk diffusion method. Results: The studied antibiotics showed no antibacterial activity against these bacteria, except amikacin which had an acceptable effectiveness. However, the ethanol extracts of the studied plants revealed different antibacterial effects against A. hydrophila which showed antibiotic resistant. T. vulgaris extract had the strongest effect, whereas O. europea extract had the weakest activity. The water and ether petroleum extracts had no antibacterial activities. Conclusions: Ethanol extracts of the studied plants had different antibacterial effects against antibiotic-resistant A. hydrophila. T. vulgaris had the highest activity, R. officinalis had the second, and M. communis and A. falcate were in the third place, while the O. europea had the weakest antibacterial activity. PMID:25368797

Al Laham, Shaza Anwar; Al Fadel, Frdoos Mohammad

2014-01-01

157

Hangman Restoration Project : Annual Report, August 1, 2001 - July 31, 2002.  

SciTech Connect

The construction of hydroelectric facilities in the Columbia Basin resulted in the extirpation of anadromous fish stocks in Hangman Creek and its tributaries within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation. Thus, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss garideini), westslope cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) as well as local wildlife populations. Additionally, the Tribe was forced to convert prime riparian habitat into agricultural lands to supply sustenance for their changed needs. Wildlife habitats within the portion of the Hangman Creek Watershed that lies within the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation have been degraded from a century of land management practices that include widespread conversion of native habitats to agricultural production and intensive silvicultural practices. Currently, wildlife and fish populations have been marginalized and water quality is significantly impaired. In the fall of 2000 the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Wildlife Program, in coordination with the Tribal Fisheries Program, submitted a proposal to begin addressing the degradations to functioning habitats within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation in the Hangman Watershed. That proposal led to the implementation of this project during BPA's FY2001 through FY2003 funding cycle. The project is intended to protect, restore and/or enhance priority riparian, wetland and upland areas within the headwaters of Hangman Creek and its tributaries in order to promote healthy self-sustaining fish and wildlife populations. A key goal of this project is the implementation of wildlife habitat protection efforts in a manner that also secures areas with the potential to provide stream and wetland habitats essential to native salmonid populations. This goal is critical in our efforts to address both resident fish and wildlife habitat needs in the Hangman Watershed. All proposed implementation activities are conducted in the headwaters of the system and are expected to prove beneficial to the natural functions of the entire Hangman Watershed. The following is the FY2001 annual report of Project activities and is submitted as partial fulfillment of Operation and Maintenance Task 2.a. The Objectives and Tasks for this first year were designed to position this Project for a long-term habitat restoration effort. As such, efforts were largely directed at information gathering and project orientation. The major task for this first year was development of a Habitat Prioritization Plan (attached) to guide implementation efforts by selecting areas that will be of greatest benefit to the native ecology. Completion of the first year tasks has positioned the project to move forward with implementing restoration activities using the latest information to accomplish the greatest possible results. The Project will be looking to implement on-the-ground protection and restoration efforts in the coming fiscal year using the data and information gathered in the last fiscal year. Continually refining our understanding of the natural watershed functions and fish and wildlife habitats within the Project Area will result in an increase in the efficiency of project implementation. Research and data gathering efforts will remain a strong emphasis in the coming fiscal year, as it will throughout the life of this Project.

Green, Gerald I.; Coeur D'Alene Tribe.

2002-06-01

158

Effect of ethnomedicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Jordan as antibiotic resistant inhibitors on Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Background Escherichia coli occurs naturally in the human gut; however, certain strains that can cause infections, are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant E. coli that produce extended-spectrum ? lactamases (ESBLs), such as the CTX-M enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and bloodstream infections may be associated with these community-onsets. This is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying activity of nineteen Jordanian plants against multidrug-resistant E. coli. Methods The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was tested by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using a broth microdilution method. Nineteen Jordanian plant extracts (Capparis spinosa L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Echinops polyceras Boiss., Gundelia tournefortii L, Varthemia iphionoides Boiss. & Blanche, Eruca sativa Mill., Euphorbia macroclada L., Hypericum trequetrifolium Turra, Achillea santolina L., Mentha longifolia Host, Origanum syriacum L., Phlomis brachydo(Boiss.) Zohary, Teucrium polium L., Anagyris foetida L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Thea sinensis L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lepidium sativum L., Pimpinella anisum L.) were combined with antibiotics, from different classes, and the inhibitory effect of the combinations was estimated. Results Methanolic extracts of the plant materials enhanced the inhibitory effects of chloramphenicol, neomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin and nalidixic acid against both the standard strain and to a lesser extent the resistant strain of E. coli. Two edible plant extracts (Gundelia tournefortii L. and Pimpinella anisum L.) generally enhanced activity against resistant strain. Some of the plant extracts like Origanum syriacum L.(Labiateae), Trigonella foenum- graecum L.(Leguminosae), Euphorbia macroclada (Euphorbiaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae) did not enhance the activity of amoxicillin against both standard and resistant E. coli. On the other hand combinations of amoxicillin with other plant extracts used showed variable effect between standard and resistant strains. Plant extracts like Anagyris foetida (Leguminosae) and Lepidium sativum (Umbelliferae) reduced the activity of amoxicillin against the standard strain but enhanced the activity against resistant strains. Three edible plants; Gundelia tournefortii L. (Compositae) Eruca sativa Mill. (Cruciferae), and Origanum syriacum L. (Labiateae), enhanced activity of clarithromycin against the resistant E. coli strain. Conclusion This study probably suggests possibility of concurrent use of these antibiotics and plant extracts in treating infections caused by E. coli or at least the concomitant administration may not impair the antimicrobial activity of these antibiotics. PMID:20187978

2010-01-01

159

Antioxidant activity of some Jordanian medicinal plants used traditionally for treatment of diabetes.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are being used extensively in Jordanian traditional medicinal system for the treatment of diabetes symptoms. Twenty one plant samples were collected from different Jordanian locations and used for antioxidant evaluation. The level of antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays in relation to the total phenolic contents of the medically used parts. The most frequently used plant parts as medicines were fruit, shoot and leaves. The total phenolic contents of methanol and aqueous extracts, from plants parts, ranged from 6.6 to 103.0 and 3.0 to 98.6 GAE mg g(-1) of plant part dry weight, respectively. DPPH-TEAC of the methanol extracts of plants parts were varied from 4.1 to 365.0 mg g(-1) of plant dry weight versus 0.6 to 267.0 mg g(-1) in aqueous extracts. Moreover, the mean values of ABTS*- (IC50) varied from 6.9 to 400.0 microg dry weight mL(-1) ABTS in methanol extracts versus 9.8 to 580.5 microg mL(-1) in aqueous extracts. According to their antioxidant capacity, the plants were divided into three categories: high (DPPH-TEAC > or = 80 mg g(-1) ), (i.e., Punica granatum peel, Quercus calliprinos leave, Quercus calliprinos fruit, Cinchona ledgeriana and Juniperus communis leave), moderate (DPPH-TEAC range 20-80 mg g(-1)) (i.e., Salvia fruticosa shoot, Crataegus azarolus stem, Crataegus azarolus leave, Varthemia iphionoides shoot, Artemisia herba-alba shoot, Thymus capitatus shoot, Morus nigra leaves and Arum palaestinum leaves) and low antioxidant plants (DPPH-TEAC < 20 mg g(-1)), (i.e., Matricaria aurea shoot, Artemisia judaica shoot, Teucrium polium shoot, Pinus halepenss pollen grains, Sarcopoterium spinosum root, Crataegus azarolus fruit, Inula viscose shoot and Achillea fragrantissima shoot). The antioxidant activity of these plant's extracts and their potential rule in radical scavenging agreed with their potential use by Jordanian population as a traditional anti-diabetic agents. PMID:18817155

Al-Mustafa, Ahmed H; Al-Thunibat, Osama Y

2008-02-01