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Sample records for achillea lewisii

  1. An R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulates carotenoid pigmentation in Mimulus lewisii flowers.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, Janelle M; Stanley, Lauren E; LaFountain, Amy M; Frank, Harry A; Liu, Chang; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-02-01

    Carotenoids are yellow, orange, and red pigments that contribute to the beautiful colors and nutritive value of many flowers and fruits. The structural genes in the highly conserved carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been well characterized in multiple plant systems, but little is known about the transcription factors that control the expression of these structural genes. By analyzing a chemically induced mutant of Mimulus lewisii through bulk segregant analysis and transgenic experiments, we have identified an R2R3-MYB, Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), as the first transcription factor that positively regulates carotenoid biosynthesis during flower development. Loss-of-function mutations in RCP1 lead to down-regulation of all carotenoid biosynthetic genes and reduced carotenoid content in M. lewisii flowers, a phenotype recapitulated by RNA interference in the wild-type background. Overexpression of this gene in the rcp1 mutant background restores carotenoid production and, unexpectedly, results in simultaneous decrease of anthocyanin production in some transgenic lines by down-regulating the expression of an activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Identification of transcriptional regulators of carotenoid biosynthesis provides the 'toolbox' genes for understanding the molecular basis of flower color diversification in nature and for potential enhancement of carotenoid production in crop plants via genetic engineering. PMID:26377817

  2. Minireview on Achillea millefolium Linn.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad

    2013-09-01

    Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) is an important medicinal plant with different pharmaceutical uses. A. millefolium has been used for centuries to treat various diseases including malaria, hepatitis and jaundice. A. millefolium is commonly prescribed to treat liver disorders. It is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent and is a hepatoprotective herb. A. millefolium is considered safe for supplemental use. It has antihepatotoxic effects also. It is prescribed as an astringent agent. It is prescribed in hemorrhoids, headache, bleeding disorders, bruises, cough, influenza, pneumonia, kidney stones, high blood pressure, menstrual disorders, fever, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, osteoarthritis, hemorrhagic disorders, chicken pox, cystitis, diabetes mellitus, indigestion, dyspepsia, eczema, psoriasis and boils. PMID:23959026

  3. Surface rejuvenating effect of Achillea millefolium extract.

    PubMed

    Pain, S; Altobelli, C; Boher, A; Cittadini, L; Favre-Mercuret, M; Gaillard, C; Sohm, B; Vogelgesang, B; André-Frei, V

    2011-12-01

    Proopiomelanocortin is a precursor peptide that gives rise to several neuropeptides including adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and β-endorphin. POMC-derived peptides have been shown to be synthesized in human epidermis where they modulate numerous skin functions. Because we previously observed that melanocortin receptor-2 and μ-opioid receptor 1, the respective receptors for ACTH and β-endorphin decreased with ageing in human epidermis, we have selected an active ingredient (INCI name: Achillea millefolium extract) able to upregulate receptor expressions. The aim of the present work was first to evaluate the effect of A. millefolium extract on the expression pattern of various epidermal differentiation markers ex vivo in normal human skin biopsies using quantitative image analysis and second to evaluate its capacity to rejuvenate the appearance of skin surface in vivo. Results show an improved expression profile of cytokeratin 10, transglutaminase-1 and filaggrin in cultured skin biopsies as well as an increased epidermal thickness. In vivo, a 2-month treatment with A. millefolium extract at 2% significantly improved the appearance of wrinkles and pores compared with placebo. Results were also directionally better than those of glycolic acid that was chosen as reference resurfacing molecule. PMID:21711463

  4. Essential oil composition of Achillea clusiana from Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Todorova, Milka; Vitkova, Antonina

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil compositon of Achillea clusiana Tausch from Bulgaria has been studied by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-four components were registered, representing 92.5% of the oil. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenoids. The main components were beta-thujone (17.2%), 1,8-cineole (11.2%), camphor (11.1%) and alpha-thujone (7.8%). Farnesol (3.1%), nerolidol (2.7%) and oxygenated nerolidol derivatives (cabreuva oxides A-D, isohumbertiols A-D, bejarol and 7-hydroxy-6,7-dihydro-5,6E-dehydronerolidol) were the main sesquiterpenoids in the oil. PMID:20184037

  5. Phytochemical Investigations on Chemical Constituents of Achillea tenuifolia Lam

    PubMed Central

    Moradkhani, Shirin; Kobarfard, Farzad; Ayatollahi, Seyed Abdol Majid

    2014-01-01

    Achillea tenuifolia Lam. (Asteraceae) afforded a methanolic extract from which after fractionation in solvents with different polarities, two known flavones 3’, 5- dihydroxy- 4’, 6, 7- trimethoxy flavone (eupatorine, compound 3), 5- hydroxy- 3’,4’, 6, 7- tetramethoxyflavone (compound 4), besides stearic acid (compound 1), lupeol (compound 2), daucosterol (β- sitosterol 3-O- β- D- glucopyranoside, compound 5), 2, 4- dihydroxy methyl benzoate (compound 6) were isolated for the first time. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by means of different spectroscopic methods such as UV, IR, Mass and 1H- NMR (1D and 2D) and 13C-NMR. For further confirming the structures of isolated compounds, comparison of the spectral data of them with those reported in the litratures have been done. PMID:25276207

  6. The Volatile Compounds and Bioactivity of Achillea sieheana Stapf. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Sevil

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Achillea sieheana Staf. (Asteraceae) were investigated in this study. The chemical composition of the essential oil isolated by hydro-distillation from the aerial parts of A. sieheana was analyzed by GC-MS. Camphor (43.36%), Artemisia ketone (25.95%), 1.8-cineole (6.29%) and camphene (4.77%) were the main components in the essential oil. Their antioxidant activities were also evaluated using phosphomolybdenum, β-carotene bleaching and 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. A. sieheana methanolic extract showed an effective DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 87.04 μg/mL). The extract had also a high reducing effect (71.08%) on the oxidation of β-carotene. In addition to evaluating the antioxidant activity of this plant, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured in the extract. The antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extract and the oil were also tested against 13 bacteria and two yeasts. The results showed that both had strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. PMID:24250570

  7. Differential allelopathic expression of different plant parts of Achillea biebersteinii.

    PubMed

    Abu-Romman, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Achillea biebersteinii (Asteraceae) is a perennial medicinal plant and has a wide distributional range in the Mediterranean region. The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of different plant parts of A. biebersteinii on germination characteristics and seedling growth of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum). Water extracts were prepared by incubating separately five grams of dried powder of roots, stems, leaves and flowers of A. biebersteinii in 100 ml of distilled water for 24 h and distilled water was used as the control. The water extracts from different plant parts of A. biebersteinii differed in their effects on the germination and seedling growth of wild barley. Water extracts prepared from leaves and flowers were more suppressive to germination of wild barley than root and stem extracts. The maximum inhibition in radical and plumule growth of germinating caryopses and in root and shoot growth of greenhouse-grown wild barley was recorded for leaf extract followed by flower extract. The lowest Chl a, Chl b and total chlorophyll and protein contents were resulted after exposure to leaf extracts. According to these results, the inhibitory effects of different A. biebersteinii plant parts can be arranged in the order: leaf > flower > stem > root. PMID:27165527

  8. The Volatile Compounds and Bioactivity of Achillea sieheana Stapf. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Sevil

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Achillea sieheana Staf. (Asteraceae) were investigated in this study. The chemical composition of the essential oil isolated by hydro-distillation from the aerial parts of A. sieheana was analyzed by GC–MS. Camphor (43.36%), Artemisia ketone (25.95%), 1.8-cineole (6.29%) and camphene (4.77%) were the main components in the essential oil. Their antioxidant activities were also evaluated using phosphomolybdenum, β-carotene bleaching and 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. A. sieheana methanolic extract showed an effective DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 87.04 μg/mL). The extract had also a high reducing effect (71.08%) on the oxidation of β-carotene. In addition to evaluating the antioxidant activity of this plant, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured in the extract. The antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extract and the oil were also tested against 13 bacteria and two yeasts. The results showed that both had strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. PMID:24250570

  9. Achillea schurii Flowers: Chemical, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Investigations.

    PubMed

    Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Oniga, Ilioara; Filip, Lorena; Bischin, Cristina; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Tiperciuc, Brînduşa; Vlase, Laurian

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the phenolic profile, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Achillea schurii Sch.-Bip., an endemic species from Romania that has not been investigated yet. The chromatographic profile of the phenolic components was obtained using the HPLC-MS method, while the total polyphenol, flavonoid, caffeic acid derivative contents were quantified using spectrophotometric methods. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using different methods: DPPH radical scavenging, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX), inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c, and direct detection of plant-derived free radicals using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The antimicrobial test was performed using the disk diffusion assay. The phenolic profile has revealed high amounts of isoquercitrin, rutin, luteolin, and apigenin. The A. schurii extract exhibited a good antioxidant capacity, and high phenolic contents (76.93 mg/g polyphenols, 18.61 mg/g flavonoids and 41.48 mg/g caffeic acid derivatives, respectively). The antimicrobial tests reveal a remarkable inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhimurium. Considering the above, A. schurii may be deemed to offer good perspectives for pharmaceutical and industrial applications. PMID:27529204

  10. Anti-Neuroinflammatory effects of the extract of Achillea fragrantissima

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The neuroinflammatory process plays a central role in the initiation and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, and involves the activation of brain microglial cells. During the neuroinflammatory process, microglial cells release proinflammatory mediators such as cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). In the present study, extracts from 66 different desert plants were tested for their effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - induced production of NO by primary microglial cells. The extract of Achillea fragrantissima (Af), which is a desert plant that has been used for many years in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases, was the most efficient extract, and was further studied for additional anti-neuroinflammatory effects in these cells. Methods In the present study, the ethanolic extract prepared from Af was tested for its anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated primary cultures of brain microglial cells. The levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) secreted by the cells were determined by reverse transcriptase-PCR and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. NO levels secreted by the activate cells were measured using Griess reagent, ROS levels were measured by 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA), MMP-9 activity was measured using gel zymography, and the protein levels of the proinflammatory enzymes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured by Western blot analysis. Cell viability was assessed using Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the media conditioned by the cells or by the crystal violet cell staining. Results We have found that out of the 66 desert plants tested, the extract of Af was the most efficient extract and inhibited ~70% of the NO produced by the LPS

  11. Volatile compounds from Achillea tenorii (Grande) growing in the Majella National Park (Italy).

    PubMed

    Venditti, Alessandro; Maggi, Filippo; Vittori, Sauro; Papa, Fabrizio; Serrilli, Anna Maria; Di Cecco, Mirella; Ciaschetti, Giampiero; Mandrone, Manuela; Poli, Ferruccio; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the first reported phytochemical study on the hydro-distilled essential oil from Achillea tenorii (Grande), collected in the protected area of Majella National Park (Italy). The composition of the essential oil was very different from those reported for the other species of Achillea nobilis group, being constituted mainly by oxygenated monoterpenes, among which ketones, alcohols and acetates compounds were the most representative. The marker compounds of A. nobilis group were not detected while the most abundant phytoconstituents were α-thujone (29.7%), trans-sabinol (18.6%) and trans-sabinyl acetate (15.7%), revealing a composition quite similar to that of Artemisia absinthium. PMID:25103502

  12. Comparative study of the essential oils and extracts of Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch. Bip. and Achillea santolina L. (Asteraceae) from Egypt.

    PubMed

    el-Shazly, A M; Hafez, S S; Wink, M

    2004-03-01

    Essential oils obtained by steam distillation from the aerial parts of Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch. Bip. and the flower, leaf and stem of A. santolina L. as well as their lipophilic constituents obtained by solvent extraction were analysed using GLC and GLC-mass spectrometry. Nineteen constituents in the essential oil of A. fragrantissima were identified, in addition to 41 compounds from its n-hexane-ether extract. The hydrodistilled oil and the solvent extract contain santolina alcohol, artemisia alcohol, artemisia ketone, cis-thujone and trans-thujone as major constituents. In A. santolina altogether 54 volatile components were detected. The major components were 1,8-cineole, fragranol, fragranyl acetate and terpin-4-ol. Furthermore, the essential oils and the n-hexane-ether extracts of the two plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity. PMID:15074599

  13. Essential oil composition of five collections of Achillea biebersteinii from central Turkey and their antifungal and insecticidal activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The composition of the essential oils hydrodistilled from the aerial parts of five Achillea biebersteinii Afan samples, collected in central Turkey from Konya, Isparta and Ankara, were analyzed both by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eighty-four componen...

  14. Radioprotective Effect of Achillea millefolium L Against Genotoxicity Induced by Ionizing Radiation in Human Normal Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shahani, Somayeh; Rostamnezhad, Mostafa; Ghaffari-rad, Vahid; Ghasemi, Arash; Allahverdi Pourfallah, Tayyeb

    2015-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of Achillea millefolium L (ACM) extract was investigated against genotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in human lymphocytes. Peripheral blood samples were collected from human volunteers and incubated with the methanolic extract of ACM at different concentrations (10, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL) for 2 hours. At each dose point, the whole blood was exposed in vitro to 2.5 Gy of X-ray and then the lymphocytes were cultured with mitogenic stimulation to determine the micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated cell. Antioxidant capacity of the extract was determined using free radical-scavenging method. The treatment of lymphocytes with the extract showed a significant decrease in the incidence of micronuclei binucleated cells, as compared with similarly irradiated lymphocytes without any extract treatment. The maximum protection and decrease in frequency of micronuclei were observed at 200 μg/mL of ACM extract which completely protected genotoxicity induced by IR in human lymphocytes. Achillea millefolium extract exhibited concentration-dependent radical-scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radicals. These data suggest that the methanolic extract of ACM may play an important role in the protection of normal tissues against genetic damage induced by IR. PMID:26675116

  15. Hybrid origin and differentiation of two tetraploid Achillea species in East Asia: molecular, morphological and ecogeographical evidence.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y-P; Vogl, C; Van Loo, M; Ehrendorfer, F

    2006-01-01

    Achillea (Asteraceae-Anthemideae) offers classical models for speciation by hybridization and polyploidy. Here, we test the suspected allotetraploid origin of two species, Achillea alpina and Achillea wilsoniana between phylogenetically distinct lineages in East Asia. A total of 421 AFLP bands from 169 individuals and 19 populations of five 2x- and two 4x-species were obtained. The data set was analysed with a newly developed model that accounts for polyploidy and assumes lack of recombination between the parental chromosome sets (i.e. disomic inheritance). A. alpina and A. wilsoniana then appear to be allotetraploids between Achillea acuminata-2x (sect. Ptarmica) and Achillea asiatica-2x (sect. Achillea). The two 4x-species share 44% and 48% of their AFLP bands with A. acuminata-2x, and 39% and 38% with A. asiatica-2x, respectively. Eight plastid haplotypes (A-H) were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses. A. alpina-4x and A. wilsoniana-4x share haplotype F only with A. asiatica-2x. This is consistent with the hybrid origin(s) involving the latter as the maternal ancestor. This result corroborates our previous DNA sequence data, where A. alpina-4x and A. wilsoniana-4x are also placed close to A. asiatica-2x. Morphology, ecology, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) profiles of the two 2x-species are distinct, whereas the two 4x-species, grouped as A. alpina aggregate, form a nearly continuous link between them. Considering all evidence, this 4x-aggregate is regarded as the product of a hybridization between genetically distant 2x-ancestors limited to China and adjacent areas: one A. acuminata-like, and the other A. asiatica-like. The allopolyploid A. alpina agg. exhibits considerable morphological variation and ecological flexibility, and has expanded throughout eastern Asia and to northern North America, far beyond the ranges of their presumed 2x-ancestors. PMID:16367836

  16. Essential Oil Chemical Composition and Headspace Volatiles Profile of Achillea coarctata from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Kostevski, Ivana R; Petrović, Goran M; Stojanović, Gordana S; Stamenković, Jelena G; Zlatković, Bojan K

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the essential oil composition and headspace volatiles profile of Achillea coarctata Poir. from Serbia. The inflorescences, stems and leaves, and the aerial parts of A. coarctata were analyzed separately. Germacrene D, α-terpineol and 1,8-cineole were the main constituents of the aerial parts essential oil; 1,8-cineole, cis-cadin-4-en-7-ol and α-terpineol were the most dominant compounds in the inflorescence essential oil, while the most abundant components in the stem and leaf oil were germacrene D, cis-cadin-4-en-7-ol and ledol. The percentages of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids in the aerial parts were the same, while there were differences in distribution of these compound classes in inflorescence and stem and leaf essential oils. The major components of the headspace volatiles were the same for aerial parts, inflorescence and stem and leaves: 1,8-cineole, β-pinene and α-pinene. PMID:27396214

  17. Effect of Drought Stress on Total Phenolic, Lipid Peroxidation, and Antioxidant Activity of Achillea Species.

    PubMed

    Gharibi, Shima; Tabatabaei, Badraldin Ebrahim Sayed; Saeidi, Ghodratollah; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2016-02-01

    The changes in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, and antioxidant activity were assessed based on three model systems in three Achillea species (Achillea millefolium, A. nobilis, and A. filipendulina) growing under four irrigation regimes, including 100% FC (field capacity as normal irrigation) 75% FC (low stress), 50% FC (moderate stress), and 25% FC (severe stress) conditions. The highest TPC (47.13 mg tannic acid/g DW) and TFC (20.86 mg quercetin/g W) were obtained in A. filipendulina under moderate and severe stress conditions. In 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the highest and the lowest antioxidant activity was obtained for A. millefolium (70.28%) and A. filipendulina (53.21%), respectively, while in the FTC model system A. nobilis revealed the highest antioxidant activity (1.934) in severe drought condition. In the linoleic model system, the highest antioxidant activity was observed under low drought stress condition in A. nobilis. MDA and H2O2 content were increased due to both low (75% FC) and moderate (50% FC) drought stress, but they were decreased under severe stress condition (25% FC). Furthermore, A. millefolium revealed the lowest H2O2 (4.96 nm/g FW) and MDA content (176.32 μmol/g). Investigation of the relationship among different metabolites showed a strong positive correlation with TPC and TFC. Finally, the moderate drought stress treatment (50% FC) was introduced as the optimum condition to obtain appreciable TPC and TFC,, while the highest antioxidant activity was obtained in severe stress condition (25%FC). PMID:26541161

  18. Evaluation of the Wound Healing Potential of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae) by In Vivo Excision and Incision Models

    PubMed Central

    Akkol, Esra Küpeli; Koca, Ufuk; Pesin, Ipek; Yilmazer, Demet

    2011-01-01

    Achillea species are widely used for diarrhea, abdominal pain, stomachache and healing of wounds in folk medicine. To evaluate the wound healing activity of the plant, extracts were prepared with different solvents; hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively from the roots of Achillea biebersteinii. Linear incision by using tensiometer and circular excision wound models were employed on mice and rats. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with the standard skin ointment Madecassol. The n-hexane extract treated groups of animals showed 84.2% contraction, which was close to contraction value of the reference drug Madecassol (100%). On the other hand the same extract on incision wound model demonstrated a significant increase (40.1%) in wound tensile strength as compared to other groups. The results of histoptological examination supported the outcome of linear incision and circular excision wound models as well. The experimental data demonstrated that A. biebersteinii displayed remarkable wound healing activity. PMID:19546149

  19. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982) at test concentrations of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 7.5 μg/ml, 5.0 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA) and Teucrium stocksianum (CST) had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 μg/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity) was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST) has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development. PMID:22051373

  20. Polyphenolic composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities for two Romanian subspecies of Achillea distans Waldst. et Kit. ex Willd.

    PubMed

    Benedec, Daniela; Vlase, Laurian; Oniga, Ilioara; Mot, Augustin C; Damian, Grigore; Hanganu, Daniela; Duma, Mihaela; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Achillea distans Waldst. et Kit. subsp. distans and Achillea distans Waldst. et Kit. subsp. alpina Rochel, from the Rodna Mountains (Romania). The identification and quantification of major phenolic compounds was performed by a HPLC-MS method. The total polyphenolic and flavonoid content was determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH bleaching method, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC), hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX) assay, and an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy method. A data indicated that A. distans subsp. alpina extract has more antioxidant activity than A. distans subsp. distans extract. Luteolin, apigenin, quercetin, caffeic and chlorogenic acids were present in the two extracts of A. distans, but in different amounts. Three flavonoids were detected only in A. distans subsp. alpina. The polyphenol-richer A. distans subsp. alpina extract showed a higher antioxidant activity than A. distans subsp. distans extract. A. distans subsp. distans extract showed inhibitory activity for Gram-positive bacteria, as evaluated with four species. The quantitative and qualitative differences between the two subspecies of Achillea distans could be used as a potential taxonomic marker in order to distinguish the species. PMID:23887715

  1. Phytochemical analysis of Achillea ligustica All. from Lipari Island (Aeolian Islands).

    PubMed

    Venditti, Alessandro; Guarcini, Laura; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2016-01-01

    A complete chemical investigation of Achillea ligustica All. growing at Lipari (Aeolian Island, Sicily) has been carried out. Seventeen metabolites have been isolated and characterised from dichloromethane and methanol extracts of flowers and aerial parts, and GC/MS analyses of petroleum ether extracts was carried out, revealing a composition in sesquiterpenoids similar to those reported for populations from Greece, Sicily and Algeria, showing the presence of (3RS,6RS)-2,6-dimethyl-1,7-octadiene-3,6-diol (1), 2,6-dimethyl-octa-3(E),7-diene-2,6-diol (2), iso-seco-tanapartholide (3) from DCM fraction. In addition from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts, peculiar flavonoid glucuronides have been isolated: i.e. apigenin-7-O-glucuronide (12) and quercetin 3-O-glucuronide (14). These metabolites have been reported in this species for the first time. The isolated flavonoids were previously recognised in several species of this complex genus and for this reason seems to be highly retained secondary metabolites of importance from the chemotaxonomic point of view. PMID:26327332

  2. Chemical Profile, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Achillea moschata Wulfen, an Endemic Species from the Alps.

    PubMed

    Vitalini, Sara; Madeo, Moira; Tava, Aldo; Iriti, Marcello; Vallone, Lisa; Avato, Pinarosa; Cocuzza, Clementina Elvezia; Simonetti, Paolo; Argentieri, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    Aerial parts of Achillea moschata Wulfen (Asteraceae) growing wild in the Italian Rhaetian Alps were investigated to describe, for the first time, their phenolic content, as well as to characterize the essential oil. Inspection of the metabolic profile combining HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS/MS data showed that the methanol extract contained glycosylated flavonoids with luteolin and apigenin as the main aglycones. Among them, the major compound was 7-O-glucosyl apigenin. Caffeoyl derivates were other phenolics identified. The essential oil obtained by steam distillation and investigated by GC/FID and GC/MS showed camphor, 1,8-cineole, and bornylacetate as the main constituents. The antioxidant capacity of three different extracts with increasing polarity and of the essential oil was evaluated by employing ABTS·+ and DPPH· radical scavenging assays. The methanolic extract was the only significantly effective sample against both synthetic radicals. All samples were also tested against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacterial species using the disk diffusion assay. The non-polar extracts (dichloromethane and petroleum ether) and the essential oil possessed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity expressed according to inhibition zone diameter (8-24 mm). PMID:27347915

  3. Chemical Composition and Repellent Activity of Achillea vermiculata and Satureja hortensis against Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Pirmohammadi, Masoumeh; Shayeghi, Mansoureh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abaei, Mohammad Reza; Mohammadi, Ali; Bagheri, Akbar; Khoobdel, Mehdi; Bakhshi, Hasan; Pirmohammadi, Maryam; Tavassoli, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the best ways to control the malaria disease and to be protected human against Anopheles mosquito biting is the use of repellents. Throughout repellents, herbal ones may be an appropriate and safe source for protection. Methods: Chemical constituents of Achillea vermiculata and Satoreja hortensis were determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Efficacy and the protection time of these plants were assessed on Anopheles stephensi under the laboratory condition. Results: The mean assessed protection time and efficacy for A. vermiculata was 2.16 and 3.16 hours respectively and the obtained ED50 and ED90 for this plant was 5.67 and 63 μl/cm2 respectively. The figured for S. hortensis was 4.16 and 5 hours respectively. ED50 and ED90 for this plant were 5.63 and 45.75μl/cm2 respectively. Conclusion: Results of investigation showed that S. hortensis plant has an acceptable protection time, therefore, this plant could be considered as a good herbal repellent against anopheles mosquitoes. PMID:27308278

  4. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea sintenisii Hub. Mor. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sökmen, Atalay; Vardar-Unlü, Gülhan; Polissiou, Moschos; Daferera, Dimitra; Sökmen, Münevver; Dönmez, Erol

    2003-11-01

    The essential oil, obtained by Clevenger distillation, and water-soluble and water-insoluble parts of the methanol extracts of Achillea sintenisii Hub. Mor. were individually assayed for their antimicrobial activities against 12 bacteria and two yeasts, Candida albicans and C. krusei. No activity was exhibited by the water-soluble subfraction, whereas both the water-insoluble subfraction of the methanol extracts and the essential oil were found to be active against some test microorganisms studied. Since the essential oil possessed stronger activity than the other extracts tested, it was further fractionated and the fractions were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity, followed by GC-MS analysis, resulting in the identification of 32 compounds which constituted 90.2% of the total oil. The GC-MS analysis of the oil and its fractions revealed that the main components of the oil, e.g. camphor and eucalyptol, possessed appreciable activity against C. albicans and Clostridium perfringens. The fi ndings presented here also suggest that the other constituents of the oil, e.g. borneol and piperitone can also be taken into account for the activity observed. PMID:14595577

  5. Phytochemical Analysis and Metal-chelation Activity of Achillea tenuifolia Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Moradkhani, Shirin; Ayatollahi, Abdul Majid; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Moin, Mohammad Reza; Razavizadeh, Masoud; Shahlaei, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Achillea tenuifolia Lam. (Asteraceae) afforded a dichloromethane fraction from which three known compounds β-sitosterol (compound1), 5-hydroxy, 4',6,7– trimethoxy flavone (salvigenin compound 2), and methyl-gallate (compound 3) were isolated for the first time. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by different spectroscopic methods. Applying the molar-ratio method, the complexation of salvigenin with Fe (III), Cu(II) and Zn(II), the most abundant type of metal ions in the body, were then evaluated. It was determined that stoichiometric ratio of salvigenin with these cations were as Fe(Salvigenin)2 (H2O)2 and Cu(Salvigenin)2(H2O)2 in methanolic solution without pH control, while zinc ions didn`t form significant complexes. The results were confirmed more, by computational molecular modeling of the structure of proposed ligand-complexes by semi-imperical PM3 calculations, which determined negative heat of formation for the complexes Fe(III) and Cu(II) ions as -689.7 and -573.5, respectively and proposed chelating affinity of salvigenin in the following order: Fe(III) > Cu(II) >> Zn(II). PMID:24250440

  6. Ethanol Extracts of Achillea millefolium and Hypericum perforatum Low Anti-Toxoplasma Activity

    PubMed Central

    Nozari, Shagayegh; Adine, Mohtaram; Javadi, Farzaneh; Shahnazi, Mojtaba; Azadmehr, Abbas; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Jahanihashemi, Hasan; Saraei, Mehrzad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was performed to determine the lethal and the inhibitory effects of ethanol extracts of Achillea millefolium (A. millefolium) and Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) on Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) RH strain tachyzoites in vitro. Methods: The tachyzoites were treated with concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 mg/mL of A. millefolium and H. perforatum extracts within 10, 30, and 45 minutes in the wells. The mortality rates of tachyzoites treated with extracts were determined by using alkaline methylene blue staining. Also, the tachyzoites in cell cultures were treated with concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL of these extracts. The cell viability, inhibition concentration (IC50), and selectivity were determined from MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays. Results: In the cell-free in vitro study, all of tachyzoites were killed at concentrations of 100 mg/mL of both extracts while at concentration 10 mg/mL, the mortality was 4.53% − 5.31%. In the cell culture study, the values of the effective concentration (EC50) were 215 and 153 μg/mL and the selectivities were 0.73 and 0.69 for the A. millefolium and the H. perforatum extracts, respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that neither extracts has any significant effect on the tachyzoites of T. gondii in cell cultures. PMID:27280052

  7. Chemical composition and antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities of the essential oil of Achillea ligustica all.

    PubMed

    Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Kowalczyk, Adam; Coroneo, Valentina; Russo, Maria Teresa; Dessì, Sandro; Cabras, Paolo

    2005-12-28

    The chemical composition of the essential oil from flowering tops of Achillea ligustica All. was studied. Samples were collected in different localities of Sardinia (Italy) and hydrodistilled both with Clevenger-type and with simultaneous distillation-extraction apparatus. The yields ranged between 0.88 +/- 0.06 and 0.43 +/- 0.02% (vol/dry wt). The essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS, and a total of 96 components were detected. From a qualitative point of view, irrelevant differences between samples were observed. Strong chemical variability depending on the origin of the samples was observed. The major compounds found were santolina alcohol (6.7-21.8%, for the first time detected in A. ligustica), borneol (3.4-20.8%), sabinol (2.1-15.5%), trans-sabinyl acetate (0.9-17.6%), alpha-thujone (0.4-25.8%), and, among sesquiterpenes, viridiflorol (0.7-3.6%). No significant differences were detected between essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation-extraction with CH2Cl2 and n-hexane. Antioxidant activity as DPPH radical scavenging activity was expressed in TEAC and ranged between 0.40 and 0.88 mmol/L. The antimicrobial and antifungal activities were investigated on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Penicillium commune, Fusarium oxysporum, Rizoctonia solani, and Aspergillus flavus, showing low activity. PMID:16366708

  8. Genotoxicity of Achillea millefolium essential oil in diploid cells of Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    de Sant'anna, Juliane Rocha; Franco, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva; Miyamoto, Claudia Tiemi; Cunico, Miriam Machado; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes; Côcco, Lílian Cristina; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; Junior, Cirino Corrêa; de Castro-Prado, Marialba Avezum Alves

    2009-02-01

    The essential oil of Achillea millefolium is commonly used in folk medicine for the treatment of several diseases and has been demonstrated previously to exert an in vitro antimicrobial activity against human pathogens. Current study investigates the genotoxic activity of A. millefolium oil. The oil's major constituents are: chamazulene (42.15%), sabinene (19.72%), terpin-4-ol (5.22%), beta-caryophyllene (4.44%) and eucalyptol (3.10%), comprising 74.63% of the total. The oil's genotoxic evaluation was performed at concentrations of 0.13 microL/mL, 0.19 microL/mL and 0.25 microL/mL with a heterozygous diploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans, named A757//UT448, with green conidia. A statistically significant increasing number of yellow and white mitotic recombinants, per colony, of the diploid strain was reported after oil treatment with 0.19 microL/mL and 0.25 microL/mL concentrations. The genotoxicity of the oil was associated with the induction of mitotic non-disjunction or crossing-over by oil. PMID:18803228

  9. Composition at different development stages of the essential oil of four Achillea species grown in Iran.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Majid; Chizzola, Remigius; Ghani, Askar; Oroojalian, Fatemeh

    2010-02-01

    Four Achillea species, A. millefolium, A. nobilis, A. eriophora and A. biebersteinii, were grown in small field plots in Iran and harvested at four developmental stages: vegetative, at the appearance of the first flower heads, at full flowering, and at late flowering. The composition of the main volatile compounds in dichloromethane extracts and the essential oil obtained by microdistillation was established by GC/MS and GC. 1,8-Cineole (27-41%) was the main compound in the oils from A. millefolium and A. biebersteinii. These two species reached the highest amount of volatile compounds at the full blooming stage. alpha-Thujone was the main compound in A. nobilis oil (25-64%). Fully blooming plants of this species also had a high proportion of artemisia ketone (up to 40%) in the oil. The main oil compounds of A. eriophora were camphor (about 35%) and 1,8-cineol (about 30%). This species produces only a small number of flower heads and the composition of the essential oil did not change during development. PMID:20334145

  10. The role for nitric oxide on the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Achillea wilhelmsii on seizure

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mahmoud; Harandizadeh, Fatemeh; Niazmand, Saeed; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Faizpour, Azadeh; Ghasemabady, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Objective : Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role both as a consequence and as a cause of epileptic seizures. Regarding the central nervous system depressant effects of Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii), as well the effects of the plant on NO, this study was aimed to elucidate the possible role for nitric oxide on the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups (n=8 in each group) and treated with (1) normal saline, (2) normal saline before pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 90 mg/kg), (3-7) A. wilhelmsii extract (100, 200, 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg) before PTZ. Latency to first minimal colonic seizure (MCS) and the first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) as well as the mortality rate were recorded. The brain tissues were then removed for biochemical measurements. Fisher’s exact probability test as well as analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey’s test were used for statistical evaluation. Results: Treatment with 100- 1200 mg/kg of the extract did not affect MCS latencies. 400 mg/kg of the extract prolonged GTCS latency (p<0.001), however, the lower and higher doses were not effective. Nitric oxide metabolites concentrations in the hippocampal tissues of the animals treated with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract were increased compared with saline (p<0.05-p<0.01). Conclusion: The present study showed that hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii affects NO metabolites in brain tissues as well the severity of seizures in PTZ-induced seizure model. PMID:25068139

  11. The Polyploid Series of the Achillea millefolium Aggregate in the Iberian Peninsula Investigated Using Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    López-Vinyallonga, Sara; Soriano, Ignasi; Susanna, Alfonso; Montserra, Josep Maria; Roquet, Cristina; Garcia-Jacas, Núria

    2015-01-01

    The Achillea millefolium aggregate is one of the most diverse polyploid complexes of the Northern hemisphere and has its western Eurasian boundary in the Iberian Peninsula. Four ploidy levels have been detected in A. millefolium, three of which have already been found in Iberia (diploid, hexaploid and octoploid), and a fourth (tetraploid) reported during the preparation of this paper. We collected a sample from 26 Iberian populations comprising all ploidy levels, and we used microsatellite markers analyzed as dominant in view of the high ploidy levels. Our goals were to quantify the genetic diversity of A. millefolium in the Iberian Peninsula, to elucidate its genetic structure, to investigate the differences in ploidy levels, and to analyse the dispersal of the species. The lack of spatial genetic structure recovered is linked to both high levels of gene flow between populations and to the fact that most genetic variability occurs within populations. This in turn suggests the existence of a huge panmictic yarrow population in the Iberian Peninsula. This is consistent with the assumption that recent colonization and rapid expansion occurred throughout this area. Likewise, the low levels of genetic variability recovered suggest that bottlenecks and/or founder events may have been involved in this process, and clonal reproduction may have played an important role in maintaining this genetic impoverishment. Indeed, the ecological and phenologic uniformity present in the A. millefolium agg. in Iberia compared to Eurasia and North America may be responsible for the low number of representatives of this complex of species present in the Iberian Peninsula. The low levels of genetic differentiation between ploidy levels recovered in our work suggest the absence of barriers between them. PMID:26091537

  12. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 1: Achillea millefolium-Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Calapai, Gioacchino; Miroddi, Marco; Minciullo, Paola L; Caputi, Achille P; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 1: Achillea millefolium L.-Curcuma longa L. PMID:24621152

  13. Toxic essential oils: anxiolytic, antinociceptive and antimicrobial properties of the yarrow Achillea umbellata Sibth. et Sm. (Asteraceae) volatiles.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko S; Dekić, Milan S; Ranđelović, Pavle J; Stojanović, Nikola M; Zarubica, Aleksandra R; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z

    2012-06-01

    Many plant species are used for medicinal purposes without the knowledge of their possible toxic effect. The ethnopharmacologically renowned genus Achillea L. (Asteraceae) is even more troublesome in this respect since different taxa are believed to have the same beneficial properties as A. millefolium. According to the median lethal i.p. dose (LD(50)=853 mg/kg, mice), the volatiles of Achillea umbellata Sibth. et Sm. are more toxic than the thujone-containing essential oils (LD(50)>960 mg/kg). A GC-MS analysis of A. umbellata oil revealed the presence of a series of fragranyl esters (six new natural products). The major constituents of this oil, the rare monoterpene alcohol fragranol and fragranyl acetate, and one more ester (benzoate), as well as the oil itself, showed antianxiety, analgesic and, in some instances, paralyzing properties at 50-150 mg/kg but these are very likely sign of intoxication and not of possible beneficial effects of the plant volatiles. Testing of antimicrobial activity demonstrated that the oil possesses moderate activity against pathogenic microorganisms, but the effect of the oil differs in pro- and eukaryotic cells. According to the results obtained, fragranol may be considered as the main active principle responsible for the observed activity/toxicity. PMID:22449535

  14. Differential growth inhibitory effects of highly oxygenated guaianolides isolated from the Middle Eastern indigenous plant Achillea falcata in HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tohme, Rita; Al Aaraj, Lamis; Ghaddar, Tarek; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala; Saliba, Najat A; Darwiche, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants play a crucial role in traditional medicine and in the maintenance of human health worldwide. Sesquiterpene lactones represent an interesting group of plant-derived compounds that are currently being tested as lead drugs in cancer clinical trials. Achillea falcata is a medicinal plant indigenous to the Middle Eastern region and belongs to the Asteraceae family, which is known to be rich in sesquiterpene lactones. We subjected Achillea falcata extracts to bioassay-guided fractionation against the growth of HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells and identified four secotanapartholides, namely 3-β-methoxy-isosecotanapartholide (1), isosecotanapartholide (2), tanaphallin (3), and 8-hydroxy-3-methoxyisosecotanapartholide (4). Three highly oxygenated guaianolides were isolated for the first time from Achillea falcata, namely rupin A (5), chrysartemin B (6), and 1β, 2β-epoxy-3β,4α,10α-trihydroxyguaian-6α,12-olide (7). These sesquiterpene lactones showed no or minor cytotoxicity while exhibiting promising anticancer effects against HCT-116 cells. Further structure-activity relationship studies related the bioactivity of the tested compounds to their skeleton, their lipophilicity, and to the type of functional groups neighboring the main alkylating center of the molecule. PMID:23860275

  15. Characterization of Volatile Compounds of Eleven Achillea Species from Turkey and Biological Activities of Essential Oil and Methanol Extract of A. hamzaoglui Arabacı & Budak.

    PubMed

    Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar; Agar, Osman Tuncay; Akaydin, Galip; Hayran, Mutlu; Demirci, Betul

    2015-01-01

    According to distribution of genus Achillea, two main centers of diversity occur in S.E. Europe and S.W. Asia. Diversified essential oil compositions from Balkan Peninsula have been numerously reported. However, report on essential oils of Achillea species growing in Turkey, which is one of the main centers of diversity, is very limited. This paper represents the chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of eleven Achillea species, identified simultaneously by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components were found to be 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, viridiflorol, nonacosane, α-bisabolol, caryophyllene oxide, α-bisabolon oxide A, β-eudesmol, 15-hexadecanolide and camphor. The chemical principal component analysis based on thirty compounds identified three species groups and a subgroup, where each group constituted a chemotype. This is the first report on the chemical composition of A. hamzaoglui essential oil; as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial evaluation of its essential oil and methanolic extract. PMID:26111175

  16. Essential oil composition of five collections of Achillea biebersteinii from central Turkey and their antifungal and insecticidal activity.

    PubMed

    Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betül; Gürbüz, Ilhan; Demirci, Fatih; Becnel, James J; Wedge, David E; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can

    2011-05-01

    The composition of the essential oils hydrodistilled from the aerial parts of five Achillea biebersteinii Afan samples, collected in central Turkey from Konya, Isparta and Ankara, were analyzed both by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eighty-four components were identified, representing 87 to 99% of the total oil composition. The identified major components were 1,8-cineole (9-37%), camphor (16-30%) and p-cymene (1-27%). Two samples differed in piperitone (11%) and ascaridol (4%) content. The five A. biebersteinii essential oils were subsequently evaluated for their antifungal activity against the strawberry anthracnose-causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides using the direct overlay bioautography assay. The essential oils showed no antifungal activity at 80 and 160 microg/spot. In addition, A. biebersteinii oils and their major compounds were subsequently investigated against Aedes aegypti first instar larvae in a high throughput bioassay. Among the oils, only one sample from Ankara showed a notable larvacidal effect on Ae. aegypti larvae. The major compounds, 1,8-cineole, camphor and p-cymene, exhibited low mosquito larval activity, and thus the minor compounds are probably responsible for the observed activity against Ae. aegypti larvae. The oils showed weak activity against adult Ae. aegypti. PMID:21615036

  17. Comparative Studies on Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant, Wound Healing and Cytotoxic Activities of Selected Achillea L. Species Growing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Agar, Osman Tuncay; Dikmen, Miris; Ozturk, Nilgun; Yilmaz, Mustafa Abdullah; Temel, Hamdi; Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Turkey is one of the most important centers of diversity for the genus Achillea L. in the world. Keeping in mind the immense medicinal importance of phenols, in this study, three species growing in Turkey, A. coarctata Poir. (AC), A. kotschyi Boiss. subsp. kotschyi (AK) and A. lycaonica Boiss. & Heldr. (AL) were evaluated for their phenolic compositions, total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant properties, wound healing potencies on NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Comprehensive LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that AK was distinctively rich in chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, apigenin, hesperidin, rutin, kaempferol and luteolin (2890.6, 987.3, 797.0, 422.5, 188.1, 159.4 and 121.2 µg analyte/g extract, respectively). The findings exhibited a strong correlation between TPC and both free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Among studied species, the highest TPC (148.00 mg GAE/g extract) and TAC (2.080 UAE), the strongest radical scavenging (EC50 = 32.63 μg/mL), the most prominent wound healing and most abundant cytotoxic activities were observed with AK. The results suggested that AK is a valuable source of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid with important antioxidant, wound healing and cytotoxic activities. These findings warrant further studies to assess the potential of AK as a bioactive source that could be exploited in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries. PMID:26437391

  18. Fast analysis of volatile components of Achillea tenuifolia Lam with microwave distillation followed by headspace single-drop microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Piryaei, Marzieh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    This article investigates the effect of microwaves on the amount of volatile compounds Achillea tenuifolia Lam with two methods, headspace single-drop microextraction and microwave-assisted headspace single-drop microextraction (MA-SDME), for the analysis of essential oil. Solvent selection, solvent volume, microwave power, irradiation time and sample mass were optimised by the simplex method. PMID:26329700

  19. Rapid analysis of Achillea tenuifolia Lam essential oils by polythiophene/hexagonally ordered silica nanocomposite coating as a solid-phase microextraction fibre.

    PubMed

    Piryaei, Marzieh; Abolghasemi, Mir Mahdi; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a highly porous fibre coated with polythiophene/hexagonally ordered silica nanocomposite (PT/SBA-15) was prepared and used for extraction of essential oils with microwave-assisted distillation headspace solid phase microextraction (MA-HS-SPME) method. The prepared nanomaterials were immobilised on a stainless steel wire for fabrication of the SPME fibre. Using MA-HS-SPME followed by GC-MS, 24 compounds were separated and identified in Achillea tenuifolia, which mainly included limonene (28.6%), α-cadinol (12.7%), borneol (6.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.2%), bornyl acetate (4.3%), camphene (3.2%) and para-cymene (2.3%). The experimental results showed that the polythiophene/hexagonally ordered silica nanocomposite fibres were suitable for the semi-quantitative study of the composition of essential oils in plant materials and for monitoring the variations in the volatile components of the plants. PMID:25613724

  20. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from Achillea millefolium (asteraceae) and Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae) against Sitophilus granarius and S. oryzea (col.: Curculionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şimşek, Şeyda; Pekbey, Gamze; Yaman, Cennet

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, experiments were conducted to investigate fumigant toxicity of the essential oil from Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae) and Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae) plants for adult grain weevil (Sitophilus granarius) and rice weevil (S. oryzea) in vitro conditions. The essential oils were isolated with the water distillation method by Neo-Clevenger apparatus. During the study 10% (v/v) doses of oils in 20 cc of compressed rubber-capped glass tubes were used. After 24 hours mortality rates of the essential oils were compared. For S. granarius the toxicity of A. millefolium (98.85%) was observed to be more effective than P. ferulace (28.73%). Similarly for S. oryzea, A. millefolium (100 %) was found much more toxic than P. ferulace (9.82%). At the results of the study the essential oil of the A. millefolium has been determined as a promising insecticidal component against both pests.

  1. In vitro anti-oxidant, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of Achillea teretifolia Willd extracts on human prostate cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Elif Burcu; Açık, Leyla; Elçi, Pınar; Sarper, Meral; Avcu, Ferit; Vural, Mecit

    2015-01-01

    Background: The majority of Achillea species are the most important native economic plants of Anatolia. They include highly bioactive compounds, so they have therapeutic applications. Objective: In the present study, the aim was to investigate in vitro anti-oxidant, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of Achillea teretifolia Willd extracts (Turkish name: Beyaz civanperÇemi). Materials and Methods: The anti-oxidant potential of the extracts was analyzed by the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and total phenolic content methods. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to detect cytotoxicity of the extracts onhuman prostate cancer cell lines (DU145 and PC-3) and human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells. mRNA expression levels of pro-apoptotic (bax, caspase-3) and anti-apoptotic (bcl-2) genes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The results showed that extracts exhibited a remarkable DPPH scavenging activity, and total phenolic content of the methanol extract was higher than that of the water extract. As time and concentration were increased, the methanol extract exhibited a more powerful cytotoxic effect on prostate cancer cells. In prostate cancer cells, the levels of mRNA expression of the bax and caspase-3 genes were significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05), whereas the expression of bcl-2 was down-regulated (P < 0.05). In HGF cells, there were no cytotoxic effect and apoptosis induction triggered by the extracts. Conclusion: The methanol extract had more powerful anti-oxidant, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects than the water extract. The extracts could be good anti-oxidant sources, and they might include anti-cancer compounds triggering the cytotoxicity and the apoptosis on prostate cancer cells. PMID:26664020

  2. A polysaccharide fraction from Achillea millefolium increases cytokine secretion and reduces activation of Akt, ERK and NF-κB in THP-1 monocytes.

    PubMed

    Freysdottir, Jona; Logadottir, Oddny T; Omarsdottir, Sesselja S; Vikingsson, Arnor; Hardardottir, Ingibjorg

    2016-06-01

    Achillea millefolium has been used in traditional medicine for a number of ailments, including skin inflammation and wounds. A polysaccharide fraction (Am-25-d) isolated from aqueous extract from A. millefolium had an average molecular weight of 270kDa and a monosaccharide composition of GalA, Gal, Ara, Xyl, Rha in molar ratio of 28:26:23:9:7. THP-1 cells primed with IFN-γ and stimulated with LPS in the presence of Am-25-d secreted more IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-23 and TNF-α than THP-1 cells stimulated in the absence of Am-25-d. However, when added to unstimulated cells Am-25-d did not increase secretion of the cytokines examined. Stimulating THP-1 monocytes in the presence of Am-25-d led to decreased nuclear concentrations of NF-κB and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt kinases compared with that when the cells were stimulated without Am-25-d. These findings indicate that Am-25-d isolated from A. millefolium has immunoenhancing properties that may be mediated via the Akt pathway. PMID:27083352

  3. GC-MS Analysis: In Vivo Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. Growing in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Said, Mansour S.; Mothana, Ramzi A.; Al-Yahya, Mohammed M.; Rafatullah, Syed; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed O.; Khaled, Jamal M.; Alatar, Abdulrahman; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Kurkcuoglu, Mine; Baser, Husnu C.

    2016-01-01

    Liver disease is a worldwide problem. It represents one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in humans. Achillea biebersteinii is used as herbal remedy for various ailments including liver diseases. But the scientific basis for its medicinal use remains unknown. Thus, this research was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of A. biebersteinii essential oil (ABEO) (0.2 mL/kg) in the amelioration of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rodent model. Moreover, the chemical content of the oil was investigated using GC and GC-MS. The following biochemical parameters were evaluated: serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (γ-GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin. Furthermore, lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA), nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH), and total protein (TP) contents in liver tissue were estimated. 44 components (92.0%) of the total oil have been identified by GC-MS analysis where α-terpinene and p-cymene were the most abundant. The high serum enzymatic (GOT, GPT, GGT, and ALP) and bilirubin concentrations as well as the level of MDA, NP-SH, and TP contents in liver tissues were significantly reinstated towards normalization by the ABEO. Histopathological study further confirmed these findings. In addition, ABEO showed mild antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. PMID:27293452

  4. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Acantholippia deserticola, Artemisia proceriformis, Achillea micrantha and Libanotis buchtormensis against phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Sampietro, Diego A; Lizarraga, Emilio F; Ibatayev, Zharkyn A; Omarova, Akerke B; Suleimen, Yerlan M; Catalán, Cesar A N

    2016-09-01

    Essential oils from aerial parts of Acantholippia deserticola, Artemisia proceriformis, Achillea micrantha and Libanotis buchtormensis were analysed by GC-MS. The major compounds identified were β-thujone (66.5 ± 0.2%), and trans-sabinyl acetate (12.1 ± 0.2%) in A. deserticola; α-thujone (66.9 ± 0.4%) in A. proceriformis; 1,8-cineole (26.9 ± 0.5%), and camphor (17.7 ± 0.3%) in A. micrantha and cis-β-ocimene (23.3 ± 0.3%), and trans-β-ocimene (18.4 ± 0.2%) in L. buchtormensis. The oils showed a weak antimicrobial effect (MIC100 > 1.5 mg/ml) on most phytopathogens tested. A moderate antimicrobial activity (MIC100 between 0.5 and 1.5 mg/ml) was displayed by the oils of A. deserticola, A. micrantha and L. buchtormensis on Septoria tritici and by the oil of A. deserticola on Septoria glycine. The antimicrobial activity was associated to the contents of β-thujone, trans-sabinyl acetate and trans-sabinol. Our results indicate that the tested essential oils have little inhibitory potency not suitable for use as plant protection products against the phytopathogens assayed. PMID:26404704

  5. The Chemical Composition of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch and Its Desirable Effects on Hyperglycemia, Inflammatory Mediators and Hypercholesterolemia as Risk Factors for Cardiometabolic Disease.

    PubMed

    Khazneh, Elian; Hřibová, Petra; Hošek, Jan; Suchý, Pavel; Kollár, Peter; Pražanová, Gabriela; Muselík, Jan; Hanaková, Zuzana; Václavík, Jiří; Miłek, Michał; Legáth, Jaroslav; Šmejkal, Karel

    2016-01-01

    This study was done to identify the content compounds of Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii) and to evaluate its hypoglycemic and anti-hypercholesterolemic activity and effect on inflammatory mediators. The extracts and fractions of A. wilhelmsii were thoroughly analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the total content of phenols and flavonoids was determined. The hypoglycemic activity was evaluated in vivo using alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The effect upon inflammatory mediators was evaluated in vitro using the human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1). The anti-hypercholesterolemic activity was evaluated in vitro using the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase assay kit. The water extract (WE)-treated group showed the highest reduction in the fasting blood glucose levels (FBGL). The chloroform fraction (CF) and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) both showed a significant ability to reduce the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). The EAF, however, also attenuated the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The CF showed the most significant 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) inhibition activity. The five main compounds in the CF were isolated and identified. Out of the five compounds in the CF, 1β,10β-epoxydesacetoxymatricarin (CP1) and leucodin (CP2) showed the highest anti-hypercholesterolemic potential. A molecular docking study provided corresponding results. PMID:27023504

  6. GC-MS Analysis: In Vivo Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. Growing in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Said, Mansour S; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Yahya, Mohammed M; Rafatullah, Syed; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed O; Khaled, Jamal M; Alatar, Abdulrahman; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kurkcuoglu, Mine; Baser, Husnu C

    2016-01-01

    Liver disease is a worldwide problem. It represents one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in humans. Achillea biebersteinii is used as herbal remedy for various ailments including liver diseases. But the scientific basis for its medicinal use remains unknown. Thus, this research was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of A. biebersteinii essential oil (ABEO) (0.2 mL/kg) in the amelioration of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rodent model. Moreover, the chemical content of the oil was investigated using GC and GC-MS. The following biochemical parameters were evaluated: serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (γ-GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin. Furthermore, lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA), nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH), and total protein (TP) contents in liver tissue were estimated. 44 components (92.0%) of the total oil have been identified by GC-MS analysis where α-terpinene and p-cymene were the most abundant. The high serum enzymatic (GOT, GPT, GGT, and ALP) and bilirubin concentrations as well as the level of MDA, NP-SH, and TP contents in liver tissues were significantly reinstated towards normalization by the ABEO. Histopathological study further confirmed these findings. In addition, ABEO showed mild antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. PMID:27293452

  7. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Achillea collina Becker ex Heimerl s.l. and A. pannonica Scheele essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bozin, Biljana; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Bogavac, Mirjana; Suvajdzic, Ljiljana; Simin, Natasa; Samojlik, Isidora; Couladis, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of two Achillea millefolium (Adanson) Koch s.l species essential oils (A. collina Becker ex Heimerl s.l. and A. pannonica Scheele, Asteraceae) originating from the Golija and Radan mountains (Serbia) were investigated. The chemical profiles of the essential oils were evaluated by GC-MS. Antioxidant activity was assessed as free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) towards 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radicals, together with effects on lipid peroxidation (LP). Antibacterial activity was examined on 21 bacterial strains. Based on the chemical composition of the essential oil, A. collina s.l. from Mount Golija was classified as a chamazulene chemotype (tetraploid). The high percentage of oxygenated monoterpenes and absence of azulene in the essential oil obtained from A. pannonica from Radan pointing that this population is octaploid. Essential oil of A. pannonica expressed stronger antimicrobial activity on almost all tested bacteria. Furthermore, this essential oil expressed higher scavenging effects on DPPH radical (IC(50) = 0.52 comparing to 0.62 mug/mL). Only in the LP evaluation, essential oil of A. collina s.l. from Golija exhibited stronger antioxidant activity (IC(50) = 0.75 comparing to 2.12 mug/mL). PMID:18830141

  8. Germacrene A synthase in yarrow (Achillea millefolium) is an enzyme with mixed substrate specificity: gene cloning, functional characterization and expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pazouki, Leila; Memari, Hamid R.; Kännaste, Astrid; Bichele, Rudolf; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoid synthases constitute a highly diverse gene family producing a wide range of cyclic and acyclic molecules consisting of isoprene (C5) residues. Often a single terpene synthase produces a spectrum of molecules of given chain length, but some terpene synthases can use multiple substrates, producing products of different chain length. Only a few such enzymes has been characterized, but the capacity for multiple-substrate use can be more widespread than previously thought. Here we focused on germacrene A synthase (GAS) that is a key cytosolic enzyme in the sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis pathway in the important medicinal plant Achillea millefolium (AmGAS). The full length encoding gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), functionally characterized, and its in vivo expression was analyzed. The recombinant protein catalyzed formation of germacrene A with the C15 substrate farnesyl diphosphate (FDP), while acyclic monoterpenes were formed with the C10 substrate geranyl diphosphate (GDP) and cyclic monoterpenes with the C10 substrate neryl diphosphate (NDP). Although monoterpene synthesis has been assumed to be confined exclusively to plastids, AmGAS can potentially synthesize monoterpenes in cytosol when GDP or NDP become available. AmGAS enzyme had high homology with GAS sequences from other Asteraceae species, suggesting that multi-substrate use can be more widespread among germacrene A synthases than previously thought. Expression studies indicated that AmGAS was expressed in both autotrophic and heterotrophic plant compartments with the highest expression levels in leaves and flowers. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the cloning and characterization of germacrene A synthase coding gene in A. millefolium, and multi-substrate use of GAS enzymes. PMID:25784918

  9. Chemical composition and biological activities of Iranian Achillea wilhelmsii L. essential oil: a high effectiveness against Candida spp. and Escherichia strains.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Rostami, Hajar

    2015-02-01

    In the case of Achillea wilhelmsii, 30 compounds were identified representing 94.48% of the total oil with a yield of 0.82% w/w. The major constituents of the oil were described as α-thujene (6.11%), α-pinene (5.11%), sabinene (5.23%), p-cymene (7%), 1,8-cineole (6%), linalool (10%), camphor (8.43%), thymol (18.98%) and carvacrol (20.13%). A. wilhelmsii oil exhibited higher antibacterial and antifungal activities with a high effectiveness against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans with the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration/minimum fungicidal concentration value (2 ± 0.0-2 ± 0.0 g/mL, 1 ± 0.5-1 ± 0.5 g/mL), respectively. Results showed that A. wilhelmsii oil exhibits a higher activity in each antioxidant system with a special attention for β-carotene bleaching test (IC50: 19 μg/mL) and reducing power (EC50: 10 μg/mL). Antioxidant activity-guided fractionation of the oil was carried out by TLC-bioautography screening and fractionation resulted in the separation of main antioxidant compounds which were identified as thymol (65%) and carvacrol (19%). In conclusion, these results support the use of the essential oil and its main compounds for their antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity. PMID:25209950

  10. Insecticide activity of essential oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii against two stored product pests, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC(50) values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC(50) = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC(50) = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

  11. Insecticide Activity of Essential Oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii Against Two Stored Product Pests, the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC50 values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC50 = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC50 = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

  12. [Pathology of paratenonitis achilleae in Athletes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Harms, J; Biehl, G; von Hohbach, G

    1977-04-22

    This is a report about the histopathological findings after excision of the inflammably overhead paratenon at top sportsmen, which were operated of cause of a paratenonitis. The good clinical results are written and the histological findings are described and discussed. The development of the paratenonitis is decleared. Pathological alterations of the paratenon at the tendon itself are difficulty to merk off. At the sportsmen the etiology of the disease is often a mechanical overloading of the tissue. PMID:860963

  13. [Operative treatment of paratenonitis achilleae in athletes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Biehl, G; Harms, J

    1977-03-31

    This is a report about indications, technics of operation, treatment after the operations and the results of the paratenonitis at the Achilles-tendon. Our 21 patients were top-sportsmen and the treatment conservative had no succes. All patients were able to continue their sportive activity after the excision of the paratenon. PMID:871268

  14. The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea biebersteini Afan. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sökmen, Atalay; Sökmen, Münevver; Daferera, Dimitra; Polissiou, Moschos; Candan, Ferda; Unlü, Mehmet; Akpulat, H Aşkin

    2004-06-01

    The essential oil and methanol extracts from A. biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae) were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities in vitro. The oil showed stronger antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Their antioxidant features were also evaluated using diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), inhibition of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and inhibition of the lipid peroxidation assays. Particularly, polar subfraction of the methanol extract showed antioxidant activity. The GC-MS analysis of the oil has resulted in the identification of 23 components; piperitone, eucalyptol, camphor, chrysanthenone and borneol were the main components. Antimicrobial activity tests carried out with the fractions of the oil showed that the activity was mainly observed in those containing eucalyptol and camphor, in particular, followed by borneol and piperitone. PMID:15287068

  15. Three floral volatiles contribute to differential pollinator attraction in monkeyflowers (Mimulus)

    PubMed Central

    Byers, Kelsey J. R. P.; Bradshaw, H. D.; Riffell, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Flowering plants employ a wide variety of signals, including scent, to attract the attention of pollinators. In this study we investigated the role of floral scent in mediating differential attraction between two species of monkeyflowers (Mimulus) reproductively isolated by pollinator preference. The emission rate and chemical identity of floral volatiles differ between the bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated M. cardinalis. Mimulus lewisii flowers produce an array of volatiles dominated by d-limonene, β-myrcene and E-β-ocimene. Of these three monoterpenes, M. cardinalis flowers produce only d-limonene, released at just 0.9% the rate of M. lewisii flowers. Using the Bombus vosnesenskii bumblebee, an important pollinator of M. lewisii, we conducted simultaneous gas chromatography with extracellular recordings in the bumblebee antennal lobe. Results from these experiments revealed that these three monoterpenes evoke significant neural responses, and that a synthetic mixture of the three volatiles evokes the same responses as the natural scent. Furthermore, the neural population shows enhanced responses to the M. lewisii scent over the scent of M. cardinalis. This neural response is reflected in behavior; in two-choice assays, bumblebees investigate artificial flowers scented with M. lewisii more frequently than ones scented with M. cardinalis, and in synthetic mixtures the three monoterpenes are necessary and sufficient to recapitulate responses to the natural scent of M. lewisii. In this system, floral scent alone is sufficient to elicit differential visitation by bumblebees, implying a strong role of scent in the maintenance of reproductive isolation between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. PMID:24198269

  16. Floral volatile alleles can contribute to pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation in monkeyflowers (Mimulus)

    PubMed Central

    Byers, Kelsey J.R.P.; Vela, James P.; Peng, Foen; Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Bradshaw, H.D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation is a major factor in driving the diversification of flowering plants. Studies of floral traits involved in reproductive isolation have focused nearly exclusively on visual signals, such as flower color. The role of less obvious signals, such as floral scent, has been studied only recently. In particular, the genetics of floral volatiles involved in mediating differential pollinator visitation remains unknown. The bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and hummingbird-pollinated M. cardinalis are a model system for studying reproductive isolation via pollinator preference. We have shown that these two species differ in three floral terpenoid volatiles - D-limonene, β-myrcene, and E-β-ocimene - that are attractive to bumblebee pollinators. By genetic mapping and in vitro enzyme activity analysis we demonstrate that these interspecific differences are consistent with allelic variation at two loci – LIMONENE-MYRCENE SYNTHASE (LMS) and OCIMENE SYNTHASE (OS). M. lewisii LMS (MlLMS) and OS (MlOS) are expressed most strongly in floral tissue in the last stages of floral development. M. cardinalis LMS (McLMS) is weakly expressed and has a nonsense mutation in exon 3. M. cardinalis OS (McOS) is expressed similarly to MlOS, but the encoded McOS enzyme produces no E-β-ocimene. Recapitulating the M. cardinalis phenotype by reducing the expression of MlLMS by RNAi in transgenic M. lewisii produces no behavioral difference in pollinating bumblebees; however, reducing MlOS expression produces a 6% decrease in visitation. Allelic variation at the OCIMENE SYNTHASE locus likely contributes to differential pollinator visitation, and thus promotes reproductive isolation between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. OCIMENE SYNTHASE joins a growing list of “speciation genes” (“barrier genes”) in flowering plants. PMID:25319242

  17. Competition between anthocyanin and flavonol biosynthesis produces spatial pattern variation of floral pigments between Mimulus species.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Rebocho, Alexandra B; Sagawa, Janelle M; Stanley, Lauren E; Bradshaw, Harvey D

    2016-03-01

    Flower color patterns have long served as a model for developmental genetics because pigment phenotypes are visually striking, yet generally not required for plant viability, facilitating the genetic analysis of color and pattern mutants. The evolution of novel flower colors and patterns has played a key role in the adaptive radiation of flowering plants via their specialized interactions with different pollinator guilds (e.g., bees, butterflies, birds), motivating the search for allelic differences affecting flower color pattern in closely related plant species with different pollinators. We have identified LIGHT AREAS1 (LAR1), encoding an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, as the causal gene underlying the spatial pattern variation of floral anthocyanin pigmentation between two sister species of monkeyflower: the bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated Mimulus cardinalis. We demonstrated that LAR1 positively regulates FLAVONOL SYNTHASE (FLS), essentially eliminating anthocyanin biosynthesis in the white region (i.e., light areas) around the corolla throat of M. lewisii flowers by diverting dihydroflavonol into flavonol biosynthesis from the anthocyanin pigment pathway. FLS is preferentially expressed in the light areas of the M. lewisii flower, thus prepatterning the corolla. LAR1 expression in M. cardinalis flowers is much lower than in M. lewisii, explaining the unpatterned phenotype and recessive inheritance of the M. cardinalis allele. Furthermore, our gene-expression analysis and genetic mapping results suggest that cis-regulatory change at the LAR1 gene played a critical role in the evolution of different pigmentation patterns between the two species. PMID:26884205

  18. Floral volatile alleles can contribute to pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation in monkeyflowers (Mimulus).

    PubMed

    Byers, Kelsey J R P; Vela, James P; Peng, Foen; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Bradshaw, Harvey D

    2014-12-01

    Pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation is a major factor in driving the diversification of flowering plants. Studies of floral traits involved in reproductive isolation have focused nearly exclusively on visual signals, such as flower color. The role of less obvious signals, such as floral scent, has been studied only recently. In particular, the genetics of floral volatiles involved in mediating differential pollinator visitation remains unknown. The bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and hummingbird-pollinated Mimulus cardinalis are a model system for studying reproductive isolation via pollinator preference. We have shown that these two species differ in three floral terpenoid volatiles - d-limonene, β-myrcene, and E-β-ocimene - that are attractive to bumblebee pollinators. By genetic mapping and in vitro analysis of enzyme activity we demonstrate that these interspecific differences are consistent with allelic variation at two loci, LIMONENE-MYRCENE SYNTHASE (LMS) and OCIMENE SYNTHASE (OS). Mimulus lewisii LMS (MlLMS) and OS (MlOS) are expressed most strongly in floral tissue in the last stages of floral development. Mimulus cardinalis LMS (McLMS) is weakly expressed and has a nonsense mutation in exon 3. Mimulus cardinalis OS (McOS) is expressed similarly to MlOS, but the encoded McOS enzyme produces no E-β-ocimene. Recapitulating the M. cardinalis phenotype by reducing the expression of MlLMS by RNA interference in transgenic M. lewisii produces no behavioral difference in pollinating bumblebees; however, reducing MlOS expression produces a 6% decrease in visitation. Allelic variation at the OCIMENE SYNTHASE locus is likely to contribute to differential pollinator visitation, and thus promote reproductive isolation between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. OCIMENE SYNTHASE joins a growing list of 'speciation genes' ('barrier genes') in flowering plants. PMID:25319242

  19. Competition between anthocyanin and flavonol biosynthesis produces spatial pattern variation of floral pigments between Mimulus species

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Rebocho, Alexandra B.; Sagawa, Janelle M.; Stanley, Lauren E.; Bradshaw, Harvey D.

    2016-01-01

    Flower color patterns have long served as a model for developmental genetics because pigment phenotypes are visually striking, yet generally not required for plant viability, facilitating the genetic analysis of color and pattern mutants. The evolution of novel flower colors and patterns has played a key role in the adaptive radiation of flowering plants via their specialized interactions with different pollinator guilds (e.g., bees, butterflies, birds), motivating the search for allelic differences affecting flower color pattern in closely related plant species with different pollinators. We have identified LIGHT AREAS1 (LAR1), encoding an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, as the causal gene underlying the spatial pattern variation of floral anthocyanin pigmentation between two sister species of monkeyflower: the bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated Mimulus cardinalis. We demonstrated that LAR1 positively regulates FLAVONOL SYNTHASE (FLS), essentially eliminating anthocyanin biosynthesis in the white region (i.e., light areas) around the corolla throat of M. lewisii flowers by diverting dihydroflavonol into flavonol biosynthesis from the anthocyanin pigment pathway. FLS is preferentially expressed in the light areas of the M. lewisii flower, thus prepatterning the corolla. LAR1 expression in M. cardinalis flowers is much lower than in M. lewisii, explaining the unpatterned phenotype and recessive inheritance of the M. cardinalis allele. Furthermore, our gene-expression analysis and genetic mapping results suggest that cis-regulatory change at the LAR1 gene played a critical role in the evolution of different pigmentation patterns between the two species. PMID:26884205

  20. Allele substitution at a flower colour locus produces a pollinator shift in monkeyflowers.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, H D; Schemske, Douglas W

    2003-11-13

    The role of major mutations in adaptive evolution has been debated for more than a century. The classical view is that adaptive mutations are nearly infinite in number with infinitesimally small phenotypic effect, but recent theory suggests otherwise. To provide empirical estimates of the magnitude of adaptive mutations in wild plants, we conducted field studies to determine the adaptive value of alternative alleles at a single locus, YELLOW UPPER (YUP). YUP controls the presence or absence of yellow carotenoid pigments in the petals of pink-flowered Mimulus lewisii, which is pollinated by bumblebees, and its red-flowered sister species M. cardinalis, which is pollinated by hummingbirds. We bred near-isogenic lines (NILs) in which the YUP allele from each species was substituted into the other. M. cardinalis NILs with the M. lewisii YUP allele had dark pink flowers and received 74-fold more bee visits than the wild type, whereas M. lewisii NILs with the M. cardinalis yup allele had yellow-orange flowers and received 68-fold more hummingbird visits than the wild type. These results indicate that an adaptive shift in pollinator preference may be initiated by a single major mutation. PMID:14614505

  1. Transcriptional control of floral anthocyanin pigmentation in monkeyflowers (Mimulus)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Sagawa, Janelle M.; Frost, Laura; Vela, James P.; Bradshaw, Harvey D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A molecular description of the control of floral pigmentation in a multi-species group displaying various flower color patterns is of great interest for understanding the molecular bases of phenotypic diversification and pollinator-mediated speciation. Through transcriptome profiling, mutant analyses, and transgenic experiments, we aim to establish a ‘baseline’ floral anthocyanin regulation model in Mimulus lewisii and to examine the different ways of tinkering with this model in generating the diversity of floral anthocyanin patterns in other Mimulus species. We find one WD40 and one bHLH gene controlling anthocyanin pigmentation in the entire corolla of M. lewisii, and two R2R3-MYB genes, PELAN and NEGAN, controlling anthocyanin production in the petal lobe and nectar guide, respectively. The autoregulation of NEGAN might be a critical property to generate anthocyanin spots. Independent losses of PELAN expression (via different mechanisms) explain two natural yellow-flowered populations of M. cardinalis (typically red-flowered). The NEGAN ortholog is the only anthocyanin-activating MYB expressed in the M. guttatus flowers. The mutant lines and transgenic tools available for M. lewisii will enable gene-by-gene replacement experiments to dissect the genetic and developmental bases of more complex floral color patterns, and to test hypotheses on phenotypic evolution in general. PMID:25103615

  2. Uptake of 2,4-D in higher plants from artificial rain

    SciTech Connect

    Lokke, H.

    1984-02-01

    Sinapis alba L., Lapsana communis L., Achillea millefolium L., Brassica napus L., Lactuca sativa L., and Lycopersicum esculentum L. were exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxy (2-/sup 14/C)acetic acid (2,4-D) at 10 micrograms liter-1 in artificial rain, pH 6.5 and 3.3. The 2,4-D was absorbed in all species tested. Concentrations of parent 2,4-D appeared at the highest level in Achillea (0.1 mg kg-1 dry wt), and at zero level in Lycopersicum. Twenty-one daily treatments at pH 6.5 for 30-min periods increased dry-matter concentrations in the leaves of Achillea and decreased those in Brassica. No change in dry-matter concentration was observed in the leaves of Brassica by seven daily treatments for 30-min periods at pH 3.3.

  3. Genetic dissection of a major anthocyanin QTL contributing to pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation between sister species of Mimulus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Sagawa, Janelle M; Young, Riane C; Christensen, Brian J; Bradshaw, Harvey D

    2013-05-01

    Prezygotic barriers play a major role in the evolution of reproductive isolation, which is a prerequisite for speciation. However, despite considerable progress in identifying genes and mutations responsible for postzygotic isolation, little is known about the genetic and molecular basis underlying prezygotic barriers. The bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated M. cardinalis represent a classic example of pollinator-mediated prezygotic isolation between two sister species in sympatry. Flower color differences resulting from both carotenoid and anthocyanin pigments contribute to pollinator discrimination between the two species in nature. Through fine-scale genetic mapping, site-directed mutagenesis, and transgenic experiments, we demonstrate that a single-repeat R3 MYB repressor, ROSE INTENSITY1 (ROI1), is the causal gene underlying a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) with the largest effect on anthocyanin concentration and that cis-regulatory change rather than coding DNA mutations cause the allelic difference between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. Together with the genomic resources and stable transgenic tools developed here, these results suggest that Mimulus is an excellent platform for studying the genetics of pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation and the molecular basis of morphological evolution at the most fundamental level-gene by gene, mutation by mutation. PMID:23335333

  4. The niche, limits to species' distributions, and spatiotemporal variation in demography across the elevation ranges of two monkeyflowers.

    PubMed

    Angert, Amy L

    2009-11-17

    Understanding the processes that create and maintain species' geographic range limits has implications for many questions in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. Many expectations for the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of populations at the range margin rest on the concordance of geographic limits and the limits of a species' ecological niche. If range limits are coincident with niche limits, then marginal populations should have lower and/or more variable vital rates and population growth rates than central populations. Using data from 8 annual censuses of marked individuals, I investigated the demography of Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewisii across the species' elevation ranges. Central and marginal populations exhibited striking demographic differences, but only for one species were differences in expected directions. Marginal populations from the M. lewisii lower elevation range limit had lower and more variable survival than central populations and appeared to be demographic sinks. In contrast, marginal populations from the M. cardinalis upper elevation limit had higher fecundity and higher population growth rates than central populations. Although the species differed with respect to central-marginal patterns, they were concordant with respect to elevation; that is, both species had higher fitness in higher reaches of their examined ranges. Potential explanations for these patterns include source-sink dynamics, with asymmetrical gene flow mediated by river currents, and climate change, with recent warming shifting the species' climatic envelopes to higher elevations. Hence, assessment of spatiotemporal variation in both demography and dispersal is necessary to fully understand the relationship between the niche and species' distributions. PMID:19805178

  5. Mediterranean essential oils as effective weapons against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens and the Echinostoma intermediate host Physella acuta: what happens around? An acute toxicity survey on non-target mayflies.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Bedini, Stefano; Flamini, Guido; Cosci, Francesca; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Amira, Smain; Benchikh, Fatima; Laouer, Hocine; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Conti, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for important pathogens, including malaria, yellow fever, dengue and West Nile. Second to malaria as the world's most widespread parasitic disease, infection by trematodes is a devastating public health problem. In this study, we proposed two essential oils from plants cultivated in Mediterranean regions as effective chemicals against mosquitoes and freshwater snails vectors of Echinostoma trematodes. Chemical composition of essential oils from Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae) and Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Rutaceae) was investigated. Acute toxicity was evaluated against larvae of the West Nile vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) and the invasive freshwater snail Physella acuta (Mollusca: Physidae), an important intermediate host of many parasites, including Echinostoma revolutum (Echinostomidae). Acute toxicity of essential oils was assessed also on a non-target aquatic organism, the mayfly Cloeon dipterum (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum essentials oils were mainly composed by oxygenated monoterpenes (59.3 and 71.0 % of the whole oil, respectively). Chrysanthenone and borneol were the two major constituents of Achillea millefolium essential oil (24.1 and 14.2 %, respectively). Major compounds of H. tuberculatum essential oil were cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol and trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (22.9 and 16.1 %, respectively). In acute toxicity assays, C. pipiens LC50 was 154.190 and 175.268 ppm for Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum, respectively. P. acuta LC50 was 112.911 and 73.695 ppm for Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum, respectively, while the same values were 198.116 and 280.265 ppm for C. dipterum. Relative median potency analysis showed that both tested essential oils were more toxic to P. acuta over C. dipterum. This research adds knowledge on plant-borne chemicals toxic against invertebrates of medical

  6. Evaluation of the inhibitory activities of the extracts of Indonesian traditional medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum and Babesia gibsoni.

    PubMed

    Murnigsih, Tri; Subeki; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Kosaku; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Yamato, Osamu; Maede, Yoshimitsu; Katakura, Ken; Suzuki, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Sumiko; Chairul; Yoshihara, Teruhiko

    2005-08-01

    Twenty-four kinds of water extracts derived from 22 plants that are traditionally used for the treatment of malaria on Java Island, Indonesia, were screened for their antibabesial and antimalarial activities. Among the extracts, 8 extracts displayed strong antimalarial activity, with an inhibition range from 89.6 to 100%, and 15 showed strong antibabesial activity, with an inhibition range from 84.2 to 98.1%. The extracts of Achillea millefolium, Baeckea frutenscens, Brucea javanica, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Strychnos lucida and Swietenia macrophylla showed both strong antibabesial and antimalarial activities. The antimalarial activities paralleled the antibabesial activities, but the converse was not true. PMID:16141673

  7. High-performance liquid chromatographic characterization of some medical plant extracts used in cosmetic formulas.

    PubMed

    Schulz, H; Albroscheit, G

    1988-06-17

    Rapid and reliable methods are presented for the characterization of biologically active and/or characteristic constituents in aqueous extracts of Hamamelis virginiana, Matricaria chamomilla, Achillea millefolium, Thymus vulgaris, Althaea officinalis and Cinchonia spp. Prior to high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation a clean-up step was performed using a solid-phase extraction system. The purified extracts were analysed by HPLC coupled with a diode-array detector and a fluorescence detector. In some instances, previously unreported components of the aqueous plant extracts were found. PMID:3417826

  8. Wasp Mastoparans Follow the Same Mechanism as the Cell-Penetrating Peptide Transportan 10†

    PubMed Central

    Yandek, Lindsay E.; Pokorny, Antje; Almeida, Paulo F. F.

    2009-01-01

    We have been examining the mechanism and kinetics of the interactions of a selected set of peptides with phospholipid membranes, in a quantitative manner. This set was chosen to cover a broad range of physical-chemical properties and cell specificities. Mastoparan (masL) and mastoparan X (masX) are two similar peptides from the venoms of the wasps Vespula lewisii and Vespa xanthoptera, respectively, and were chosen to complete the set. The rate constants for masX association with, and dissociation from membranes are reported here for the first time. The kinetics of dye efflux induced by both mastoparans from phospholipid vesicles were also examined and quantitatively analyzed. We find that masL and masX follow the same graded kinetic model that we previously proposed for the cell-penetrating peptide transportan 10 (tp10), but with different parameters. This comparison is relevant because tp10 is derived from masL by addition of a mostly nonpolar segment of 7 residues at the N-terminus. Tp10 is more active than the mastoparans toward phosphatidylcholine vesicles, but the mastoparans are more sensitive to the effect of anionic lipids. Furthermore, the Gibbs free energies of binding and insertion of the peptides calculated using the Wimley-White transfer scales are in good agreement with the values derived from our experimental data, and are useful for understanding peptide behavior. PMID:19594111

  9. Fisheries Enhancement on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation; Hangman Creek, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Ronald; Kinkead, Bruce; Stanger, Mark

    2003-07-01

    Historically, Hangman Creek produced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the Upper Columbia Basin Tribes. One weir, located at the mouth of Hangman Creek was reported to catch 1,000 salmon a day for a period of 30 days a year (Scholz et al. 1985). The current town of Tekoa, Washington, near the state border with Idaho, was the location of one of the principle anadromous fisheries for the Coeur d'Alene Tribe (Scholz et al. 1985). The construction, in 1909, of Little Falls Dam, which was not equipped with a fish passage system, blocked anadromous fish access to the Hangman Watershed. The fisheries were further removed with the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. As a result, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as Redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri), Westslope Cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii), Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and other terrestrial wildlife. Historically, Redband and Cutthroat trout comprised a great deal of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's diet (Power 1997).

  10. Pollinator preference and the evolution of floral traits in monkeyflowers (Mimulus).

    PubMed

    Schemske, D W; Bradshaw, H D

    1999-10-12

    A paradigm of evolutionary biology is that adaptation and reproductive isolation are caused by a nearly infinite number of mutations of individually small effect. Here, we test this hypothesis by investigating the genetic basis of pollinator discrimination in two closely related species of monkeyflowers that differ in their major pollinators. This system provides a unique opportunity to investigate the genetic architecture of adaptation and speciation because floral traits that confer pollinator specificity also contribute to premating reproductive isolation. We asked: (i) What floral traits cause pollinator discrimination among plant species? and (ii) What is the genetic basis of these traits? We examined these questions by using data obtained from a large-scale field experiment where genetic markers were employed to determine the genetic basis of pollinator visitation. Observations of F2 hybrids produced by crossing bee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii with hummingbird-pollinated Mimulus cardinalis revealed that bees preferred large flowers low in anthocyanin and carotenoid pigments, whereas hummingbirds favored nectar-rich flowers high in anthocyanins. An allele that increases petal carotenoid concentration reduced bee visitation by 80%, whereas an allele that increases nectar production doubled hummingbird visitation. These results suggest that genes of large effect on pollinator preference have contributed to floral evolution and premating reproductive isolation in these monkeyflowers. This work contributes to growing evidence that adaptation and reproductive isolation may often involve major genes. PMID:10518550

  11. A Simple Electrochemical Method for the Rapid Estimation of Antioxidant Potentials of Some Selected Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Amidi, Salimeh; Mojab, Faraz; Bayandori Moghaddam, Abdolmajid; Tabib, Kimia; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and Epidemiological studies have shown that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancers and other related disorders. These beneficial health effects have been attributed in part to the presence of antioxidants in dietary plants. Therefore screening for antioxidant properties of plant extracts has been one of the interests of scientists in this field. Different screening methods have been reported for the evaluation of antioxidant properties of plant extracts in the literature. In the present research a rapid screening method has been introduced based on cyclic voltammetry for antioxidant screening of some selected medicinal plant extracts. Cyclic Voltammetry of methanolic extracts of seven medicinal plants: Buxus hyrcana, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium, Zataria multiflora, Ginkgo biloba, Lippia citriodora and Heptaptera anisoptera was carried out at different scan rates. Based on the interpretation of voltammograms, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium and Ginkgo biloba showed higher antioxidant capability than the others while Lippia citriodora contained the highest amount of antioxidants. Cyclic voltammetry is expected to be a simple method for screening antioxidants and estimating the antioxidant activity of foods and medicinal plants. PMID:25317192

  12. The influence of plant species on the plant/air partitioning coefficients of PCBs and chlorinated benzenes

    SciTech Connect

    Koemp, P.; McLachlan, M.S.

    1995-12-31

    The plant/air partitioning coefficients (K{sub PA}) of pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene and 16 PCB congeners were determined in five different grass and herb species common to Central Europe (Lolium multiflorum, Trifolium repens, Plantago lanceolata, Crepis biennis, Achillea millefolium). The measurements were conducted between 5 C and 35 C using a solid phase fugacity meter. Octanol/air partition coefficients (K{sub OA}) were also measured over a similar temperature range. In all cases an excellent linear relationship between log K{sub PA} and log K{sub OA} was observed (r{sup 2} between 0.80 and 0.99). However, while the slope of this relationship was 1 for Lolium multiflorum (ryegrass), in agreement with previous work, the slopes of the log K{sub PA} vs. log K{sub OA} plot were less than 1 for the other 4 species, lying as low as 0.49 for Achillea millefolium (yarrow). Large differences in the enthalpy of phase change (plant/air) were also observed between the different species, but these differences were not related to the differences in the partition coefficients. These observations demonstrate that the contaminant storage properties of plants are variable, and that the lipophilic compartment in some plants is considerably more polar than octanol. This places constraints on the applicability of current models of plant uptake, almost all of which assume that the lipophilic compartment behaves like octanol, and reinforces the need for more research into the contaminant storage properties of plants.

  13. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard; Boepple, Willi

    2007-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera

  14. Hybridization and cytonuclear associations among native westslope cutthroat trout, introduced rainbow trout, and their hybrids within the Stehekin River drainage, North Cascades National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostberg, C.O.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Historic introductions of nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss into the native habitats of cutthroat trout O. clarkii have impacted cutthroat trout populations through introgressive hybridization, creating challenges and concerns for cutthroat trout conservation. We examined the effects of rainbow trout introductions on the native westslope cutthroat trout O. c. lewisii within the Stehekin River drainage, North Cascades National Park, Washington, by analyzing 1,763 salmonid DNA samples from 18 locations with nine diagnostic nuclear DNA markers and one diagnostic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker. Pure westslope cutthroat trout populations only occurred above upstream migration barriers in the Stehekin River and Park Creek. Two categories of rainbow trout admixture were observed: (1) less than 10% within the Stehekin River drainage above the Bridge Creek confluence and the middle and upper Bridge Creek drainage and (2) greater than 30% within the Stehekin River below the Bridge Creek confluence and in lower Bridge Creek. Hybrid indices and multilocus genotypes revealed an absence of rainbow trout and reduced hybrid diversity within the Stehekin River above the Bridge Creek confluence relative to hybrid diversity in the Stehekin River below the confluence and within lower Bridge Creek. Cytonuclear disequilibrium statistics revealed assortative mating between westslope cutthroat and rainbow trout but not among hybrids within the same locations. This suggests that a randomly mating hybrid swarm does not currently exist. However, continual migration of parental genotypes into the study location could also create significant cytonuclear disequilibria. The Stehekin River represents a novel and unique example of a dynamic hybridization zone where the invasion of rainbow trout alleles into the Stehekin River westslope cutthroat trout population above the Bridge Creek confluence appears to be impeded, suggesting that divergent ecological or evolutionary mechanisms

  15. Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  16. An annotated list of aquatic insects of Fort Sill, Oklahoma, excluding diptera with notes on several new state records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuellig, R.E.; Kondratieff, B.C.; Schmidt, J.P.; Durfee, R.S.; Ruiter, D.E.; Prather, I.E.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative collections of aquatic insects were made at Fort Sill, Lawton, Oklahoma, between 2002 and 2004. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Odonata, Coleoptera, aquatic Heteroptera, Neuroptera, and Megaloptera were targeted. Additional records are included from a survey that took place in 1999. More than 11,000 specimens from more than 290 collections were examined. Based on the current understanding of aquatic insect systematics, 276 taxa distributed over 8 orders, 46 families, and 141 genera were identified. Twenty-three of the 276 taxa, Plauditus texanus Wiersema, Tricorythodes allectus (Needham), Palmacorixa nana walleyi Hungerford, Climacia chapini Partin and Gurney, Oxyethira forcipata Mosely, Oxyethira janella Denning, Triaenodes helo Milne, Ylodes frontalis (Banks), Acilius fraternus Harris, Coptotomus loticus Hilsenhoff, Coptotomus venustus (Say), Desmopachria dispersa Crotch, Graphoderus liberus (Say), Hydrovatus pustulatus (Melsheimer), Hygrotus acaroides (LeConte), Liodessus flavicollis (LeConte), Uvarus texanus (Sharp), Gyrinus woodruffi Fall, Haliplus fasciatus Aube, Haliplus lewisii Crotch, Haliplus tortilipenis Brigham & Sanderson, Chaetarthria bicolor Sharp, Epimetopus costatus complex, and Hydrochus simplex LeConte are reported from Oklahoma for the first time. The three most diverse orders included Coleoptera (86 species), Odonata (67 species) and Trichoptera (59 species), and the remaining taxa were distributed among Heteroptera, (30 species), Ephemeroptera (21 species), Plecoptera (6 species), Megaloptera (4 species), and Neuroptera (3 species). Based on previous published records, many of the species collected during this study were expected to be found at Fort Sill; however, 276 taxa of aquatic insects identified from such a small geographic area is noteworthy, especially when considering local climatic conditions and the relatively small size of Fort Sill (38,300 ha). Despite agricultural practices in Oklahoma, the dust bowl days

  17. Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Kültür, Sükran

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791

  18. Aqueous extracts of some medicinal plants are as toxic as Imidacloprid to the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Ateyyat, Mazen A; Al-Mazra'awi, Mohammad; Abu-Rjai, Talal; Shatnawi, Mohamad A

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of nine plants, known to have medicinal activity, were tested for their toxicity against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleurodidae) compared to the toxicity of the insecticide, Imidacloprid. Extracts of Lepidiuim sativum L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) killed 71 % of early stage nymphs, which was not significantly different from mortality caused by Imidacloprid. Treatment of pupae with three plant extracts, L. sativum, Achillea biebersteinii L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), or Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb and Berthel (Fabales: Fabaceae) prevented adult development, and treatment with R. raetam extract killed adults, at levels that were not significantly different from Imidacloprid. None of the other plants showed significant toxicity. However extracts of four plants, Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), Galium longifolium (Sibth. and SM.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), R. raetam and Ballota undulata Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) had a repellent effect. PMID:19613450

  19. Recovering effects of aqueous extracts of some selected medical plants on the teratogenic effects during the development of D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Handan; Kara, Ayşe Aydan; Algur, Omer Faruk; Dumlupinar, Rahmi; Aydogan, Mehmet Nuri

    2007-05-15

    In this study the effects of some selected medical plants (Pimpinella anisum L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Achillea millefolium L., Acorus calamus L., Hypericum perforatum L.) on the development of Drosophila melanogaster have been investigated. When the different concentration of plant extracts were applied to the cultures of Drosophila melanogaster, they did not caused an elongation of metamorphosis of F1 progeny. Furthermore, depending on an increase of plant extract on the application groups, the number of offsprings increased. But this increasing (for application groups no. I, II and IV) was not statistically significant (p > 0.05) according to control group. The highest increase in the total number of offspring of F1 progeny obtained from applications of Acorus calamus extracts and the 10 mL/100 mL medium concentration of the extract of Hypericum perforatum. PMID:19086522

  20. Identification, Characterization, and Palynology of High-Valued Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389

  1. Antioxidative/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Asteraceae plants.

    PubMed

    Mekinić, Ivana Generalić; Burcul, Franko; Blazević, Ivica; Skroza, Danijela; Kerum, Daniela; Katalinić, Visnja

    2013-04-01

    The extracts obtained by 80% EtOH from some Asteraceae plants (Calendula officinalis, Inula helenium, Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium and Achillea millefolium) were studied. Rosmarinic acid, one of the main compounds identified in all extracts, was determined quantitatively by using HPLC. In addition, spectrophotometric methods were evaluated as an alternative for rosmarinic acid content determination. Total phenolic content was also established for all extracts. A. millefolium extract was found to have the highest content of rosmarinic acid as well as total phenols. All extracts were tested for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. A. millefolium was shown to possess the best antioxidant activity (for all tested methods) as well as acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Highly positive linear relationships were obtained between antioxidant/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and the determined rosmarinic acid content indicating its significance for the observed activities. PMID:23738456

  2. Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389

  3. Evaluation of Antileishmanial Activity of Albaha Medicinal Plants against Leishmania amazonensis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sokari, Saeed S.; Ali, Nasser A. Awadh; Monzote, Lianet; Al-Fatimi, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen methanolic extracts obtained from thirteen plant species, selected either from ethnobotanical or chemotaxonomical data, were screened for their antileishmanial activity against Leishmania amazonensis. The cytotoxic activity against normal peritoneal macrophages from normal BALB/c mice was also determined. Eight extracts had IC50 values ranging from <12.5 to 37.8 µg/mL against promastigotes. Achillea biebersteinii flower, Euphorbia helioscopia, and Solanum incanum leaf extracts showed antileishmanial activities with IC50 between <12.5–26.9 µg/mL and acceptable selectivity indices of 8–5. The other leishmanicidal plant extracts, with IC50 ranging from 18.0 to 29.5 µg/mL, exhibited low selectivity indices. PMID:26357662

  4. A Systematic Review of the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Almeida Soares Hocayen, Palloma; Andrade, Luciana Nalone; Andreatini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of standardized essential oils (such as Lavender officinalis), in treating anxiety disorders strongly suggests that these natural products are an important candidate source for new anxiolytic drugs. A systematic review of essential oils, their bioactive constituents, and anxiolytic-like activity is conducted. The essential oil with the best profile is Lavendula angustifolia, which has already been tested in controlled clinical trials with positive results. Citrus aurantium using different routes of administration also showed significant effects in several animal models, and was corroborated by different research groups. Other promising essential oils are Citrus sinensis and bergamot oil, which showed certain clinical anxiolytic actions; along with Achillea wilhemsii, Alpinia zerumbet, Citrus aurantium, and Spiranthera odoratissima, which, like Lavendula angustifolia, appear to exert anxiolytic-like effects without GABA/benzodiazepine activity, thus differing in their mechanisms of action from the benzodiazepines. The anxiolytic activity of 25 compounds commonly found in essential oils is also discussed. PMID:26473822

  5. Content of Zinc and Copper in Selected Plants Growing Along a Motorway.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Elżbieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz; Wiśniewska-Kadżajan, Beata; Sosnowski, Jacek; Kolczarek, Roman; Jankowska, Jolanta; Ciepiela, Grażyna A

    2015-11-01

    In 2011 a study was carried out analyzing the effects of road traffic on bioaccumulation of zinc and copper in selected species of dicotyledonous plants growing on adjacent grasslands. To do the research the plants were sampled from the 9-km-long Siedlce bypass, a part of the international route E-30. They were collected during the flowering stage, at following distances from the road: 1, 5, 10, 15 m. The content of zinc and copper was determined with the AAS method, with dry mineralisation done before. The highest concentration of the elements, regardless of the distance from the road, was found in Taraxacum spec. Among the tested plants, the lowest zinc content was in Vicia cracca, and the lowest copper content in Rumex acetosa. The limit for copper content was exceeded in Taraxacum spec. and, slightly, in Achillea millefolium growing at the roadside, closest to the roadway. PMID:26364030

  6. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by extracts and constituents from Angelica archangelica and Geranium sylvaticum.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, Steinthor; Gudbjarnason, Sigmundur

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition of several Icelandic medicinal herbs. Ethanolic extracts of Angelica archangelica seeds and the aerial parts of Geranium sylvaticum proved effective, with IC50 values of 2.20 mg/ml and 3.56 mg/ml, respectively. The activity of imperatorin and xanthotoxin from A. archangelica was measured. Xanthotoxin proved much more potent than imperatorin, with an IC50 value of 155 microg/ml (0.72 mM) but that for imperatorin was above 274 microg/ml (1.01 mM). However, furanocoumarins seem to have a minor part in the total activity of this extract. Synergistic interaction was observed between the extracts of A. archangelica and G. sylvaticum. Several medicinal herbs (Achillea millefolium, Filipendula ulmaria, Thymus praecox and Matricaria maritima) did not show AChE inhibitory activity. PMID:18069242

  7. Comparative Study of Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Stanković, Nemanja; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Zlatković, Bojan; Matejić, Jelena; Stankov Jovanović, Vesna; Kocić, Branislava; Čomić, Ljiljana

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study to perform a comparative analysis of the chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of plant species Hyssopus officinalis, Achillea grandifolia, Achillea crithmifolia, Tanacetum parthenium, Laserpitium latifolium, and Artemisia absinthium from Balkan Peninsula. The chemical analysis of essential oils was performed by using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Monoterpenes were dominant among the recorded components, with camphor in T. parthenium, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (51.4, 45.4, and 25.4 %, respectively), 1,8-cineole in H. officinalis, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (49.1, 16.4, and 14.8 %, respectively), and sabinene in L. latifolium and A. absinthium (47.8 and 21.5 %). The antiradical and antioxidant activities were determined by using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil of A. grandifolia has shown the highest antioxidant activity [IC50 of 33.575 ± 0.069 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2.510 ± 0.036 mg vitamin C/g for the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay]. The antimicrobial activity against 16 multiresistant pathogenic bacteria isolated from human source material was tested by the broth microdilution assay. The resulting minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum bactericidal concentration values ranged from 4.72 to 93.2 mg/mL. Therefore, the essential oils of the plant species included in this study may be considered to be prospective natural sources of antimicrobial substances, and may contribute as effective agents in the battle against bacterial multiresistance. PMID:26891001

  8. Cytotoxicity, mode of action and antibacterial activities of selected Saudi Arabian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The flora of Saudi Arabia is one of the richest biodiversity areas in the Arabian Peninsula and comprises very important genetic resources of crop and medicinal plants. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity and the antibacterial activities of the organic extracts from twenty six Saudi Arabian medicinal plants. The study was also extended to the investigation of the effects of the extracts from the four best plants, Ononis serrata (SY160), Haplophyllum tuberculatum (SY177), Pulicaria crispa (SY179), and Achillea beiberstenii (SY-200) on cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, caspases activities and mitochondrial function in leukemia CCRF-CEM cell line. Methods A resazurin assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of the extracts on a panel of human cancer cell lines whilst the microbroth dilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the samples against twelve bacterial strains belonging to four species, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results The best activity on leukemia cell lines were recorded with SY177 (IC50 of 9.94 μg/mL) and SY179 (IC50 of 1.81 μg/mL) against CCRF-CEM as well as Ach-b (IC50 of 9.30 μg/mL) and SY160 (IC50 of 5.06 μg/mL) against HL60 cells. The extracts from SY177 and SY179 were also toxic against the seven solid cancer cell lines studied with the highest IC50 values of 31.64 μg/mL (SY177 against Hep-G2 cells). SY177 and Ach-b induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and S phases whilst SY160 and SY179 induced arrest in G0/G1 phase. All the four plant extracts induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells with the alteration of the mitochondrial membrane potential. In the antibacterial assays, only Ach-b displayed moderate antibacterial activities against E. coli and E. aerogenes ATCC strains (MIC of 256 μg/mL), AG100ATeT and K. pneumoniae ATCC strains (MIC of 128 μg/mL). Conclusions Finally, the results of the present

  9. Efficacy of plant extracts and oils as mosquito repellents.

    PubMed

    Thorsell, W; Mikiver, A; Malander, I; Tunón, H

    1998-08-01

    Some natural products, extract of Achillea millefolium (yarrow), birch/pine tar-, citronella-, clove-, eucalyptus-, geranium-, lavender-, lily of the valley- and peppermint oils have been tested for repellency in the laboratory against Aedes aegypti and in the field predominantly against Aedes communis and A. cinereus. The laboratory tests showed that yarrow extract exhibited a similar repellency as the reference substances N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide and N,N-diethyl-mandelic acid amide. A good repelling effect was also obtained with the oils of birch/pine tar and eucalyptus. The field tests revealed that the extracts and oils with good activity against Aedes aegypti also were effective against A. communis and A. cinereus. Furthermore oils of citronella and lily of the valley showed similar activity and were comparable with the used reference substances mentioned. Each of these natural products contained a great number of constituents when characterized by chromatography/mass spectrometry. Available data in the literature were gathered, both regarding mosquito repellency and toxicity for humans and larger animals, for each product as well as its major constituents. PMID:23195905

  10. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Holetz, Fabíola Barbiéri; Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Sanches, Neviton Rogério; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

    2002-10-01

    Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases. PMID:12471432

  11. Root foraging influences plant growth responses to earthworm foraging.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Erin K; Cahill, James F; Bayne, Erin M

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503

  12. Root Foraging Influences Plant Growth Responses to Earthworm Foraging

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Erin K.; Cahill, James F.; Bayne, Erin M.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants. PMID:25268503

  13. Compositional analysis and in vitro protective activity against oxidative stress of essential oils from egyptian plants used in traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Eissa, Tarek F; González-Burgos, Elena; Carretero, M Emilia; Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar

    2014-09-01

    The Sinai desert in Egypt contains great variability in plants extensively used for traditional medicines such as Achillea fragrantissima, Chiliadenus montanus, Mentha longifolia and Haplophyllum tuberculatum. The essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts have been analyzed. Subsequently, their potential protective activity against oxidative stress has been evaluated, employing H2O2 as oxidant inductor and astrocytes as the cell model. The chemical composition of the essential oils was analyzed by GC/MS. Most of the compounds identified in A. fragrantissima and M. longifolia samples were oxygenated monoterpene derivatives, whereas for H. tuberculatum they were monoterpenes hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds, and for C. montanus oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes predominated. The in vitro evaluation of antioxidant properties, using ORAC assay, revealed that M. longifolia essential oil possessed the highest scavenging activity against peroxyl radicals, following by H. tuberculatum, A. fragrantissima and C. montanus. Under oxidative stress conditions, M. longifolia and H. tuberculatum essential oils were the only ones that protected human astrocytoma U373-MG cells against H2O2 damage. Both essential oils prevented cell death and inhibited ROS production caused by H2O2. M. longifolia essential oil was the most active, suggesting an interesting prevention role in those CNS disorders associated with oxidative stress. PMID:25918816

  14. Pesticide residues in some herbs growing in agricultural areas in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Elżbieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess residue content of plant protection products in selected herbs: Achillea millefolium L., Cichorium intybus L., Equisetum arvense L., Polygonum persicaria L., Plantago lanceolata L., and Plantago major L. The study comprises herbs growing in their natural habitat, 1 and 10 m away from crop fields. The herbs, 30 plants of each species, were sampled during the flowering stage between 1 and 20 July 2014. Pesticide residue content was measured with the QuECHERS method in the dry matter of leaves, stalks, and inflorescence, all mixed together. Out of six herb species growing close to wheat and maize fields, pesticide residues were found in three species: A. millefolium L., E. arvense L., and P. lanceolata L. Most plants containing the residues grew 1 m away from the wheat field. Two active substances of fungicides were found: diphenylamine and tebuconazole, and one active substance of insecticides: chlorpyrifos-ethyl. Those substances are illegal to use on herbal plants. Samples of E. arvense L. and P. lanceolata L. contained two active substances each, which constituted 10% of all samples, while A. millefolium L. contained one substance, which is 6.6% of all samples. PMID:26612566

  15. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses. PMID:17628343

  16. Ethnobotany of food plants in the high river Ter valley (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): non-crop food vascular plants and crop food plants with medicinal properties.

    PubMed

    Rigat, Montse; Bonet, Maria Àngels; Garcia, Sònia; Garnatje, Teresa; Vallès, Joan

    2009-01-01

    The present study reports a part of the findings of an ethnobotanical research project conducted in the Catalan region of the high river Ter valley (Iberian Peninsula), concerning the use of wild vascular plants as food and the medicinal uses of both wild and cultivated food plants. We have detected 100 species which are or have been consumed in this region, 83 of which are treated here (the remaining are the cultivated food plants without additional medicinal uses). Some of them, such as Achillea ptarmica subsp. pyrenaica, Convolvulus arvensis, Leontodon hispidus, Molopospermum peloponnesiacum and Taraxacum dissectum, have not been previously reported, or have only very rarely been cited or indicated as plant foods in very restricted geographical areas. Several of these edible wild plants have a therapeutic use attributed to them by local people, making them a kind of functional food. They are usually eaten raw, dressed in salads or cooked; the elaboration of products from these species such as liquors or marmalades is a common practice in the region. The consumption of these resources is still fairly alive in popular practice, as is the existence of homegardens, where many of these plants are cultivated for private consumption. PMID:21883071

  17. Modulation of Cox-1, 5-, 12- and 15-Lox by popular herbal remedies used in southern Italy against psoriasis and other skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Bader, Ammar; Martini, Francesca; Schinella, Guillermo R; Rios, Jose L; Prieto, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Acanthus mollis (Acanthaceae), Achillea ligustica, Artemisia arborescens and Inula viscosa (Asteraceae) are used in Southern Italy against psoriasis and other skin diseases that occur with an imbalanced production of eicosanoids. We here assessed their in vitro effects upon 5-, 12-, 15-LOX and COX-1 enzymes as well as NFκB activation in intact cells as their possible therapeutic targets. All methanol crude extracts inhibited both 5-LOX and COX-1 activities under 200 µg/mL, without significant effects on the 12-LOX pathway or any relevant in vitro free radical scavenging activity. NFκB activation was prevented by all extracts but A. mollis. Interestingly, A. ligustica, A. arborescens and A. mollis increased the biosynthesis of 15(S)-HETE, an anti-inflammatory eicosanoid. A. ligustica (IC50 =49.5 µg/mL) was superior to Silybum marianum (IC50 =147.8 µg/mL), which we used as antipsoriatic herbal medicine of reference. Its n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions had also inhibitory effects on the LTB4 biosynthesis (IC50 s=9.6, 20.3 and 68 µg/mL, respectively) evidencing that the apolar extracts of A. ligustica are promising active herbal ingredients for future phytotherapeutical products targeting psoriasis. PMID:25278440

  18. Role of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its secondary hosts in plum pox virus propagation.

    PubMed

    Manachini, B; Casati, P; Cinanni, L; Bianco, P

    2007-08-01

    Plum pox virus (family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus, PPV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of plants in the genus Prunus, particularly Prunus persica L. The role of the Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as a vector of PPV-M, and its role in spreading PPV-M, was investigated. PPV-M-infected peach trees were used as inoculum sources, and transmission to 15 herbaceous species commonly present in and around peach orchards was evaluated. The presence of PPV-M in secondary hosts after aphid transmission was verified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests. The results indicate that Saponaria ocymoides L., Pisum sativum L., Trifolium repens L., Trifolium pratense L., Lepidium sativum L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Centaurea cyanus L., Bellis perennis L., Papaver rhoeas L., and Zinnia elegans L. became infected. Although Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley, Taraxacum officinale L., Achillea millefolium L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., and Linum rubrum L. did not become infected, they are hosts of M. persicae. Among the 10 positive species that were infected, the species most common in peach orchards, T. pratense, T. repens, B. perennis, and M. chamomilla, were used as source plants for the transmission studies to the peach tree. Our study reveals the ability of M. persicae to transmit PPV-M from herbaceous hosts to peach trees, describes PPV-M symptoms in herbaceous species, and discusses the role of M. persicae and its hosts as a source of PPV-M in peach orchards. PMID:17849850

  19. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on plant chemistry: nutritional consequences for a specialist and generalist lagomorph.

    PubMed

    Thines, Nicole J; Shipley, Lisa A; Bassman, John H; Fellman, John K; Mattison, D Scott; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei

    2007-05-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation has been increasing in temperate latitudes in recent decades and is expected to continue rising for some time. Enhanced UV-B radiation can change plant chemistry, yet the effects of these changes on mammalian herbivores are unknown. To examine the influence of enhanced UV-B radiation on nutrition of a specialist and generalist hindgut fermenter, we measured nutritional and chemical constituents of three common North American range plants, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), yarrow (Achillea millefolium), and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoregneria spicata), and how these changes influenced in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vivo digestibility by pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) and eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus). Forages were irradiated for 3 mo with ambient (1x) or supplemental (1.6x) UV-B radiation representing a 15% ozone depletion for Pullman, WA, USA. Enhanced UV-B radiation had minimal effects on the nutritional content and the tannin-binding capacity of forages. Similarly, the terpene concentration in sagebrush and yarrow was not affected by higher UV-B irradiances. Flavonoid compounds increased in sagebrush but decreased in yarrow. Rabbit preference and intake was not affected by treatment levels for any forage species and no differences were found between treatments for dry matter, fiber, protein digestibility, and apparent digestible energy. PMID:17406969

  20. Survival and Reduction of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in a Fresh Cold-Pressed Juice Treated with Antimicrobial Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Hatab, Shaimaa; Athanasio, Renata; Holley, Richard; Rodas-Gonzalez, Argenis; Narvaez-Bravo, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the survival of 7 Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) in fresh cold-pressed juice and the antimicrobial efficacy of 4 essential oils (EO: achillea, rosemary, sage, and thyme). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of each EO was determined using microdilution assays evaluated at pH levels 4 and 7; as well as at 4 and 25 °C; daily for up to 5 d. Results indicated that 5 of 7 serotypes survived well in cold-pressed raw juice for at least 4 d at 4 °C and pH 3.5 with no significant (P > 0.05) reduction in viability. The EO showed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity against the 7 STEC. The MIC and MBCs were lowest for thyme (2 μg/L) and highest for sage (15 to 25 μg/L). The antimicrobial activity was enhanced at low pH and temperature. Data showed that although the top 7 STEC could survive low pH and temperature in vitro and in cold-pressed juices, EO, especially from thyme and rosemary, reduced STEC to an undetectable level at 4 °C, suggesting that they could be used as natural antimicrobials in juice. PMID:27399584

  1. Influence of soil composition on the major, minor and trace metal content of Velebit biomedical plants.

    PubMed

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Požgaj, Martina; Pirkl, Raimund; Šilić, Tea; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2015-03-15

    The use of medical herbs for the treatment of many human diseases is increasing nowadays due to their mild features and low side effects. Not only for their healing properties, but also for their nutritive value supplementation of diet with various herbs is recommended. Thus also their analysis is of rising importance. While total elemental compositions are published for many common herbs, the origin of toxic as well as beneficial elements is not yet well investigated. Thus different indigenous medicinal plants, namely Croatian spruce (Picea abies), savory (Satureja montana L.), mountain yarrow (Achillea clavennae), showy calamint (Calamintha grandiflora), micromeria (Micromeria croatica), yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea) and fir (Abies alba) together with soil samples were collected in the National Park Northern Velebit. The macro- and trace elements content, after microwave digestion, was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The study focuses on the one hand on essential elements and on the other hand on non-essential elements which are considered as toxic for humans, covering in total Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn. PMID:25454388

  2. Soil-to-plant transfer of native selenium for wild vegetation cover at selected locations of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Száková, Jiřina; Tremlová, Jana; Pegová, Kristýna; Najmanová, Jana; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-06-01

    Total selenium (Se) contents were determined in aboveground biomass of wild plant species growing in two uncultivated meadows at two different locations. The soils in these locations had pseudototal (Aqua Regia soluble) Se in concentration ranges of between 0.2 and 0.3 mg kg(-1) at the first location, and between 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg(-1) at the second location. The plant species represented 29 plant families where the most numerous ones were Poaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae , and Asteraceae. The selenium contents in the plants varied between undetectable levels (Aegopodium podagraria, Achillea millefolium, Lotus corniculatus) and 0.158 mg kg(-1) (Veronica arvensis, Veronicaceae). The Se levels were roughly one order of magnitude lower compared to other elements with similar soil content, such as cadmium and molybdenum. The transfer factors of Se, quantifying the element transfer from soil to plants, varied between <0.001 and 0.146 with no significant differences between the locations, confirming the limited soil-plant selenium transfer regardless of location, soil Se level, and plant species. Among the plant families, no unambiguous trend to potential elevated Se uptake was observed. Low Se content in the soil and its plant availability was comparable to other Se-deficient areas within Europe. PMID:25975239

  3. TLC-Direct Bioautography and LC/MS as Complementary Methods in Identification of Antibacterial Agents in Plant Tinctures from the Asteraceae Family.

    PubMed

    Jesionek, Wioleta; Móricz, Ágnes M; Ott, Péter G; Kocsis, Béla; Horváth, Györgyi; Choma, Irena M

    2015-01-01

    Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) and Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow) are very common herbs growing in meadows, pathways, crop fields, and home gardens. Preparations from these plants, e.g., infusions or alcohol extracts, are widely used as remedies. Both chamomile and yarrow have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. Most microbiological assays used today give information only on activity of whole extracts and do not provide information on the composition and activity of individual components. This problem can be solved by using TLC with direct microbiological detection, i.e., TLC-direct bioautography (TLC-DB), followed by LC/MS of active fractions. The aim of our study was chemical and microbiological screening of plant components of chamomile and yarrow tinctures using derivatization reagents and TLC-DB against eight bacterial strains: Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola, Xanthomonas campestis pv. vesicatoria, Aliivibrio fischeri, and Bacillus subtilis. The identity of compounds exhibiting the widest range of activity (apigenin and α-linolenic acid) was confirmed by LC/MS. PMID:26268962

  4. Guaianolides and volatile compounds in chamomile tea.

    PubMed

    Tschiggerl, Christine; Bucar, Franz

    2012-06-01

    Chamomile (German Chamomile, Matricaria recutita L., Asteraceae) is one of the most popular medicinal plants in use as an herbal tea for food purposes and in folk medicine. Qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of the volatile fraction of chamomile herbal tea were performed. Volatile constituents of the infusion were isolated by two different methods, namely hydrodistillation and solid phase extraction (SPE), and analysed by GC-MS. The relative proportions of particular chemical classes, present in the essential oil and volatile fractions of the infusion showed remarkable differences. The proportion of mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in the infusion, as compared to the essential oil, was significantly lower. Strikingly, the dichloromethane extract of the infusion contained a lower amount of bisabolol oxides and chamazulene, but higher amounts of spiroethers, sesquiterpene lactones and coumarins, as compared to the hydrodistillates of the herbal drug and the infusion. In addition to the previously known guaianolides matricarin and achillin, acetoxyachillin and leucodin (= desacetoxymatricarin), corresponding C-11 stereoisomers with various biological activities typically occurring in Achillea species, were identified in the dichloromethane extract of chamomile tea for the first time. PMID:22410959

  5. Medicinal plant treatments for fleas and ear problems of cats and dogs in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya

    2008-09-01

    Research conducted in 2003/2004 documented and validated (in a non-experimental way) ethnoveterinary medicines used by small-scale, organic livestock farmers in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Interviews were conducted with 60 participants who were organic farmers or holistic medicinal/veterinary practitioners. A workshop was held with selected participants to discuss the plant-based treatments. This paper reports on the medicinal plants used for fleas in cats and dogs. Fleas and flies are treated with Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae), Citrus x limon (L.), Juniperus communis L. var. depressa Pursh. (Cupressaceae), Lavandula officinalis L. (Labiatae), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), and Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don (Cupressaceae). All of the plants used have insecticidal activity. Ear problems are treated with Achillea millefolium L., Calendula officinalis L., and Helichrysum angustifolium (Roth.) G. Don. (Asteraceae), Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Berberis aquifolium Pursh./Mahonia aquifolium (Berberidaceae), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), Lobelia inflata L. (Campanulaceae), Matricaria recutita L., Melaleuca alternifolia L. (Myrtaceae), Origanum vulgare L. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry (Myrtaceae), Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae), and Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae). PMID:18563443

  6. Toxicological assessment of P-9801091 plant mixture extract after chronic administration in CBA/HZg mice--a biochemical and histological study.

    PubMed

    Petlevski, Roberta; Hadzija, Mirko; Slijepcević, Milivoj; Juretić, Dubravka

    2008-06-01

    Acute, subchronic and chronic effects of the P-9801091 plant mixture extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg body mass were assessed in serum of healthy CBA/HZg mice at 24 hours, 7 days, 3 months and 6 months of treatment (experimental group), and compared with the values obtained in the control group of untreated healthy CBA/HZg mice. The P-9801091 plant mixture extract is an antihyperglycemic preparation containing Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli fructus sine semine (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Millefolii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Mori folium (Morus nigra L.), Valerianae radix (Valeriana officinalis L.) and Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L). Toxic effect of the P-9801091 plant mixture extract was assessed by the following biochemical parameters: urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and cholesterol. Also, histopathological examination of the kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas, testes and lungs was performed. Results of biochemical testing performed at specified time points generally showed no statistically significant differences from control values, with the only exception of the catalytic concentration of AST in the experimental group measured on day 7, which was significantly increased as compared with the control group (p<0.05). Pathohistological examination including characteristic organ and tissue structure, and parenchyma relationship to the adjacent blood vessels and connective tissue in the examined organs revealed no major pathologic changes. PMID:18756913

  7. Modulation of Cox-1, 5-, 12- and 15-Lox by Popular Herbal Remedies Used in Southern Italy Against Psoriasis and Other Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Ammar; Martini, Francesca; Schinella, Guillermo R; Rios, Jose L; Prieto, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Acanthus mollis (Acanthaceae), Achillea ligustica, Artemisia arborescens and Inula viscosa (Asteraceae) are used in Southern Italy against psoriasis and other skin diseases that occur with an imbalanced production of eicosanoids. We here assessed their in vitro effects upon 5-, 12-, 15-LOX and COX-1 enzymes as well as NFκB activation in intact cells as their possible therapeutic targets. All methanol crude extracts inhibited both 5-LOX and COX-1 activities under 200 µg/mL, without significant effects on the 12-LOX pathway or any relevant in vitro free radical scavenging activity. NFκB activation was prevented by all extracts but A. mollis. Interestingly, A. ligustica, A. arborescens and A. mollis increased the biosynthesis of 15(S)-HETE, an anti-inflammatory eicosanoid. A. ligustica (IC50 = 49.5 µg/mL) was superior to Silybum marianum (IC50 = 147.8 µg/mL), which we used as antipsoriatic herbal medicine of reference. Its n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions had also inhibitory effects on the LTB4 biosynthesis (IC50s = 9.6, 20.3 and 68 µg/mL, respectively) evidencing that the apolar extracts of A. ligustica are promising active herbal ingredients for future phytotherapeutical products targeting psoriasis. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25278440

  8. In vitro anti-hepatoma activity of fifteen natural medicines from Canada.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Liu, Li-Teh; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2002-08-01

    Fifteen crude drugs, Stellaria media Cyrill. (Caryophyllaceae), Calendula officinalis L. (Compositae), Achillea millefolium L. (Compositae), Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae), Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae), Satureja hortensis L. (Labiatae), Coptis groenlandica Salisb. (Ranunculaceae), Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (Leguminosae), Origanum majorana L. (Labiatae), Centella asiatica L. (Umbelliferae), Caulophyllum thalictroides Mich. (Berberidaceae), Picea rubens Sargent. (Pinaceae), Rhamnus purshiana D.C. (Rhamnaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), which have been used as folk medicine in Canada, were evaluated for their anti-hepatoma activity on five human liver-cancer cell lines, i.e. HepG2/C3A, SK-HEP-1, HA22T/VGH, Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5. The samples were examined by in vitro evaluation for their cytotoxicity. The results showed that the effects of crude drugs on hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines were different from those against non hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines. C. groenlandica was observed to be the most effective against the growth of all five cell lines and its chemotherapeutic values will be of interest for further studies. PMID:12203264

  9. Getting the smell of it--odour cues structure pollinator networks.

    PubMed

    Hambäck, Peter A

    2016-03-01

    Floral visitors vary greatly among plant species and depend on the volatiles emitted by the flowers. Creeping thistle is normally visited by bees and bumblebees while common yarrow is rather visited by flies. Manipulating the flower volatiles caused pollinator communities to become more similar among the two plant species. Image credit: Robert Junker and Anna-Amelie Larue. In Focus: Larue, A.-A.C., Raguso, R.A. & Junker, R.R. (2015) Experimental manipulation of floral scent bouquets restructures flower-visitor interactions in the field. Journal of Animal Ecology, 85, 396-408. Pollinators use multiple cues to locate suitable flowers, and recent studies argue that flower volatiles are more important than previously believed. However, the role of volatiles is seldom separated from other cues. Larue, Raguso & Junker (2015) manipulated the volatile profile of two plants that are normally visited by different pollinators. Achillea millefolium is normally not visited by honeybees and bumblebees, but these pollinator groups did visit plants that were sprayed with volatiles from Cirsium arvense. Cirsium arvense, on the other hand, was less visited by honeybees and bumblebees when sprayed with volatiles from A. millefolium. These findings highlight the potential role of volatiles in structuring pollinator communities on plants. PMID:26899420

  10. Effect of some essential oils on in vitro methane emission.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Sobhy Mohamed Abdallah; Abdelgaleil, Samir Abdelazim Mohamed; Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Nasser, Mohamed Emad Abdelwahab; Araujo, Rafael Canonenco; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterise four essential oils (EO) chemically and to evaluate their effect on ruminal fermentation and methane emission in vitro. The investigated EO were isolated from Achillea santolina, Artemisia judaica, Schinus terebinthifolius and Mentha microphylla, and supplemented at four levels (0, 25, 50 and 75 microl) to 75 ml of buffered rumen fluid plus 0.5 g of substrate. The main components of the EO were piperitone (49.1%) and camphor (34.5%) in A. judaica, 16-dimethyl 15-cyclooactdaiene (60.5%) in A. santolina, piperitone oxide (46.7%) and cis-piperitone oxide (28%) in M. microphylla, and gamma-muurolene (45.3%) and alpha-thujene (16.0%) in S. terebinthifolius. The EO from A. santolina (at 25 and 50 j1), and all levels of A. judaica increased the gas production significantly, but S. terebinthifolius (at 50 and 75 microl), A. santolina (at 75 microl) and all levels of M. microphylla decreased the gas production significantly in comparison with the control. The highest levels of A. santolina and A. judaica, and all doses from M. microphylla EO inhibited the methane production along with a significant reduction in true degradation of dry matter and organic matter, protozoa count and NH3-N concentration. It is concluded that the evaluated EO have the potential to affect ruminal fermentation efficiency and the EO from M. microphylla could be a promising methane mitigating agent. PMID:21776837

  11. Medicinal plant extracts can variously modify biofilm formation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Samoilova, Zoya; Muzyka, Nadezda; Lepekhina, Elena; Oktyabrsky, Oleg; Smirnova, Galina

    2014-04-01

    Low concentrations of black tea and water extracts from medicinal plants Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Tilia cordata, Betula pendula and Zea mays stimulated biofilm formation in Escherichia coli BW25113 up to three times. Similar effect was observed for tannic acid and low concentrations of quercetin. In contrast, the extract from Urtica dioica reduced biofilm production. Pretreatment with plant extracts variously modified antibiotic effects on specific biofilm formation (SBF). Extract from V. vitis-idaea increased SBF, while the extracts from Achillea millefolium, Laminaria japonica and U. dioica considerably decreased SBF in the presence of ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and cefotaxime. Stimulatory effect of the extracts and pure polyphenols on biofilm formation was probably related to their prooxidant properties. The rpoS deletion did not affect SBF significantly, but stimulation of biofilm formation by the compounds tested was accompanied by inhibition of rpoS expression, suggesting that a RpoS-independent signal transduction pathway was apparently used. PMID:24500005

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Their Isolated Constituents against Cariogenic Bacteria: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Freires, Irlan Almeida; Denny, Carina; Benso, Bruna; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries remains the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide. Several methods have been employed to prevent this biofilm-dependent disease, including the use of essential oils (EOs). In this systematic review, we discuss the antibacterial activity of EOs and their isolated constituents in view of a potential applicability in novel dental formulations. Seven databases were systematically searched for clinical trials, in situ, in vivo and in vitro studies addressing the topic published up to date. Most of the knowledge in the literature is based on in vitro studies assessing the effects of EOs on caries-related streptococci (mainly Streptococcus mutans) and lactobacilli, and on a limited number of clinical trials. The most promising species with antibacterial potential against cariogenic bacteria are: Achillea ligustica, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Croton cajucara, Cryptomeria japonica, Coriandrum sativum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Lippia sidoides, Ocimum americanum, and Rosmarinus officinalis. In some cases, the major phytochemical compounds determine the biological properties of EOs. Menthol and eugenol were considered outstanding compounds demonstrating an antibacterial potential. Only L. sidoides mouthwash (1%) has shown clinical antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens thus far. This review suggests avenues for further non-clinical and clinical studies with the most promising EOs and their isolated constituents bioprospected worldwide. PMID:25911964

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce the differences in competitiveness between dominant and subordinate plant species.

    PubMed

    Mariotte, Pierre; Meugnier, Claire; Johnson, David; Thébault, Aurélie; Spiegelberger, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre

    2013-05-01

    In grassland communities, plants can be classified as dominants or subordinates according to their relative abundances, but the factors controlling such distributions remain unclear. Here, we test whether the presence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices affects the competitiveness of two dominant (Taraxacum officinale and Agrostis capillaris) and two subordinate species (Prunella vulgaris and Achillea millefolium). Plants were grown in pots in the presence or absence of the fungus, in monoculture and in mixtures of both species groups with two and four species. In the absence of G. intraradices, dominants were clearly more competitive than subordinates. In inoculated pots, the fungus acted towards the parasitic end of the mutualism-parasitism continuum and had an overall negative effect on the growth of the plant species. However, the negative effects of the AM fungus were more pronounced on dominant species reducing the differences in competitiveness between dominant and subordinate species. The effects of G. intraradices varied with species composition highlighting the importance of plant community to mediate the effects of AM fungi. Dominant species were negatively affected from the AM fungus in mixtures, while subordinates grew identically with and without the fungus. Therefore, our findings predict that the plant dominance hierarchy may flatten out when dominant species are more reduced than subordinate species in an unfavourable AM fungal relationship (parasitism). PMID:23064770

  14. Higher-order interaction between molluscs and sheep affecting seedling numbers in grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clear Hill, B. H.; Silvertown, J.

    Vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores are both important in mesotrophic grasslands and these two different classes of herbivore potentially interact in their effect upon plant populations. We used two field experiments to test for higher order interactions (HOIs) among sheep, slugs and seedlings, using the mechanistic definition that an HOI occurs when the presence of one species modifies the interaction between two others. In each experiment slug addition and slug-removal treatments were nested inside treatments that altered sheep grazing intensity and timing, and the emergence, of seedlings from experimentally sown seeds was monitored. In Experiment 1, seedling numbers of Cerastium fontanum were increased by intense summer grazing by sheep in both slug-addition and slugremoval treatment, but winter grazing by sheep only increased seedling emergence if slugs were removed. In Experiment 2, winter grazing by sheep significantly reduced total seedling emergence of four species sown ( Lotus corniculatus, Plantago lanceolata, Leucanthemum vulgare, Achillea millefolium), but the effect was only seen where slugs were removed. Though the experimental system is a relatively simple one with only four components (sheep, slugs, seedlings and the matrix vegetation), higher order interactions, a combination of direct and indirect effects and possible switching behaviour by slugs are all suggested by our results.

  15. Phytochemical attributes of four conventionally extracted medicinal plants and cytotoxic evaluation of their extracts on human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp2) cells.

    PubMed

    Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Durgo, Ksenija; Bušić, Arijana; Franekić, Jasna; Komes, Draženka

    2014-02-01

    The bioactive composition and cytotoxic and antioxidative/prooxidative effects of four medicinal plants: yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L.), ground ivy (Glechoma hederacea L.), and olive (Olea europea L.) on human laryngeal carcinoma cell line (HEp2) were investigated. Water extracts of these plants obtained by infusion, maceration, and decoction were characterized for their polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. Based on the extraction efficiency of polyphenols, the final extracts were obtained whose polyphenolic profile, polysaccharides, mineral content, and cytoprotective activities were determined. The overall highest content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity was determined in hawthorn, followed by yarrow and ground ivy, and the lowest in olive leaves extract. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenolic acids, as the most abundant bioactive compounds, followed by flavonoids, flavons, and flavonols. All examined medicinal plants reduced the cell viability and reactive oxygen species formation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Ground ivy and yarrow containing a high content of phenolic acids and polysaccharides were more efficient to decrease the cell survival when compared to olive leaf and hawthorn. Experiments confirmed the importance of polyphenolic composition rather than content of investigated plants and revealed a relationship between the polyphenolic and polysaccharide contents and antioxidant/prooxidant characters of medicinal plants. PMID:24325458

  16. Rapid Plant Identification Using Species- and Group-Specific Primers Targeting Chloroplast DNA

    PubMed Central

    Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Thalinger, Bettina; Traugott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae), the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory. PMID:22253728

  17. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum, and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except S. canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene, or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants. PMID:27252685

  18. A Novel Reduction Strategy of Clarithromycin Resistance in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Tadjrobehkar, Omid; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic resistance is a major therapeutic problem in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori clarithromycin resistant mutants have been evolved during antibiotic therapy, this is mainly due to 23s rRNA point mutations. Objectives: In the present study, we investigated anti-mutational features of four traditionally Iranian medicinal plants on three local isolated H. pylori strains. Materials and Methods: In this study clarithromycin resistance was used as a mutation indicator. Frequencies of such mutations in the presence and absence of plant extracts were evaluated. Mutation incidence was evaluated by Luria Delbruck fluctuation assay. Results: The mean mutation frequency in H. pylori isolates was 27 × 10-9 which decreased at the presence of Mirtus communis, Teucrium polium, Achillea millefolium and Thymus vulgaris of plant extract, this amount was 97.4%, 95.2%, 63.7% and 19.6% respectively. Moreover, A-to-G transition at 2143 position (A2143G) was detected by PCR-sequencing as major point mutation causing clarithromycin resistant mutants. Conclusions: The efficacy of these plant extracts in prohibiting resistance showed considerable results. This finding should be considered to use plant extracts with antibiotics to develop more effective eradication regimens. PMID:25741431

  19. Bioactivity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against the Cotton Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  20. Quantification of Sesquiterpene Lactones in Asteraceae Plant Extracts: Evaluation of their Allergenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Salapovic, Helena; Geier, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly those with an activated exocyclic methylene group, are important allergens in Asteraceae (Compositae) plants. As a screening tool, the Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae plant extracts with allergenic potential (feverfew, tansy, arnica, yarrow, and German chamomile) is part of several national patch test baseline series. However, the SL content of the Compositae mix may vary due to the source material. Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method for the quantitative measurement of SLs with the α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone moiety was developed, giving the percentage of allergenic compounds in plant extracts. The method has been validated and five Asteraceae extracts, namely feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert) that have been used in routine patch test screening were evaluated. A good correlation could be found between the results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method and the corresponding clinical results. Thus, the introduced method is a valuable tool for evaluating the allergenic potential and for the simple and efficient quality control of plant extracts with allergenic potential. PMID:24106675

  1. Hangman Restoration Project : Annual Report, August 1, 2001 - July 31, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Gerald I.; Coeur D'Alene Tribe.

    2002-06-01

    The construction of hydroelectric facilities in the Columbia Basin resulted in the extirpation of anadromous fish stocks in Hangman Creek and its tributaries within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation. Thus, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss garideini), westslope cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) as well as local wildlife populations. Additionally, the Tribe was forced to convert prime riparian habitat into agricultural lands to supply sustenance for their changed needs. Wildlife habitats within the portion of the Hangman Creek Watershed that lies within the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation have been degraded from a century of land management practices that include widespread conversion of native habitats to agricultural production and intensive silvicultural practices. Currently, wildlife and fish populations have been marginalized and water quality is significantly impaired. In the fall of 2000 the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Wildlife Program, in coordination with the Tribal Fisheries Program, submitted a proposal to begin addressing the degradations to functioning habitats within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation in the Hangman Watershed. That proposal led to the implementation of this project during BPA's FY2001 through FY2003 funding cycle. The project is intended to protect, restore and/or enhance priority riparian, wetland and upland areas within the headwaters of Hangman Creek and its tributaries in order to promote healthy self-sustaining fish and wildlife populations. A key goal of this project is the implementation of wildlife habitat protection efforts in a manner that also secures areas with the potential to provide stream and wetland habitats essential to native salmonid populations. This goal is critical in our efforts to address both resident fish and wildlife habitat needs in the Hangman Watershed. All proposed implementation

  2. The Interaction between Root Herbivory and Competitive Ability of Native and Invasive-Range Populations of Brassica nigra

    PubMed Central

    Oduor, Ayub M. O.; Stift, Marc; van Kleunen, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis predicts that escape from intense herbivore damage may enable invasive plants to evolve higher competitive ability in the invasive range. Below-ground root herbivory can have a strong impact on plant performance, and invasive plants often compete with multiple species simultaneously, but experimental approaches in which EICA predictions are tested with root herbivores and in a community setting are rare. Here, we used Brassica nigra plants from eight invasive- and seven native-range populations to test whether the invasive-range plants have evolved increased competitive ability when competing with Achillea millefolium and with a community (both with and without A. millefolium). Further, we tested whether competitive interactions depend on root herbivory on B. nigra by the specialist Delia radicum. Without the community, competition with A. millefolium reduced biomass of invasive- but not of native-range B. nigra. With the community, invasive-range B. nigra suffered less than native-range B. nigra. Although the overall effect of root herbivory was not significant, it reduced the negative effect of the presence of the community. The community produced significantly less biomass when competing with B. nigra, irrespective of the range of origin, and independent of the presence of A. millefolium. Taken together, these results offer no clear support for the EICA hypothesis. While native-range B. nigra plants appear to be better in dealing with a single competitor, the invasive-range plants appear to be better in dealing with a more realistic multi-species community. Possibly, this ability of tolerating multiple competitors simultaneously has contributed to the invasion success of B. nigra in North America. PMID:26517125

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Various Plants Extracts Against Antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Al Laham, Shaza Anwar; Al Fadel, Frdoos Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aeromonas hydrophila cause one of the most important diseases in fishes and lead to economic losses, and may be contaminated human beings. Objectives: The current research aimed to investigate the anti-bacterial activity shown by the extracts prepared from different parts of Olea europea, Myrtus communis, Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinuis officinalis, and Achillea falcata that grow in Syria against A. hydrophila that causes the most dangerous bacterial diseases in fish. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in four stages: First of all, the presence of A. hydrophila was investigated in 450 Samples of Cyprinus Carpio fish using blood agar, Trypticase soya agar, and Analytical Profile Index (API20E). Secondly, the plants extract was obtained using water, absolute alcohol, then ether using Soxhlet extraction apparatus and rotary vacuum evaporator. Thirdly, the antibacterial activity of some antibiotics on these bacteria was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Finally, the antibacterial effect of the extracts was determined by disk diffusion method. Results: The studied antibiotics showed no antibacterial activity against these bacteria, except amikacin which had an acceptable effectiveness. However, the ethanol extracts of the studied plants revealed different antibacterial effects against A. hydrophila which showed antibiotic resistant. T. vulgaris extract had the strongest effect, whereas O. europea extract had the weakest activity. The water and ether petroleum extracts had no antibacterial activities. Conclusions: Ethanol extracts of the studied plants had different antibacterial effects against antibiotic-resistant A. hydrophila. T. vulgaris had the highest activity, R. officinalis had the second, and M. communis and A. falcate were in the third place, while the O. europea had the weakest antibacterial activity. PMID:25368797

  4. A comparative study of antimony accumulation in plants growing in two mining areas in Iran, Moghanlo, and Patyar.

    PubMed

    Jamali Hajiani, Naser; Ghaderian, Seyed Majid; Karimi, Naser; Schat, Henk

    2015-11-01

    Antimony occurs locally at high concentrations in some mineralized soils. Very little is known about behavior of antimony in plants. In this study, we analyzed the soil and vegetation of two mining areas in Iran, Patyar, and Moghanlo. Total Sb concentrations in soil were 358-3482 mg/kg in Moghanlo and 284-886 mg/kg in Patyar. Corresponding Sb concentrations in plant shoots were 0.8-287 and 1.3-49 mg/kg, respectively. In both areas, foliar Sb concentrations increased with acid-extractable soil Sb, although the slope was about 2-fold steeper for Patyar than for Moghanlo. Regressing the foliar concentrations on water-soluble Sb yielded identical slopes for both areas, suggesting that the soluble fraction of Sb rather than total Sb is the direct determinant of foliar Sb accumulation. Both in Patyar and Moghanlo, only a minor part of the total variance of shoot Sb was explained by soluble Sb. The major part was explained by plant species, demonstrating that plant taxonomic identity is the most important determinant of foliar Sb accumulation capacity in both areas. The translocation factor (TF) was highly variable too, with species as the only significant variance component. Only four species were able to accumulate more than 100 mg/kg Sb in their leaves. Among these species, Achillea wilhelmsii and Matthiola farinosa were by far the best Sb accumulators, with, on average, 141 and 132 mg/kg Sb in their leaves. Of these two, only Matthiola farinosa consistently maintained TF values far above unity across the whole range of soluble Sb in Moghanlo. PMID:26077322

  5. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-01

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use

  6. The effect of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected medicinal plants of Asteraceae family on the peroxynitrite-induced changes in blood platelet proteins.

    PubMed

    Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Olas, Beata; Kołodziejczyk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal; Nowak, Pawel; Tsirigotis-Wołoszczak, Marta; Wachowicz, Barbara; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-12-01

    Lots of plants belonging to Asteraceae family are very popular in folk medicine in Poland. These plants are also known as being rich in acidic polysaccharides, due to the presence of hexuronic acids or its derivatives. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the extract from Conyza canadensis L. possesses various biological activity, including antiplatelet, antiocoagulant and antioxidant properties. The aim of our study was to assess if macromolecular glycoconjugates from selected herbal plants of Asteraceae family: Achillea millefolium L., Arnica montana L., Echinacea purpurea L., Solidago virgaurea L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert., and Conyza canadensis L. protect platelet proteins against nitrative and oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite, which is responsible for oxidative/nitrative modifications of platelet proteins: the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups. These modifications may lead to changes of blood platelet functions and can have pathological consequences. The role of these different medicinal plants in the defence against oxidative/nitrative stress in human platelets is still unknown, therefore the oxidative damage to platelet proteins induced by peroxynitrite and protectory effects of tested conjugates by the estimation of carbonyl group level and nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of protein nitration) were studied in vitro. The antioxidative properties of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). The obtained results demonstrate that the compounds from herbal plants: A. millefolium, A. montana, E. purpurea, C. recutita, S. virgaurea, possess antioxidative properties and protect platelet proteins against peroxynitrite toxicity in vitro, similar to the glycoconjugates from C. canadensis. However, in the comparative studies, the polyphenolic

  7. Glutathione S-transferases and malondialdehyde in the liver of NOD mice on short-term treatment with plant mixture extract P-9801091.

    PubMed

    Petlevski, R; Hadzija, M; Slijepcević, M; Juretić, D; Petrik, J

    2003-04-01

    Changes in the concentration of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in the liver of normal and diabetic NOD mice with and without treatment with the plant extract P-9801091. The plant extract P-9801091 is an antihyperglycaemic preparation containing Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum of fi cinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Millefoliiherba (Achillea millefolium L.), Mori folium (Morus nigra L.), Valerianae radix (Valeriana of ficinalis L.) and Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L). Hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus is responsible for the development of oxidative stress (via glucose auto-oxidation and protein glycation), which is characterized by increased lipid peroxide production (MDA is a lipid peroxidation end product) and/or decreased antioxidative defence (GST in the liver is predominantly an alpha enzyme, which has antioxidative activity). The catalytic concentration of GSTs in the liver was significantly reduced in diabetic NOD mice compared with normal NOD mice (p < 0.01), while the concentration of MDA showed a rising tendency (not significant). The results showed that statistically significant changes in antioxidative defence occurred in the experimental model of short-term diabetes mellitus. A 7-day treatment with P-9801091 plant extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg body mass led to a significant increase in the catalytic concentration of GSTs in the liver of diabetic NOD mice (p < 0.01) and a decrease in MDA concentration (not significant), which could be explained by its antihyperglycaemic effect. PMID:12722130

  8. Effect of 'antidiabetis' herbal preparation on serum glucose and fructosamine in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Petlevski, R; Hadzija, M; Slijepcevic, M; Juretic, D

    2001-05-01

    The antihyperglycemic effect of the Antidiabetis herbal preparation ((Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris), Millefollii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Morii folium (Morus nigra L.), Valeriane radix (Valleriana officinalis L.), Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L.)), patent No. P-9801091 Zagreb, Croatia was investigated. Two extracts were prepared: ethanol extract (extract 1), and ethanol extract from which ethanol was evaporated on a rotatory evaporator at a temperature of 45 degrees C (extract 2). Extract 1 and extract 2 were administered (in experiment 1) to alloxan-induced non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice in the same dose of 20 mg/kg. Blood glucose was determined before, and 10, 30, 60 and 120 min after the preparation administration. Extract 1 and extract 2 decreased the level of blood glucose by 10 and 20%, respectively, of the initial value (at 0 min, mean = 22.6 +/- 8.3 mmol/l). Serum levels of glucose and fructosamine were determined in NOD mice, NOD mice administered extract 2 in a dose of 20 mg/kg of extract 2, and NOD mice administered acarbose in a dose of 25 mg/100 g chow, in order to verify the hypoglycemic action of extract 2 (in experiment 2). Extract 2 and acarbose were admixed to the chow. The duration of treatment was 7 days. Significantly lower glucose (P < 0.05) and fructosamine (P < 0.001) levels were recorded in extract 2 treated NOD mice as compared with NOD mice. Study results showed extract 2 to significantly decrease the level of glucose and fructosamine in alloxan induced NOD mice. Our future studies will be focused on the search of active principles of the extracts. PMID:11297848

  9. Comparative evaluation of antioxidant and insecticidal properties of essential oils from five Moroccan aromatic herbs.

    PubMed

    Kasrati, Ayoub; Alaoui Jamali, Chaima; Bekkouche, Khalid; Wohlmuth, Hans; Leach, David; Abbad, Abdelaziz

    2015-04-01

    This study describes the antioxidant and insecticidal activities of essential oils (EOs) of Mentha suaveolens subsp. timija, Thymus satureioides, Achillea ageratum, Cotula cinerea and Salvia officinalis widely used in Morocco as flavorings, food additives and preservatives. Sixty seven components were identified accounting for more than 95.0 % of the total oils. M. suaveolens subsp. timija oil had as main components menthone and pulegone. A. ageratum oil was particularly rich in artemisyl acetate and yomogi alcohol. The essential oil of T. satureioides was characterized by high contents of carvacrol and borneol. C. cinerea oil contained trans-thujone and cis-verbenyl acetate as major constituents, whereas S. officinalis oil was characterized by trans-thujone and camphor. Antioxidant activities were examined by means of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), reducing power, β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching and ABTS radical tests. In all assays, the highest antioxidant potency was observed in T. satureioides EO with IC50 values ranging from 0.15 ± 0.36 μg mL(-1) to 0.23 ± 0.67 μg mL(-1) across the four assays. The in vitro evaluation of the insecticidal activity showed that M. suaveolens subsp. timija EO present the highest insecticidal efficiency against adults of Tribolium castaneum with LD50 and LD90 values of 0.17 μL cm(-2) and 0.26 μL cm(-2), respectively and LT50, LT90 values ranged from 44.19 h to 2.98 h and 98.14 h to 6.02 h, respectively. Our data support the possible use of T. satureioides oil as potential antioxidant agent, while M. suaveolens subsp. timija oil can be developed as a new natural bio-insecticide. PMID:25829614

  10. Spatial pattern affects diversity-productivity relationships in experimental meadow communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamošová, Tereza; Doležal, Jiří; Lanta, Vojtěch; Lepš, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Plant species create aggregations of conspecifics as a consequence of limited seed dispersal, clonal growth and heterogeneous environment. Such intraspecific aggregation increases the importance of intraspecific competition relative to interspecific competition which may slow down competitive exclusion and promote species coexistence. To examine how spatial aggregation impacts the functioning of experimental assemblages of varying species richness, eight perennial grassland species of different growth form were grown in random and aggregated patterns in monocultures, two-, four-, and eight-species mixtures. In mixtures with an aggregated pattern, monospecific clumps were interspecifically segregated. Mixed model ANOVA was used to test (i) how the total productivity and productivity of individual species is affected by the number of species in a mixture, and (ii) how these relationships are affected by spatial pattern of sown plants. The main patterns of productivity response to species richness conform to other studies: non-transgressive overyielding is omnipresent (the productivity of mixtures is higher than the average of its constituent species so that the net diversity, selection and complementarity effects are positive), whereas transgressive overyielding is found only in a minority of cases (average of log(overyielding) being close to zero or negative). The theoretical prediction that plants in a random pattern should produce more than in an aggregated pattern (the distances to neighbours are smaller and consequently the competition among neighbours stronger) was confirmed in monocultures of all the eight species. The situation is more complicated in mixtures, probably as a consequence of complicated interplay between interspecific and intraspecific competition. The most productive species ( Achillea, Holcus, Plantago) were competitively superior and increased their relative productivity with mixture richness. The intraspecific competition of these species is

  11. Mechanisms for success after long-term nutrient enrichment in a boreal forest understory.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Tess Nahanni; Turkington, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Global levels of reactive nitrogen are predicted to rise in the coming decades as a result of increased deposition from the burning of fossil fuels and the large-scale conversion of nitrogen into a useable form for agriculture. Many plant communities respond strongly to increases in soil nitrogen, particularly in northern ecosystems where nitrogen levels are naturally very low. An experiment in northern Canada that was initiated in 1990 has been investigating the effects of long-term nutrient enrichment (fertilizer added annually) on a boreal forest understory community. We used this experiment to investigate why some species increase in abundance under nutrient enrichment whereas others decline. We focused on four species that differed in their responses to fertilization: Mertensia paniculata and Epilobium angustifolium increased in abundance, Achillea millefolium remained relatively constant and Festuca altaica declined. We hypothesized that the two species that were successful in the new high-nutrient, light-limited environment would be taller, have higher specific leaf area, change phenology by growing earlier in the season and be more morphologically plastic than their less successful counterparts. We compared plant height, specific leaf area, growth spurt date and allocation to leaves in plants grown in control and fertilized plots. We demonstrated that each of the two species that came to dominate fertilized plots has a different combination of traits and responses that likely gave them a competitive advantage; M. paniculata has the highest specific leaf area of the four species whereas E. angustifolium is tallest and exhibits morphological plasticity when fertilized by increasing biomass allocation to leaves. These results indicate that rather than one strategy determining success when nutrients become available, a variety of traits and responses may contribute to a species' ability to persist in a nutrient-enriched boreal forest understory. PMID:23573298

  12. The acceptability of meadow plants to the slug Deroceras reticulatum and implications for grassland restoration

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Sarah E.; Close, Andrew J.; Port, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite the selective pressure slugs may exert on seedling recruitment there is a lack of information in this context within grassland restoration studies. Selective grazing is influenced by interspecific differences in acceptability. As part of a larger study of how slug–seedling interactions may influence upland hay meadow restoration, an assessment of relative acceptability is made for seedlings of meadow plants to the slug, Deroceras reticulatum. Methods Slug feeding damage to seedling monocultures of 23 meadow species and Brassica napus was assessed in microcosms over 14 d. The severity and rate of damage incurred by each plant species was analysed with a generalized additive mixed model. Plant species were then ranked for their relative acceptability. Key Results Interspecific variation in relative acceptability suggested seedlings of meadow species form a hierarchy of acceptability to D. reticulatum. The four most acceptable species were Achillea millefolium and the grasses Holcus lanatus, Poa trivialis and Festuca rubra. Trifolium pratense was acceptable to D. reticulatum and was the second highest ranking forb species. The most unacceptable species were mainly forbs associated with the target grassland, and included Geranium sylvaticum, Rumex acetosa, Leontodon hispidus and the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum. A strong positive correlation was found for mean cumulative feeding damage and cumulative seedling mortality at day 14. Conclusions Highly unacceptable species to D. reticulatum are unlikely to be selectively grazed by slugs during the seedling recruitment phase, and were predominantly target restoration species. Seedlings of highly acceptable species may be less likely to survive slug herbivory and contribute to seedling recruitment at restoration sites. Selective slug herbivory, influenced by acceptability, may influence community-level processes if seedling recruitment and establishment of key functional species, such as T

  13. Relative densities of natural enemy and pest insects within California hedgerows.

    PubMed

    Gareau, Tara L Pisani; Letourneau, Deborah K; Shennan, Carol

    2013-08-01

    Research on hedgerow design for supporting communities of natural enemies for biological control lags behind farmer innovation in California, where assemblages of perennial plant species have been used on crop field margins in the last decade. We compared natural enemy to pest ratios between fields with hedgerows and fields with weedy margins by sampling beneficial insects and key pests of vegetables on sticky cards. We used biweekly vacuum samples to measure the distribution of key insect taxa among native perennial plant species with respect to the timing and intensity of bloom. Sticky cards indicated a trend that field margins with hedgerows support a higher ratio of natural enemies to pests compared with weedy borders. Hedgerow plant species hosted different relative densities of a generally overlapping insect community, and the timing and intensity of bloom only explained a small proportion of the variation in insect abundance at plant species and among hedgerows, with the exception of Orius spp. on Achillea millefolium L. and Baccharis pilularis De Candolle. Indicator Species Analysis showed an affinity of parasitic wasps, especially in the super-family Chalcidoidea, for B. pilularis whether or not it was in flower. A. millefolium was attractive to predatory and herbivorous homopterans; Heteromeles arbutifolia (Lindley) Roemer and B. pilularis to Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim; and Rhamnus californica Eschsch to Hemerobiidae. Perennial hedgerows can be designed through species selection to support particular beneficial insect taxa, but plant resources beyond floral availability may be critical in providing structural refuges, alternative prey, and other attractive qualities that are often overlooked. PMID:23905731

  14. Apomixis is not prevalent in subnival to nival plants of the European Alps

    PubMed Central

    Hörandl, Elvira; Dobeš, Christoph; Suda, Jan; Vít, Petr; Urfus, Tomáš; Temsch, Eva M.; Cosendai, Anne-Caroline; Wagner, Johanna; Ladinig, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims High alpine environments are characterized by short growing seasons, stochastic climatic conditions and fluctuating pollinator visits. These conditions are rather unfavourable for sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Apomixis, asexual reproduction via seed, provides reproductive assurance without the need of pollinators and potentially accelerates seed development. Therefore, apomixis is expected to provide selective advantages in high-alpine biota. Indeed, apomictic species occur frequently in the subalpine to alpine grassland zone of the European Alps, but the mode of reproduction of the subnival to nival flora was largely unknown. Methods The mode of reproduction in 14 species belonging to seven families was investigated via flow cytometric seed screen. The sampling comprised 12 species typical for nival to subnival plant communities of the European Alps without any previous information on apomixis (Achillea atrata, Androsace alpina, Arabis caerulea, Erigeron uniflorus, Gnaphalium hoppeanum, Leucanthemopsis alpina, Oxyria digyna, Potentilla frigida, Ranunculus alpestris, R. glacialis, R. pygmaeus and Saxifraga bryoides), and two high-alpine species with apomixis reported from other geographical areas (Leontopodium alpinum and Potentilla crantzii). Key Results Flow cytometric data were clearly interpretable for all 46 population samples, confirming the utility of the method for broad screenings on non-model organisms. Formation of endosperm in all species of Asteraceae was documented. Ratios of endosperm : embryo showed pseudogamous apomixis for Potentilla crantzii (ratio approx. 3), but sexual reproduction for all other species (ratios approx. 1·5). Conclusions The occurrence of apomixis is not correlated to high altitudes, and cannot be readily explained by selective forces due to environmental conditions. The investigated species have probably other adaptations to high altitudes to maintain reproductive assurance via sexuality. We

  15. The Interaction between Root Herbivory and Competitive Ability of Native and Invasive-Range Populations of Brassica nigra.

    PubMed

    Oduor, Ayub M O; Stift, Marc; van Kleunen, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis predicts that escape from intense herbivore damage may enable invasive plants to evolve higher competitive ability in the invasive range. Below-ground root herbivory can have a strong impact on plant performance, and invasive plants often compete with multiple species simultaneously, but experimental approaches in which EICA predictions are tested with root herbivores and in a community setting are rare. Here, we used Brassica nigra plants from eight invasive- and seven native-range populations to test whether the invasive-range plants have evolved increased competitive ability when competing with Achillea millefolium and with a community (both with and without A. millefolium). Further, we tested whether competitive interactions depend on root herbivory on B. nigra by the specialist Delia radicum. Without the community, competition with A. millefolium reduced biomass of invasive- but not of native-range B. nigra. With the community, invasive-range B. nigra suffered less than native-range B. nigra. Although the overall effect of root herbivory was not significant, it reduced the negative effect of the presence of the community. The community produced significantly less biomass when competing with B. nigra, irrespective of the range of origin, and independent of the presence of A. millefolium. Taken together, these results offer no clear support for the EICA hypothesis. While native-range B. nigra plants appear to be better in dealing with a single competitor, the invasive-range plants appear to be better in dealing with a more realistic multi-species community. Possibly, this ability of tolerating multiple competitors simultaneously has contributed to the invasion success of B. nigra in North America. PMID:26517125

  16. The role of mass spectrometry in medicinal plant research.

    PubMed

    Héthelyi, E; Tétényi, P; Dabi, E; Dános, B

    1987-11-01

    In phytochemical and chemotaxonomic research work mass spectrometry plays an outstandingly important role. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we established the chemotaxa of Tanacetum vulgare L. Chemotypes with essential oils containing 60-90% of artemisia ketone, carveol, dihydrocarvone, myrtenol, umbellulone, terpinen-4-ol, davanone, and Tagetes species containing various essential oils can be clearly distinguished by their spectra; we examined many variations of Tagetes erecta, T. lucida, T. minuta, T. patula and T. tenuifolia. We have identified alpha-beta-pinene-, 1,8-cineol-, linalool-, camphor-, nerol-, geraniol- and gamma-gurjonene as components of Achillea distans L. Injecting the essential oil direct from the oil-secreting organs of T. minuta plants we identified using GC/MS 6-10 and 16% eugenol from the involucral bract and hypsophyll, respectively, as well as beta-ocimene, dihydrotagetone, tagetone, Z- and E-ocimenones. In the course of studies on essential fatty acids Borago officinalis and Lappula squarrosa were selected from 70 species of the family Boraginaceae to obtain seed oil as a source of gamma-linolenic acid, and for the PG synthesis we isolated several grams of gamma-linolenic acid, as well as C18:4, i.e. octadecatetraenic acid, from L. squarrosa on the basis of the mass spectra. From the seed oil of Aquilegia vulgaris C18:3 (5) from the oil of Limnanthes dougloasii C20:1 (5) and from the seed oils of Delphinium consolida and of Tropaeolum species (T. majus, T. minus, T. peregrinum) C20:1 (11) fatty acids were identified on the basis of spectra. PMID:2962668

  17. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extracts of selected Jordanian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Hudaib, Mohammad M.; Tawaha, Khaled A.; Mohammad, Mohammad K.; Assaf, Areej M.; Issa, Ala Y.; Alali, Feras Q.; Aburjai, Talal A.; Bustanji, Yasser K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The search for novel xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors with a higher therapeutic activity and fewer side effects are desired not only to treat gout but also to combat various other diseases associated with the XO activity. At present, the potential of developing successful natural products for the management of XO-related diseases is still largely unexplored. In the present study, we have screened the methanolic extracts of various Jordanian medicinal plants for their XO inhibitory activities using an optimized protocol. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, belonging to 12 families, were tested in vitro, at 200 μg/ml concentrations, for their XO inhibitory potential. The dose-dependent inhibition profiles of the most active plants were further evaluated by estimating the IC50 values of their corresponding extracts. Results: Six plants were found most active (% inhibition more than 39%). These plants are Salvia spinosa L. (IC50 = 53.7 μg/ml), Anthemis palestina Boiss. (168.0 μg/ml), Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (199.5 μg/ml), Achillea biebersteinii Afansiev (360.0 μg/ml), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (650.0 μg/ml), and Ginkgo biloba L. (595.8 μg/ml). Moreover, four more plants, namely Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (28.7% inhibition), Helianthemum ledifolium (L.) Mill. (28.4%), Majorana syriaca (L.) Kostel. (25.1%), and Mentha spicata L. (22.5%) showed a XO inhibitory activity in the range of 22–30%. Conclusion: The study showed that many of the tested plant species are potential sources of natural XO inhibitors that can be developed, upon further investigation, into successful herbal drugs for treatment of gout and other XO-related disorders. PMID:22262935

  18. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  19. T-lymphocyte cytokine profiles in compositae airborne dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stingeni, L; Agea, E; Lisi, P; Spinozzi, F

    1999-10-01

    Compositae airborne dermatitis is a well-recognized disorder characterized by erythematosquamous lesions and papules on light-exposed areas. The presence of positive patch test reactions and the absence of specific serum IgE suggest delayed-type hypersensitivity, the murine model of which is characterized by a Th1 cytokine production profile [high amounts of interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2; little or no IL-4 and IL-5]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytokine profile of T-cell lines and T-cell clones from peripheral blood in a 38-year-old non-atopic male woodcutter affected by seasonal airborne contact dermatitis. The patient showed positive patch test reactions to several Compositae extracts (Achillea millefolium, Chamomilla recutita, Tanacetum parthenium, T. vulgare) and sesquiterpene lactone mix. On prick testing with Compositae and other plants, serum-specific IgE levels and phototesting were negative or normal. Allergen-specific T-cell lines produced with Compositae extracts showed a good in vitro cell proliferation only to C. recutita extract. Serial cloning performed using the C. recutita-specific T-cell lines revealed an alphabeta+CD4+ phenotype with high amounts of IFN-gamma and IL-4 in T-cell clones. Thus, these cells expressed a preferential Th0 phenotype. These data suggest that in addition to IFN-gamma, other T-cell derived cytokines, such as IL-4, may play a part in the immunopathogenesis of contact dermatitis. PMID:10583117

  20. Nematicidal and antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of 17 plants, of importance in ethnopharmacology, obtained from the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Al-Marby, Adel; Ejike, Chukwunonso ECC; Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Awadh-Ali, Nasser A; Al-badani, Rwaida A; Alghamdi, Ghanem MA; Jacob, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Aim/Background: The development of resistance to synthetic drugs by target organisms is a major challenge facing medicine, yet locked within plants are phytochemicals used in herbal medicine (especially in the Arabian Peninsula) that may find application in this regard. In pursuit of unlocking these “hidden treasures,” the methanol extracts of leaves, aerial parts, fruits, and resins of 17 plants used in the Arabian Peninsula were screened for antimicrobial activities. Materials and Methods: The nematicidal, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were determined using appropriate assays. Steinernema feltiae, Staphylococcus carnosus, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as test organisms. Concentrations of the extracts ranging from 0.5 to 20 mg/ml were tested and appropriate statistical tests performed on the data generated. Results: The results show that extracts from Solanum incanum, Chenopodium murale, Commiphora myrrha, Anthemis nobilis, and Achillea biebersteinii were the most active and had very high activities against two or more of the test organisms at low concentrations. Extracts of the leaves of S. incanum and resins of Ferula asafoetida were the most active nematicides, with significant activity at 0.5 mg/ml. Extracts of C. myrrha and C. murale had the most active antibacterial activity with inhibition zones of 12-15 mm and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 2.5 mg/ml for both bacteria. Extracts of the leaves of A. biebersteinii were the most active fungicide, giving an MIC of 1.5 mg/ml. Conclusion: The results validate the use of these plants in ethnopharmacology, and open new vistas of opportunities for the development of cheap but effective agents that may be useful against infectious diseases. PMID:27104031

  1. UV-B effects on the nutritional chemistry of plants and the responses of a mammalian herbivore.

    PubMed

    Thines, Nicole J; Shipley, Lisa A; Bassman, John H; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei

    2008-05-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion has caused ground-level ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation to rise in temperate latitudes of both hemispheres. Because the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the nutrition of food consumed by mammalian herbivores are unknown, we measured nutritional and chemical constituents of 18 forages and related changes to in vitro dry matter digestibility. We also measured intake and in vivo digestibility of Pacific willow (Salix lasiandra) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) by blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola). Forages were irradiated for 3 months with ambient (1x) or supplemental (1.6 x) UV-B radiation representing a 15% ozone depletion for Pullman, Washington, USA. Enhanced UV-B radiation had minimal and inconsistent effects on the nutritional content, in vitro dry matter digestibility, and protein-binding capacity of forages. However, flavonoid compounds increased in seven of the 13 forbs and woody dicots that were evaluated. Flavonoids were found to decrease only in yarrow (Achillea millefolium). When offered simultaneously, blue duikers preferred 1x and 1.6 x UV-B irradiated plants of alfalfa equally, but ate 26% less willow grown under 1.6 x UV-B radiation. However, when fed to duikers in separate feeding experiments, total dry matter intake and in vivo digestibility of dry matter, fiber, protein, and apparent energy did not differ between alfalfa and willow grown under 1x and 1.6 x UV-B radiation. We conclude that expected increases in UV-B radiation from ozone depletion would have minimal effects on intake and digestion of ruminant herbivores. PMID:18274780

  2. Levels of some microelements and essential heavy metals in herbal teas in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mihaljev, Zeljko; Zivkov-Balos, Milica; Cupić, Zeljko; Jaksić, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Levels of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Co, Ni, Se, Sn and Al were determined in 14 medicinal plants from Serbia, which are widely used in phytopharmacy as herbal teas. The following plants were investigated: yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), basil (Ocimum hasilicum L.), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.), field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.), thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.), maize silk (Zea mays L. - Maydis stigma), hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), rosehip/dog rose (Rosa canina L.), winter savory (Satureja montana L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). A total of 16 samples of different parts of medicinal plants (root, leaf, flower, herba) were examined, whereby 13 samples were delivered in original package and three samples were loose leaf herbs. Samples were prepared using the microwave digestion technique, and measurements were performed applying the atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Contents of microelements in the examined samples were in the range: Mn (23.86 - 453.71 mg/kg); Fe (61.87 - 673.0 mg/kg); Cu (6.68 - 24.46 mg/kg); Zn (16.11 - 113.81 mg/kg); Mo (0.576 - 4.265 mg/kg); Co (0.039 - 0.532 mg/kg); Se (0.036 - 0.146 mg/kg); Ni (0.738 - 6.034 mg/kg); Al (154.0 - 3015.0 mg/kg) and Sn (2.68 - 10.22 mg/kg). According to determined amounts of microelements, the investigated samples of herbal teas are considered safe for human consumption. PMID:25265817

  3. Testing the root-priming of soil organic matter decomposition using the isotopic signature of fossil fuel CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Robert; Paterson, Eric; Chapman, Steve; Thornton, Barry; Sim, Allan

    2013-04-01

    Plant roots provide various forms of soil labile carbon (i.e., rhizodeposition), which stimulate the growth of heterotrophic bacteria in the rhizosphere. This, in turn, provides a food source for phagotrophic protozoa and other bacterivores, whose carbon:nutrient ratios are generally higher than those of their food source. In order to maintain their stoichiometric composition, bacterivores release their extra nutrients into the rhizosphere, where they may be absorbed by plant roots. Thus, rhizodeposition should reduce carbon limitation, but increase nutrient demand, of the soil microbial biomass. We hypothesized that this shift towards nutrient deficiency would stimulate the production of microbial enzymes that depolymerise soil organic matter into microbial available forms. In other words, roots should stimulate the decomposition of soil organic matter. We report on experiment where we tested such a "root-priming" effect using 3 contrasting plant species (Achillea millefolium, Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens). An agricultural soil, with a delta-13C value of approximately -14 ‰ , was transferred into 30 pots and planted with seeds of each species. A ring was inserted in the middle of each pot, and no seeds were planted within the ring. Plants were grown in a growth chamber designed to deliver 13C-depleted air. The resulting plant biomass had a delta-13C value of approximately -52 ‰ . On 7 occasions during the growth trial, pots were sampled for the flux and delta-13C value of soil CO2. Using similar data from control pots without plants, we compared the expected vs. observed contributions of CO2 from roots and soil organic matter. Results from this study revealed a negative root-priming effect for all three species. We discuss the experimental conditions that could have led to this observation, as well as the novelty and potential of our experimental protocol.

  4. Assessment of the water exchange between soil and groundwater in an Alpine valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negm, Amro; Falocchi, Marco; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2013-04-01

    The soil-water balance in temperate climates can be sensitively characterised by the water exchange between soil and groundwater. Particularly in mountain environments, where the soil and the water table depth are shallow, both percolation and water rise from the water table can happen, but these latter extimate is still a major challenge for hydrological applications. Aiming at contributing to better characterise the soil-water balance and the water exchange between soil and groundwater, at the local scale in an Alpine valley, a micrometeorological station was installed during summer 2012 at Cividate Camuno (Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, 274ma.s.l.), in a mountain environment with complex orography and Alpine sublitoranean climate. The soil upper layers, lying on an anthropised loose rock, are about 40cm deep and mainly covered by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), wild carrot (Daucus carota) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium). The station is equipped with longwave and shortwave radiometers, a thermo-hygrometer, two rain-gauges, eddy correlation devices (Gill WindMaster sonic anemometer and Licor Li7500 gas analyser, sampling at 20Hz), a TDR with multiplexer apparatus and four probes at different depths, three soil-thermometers and a heat exchanger plate. Field and laboratory tests were performed to characterise the main soil hydraulic properties (i.e. hydraulic conductivity at saturation by means of infiltration tests and falling head permeameter, porosity, residual water content and water content at saturation, soil-water retention relationships, organic matter content and grain size distribution curve). Three different hypothesis to model the water exchange between soil-water and groundwater were introduced. They are (i) a null exchange rate which accounts for a shortage of precipitation and for representing the underlying soil as a capillary barrier, (ii) a pure percolation with unitary gradient of the total hydraulic potential and (iii) a percolation or

  5. The Glacier National Park GLORIA Project: A new US Target Region for Alpine Plant Monitoring Installed in the Northern Rocky Mountains, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, K.; Fagre, D.

    2004-12-01

    caused loose vegetative associations, or micro-communities, that varied with exposure, slope angle, and substrate character. Species that exhibited dominance within the target region were Smelowskia calycina var. americana, Polemonium viscosum, Achillea millefolium, Erigeron compositus var. glabratus, and Potentilla fruticosa L. These species reflected the same variability in percent cover on the four sides of the summit areas as did the vegetation as a whole, but were present on all sides.

  6. Water dynamics and groundwater contributions in a young mountain soil under different meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negm, Amro; Falocchi, Marco; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater contribution to the soil-water content and to the evapotranspiration is a major uncertainty to assess the water balance. Particularly in mountain environments, where the soil and the depth of the water table are shallow, both percolation and water rise from the water table can happen. Aiming at better understanding these processes at the local scale, a micrometeorological station, equipped with both traditional sensors, an eddy covariance (EC) apparatus with a 20Hz sonic anemometer and infrared CO2 and H2O gas analyser, and four multiplexed TDR probes, was installed at Cividate Camuno (Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, Italy, 274ma.s.l.), in a mountain environment with complex topography and Alpine sublitoranean climate. The young, anthropised, soil upper layers are about 40cm deep and mainly covered by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), wild carrot (Daucus carota) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium). Field and laboratory tests were performed to characterise the soil hydraulic properties. Particularly the soil-water retention relationships were measured by means of a low- and a high-pressure Richards' apparatus, and the hydraulic conductivity at saturation of each soil layer was estimated by 2-dimensional, axis-symmetrical, inverse modelling of field infiltration tests from single ring infiltrometer. The measurements were performed during Summer 2012 and Summer 2013. The groundwater exchange was numerically estimated both in wet (Summer 2012) and in dry meteorlogical conditions (Summer 2013). Evapotranspiration was assessed by means of Penman-Monteith method, which was found to be in the range between EC-estimated fluxes and an indirect estimate based on the Bowen ratio correction for Summer 2012. The two seasons are meteorologically very different and it results also in the soil-water regime. During Summer 2012, the weather was relatively wet, the soil did not reach very small water contents, so that precipitation was able to percolate towards the

  7. Mercury distribution in the soil-plant-air system at the Wanshan mercury mining district in Guizhou, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianxu; Feng, Xinbin; Anderson, Christopher W N; Zhu, Wei; Yin, Runsheng; Wang, Heng

    2011-12-01

    The level of mercury bioaccumulation in wild plants; the distribution of bioavailable Hg, elemental Hg, and total Hg in soil; and the concentration of total gaseous Hg (TGM) in ambient air was studied at three different mining sites (SiKeng [SK], WuKeng [WK], and GouXi [GX]) in the Wanshan mercury mining district of China. Results of the present study showed that the distribution of soil total Hg, elemental Hg, bioavailable Hg, and TGM varies across the three mining sites. Higher soil total Hg (29.4-1,972.3 mg/kg) and elemental Hg (19.03-443.8 mg/kg) concentrations were recorded for plots SK and WK than for plot GX. Bioavailable Hg was lower at plot SK and GX (SK, 3-12 ng/g; GX, 9-14 ng/g) than at plot WK (11-1,063 ng/g), although the TGM concentration in the ambient air was significantly higher for plot GX (52,723 ng/m(3) ) relative to WK (106 ng/m(3) ) and SK (43 ng/m(3)). Mercury in sampled herbage was elevated and ranged from 0.8 to 4.75 mg/kg (SK), from 2.17 to 34.38 mg/kg (WK), and from 47.45 to 136.5 mg/kg (GX). Many of the sampled plants are used as fodder or for medicinal purposes. High shoot Hg concentrations may therefore pose an unacceptable human health risk. Statistical analysis of the recorded data showed that the Hg concentration in plant shoots was positively correlated with TGM and that the Hg concentration in roots was positively correlated with the bioavailable Hg concentration in the soil. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the present study was defined with reference to the concentration of bioavailable Hg in the soil (Hg([root]) /Hg([bioavail])). Three plant species, Macleaya cordata L., Achillea millefolium L., and Pteris vittata L., showed enhanced accumulation of Hg and therefore may have potential for use in the phytoremediation of soils of the Wanshan mining area. PMID:21935979

  8. Acaricidal and Insecticidal Activities of Essential Oils against a Stored-Food Mite and Stored-Grain Insects.

    PubMed

    Song, Ja-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Moon; Lee, Na-Hyun; Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Twenty plant-derived oils were evaluated for their acaricidal and insecticidal activities against Sitotroga cerealella, Sitophilus oryzae, Sitophilus zeamais, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae adults, by using the fumigant and filter paper diffusion methods. Responses varied with bioassay systems, insect or mite species, plant oils, and exposure time. Based on the 50% lethal dose (LD50) values against S. oryzae and S. zeamais in the fumigant bioassay, Anethum graveolens oil (4.12 and 1.12 μg/cm(3), respectively) induced the highest mortality, followed by Achillea millefolium (21.92 and 14.91 μg/cm(3)) and Eucalyptus dives (28.02 and 24.02 μg/cm(3)) oils, respectively. The most toxic oil based on the 50% lethal concentration values against T. putrescentiae was E. dives (3.13 μg/cm(3)), followed by Melaleuca leucadendron (3.93 μg/cm(3)) and Leptospermum pertersonii (4.41 μg/cm(3)). Neroli birgard oil (1.70 μg/cm(3)) was the most toxic based on the LD50 values against S. cerealella, followed by Citrus aurantium (1.80 μg/cm(3)) and Artemisia vulgaris (1.81 μg/cm(3)). The insecticidal and acaricidal activities of the plant oils in the filter paper diffusion bioassay were similar to those in the fumigant bioassay. In comparison, A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils were more effective against S. oryzae and S. zeamais in the fumigant bioassay than in the contact bioassay. These results indicate that the insecticidal activity of the three plant oils against S. oryzae and S. zeamais may be due to their fumigant action. Acaricidal activities of the A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils against T. putrescentiae were 2.62, 1.11, and 122 times higher than that of benzyl benzoate in the contact bioassay. These results indicate that A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils have potential for development as agents to control stored-grain insects and mites. PMID:26735047

  9. Effects of different vegetation types on the shear strength of root-permeated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Anil; Graf, Frank; Rickli, Christian; Springman, Sarah M.

    2016-04-01

    The effects of vegetation and, in particular, of forests on the stability of slopes are well recognized and have been widely studied in recent decades. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the underlying processes that occur prior to triggering superficial failures in root-permeated soil. Thus, appropriate quantification of the vegetation effects on the shear strength of soil is crucial in order to be able to evaluate the stability of a vegetated slope. Direct shear testing is widely employed to determine the shearing response of root-permeated soil. However, mechanical aspects of direct shear apparatuses may affect the shear strength parameters derived, which often remains unnoticed and hampers direct comparison between different studies. A robust Inclinable Large-scale Direct Shear Apparatus (ILDSA), with dimensions of 500x500x400 mm, was built in order to shear root-permeated soil specimens and to analyse the influence of the machine setup on the results, too. Two different sets of planted specimens were prepared using moraine (SP-SM) from a recent landslide area in Central Switzerland: a first set consisting of Alnus incana, Trifolium pratense, Poa pratensis and a second set, consisting of these three species complemented with Salix appendiculata, Achillea millefolium, Anthyllis vulneraria. Direct shear tests were conducted on specimens planted with the different vegetation types, at a constant rate of horizontal displacement of 1 mm/min up to a maximum horizontal displacement of 190 mm, and under three different applied normal stresses: 6 kPa, 11 kPa and 16 kPa. Artificial rainfall was applied at a constant intensity (100 mm/h) prior to shearing. Tensiometers had been installed close to the shear surface and were monitored continuously to obtain the matric suction during the saturation process. Suctions were reduced as close to 0 kPa as possible, in order to simulate the loss of strength after a heavy period of rainfall. The analyses of the above

  10. Effects of Dilatancy on the Shearing Behaviour of Root-Permeated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Anil; Graf, Frank; Rickli, Christian; Springman, Sarah M.

    2015-04-01

    The effects of vegetation and, in particular, of forests on the stability of slopes are well recognized and have been widely investigated. However, there is still a considerable lack of understanding on the underlying processes that contribute to triggering superficial soil failure in root-permeated soil. Therefore, it comes as no surprise that a period of heavy rainfall in August 2005, affecting an extensive area in Praettigau region in canton Grisons, resulted in numerous shallow landslides of which about half, 26 out of 50 events, occurred in the forest area. Thus, quantification of the vegetation effects on the shear strength of soil is important in order to be able to evaluate the contribution of root reinforcement to slope stability. Root reinforcement has been investigated through different approaches, including laboratory or in-situ shear tests of root-permeated soil, and analytical models of soil-root interaction. Traditional methods, generally, consider roots passing through the shear surface with full development of the roots' tensile strength. However, it has been shown that lateral roots contribute to strength as well, and that roots and soil do not necessarily fail simultaneously, and hence the strengths of both components of root-permeated soil are displacement dependent. A robust inclinable large-scale direct shear apparatus (ILDSA) was constructed in order to evaluate the combined effects of the root system on the shearing behaviour of soil. Two different sets of planted samples, a first set consisting of Alnus incana, Trifolium pratense, Poa pratensis and a latter set, consisting of these three species complemented with Salix appendiculata, Achillea millefolium, Anthyllis vulneraria, have been prepared in moraine (SP-SM) from a recent landslide area in Central Switzerland. Planted samples are maintained in shear boxes (500x500x400 mm) inclined at 30°, simulating a slope, and the corresponding natural growth of roots on it. Direct shear tests have

  11. Physics in the Spotlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    initiative of the EC to raise public awareness of science and technology. Other partners are the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). European Commissioner Busquin to Visit Physics On Stage On Thursday, November 9, Philippe Busquin , Commissioner for Research, European Commission, Prof. Luciano Maiani , Director-General of CERN, Antonio Rodota , Director-General of ESA, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , Director-General of ESO, and Dr. Achilleas Mitsos , Director-General of the Research DG in the European Commission, will participate in the activities of the Physics on Stage Festival. On this occasion, Commissioner Busquin will address conference delegates and the Media on the importance of Science and of innovative science and technology education. The Festival Each of the more than 400 delegates of the festival has been selected during the course of the year by committees in each of the 22 countries for outstanding projects promoting science. For example, a group of Irish physics teachers and their students will give a concert on instruments made exclusively of plumbing material, explaining the physics of sound at the same time. A professional theatre company from Switzerland stages a play on antimatter. Or two young Germans invite spectators to their interactive physics show where they juggle, eat fire and perform stunning physics experiments on stage. The colourful centrepiece of this week is the Physics Fair. Every country has its own stands where delegates show their projects, programmes or experiments and gain inspiration from the exhibits from other countries. Physics on Stage is a unique event. Nothing like it has ever happened in terms of international exchange, international collaboration and state of the art science and technology education methods. The Nobel prizewinners of 2030 are at school today. What ideas can Europe's teachers put forward to boost their interest in science? An invitation to the media We invite