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Sample records for achillea lewisii

  1. An R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulates carotenoid pigmentation in Mimulus lewisii flowers.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, Janelle M; Stanley, Lauren E; LaFountain, Amy M; Frank, Harry A; Liu, Chang; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-02-01

    Carotenoids are yellow, orange, and red pigments that contribute to the beautiful colors and nutritive value of many flowers and fruits. The structural genes in the highly conserved carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been well characterized in multiple plant systems, but little is known about the transcription factors that control the expression of these structural genes. By analyzing a chemically induced mutant of Mimulus lewisii through bulk segregant analysis and transgenic experiments, we have identified an R2R3-MYB, Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), as the first transcription factor that positively regulates carotenoid biosynthesis during flower development. Loss-of-function mutations in RCP1 lead to down-regulation of all carotenoid biosynthetic genes and reduced carotenoid content in M. lewisii flowers, a phenotype recapitulated by RNA interference in the wild-type background. Overexpression of this gene in the rcp1 mutant background restores carotenoid production and, unexpectedly, results in simultaneous decrease of anthocyanin production in some transgenic lines by down-regulating the expression of an activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Identification of transcriptional regulators of carotenoid biosynthesis provides the 'toolbox' genes for understanding the molecular basis of flower color diversification in nature and for potential enhancement of carotenoid production in crop plants via genetic engineering. PMID:26377817

  2. Minireview on Achillea millefolium Linn.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad

    2013-09-01

    Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) is an important medicinal plant with different pharmaceutical uses. A. millefolium has been used for centuries to treat various diseases including malaria, hepatitis and jaundice. A. millefolium is commonly prescribed to treat liver disorders. It is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent and is a hepatoprotective herb. A. millefolium is considered safe for supplemental use. It has antihepatotoxic effects also. It is prescribed as an astringent agent. It is prescribed in hemorrhoids, headache, bleeding disorders, bruises, cough, influenza, pneumonia, kidney stones, high blood pressure, menstrual disorders, fever, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, osteoarthritis, hemorrhagic disorders, chicken pox, cystitis, diabetes mellitus, indigestion, dyspepsia, eczema, psoriasis and boils. PMID:23959026

  3. The Genetic Basis of a Rare Flower Color Polymorphism in Mimulus lewisii Provides Insight into the Repeatability of Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nutter, Laura I.; Cross, Kaitlyn A.

    2013-01-01

    A long-standing question in evolutionary biology asks whether the genetic changes contributing to phenotypic evolution are predictable. Here, we identify a genetic change associated with segregating variation in flower color within a population of Mimulus lewisii. To determine whether these types of changes are predictable, we combined this information with data from other species to investigate whether the spectrum of mutations affecting flower color transitions differs based on the evolutionary time-scale since divergence. We used classic genetic techniques, along with gene expression and population genetic approaches, to identify the putative, loss-of-function mutation that generates rare, white flowers instead of the common, pink color in M. lewisii. We found that a frameshift mutation in an anthocyanin pathway gene is responsible for the white-flowered polymorphism found in this population of M. lewisii. Comparison of our results with data from other species reveals a broader spectrum of flower color mutations segregating within populations relative to those that fix between populations. These results suggest that the genetic basis of fixed differences in flower color may be predictable, but that for segregating variation is not. PMID:24312531

  4. A review on phytochemistry and medicinal properties of the genus Achillea

    PubMed Central

    Saeidnia, S.; Gohari, AR.; Mokhber-Dezfuli, N.; Kiuchi, F.

    2011-01-01

    Achillea L. (Compositae or Asteraceae) is a widely distributed medicinal plant throughout the world and has been used since ancient time. Popular indications of the several species of this genus include treatment of wounds, bleedings, headache, inflammation, pains, spasmodic diseases, flatulence and dyspepsia. Phytochemical investigations of Achillea species have revealed that many components from this genus are highly bioactive. There are many reports on the mentioned folk and traditional effects. Although, the medicinal properties of Achillea plants are recognized worldwide, there are only one review article mainly about the structures of the phytochemical constituents of Achillea. The present paper reviews the medicinal properties of various species of Achillea, which have been examined on the basis of the scientific in vitro, in vivo or clinical evaluations. Various effects of these plants may be due to the presence of a broad range of secondary active metabolites such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, terpenoids (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes) and sterols which have been frequently reported from Achillea species. PMID:22615655

  5. [Enantiomeric monoterpenes in ether oil from Achillea millefolium s. I.--a taxonomically useful marker?].

    PubMed

    Orth, M; Juchelka, D; Mosandl, A; Czygan, F C

    2000-06-01

    The Achillea millefolium complex is a group of taxonomically hardly separable species. Yarrow has the tendency to hybridize and to vary in phenotype. An obvious characterization of the species or hybrids is not just important for the taxonomical distinction but also for a reliable assessment of herbal drug quality. Most of the Achillea plants are still gathered from natural populations. According to the variation in phenotype, mixtures with Achillea species, which contain allergy setting compounds, often cannot be determined. Morphometric investigations exclusively do not replace a further chemical characterization. Therefore we tried to assess the composition of the chiral monoterpenes alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and sabinene. They were selected because of their frequency in the essential oil of Achillea species. By method of M.C.S.S. (Moving Capillary Stream Switching) the differentiation of stereoisomeres succeeded directly from the essential oil, which was distilled or extracted by headspace trapping at room temperature. The enantiomeric distribution neither depends on the method of extraction, nor on the habitat or the developmental stage of Yarrow. Since the compositions of enantiomeres from several Achillea species and their hybrides are of different pattern, it seemed to represent an additional marker. Though investigations of all species within the Achillea millefolium group and possibly of further chiral compounds are necessary to ensure these results. PMID:10907256

  6. Phytochemical Investigations on Chemical Constituents of Achillea tenuifolia Lam

    PubMed Central

    Moradkhani, Shirin; Kobarfard, Farzad; Ayatollahi, Seyed Abdol Majid

    2014-01-01

    Achillea tenuifolia Lam. (Asteraceae) afforded a methanolic extract from which after fractionation in solvents with different polarities, two known flavones 3’, 5- dihydroxy- 4’, 6, 7- trimethoxy flavone (eupatorine, compound 3), 5- hydroxy- 3’,4’, 6, 7- tetramethoxyflavone (compound 4), besides stearic acid (compound 1), lupeol (compound 2), daucosterol (β- sitosterol 3-O- β- D- glucopyranoside, compound 5), 2, 4- dihydroxy methyl benzoate (compound 6) were isolated for the first time. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by means of different spectroscopic methods such as UV, IR, Mass and 1H- NMR (1D and 2D) and 13C-NMR. For further confirming the structures of isolated compounds, comparison of the spectral data of them with those reported in the litratures have been done. PMID:25276207

  7. Phenolic compounds from Achillea millefolium L. and their bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Vitalini, Sara; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Iriti, Marcello; Orsenigo, Simone; Basilico, Nicoletta; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Iorizzi, Maria; Fico, Gelsomina

    2011-01-01

    Since antiquity, Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) has been used in traditional medicine of several cultures, from Europe to Asia. Its richness in bioactive compounds contributes to a wide range of medicinal properties. In this study, we assessed A. millefolium methanolic extract and its isolated components for free radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-pycrilhydrazyl, total antioxidant capacity (based on the reduction of Cu(++) to Cu(+)), and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation. The activity against chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum was also tested. Chlorogenic acid, its derivatives and some flavonoids isolated by semipreparative HPLC and identified by NMR and spectrometric techniques were the major bioactive constituents of the methanolic extract. The latter exhibited significant antioxidant properties, as well as its flavonol glycosides and chlorogenic acids. With regard to the antiplasmodial activity, apigenin 7-glucoside was the most effective compound, followed by luteolin 7-glucoside, whereas chlorogenic acids were completely inactive. On the whole, our results confirmed A. millefolium as an important source of bioactive metabolites, justifying its pharmaceutical and ethnobotanical use. PMID:21503279

  8. Differential allelopathic expression of different plant parts of Achillea biebersteinii.

    PubMed

    Abu-Romman, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Achillea biebersteinii (Asteraceae) is a perennial medicinal plant and has a wide distributional range in the Mediterranean region. The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of different plant parts of A. biebersteinii on germination characteristics and seedling growth of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum). Water extracts were prepared by incubating separately five grams of dried powder of roots, stems, leaves and flowers of A. biebersteinii in 100 ml of distilled water for 24 h and distilled water was used as the control. The water extracts from different plant parts of A. biebersteinii differed in their effects on the germination and seedling growth of wild barley. Water extracts prepared from leaves and flowers were more suppressive to germination of wild barley than root and stem extracts. The maximum inhibition in radical and plumule growth of germinating caryopses and in root and shoot growth of greenhouse-grown wild barley was recorded for leaf extract followed by flower extract. The lowest Chl a, Chl b and total chlorophyll and protein contents were resulted after exposure to leaf extracts. According to these results, the inhibitory effects of different A. biebersteinii plant parts can be arranged in the order: leaf > flower > stem > root. PMID:27165527

  9. The Volatile Compounds and Bioactivity of Achillea sieheana Stapf. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Sevil

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Achillea sieheana Staf. (Asteraceae) were investigated in this study. The chemical composition of the essential oil isolated by hydro-distillation from the aerial parts of A. sieheana was analyzed by GC–MS. Camphor (43.36%), Artemisia ketone (25.95%), 1.8-cineole (6.29%) and camphene (4.77%) were the main components in the essential oil. Their antioxidant activities were also evaluated using phosphomolybdenum, β-carotene bleaching and 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. A. sieheana methanolic extract showed an effective DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 87.04 μg/mL). The extract had also a high reducing effect (71.08%) on the oxidation of β-carotene. In addition to evaluating the antioxidant activity of this plant, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured in the extract. The antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extract and the oil were also tested against 13 bacteria and two yeasts. The results showed that both had strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. PMID:24250570

  10. Anti-Neuroinflammatory effects of the extract of Achillea fragrantissima

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The neuroinflammatory process plays a central role in the initiation and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, and involves the activation of brain microglial cells. During the neuroinflammatory process, microglial cells release proinflammatory mediators such as cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). In the present study, extracts from 66 different desert plants were tested for their effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - induced production of NO by primary microglial cells. The extract of Achillea fragrantissima (Af), which is a desert plant that has been used for many years in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases, was the most efficient extract, and was further studied for additional anti-neuroinflammatory effects in these cells. Methods In the present study, the ethanolic extract prepared from Af was tested for its anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated primary cultures of brain microglial cells. The levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) secreted by the cells were determined by reverse transcriptase-PCR and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. NO levels secreted by the activate cells were measured using Griess reagent, ROS levels were measured by 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA), MMP-9 activity was measured using gel zymography, and the protein levels of the proinflammatory enzymes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured by Western blot analysis. Cell viability was assessed using Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the media conditioned by the cells or by the crystal violet cell staining. Results We have found that out of the 66 desert plants tested, the extract of Af was the most efficient extract and inhibited ~70% of the NO produced by the LPS-activated microglial cells, without affecting cell viability. In addition, this extract inhibited the LPS - elicited expression of the proinflammatory mediators IL-1β, TNFα, MMP-9, COX-2 and iNOS in these cells. Conclusions Thus, phytochemicals present in the Af extract could be beneficial in preventing/treating neurodegenerative diseases in which neuroinflammation is part of the pathophysiology. PMID:22018032

  11. Volatile compounds from Achillea tenorii (Grande) growing in the Majella National Park (Italy).

    PubMed

    Venditti, Alessandro; Maggi, Filippo; Vittori, Sauro; Papa, Fabrizio; Serrilli, Anna Maria; Di Cecco, Mirella; Ciaschetti, Giampiero; Mandrone, Manuela; Poli, Ferruccio; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the first reported phytochemical study on the hydro-distilled essential oil from Achillea tenorii (Grande), collected in the protected area of Majella National Park (Italy). The composition of the essential oil was very different from those reported for the other species of Achillea nobilis group, being constituted mainly by oxygenated monoterpenes, among which ketones, alcohols and acetates compounds were the most representative. The marker compounds of A. nobilis group were not detected while the most abundant phytoconstituents were α-thujone (29.7%), trans-sabinol (18.6%) and trans-sabinyl acetate (15.7%), revealing a composition quite similar to that of Artemisia absinthium. PMID:25103502

  12. Achillea millefolium L. s.l. -- is the anti-inflammatory activity mediated by protease inhibition?

    PubMed

    Benedek, Birgit; Kopp, Brigitte; Melzig, Matthias F

    2007-09-01

    Achillea millefolium L. s.l. is traditionally used not only in the treatment of gastro-intestinal and hepato-biliary disorders, but also as an antiphlogistic drug. As various proteases, for instance human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9), are associated with the inflammatory process, the aim of this study was to test a crude plant extract in in vitro-protease inhibition assays for understanding the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory action. Furthermore, two fractions enriched in flavonoids and dicaffeoylquinic acids (DCQAs), respectively, were also tested in order to evaluate their contribution to the antiphlogistic activity of the plant. The extract and the flavonoid fraction inhibited HNE showing IC(50) values of approximately 20 microg/ml, whereas the DCQA fraction was less active (IC(50)=72 microg/ml). The inhibitory activity on MMP-2 and -9 was observed at IC(50) values from 600 to 800 microg/ml, whereas the DCQA fraction showed stronger effects than the flavonoid fraction and the extract. In conclusion, the in vitro-antiphlogistic activity of Achillea is at least partly mediated by inhibition of HNE and MMP-2 and -9. After the recently described spasmolytic and choleretic effects the obtained results give further insights into the pharmacological activity of Achillea and confirm the traditional application as antiphlogistic drug. PMID:17689902

  13. Essential oil composition of five collections of Achillea biebersteinii from central Turkey and their antifungal and insecticidal activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The composition of the essential oils hydrodistilled from the aerial parts of five Achillea biebersteinii Afan samples, collected in central Turkey from Konya, Isparta and Ankara, were analyzed both by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eighty-four componen...

  14. Variability of phenolic compounds in flowers of Achillea millefolium wild populations in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Benetis, Raimondas; Radusiene, Jolita; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2008-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. sensu lato (yarrow) is the best-known species of the genus Achillea due to numerous medicinal applications both in folk and conventional medicine. Phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and phenol carbonic acids are present in yarrow and constitute one of the most important groups of pharmacologically active substances. In the present study, yarrow flowers gathered from native populations in different locations of Lithuania were analyzed for phenolic compound composition. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for chemical analyses. Eight phenolic compounds--chlorogenic acid and flavonoids, namely vicenin-2, luteolin-3',7-di-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, rutin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, and apigenin--were identified in the extracts from yarrow flowers. Considerable variation in accumulation of phenolic compounds among the flowers from different locations was observed. The samples were divided into two main groups based on chemical composition: the first group was characterized by lower than the mean total amount of the identified phenolics; the second was formed from samples accumulating higher concentrations of investigated secondary metabolites. The total amount of the identified phenolics in yarrow flowers from different populations varied from 13.290 to 27.947 mg/g. PMID:19001835

  15. Radioprotective Effect of Achillea millefolium L Against Genotoxicity Induced by Ionizing Radiation in Human Normal Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shahani, Somayeh; Rostamnezhad, Mostafa; Ghaffari-rad, Vahid; Ghasemi, Arash; Allahverdi Pourfallah, Tayyeb

    2015-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of Achillea millefolium L (ACM) extract was investigated against genotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in human lymphocytes. Peripheral blood samples were collected from human volunteers and incubated with the methanolic extract of ACM at different concentrations (10, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL) for 2 hours. At each dose point, the whole blood was exposed in vitro to 2.5 Gy of X-ray and then the lymphocytes were cultured with mitogenic stimulation to determine the micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated cell. Antioxidant capacity of the extract was determined using free radical-scavenging method. The treatment of lymphocytes with the extract showed a significant decrease in the incidence of micronuclei binucleated cells, as compared with similarly irradiated lymphocytes without any extract treatment. The maximum protection and decrease in frequency of micronuclei were observed at 200 μg/mL of ACM extract which completely protected genotoxicity induced by IR in human lymphocytes. Achillea millefolium extract exhibited concentration-dependent radical-scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radicals. These data suggest that the methanolic extract of ACM may play an important role in the protection of normal tissues against genetic damage induced by IR. PMID:26675116

  16. Pharmacological aspects of selected herbs employed in hispanic folk medicine in the San Luis Valley of Colorado, USA: II. Asclepias asperula (inmortal) and Achillea lanulosa (plumajillo).

    PubMed

    Kelley, B D; Appelt, G D; Appelt, J M

    1988-01-01

    Interviews with Hispanic families in the San Luis Valley of Colorado revealed that several herbs, including Asclepias asperula (inmortal) and Achillea lanulosa (plumajillo), are popular ingredients in Hispanic folk medicine preparations. A review of the scientific literature indicates that related species of Asclepias asperula and Achillea lanulosa contain pharmacologically active compounds; these data serve as the focal point for continuing ethnopharmacologic investigation at the University of Colorado School of Pharmacy. PMID:3352279

  17. Sources of Variation in Leaf Shape among Two Populations of Achillea Lanulosa

    PubMed Central

    Gurevitch, J.

    1992-01-01

    Achillea lanulosa has complex, highly dissected leaves that vary in shape and size along an altitudinal gradient. Plants from a high and an intermediate altitude population were clonally replicated and grown in a controlled environment at warm and cool conditions under bright light. There were genetic differences among populations and among individuals within populations in leaf size and shape. Heritabilities for leaf size and shape characters were moderate. Leaves of the lower altitude population were larger and differed from the higher altitude plants in both coarse and fine shape. Plastic response to temperature of the growth environment paralleled the genetic differentiation between low and high altitude populations. There was no apparent trade-off between genetic control over morphology and the capacity for directional plastic response to the environment. Differences in leaf dissection and size at contrasting altitudes in this species are the result of both genetic divergence among populations and of acclimative responses to local environments. PMID:1541395

  18. Effect of Drought Stress on Total Phenolic, Lipid Peroxidation, and Antioxidant Activity of Achillea Species.

    PubMed

    Gharibi, Shima; Tabatabaei, Badraldin Ebrahim Sayed; Saeidi, Ghodratollah; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2016-02-01

    The changes in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, and antioxidant activity were assessed based on three model systems in three Achillea species (Achillea millefolium, A. nobilis, and A. filipendulina) growing under four irrigation regimes, including 100 % FC (field capacity as normal irrigation) 75 % FC (low stress), 50 % FC (moderate stress), and 25 % FC (severe stress) conditions. The highest TPC (47.13 mg tannic acid/g DW) and TFC (20.86 mg quercetin/g W) were obtained in A. filipendulina under moderate and severe stress conditions. In 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the highest and the lowest antioxidant activity was obtained for A. millefolium (70.28 %) and A. filipendulina (53.21 %), respectively, while in the FTC model system A. nobilis revealed the highest antioxidant activity (1.934) in severe drought condition. In the linoleic model system, the highest antioxidant activity was observed under low drought stress condition in A. nobilis. MDA and H2O2 content were increased due to both low (75 % FC) and moderate (50 % FC) drought stress, but they were decreased under severe stress condition (25 % FC). Furthermore, A. millefolium revealed the lowest H2O2 (4.96 nm/g FW) and MDA content (176.32 μmol/g). Investigation of the relationship among different metabolites showed a strong positive correlation with TPC and TFC. Finally, the moderate drought stress treatment (50 % FC) was introduced as the optimum condition to obtain appreciable TPC and TFC,, while the highest antioxidant activity was obtained in severe stress condition (25%FC). PMID:26541161

  19. Evaluation of the Wound Healing Potential of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae) by In Vivo Excision and Incision Models

    PubMed Central

    Akkol, Esra Küpeli; Koca, Ufuk; Pesin, Ipek; Yilmazer, Demet

    2011-01-01

    Achillea species are widely used for diarrhea, abdominal pain, stomachache and healing of wounds in folk medicine. To evaluate the wound healing activity of the plant, extracts were prepared with different solvents; hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively from the roots of Achillea biebersteinii. Linear incision by using tensiometer and circular excision wound models were employed on mice and rats. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with the standard skin ointment Madecassol. The n-hexane extract treated groups of animals showed 84.2% contraction, which was close to contraction value of the reference drug Madecassol (100%). On the other hand the same extract on incision wound model demonstrated a significant increase (40.1%) in wound tensile strength as compared to other groups. The results of histoptological examination supported the outcome of linear incision and circular excision wound models as well. The experimental data demonstrated that A. biebersteinii displayed remarkable wound healing activity. PMID:19546149

  20. Antimutagenic Effect of Medicinal Plants Achillea millefolium and Bauhinia forficata In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Coelho, Ana Carolina; Balbi, Thiago José; Düsman Tonin, Lilian Tatiani; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is valuable both as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs and as a measure of safety for the continued use of these medicinal plants. Achillea millefolium L. (AM) is an ancient remedial herb native to Europe that is used to treat wounds, gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders, inflammation, headaches, and pain. Bauhinia forficata Link (BF), an Asiatic plant, is one of the most commonly used plants in folk medicine against diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimutagenic potential of aqueous extracts of AM and BF on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats treated in vivo. These plant extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. These compounds were determinants to noncytotoxic and antimutagenic/protective action of these plants, that reduced statistically the percentage of chromosomal alterations induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide in simultaneous (AM, 68%; BF, 91%), pre- (AM, 68%; BF, 71%), and post-treatment (AM, 67%; BF, 95%). Therefore, the results of this study indicate that extracts of A. millefolium and B. forficata have antimutagenic potential and that their consumption can benefit the health of those using them as an alternative therapy. PMID:24459532

  1. Effect of biotic and abiotic stresses on volatile emission of Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Annamaria; Manzo, Alessandra; Nanayakkara, Niranjala Nanayakkarawasam Masachchige; Giupponi, Luca; Cocucci, Maurizio; Panseri, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the application of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to characterise the volatile fingerprint changes of Achillea collina, induced by aphids' infestation, mechanical damage and jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. The volatile organic compound profiles of A. collina, Prunus persica and Pisum sativum infested by Myzus persicae were also compared. Several changes were observed between control, infested, mechanically damaged and JA-treated plants, and new inducible volatile organic compounds (IVOCs) were emitted in response to biotic or abiotic stresses. Some of these were in common for all stresses and other compounds were in common only for two types of stress. Conversely some IVOCs were emitted only in response to the specific stimuli. The results suggested that there were species-specific and common IVOCs emitted by A. collina, P. persica and P. sativum in response to M. persicae infestation. In conclusion, HS-SPME-GC/MS seems to be a reliable analytical approach to study in vivo plant reaction to external stimuli. PMID:25564988

  2. Phytochemical analysis of Achillea ligustica All. from Lipari Island (Aeolian Islands).

    PubMed

    Venditti, Alessandro; Guarcini, Laura; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2016-04-01

    A complete chemical investigation of Achillea ligustica All. growing at Lipari (Aeolian Island, Sicily) has been carried out. Seventeen metabolites have been isolated and characterised from dichloromethane and methanol extracts of flowers and aerial parts, and GC/MS analyses of petroleum ether extracts was carried out, revealing a composition in sesquiterpenoids similar to those reported for populations from Greece, Sicily and Algeria, showing the presence of (3RS,6RS)-2,6-dimethyl-1,7-octadiene-3,6-diol (1), 2,6-dimethyl-octa-3(E),7-diene-2,6-diol (2), iso-seco-tanapartholide (3) from DCM fraction. In addition from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts, peculiar flavonoid glucuronides have been isolated: i.e. apigenin-7-O-glucuronide (12) and quercetin 3-O-glucuronide (14). These metabolites have been reported in this species for the first time. The isolated flavonoids were previously recognised in several species of this complex genus and for this reason seems to be highly retained secondary metabolites of importance from the chemotaxonomic point of view. PMID:26327332

  3. Chemical composition and anxiolytic evaluation of Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch essential oil in rat

    PubMed Central

    Majnooni, M. B.; Mohammadi-Farani, A.; Gholivand, M. B.; Nikbakht, M. R.; Bahrami, G. R.

    2013-01-01

    Herbal based remedies are used worldwide to treat psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to analyse the essential oil composition of Achillea Wilhemsii C. Koch (Asteraceae) and to evaluate its anxiolytic effects in the elevated plus maze (EPM) model of anxiety in rat. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the essential oil showed that the main compounds of the oil were p-ocimen (23%), 1, 8-cineole (20.8%) and carvone (19.13%). The EPM results showed that 1 mg/kg (i.p.) of the oil significantly (P<0.05) increased the percentage of the time spent and the number of entries in the open arms of the maze while it did not change the total number of entries in the maze arms. These effects were not reversed with 2 mg/kg flumazenil and 5 mg/kg naloxone. We concluded that a minimum dose of 1 mg/kg of the oil has anxiolytic effects which are not probably mediated through GABA and opioid receptors. PMID:24082896

  4. A new α-glucosidase inhibitor from Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch. Bip. growing in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ezzat, Shahira M; Salama, Maha M

    2014-01-01

    α-Glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) represent a class of oral antidiabetic drugs that delay the absorption of ingested carbohydrates, reducing the postprandial glucose and insulin peaks to reach normoglycaemia. In this study, a bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch. Bip. growing in Egypt led to the isolation of a new potent AGI; acacetin-6-C-(6″-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranoside)-8-C-α-L-arabinopyranoside (5) alongside with four known compounds: chondrillasterol (1), quercetin-3,6,7-trimethyl ether (chrysosplenol-D) (2), isovitexin-4'-methyl ether (3) and isovitexin (4). The structure of the new compound (5) was elucidated on the basis of its spectral data, including HR-FAB-MS, UV, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC and HMBC. The new compound (5) exhibited the most significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC₅₀ 1.5 ± 0.09 μg/mL). Under the assay conditions, all the tested compounds were more potent than the positive control acarbose (IC50 224 ± 2.31 μg/mL). PMID:24666348

  5. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea sintenisii Hub. Mor. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sökmen, Atalay; Vardar-Unlü, Gülhan; Polissiou, Moschos; Daferera, Dimitra; Sökmen, Münevver; Dönmez, Erol

    2003-11-01

    The essential oil, obtained by Clevenger distillation, and water-soluble and water-insoluble parts of the methanol extracts of Achillea sintenisii Hub. Mor. were individually assayed for their antimicrobial activities against 12 bacteria and two yeasts, Candida albicans and C. krusei. No activity was exhibited by the water-soluble subfraction, whereas both the water-insoluble subfraction of the methanol extracts and the essential oil were found to be active against some test microorganisms studied. Since the essential oil possessed stronger activity than the other extracts tested, it was further fractionated and the fractions were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity, followed by GC-MS analysis, resulting in the identification of 32 compounds which constituted 90.2% of the total oil. The GC-MS analysis of the oil and its fractions revealed that the main components of the oil, e.g. camphor and eucalyptol, possessed appreciable activity against C. albicans and Clostridium perfringens. The fi ndings presented here also suggest that the other constituents of the oil, e.g. borneol and piperitone can also be taken into account for the activity observed. PMID:14595577

  6. Composition at different development stages of the essential oil of four Achillea species grown in Iran.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Majid; Chizzola, Remigius; Ghani, Askar; Oroojalian, Fatemeh

    2010-02-01

    Four Achillea species, A. millefolium, A. nobilis, A. eriophora and A. biebersteinii, were grown in small field plots in Iran and harvested at four developmental stages: vegetative, at the appearance of the first flower heads, at full flowering, and at late flowering. The composition of the main volatile compounds in dichloromethane extracts and the essential oil obtained by microdistillation was established by GC/MS and GC. 1,8-Cineole (27-41%) was the main compound in the oils from A. millefolium and A. biebersteinii. These two species reached the highest amount of volatile compounds at the full blooming stage. alpha-Thujone was the main compound in A. nobilis oil (25-64%). Fully blooming plants of this species also had a high proportion of artemisia ketone (up to 40%) in the oil. The main oil compounds of A. eriophora were camphor (about 35%) and 1,8-cineol (about 30%). This species produces only a small number of flower heads and the composition of the essential oil did not change during development. PMID:20334145

  7. Chemical composition and biological activity of the volatile extracts of Achillea millefolium.

    PubMed

    Falconieri, Danilo; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Marongiu, Bruno; Gonçalves, Maria J; Cabral, Célia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia

    2011-10-01

    In this study, flowering aerial parts of wild Achillea millefolium growing on the Mediterranean coast (Sardinia Island, Italy) and on the Atlantic coast (Portugal- Serra de Montemuro) were used as a matrix for supercritical extraction of volatile oil with CO2 (SFE). The collected extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods and their composition were compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation. A strong chemical variability in essential oils depending on the origin of the samples was observed. The results showed the presence of two type oils. The Italian volatile extracts (SFE and essential oil) are predominantly composed by alpha-asarone (25.6-33.3%, in the SFE extract and in the HD oil, respectively), beta-bisabolene (27.3-16.6%) and alpha-pinene (10.0-17.0%); whereas the main components of the Portuguese extracts are trans-thujone (31.4-29.0%), trans-crhysanthenyl acetate (19.8-15.8%) and beta-pinene (1.2-11.1%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guillermondii, C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. verrucosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and A. flavus. The oils showed the highest activity against dermatophyte strains, with MIC values ranging from 0.32-1.25 microL mL(-1). PMID:22164800

  8. Misidentification of tansy, Tanacetum macrophyllum, as yarrow, Achillea grandifolia: a health risk or benefit?

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko S; Blagojević, Polina D; Skropeta, Danielle; Zarubica, Aleksandra R; Zlatković, Bojan K; Palić, Radosav M

    2010-01-01

    Tansy, Tanacetum macrophyllum (Waldst. & Kit.) Sch. Bip., is often misidentified by herb collectors as yarrow, Achillea grandifolia Friv. With the former, cases of poisoning induced by its ingestion are well documented, but the latter is widely used for ethnopharmacological purposes. The aim of this study was to estimate, based on the volatile metabolite profiles of the two species, the potential health risk connected with their misidentification. GC and GC-MS analysis of the essential oils hydrodistilled using a Clevenger-type apparatus from A. grandifolia, T. macrophyllum, and two plant samples (reputedly of A. grandifolia, but in fact mixtures of A. grandifolia and T. macrophyllum) obtained from a local market, resulted in the identification of 215 different compounds. The main constituents of A. grandifolia oil were ascaridole (15.5%), alpha-thujone (7.5%), camphor (15.6%), borneol (5.2%) and (Z)-jasmone (6.4%), and of T. macrophyllum oil, 1,8-cineole (8.6%), camphor (6.4%), borneol (9.1%), isobornyl acetate (9.5%), copaborneol (4.2%) and gamma-eudesmol (6.2%). The compositions of the oils extracted from the samples obtained from the market were intermediate to those of A. grandifolia and T. macrophyllum. Significant differences in the corresponding volatile profiles and the literature data concerning the known activities of the pure constituents of the oils, suggested that the pharmacological action of the investigated species (or their unintentional mixtures) would be notably different. It seems, however, that misidentification of T. macrophyllum as A. grandifolia does not represent a health risk and that the absence of the toxic alpha-thujone from T. macrophyllum oil may in fact be regarded as a benefit. PMID:20184036

  9. The Polyploid Series of the Achillea millefolium Aggregate in the Iberian Peninsula Investigated Using Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    López-Vinyallonga, Sara; Soriano, Ignasi; Susanna, Alfonso; Montserra, Josep Maria; Roquet, Cristina; Garcia-Jacas, Núria

    2015-01-01

    The Achillea millefolium aggregate is one of the most diverse polyploid complexes of the Northern hemisphere and has its western Eurasian boundary in the Iberian Peninsula. Four ploidy levels have been detected in A. millefolium, three of which have already been found in Iberia (diploid, hexaploid and octoploid), and a fourth (tetraploid) reported during the preparation of this paper. We collected a sample from 26 Iberian populations comprising all ploidy levels, and we used microsatellite markers analyzed as dominant in view of the high ploidy levels. Our goals were to quantify the genetic diversity of A. millefolium in the Iberian Peninsula, to elucidate its genetic structure, to investigate the differences in ploidy levels, and to analyse the dispersal of the species. The lack of spatial genetic structure recovered is linked to both high levels of gene flow between populations and to the fact that most genetic variability occurs within populations. This in turn suggests the existence of a huge panmictic yarrow population in the Iberian Peninsula. This is consistent with the assumption that recent colonization and rapid expansion occurred throughout this area. Likewise, the low levels of genetic variability recovered suggest that bottlenecks and/or founder events may have been involved in this process, and clonal reproduction may have played an important role in maintaining this genetic impoverishment. Indeed, the ecological and phenologic uniformity present in the A. millefolium agg. in Iberia compared to Eurasia and North America may be responsible for the low number of representatives of this complex of species present in the Iberian Peninsula. The low levels of genetic differentiation between ploidy levels recovered in our work suggest the absence of barriers between them. PMID:26091537

  10. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 1: Achillea millefolium-Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Calapai, Gioacchino; Miroddi, Marco; Minciullo, Paola L; Caputi, Achille P; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 1: Achillea millefolium L.-Curcuma longa L. PMID:24621152

  11. Toxic essential oils: anxiolytic, antinociceptive and antimicrobial properties of the yarrow Achillea umbellata Sibth. et Sm. (Asteraceae) volatiles.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko S; Dekić, Milan S; Ranđelović, Pavle J; Stojanović, Nikola M; Zarubica, Aleksandra R; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z

    2012-06-01

    Many plant species are used for medicinal purposes without the knowledge of their possible toxic effect. The ethnopharmacologically renowned genus Achillea L. (Asteraceae) is even more troublesome in this respect since different taxa are believed to have the same beneficial properties as A. millefolium. According to the median lethal i.p. dose (LD(50)=853 mg/kg, mice), the volatiles of Achillea umbellata Sibth. et Sm. are more toxic than the thujone-containing essential oils (LD(50)>960 mg/kg). A GC-MS analysis of A. umbellata oil revealed the presence of a series of fragranyl esters (six new natural products). The major constituents of this oil, the rare monoterpene alcohol fragranol and fragranyl acetate, and one more ester (benzoate), as well as the oil itself, showed antianxiety, analgesic and, in some instances, paralyzing properties at 50-150 mg/kg but these are very likely sign of intoxication and not of possible beneficial effects of the plant volatiles. Testing of antimicrobial activity demonstrated that the oil possesses moderate activity against pathogenic microorganisms, but the effect of the oil differs in pro- and eukaryotic cells. According to the results obtained, fragranol may be considered as the main active principle responsible for the observed activity/toxicity. PMID:22449535

  12. Antispasmodic effects of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) extract in the isolated ileum of rat.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Rafieian-Koupaei, Mahmoud; Imani-Rastabi, Reza; Nasiri, Jafar; Shahrani, Mehrdad; Rabiei, Zahra; Alibabaei, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. is cultivated in Iran and widely used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. millefolium on the contraction and relaxation of isolated ileum in rat. In this experimental study, aerial parts of A. millefolium were extracted by maceration in ethanol 70% for 72 h. Terminal portion of ileum in 100 male Wistar rats was dissected and its contractions were recorded isotonically in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution (37 °C, pH 7.4) under one gram tension. Acetylcholine (1mM) and KCl (60mM) were used to create isotonic contractions. Propranolol and Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride (L-NAME) were used to investigate the mechanisms of action prior to giving the extract to the relevant groups. Data were compared by ANOVA and Turkey's post hoc test.. The results showed that the ileum contraction was induced by KCl and acetylcholine induced contraction was significantly reduced by A. millefolium extract. The cumulative concentrations of A. millefolium relaxed the KCl and acetylcholine induced contractions (n=14, p<0.001). The inhibitory effect of extract on contraction induced by KCl and acetylcholine was not significantly affected neither by propranolol (1µM) nor by L-NAME (100 µM). There was no significant difference in the rate of relaxation by propranolol and L-NAME between the two groups. In conclusion, A. millefolium can inhibit contraction of smooth muscle of ileum in rat, and it can be used for eliminating intestinal spasms. These results suggest that the relaxatory effect of A. millefolium on ileum contractions can be due to the blockade of voltage dependent calcium channels. In addition, the β-adrenoceptors, cholinergic receptors and nitric oxide production are not powerful actors in inhibitory effect of A. millefolium. So, the nitric oxide and adrenergic systems may also be involved in the antispasmodic effect of A. millefolium. PMID:24311877

  13. Antimony accumulation in Achillea ageratum, Plantago lanceolata and Silene vulgaris growing in an old Sb-mining area.

    PubMed

    Baroni, F; Boscagli, A; Protano, G; Riccobono, F

    2000-08-01

    Preliminary data of a biogeochemical survey concerning antimony transfer from soil to plants in an abandoned Sb-mining area are presented. Achillea ageratum, Plantago lanceolata and Silene vulgaris can strongly accumulate antimony when its extractable fraction in the soil is high (139-793 mg/kg). A. ageratum accumulates in basal leaves (1367 mg/kg) and inflorescences (1105 mg/kg), P. lanceolata in roots (1150 mg/kg) and S. vulgaris in shoots (1164 mg/kg). In these plant species, the efficiency of antimony accumulation decreases when the antimony availability in the soil is high. In A. ageratum and S. vulgaris, the death of the epigeal target part at the end of the growing season contributes to a reduction of the antimony load in the plant. A study to test the use of these species as bioindicators of antimony availability in soil is suggested by our results. PMID:15092905

  14. Differential growth inhibitory effects of highly oxygenated guaianolides isolated from the Middle Eastern indigenous plant Achillea falcata in HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tohme, Rita; Al Aaraj, Lamis; Ghaddar, Tarek; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala; Saliba, Najat A; Darwiche, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants play a crucial role in traditional medicine and in the maintenance of human health worldwide. Sesquiterpene lactones represent an interesting group of plant-derived compounds that are currently being tested as lead drugs in cancer clinical trials. Achillea falcata is a medicinal plant indigenous to the Middle Eastern region and belongs to the Asteraceae family, which is known to be rich in sesquiterpene lactones. We subjected Achillea falcata extracts to bioassay-guided fractionation against the growth of HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells and identified four secotanapartholides, namely 3-β-methoxy-isosecotanapartholide (1), isosecotanapartholide (2), tanaphallin (3), and 8-hydroxy-3-methoxyisosecotanapartholide (4). Three highly oxygenated guaianolides were isolated for the first time from Achillea falcata, namely rupin A (5), chrysartemin B (6), and 1β, 2β-epoxy-3β,4α,10α-trihydroxyguaian-6α,12-olide (7). These sesquiterpene lactones showed no or minor cytotoxicity while exhibiting promising anticancer effects against HCT-116 cells. Further structure-activity relationship studies related the bioactivity of the tested compounds to their skeleton, their lipophilicity, and to the type of functional groups neighboring the main alkylating center of the molecule. PMID:23860275

  15. Characterization of Volatile Compounds of Eleven Achillea Species from Turkey and Biological Activities of Essential Oil and Methanol Extract of A. hamzaoglui Arabacı & Budak.

    PubMed

    Turkmenoglu, Fatma Pinar; Agar, Osman Tuncay; Akaydin, Galip; Hayran, Mutlu; Demirci, Betul

    2015-01-01

    According to distribution of genus Achillea, two main centers of diversity occur in S.E. Europe and S.W. Asia. Diversified essential oil compositions from Balkan Peninsula have been numerously reported. However, report on essential oils of Achillea species growing in Turkey, which is one of the main centers of diversity, is very limited. This paper represents the chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of eleven Achillea species, identified simultaneously by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components were found to be 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, viridiflorol, nonacosane, α-bisabolol, caryophyllene oxide, α-bisabolon oxide A, β-eudesmol, 15-hexadecanolide and camphor. The chemical principal component analysis based on thirty compounds identified three species groups and a subgroup, where each group constituted a chemotype. This is the first report on the chemical composition of A. hamzaoglui essential oil; as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial evaluation of its essential oil and methanolic extract. PMID:26111175

  16. Modulation of antioxidant systems by subchronic exposure to the aqueous extract of leaves from Achillea millefolium L. in rats.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Otofuji, Gláucia de Martini; Freitas, Cristina Setim; Mayer, Bárbara; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade; Mesia-Vela, Sonia

    2016-03-01

    We determined the effects of subchronic exposure to aqueous extract of leaves from Achillea millefolium (AE) on enzyme- and non-enzyme-dependent antioxidant systems in rats. Seven days treatment with AE (1 g/kg/twice a day, p.o.) altered the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in several organs of the animals. Amount of GSH in uterus was increased (73%) while in kidneys it was decreased (23%). Besides, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity was increased in forestomach (26%) and in liver (64%), while glutathione S-transferase activity was decreased in the forestomach (32%) and increased in the liver (41%), kidney (35%) and uterus (37%). In preliminary experiments targeting the interaction of AE with acetaminophen (600 mg/kg, p.o.), we observed augmentation of acetaminophen-induced increase of the plasmatic alanine aminotransaminase, aspartate aminotransaminase and lactate dehydrogenase. Overall, the results indicate a potential toxic interaction of AE compounds with xenobiotics that use the glutathione pathway. PMID:25870009

  17. Possible Mechanism(s) of the Relaxant Effects of Achillea wilhelmsii on Guinea-Pig Tracheal Chains

    PubMed Central

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Eftekhar, Naeima; Kaveh, Mahsa

    2013-01-01

    Achillea wilhelmsii have been used in folk remedies. The relaxant effects of the extract of A. wilhelmsii on tracheal chains of guinea pigs were examined. The relaxant effects of four cumulative concentrations of the extract, theophylline and saline were examined by their relaxant effects on precontracted tracheal chains of guinea pig by KCl (group 1), 10 μM methacholine (group 2), incubated tissues by atropine, propranolol and chlorpheniramine and contracted by KCl (group 3) and incubated tissues by propranolol and chlorpheniramine and contracted by methacholine (group 4). In group 1 and 2, all concentrations of theophylline and three higher concentrations (4, 6 and 8 mg/mL) of the extract showed significant relaxant effects compared to that of saline. In groups 3 and 4 experiments also all concentrations of the extract showed significant relaxant effects compared to that of saline. The relaxant effect of three higher concentrations (4, 6 and 8 mg/mL) of the extract in group 1 were significantly greater than those of group 2 and in group 3 were significantly lower than those of group 1. There were significant positive correlations between the relaxant effects and concentrations for theophylline in groups 1 and 2 and the extract in all four groups of experiments. These results showed a potent relaxant effect for the extract from A. wilhelmsii on tracheal chains of guinea pigs. A muscarinc receptor blockade was also suggested for the extract. PMID:24250612

  18. Phytochemical composition, protective and therapeutic effect on gastric ulcer and α-amylase inhibitory activity of Achillea biebersteinii Afan.

    PubMed

    Abd-Alla, Howaida I; Shalaby, Nagwa M M; Hamed, Manal A; El-Rigal, Nagy Saba; Al-Ghamdi, Samira N; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2016-01-01

    Three sesquiterpene lactones [two germacranolides (micranthin and sintenin) and one guaianolide (4β,10α-dihydroxy-5β,7β,8βH-guaia-1,11(13)dien-12,8α-olide)] and four derivatives of 3-methoxy flavones (santin, quercetagetin-3,6,3'-trimethyl ether, quercetagetin-3,6-dimethyl ether, and 5,7 dihydroxy 3,3',4'-trimethoxy flavone) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) of the aerial parts of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae). Evaluation of protective and therapeutic effects of EAE against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats was carried. Antiulcer activity evaluation was done through measuring ulcer indices, stomach acidity, gastric volume and lesion counts. Oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase were also estimated. The work was extended to determine the histopathological assessment of the stomach. Gastric ulcer exhibited a significant elevation of the ulcer index and oxidative stress markers. The extract attenuated these increments and recorded protective and therapeutic effects against gastric ulcer. Hyperglycaemia increases the mucosal susceptibility to ulcerogenic stimuli and predisposes gastric ulceration. In vitro α-amylase inhibitory assay was applied to evaluate the post prandial antihyperglycaemia activity. The result showing that the EAE has the ability to reduce starch-induced postprandial glycaemic excursions by virtue of potent intestinal α-amylase inhibitory activity. These findings demonstrated the remarkable potential of A. biebersteinii as valuable source of antiulcer agent with post prandial hyperglycaemia lowering effect. PMID:25567761

  19. In Vitro Evaluation of Achillea Millefolium on the Production and Stimulation of Human Skin Fibroblast Cells (HFS-PI-16)

    PubMed Central

    Ghobadian, Zahra; Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza Hafezi; Rezazadeh, Leila; Hosseini, Ehsan; Kokhazadeh, Taleb; Ghavam, Samiramis

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In the present study, we aimed the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Achillea millefolium (HEAML) on human skin fibroblast cells (HSF-PI-16) proliferation, stimulation and growth properties. Methods: Initially, using HSF-PI-16 monolayer culture, we created one line scratch method as an in vitro wound closure and after 3 days monitored via an inverted microscopy. Results: HEAML selectively inhibited proliferation of HSF-PI-16 cells at higher concentration (>20.0 mg/mL), and stimulated at lower concentrations (<20.0 mg/mL). Following, HSF-PI-16 media treatments up to 72 h, HEAML demonstrated significantly elevated proliferation rates (p<0.05) and stimulation in a scratch wound assay (p<0.04). Furthermore, the morphological analysis of HSF-PI-16 cells at culture media were detected the figures of round to spindle, non-adherent, immature and mature cells. Conclusion: These results clearly demonstrate the absence of any toxic effect of HEAML on human skin fibroblasts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report elucidating potential mechanisms of action of HEAML on fibroblasts proliferation, and stimulation, offering a greater insight and a better understanding of its effect in future studies. PMID:26543303

  20. Essential oil composition of five collections of Achillea biebersteinii from central Turkey and their antifungal and insecticidal activity.

    PubMed

    Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betül; Gürbüz, Ilhan; Demirci, Fatih; Becnel, James J; Wedge, David E; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can

    2011-05-01

    The composition of the essential oils hydrodistilled from the aerial parts of five Achillea biebersteinii Afan samples, collected in central Turkey from Konya, Isparta and Ankara, were analyzed both by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eighty-four components were identified, representing 87 to 99% of the total oil composition. The identified major components were 1,8-cineole (9-37%), camphor (16-30%) and p-cymene (1-27%). Two samples differed in piperitone (11%) and ascaridol (4%) content. The five A. biebersteinii essential oils were subsequently evaluated for their antifungal activity against the strawberry anthracnose-causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides using the direct overlay bioautography assay. The essential oils showed no antifungal activity at 80 and 160 microg/spot. In addition, A. biebersteinii oils and their major compounds were subsequently investigated against Aedes aegypti first instar larvae in a high throughput bioassay. Among the oils, only one sample from Ankara showed a notable larvacidal effect on Ae. aegypti larvae. The major compounds, 1,8-cineole, camphor and p-cymene, exhibited low mosquito larval activity, and thus the minor compounds are probably responsible for the observed activity against Ae. aegypti larvae. The oils showed weak activity against adult Ae. aegypti. PMID:21615036

  1. Biochemical and Pathological Study of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Achillea millefolium L. on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Nephrolithiasis in Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bafrani, Hassan Hassani; Parsa, Yekta; Yadollah-Damavandi, Soheila; Jangholi, Ehsan; Ashkani-Esfahani, Soheil; Gharehbeglou, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nephrolithiasis is of the most prevalent urinary tract disease. It seems worthwhile to replace the conventional treatments with more beneficial and safer agents, particularly herbal medicines which are receiving an increasing interest nowadays. Aims: In this study, we investigated the protective and curative effects of Achillea millefolium L. on ethylene glycol (EG)-induced nephrolithiasis in rats. Materials and Methods: The extract of A. millefolium was prepared by soxhlet method. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (N = 8) as follows. The negative control (group A) received tap drinking water. Rats in sham (positive control group B), curative (group C and D), and preventive (group E) groups all received 1% EG in drinking water according to the experimental protocol for 30 days. In the curative groups, dosages of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (BW) of A. millefolium extract were administered orally from day 15 to the end of the experiment, group C and D, respectively. Group E received 200 mg/kg A. millefolium extract from the 1st day throughout the experiment. Urinary oxalate and citrate concentrations were measured by spectrophotometer on the first and 30th days. On day 31, the kidneys were removed and examined histopathologically for counting the calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposits in 50 microscopic fields. Results: In the curative and preventive groups, administration of A. millefolium extract showed significant reduction in urinary oxalate concentration (P < 0.05). Also, urinary citrate concentration was significantly increased in group C, D, and E. The CaOx deposits significantly decreased in group C to E compared with the group B. Conclusions: According to our results, A. millefolium extract had preventive and curative effects on EG-induced renal calculi. PMID:25599052

  2. Fast analysis of volatile components of Achillea tenuifolia Lam with microwave distillation followed by headspace single-drop microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Piryaei, Marzieh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    This article investigates the effect of microwaves on the amount of volatile compounds Achillea tenuifolia Lam with two methods, headspace single-drop microextraction and microwave-assisted headspace single-drop microextraction (MA-SDME), for the analysis of essential oil. Solvent selection, solvent volume, microwave power, irradiation time and sample mass were optimised by the simplex method. PMID:26329700

  3. Heavy metal uptake in transplanted and in situ yarrow (Achillea millefolium) and epiphytic cryptogams at rural, urban and industrial localities in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, I; Pilegaard, K; Nymand, E

    1983-03-01

    Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) and 3 cryptogamic epiphytes were collected from and transplanted to 10 various locations in Denmark. The spatial and temporal variation in Pb and Cd concentrations of yarrow leaves and the cryptogams were determined. The physical structure of the plant parts, the mobility differences between the metals and the atmospheric fallout of metals at the growing site were believed to be important for the metal uptake. It was concluded, that yarrow leaves give a measure of the relative variation in deposition rates to surface of higher plants when collected at the end of a growth season, and that the geographic variation was revealed with similar accuracy by yarrow and the cryptogams. PMID:24258823

  4. Rapid analysis of Achillea tenuifolia Lam essential oils by polythiophene/hexagonally ordered silica nanocomposite coating as a solid-phase microextraction fibre.

    PubMed

    Piryaei, Marzieh; Abolghasemi, Mir Mahdi; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a highly porous fibre coated with polythiophene/hexagonally ordered silica nanocomposite (PT/SBA-15) was prepared and used for extraction of essential oils with microwave-assisted distillation headspace solid phase microextraction (MA-HS-SPME) method. The prepared nanomaterials were immobilised on a stainless steel wire for fabrication of the SPME fibre. Using MA-HS-SPME followed by GC-MS, 24 compounds were separated and identified in Achillea tenuifolia, which mainly included limonene (28.6%), α-cadinol (12.7%), borneol (6.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.2%), bornyl acetate (4.3%), camphene (3.2%) and para-cymene (2.3%). The experimental results showed that the polythiophene/hexagonally ordered silica nanocomposite fibres were suitable for the semi-quantitative study of the composition of essential oils in plant materials and for monitoring the variations in the volatile components of the plants. PMID:25613724

  5. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from Achillea millefolium (asteraceae) and Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae) against Sitophilus granarius and S. oryzea (col.: Curculionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şimşek, Şeyda; Pekbey, Gamze; Yaman, Cennet

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, experiments were conducted to investigate fumigant toxicity of the essential oil from Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae) and Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae) plants for adult grain weevil (Sitophilus granarius) and rice weevil (S. oryzea) in vitro conditions. The essential oils were isolated with the water distillation method by Neo-Clevenger apparatus. During the study 10% (v/v) doses of oils in 20 cc of compressed rubber-capped glass tubes were used. After 24 hours mortality rates of the essential oils were compared. For S. granarius the toxicity of A. millefolium (98.85%) was observed to be more effective than P. ferulace (28.73%). Similarly for S. oryzea, A. millefolium (100 %) was found much more toxic than P. ferulace (9.82%). At the results of the study the essential oil of the A. millefolium has been determined as a promising insecticidal component against both pests.

  6. In vitro anti-oxidant, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of Achillea teretifolia Willd extracts on human prostate cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Elif Burcu; Açık, Leyla; Elçi, Pınar; Sarper, Meral; Avcu, Ferit; Vural, Mecit

    2015-01-01

    Background: The majority of Achillea species are the most important native economic plants of Anatolia. They include highly bioactive compounds, so they have therapeutic applications. Objective: In the present study, the aim was to investigate in vitro anti-oxidant, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of Achillea teretifolia Willd extracts (Turkish name: Beyaz civanperÇemi). Materials and Methods: The anti-oxidant potential of the extracts was analyzed by the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and total phenolic content methods. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to detect cytotoxicity of the extracts onhuman prostate cancer cell lines (DU145 and PC-3) and human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells. mRNA expression levels of pro-apoptotic (bax, caspase-3) and anti-apoptotic (bcl-2) genes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The results showed that extracts exhibited a remarkable DPPH scavenging activity, and total phenolic content of the methanol extract was higher than that of the water extract. As time and concentration were increased, the methanol extract exhibited a more powerful cytotoxic effect on prostate cancer cells. In prostate cancer cells, the levels of mRNA expression of the bax and caspase-3 genes were significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05), whereas the expression of bcl-2 was down-regulated (P < 0.05). In HGF cells, there were no cytotoxic effect and apoptosis induction triggered by the extracts. Conclusion: The methanol extract had more powerful anti-oxidant, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects than the water extract. The extracts could be good anti-oxidant sources, and they might include anti-cancer compounds triggering the cytotoxicity and the apoptosis on prostate cancer cells. PMID:26664020

  7. A polysaccharide fraction from Achillea millefolium increases cytokine secretion and reduces activation of Akt, ERK and NF-κB in THP-1 monocytes.

    PubMed

    Freysdottir, Jona; Logadottir, Oddny T; Omarsdottir, Sesselja S; Vikingsson, Arnor; Hardardottir, Ingibjorg

    2016-06-01

    Achillea millefolium has been used in traditional medicine for a number of ailments, including skin inflammation and wounds. A polysaccharide fraction (Am-25-d) isolated from aqueous extract from A. millefolium had an average molecular weight of 270kDa and a monosaccharide composition of GalA, Gal, Ara, Xyl, Rha in molar ratio of 28:26:23:9:7. THP-1 cells primed with IFN-γ and stimulated with LPS in the presence of Am-25-d secreted more IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-23 and TNF-α than THP-1 cells stimulated in the absence of Am-25-d. However, when added to unstimulated cells Am-25-d did not increase secretion of the cytokines examined. Stimulating THP-1 monocytes in the presence of Am-25-d led to decreased nuclear concentrations of NF-κB and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt kinases compared with that when the cells were stimulated without Am-25-d. These findings indicate that Am-25-d isolated from A. millefolium has immunoenhancing properties that may be mediated via the Akt pathway. PMID:27083352

  8. The Melanogenesis Alteration Effects of Achillea millefolium L. Essential Oil and Linalyl Acetate: Involvement of Oxidative Stress and the JNK and ERK Signaling Pathways in Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Chih-Chien; Wang, Hsun-Yen; Shih, Ying; Chou, Su-Tze

    2014-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2 and p38 MAPK, is known to be activated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation in melanocytes to regulate melanin production. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the pathway of ERK and JNK activation. It has been established that the essential oil of Achillea millefolium L. (AM-EO) has activities that suppress the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Thus, we analyzed the effects of AM-EO on melanogenesis in melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) treated melanoma cells. The results demonstrated that AM-EO suppresses melanin production by decreasing tyrosinase activity through the regulation of the JNK and ERK signaling pathways. This effect might be associated with the AM-EO activity leading to the suppression of ROS, and linalyl acetate is its major functional component. Therefore, we propose that AM-EO has the potential to treat hyperpigmentation in the future. PMID:24743745

  9. Chemical composition and biological activities of Iranian Achillea wilhelmsii L. essential oil: a high effectiveness against Candida spp. and Escherichia strains.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Rostami, Hajar

    2015-02-01

    In the case of Achillea wilhelmsii, 30 compounds were identified representing 94.48% of the total oil with a yield of 0.82% w/w. The major constituents of the oil were described as ?-thujene (6.11%), ?-pinene (5.11%), sabinene (5.23%), p-cymene (7%), 1,8-cineole (6%), linalool (10%), camphor (8.43%), thymol (18.98%) and carvacrol (20.13%). A. wilhelmsii oil exhibited higher antibacterial and antifungal activities with a high effectiveness against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans with the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration/minimum fungicidal concentration value (20.0-20.0g/mL, 10.5-10.5g/mL), respectively. Results showed that A. wilhelmsii oil exhibits a higher activity in each antioxidant system with a special attention for ?-carotene bleaching test (IC50: 19?g/mL) and reducing power (EC50: 10?g/mL). Antioxidant activity-guided fractionation of the oil was carried out by TLC-bioautography screening and fractionation resulted in the separation of main antioxidant compounds which were identified as thymol (65%) and carvacrol (19%). In conclusion, these results support the use of the essential oil and its main compounds for their antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity. PMID:25209950

  10. Achillea millefolium L. Essential Oil Inhibits LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Su-Tze; Peng, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Jaw-Cherng; Lin, Chih-Chien; Shih, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. is a member of the Asteraceae family and has been used in folk medicine in many countries. In this study, 19 compounds in A. millefolium essential oil (AM-EO) have been identified; the major components are artemisia ketone (14.92%), camphor (11.64%), linalyl acetate (11.51%) and 1,8-cineole (10.15%). AM-EO can suppress the inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, including decreased levels of cellular nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion production, lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) concentration. This antioxidant activity is not a result of increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, but rather occurs as a result of the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, thus reducing the inflammatory response. Therefore, AM-EO can be utilized in many applications, including the treatment of inflammatory diseases in the future. PMID:23797659

  11. Germacrene A synthase in yarrow (Achillea millefolium) is an enzyme with mixed substrate specificity: gene cloning, functional characterization and expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pazouki, Leila; Memari, Hamid R.; Kännaste, Astrid; Bichele, Rudolf; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoid synthases constitute a highly diverse gene family producing a wide range of cyclic and acyclic molecules consisting of isoprene (C5) residues. Often a single terpene synthase produces a spectrum of molecules of given chain length, but some terpene synthases can use multiple substrates, producing products of different chain length. Only a few such enzymes has been characterized, but the capacity for multiple-substrate use can be more widespread than previously thought. Here we focused on germacrene A synthase (GAS) that is a key cytosolic enzyme in the sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis pathway in the important medicinal plant Achillea millefolium (AmGAS). The full length encoding gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), functionally characterized, and its in vivo expression was analyzed. The recombinant protein catalyzed formation of germacrene A with the C15 substrate farnesyl diphosphate (FDP), while acyclic monoterpenes were formed with the C10 substrate geranyl diphosphate (GDP) and cyclic monoterpenes with the C10 substrate neryl diphosphate (NDP). Although monoterpene synthesis has been assumed to be confined exclusively to plastids, AmGAS can potentially synthesize monoterpenes in cytosol when GDP or NDP become available. AmGAS enzyme had high homology with GAS sequences from other Asteraceae species, suggesting that multi-substrate use can be more widespread among germacrene A synthases than previously thought. Expression studies indicated that AmGAS was expressed in both autotrophic and heterotrophic plant compartments with the highest expression levels in leaves and flowers. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the cloning and characterization of germacrene A synthase coding gene in A. millefolium, and multi-substrate use of GAS enzymes. PMID:25784918

  12. Insecticide activity of essential oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii against two stored product pests, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC(50) values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC(50) = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC(50) = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

  13. Insecticide Activity of Essential Oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii Against Two Stored Product Pests, the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC50 values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC50 = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC50 = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

  14. The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea biebersteini Afan. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sökmen, Atalay; Sökmen, Münevver; Daferera, Dimitra; Polissiou, Moschos; Candan, Ferda; Unlü, Mehmet; Akpulat, H Aşkin

    2004-06-01

    The essential oil and methanol extracts from A. biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae) were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities in vitro. The oil showed stronger antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Their antioxidant features were also evaluated using diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), inhibition of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and inhibition of the lipid peroxidation assays. Particularly, polar subfraction of the methanol extract showed antioxidant activity. The GC-MS analysis of the oil has resulted in the identification of 23 components; piperitone, eucalyptol, camphor, chrysanthenone and borneol were the main components. Antimicrobial activity tests carried out with the fractions of the oil showed that the activity was mainly observed in those containing eucalyptol and camphor, in particular, followed by borneol and piperitone. PMID:15287068

  15. Three floral volatiles contribute to differential pollinator attraction in monkeyflowers (Mimulus)

    PubMed Central

    Byers, Kelsey J. R. P.; Bradshaw, H. D.; Riffell, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Flowering plants employ a wide variety of signals, including scent, to attract the attention of pollinators. In this study we investigated the role of floral scent in mediating differential attraction between two species of monkeyflowers (Mimulus) reproductively isolated by pollinator preference. The emission rate and chemical identity of floral volatiles differ between the bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated M. cardinalis. Mimulus lewisii flowers produce an array of volatiles dominated by d-limonene, β-myrcene and E-β-ocimene. Of these three monoterpenes, M. cardinalis flowers produce only d-limonene, released at just 0.9% the rate of M. lewisii flowers. Using the Bombus vosnesenskii bumblebee, an important pollinator of M. lewisii, we conducted simultaneous gas chromatography with extracellular recordings in the bumblebee antennal lobe. Results from these experiments revealed that these three monoterpenes evoke significant neural responses, and that a synthetic mixture of the three volatiles evokes the same responses as the natural scent. Furthermore, the neural population shows enhanced responses to the M. lewisii scent over the scent of M. cardinalis. This neural response is reflected in behavior; in two-choice assays, bumblebees investigate artificial flowers scented with M. lewisii more frequently than ones scented with M. cardinalis, and in synthetic mixtures the three monoterpenes are necessary and sufficient to recapitulate responses to the natural scent of M. lewisii. In this system, floral scent alone is sufficient to elicit differential visitation by bumblebees, implying a strong role of scent in the maintenance of reproductive isolation between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. PMID:24198269

  16. Three floral volatiles contribute to differential pollinator attraction in monkeyflowers (Mimulus).

    PubMed

    Byers, Kelsey J R P; Bradshaw, H D; Riffell, Jeffrey A

    2014-02-15

    Flowering plants employ a wide variety of signals, including scent, to attract the attention of pollinators. In this study we investigated the role of floral scent in mediating differential attraction between two species of monkeyflowers (Mimulus) reproductively isolated by pollinator preference. The emission rate and chemical identity of floral volatiles differ between the bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated M. cardinalis. Mimulus lewisii flowers produce an array of volatiles dominated by d-limonene, β-myrcene and E-β-ocimene. Of these three monoterpenes, M. cardinalis flowers produce only d-limonene, released at just 0.9% the rate of M. lewisii flowers. Using the Bombus vosnesenskii bumblebee, an important pollinator of M. lewisii, we conducted simultaneous gas chromatography with extracellular recordings in the bumblebee antennal lobe. Results from these experiments revealed that these three monoterpenes evoke significant neural responses, and that a synthetic mixture of the three volatiles evokes the same responses as the natural scent. Furthermore, the neural population shows enhanced responses to the M. lewisii scent over the scent of M. cardinalis. This neural response is reflected in behavior; in two-choice assays, bumblebees investigate artificial flowers scented with M. lewisii more frequently than ones scented with M. cardinalis, and in synthetic mixtures the three monoterpenes are necessary and sufficient to recapitulate responses to the natural scent of M. lewisii. In this system, floral scent alone is sufficient to elicit differential visitation by bumblebees, implying a strong role of scent in the maintenance of reproductive isolation between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. PMID:24198269

  17. Competition between anthocyanin and flavonol biosynthesis produces spatial pattern variation of floral pigments between Mimulus species.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Rebocho, Alexandra B; Sagawa, Janelle M; Stanley, Lauren E; Bradshaw, Harvey D

    2016-03-01

    Flower color patterns have long served as a model for developmental genetics because pigment phenotypes are visually striking, yet generally not required for plant viability, facilitating the genetic analysis of color and pattern mutants. The evolution of novel flower colors and patterns has played a key role in the adaptive radiation of flowering plants via their specialized interactions with different pollinator guilds (e.g., bees, butterflies, birds), motivating the search for allelic differences affecting flower color pattern in closely related plant species with different pollinators. We have identified LIGHT AREAS1 (LAR1), encoding an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, as the causal gene underlying the spatial pattern variation of floral anthocyanin pigmentation between two sister species of monkeyflower: the bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated Mimulus cardinalis. We demonstrated that LAR1 positively regulates FLAVONOL SYNTHASE (FLS), essentially eliminating anthocyanin biosynthesis in the white region (i.e., light areas) around the corolla throat of M. lewisii flowers by diverting dihydroflavonol into flavonol biosynthesis from the anthocyanin pigment pathway. FLS is preferentially expressed in the light areas of the M. lewisii flower, thus prepatterning the corolla. LAR1 expression in M. cardinalis flowers is much lower than in M. lewisii, explaining the unpatterned phenotype and recessive inheritance of the M. cardinalis allele. Furthermore, our gene-expression analysis and genetic mapping results suggest that cis-regulatory change at the LAR1 gene played a critical role in the evolution of different pigmentation patterns between the two species. PMID:26884205

  18. Floral volatile alleles can contribute to pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation in monkeyflowers (Mimulus).

    PubMed

    Byers, Kelsey J R P; Vela, James P; Peng, Foen; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Bradshaw, Harvey D

    2014-12-01

    Pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation is a major factor in driving the diversification of flowering plants. Studies of floral traits involved in reproductive isolation have focused nearly exclusively on visual signals, such as flower color. The role of less obvious signals, such as floral scent, has been studied only recently. In particular, the genetics of floral volatiles involved in mediating differential pollinator visitation remains unknown. The bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and hummingbird-pollinated Mimulus cardinalis are a model system for studying reproductive isolation via pollinator preference. We have shown that these two species differ in three floral terpenoid volatiles - d-limonene, β-myrcene, and E-β-ocimene - that are attractive to bumblebee pollinators. By genetic mapping and in vitro analysis of enzyme activity we demonstrate that these interspecific differences are consistent with allelic variation at two loci, LIMONENE-MYRCENE SYNTHASE (LMS) and OCIMENE SYNTHASE (OS). Mimulus lewisii LMS (MlLMS) and OS (MlOS) are expressed most strongly in floral tissue in the last stages of floral development. Mimulus cardinalis LMS (McLMS) is weakly expressed and has a nonsense mutation in exon 3. Mimulus cardinalis OS (McOS) is expressed similarly to MlOS, but the encoded McOS enzyme produces no E-β-ocimene. Recapitulating the M. cardinalis phenotype by reducing the expression of MlLMS by RNA interference in transgenic M. lewisii produces no behavioral difference in pollinating bumblebees; however, reducing MlOS expression produces a 6% decrease in visitation. Allelic variation at the OCIMENE SYNTHASE locus is likely to contribute to differential pollinator visitation, and thus promote reproductive isolation between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. OCIMENE SYNTHASE joins a growing list of 'speciation genes' ('barrier genes') in flowering plants. PMID:25319242

  19. Floral volatile alleles can contribute to pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation in monkeyflowers (Mimulus)

    PubMed Central

    Byers, Kelsey J.R.P.; Vela, James P.; Peng, Foen; Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Bradshaw, H.D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation is a major factor in driving the diversification of flowering plants. Studies of floral traits involved in reproductive isolation have focused nearly exclusively on visual signals, such as flower color. The role of less obvious signals, such as floral scent, has been studied only recently. In particular, the genetics of floral volatiles involved in mediating differential pollinator visitation remains unknown. The bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and hummingbird-pollinated M. cardinalis are a model system for studying reproductive isolation via pollinator preference. We have shown that these two species differ in three floral terpenoid volatiles - D-limonene, β-myrcene, and E-β-ocimene - that are attractive to bumblebee pollinators. By genetic mapping and in vitro enzyme activity analysis we demonstrate that these interspecific differences are consistent with allelic variation at two loci – LIMONENE-MYRCENE SYNTHASE (LMS) and OCIMENE SYNTHASE (OS). M. lewisii LMS (MlLMS) and OS (MlOS) are expressed most strongly in floral tissue in the last stages of floral development. M. cardinalis LMS (McLMS) is weakly expressed and has a nonsense mutation in exon 3. M. cardinalis OS (McOS) is expressed similarly to MlOS, but the encoded McOS enzyme produces no E-β-ocimene. Recapitulating the M. cardinalis phenotype by reducing the expression of MlLMS by RNAi in transgenic M. lewisii produces no behavioral difference in pollinating bumblebees; however, reducing MlOS expression produces a 6% decrease in visitation. Allelic variation at the OCIMENE SYNTHASE locus likely contributes to differential pollinator visitation, and thus promotes reproductive isolation between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. OCIMENE SYNTHASE joins a growing list of “speciation genes” (“barrier genes”) in flowering plants. PMID:25319242

  20. Growth and leaf physiology of monkeyflowers with different altitude ranges.

    PubMed

    Angert, Amy Lauren

    2006-06-01

    Every species is limited both geographically and ecologically to a subset of available habitats, yet for many species the causes of distribution limits are unknown. Temperature is thought to be one of the primary determinants of species distributions along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients. This study examined leaf physiology and plant performance under contrasting temperature regimes of sister species of monkeyflower, Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewisii (Phrymaceae), that differ in altitude distribution to test the hypothesis that temperature is the primary determinant of differences in fitness versus altitude. Each species attained greatest aboveground biomass, net photosynthetic rate, and effective quantum yield of photosystem II when grown under temperatures characteristic of the altitudinal range center. Although both species exhibited greater stem length, stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO2 concentration in hot than in cold temperatures, these traits showed much greater reductions under cold temperature for M. cardinalis than for M. lewisii. Survival of M. lewisii was also sensitive to temperature, showing a striking decrease in hot temperatures. Within each temperature regime, the species native to that temperature displayed greatest growth and leaf physiological capacity. Populations from the altitude range center and range margin of each species were used to examine population differentiation, but central and marginal populations did not differ in most growth or leaf physiological responses to temperature. This study provides evidence that M. cardinalis and M. lewisii differ in survival, growth, and leaf physiology under temperature regimes characterizing their contrasting low and high altitude range centers, and suggests that the species' altitude range limits may arise, in part, due to metabolic limitations on growth that ultimately decrease survival and limit reproduction. PMID:16468056

  1. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Achillea moschata Jacq Do. Labdanum Cistus spp Lemon-verbena Lippia citriodora HBK Do. Linaloe wood Bursera... and roots Valeriana officinalis L Veronica Veronica officinalis L Do. Vervain, European...

  2. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Achillea moschata Jacq Do. Labdanum Cistus spp Lemon-verbena Lippia citriodora HBK Do. Linaloe wood Bursera... and roots Valeriana officinalis L Veronica Veronica officinalis L Do. Vervain, European...

  3. Transcriptional control of floral anthocyanin pigmentation in monkeyflowers (Mimulus)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Sagawa, Janelle M.; Frost, Laura; Vela, James P.; Bradshaw, Harvey D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A molecular description of the control of floral pigmentation in a multi-species group displaying various flower color patterns is of great interest for understanding the molecular bases of phenotypic diversification and pollinator-mediated speciation. Through transcriptome profiling, mutant analyses, and transgenic experiments, we aim to establish a ‘baseline’ floral anthocyanin regulation model in Mimulus lewisii and to examine the different ways of tinkering with this model in generating the diversity of floral anthocyanin patterns in other Mimulus species. We find one WD40 and one bHLH gene controlling anthocyanin pigmentation in the entire corolla of M. lewisii, and two R2R3-MYB genes, PELAN and NEGAN, controlling anthocyanin production in the petal lobe and nectar guide, respectively. The autoregulation of NEGAN might be a critical property to generate anthocyanin spots. Independent losses of PELAN expression (via different mechanisms) explain two natural yellow-flowered populations of M. cardinalis (typically red-flowered). The NEGAN ortholog is the only anthocyanin-activating MYB expressed in the M. guttatus flowers. The mutant lines and transgenic tools available for M. lewisii will enable gene-by-gene replacement experiments to dissect the genetic and developmental bases of more complex floral color patterns, and to test hypotheses on phenotypic evolution in general. PMID:25103615

  4. Transcriptional control of floral anthocyanin pigmentation in monkeyflowers (Mimulus).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Sagawa, Janelle M; Frost, Laura; Vela, James P; Bradshaw, Harvey D

    2014-12-01

    A molecular description of the control of floral pigmentation in a multi-species group displaying various flower color patterns is of great interest for understanding the molecular bases of phenotypic diversification and pollinator-mediated speciation. Through transcriptome profiling, mutant analyses and transgenic experiments, we aim to establish a 'baseline' floral anthocyanin regulation model in Mimulus lewisii and to examine the different ways of tinkering with this model in generating the diversity of floral anthocyanin patterns in other Mimulus species. We find one WD40 and one bHLH gene controlling anthocyanin pigmentation in the entire corolla of M.lewisii and two R2R3-MYB genes, PELAN and NEGAN, controlling anthocyanin production in the petal lobe and nectar guide, respectively. The autoregulation of NEGAN might be a critical property to generate anthocyanin spots. Independent losses of PELAN expression (via different mechanisms) explain two natural yellow-flowered populations of M.cardinalis (typically red-flowered). The NEGAN ortholog is the only anthocyanin-activating MYB expressed in the M.guttatus flowers. The mutant lines and transgenic tools available for M.lewisii will enable gene-by-gene replacement experiments to dissect the genetic and developmental bases of more complex floral color patterns, and to test hypotheses on phenotypic evolution in general. PMID:25103615

  5. Comparative linkage maps suggest that fission, not polyploidy, underlies near-doubling of chromosome number within monkeyflowers (Mimulus; Phrymaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, L; Willis, J H; Wu, C A; Lee, Y-W

    2014-01-01

    Changes in chromosome number and structure are important contributors to adaptation, speciation and macroevolution. In flowering plants, polyploidy and subsequent reductions in chromosome number by fusion are major sources of chromosomal evolution, but chromosome number increase by fission has been relatively unexplored. Here, we use comparative linkage mapping with gene-based markers to reconstruct chromosomal synteny within the model flowering plant genus Mimulus (monkeyflowers). Two sections of the genus with haploid numbers ?14 have been inferred to be relatively recent polyploids because they are phylogenetically nested within numerous taxa with low base numbers (n=810). We combined multiple data sets to build integrated genetic maps of the M. guttatus species complex (section Simiolus, n=14) and the M. lewisii group (section Erythranthe; n=8), and then aligned the two integrated maps using >100 shared markers. We observed strong segmental synteny between M. lewisii and M. guttatus maps, with essentially 1-to-1 correspondence across each of 16 chromosomal blocks. Assuming that the M. lewisii (and widespread) base number of 8 is ancestral, reconstruction of 14 M. guttatus chromosomes requires at least eight fission events (likely shared by Simiolus and sister section Paradanthus (n=16)), plus two fusion events. This apparent burst of fission in the yellow monkeyflower lineages raises new questions about mechanisms and consequences of chromosomal fission in plants. Our comparative maps also provide insight into the origins of a chromosome exhibiting centromere-associated female meiotic drive and create a framework for transferring M. guttatus genome resources across the entire genus. PMID:24398885

  6. Uptake of 2,4-D in higher plants from artificial rain

    SciTech Connect

    Lokke, H.

    1984-02-01

    Sinapis alba L., Lapsana communis L., Achillea millefolium L., Brassica napus L., Lactuca sativa L., and Lycopersicum esculentum L. were exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxy (2-/sup 14/C)acetic acid (2,4-D) at 10 micrograms liter-1 in artificial rain, pH 6.5 and 3.3. The 2,4-D was absorbed in all species tested. Concentrations of parent 2,4-D appeared at the highest level in Achillea (0.1 mg kg-1 dry wt), and at zero level in Lycopersicum. Twenty-one daily treatments at pH 6.5 for 30-min periods increased dry-matter concentrations in the leaves of Achillea and decreased those in Brassica. No change in dry-matter concentration was observed in the leaves of Brassica by seven daily treatments for 30-min periods at pH 3.3.

  7. Quantitative trait loci affecting differences in floral morphology between two species of monkeyflower (Mimulus).

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, H D; Otto, K G; Frewen, B E; McKay, J K; Schemske, D W

    1998-01-01

    Conspicuous differences in floral morphology are partly responsible for reproductive isolation between two sympatric species of monkeyflower because of their effect on visitation of the flowers by different pollinators. Mimulus lewisii flowers are visited primarily by bumblebees, whereas M. cardinalis flowers are visited mostly by hummingbirds. The genetic control of 12 morphological differences between the flowers of M. lewisii and M. cardinalis was explored in a large linkage mapping population of F2 plants n = 465 to provide an accurate estimate of the number and magnitude of effect of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing each character. Between one and six QTLs were identified for each trait. Most (9/12) traits appear to be controlled in part by at least one major QTL explaining >/=25% of the total phenotypic variance. This implies that either single genes of individually large effect or linked clusters of genes with a large cumulative effect can play a role in the evolution of reproductive isolation and speciation. PMID:9584110

  8. Evolutionary history of coastal tiger beetles in Japan based on a comparative phylogeography of four species.

    PubMed

    Satoh, A; Sota, T; Ueda, T; Enokido, Y; Paik, J C; Hori, M

    2004-10-01

    To reveal the phylogeographical patterns of four species of coastal tiger beetles in Japan (Lophyridia angulata, Abroscelis anchoralis, Cicindela lewisii and Chaetodera laetescripta), we conducted phylogenetic and nested clade analysis (NCA) using the mitochondrial DNA sequences of two loci (COI and 16S rRNA), with specimens sampled from Japan and neighbouring countries. Abroscelis anchoralis and L. angulata have similar disjunct distributions in Japan. The NCA indicated past fragmentation involving three isolated areas of A. anchoralis. In contrast, local populations of L. angulata in Japan shared the same haplotype, indicating recent vicariance. Co-occurrence of haplotypes from several divergent clades in Japanese populations of Ch. laetescripta suggested ancient vicariance and subsequent intermixing of local populations. The tree topology of C. lewisii, with shallow branches and little geographical segregation of haplotypes between Japan and Korea or within Japan, suggested that the Japanese population was segregated from the Korean population only recently. Restricted gene flow, with isolation by distance, was inferred for various geographical associations of haplotypes for coastal tiger beetles in the NCA. Based on these phylogeographical patterns, coupled with a molecular clock approach, the evolutionary history of four species of coastal tiger beetles was deduced, with the additional consideration of the competitive relationships among those species. We also discuss the conservation of highly localized A. anchoralis populations in Japan, using the concept of evolutionarily significant units. PMID:15367120

  9. The niche, limits to species' distributions, and spatiotemporal variation in demography across the elevation ranges of two monkeyflowers

    PubMed Central

    Angert, Amy L.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the processes that create and maintain species' geographic range limits has implications for many questions in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. Many expectations for the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of populations at the range margin rest on the concordance of geographic limits and the limits of a species' ecological niche. If range limits are coincident with niche limits, then marginal populations should have lower and/or more variable vital rates and population growth rates than central populations. Using data from 8 annual censuses of marked individuals, I investigated the demography of Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewisii across the species' elevation ranges. Central and marginal populations exhibited striking demographic differences, but only for one species were differences in expected directions. Marginal populations from the M. lewisii lower elevation range limit had lower and more variable survival than central populations and appeared to be demographic sinks. In contrast, marginal populations from the M. cardinalis upper elevation limit had higher fecundity and higher population growth rates than central populations. Although the species differed with respect to central-marginal patterns, they were concordant with respect to elevation; that is, both species had higher fitness in higher reaches of their examined ranges. Potential explanations for these patterns include source-sink dynamics, with asymmetrical gene flow mediated by river currents, and climate change, with recent warming shifting the species' climatic envelopes to higher elevations. Hence, assessment of spatiotemporal variation in both demography and dispersal is necessary to fully understand the relationship between the niche and species' distributions. PMID:19805178

  10. Mediterranean essential oils as effective weapons against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens and the Echinostoma intermediate host Physella acuta: what happens around? An acute toxicity survey on non-target mayflies.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Bedini, Stefano; Flamini, Guido; Cosci, Francesca; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Amira, Smain; Benchikh, Fatima; Laouer, Hocine; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Conti, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for important pathogens, including malaria, yellow fever, dengue and West Nile. Second to malaria as the world's most widespread parasitic disease, infection by trematodes is a devastating public health problem. In this study, we proposed two essential oils from plants cultivated in Mediterranean regions as effective chemicals against mosquitoes and freshwater snails vectors of Echinostoma trematodes. Chemical composition of essential oils from Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae) and Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Rutaceae) was investigated. Acute toxicity was evaluated against larvae of the West Nile vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) and the invasive freshwater snail Physella acuta (Mollusca: Physidae), an important intermediate host of many parasites, including Echinostoma revolutum (Echinostomidae). Acute toxicity of essential oils was assessed also on a non-target aquatic organism, the mayfly Cloeon dipterum (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum essentials oils were mainly composed by oxygenated monoterpenes (59.3 and 71.0 % of the whole oil, respectively). Chrysanthenone and borneol were the two major constituents of Achillea millefolium essential oil (24.1 and 14.2 %, respectively). Major compounds of H. tuberculatum essential oil were cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol and trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (22.9 and 16.1 %, respectively). In acute toxicity assays, C. pipiens LC50 was 154.190 and 175.268 ppm for Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum, respectively. P. acuta LC50 was 112.911 and 73.695 ppm for Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum, respectively, while the same values were 198.116 and 280.265 ppm for C. dipterum. Relative median potency analysis showed that both tested essential oils were more toxic to P. acuta over C. dipterum. This research adds knowledge on plant-borne chemicals toxic against invertebrates of medical importance, allowing us to propose the tested oils as effective candidates to develop newer and safer vector control tools. PMID:25563605

  11. Fisheries Enhancement on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation; Hangman Creek, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Ronald; Kinkead, Bruce; Stanger, Mark

    2003-07-01

    Historically, Hangman Creek produced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the Upper Columbia Basin Tribes. One weir, located at the mouth of Hangman Creek was reported to catch 1,000 salmon a day for a period of 30 days a year (Scholz et al. 1985). The current town of Tekoa, Washington, near the state border with Idaho, was the location of one of the principle anadromous fisheries for the Coeur d'Alene Tribe (Scholz et al. 1985). The construction, in 1909, of Little Falls Dam, which was not equipped with a fish passage system, blocked anadromous fish access to the Hangman Watershed. The fisheries were further removed with the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. As a result, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as Redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri), Westslope Cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii), Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and other terrestrial wildlife. Historically, Redband and Cutthroat trout comprised a great deal of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's diet (Power 1997).

  12. Pollinator preference and the evolution of floral traits in monkeyflowers (Mimulus).

    PubMed

    Schemske, D W; Bradshaw, H D

    1999-10-12

    A paradigm of evolutionary biology is that adaptation and reproductive isolation are caused by a nearly infinite number of mutations of individually small effect. Here, we test this hypothesis by investigating the genetic basis of pollinator discrimination in two closely related species of monkeyflowers that differ in their major pollinators. This system provides a unique opportunity to investigate the genetic architecture of adaptation and speciation because floral traits that confer pollinator specificity also contribute to premating reproductive isolation. We asked: (i) What floral traits cause pollinator discrimination among plant species? and (ii) What is the genetic basis of these traits? We examined these questions by using data obtained from a large-scale field experiment where genetic markers were employed to determine the genetic basis of pollinator visitation. Observations of F2 hybrids produced by crossing bee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii with hummingbird-pollinated Mimulus cardinalis revealed that bees preferred large flowers low in anthocyanin and carotenoid pigments, whereas hummingbirds favored nectar-rich flowers high in anthocyanins. An allele that increases petal carotenoid concentration reduced bee visitation by 80%, whereas an allele that increases nectar production doubled hummingbird visitation. These results suggest that genes of large effect on pollinator preference have contributed to floral evolution and premating reproductive isolation in these monkeyflowers. This work contributes to growing evidence that adaptation and reproductive isolation may often involve major genes. PMID:10518550

  13. The influence of plant species on the plant/air partitioning coefficients of PCBs and chlorinated benzenes

    SciTech Connect

    Koemp, P.; McLachlan, M.S.

    1995-12-31

    The plant/air partitioning coefficients (K{sub PA}) of pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene and 16 PCB congeners were determined in five different grass and herb species common to Central Europe (Lolium multiflorum, Trifolium repens, Plantago lanceolata, Crepis biennis, Achillea millefolium). The measurements were conducted between 5 C and 35 C using a solid phase fugacity meter. Octanol/air partition coefficients (K{sub OA}) were also measured over a similar temperature range. In all cases an excellent linear relationship between log K{sub PA} and log K{sub OA} was observed (r{sup 2} between 0.80 and 0.99). However, while the slope of this relationship was 1 for Lolium multiflorum (ryegrass), in agreement with previous work, the slopes of the log K{sub PA} vs. log K{sub OA} plot were less than 1 for the other 4 species, lying as low as 0.49 for Achillea millefolium (yarrow). Large differences in the enthalpy of phase change (plant/air) were also observed between the different species, but these differences were not related to the differences in the partition coefficients. These observations demonstrate that the contaminant storage properties of plants are variable, and that the lipophilic compartment in some plants is considerably more polar than octanol. This places constraints on the applicability of current models of plant uptake, almost all of which assume that the lipophilic compartment behaves like octanol, and reinforces the need for more research into the contaminant storage properties of plants.

  14. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard; Boepple, Willi

    2007-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera helix and Alchemilla vulgaris are fed for retained placenta. Conclusion Some of the plants showing high levels of validity were Hedera helix for retained placenta and Euphrasia officinalis for eye problems. Plants with high validity for wounds and injuries included Hypericum perforatum, Malva parviflora and Prunella vulgaris. Treatments with high validity against endoparasites included those with Juniperus communis and Pinus ponderosa. Anxiety and pain are well treated with Melissa officinalis and Nepeta caesarea. PMID:17324258

  15. Hybridization and cytonuclear associations among native westslope cutthroat trout, introduced rainbow trout, and their hybrids within the Stehekin River drainage, North Cascades National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostberg, C.O.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Historic introductions of nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss into the native habitats of cutthroat trout O. clarkii have impacted cutthroat trout populations through introgressive hybridization, creating challenges and concerns for cutthroat trout conservation. We examined the effects of rainbow trout introductions on the native westslope cutthroat trout O. c. lewisii within the Stehekin River drainage, North Cascades National Park, Washington, by analyzing 1,763 salmonid DNA samples from 18 locations with nine diagnostic nuclear DNA markers and one diagnostic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker. Pure westslope cutthroat trout populations only occurred above upstream migration barriers in the Stehekin River and Park Creek. Two categories of rainbow trout admixture were observed: (1) less than 10% within the Stehekin River drainage above the Bridge Creek confluence and the middle and upper Bridge Creek drainage and (2) greater than 30% within the Stehekin River below the Bridge Creek confluence and in lower Bridge Creek. Hybrid indices and multilocus genotypes revealed an absence of rainbow trout and reduced hybrid diversity within the Stehekin River above the Bridge Creek confluence relative to hybrid diversity in the Stehekin River below the confluence and within lower Bridge Creek. Cytonuclear disequilibrium statistics revealed assortative mating between westslope cutthroat and rainbow trout but not among hybrids within the same locations. This suggests that a randomly mating hybrid swarm does not currently exist. However, continual migration of parental genotypes into the study location could also create significant cytonuclear disequilibria. The Stehekin River represents a novel and unique example of a dynamic hybridization zone where the invasion of rainbow trout alleles into the Stehekin River westslope cutthroat trout population above the Bridge Creek confluence appears to be impeded, suggesting that divergent ecological or evolutionary mechanisms promote the population structure within the Stehekin River drainage, depending upon location.

  16. An annotated list of aquatic insects of Fort Sill, Oklahoma, excluding diptera with notes on several new state records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuellig, R.E.; Kondratieff, B.C.; Schmidt, J.P.; Durfee, R.S.; Ruiter, D.E.; Prather, I.E.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative collections of aquatic insects were made at Fort Sill, Lawton, Oklahoma, between 2002 and 2004. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Odonata, Coleoptera, aquatic Heteroptera, Neuroptera, and Megaloptera were targeted. Additional records are included from a survey that took place in 1999. More than 11,000 specimens from more than 290 collections were examined. Based on the current understanding of aquatic insect systematics, 276 taxa distributed over 8 orders, 46 families, and 141 genera were identified. Twenty-three of the 276 taxa, Plauditus texanus Wiersema, Tricorythodes allectus (Needham), Palmacorixa nana walleyi Hungerford, Climacia chapini Partin and Gurney, Oxyethira forcipata Mosely, Oxyethira janella Denning, Triaenodes helo Milne, Ylodes frontalis (Banks), Acilius fraternus Harris, Coptotomus loticus Hilsenhoff, Coptotomus venustus (Say), Desmopachria dispersa Crotch, Graphoderus liberus (Say), Hydrovatus pustulatus (Melsheimer), Hygrotus acaroides (LeConte), Liodessus flavicollis (LeConte), Uvarus texanus (Sharp), Gyrinus woodruffi Fall, Haliplus fasciatus Aube, Haliplus lewisii Crotch, Haliplus tortilipenis Brigham & Sanderson, Chaetarthria bicolor Sharp, Epimetopus costatus complex, and Hydrochus simplex LeConte are reported from Oklahoma for the first time. The three most diverse orders included Coleoptera (86 species), Odonata (67 species) and Trichoptera (59 species), and the remaining taxa were distributed among Heteroptera, (30 species), Ephemeroptera (21 species), Plecoptera (6 species), Megaloptera (4 species), and Neuroptera (3 species). Based on previous published records, many of the species collected during this study were expected to be found at Fort Sill; however, 276 taxa of aquatic insects identified from such a small geographic area is noteworthy, especially when considering local climatic conditions and the relatively small size of Fort Sill (38,300 ha). Despite agricultural practices in Oklahoma, the dust bowl days, and the development of water-based recreation at Fort Sill, a high percentage of the total known aquatic insect fauna of Oklahoma can be found in a small geographic area. ?? 2006 Kansas Entomological Society.

  17. Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  18. Evaluation of Antileishmanial Activity of Albaha Medicinal Plants against Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Al-Sokari, Saeed S; Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Monzote, Lianet; Al-Fatimi, Mohamed A

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen methanolic extracts obtained from thirteen plant species, selected either from ethnobotanical or chemotaxonomical data, were screened for their antileishmanial activity against Leishmania amazonensis. The cytotoxic activity against normal peritoneal macrophages from normal BALB/c mice was also determined. Eight extracts had IC50 values ranging from <12.5 to 37.8 µg/mL against promastigotes. Achillea biebersteinii flower, Euphorbia helioscopia, and Solanum incanum leaf extracts showed antileishmanial activities with IC50 between <12.5-26.9 µg/mL and acceptable selectivity indices of 8-5. The other leishmanicidal plant extracts, with IC50 ranging from 18.0 to 29.5 µg/mL, exhibited low selectivity indices. PMID:26357662

  19. Downregulation of microglial activation by achillolide A.

    PubMed

    Elmann, Anat; Telerman, Alona; Mordechay, Sharon; Erlank, Hilla; Rindner, Miriam; Kashman, Yoel; Ofir, Rivka

    2015-02-01

    Chronic inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. During the neuroinflammatory process, microglial cells release neurotoxic and proinflammatory mediators. In the present study, using activity-guided fractionation, we have purified an anti-inflammatory compound determined by spectroscopic methods to be a sesquiterpene lactone named achillolide A from Achillea fragrantissima (Forsk.) Sch. Bip. In primary cultures of lipopolysaccharide-activated microglial cells, achillolide A inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-induced levels of proinflammatory and toxic mediators including glutamate, nitric oxide, matrix metalloproteinase-9, cyclooxygenase-2, induced nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-?. Achillolide A also exhibited an antioxidant capacity, as was shown in a cell free system as well as by its ability to reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in microglial cells. Thus, achillolide A might have therapeutic potential for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and deserves further studies. PMID:25654405

  20. Evaluation of Antileishmanial Activity of Albaha Medicinal Plants against Leishmania amazonensis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sokari, Saeed S.; Ali, Nasser A. Awadh; Monzote, Lianet; Al-Fatimi, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen methanolic extracts obtained from thirteen plant species, selected either from ethnobotanical or chemotaxonomical data, were screened for their antileishmanial activity against Leishmania amazonensis. The cytotoxic activity against normal peritoneal macrophages from normal BALB/c mice was also determined. Eight extracts had IC50 values ranging from <12.5 to 37.8 µg/mL against promastigotes. Achillea biebersteinii flower, Euphorbia helioscopia, and Solanum incanum leaf extracts showed antileishmanial activities with IC50 between <12.5–26.9 µg/mL and acceptable selectivity indices of 8–5. The other leishmanicidal plant extracts, with IC50 ranging from 18.0 to 29.5 µg/mL, exhibited low selectivity indices. PMID:26357662

  1. Identification, Characterization, and Palynology of High-Valued Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389

  2. Contributions to the study of the genus Hephathus Ribaut, 1952 (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae) of Russia and adjacent countries.

    PubMed

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2015-01-01

    In Russia and the adjacent territories, the genus Hephathus includes three species, H. nanus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1835), H. freyi (Fieber, 1868) = H. tshakaranus Dlabola, 1957, syn. n., and H. achilleae Mityaev, 1967. They are indistinguishable in genitalia shape, but differ in male calling signal structure and black pattern of face. Photos of habitus and face, drawings of genitalia and male 2(nd) abdominal apodemes, signal oscillograms, and distribution maps for all species are provided. H. orientalis Linnavuori, 1953 is indistinguishable from H. freyi in coloration and genitalia shape; therefore, investigation of male calling signals is necessary for elucidation of its status. Macropsis fergusoni Evans, 1942 from Tasmania and Asmaropsis troilos Linnavuori, 1978 from Eritrea differ from Palaearctic Hephathus in the shape of head, pro-, and mesonotum and apparently belong to other genera. PMID:26623593

  3. Antioxidative/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Asteraceae plants.

    PubMed

    Mekinić, Ivana Generalić; Burcul, Franko; Blazević, Ivica; Skroza, Danijela; Kerum, Daniela; Katalinić, Visnja

    2013-04-01

    The extracts obtained by 80% EtOH from some Asteraceae plants (Calendula officinalis, Inula helenium, Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium and Achillea millefolium) were studied. Rosmarinic acid, one of the main compounds identified in all extracts, was determined quantitatively by using HPLC. In addition, spectrophotometric methods were evaluated as an alternative for rosmarinic acid content determination. Total phenolic content was also established for all extracts. A. millefolium extract was found to have the highest content of rosmarinic acid as well as total phenols. All extracts were tested for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. A. millefolium was shown to possess the best antioxidant activity (for all tested methods) as well as acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Highly positive linear relationships were obtained between antioxidant/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and the determined rosmarinic acid content indicating its significance for the observed activities. PMID:23738456

  4. Content of Zinc and Copper in Selected Plants Growing Along a Motorway.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Elżbieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz; Wiśniewska-Kadżajan, Beata; Sosnowski, Jacek; Kolczarek, Roman; Jankowska, Jolanta; Ciepiela, Grażyna A

    2015-11-01

    In 2011 a study was carried out analyzing the effects of road traffic on bioaccumulation of zinc and copper in selected species of dicotyledonous plants growing on adjacent grasslands. To do the research the plants were sampled from the 9-km-long Siedlce bypass, a part of the international route E-30. They were collected during the flowering stage, at following distances from the road: 1, 5, 10, 15 m. The content of zinc and copper was determined with the AAS method, with dry mineralisation done before. The highest concentration of the elements, regardless of the distance from the road, was found in Taraxacum spec. Among the tested plants, the lowest zinc content was in Vicia cracca, and the lowest copper content in Rumex acetosa. The limit for copper content was exceeded in Taraxacum spec. and, slightly, in Achillea millefolium growing at the roadside, closest to the roadway. PMID:26364030

  5. A Systematic Review of the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Almeida Soares Hocayen, Palloma; Andrade, Luciana Nalone; Andreatini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of standardized essential oils (such as Lavender officinalis), in treating anxiety disorders strongly suggests that these natural products are an important candidate source for new anxiolytic drugs. A systematic review of essential oils, their bioactive constituents, and anxiolytic-like activity is conducted. The essential oil with the best profile is Lavendula angustifolia, which has already been tested in controlled clinical trials with positive results. Citrus aurantium using different routes of administration also showed significant effects in several animal models, and was corroborated by different research groups. Other promising essential oils are Citrus sinensis and bergamot oil, which showed certain clinical anxiolytic actions; along with Achillea wilhemsii, Alpinia zerumbet, Citrus aurantium, and Spiranthera odoratissima, which, like Lavendula angustifolia, appear to exert anxiolytic-like effects without GABA/benzodiazepine activity, thus differing in their mechanisms of action from the benzodiazepines. The anxiolytic activity of 25 compounds commonly found in essential oils is also discussed. PMID:26473822

  6. Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389

  7. Investigation on bioavailability of some essential and toxic elements in medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Razić, Slavica; Dogo, Svetlana; Slavković, Latinka

    2008-07-01

    Trace and major elements were determined in medicinal herbs (Cynara scolymus, Matricaria chamomilla, Artemisia absinthium L., Achillea millefolium, and Inula britannica) as well as in rhizosphere soil samples. Based on the results obtained after microwave-acid-assisted digestion (nitric acid + hydrogen peroxide) and single-step extraction (ammonium acetate), the real and potential acidity and redox potential of the soils, uptake, mobility, and bioavailability of potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, nickel, chromium, lead, and cadmium are discussed. By calculating the bioconcentration factors and their deviation from the recommended values, elevated concentrations, were explained in terms of contamination and pollution. The concentrations measured in both plants and soil samples were below maximum allowable concentration ranges considered for the European Union. PMID:18408895

  8. Experimental Evaluation of Seed Limitation in Alpine Snowbed Plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The distribution and abundance of plants is controlled by the availability of seeds and of sites suitable for establishment. The relative importance of these two constraints is still contentious and possibly varies among species and ecosystems. In alpine landscapes, the role of seed limitation has traditionally been neglected, and the role of abiotic gradients emphasized. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the importance of seed limitation for the incidence of four alpine snowbed species (Achillea atrata L., Achillea clusiana Tausch, Arabis caerulea L., Gnaphalium hoppeanum W. D. J. Koch) in local plant communities by comparing seedling emergence, seedling, juvenile and adult survival, juvenile and adult growth, flowering frequency as well as population growth rates ? of experimental plants transplanted into snowbed patches which were either occupied or unoccupied by the focal species. In addition, we accounted for possible effects of competition or facilitation on these rates by including a measure of neighbourhood biomass into the analysis. We found that only A. caerulea had significantly lower seedling and adult survival as well as a lower population growth rate in unoccupied sites whereas the vital rates of the other three species did not differ among occupied and unoccupied sites. By contrast, all species were sensitive to competitive effects of the surrounding vegetation in terms of at least one of the studied rates. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that seed and site limitation jointly determine the species composition of these snowbed plant communities and that constraining site factors include both abiotic conditions and biotic interactions. The traditional focus on abiotic gradients for explaining alpine plant distribution hence appears lopsided. The influence of seed limitation on the current distribution of these plants casts doubt on their ability to readily track shifting habitats under climate change unless seed production is considerably enhanced under a warmer climate. PMID:21738694

  9. Comparative Study of Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Stanković, Nemanja; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Zlatković, Bojan; Matejić, Jelena; Stankov Jovanović, Vesna; Kocić, Branislava; Čomić, Ljiljana

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study to perform a comparative analysis of the chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of plant species Hyssopus officinalis, Achillea grandifolia, Achillea crithmifolia, Tanacetum parthenium, Laserpitium latifolium, and Artemisia absinthium from Balkan Peninsula. The chemical analysis of essential oils was performed by using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Monoterpenes were dominant among the recorded components, with camphor in T. parthenium, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (51.4, 45.4, and 25.4 %, respectively), 1,8-cineole in H. officinalis, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (49.1, 16.4, and 14.8 %, respectively), and sabinene in L. latifolium and A. absinthium (47.8 and 21.5 %). The antiradical and antioxidant activities were determined by using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil of A. grandifolia has shown the highest antioxidant activity [IC50 of 33.575 ± 0.069 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2.510 ± 0.036 mg vitamin C/g for the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay]. The antimicrobial activity against 16 multiresistant pathogenic bacteria isolated from human source material was tested by the broth microdilution assay. The resulting minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum bactericidal concentration values ranged from 4.72 to 93.2 mg/mL. Therefore, the essential oils of the plant species included in this study may be considered to be prospective natural sources of antimicrobial substances, and may contribute as effective agents in the battle against bacterial multiresistance. PMID:26891001

  10. Cytotoxicity, mode of action and antibacterial activities of selected Saudi Arabian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The flora of Saudi Arabia is one of the richest biodiversity areas in the Arabian Peninsula and comprises very important genetic resources of crop and medicinal plants. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity and the antibacterial activities of the organic extracts from twenty six Saudi Arabian medicinal plants. The study was also extended to the investigation of the effects of the extracts from the four best plants, Ononis serrata (SY160), Haplophyllum tuberculatum (SY177), Pulicaria crispa (SY179), and Achillea beiberstenii (SY-200) on cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, caspases activities and mitochondrial function in leukemia CCRF-CEM cell line. Methods A resazurin assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of the extracts on a panel of human cancer cell lines whilst the microbroth dilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the samples against twelve bacterial strains belonging to four species, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results The best activity on leukemia cell lines were recorded with SY177 (IC50 of 9.94 μg/mL) and SY179 (IC50 of 1.81 μg/mL) against CCRF-CEM as well as Ach-b (IC50 of 9.30 μg/mL) and SY160 (IC50 of 5.06 μg/mL) against HL60 cells. The extracts from SY177 and SY179 were also toxic against the seven solid cancer cell lines studied with the highest IC50 values of 31.64 μg/mL (SY177 against Hep-G2 cells). SY177 and Ach-b induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and S phases whilst SY160 and SY179 induced arrest in G0/G1 phase. All the four plant extracts induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells with the alteration of the mitochondrial membrane potential. In the antibacterial assays, only Ach-b displayed moderate antibacterial activities against E. coli and E. aerogenes ATCC strains (MIC of 256 μg/mL), AG100ATeT and K. pneumoniae ATCC strains (MIC of 128 μg/mL). Conclusions Finally, the results of the present investigation provided supportive data for the possible use of some Saudi Arabian plants investigated herein, and mostly Haplophyllum tuberculatum, Pulicaria crispa, Ononis serrata and Achillea beiberstenii in the control of cancer diseases. PMID:24330397

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Their Isolated Constituents against Cariogenic Bacteria: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Freires, Irlan Almeida; Denny, Carina; Benso, Bruna; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries remains the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide. Several methods have been employed to prevent this biofilm-dependent disease, including the use of essential oils (EOs). In this systematic review, we discuss the antibacterial activity of EOs and their isolated constituents in view of a potential applicability in novel dental formulations. Seven databases were systematically searched for clinical trials, in situ, in vivo and in vitro studies addressing the topic published up to date. Most of the knowledge in the literature is based on in vitro studies assessing the effects of EOs on caries-related streptococci (mainly Streptococcus mutans) and lactobacilli, and on a limited number of clinical trials. The most promising species with antibacterial potential against cariogenic bacteria are: Achillea ligustica, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Croton cajucara, Cryptomeria japonica, Coriandrum sativum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Lippia sidoides, Ocimum americanum, and Rosmarinus officinalis. In some cases, the major phytochemical compounds determine the biological properties of EOs. Menthol and eugenol were considered outstanding compounds demonstrating an antibacterial potential. Only L. sidoides mouthwash (1%) has shown clinical antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens thus far. This review suggests avenues for further non-clinical and clinical studies with the most promising EOs and their isolated constituents bioprospected worldwide. PMID:25911964

  12. Rapid Plant Identification Using Species- and Group-Specific Primers Targeting Chloroplast DNA

    PubMed Central

    Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Thalinger, Bettina; Traugott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae), the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory. PMID:22253728

  13. Pesticide residues in some herbs growing in agricultural areas in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Elżbieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess residue content of plant protection products in selected herbs: Achillea millefolium L., Cichorium intybus L., Equisetum arvense L., Polygonum persicaria L., Plantago lanceolata L., and Plantago major L. The study comprises herbs growing in their natural habitat, 1 and 10 m away from crop fields. The herbs, 30 plants of each species, were sampled during the flowering stage between 1 and 20 July 2014. Pesticide residue content was measured with the QuECHERS method in the dry matter of leaves, stalks, and inflorescence, all mixed together. Out of six herb species growing close to wheat and maize fields, pesticide residues were found in three species: A. millefolium L., E. arvense L., and P. lanceolata L. Most plants containing the residues grew 1 m away from the wheat field. Two active substances of fungicides were found: diphenylamine and tebuconazole, and one active substance of insecticides: chlorpyrifos-ethyl. Those substances are illegal to use on herbal plants. Samples of E. arvense L. and P. lanceolata L. contained two active substances each, which constituted 10% of all samples, while A. millefolium L. contained one substance, which is 6.6% of all samples. PMID:26612566

  14. Polyploidy and ecological adaptation in wild yarrow

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome evolution in flowering plants is often punctuated by polyploidy, genome duplication events that fundamentally alter DNA content, chromosome number, and gene dosage. Polyploidy confers postzygotic reproductive isolation and is thought to drive ecological divergence and range expansion. The adaptive value of polyploidy, however, remains uncertain; ecologists have traditionally relied on observational methods that cannot distinguish effects of polyploidy per se from genic differences that accumulate after genome duplication. Here I use an experimental approach to test how polyploidy mediates ecological divergence in Achillea borealis (Asteraceae), a widespread tetraploid plant with localized hexaploid populations. In coastal California, tetraploids and hexaploids occupy mesic grassland and xeric dune habitats, respectively. Using field transplant experiments with wild-collected plants, I show that hexaploids have a fivefold fitness advantage over tetraploids in dune habitats. Parallel experiments with neohexaploids—first-generation mutants screened from a tetraploid genetic background—reveal that a 70% fitness advantage is achieved via genome duplication per se. These results suggest that genome duplication transforms features of A. borealis in a manner that confers adaptation to a novel environment. PMID:21402904

  15. Determination of the hydroxycinnamate profile of 12 members of the Asteraceae family.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Rakesh; Kiprotich, Joseph; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2011-06-01

    The hydroxycinnamates of the leaves of 12 plants of the Astreraceae family, Achillea millefolium, Arnica montana, Artemesia dracunculus, Cichorium intybus, Cnicus benedictus, Cynara scolymus, Echinops humilis, Inula helenium, Lactuca sativa, Petasites hybridus, Solidago virgaurea, and Tanacetum parthenium were investigated qualitatively by LC-MS(n). Thirty-nine chlorogenic acids were detected and all characterized to regioisomeric level on the basis of their fragmentation pattern in the tandem MS spectra, most of them for the first time from these sources with two of them previously not reported in nature. Both chlorogenic acids based on trans and cis-cinnamic acid substituents were identified. Assignment to the level of individual regioisomers was possible for seven caffeoylquinic acids (1-7), 11 dicaffeoylquinic acids (17-27), six feruloylquinic acids (9-14), two p-coumaroylquinic acids (15-16), two caffeoyl-feruloylquinic acids (28 and 29), four caffeoyl-p-coumaroylquinic acids (30-33), three dicaffeoyl-succinoylquinic acids (34-36), two dicaffeoyl-methoxyoxaloylquinic acids (37 and 38), and one tricaffeoylquinic acid (39). Furthermore, one caffeoylshikimic acid (40), one caffeoyltartaric acid (41), three dicaffeoyltartaric acids (42-44), and three caffeoyl-feruloyltartaric acids (45-47) were detected and shown to possess characteristic tandem MS spectra and were tentatively assigned on the basis of their retention time and previously developed hierarchical keys. PMID:21453943

  16. Quantification of Sesquiterpene Lactones in Asteraceae Plant Extracts: Evaluation of their Allergenic Potential.

    PubMed

    Salapovic, Helena; Geier, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly those with an activated exocyclic methylene group, are important allergens in Asteraceae (Compositae) plants. As a screening tool, the Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae plant extracts with allergenic potential (feverfew, tansy, arnica, yarrow, and German chamomile) is part of several national patch test baseline series. However, the SL content of the Compositae mix may vary due to the source material. Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method for the quantitative measurement of SLs with the α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone moiety was developed, giving the percentage of allergenic compounds in plant extracts. The method has been validated and five Asteraceae extracts, namely feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert) that have been used in routine patch test screening were evaluated. A good correlation could be found between the results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method and the corresponding clinical results. Thus, the introduced method is a valuable tool for evaluating the allergenic potential and for the simple and efficient quality control of plant extracts with allergenic potential. PMID:24106675

  17. TLC-Direct Bioautography and LC/MS as Complementary Methods in Identification of Antibacterial Agents in Plant Tinctures from the Asteraceae Family.

    PubMed

    Jesionek, Wioleta; Móricz, Ágnes M; Ott, Péter G; Kocsis, Béla; Horváth, Györgyi; Choma, Irena M

    2015-01-01

    Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) and Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow) are very common herbs growing in meadows, pathways, crop fields, and home gardens. Preparations from these plants, e.g., infusions or alcohol extracts, are widely used as remedies. Both chamomile and yarrow have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. Most microbiological assays used today give information only on activity of whole extracts and do not provide information on the composition and activity of individual components. This problem can be solved by using TLC with direct microbiological detection, i.e., TLC-direct bioautography (TLC-DB), followed by LC/MS of active fractions. The aim of our study was chemical and microbiological screening of plant components of chamomile and yarrow tinctures using derivatization reagents and TLC-DB against eight bacterial strains: Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola, Xanthomonas campestis pv. vesicatoria, Aliivibrio fischeri, and Bacillus subtilis. The identity of compounds exhibiting the widest range of activity (apigenin and α-linolenic acid) was confirmed by LC/MS. PMID:26268962

  18. Investigation of contribution of individual constituents to antioxidant activity in herbal drugs using postcolumn HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Raudonis, Raimondas; Jakstas, Valdas; Burdulis, Deividas; Benetis, Raimondas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2009-01-01

    The most important attention is paid to the search of natural antioxidants and their evaluation in medicinal and food raw materials of plant origin. A number of plants, their extracts, food products, and medicinal preparations appear to be the objects of scientific research. Effectiveness and informative character of research, undoubtedly, depend on relevance, sensitivity, and efficiency of the methods chosen. The aim of this work was to develop and validate the postcolumn high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-DPPH method as well as its application in the evaluation of antioxidant activity of known and unknown compounds scavenging free radicals and existing in medicinal plant raw materials. HPLC-separated compounds were identified at the wavelength of 275 nm, and then the mobile phase with analytes flowed through a mixing tee to the reaction coil, where DPPH reagent solution was supplied. The solution flow rate was 0.4 mL/min. The reaction coil was connected with UV/VIS type detector, which measured absorption of flowing solution at the wavelength of 520 nm. It was determined that vitexin rhamnoside, the dominant compound in the leaves of Crataegus monogyna, was not a significant radical scavenger. The most active antioxidant in the leaves and flowers of Crataegus monogyna was chlorogenic acid. The most active antioxidant in Origanum vulgare raw material was rosmarinic acid. Identified analytes in the extracts of Achillea millefolium that possessed radical-scavenging properties were chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, rutin, and luteolin. PMID:19535885

  19. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Holetz, Fabíola Barbiéri; Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Sanches, Neviton Rogério; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

    2002-10-01

    Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases. PMID:12471432

  20. Higher-order interaction between molluscs and sheep affecting seedling numbers in grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clear Hill, B. H.; Silvertown, J.

    Vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores are both important in mesotrophic grasslands and these two different classes of herbivore potentially interact in their effect upon plant populations. We used two field experiments to test for higher order interactions (HOIs) among sheep, slugs and seedlings, using the mechanistic definition that an HOI occurs when the presence of one species modifies the interaction between two others. In each experiment slug addition and slug-removal treatments were nested inside treatments that altered sheep grazing intensity and timing, and the emergence, of seedlings from experimentally sown seeds was monitored. In Experiment 1, seedling numbers of Cerastium fontanum were increased by intense summer grazing by sheep in both slug-addition and slugremoval treatment, but winter grazing by sheep only increased seedling emergence if slugs were removed. In Experiment 2, winter grazing by sheep significantly reduced total seedling emergence of four species sown ( Lotus corniculatus, Plantago lanceolata, Leucanthemum vulgare, Achillea millefolium), but the effect was only seen where slugs were removed. Though the experimental system is a relatively simple one with only four components (sheep, slugs, seedlings and the matrix vegetation), higher order interactions, a combination of direct and indirect effects and possible switching behaviour by slugs are all suggested by our results.

  1. Prehibernation diet and reproductive condition of female Anopheles messeae in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jaenson, T G; Ameneshewa, B

    1991-04-01

    1. Blood and sugar feeding in the mosquito Anopheles messeae Falleroni were investigated near Uppsala, Sweden, from 1981 to 1985, with emphasis on prehibernation diet. 2. Fructose, indicating plant feeding, was present in females of all ovarian stages, from April to October, and contributed to fat body development in non-gonoactive females before hibernation. 3. An.messeae males and females (inseminated and uninseminated) were observed feeding on floral nectaries of the plants Achillea millefolium L. and Tanacetum vulgare L. at night during August. 4. Gonotrophic dissociation started in some females in July, and by the end of September all females were inseminated and nulliparous but non-gonoactive. 5. Animal sheds were used as diurnal resting sites of non-gonoactive, prehibernating female An.messeae. Among recently fed mosquitoes in that group, 85% were gut positive for fructose and 15% for blood. Most of them showed negative host tropism, indicating that bloodfeeding is not a prerequisite for hibernation. 6. Survival rates of bloodfed (48 +/- 31 days) and non-bloodfed (42 +/- 21 days) females, collected from a cattle shed in September and kept caged without food or water in a store house, were not significantly different. This indicates that bloodfeeding may occur facultatively before hibernation but does not affect longevity and survival. 7. If overwintering is possible for bloodfed An.messeae females, they would be more likely vectors of pathogens such as Batai virus. PMID:1768915

  2. Compositional analysis and in vitro protective activity against oxidative stress of essential oils from egyptian plants used in traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Eissa, Tarek F; González-Burgos, Elena; Carretero, M Emilia; Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar

    2014-09-01

    The Sinai desert in Egypt contains great variability in plants extensively used for traditional medicines such as Achillea fragrantissima, Chiliadenus montanus, Mentha longifolia and Haplophyllum tuberculatum. The essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts have been analyzed. Subsequently, their potential protective activity against oxidative stress has been evaluated, employing H2O2 as oxidant inductor and astrocytes as the cell model. The chemical composition of the essential oils was analyzed by GC/MS. Most of the compounds identified in A. fragrantissima and M. longifolia samples were oxygenated monoterpene derivatives, whereas for H. tuberculatum they were monoterpenes hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds, and for C. montanus oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes predominated. The in vitro evaluation of antioxidant properties, using ORAC assay, revealed that M. longifolia essential oil possessed the highest scavenging activity against peroxyl radicals, following by H. tuberculatum, A. fragrantissima and C. montanus. Under oxidative stress conditions, M. longifolia and H. tuberculatum essential oils were the only ones that protected human astrocytoma U373-MG cells against H2O2 damage. Both essential oils prevented cell death and inhibited ROS production caused by H2O2. M. longifolia essential oil was the most active, suggesting an interesting prevention role in those CNS disorders associated with oxidative stress. PMID:25918816

  3. Rapid plant identification using species- and group-specific primers targeting chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Wallinger, Corinna; Juen, Anita; Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Thalinger, Bettina; Traugott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae), the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory. PMID:22253728

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce the differences in competitiveness between dominant and subordinate plant species.

    PubMed

    Mariotte, Pierre; Meugnier, Claire; Johnson, David; Thébault, Aurélie; Spiegelberger, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre

    2013-05-01

    In grassland communities, plants can be classified as dominants or subordinates according to their relative abundances, but the factors controlling such distributions remain unclear. Here, we test whether the presence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices affects the competitiveness of two dominant (Taraxacum officinale and Agrostis capillaris) and two subordinate species (Prunella vulgaris and Achillea millefolium). Plants were grown in pots in the presence or absence of the fungus, in monoculture and in mixtures of both species groups with two and four species. In the absence of G. intraradices, dominants were clearly more competitive than subordinates. In inoculated pots, the fungus acted towards the parasitic end of the mutualism-parasitism continuum and had an overall negative effect on the growth of the plant species. However, the negative effects of the AM fungus were more pronounced on dominant species reducing the differences in competitiveness between dominant and subordinate species. The effects of G. intraradices varied with species composition highlighting the importance of plant community to mediate the effects of AM fungi. Dominant species were negatively affected from the AM fungus in mixtures, while subordinates grew identically with and without the fungus. Therefore, our findings predict that the plant dominance hierarchy may flatten out when dominant species are more reduced than subordinate species in an unfavourable AM fungal relationship (parasitism). PMID:23064770

  5. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  6. Synergistic anticancer activities of the plant-derived sesquiterpene lactones salograviolide A and iso-seco-tanapartholide.

    PubMed

    Salla, Mohamed; Fakhoury, Isabelle; Saliba, Najat; Darwiche, Nadine; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala

    2013-07-01

    We have previously shown that the two sesquiterpene lactones, salograviolide A (Sal A) and iso-seco-tanapartholide (TNP), isolated from the Middle Eastern indigenous plants Centaurea ainetensis and Achillea falcata, respectively, possess selective antitumor properties. Here, we aimed to assess the anticancer effects of the separate compounds and their combination, study their potential to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and investigate their underlying antitumor mechanisms in human colon cancer cell lines. Cells were treated with Sal A and TNP alone or in combination, and cell viability, cell cycle profile, apoptosis, ROS generation and changes in protein expression were monitored. Sal A and TNP in combination caused 80% decrease in HCT-116 and DLD-1 cell viability versus only 25% reduction when the drugs were used separately. The antitumor mechanism involved triggering ROS-dependent apoptosis as well as disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further studies showed that apoptosis by the Sal A and TNP combination was caspase-independent and that ERK, JNK and p38 of the serine/threonine MAPKs signaling pathway were involved in the cell death mechanism. Taken together, our data suggest that the combination of Sal A and TNP may be of therapeutic interest against colon cancer. PMID:22976170

  7. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae),Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25373231

  8. Influence of soil composition on the major, minor and trace metal content of Velebit biomedical plants.

    PubMed

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Požgaj, Martina; Pirkl, Raimund; Šilić, Tea; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2015-03-15

    The use of medical herbs for the treatment of many human diseases is increasing nowadays due to their mild features and low side effects. Not only for their healing properties, but also for their nutritive value supplementation of diet with various herbs is recommended. Thus also their analysis is of rising importance. While total elemental compositions are published for many common herbs, the origin of toxic as well as beneficial elements is not yet well investigated. Thus different indigenous medicinal plants, namely Croatian spruce (Picea abies), savory (Satureja montana L.), mountain yarrow (Achillea clavennae), showy calamint (Calamintha grandiflora), micromeria (Micromeria croatica), yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea) and fir (Abies alba) together with soil samples were collected in the National Park Northern Velebit. The macro- and trace elements content, after microwave digestion, was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The study focuses on the one hand on essential elements and on the other hand on non-essential elements which are considered as toxic for humans, covering in total Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn. PMID:25454388

  9. Bioactivity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against the Cotton Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  10. Evolution in changing environments: the "synthetic" work of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey.

    PubMed

    Nez-Farfn, J; Schlichting, C D

    2001-12-01

    The studies of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey (CKH) have been widely cited as exemplars of ecotypic differentiation in textbooks and in the primary literature. However, the scope of their findings and achievements is significantly greater than this. In this paper we analyze the research program of CKH, highlighting their major findings during the years when the modern synthesis of evolution was taking shape. That synthesis, curiously, drew little from their examples, although their studies at the Carnegie Institution represent conceptual and methodological work that is still relevant. The works of CKH not only embodied the principles of the nascent synthesis, but often provided needed supporting data. Their classic work, especially on Achillea and Potentilla, produced abundant evidence on population differentiation of many quantitative traits and plant phenotypes, as well as demonstrating the now commonly reported distinction between environmental and genetic determination of traits. Their ecological genetic investigations of quantitative traits in plants were in sharp contrast to contemporaneous animal studies on adaptation that focused on discrete polymorphisms--with correspondingly little influence of the environment on phenotypic expression. Of utmost importance was the demonstration by CKH of adaptive differentiation by natural selection and their approaches to understanding the genetic structure of populations. PMID:11783397

  11. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses. PMID:17628343

  12. Getting the smell of it - odour cues structure pollinator networks.

    PubMed

    Hambäck, Peter A

    2016-03-01

    Floral visitors vary greatly among plant species and depend on the volatiles emitted by the flowers. Creeping thistle is normally visited by bees and bumblebees while common yarrow is rather visited by flies. Manipulating the flower volatiles caused pollinator communities to become more similar among the two plant species. Image credit: Robert Junker and Anna-Amelie Larue. In Focus: Larue, A.-A.C., Raguso, R.A. & Junker, R.R. (2015) Experimental manipulation of floral scent bouquets restructures flower-visitor interactions in the field. Journal of Animal Ecology, 85, 396-408. Pollinators use multiple cues to locate suitable flowers, and recent studies argue that flower volatiles are more important than previously believed. However, the role of volatiles is seldom separated from other cues. Larue, Raguso & Junker (2015) manipulated the volatile profile of two plants that are normally visited by different pollinators. Achillea millefolium is normally not visited by honeybees and bumblebees, but these pollinator groups did visit plants that were sprayed with volatiles from Cirsium arvense. Cirsium arvense, on the other hand, was less visited by honeybees and bumblebees when sprayed with volatiles from A. millefolium. These findings highlight the potential role of volatiles in structuring pollinator communities on plants. PMID:26899420

  13. Effect of some essential oils on in vitro methane emission.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Sobhy Mohamed Abdallah; Abdelgaleil, Samir Abdelazim Mohamed; Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Nasser, Mohamed Emad Abdelwahab; Araujo, Rafael Canonenco; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterise four essential oils (EO) chemically and to evaluate their effect on ruminal fermentation and methane emission in vitro. The investigated EO were isolated from Achillea santolina, Artemisia judaica, Schinus terebinthifolius and Mentha microphylla, and supplemented at four levels (0, 25, 50 and 75 microl) to 75 ml of buffered rumen fluid plus 0.5 g of substrate. The main components of the EO were piperitone (49.1%) and camphor (34.5%) in A. judaica, 16-dimethyl 15-cyclooactdaiene (60.5%) in A. santolina, piperitone oxide (46.7%) and cis-piperitone oxide (28%) in M. microphylla, and gamma-muurolene (45.3%) and alpha-thujene (16.0%) in S. terebinthifolius. The EO from A. santolina (at 25 and 50 j1), and all levels of A. judaica increased the gas production significantly, but S. terebinthifolius (at 50 and 75 microl), A. santolina (at 75 microl) and all levels of M. microphylla decreased the gas production significantly in comparison with the control. The highest levels of A. santolina and A. judaica, and all doses from M. microphylla EO inhibited the methane production along with a significant reduction in true degradation of dry matter and organic matter, protozoa count and NH3-N concentration. It is concluded that the evaluated EO have the potential to affect ruminal fermentation efficiency and the EO from M. microphylla could be a promising methane mitigating agent. PMID:21776837

  14. Medicinal plant extracts can variously modify biofilm formation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Samoilova, Zoya; Muzyka, Nadezda; Lepekhina, Elena; Oktyabrsky, Oleg; Smirnova, Galina

    2014-04-01

    Low concentrations of black tea and water extracts from medicinal plants Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Tilia cordata, Betula pendula and Zea mays stimulated biofilm formation in Escherichia coli BW25113 up to three times. Similar effect was observed for tannic acid and low concentrations of quercetin. In contrast, the extract from Urtica dioica reduced biofilm production. Pretreatment with plant extracts variously modified antibiotic effects on specific biofilm formation (SBF). Extract from V. vitis-idaea increased SBF, while the extracts from Achillea millefolium, Laminaria japonica and U. dioica considerably decreased SBF in the presence of ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and cefotaxime. Stimulatory effect of the extracts and pure polyphenols on biofilm formation was probably related to their prooxidant properties. The rpoS deletion did not affect SBF significantly, but stimulation of biofilm formation by the compounds tested was accompanied by inhibition of rpoS expression, suggesting that a RpoS-independent signal transduction pathway was apparently used. PMID:24500005

  15. In vitro anti-hepatoma activity of fifteen natural medicines from Canada.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Liu, Li-Teh; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2002-08-01

    Fifteen crude drugs, Stellaria media Cyrill. (Caryophyllaceae), Calendula officinalis L. (Compositae), Achillea millefolium L. (Compositae), Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae), Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae), Satureja hortensis L. (Labiatae), Coptis groenlandica Salisb. (Ranunculaceae), Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (Leguminosae), Origanum majorana L. (Labiatae), Centella asiatica L. (Umbelliferae), Caulophyllum thalictroides Mich. (Berberidaceae), Picea rubens Sargent. (Pinaceae), Rhamnus purshiana D.C. (Rhamnaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), which have been used as folk medicine in Canada, were evaluated for their anti-hepatoma activity on five human liver-cancer cell lines, i.e. HepG2/C3A, SK-HEP-1, HA22T/VGH, Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5. The samples were examined by in vitro evaluation for their cytotoxicity. The results showed that the effects of crude drugs on hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines were different from those against non hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines. C. groenlandica was observed to be the most effective against the growth of all five cell lines and its chemotherapeutic values will be of interest for further studies. PMID:12203264

  16. Soil-to-plant transfer of native selenium for wild vegetation cover at selected locations of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Száková, Jiřina; Tremlová, Jana; Pegová, Kristýna; Najmanová, Jana; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-06-01

    Total selenium (Se) contents were determined in aboveground biomass of wild plant species growing in two uncultivated meadows at two different locations. The soils in these locations had pseudototal (Aqua Regia soluble) Se in concentration ranges of between 0.2 and 0.3 mg kg(-1) at the first location, and between 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg(-1) at the second location. The plant species represented 29 plant families where the most numerous ones were Poaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae , and Asteraceae. The selenium contents in the plants varied between undetectable levels (Aegopodium podagraria, Achillea millefolium, Lotus corniculatus) and 0.158 mg kg(-1) (Veronica arvensis, Veronicaceae). The Se levels were roughly one order of magnitude lower compared to other elements with similar soil content, such as cadmium and molybdenum. The transfer factors of Se, quantifying the element transfer from soil to plants, varied between <0.001 and 0.146 with no significant differences between the locations, confirming the limited soil-plant selenium transfer regardless of location, soil Se level, and plant species. Among the plant families, no unambiguous trend to potential elevated Se uptake was observed. Low Se content in the soil and its plant availability was comparable to other Se-deficient areas within Europe. PMID:25975239

  17. Guaianolides and volatile compounds in chamomile tea.

    PubMed

    Tschiggerl, Christine; Bucar, Franz

    2012-06-01

    Chamomile (German Chamomile, Matricaria recutita L., Asteraceae) is one of the most popular medicinal plants in use as an herbal tea for food purposes and in folk medicine. Qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of the volatile fraction of chamomile herbal tea were performed. Volatile constituents of the infusion were isolated by two different methods, namely hydrodistillation and solid phase extraction (SPE), and analysed by GC-MS. The relative proportions of particular chemical classes, present in the essential oil and volatile fractions of the infusion showed remarkable differences. The proportion of mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in the infusion, as compared to the essential oil, was significantly lower. Strikingly, the dichloromethane extract of the infusion contained a lower amount of bisabolol oxides and chamazulene, but higher amounts of spiroethers, sesquiterpene lactones and coumarins, as compared to the hydrodistillates of the herbal drug and the infusion. In addition to the previously known guaianolides matricarin and achillin, acetoxyachillin and leucodin (= desacetoxymatricarin), corresponding C-11 stereoisomers with various biological activities typically occurring in Achillea species, were identified in the dichloromethane extract of chamomile tea for the first time. PMID:22410959

  18. Modulation of Cox-1, 5-, 12- and 15-Lox by Popular Herbal Remedies Used in Southern Italy Against Psoriasis and Other Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Ammar; Martini, Francesca; Schinella, Guillermo R; Rios, Jose L; Prieto, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Acanthus mollis (Acanthaceae), Achillea ligustica, Artemisia arborescens and Inula viscosa (Asteraceae) are used in Southern Italy against psoriasis and other skin diseases that occur with an imbalanced production of eicosanoids. We here assessed their in vitro effects upon 5-, 12-, 15-LOX and COX-1 enzymes as well as NF?B activation in intact cells as their possible therapeutic targets. All methanol crude extracts inhibited both 5-LOX and COX-1 activities under 200?g/mL, without significant effects on the 12-LOX pathway or any relevant in vitro free radical scavenging activity. NF?B activation was prevented by all extracts but A. mollis. Interestingly, A. ligustica, A. arborescens and A. mollis increased the biosynthesis of 15(S)-HETE, an anti-inflammatory eicosanoid. A. ligustica (IC50?=?49.5?g/mL) was superior to Silybum marianum (IC50?=?147.8?g/mL), which we used as antipsoriatic herbal medicine of reference. Its n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions had also inhibitory effects on the LTB4 biosynthesis (IC50s?=?9.6, 20.3 and 68?g/mL, respectively) evidencing that the apolar extracts of A. ligustica are promising active herbal ingredients for future phytotherapeutical products targeting psoriasis. 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25278440

  19. A Novel Reduction Strategy of Clarithromycin Resistance in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Tadjrobehkar, Omid; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic resistance is a major therapeutic problem in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori clarithromycin resistant mutants have been evolved during antibiotic therapy, this is mainly due to 23s rRNA point mutations. Objectives: In the present study, we investigated anti-mutational features of four traditionally Iranian medicinal plants on three local isolated H. pylori strains. Materials and Methods: In this study clarithromycin resistance was used as a mutation indicator. Frequencies of such mutations in the presence and absence of plant extracts were evaluated. Mutation incidence was evaluated by Luria Delbruck fluctuation assay. Results: The mean mutation frequency in H. pylori isolates was 27 × 10-9 which decreased at the presence of Mirtus communis, Teucrium polium, Achillea millefolium and Thymus vulgaris of plant extract, this amount was 97.4%, 95.2%, 63.7% and 19.6% respectively. Moreover, A-to-G transition at 2143 position (A2143G) was detected by PCR-sequencing as major point mutation causing clarithromycin resistant mutants. Conclusions: The efficacy of these plant extracts in prohibiting resistance showed considerable results. This finding should be considered to use plant extracts with antibiotics to develop more effective eradication regimens. PMID:25741431

  20. Anyone for an aperitif? Yes, but only a Braulio DOC with its certified proteome.

    PubMed

    Fasoli, Elisa; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Citterio, Attilio; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2012-06-18

    The trace proteome of a Braulio aperitif (a 21% alcohol beverage, named after a mountain in the Val di Stelvio, Italy) has been investigated via capture with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL, ProteoMiner). This aperitif is made with an infusion of 13 mountain herbs and berries, among which four are officially indicated in the label: Achillea moschata, juniper (Juniperus communis subsp. alpina) berries, absinthe (Artemisia absinthium) and gentian (Gentiana alpina) roots. Via capture with CPLLs at pH 7.0 and 2.2 we were able to identify 29 unique gene products, among which the PR5 (parasite resistance) allergen Jun r 3.2, a 25kDa species from Juniperus rigida. Due to the paucity of data on these alpine herbs, it was difficult to attribute these proteins to the specific plant extracts presumably present in this beverage; however most of the species identified indeed belong to alpine herbs and plants, living in a habitat between 1000 and 2000m of elevation. Most of them are enzymes, spanning a Mr range from 10 to 65kDa. It is hoped that such a proteomic signature should help tracking counterfeited products sold on the market. PMID:22554908

  1. Hangman Restoration Project : Annual Report, August 1, 2001 - July 31, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Gerald I.; Coeur D'Alene Tribe.

    2002-06-01

    The construction of hydroelectric facilities in the Columbia Basin resulted in the extirpation of anadromous fish stocks in Hangman Creek and its tributaries within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation. Thus, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss garideini), westslope cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) as well as local wildlife populations. Additionally, the Tribe was forced to convert prime riparian habitat into agricultural lands to supply sustenance for their changed needs. Wildlife habitats within the portion of the Hangman Creek Watershed that lies within the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation have been degraded from a century of land management practices that include widespread conversion of native habitats to agricultural production and intensive silvicultural practices. Currently, wildlife and fish populations have been marginalized and water quality is significantly impaired. In the fall of 2000 the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Wildlife Program, in coordination with the Tribal Fisheries Program, submitted a proposal to begin addressing the degradations to functioning habitats within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation in the Hangman Watershed. That proposal led to the implementation of this project during BPA's FY2001 through FY2003 funding cycle. The project is intended to protect, restore and/or enhance priority riparian, wetland and upland areas within the headwaters of Hangman Creek and its tributaries in order to promote healthy self-sustaining fish and wildlife populations. A key goal of this project is the implementation of wildlife habitat protection efforts in a manner that also secures areas with the potential to provide stream and wetland habitats essential to native salmonid populations. This goal is critical in our efforts to address both resident fish and wildlife habitat needs in the Hangman Watershed. All proposed implementation activities are conducted in the headwaters of the system and are expected to prove beneficial to the natural functions of the entire Hangman Watershed. The following is the FY2001 annual report of Project activities and is submitted as partial fulfillment of Operation and Maintenance Task 2.a. The Objectives and Tasks for this first year were designed to position this Project for a long-term habitat restoration effort. As such, efforts were largely directed at information gathering and project orientation. The major task for this first year was development of a Habitat Prioritization Plan (attached) to guide implementation efforts by selecting areas that will be of greatest benefit to the native ecology. Completion of the first year tasks has positioned the project to move forward with implementing restoration activities using the latest information to accomplish the greatest possible results. The Project will be looking to implement on-the-ground protection and restoration efforts in the coming fiscal year using the data and information gathered in the last fiscal year. Continually refining our understanding of the natural watershed functions and fish and wildlife habitats within the Project Area will result in an increase in the efficiency of project implementation. Research and data gathering efforts will remain a strong emphasis in the coming fiscal year, as it will throughout the life of this Project.

  2. Testing the root-priming of soil organic matter decomposition using the isotopic signature of fossil fuel CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Robert; Paterson, Eric; Chapman, Steve; Thornton, Barry; Sim, Allan

    2013-04-01

    Plant roots provide various forms of soil labile carbon (i.e., rhizodeposition), which stimulate the growth of heterotrophic bacteria in the rhizosphere. This, in turn, provides a food source for phagotrophic protozoa and other bacterivores, whose carbon:nutrient ratios are generally higher than those of their food source. In order to maintain their stoichiometric composition, bacterivores release their extra nutrients into the rhizosphere, where they may be absorbed by plant roots. Thus, rhizodeposition should reduce carbon limitation, but increase nutrient demand, of the soil microbial biomass. We hypothesized that this shift towards nutrient deficiency would stimulate the production of microbial enzymes that depolymerise soil organic matter into microbial available forms. In other words, roots should stimulate the decomposition of soil organic matter. We report on experiment where we tested such a "root-priming" effect using 3 contrasting plant species (Achillea millefolium, Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens). An agricultural soil, with a delta-13C value of approximately -14 ‰ , was transferred into 30 pots and planted with seeds of each species. A ring was inserted in the middle of each pot, and no seeds were planted within the ring. Plants were grown in a growth chamber designed to deliver 13C-depleted air. The resulting plant biomass had a delta-13C value of approximately -52 ‰ . On 7 occasions during the growth trial, pots were sampled for the flux and delta-13C value of soil CO2. Using similar data from control pots without plants, we compared the expected vs. observed contributions of CO2 from roots and soil organic matter. Results from this study revealed a negative root-priming effect for all three species. We discuss the experimental conditions that could have led to this observation, as well as the novelty and potential of our experimental protocol.

  3. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-01

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338

  4. Growth and Landscape Performance of Ten Herbaceous Species in Response to Saline Water Irrigation1

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Genhua; Rodriguez, Denise S.; Aguiniga, Lizzie

    2009-01-01

    Ten herbaceous perennials and groundcovers were grown in raised beds from June to September in a dry, hot desert environment and micro-spray drip irrigated with synthesized saline solutions at electrical conductivity of 0.8 (tap water), 3.2, or 5.4 dS/m. Plant height and two perpendicular widths were recorded monthly to calculate the growth index. Landscape performance was assessed monthly by visual scores. Salinity did not affect the visual scores in Achillea millefolium L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Lantana x hybrida ‘New Gold’, Lonicera japonica Thunb. ‘Halliana’, and Rosmarinus officinalis L. ‘Huntington Carpet’ throughout the experiment. Glandularia canadensis (L.) Nutt. ‘Homestead Purple’ performed better than Glandularia x hybrida (Grönland & Rümpler) G. L. Nesom & Pruski. Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Brig. had lower visual scores at 5.4 dS/m compared to the control and 3.2 dS/m. Most plants of Rudbeckia hirta L. did not survive when irrigated at 3.2 dS/m or 5.4 dS/m. Shoot biomass of A. millefolium, G. aristata, L. x hybrida, L. japonica, R. officinalis, and V. macdougalii was not influenced by the salinity of irrigation water. Therefore, A. millefolium, G. aristata, L. x hybrida, L. japonica, and R. officinalis can be irrigated with non-potable water at salinity up to 5.4 dS/m with little reduction in growth and aesthetic appearance. PMID:20585473

  5. Apomixis is not prevalent in subnival to nival plants of the European Alps

    PubMed Central

    Hörandl, Elvira; Dobeš, Christoph; Suda, Jan; Vít, Petr; Urfus, Tomáš; Temsch, Eva M.; Cosendai, Anne-Caroline; Wagner, Johanna; Ladinig, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims High alpine environments are characterized by short growing seasons, stochastic climatic conditions and fluctuating pollinator visits. These conditions are rather unfavourable for sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Apomixis, asexual reproduction via seed, provides reproductive assurance without the need of pollinators and potentially accelerates seed development. Therefore, apomixis is expected to provide selective advantages in high-alpine biota. Indeed, apomictic species occur frequently in the subalpine to alpine grassland zone of the European Alps, but the mode of reproduction of the subnival to nival flora was largely unknown. Methods The mode of reproduction in 14 species belonging to seven families was investigated via flow cytometric seed screen. The sampling comprised 12 species typical for nival to subnival plant communities of the European Alps without any previous information on apomixis (Achillea atrata, Androsace alpina, Arabis caerulea, Erigeron uniflorus, Gnaphalium hoppeanum, Leucanthemopsis alpina, Oxyria digyna, Potentilla frigida, Ranunculus alpestris, R. glacialis, R. pygmaeus and Saxifraga bryoides), and two high-alpine species with apomixis reported from other geographical areas (Leontopodium alpinum and Potentilla crantzii). Key Results Flow cytometric data were clearly interpretable for all 46 population samples, confirming the utility of the method for broad screenings on non-model organisms. Formation of endosperm in all species of Asteraceae was documented. Ratios of endosperm : embryo showed pseudogamous apomixis for Potentilla crantzii (ratio approx. 3), but sexual reproduction for all other species (ratios approx. 1·5). Conclusions The occurrence of apomixis is not correlated to high altitudes, and cannot be readily explained by selective forces due to environmental conditions. The investigated species have probably other adaptations to high altitudes to maintain reproductive assurance via sexuality. We hypothesize that shifts to apomixis are rather connected to frequencies of polyploidization than to ecological conditions. PMID:21724654

  6. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase or glutamic acid decarboxylase inhibition; a range of monoaminergic effects; and potential cannabinoid receptor modulation. Future research should focus on conducting human clinical trials on the plants reviewed with promising anxiolytic activity. PMID:23436255

  7. The role of mass spectrometry in medicinal plant research.

    PubMed

    Héthelyi, E; Tétényi, P; Dabi, E; Dános, B

    1987-11-01

    In phytochemical and chemotaxonomic research work mass spectrometry plays an outstandingly important role. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we established the chemotaxa of Tanacetum vulgare L. Chemotypes with essential oils containing 60-90% of artemisia ketone, carveol, dihydrocarvone, myrtenol, umbellulone, terpinen-4-ol, davanone, and Tagetes species containing various essential oils can be clearly distinguished by their spectra; we examined many variations of Tagetes erecta, T. lucida, T. minuta, T. patula and T. tenuifolia. We have identified alpha-beta-pinene-, 1,8-cineol-, linalool-, camphor-, nerol-, geraniol- and gamma-gurjonene as components of Achillea distans L. Injecting the essential oil direct from the oil-secreting organs of T. minuta plants we identified using GC/MS 6-10 and 16% eugenol from the involucral bract and hypsophyll, respectively, as well as beta-ocimene, dihydrotagetone, tagetone, Z- and E-ocimenones. In the course of studies on essential fatty acids Borago officinalis and Lappula squarrosa were selected from 70 species of the family Boraginaceae to obtain seed oil as a source of gamma-linolenic acid, and for the PG synthesis we isolated several grams of gamma-linolenic acid, as well as C18:4, i.e. octadecatetraenic acid, from L. squarrosa on the basis of the mass spectra. From the seed oil of Aquilegia vulgaris C18:3 (5) from the oil of Limnanthes dougloasii C20:1 (5) and from the seed oils of Delphinium consolida and of Tropaeolum species (T. majus, T. minus, T. peregrinum) C20:1 (11) fatty acids were identified on the basis of spectra. PMID:2962668

  8. The Interaction between Root Herbivory and Competitive Ability of Native and Invasive-Range Populations of Brassica nigra

    PubMed Central

    Oduor, Ayub M. O.; Stift, Marc; van Kleunen, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis predicts that escape from intense herbivore damage may enable invasive plants to evolve higher competitive ability in the invasive range. Below-ground root herbivory can have a strong impact on plant performance, and invasive plants often compete with multiple species simultaneously, but experimental approaches in which EICA predictions are tested with root herbivores and in a community setting are rare. Here, we used Brassica nigra plants from eight invasive- and seven native-range populations to test whether the invasive-range plants have evolved increased competitive ability when competing with Achillea millefolium and with a community (both with and without A. millefolium). Further, we tested whether competitive interactions depend on root herbivory on B. nigra by the specialist Delia radicum. Without the community, competition with A. millefolium reduced biomass of invasive- but not of native-range B. nigra. With the community, invasive-range B. nigra suffered less than native-range B. nigra. Although the overall effect of root herbivory was not significant, it reduced the negative effect of the presence of the community. The community produced significantly less biomass when competing with B. nigra, irrespective of the range of origin, and independent of the presence of A. millefolium. Taken together, these results offer no clear support for the EICA hypothesis. While native-range B. nigra plants appear to be better in dealing with a single competitor, the invasive-range plants appear to be better in dealing with a more realistic multi-species community. Possibly, this ability of tolerating multiple competitors simultaneously has contributed to the invasion success of B. nigra in North America. PMID:26517125

  9. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against this pathogen. Conclusions Our data suggest that further screening of plants used in traditional Haudenosaunee medicine is warranted, and we put forward several species for further investigation of activity against S. typhimurium (A. millefolium, H. matronalis, I. pandurata, H. pilosella, R. multiflora, S. canadensis). PMID:21054887

  10. Comparative evaluation of antioxidant and insecticidal properties of essential oils from five Moroccan aromatic herbs.

    PubMed

    Kasrati, Ayoub; Alaoui Jamali, Chaima; Bekkouche, Khalid; Wohlmuth, Hans; Leach, David; Abbad, Abdelaziz

    2015-04-01

    This study describes the antioxidant and insecticidal activities of essential oils (EOs) of Mentha suaveolens subsp. timija, Thymus satureioides, Achillea ageratum, Cotula cinerea and Salvia officinalis widely used in Morocco as flavorings, food additives and preservatives. Sixty seven components were identified accounting for more than 95.0 % of the total oils. M. suaveolens subsp. timija oil had as main components menthone and pulegone. A. ageratum oil was particularly rich in artemisyl acetate and yomogi alcohol. The essential oil of T. satureioides was characterized by high contents of carvacrol and borneol. C. cinerea oil contained trans-thujone and cis-verbenyl acetate as major constituents, whereas S. officinalis oil was characterized by trans-thujone and camphor. Antioxidant activities were examined by means of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), reducing power, β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching and ABTS radical tests. In all assays, the highest antioxidant potency was observed in T. satureioides EO with IC50 values ranging from 0.15 ± 0.36 μg mL(-1) to 0.23 ± 0.67 μg mL(-1) across the four assays. The in vitro evaluation of the insecticidal activity showed that M. suaveolens subsp. timija EO present the highest insecticidal efficiency against adults of Tribolium castaneum with LD50 and LD90 values of 0.17 μL cm(-2) and 0.26 μL cm(-2), respectively and LT50, LT90 values ranged from 44.19 h to 2.98 h and 98.14 h to 6.02 h, respectively. Our data support the possible use of T. satureioides oil as potential antioxidant agent, while M. suaveolens subsp. timija oil can be developed as a new natural bio-insecticide. PMID:25829614

  11. Nematicidal and antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of 17 plants, of importance in ethnopharmacology, obtained from the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Al-Marby, Adel; Ejike, Chukwunonso ECC; Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Awadh-Ali, Nasser A; Al-badani, Rwaida A; Alghamdi, Ghanem MA; Jacob, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Aim/Background: The development of resistance to synthetic drugs by target organisms is a major challenge facing medicine, yet locked within plants are phytochemicals used in herbal medicine (especially in the Arabian Peninsula) that may find application in this regard. In pursuit of unlocking these “hidden treasures,” the methanol extracts of leaves, aerial parts, fruits, and resins of 17 plants used in the Arabian Peninsula were screened for antimicrobial activities. Materials and Methods: The nematicidal, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were determined using appropriate assays. Steinernema feltiae, Staphylococcus carnosus, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as test organisms. Concentrations of the extracts ranging from 0.5 to 20 mg/ml were tested and appropriate statistical tests performed on the data generated. Results: The results show that extracts from Solanum incanum, Chenopodium murale, Commiphora myrrha, Anthemis nobilis, and Achillea biebersteinii were the most active and had very high activities against two or more of the test organisms at low concentrations. Extracts of the leaves of S. incanum and resins of Ferula asafoetida were the most active nematicides, with significant activity at 0.5 mg/ml. Extracts of C. myrrha and C. murale had the most active antibacterial activity with inhibition zones of 12-15 mm and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 2.5 mg/ml for both bacteria. Extracts of the leaves of A. biebersteinii were the most active fungicide, giving an MIC of 1.5 mg/ml. Conclusion: The results validate the use of these plants in ethnopharmacology, and open new vistas of opportunities for the development of cheap but effective agents that may be useful against infectious diseases. PMID:27104031

  12. The acceptability of meadow plants to the slug Deroceras reticulatum and implications for grassland restoration

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Sarah E.; Close, Andrew J.; Port, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite the selective pressure slugs may exert on seedling recruitment there is a lack of information in this context within grassland restoration studies. Selective grazing is influenced by interspecific differences in acceptability. As part of a larger study of how slug–seedling interactions may influence upland hay meadow restoration, an assessment of relative acceptability is made for seedlings of meadow plants to the slug, Deroceras reticulatum. Methods Slug feeding damage to seedling monocultures of 23 meadow species and Brassica napus was assessed in microcosms over 14 d. The severity and rate of damage incurred by each plant species was analysed with a generalized additive mixed model. Plant species were then ranked for their relative acceptability. Key Results Interspecific variation in relative acceptability suggested seedlings of meadow species form a hierarchy of acceptability to D. reticulatum. The four most acceptable species were Achillea millefolium and the grasses Holcus lanatus, Poa trivialis and Festuca rubra. Trifolium pratense was acceptable to D. reticulatum and was the second highest ranking forb species. The most unacceptable species were mainly forbs associated with the target grassland, and included Geranium sylvaticum, Rumex acetosa, Leontodon hispidus and the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum. A strong positive correlation was found for mean cumulative feeding damage and cumulative seedling mortality at day 14. Conclusions Highly unacceptable species to D. reticulatum are unlikely to be selectively grazed by slugs during the seedling recruitment phase, and were predominantly target restoration species. Seedlings of highly acceptable species may be less likely to survive slug herbivory and contribute to seedling recruitment at restoration sites. Selective slug herbivory, influenced by acceptability, may influence community-level processes if seedling recruitment and establishment of key functional species, such as T. pratense is reduced. PMID:23632124

  13. The root herbivore history of the soil affects the productivity of a grassland plant community and determines plant response to new root herbivore attack.

    PubMed

    Sonnemann, Ilja; Hempel, Stefan; Beutel, Maria; Hanauer, Nicola; Reidinger, Stefan; Wurst, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Insect root herbivores can alter plant community structure by affecting the competitive ability of single plants. However, their effects can be modified by the soil environment. Root herbivory itself may induce changes in the soil biota community, and it has recently been shown that these changes can affect plant growth in a subsequent season or plant generation. However, so far it is not known whether these root herbivore history effects (i) are detectable at the plant community level and/or (ii) also determine plant species and plant community responses to new root herbivore attack. The present greenhouse study determined root herbivore history effects of click beetle larvae (Elateridae, Coleoptera, genus Agriotes) in a model grassland plant community consisting of six common species (Achillea millefolium, Plantago lanceolata, Taraxacum officinale, Holcus lanatus, Poa pratensis, Trifolium repens). Root herbivore history effects were generated in a first phase of the experiment by growing the plant community in soil with or without Agriotes larvae, and investigated in a second phase by growing it again in the soils that were either Agriotes trained or not. The root herbivore history of the soil affected plant community productivity (but not composition), with communities growing in root herbivore trained soil producing more biomass than those growing in untrained soil. Additionally, it influenced the response of certain plant species to new root herbivore attack. Effects may partly be explained by herbivore-induced shifts in the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The root herbivore history of the soil proved to be a stronger driver of plant growth on the community level than an actual root herbivore attack which did not affect plant community parameters. History effects have to be taken into account when predicting the impact of root herbivores on grasslands. PMID:23441201

  14. The effect of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected medicinal plants of Asteraceae family on the peroxynitrite-induced changes in blood platelet proteins.

    PubMed

    Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Olas, Beata; Kołodziejczyk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal; Nowak, Pawel; Tsirigotis-Wołoszczak, Marta; Wachowicz, Barbara; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-12-01

    Lots of plants belonging to Asteraceae family are very popular in folk medicine in Poland. These plants are also known as being rich in acidic polysaccharides, due to the presence of hexuronic acids or its derivatives. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the extract from Conyza canadensis L. possesses various biological activity, including antiplatelet, antiocoagulant and antioxidant properties. The aim of our study was to assess if macromolecular glycoconjugates from selected herbal plants of Asteraceae family: Achillea millefolium L., Arnica montana L., Echinacea purpurea L., Solidago virgaurea L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert., and Conyza canadensis L. protect platelet proteins against nitrative and oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite, which is responsible for oxidative/nitrative modifications of platelet proteins: the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups. These modifications may lead to changes of blood platelet functions and can have pathological consequences. The role of these different medicinal plants in the defence against oxidative/nitrative stress in human platelets is still unknown, therefore the oxidative damage to platelet proteins induced by peroxynitrite and protectory effects of tested conjugates by the estimation of carbonyl group level and nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of protein nitration) were studied in vitro. The antioxidative properties of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). The obtained results demonstrate that the compounds from herbal plants: A. millefolium, A. montana, E. purpurea, C. recutita, S. virgaurea, possess antioxidative properties and protect platelet proteins against peroxynitrite toxicity in vitro, similar to the glycoconjugates from C. canadensis. However, in the comparative studies, the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were not found to be more effective antioxidant, than the solution of pure resveratrol. PMID:20869393

  15. A comparative study of antimony accumulation in plants growing in two mining areas in Iran, Moghanlo, and Patyar.

    PubMed

    Jamali Hajiani, Naser; Ghaderian, Seyed Majid; Karimi, Naser; Schat, Henk

    2015-11-01

    Antimony occurs locally at high concentrations in some mineralized soils. Very little is known about behavior of antimony in plants. In this study, we analyzed the soil and vegetation of two mining areas in Iran, Patyar, and Moghanlo. Total Sb concentrations in soil were 358-3482 mg/kg in Moghanlo and 284-886 mg/kg in Patyar. Corresponding Sb concentrations in plant shoots were 0.8-287 and 1.3-49 mg/kg, respectively. In both areas, foliar Sb concentrations increased with acid-extractable soil Sb, although the slope was about 2-fold steeper for Patyar than for Moghanlo. Regressing the foliar concentrations on water-soluble Sb yielded identical slopes for both areas, suggesting that the soluble fraction of Sb rather than total Sb is the direct determinant of foliar Sb accumulation. Both in Patyar and Moghanlo, only a minor part of the total variance of shoot Sb was explained by soluble Sb. The major part was explained by plant species, demonstrating that plant taxonomic identity is the most important determinant of foliar Sb accumulation capacity in both areas. The translocation factor (TF) was highly variable too, with species as the only significant variance component. Only four species were able to accumulate more than 100 mg/kg Sb in their leaves. Among these species, Achillea wilhelmsii and Matthiola farinosa were by far the best Sb accumulators, with, on average, 141 and 132 mg/kg Sb in their leaves. Of these two, only Matthiola farinosa consistently maintained TF values far above unity across the whole range of soluble Sb in Moghanlo. PMID:26077322

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Various Plants Extracts Against Antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Al Laham, Shaza Anwar; Al Fadel, Frdoos Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aeromonas hydrophila cause one of the most important diseases in fishes and lead to economic losses, and may be contaminated human beings. Objectives: The current research aimed to investigate the anti-bacterial activity shown by the extracts prepared from different parts of Olea europea, Myrtus communis, Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinuis officinalis, and Achillea falcata that grow in Syria against A. hydrophila that causes the most dangerous bacterial diseases in fish. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in four stages: First of all, the presence of A. hydrophila was investigated in 450 Samples of Cyprinus Carpio fish using blood agar, Trypticase soya agar, and Analytical Profile Index (API20E). Secondly, the plants extract was obtained using water, absolute alcohol, then ether using Soxhlet extraction apparatus and rotary vacuum evaporator. Thirdly, the antibacterial activity of some antibiotics on these bacteria was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Finally, the antibacterial effect of the extracts was determined by disk diffusion method. Results: The studied antibiotics showed no antibacterial activity against these bacteria, except amikacin which had an acceptable effectiveness. However, the ethanol extracts of the studied plants revealed different antibacterial effects against A. hydrophila which showed antibiotic resistant. T. vulgaris extract had the strongest effect, whereas O. europea extract had the weakest activity. The water and ether petroleum extracts had no antibacterial activities. Conclusions: Ethanol extracts of the studied plants had different antibacterial effects against antibiotic-resistant A. hydrophila. T. vulgaris had the highest activity, R. officinalis had the second, and M. communis and A. falcate were in the third place, while the O. europea had the weakest antibacterial activity. PMID:25368797

  17. Levels of some microelements and essential heavy metals in herbal teas in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mihaljev, Zeljko; Zivkov-Balos, Milica; Cupić, Zeljko; Jaksić, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Levels of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Co, Ni, Se, Sn and Al were determined in 14 medicinal plants from Serbia, which are widely used in phytopharmacy as herbal teas. The following plants were investigated: yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), basil (Ocimum hasilicum L.), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.), field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.), thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.), maize silk (Zea mays L. - Maydis stigma), hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), rosehip/dog rose (Rosa canina L.), winter savory (Satureja montana L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). A total of 16 samples of different parts of medicinal plants (root, leaf, flower, herba) were examined, whereby 13 samples were delivered in original package and three samples were loose leaf herbs. Samples were prepared using the microwave digestion technique, and measurements were performed applying the atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Contents of microelements in the examined samples were in the range: Mn (23.86 - 453.71 mg/kg); Fe (61.87 - 673.0 mg/kg); Cu (6.68 - 24.46 mg/kg); Zn (16.11 - 113.81 mg/kg); Mo (0.576 - 4.265 mg/kg); Co (0.039 - 0.532 mg/kg); Se (0.036 - 0.146 mg/kg); Ni (0.738 - 6.034 mg/kg); Al (154.0 - 3015.0 mg/kg) and Sn (2.68 - 10.22 mg/kg). According to determined amounts of microelements, the investigated samples of herbal teas are considered safe for human consumption. PMID:25265817

  18. Spatial pattern affects diversity-productivity relationships in experimental meadow communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamošová, Tereza; Doležal, Jiří; Lanta, Vojtěch; Lepš, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Plant species create aggregations of conspecifics as a consequence of limited seed dispersal, clonal growth and heterogeneous environment. Such intraspecific aggregation increases the importance of intraspecific competition relative to interspecific competition which may slow down competitive exclusion and promote species coexistence. To examine how spatial aggregation impacts the functioning of experimental assemblages of varying species richness, eight perennial grassland species of different growth form were grown in random and aggregated patterns in monocultures, two-, four-, and eight-species mixtures. In mixtures with an aggregated pattern, monospecific clumps were interspecifically segregated. Mixed model ANOVA was used to test (i) how the total productivity and productivity of individual species is affected by the number of species in a mixture, and (ii) how these relationships are affected by spatial pattern of sown plants. The main patterns of productivity response to species richness conform to other studies: non-transgressive overyielding is omnipresent (the productivity of mixtures is higher than the average of its constituent species so that the net diversity, selection and complementarity effects are positive), whereas transgressive overyielding is found only in a minority of cases (average of log(overyielding) being close to zero or negative). The theoretical prediction that plants in a random pattern should produce more than in an aggregated pattern (the distances to neighbours are smaller and consequently the competition among neighbours stronger) was confirmed in monocultures of all the eight species. The situation is more complicated in mixtures, probably as a consequence of complicated interplay between interspecific and intraspecific competition. The most productive species ( Achillea, Holcus, Plantago) were competitively superior and increased their relative productivity with mixture richness. The intraspecific competition of these species is stronger than that of most other species. The aggregated pattern in the full mixture increased the survival of subordinate species, and consequently, we conclude that an aggregated pattern can promote species coexistence (or at least postpone competitive exclusion), particularly in comparison with homogeneously sown mixtures.

  19. The Glacier National Park GLORIA Project: A new US Target Region for Alpine Plant Monitoring Installed in the Northern Rocky Mountains, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, K.; Fagre, D.

    2004-12-01

    The Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is an international research network whose purpose is to assess climate change impacts on vegetation in alpine environments worldwide. A standard protocol was developed by the international office in Vienna, Austria, and has specific site requirements and techniques that allow sites to be compared worldwide. This protocol requires four summits to be selected within a target region, covering zonal differences of subalpine to nival, and on each of these summits intensive vegetation plots are set up and monitored on a five year interval. Only three target regions in North America have been completed to date, one in Glacier National Park, Montana, and the other two in the Sierra Nevada and White Mountains, California. The four GLORIA summit plots in Glacier National Park were completed over the summers of 2003 and 2004. Because the Continental Divide bisects Glacier National Park (north to south), we chose summits only East of the divide to stay within a similar climatic pattern. Establishing sites was difficult due to the steep and rocky glaciated terrain and the remoteness of suitable sites that required multi-day approaches. Our highest summit (Seward Mtn. 2717 m) is the northernmost and our lowest summit (Dancing Lady Mtn. 2245 m) is southernmost. Treeline is strongly influenced by terrain and is significantly more variable than in the central Rocky Mountains. This also was true of zonal differences of alpine vegetation. Subalpine and even grassland species were found on the same summits as upper alpine species and areas considered subnival. While different zonal areas often occurred on one summit, they were highly influenced by the aspect and slope of that summit area. Between 51 and 82 vascular plants were documented on each summit. There was a high degree of variability in species diversity and percent cover on each summit that was correlated to directional exposure. The summit morphology caused loose vegetative associations, or micro-communities, that varied with exposure, slope angle, and substrate character. Species that exhibited dominance within the target region were Smelowskia calycina var. americana, Polemonium viscosum, Achillea millefolium, Erigeron compositus var. glabratus, and Potentilla fruticosa L. These species reflected the same variability in percent cover on the four sides of the summit areas as did the vegetation as a whole, but were present on all sides.

  20. 3,5,4'-Trihydroxy-6,7,3'-trimethoxyflavone protects astrocytes against oxidative stress via interference with cell signaling and by reducing the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Elmann, Anat; Telerman, Alona; Mordechay, Sharon; Erlank, Hilla; Rindner, Miriam; Ofir, Rivka; Kashman, Yoel

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress is tightly involved in various neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, and conditions such as ischemia. Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the brain, protect neurons from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and provide them with trophic support. Therefore, any damage to astrocytes will affect neuronal survival. In a previous study we have demonstrated that an extract prepared from the plant Achillea fragrantissima (Af) prevented the oxidative stress-induced death of astrocytes and attenuated the intracellular accumulation of ROS in astrocytes under oxidative stress. In the present study, using activity guided fractionation, we have purified from this plant the active compound, determined to be a flavonoid named 3,5,4'-trihydroxy-6,7,3'-trimethoxyflavone (TTF). The effects of TTF in any biological system have not been studied previously, and this is the first study to characterize the anti-oxidant and protective effects of this compound in the context of neurodegenerative diseases. Using primary cultures of astrocytes we have found that TTF prevented the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced death of astrocytes, and attenuated the intracellular accumulation of ROS following treatment of these cells with H2O2 or the peroxyl radicals generating molecule 2,2'-Azobis(amidinopropane) (ABAP). TTF also interfered with cell signaling events and inhibited the phosphorylation of the signaling proteins stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK 1/2) and mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1) and the phosphorylation of the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The mechanism of the protective effect of TTF against H2O2-cytotoxicity could not be attributed to a direct H2O2 scavenging but rather to the scavenging of free radicals as was shown in cell free systems. Thus, TTF might be a therapeutic candidate for the prevention/treatment of neurodegenerative diseases where oxidative stress is part of the pathophysiology. PMID:25217804

  1. Sesquiterpene lactones isolated from indigenous Middle Eastern plants inhibit tumor promoter-induced transformation of JB6 cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sesquiterpene lactones (SL) are plant secondary metabolites that are known for their anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties. Considering that several SL-derived drugs are currently in cancer clinical trials, we have tested two SL molecules, 3-β-methoxy-iso-seco-tanapartholide (β-tan) isolated from Achillea falcata and salograviolide A (Sal A) isolated from Centaurea ainetensis, for their anti-tumor properties. We used the mouse epidermal JB6P + cells as a model for tumor promotion and cellular transformation. Key players that are involved in cellular transformation and tumorigenesis are the AP-1 and NF-κB transcription factors; therefore, we assessed how β-tan and Sal A modulate their signaling pathways in JB6P + cells. Methods The effects of β-tan and Sal A on the growth of normal and neoplastic keratinocytes and on the tumor promotion-responsive JB6P + cells were determined using the MTT assay. Anchorage-independent cell growth transformation assays were used to evaluate the anti-tumor promoting properties of these SL molecules in JB6P + cells and dual luciferase reporter assays and western blot analysis were used to investigate their effects on tumor promoter-induced AP-1 and NF-κB activities and protein levels of key AP-1 and NF-кB target genes. Results β-tan and Sal A selectively inhibited tumor promoter-induced cell growth and transformation of JB6P + cells at concentrations that do not affect JB6P + and primary keratinocytes basal cell growth. In addition, both molecules reduced basal and tumor promoter-induced NF-κB transcriptional activities, differentially regulated basal and tumor promoter-induced AP-1 transcriptional activities, and modulated key players of the AP-1 and NF-κB signaling pathways. Conclusions These results highlight the anti-tumor promoting properties of β-tan and Sal A. These SL molecules isolated from two plant species native to the Middle East may provide opportunities for complementary medicine practices. PMID:22776414

  2. Water dynamics and groundwater contributions in a young mountain soil under different meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negm, Amro; Falocchi, Marco; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater contribution to the soil-water content and to the evapotranspiration is a major uncertainty to assess the water balance. Particularly in mountain environments, where the soil and the depth of the water table are shallow, both percolation and water rise from the water table can happen. Aiming at better understanding these processes at the local scale, a micrometeorological station, equipped with both traditional sensors, an eddy covariance (EC) apparatus with a 20Hz sonic anemometer and infrared CO2 and H2O gas analyser, and four multiplexed TDR probes, was installed at Cividate Camuno (Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, Italy, 274ma.s.l.), in a mountain environment with complex topography and Alpine sublitoranean climate. The young, anthropised, soil upper layers are about 40cm deep and mainly covered by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), wild carrot (Daucus carota) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium). Field and laboratory tests were performed to characterise the soil hydraulic properties. Particularly the soil-water retention relationships were measured by means of a low- and a high-pressure Richards' apparatus, and the hydraulic conductivity at saturation of each soil layer was estimated by 2-dimensional, axis-symmetrical, inverse modelling of field infiltration tests from single ring infiltrometer. The measurements were performed during Summer 2012 and Summer 2013. The groundwater exchange was numerically estimated both in wet (Summer 2012) and in dry meteorlogical conditions (Summer 2013). Evapotranspiration was assessed by means of Penman-Monteith method, which was found to be in the range between EC-estimated fluxes and an indirect estimate based on the Bowen ratio correction for Summer 2012. The two seasons are meteorologically very different and it results also in the soil-water regime. During Summer 2012, the weather was relatively wet, the soil did not reach very small water contents, so that precipitation was able to percolate towards the groundwater table and the groundwater table to meaningfully contribute to the evapotranspirative fluxes. Summer 2013 was instead much drier, precipitation was not able to meaningfully change the water content of the lowest soil layer and to percolate toward the water table. As a consequence of the very small water contents of the soil, also a very small water rise had place.

  3. Acaricidal and Insecticidal Activities of Essential Oils against a Stored-Food Mite and Stored-Grain Insects.

    PubMed

    Song, Ja-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Moon; Lee, Na-Hyun; Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Twenty plant-derived oils were evaluated for their acaricidal and insecticidal activities against Sitotroga cerealella, Sitophilus oryzae, Sitophilus zeamais, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae adults, by using the fumigant and filter paper diffusion methods. Responses varied with bioassay systems, insect or mite species, plant oils, and exposure time. Based on the 50% lethal dose (LD50) values against S. oryzae and S. zeamais in the fumigant bioassay, Anethum graveolens oil (4.12 and 1.12 μg/cm(3), respectively) induced the highest mortality, followed by Achillea millefolium (21.92 and 14.91 μg/cm(3)) and Eucalyptus dives (28.02 and 24.02 μg/cm(3)) oils, respectively. The most toxic oil based on the 50% lethal concentration values against T. putrescentiae was E. dives (3.13 μg/cm(3)), followed by Melaleuca leucadendron (3.93 μg/cm(3)) and Leptospermum pertersonii (4.41 μg/cm(3)). Neroli birgard oil (1.70 μg/cm(3)) was the most toxic based on the LD50 values against S. cerealella, followed by Citrus aurantium (1.80 μg/cm(3)) and Artemisia vulgaris (1.81 μg/cm(3)). The insecticidal and acaricidal activities of the plant oils in the filter paper diffusion bioassay were similar to those in the fumigant bioassay. In comparison, A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils were more effective against S. oryzae and S. zeamais in the fumigant bioassay than in the contact bioassay. These results indicate that the insecticidal activity of the three plant oils against S. oryzae and S. zeamais may be due to their fumigant action. Acaricidal activities of the A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils against T. putrescentiae were 2.62, 1.11, and 122 times higher than that of benzyl benzoate in the contact bioassay. These results indicate that A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils have potential for development as agents to control stored-grain insects and mites. PMID:26735047

  4. Assessment of the water exchange between soil and groundwater in an Alpine valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negm, Amro; Falocchi, Marco; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2013-04-01

    The soil-water balance in temperate climates can be sensitively characterised by the water exchange between soil and groundwater. Particularly in mountain environments, where the soil and the water table depth are shallow, both percolation and water rise from the water table can happen, but these latter extimate is still a major challenge for hydrological applications. Aiming at contributing to better characterise the soil-water balance and the water exchange between soil and groundwater, at the local scale in an Alpine valley, a micrometeorological station was installed during summer 2012 at Cividate Camuno (Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, 274ma.s.l.), in a mountain environment with complex orography and Alpine sublitoranean climate. The soil upper layers, lying on an anthropised loose rock, are about 40cm deep and mainly covered by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), wild carrot (Daucus carota) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium). The station is equipped with longwave and shortwave radiometers, a thermo-hygrometer, two rain-gauges, eddy correlation devices (Gill WindMaster sonic anemometer and Licor Li7500 gas analyser, sampling at 20Hz), a TDR with multiplexer apparatus and four probes at different depths, three soil-thermometers and a heat exchanger plate. Field and laboratory tests were performed to characterise the main soil hydraulic properties (i.e. hydraulic conductivity at saturation by means of infiltration tests and falling head permeameter, porosity, residual water content and water content at saturation, soil-water retention relationships, organic matter content and grain size distribution curve). Three different hypothesis to model the water exchange between soil-water and groundwater were introduced. They are (i) a null exchange rate which accounts for a shortage of precipitation and for representing the underlying soil as a capillary barrier, (ii) a pure percolation with unitary gradient of the total hydraulic potential and (iii) a percolation or water rise induced by an estimate of the local gradient on the basis of the measurements of water content. As the lateral fluxes were negligible due to the site orography, accounting for the measurement of rainfall, evapotranspiration and soil-water content, the closure of the water balance allowed to assess the effectiveness of the different hypotheses to estimate the exchange between soil-water and groundwater. The results shows that the water balance is not closed without estimating the water exchange between soil and groundwater, but assessing its value was found to be strongly sensitive to the accuracy of the adopted soil model and constitutive laws.

  5. Effects of Dilatancy on the Shearing Behaviour of Root-Permeated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Anil; Graf, Frank; Rickli, Christian; Springman, Sarah M.

    2015-04-01

    The effects of vegetation and, in particular, of forests on the stability of slopes are well recognized and have been widely investigated. However, there is still a considerable lack of understanding on the underlying processes that contribute to triggering superficial soil failure in root-permeated soil. Therefore, it comes as no surprise that a period of heavy rainfall in August 2005, affecting an extensive area in Praettigau region in canton Grisons, resulted in numerous shallow landslides of which about half, 26 out of 50 events, occurred in the forest area. Thus, quantification of the vegetation effects on the shear strength of soil is important in order to be able to evaluate the contribution of root reinforcement to slope stability. Root reinforcement has been investigated through different approaches, including laboratory or in-situ shear tests of root-permeated soil, and analytical models of soil-root interaction. Traditional methods, generally, consider roots passing through the shear surface with full development of the roots' tensile strength. However, it has been shown that lateral roots contribute to strength as well, and that roots and soil do not necessarily fail simultaneously, and hence the strengths of both components of root-permeated soil are displacement dependent. A robust inclinable large-scale direct shear apparatus (ILDSA) was constructed in order to evaluate the combined effects of the root system on the shearing behaviour of soil. Two different sets of planted samples, a first set consisting of Alnus incana, Trifolium pratense, Poa pratensis and a latter set, consisting of these three species complemented with Salix appendiculata, Achillea millefolium, Anthyllis vulneraria, have been prepared in moraine (SP-SM) from a recent landslide area in Central Switzerland. Planted samples are maintained in shear boxes (500x500x400 mm) inclined at 30°, simulating a slope, and the corresponding natural growth of roots on it. Direct shear tests have been conducted on unplanted and planted soil samples at a constant rate of horizontal displacement of 1 mm/min to a maximum horizontal displacement of 200 mm. Three different applied normal stress levels, namely 6 kPa, 11 kPa and 16 kPa, were chosen to be comparable to the average depth of shallow landslides. An artificial rainfall at a constant intensity (100 mm/h) was applied prior to shearing in order to simulate the loss of strength after a heavy rainfall period under continuous monitoring of the matric suction with tensiometers, which was brought as close as possible to 0 kPa around the shear surface to ensure saturation. Dependence of contribution of root reinforcement to the additional shear strength of soil due to dilatancy was investigated in this study, and a comparison between the two levels of number of plant species, in terms of shear strength parameters, was presented.

  6. Physics in the Spotlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    CERN, ESA and ESO Put Physics On Stage [1] Summary Can you imagine how much physics is in a simple match of ping-pong, in throwing a boomerang, or in a musical concert? Physics is all around us and governs our lives. The World-Wide Web and mobile communication are only two examples of technologies that have rapidly found their way from science into the everyday life. [Go to Physics On Stage Website at CERN] But who is going to maintain these technologies and develop new ones in the future? Probably not young Europeans, as recent surveys show a frightening decline of interest in physics and technology among Europe's citizens, especially schoolchildren. Fewer and fewer young people enrol in physics courses at university. The project "Physics on Stage" tackles this problem head on. An international festival of 400 physics educators from 22 European countries [2] gather at CERN in Geneva from 6 to 10 November to show how fascinating and entertaining physics can be . In a week-long event innovative methods of teaching physics and demonstrations of the fun that lies in physics are presented in a fair, in 10 spectacular performances, and presentations. Workshops on 14 key themes will give the delegates - teachers, professors, artists and other physics educators - the chance to discuss and come up with solutions for the worrying situation of disenchantment with Science in Europe. The European Science and Technology Week 2000 "Physics on Stage" is a joint project organised by the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , Europe's leading physics research organisations. This is the first time that these three organisations have worked together in such close collaboration to catalyse a change in attitude towards science and technology education. Physics on Stage is funded in part by the European Commission and happens as an event in the European Science and Technology Week 2000, an initiative of the EC to raise public awareness of science and technology. Other partners are the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). European Commissioner Busquin to Visit Physics On Stage On Thursday, November 9, Philippe Busquin , Commissioner for Research, European Commission, Prof. Luciano Maiani , Director-General of CERN, Antonio Rodota , Director-General of ESA, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , Director-General of ESO, and Dr. Achilleas Mitsos , Director-General of the Research DG in the European Commission, will participate in the activities of the Physics on Stage Festival. On this occasion, Commissioner Busquin will address conference delegates and the Media on the importance of Science and of innovative science and technology education. The Festival Each of the more than 400 delegates of the festival has been selected during the course of the year by committees in each of the 22 countries for outstanding projects promoting science. For example, a group of Irish physics teachers and their students will give a concert on instruments made exclusively of plumbing material, explaining the physics of sound at the same time. A professional theatre company from Switzerland stages a play on antimatter. Or two young Germans invite spectators to their interactive physics show where they juggle, eat fire and perform stunning physics experiments on stage. The colourful centrepiece of this week is the Physics Fair. Every country has its own stands where delegates show their projects, programmes or experiments and gain inspiration from the exhibits from other countries. Physics on Stage is a unique event. Nothing like it has ever happened in terms of international exchange, international collaboration and state of the art science and technology education methods. The Nobel prizewinners of 2030 are at school today. What ideas can Europe's teachers put forward to boost their interest in science? An invitation to the media We invite journalists to take part in this both politically and visually interesting event. We expect many useful results from this exchange of experience, there will a large choice of potential interview partners and of course uncountable images and impressions. Please fill in the form below and fax it back to CERN under +41 22 7850247. Go to the Webpage http://www.cern.ch/pos to find out all about Physics on Stage Festival at CERN. The main "Physics on Stage" web address is: http://www.estec.esa.nl/outreach/pos There is also a Physics On Stage webpage at ESO Notes [1] This is a joint Press Release by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). [2] The 22 countries are the member countries of at least one of the participating organisations or the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom.