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Sample records for acid b-glucosidase effects

  1. EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reviews of available data indicate that precipitation in a large region of North America is highly acidic when its pH is compared with the expected pH value of 5.65 for pure rain water in equilibrium with CO2. A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsib...

  2. "Keratolytic" effect of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Huber, C; Christophers, E

    1977-01-31

    The "keratolytic" effect of salicylic acid was examined in guinea-pig skin. Using a fluorescent staining method the str. corneum cells could be seen to rapidly become detached. The cellular walls remained unchanged. This drug therefore appears to primarily reduce the intercellular cohesiveness of the horny cells. PMID:319767

  3. Acid rain: effects on fish and wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, K.S.; Multer, E.P.; Schreiber, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    The following questions concerning acid rain are discussed: what is acid rain; what causes acid rain; where do sulfur and nitrogen oxides originate; what areas in the U.S. are susceptible to acid rain; are there early warning signals of acidification to aquatic resources; how does acid rain affect fishery resources; does acid rain affect wildlife; and how can effects of acid rain be reduced.

  4. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-04-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H3PO4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid.

  5. Effects of CO[sub 2] and climate change on forest trees: Soil biology and enzymology

    SciTech Connect

    Moldenke, A.R.; Baumeister, N.; Caldwell, B.A.; Griffith, R.; Ingham, E.R.; Wernz, J. ); Johnson, M.G.; Rygiewicz, P.T.; Tingey, D.T. )

    1994-06-01

    Samples of Teracosm soils were analyzed shortly after initial setup to determine whether initial conditions were equivalent and matched expected values for local soils. Total and active fungal biomass, active bacterial biomass and protozoan numbers were reduced, with greatest decreases occurring in the A horizon. No effect was observed on total bacterial biomass, nematode or anthropod densities, but changes in nematode and arthropod species composition occurred. Significant differences in total density and species composition occurred between the enclosed Teracosms and the open controls. Arthropod and nematode community structure in the three altitudinal field sites had significantly diverged. No significant differences in activities of key soil enzymes in C- and N-cycling (acid phosphatase, protease, B-glucosidase, phenol oxidase and peroxidase) were found between initial samples relative to treatment, but all levels were significantly difference relative to depth in soil profile. Activities were within ranges previously observed in forests of the Pacific Northwest.

  6. Effects of inhaled acids on lung biochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Last, J.A.

    1989-02-01

    Effects of respirable aerosols of sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate, sodium sulfite, and ammonium persulfate on lungs of rats are reviewed. The literature regarding interactions between ozone or nitrogen dioxide and acidic aerosols (ammonium sulfate, sulfuric acid) is discussed. An unexpected interaction between nitrogen dioxide and sodium chloride aerosol is also discussed. An attempt is made to identify bases for prediction of how and when acid aerosols might potentiate effects of inhaled gases.

  7. Effect of propionic acid on fatty acid oxidation and ureagenesis.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, A M; Chase, H P

    1976-07-01

    Propionic acid significantly inhibited 14CO2 production from [1-14C] palmitate at a concentration of 10 muM in control fibroblasts and 100 muM in methylmalonic fibroblasts. This inhibition was similar to that produced by 4-pentenoic acid. Methylmalonic acid also inhibited 14CO2 production from [1-14C] palmitate, but only at a concentration of 1 mM in control cells and 5 mM in methylmalonic cells. Propionic acid (5 mM) also inhibited ureagenesis in rat liver slices when ammonia was the substrate but not with aspartate and citrulline as substrates. Propionic acid had no direct effect on either carbamyl phosphate synthetase or ornithine transcarbamylase. These findings may explain the fatty degeneration of the liver and the hyperammonemia in propionic and methylmalonic acidemia. PMID:934734

  8. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Madecassic Acid and Rotundic Acid.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yuan-Man; Hung, Yi-chih; Hu, Lihong; Lee, Yi-ju; Yin, Mei-chin

    2015-12-01

    Anti-diabetic effects of madecassic acid (MEA) and rotundic acid (RA) were examined. MEA or RA at 0.05% or 0.1% was supplied to diabetic mice for six weeks. The intake of MEA, not RA, dose-dependently lowered plasma glucose level and increased plasma insulin level. MEA, not RA, intake dose-dependently reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and fibrinogen level; as well as restored antithrombin-III and protein C activities in plasma of diabetic mice. MEA or RA intake decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels in plasma and liver. Histological data agreed that MEA or RA intake lowered hepatic lipid droplets, determined by ORO stain. MEA intake dose-dependently declined reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized glutathione levels, increased glutathione content and maintained the activity of glutathione reductase and catalase in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. MEA intake dose-dependently reduced interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. RA intake at 0.1% declined cardiac and renal levels of these inflammatory factors. These data indicated that MEA improved glycemic control and hemostatic imbalance, lowered lipid accumulation, and attenuated oxidative and inflammatory stress in diabetic mice. Thus, madecassic acid could be considered as an anti-diabetic agent. PMID:26633490

  9. Comparison of antioxidant effectiveness of lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Liu, Zai-Qun

    2011-01-01

    The abilities of dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) to scavenge peroxynitrite (ONOO(-) ), galvinoxyl radical, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) cation radical (ABTS(+•) ), and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) were higher than those of lipoic acid (LA). The effectiveness of DHLA to protect methyl linoleate against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH)-induced oxidation was about 2.2-fold higher than that of LA, and DHLA can retard the autoxidation of linoleic acid (LH) in the β-carotene-bleaching test. DHLA can also trap ∼0.6 radicals in AAPH-induced oxidation of LH. Moreover, DHLA can scavenge ∼2.0 radicals in AAPH-induced oxidation of DNA and AAPH-induced hemolysis of erythrocytes, whereas LA can scavenge ∼1.5 radicals at the same experimental conditions. DHLA can protect erythrocytes against hemin-induced hemolysis, but accelerate the degradation of DNA in the presence of Cu(2+) . Therefore, the antioxidant capacity of -SH in DHLA is higher than S-S in LA. PMID:21812071

  10. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Madecassic Acid and Rotundic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yuan-Man; Hung, Yi-chih; Hu, Lihong; Lee, Yi-ju; Yin, Mei-chin

    2015-01-01

    Anti-diabetic effects of madecassic acid (MEA) and rotundic acid (RA) were examined. MEA or RA at 0.05% or 0.1% was supplied to diabetic mice for six weeks. The intake of MEA, not RA, dose-dependently lowered plasma glucose level and increased plasma insulin level. MEA, not RA, intake dose-dependently reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and fibrinogen level; as well as restored antithrombin-III and protein C activities in plasma of diabetic mice. MEA or RA intake decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels in plasma and liver. Histological data agreed that MEA or RA intake lowered hepatic lipid droplets, determined by ORO stain. MEA intake dose-dependently declined reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized glutathione levels, increased glutathione content and maintained the activity of glutathione reductase and catalase in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. MEA intake dose-dependently reduced interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. RA intake at 0.1% declined cardiac and renal levels of these inflammatory factors. These data indicated that MEA improved glycemic control and hemostatic imbalance, lowered lipid accumulation, and attenuated oxidative and inflammatory stress in diabetic mice. Thus, madecassic acid could be considered as an anti-diabetic agent. PMID:26633490

  11. Effects of acid deposition on agricultural production

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Medeiros, W.H.; Oden, N.L.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Coveney, E.A.; Jacobson, J.S.; Rosenthal, R.E.; Evans, L.S.; Lewin, K.F.; Allen, F.L.

    1985-09-01

    A preliminary assessment, both qualitative and quantitative, was carried out on the effects of acid deposition on agriculture. An inventory was made of US crops exposed to different acid deposition levels in 1982. Most crops (valued at more than $50 billion) were exposed to annual average acid deposition levels greater than pH 4.6, but crops worth more than $220 billion were exposed to even lower pH levels. Published results of experiments on crop response to acid deposition have not identified any single crop as being consistently sensitive, and suggest that present levels of acidic precipitation in the US are not significantly affecting growth and yield of crops. Because relatively few experiments appropriate to a quantitative acid deposition assessment have been conducted, the quantitative section is necessarily based on a restricted data set. Corn, potatoes, and soybeans have been studied in experimental environments which simulate agronomic conditions and which have adequate statistical power for yield estimates; only some varieties of soybeans have demonstrated statistically significant sensitivity to acid deposition.

  12. ACIDIC DEPOSITION PHENOMENON AND ITS EFFECTS: CRITICAL ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Acidic Deposition Phenomenon and Its Effects: Critical Assessment Document (CAD) is a summary, integration, and interpretation of the current scientific understanding of acidic deposition. It is firmly based upon The Acidic Deposition Phenomenon and Its Effects: Critical Asse...

  13. Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Farooqui, Akhlaq A.; Siddiqi, Nikhat J.; Alhomida, Abdullah S.; Ong, Wei-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the brain and a structural component of neuronal membranes. Changes in DHA content of neuronal membranes lead to functional changes in the activity of receptors and other proteins which might be associated with synaptic function. Accumulating evidence suggests the beneficial effects of dietary DHA supplementation on neurotransmission. This article reviews the beneficial effects of DHA on the brain; uptake, incorporation and release of DHA at synapses, effects of DHA on synapses, effects of DHA on neurotransmitters, DHA metabolites, and changes in DHA with age. Further studies to better understand the metabolome of DHA could result in more effective use of this molecule for treatment of neurodegenerative or neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:24116288

  14. Effects of acid rain on grapevines

    SciTech Connect

    Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Dee, R.J.; Kender, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Mature vineyard-growing Concord grapevines were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions ranging from pH 2.5 to 5.5 both as acute treatments at anthesis and chronically throughout the season in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, 8 additional varieties were also treated with simulated acid rain solutions at pH 2.75 and 3.25. With Concord in 1981, few foliar lesions on leaves were visible at pH 2.75. In contrast, many leaf lesions with decreased fruit soluble solids were observed at pH 2.5 in 1980. The relationship between acid-rain and oxidant stipple, chlorosis, and soluble solids in the absence of acid rain leaf lesions at pH>2.5 remains unclear. Acute sprays (pH2.75) at anthesis reduced pollen germination in four grape cultivars. However, fruit set was reduced in only one of these. Grape yields were not influenced by acid rain treatments. There was no evidence that acid-rain at ambient pH levels had negative effects on grape production or fruit quality.

  15. Effects of acid rain on grapevines

    SciTech Connect

    Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Dee, R.J.; Kender, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Mature vineyard-growing Concord grapevines (Vitis labrusca, Bailey) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions ranging from pH 2.5 to pH 5.5 both as acute treatments at anthesis and chronically throughout the season in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, eight additional varieties were also treated with simulated acid rain solutions at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. With Concord in 1981, few foliar lesions on leaves were visible at pH 2.75. In contrast, many leaf lesions with decreased fruit soluble solids in the absence of acid rain leaf lesions at pH>2.5 remains unclear. Acute sprays (pH 2.75) at anthesis reduced pollen germination in four grape cultivars. However, fruit set was reduced in only one of these. Only the cultivars de Chaunac and Ives had reduced berry soluble solids with chronic weekly sprays at pH 2.75. Reduction in soluble solids was not associated with increased oxidant stipple (ozone injury) in Concord and de Chaunac cultivars, but this association was observed in Ives. There was no evidence that acid rain in combination with ozone increased oxidant stipple as occurs when ozone and SO/sub 2/ are combined. Grape yields were not influenced by acid rain treatments. There was no evidence that acid rain at ambient pH levels had negative effects on grape production or fruit quality.

  16. Acidic Depositions: Effects on Wildlife and Habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1993-01-01

    The phenomenon of 'acid rain' is not new; it was recognized in the mid-1800s in industrialized Europe. In the 1960s a synthesis of information about acidification began in Europe, along with predictions of ecological effects. In the U.S. studies of acidification began in the 1920s. By the late 1970s research efforts in the U.S. and Canada were better coordinated and in 1980 a 10-year research program was undertaken through the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Plan (NAPAP) to determine the causes and consequences of acidic depositions. Much of the bedrock in the northeastern U.S. and Canada contains total alkalinity of 20 kg/ha/yr of wet sulphate depositions and are vulnerable to acidifying processes. Acidic depositions contribute directly to acidifying processes of soil and soil water. Soils must have sufficient acid-neutralizing capacity or acidity of soil will increase. Natural soil-forming processes that lead to acidification can be accelerated by acidic depositions. Long-term effects of acidification are predicted, which will reduce soil productivity mainly through reduced availability of nutrients and mobilization of toxic metals. Severe effects may lead to major alteration of soil chemistry, soil biota, and even loss of vegetation. Several species of earthworms and several other taxa of soil-inhabiting invertebrates, which are important food of many vertebrate wildlife species, are affected by low pH in soil. Loss of canopy in declining sugar maples results in loss of insects fed on by certain neotropical migrant bird species. No definitive studies categorically link atmospheric acidic depositions with direct or indirect effects on wild mammals. Researchers have concentrated on vegetative and aquatic effects. Circumstantial evidence suggests that effects are probable for certain species of aquatic-dependent mammals (water shrew, mink, and otter) and that these species are at risk from the loss of foods or contamination of these foods by metals

  17. Polymer matrix effects on acid generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedynyshyn, Theodore H.; Goodman, Russell B.; Roberts, Jeanette

    2008-03-01

    We have measured the acid generation efficiency with EUV exposure of a PAG in different polymer matrixes representing the main classes of resist polymers as well as some previously described fluoropolymers for lithographic applications. The polymer matrix was found to have a significant effect on the acid generation efficiency of the PAG studied. A linear relationship exists between the absorbance of the resist and the acid generation efficiency. A second inverse relationship exists between Dill C and aromatic content of the resist polymer. It was shown that polymer sensitization is important for acid generation with EUV exposure and the Dill C parameter can be increased by up to five times with highly absorbing non-aromatic polymers, such as non-aromatic fluoropolymers, over an ESCAP polymer. The increase in the Dill C value will lead to an up to five fold increase in resist sensitivity. It is our expectation that these insights into the nature of polymer matrix effects on acid generation could lead to increased sensitivity for EUV resists.

  18. ACID FOG EFFECTS ON CONIFER SEEDLINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to assess the effects of acid fog on foliar injury, biomass production, and nutrient leaching in selected conifers. ne-year old seedlings of Pseudotsuga menzieii, Pinus ponderosa, Tsuga heterophylla and Thuja plicata were exposed episodically to fog eve...

  19. Cardiovascular Effects of Salvianolic Acid B

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Feng, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B (SAB, Sal B) is the representative component of phenolic acids derived from the dried root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge (Labiatae) which has been used widely and successfully in Asian countries for clinical therapy of various vascular disturbance-related diseases for hundreds of years. However, its exact cardioprotective components and the underlying mechanism for therapeutic basis are still poorly understood. This paper discussed and elucidated the underlying biological mechanisms and pharmacology of Sal B and their potential cardioprotective effects. PMID:23840250

  20. Potential human health effects of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Adverse human health effects, namely acute and chronic respiratory effects, can occur from the pre-deposition phase of the acid rain phenomenon due to inhalation of acidic particles and gases. State-of-the-art methodology to evaluate these effects is just now being applied to this question. The major post-deposition effect of the acid rain phenomenon is to acidify water, increasing solubility and subsequent human exposure to mercury, lead, cadmium, and aluminum. Acidification increases bioconversion of mercury to methylmercury, a highly toxic compound, which accumulates in fish, increasing the risk to toxicity in people who eat fish. Increase in water and soil content of lead and cadmium increases human exposure to these metals which become additive to other sources presently under regulatory control. The potential adverse health effects of increased human exposure to aluminum is not known at the present time. Deficiencies in the identification of the contribution of pre-deposition of air pollutants and post-deposition mobilization of toxic metals to the recognized potential health effects of the involved toxic substances is due to the fact that scientists have not addressed these specific questions. 113 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Distinct Effects of Sorbic Acid and Acetic Acid on the Electrophysiology and Metabolism of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    van Beilen, J. W. A.; Teixeira de Mattos, M. J.; Hellingwerf, K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Sorbic acid and acetic acid are among the weak organic acid preservatives most commonly used to improve the microbiological stability of foods. They have similar pKa values, but sorbic acid is a far more potent preservative. Weak organic acids are most effective at low pH. Under these circumstances, they are assumed to diffuse across the membrane as neutral undissociated acids. We show here that the level of initial intracellular acidification depends on the concentration of undissociated acid and less on the nature of the acid. Recovery of the internal pH depends on the presence of an energy source, but acidification of the cytosol causes a decrease in glucose flux. Furthermore, sorbic acid is a more potent uncoupler of the membrane potential than acetic acid. Together these effects may also slow the rate of ATP synthesis significantly and may thus (partially) explain sorbic acid's effectiveness. PMID:25038097

  2. Effects of acidic precipitation on field crops

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.; Hendrey, G.R.; Lewin, K.F.; Gmur, N.F.

    1982-02-01

    The effects of acid rain on yields of field-grown soybeans has been investigated. Plants exposed to simulated rainfalls of pH 4.1, 3,3 and 2.7 had decreased seed yields of 10.6, 16.8 and 23.9% below yields of plants exposed to simulated rainfalls of pH 5.6. (ACR)

  3. Effects of acid rain on crops and trees

    SciTech Connect

    Cowling, E.B.; Dochinger, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    A general treatment of the subject of acid rain and its effets are discussed along with sources of acid rain and its near-term (the last couple of decades). The effects of acid rain on terrestrial ecosystems are treated in some detail. Some treatment is given of the ecosystem-level effects of acid precipitation.

  4. Studies of the effect of gibberellic acid on algal growth.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, W. K.; Sorokin, C.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of gibberellic acid on exponential growth rate of four strains of Chlorella was investigated under variety of experimental conditions. In concentrations from 10 ppm to 100 ppm, gibberellic acid was shown to have no effect on Chlorella growth. In concentration of 200 ppm, gibberellic acid exerted some unfavorable effect on algal growth.

  5. The greenhouse effect and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Traeger, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides and chlorofluorocarbons is increasing in the earth's atmosphere. Increased concentrations of these trace gases could lead to global warming, increased acid rain and increased UV radiation on the earth's surface; however, the actual impacts are still uncertain and are also the subject of great debate. Application of clean'' energy sources such as geothermal are obviously desirable for decreasing these effects and improving our overall general environment. This paper briefly summarizes the global environment concerns, providing a backdrop for the following papers which describe the geothermal role in future environmental considerations. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Electrostatic effects on hyaluronic acid configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezney, John; Saleh, Omar

    2015-03-01

    In systems of polyelectrolytes, such as solutions of charged biopolymers, the electrostatic repulsion between charged monomers plays a dominant role in determining the molecular conformation. Altering the ionic strength of the solvent thus affects the structure of such a polymer. Capturing this electrostatically-driven structural dependence is important for understanding many biological systems. Here, we use single molecule manipulation experiments to collect force-extension behavior on hyaluronic acid (HA), a polyanion which is a major component of the extracellular matrix in all vertebrates. By measuring HA elasticity in a variety of salt conditions, we are able to directly assess the contribution of electrostatics to the chain's self-avoidance and local stiffness. Similar to recent results from our group on single-stranded nucleic acids, our data indicate that HA behaves as a swollen chain of electrostatic blobs, with blob size proportional to the solution Debye length. Our data indicate that the chain structure within the blob is not worm-like, likely due to long-range electrostatic interactions. We discuss potential models of this effect.

  7. More on Effects Controlling Carboxylic Acidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Lowell M.

    1981-01-01

    Gas phase acidity data shown are offered to writers of elementary organic chemistry texts for replacement of the aqueous phase data that are universally used. Relative acidities in the gas phase are controlled virtually exclusively by enthalpic factors. Structural-energetic explanations of acidic trends can therefore be used. (SK)

  8. Solvent effect on anthranilic acid spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Abou-Zied, Osama K; Al-Busaidi, Badriya Y; Husband, John

    2014-01-01

    The spectroscopy of anthranilic acid (AA) was examined in neat and binary solvents of varying polarity and hydrogen bonding strength in order to understand the role of water in solvating the polar sites of the molecule. With the exception of water, the Stokes shift of AA in different solvents was found to be linearly correlated with the normalized molar transition energy of solvent polarity (ETN), indicating the major role of the hydrogen bonding effect in solution. Analysis of the absorption and fluorescence spectra reveals that AA exists as an anion in neutral water. The pKa (4.50) and pKa* (4.44) values were estimated from the spectral shift in the absorption and fluorescence spectra measured in different pH solutions. The shortest fluorescence lifetime was measured in cyclohexane and is attributed to intramolecular hydrogen dislocation/transfer in the excited state. The lifetime values in polar solvents point to the dominant effect of the hydrogen-bond donating strength (α value) of the solvent. The number of water molecules solvating the polar region of the neutral form of AA was estimated to be three from the absorbance change in dioxane/buffer (pH 3.5) binary mixtures. The structures of AA:water complexes were calculated from density functional theory using the B3LYP method with a 6-311++G(2d,p) basis set. A stepwise addition of water molecules (1–3) to the polar region of AA leads to a preferential solvation of the COOH group of the molecule in a closed-cyclic geometry. It is worth noting that the spectral shift as a function of pH suggests the suitability of AA as a probe to estimate the local acidity of binding sites in macromolecules in the pH range 3.0–7.0. PMID:24102373

  9. An Effective Acid Combination for Enhanced Properties and Corrosion Control of Acidizing Sandstone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham

    2016-03-01

    To fulfill the demand of the world energy, more technologies to enhance the recovery of oil production are being developed. Sandstone acidizing has been introduced and it acts as one of the important means to increase oil and gas production. Sandstone acidizing operation generally uses acids, which create or enlarge the flow channels of formation around the wellbore. In sandstone matrix acidizing, acids are injected into the formation at a pressure below the formation fracturing pressure, in which the injected acids react with mineral particles that may restrict the flow of hydrocarbons. Most common combination is Hydrofluoric Acid - Hydrochloric with concentration (3% HF - 12% HCl) known as mud acid. But there are some problems associated with the use of mud acid i.e., corrosion, precipitation. In this paper several new combinations of acids were experimentally screened to identify the most effective combination. The combinations used consist of fluoboric, phosphoric, formic and hydrofluoric acids. Cores were allowed to react with these combinations and results are compared with the mud acid. The parameters, which are analyzed, are Improved Permeability Ratio, strength and mineralogy. The analysis showed that the new acid combination has the potential to be used in sandstone acidizing.

  10. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  11. Ethanol Effects On Physiological Retinoic Acid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) serves essential functions during embryogenesis and throughout post-natal vertebrate life. Insufficient or excess atRA causes teratogenic and/or toxic effects in the developing embryo: interference with atRA biosynthesis or signaling likely underlies some forms of cancer. Many symptoms of vitamin A (atRA precursor) deficiency and/or toxicity overlap with those of another pleiotropic agent—ethanol. These overlapping symptoms have prompted research to understand whether interference with atRA biosynthesis and/or action may explain (in part) pathology associated with excess ethanol consumption. Ethanol affects many aspects of retinoid metabolism and mechanisms of action site-specifically, but no robust data support inhibition of vitamin A metabolism, resulting in decreased atRA in vivo during normal vitamin A nutriture. Actually, ethanol either has no effect on or increases atRA at select sites. Despite this realization, insight into whether interactions between ethanol and retinoids represent cause vs. effect requires additional research. PMID:21766417

  12. Oleic acid prevents detrimental effects of saturated fatty acids on bovine oocyte developmental competence.

    PubMed

    Aardema, Hilde; Vos, Peter L A M; Lolicato, Francesca; Roelen, Bernard A J; Knijn, Hiemke M; Vaandrager, Arie B; Helms, J Bernd; Gadella, Bart M

    2011-07-01

    Mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue during metabolic stress will increase the amount of free fatty acids in blood and follicular fluid and, thus, may affect oocyte quality. In this in vitro study, the three predominant fatty acids in follicular fluid (saturated palmitic and stearic acid and unsaturated oleic acid) were presented to maturing oocytes to test whether fatty acids can affect lipid storage of the oocyte and developmental competence postfertilization. Palmitic and stearic acid had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the amount of fat stored in lipid droplets and a concomitant detrimental effect on oocyte developmental competence. Oleic acid, in contrast, had the opposite effect, causing an increase of lipid storage in lipid droplets and an improvement of oocyte developmental competence. Remarkably, the adverse effects of palmitic and stearic acid could be counteracted by oleic acid. These results suggest that the ratio and amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid is relevant for lipid storage in the maturing oocyte and that this relates to the developmental competence of maturing oocytes. PMID:21311036

  13. Effect of fatty acids on phase behavior of hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer: saturated versus unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Inoue, T; Yanagihara, S; Misono, Y; Suzuki, M

    2001-02-01

    The effect of some fatty acids on the phase behavior of hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer was investigated with special interest in possible difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The phase behavior of hydrated DPPC bilayer was followed by a differential scanning calorimetry and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The addition of palmitic acid (PA) increased the bilayer phase transition temperature with the increase of the PA content in the mixture. In addition, DPPC molecules in gel phase bilayer became more rigid in the presence of PA compared with those in the absence of PA. This effect of PA on the phase behavior of hydrated DPPC bilayer is common to other saturated fatty acids, stearic acid, myristic acid, and also to unsaturated fatty acid with trans double bond, elaidic acid. Contrary to these fatty acids, oleic acid (OA), the unsaturated fatty acid with cis double bond in the acyl chain, exhibited quite different behavior. The effect of OA on the bilayer phase transition temperature was rather small, although a slight decrease in the temperature was appreciable. Furthermore, the IR spectral results demonstrated that the perturbing effect of OA on the gel phase bilayer of DPPC was quite small. These results mean that OA does not disturb the hydrated DPPC bilayer significantly. PMID:11269932

  14. Hair and amino acids: the interactions and the effects.

    PubMed

    Oshimura, Eiko; Abe, Hiroshi; Oota, Rina

    2007-01-01

    The interaction and the function of some amino acids in hair care applications are discussed. When amino acids are applied to hair in the form of simple aqueous solution, uptake of the amino acids is mainly controlled by ionic equilibrium. When amino acids were incorporated in a hair conditioner, the result was quite different, suggesting the importance of interaction between the amino acids and the cationic surfactants. Uptake of pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (PCA), a derivative of glutamic acid, is enhanced by combining with arginine, an amino with strong affinity towards hair. Effects of some amino acids on bleached/dyed hair are described. A hair conditioner incorporated with alanine improves hair surface hydrophobicity of bleach-damaged hair. Histidine and phenylalanine improve tensile strength. PCA was proved to be effective to improve color-retention of dyed hair. PMID:17728935

  15. [Combined effect of benzylpenicillin, furagin and bile acids on staphylococci].

    PubMed

    Sytnik, I A; Tkachuk, N I

    1982-11-01

    The results of the study of the effect of benzylpenicillin or furagin in combination with bile acids, such as cholic, glycocholic and desoxycholic on the collection cultures of staphylococci are presented. The study showed that the subbacteriostatic doses of the bile acids increased the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of benzylpenicillin and furagin by tens and hundreds times. The highest potentiation effect was attained with the use of the furagin combination and desoxycholic acid. PMID:7181465

  16. Effects of oral eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have beneficial effects on inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our aim was to assess the effect of a six-week supplementation with either olive oil, EPA, or DHA on gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (...

  17. EFFECT OF MONOCHLORAMINE ON ISOLATED FULVIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monochloramine is interesting both as a selective oxidant of fulvic acid and as a drinking water disinfectant. In the study, the controlled reaction of aquatic fulvic acid with monochloramine did not result in products detectable by ether extraction-gas chromatography-flame ioniz...

  18. EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION IN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent evidence indicates that acid rain is a growing environmental phenomenon of potentially far reaching consequences and increasing geographical extent in North America. Acid rain is but one aspect of the broader problem of atmospheric deposition which includes snow, fog, and ...

  19. EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON GRAPEVINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mature vineyard-growing Concord grapevines were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions ranging from pH 2.5 to 5.5 both as acute treatments at anthesis and chronically throughout the season in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, 8 additional varieties were also treated with simulated acid...

  20. Effect of cholestyramine on bile acid metabolism in normal man

    PubMed Central

    Garbutt, J. T.; Kenney, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of cholestyramine administration on the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids was studied in eight normal volunteers. In six subjects the metabolism of sodium taurocholate-14C was determined after its intravenous injection before and during the 6th wk of cholestyramine administration, 16 g/day. In two subjects, the metabolism of cholic acid-14C was observed before and during the 2nd wk of cholestyramine, 16 g/day. Bile acid sequestration resulted in a more rapid disappearance of the injected primary bile acid and its metabolic products. The composition of fasting bile acids was promptly altered by cholestyramine to predominantly glycine-conjugated trihydroxy bile acid. In four subjects, unconjugated bile acid-14C was administered during cholestyramine administration; the relative proportion of glycine-conjugated bile acid-14C before enterohepatic circulation was similar to the relative proportion of unlabeled glycine-conjugated bile acid present in duodenal contents after an overnight fast, indicating that a hepatic mechanism was responsible for the elevated ratios of glycine- to taurine-conjugated bile acid (G: T ratios) observed. The relative proportions of both dihydroxy bile acids, chenodeoxycholic and deoxycholic, were significantly reduced. Steatorrhea did not occur, and the total bile acid pool size determined after an overnight fast was unaltered by cholestyramine. These findings suggest that in normal man bile acid sequestered from the enterohepatic circulation by cholestyramine is replaced by an increase in hepatic synthesis primarily via the pathway leading to production of glycocholic acid. PMID:5080408

  1. The Effects of Acid Rain on Forest Nutrient Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Dale W.; Turner, John; Kelly, J. M.

    1982-06-01

    The effects of acidic atmospheric inputs on forest nutrient status must be assessed within the context of natural, internal acid production by carbonic and organic acids as well as the nutrient inputs and drains by management practices such as harvesting, fire, and fertilization. In all cases the anion associated with acid inputs must be mobile in the soil if leaching is to occur; immobilization of anions can effectively prevent cation leaching. Soil acidification will occur only if the often substantial buffering capacity of the soil in question is exceeded by acid inputs and if cation weathering from primary minerals is insufficient to offset cation losses by leaching. Such circumstances are rare but certainly could occur in theory, at least, given sufficiently large acid inputs on poorly buffered soils. Soils most sensitive to change are thought to be those of moderately acid pH and low cation exchange capacity. Neither very acid soils nor neutral, highly buffered soils are sensitive to acidification by acid rain. Given extremely high acid inputs, acid rain can cause temporary increases in nitrogen mineralization and nitritication as well as Al mobilization in soils. While temporary increases in N availability can cause increased forest growth in N-deficient forests, increased Al availability can cause toxic reactions in tree roots. Little is known about tree Al toxicity levels as yet, however. It must be emphasized that assessment of acid rain effects is a problem of quantification. Given sufficiently high inputs on sensitive sites, negative effects of acid rain must occur, as is true of inputs of any substance, including H2O. Acid rain inputs of sufficient magnitude to cause acute effects, such as growth increase due to N mobilization or growth decrease due to Al mobilization, are apparently very rare under ambient field conditions. Long-term effects on forest nutrient status can be either beneficial or adverse, depending on site nutrient status, silvicultural

  2. On the dissolution kinetics of humic acid particles. Effect of monocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Brigante, Maximiliano; Zanini, Graciela; Avena, Marcelo

    2008-05-01

    The dissolution kinetics of humic acid particles has been studied in batch experiments, and the effects of monocarboxylic (formic, acetic, and propionic) acids are reported. The dissolution rate of the particles is significantly affected by the presence of monocarboxylic acids in the pH range 4-10. At pH 7, for example, propionic acid increases 30 times this dissolution rate. The capacity of increasing the dissolution rate is in the order formic acidacidacid, and this dissolving capacity of carboxylics seems to be directly related to their affinity for HA molecules located at the surface of the solid particles. The results indicate that carboxylics and related compounds may affect markedly the mobility and transport of humic substances in the environment. PMID:18328533

  3. Effects of (+)-usnic acid and (+)-usnic acid-liposome on Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Si, Kaiwei; Wei, Linlin; Yu, Xiaozhuo; Wu, Feng; Li, Xiaoqi; Li, Chen; Cheng, Yanbin

    2016-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii pathogen is a threat to human health that results in economic burden. Unfortunately, there are very few high-efficiency and low-toxicity drugs for toxoplasmosis in the clinic. (+)-Usnic acid derived from lichen species has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-parasitology, and even anti-cancer activities. Herein, the systematic effect of (+)-usnic acid and (+)-usnic acid-liposome on toxoplasma were studied in vitro and in vivo. The viability of toxoplasma tachyzoite was assayed with trypan blue and Giemsa staining; while the invasive capability of tachyzoite to cardiofibroblasts was detected using Giemsa staining. The survival time of mice and the changes in tachyzoite ultrastructure were studied in vivo. The results showed that (+)-usnic acid inhibited the viability of tachyzoite; pretreatment with (+)-usnic acid significantly decreased the invasion of tachyzoite to cardiofibroblasts in vitro; (+)-usnic acid and (+)-usnic acid-liposome extensively prolonged the survival time of mice about 90.9% and 117%, respectively; and improved the ultrastructural changes of tachyzoite, especially in dense granules, rhoptries, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and other membrane organelles. In summary, these results demonstrate that (+)-usnic acid and (+)-usnic acid-liposome with low toxicity have an inhibitory effect on the viability of toxoplasma tachyzoite, and mainly destructed membrane organelles which are connected with the virulence of toxoplasma. These findings provide the basis for further study and development of usnic acid as a potential agent for treating toxoplasmosis. PMID:27004468

  4. EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION ON PLANT DISEASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most plant diseases consist of delicate interactions between higher plants and microorganisms. Acidic precipitation represents an environmental stress that has been shown to affect expected development of some diseases and similar phenomena under experimental conditions. From the...

  5. Molecular Mechanisms for Sweet-suppressing Effect of Gymnemic Acids*

    PubMed Central

    Sanematsu, Keisuke; Kusakabe, Yuko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Nakamura, Seiji; Imoto, Toshiaki; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2014-01-01

    Gymnemic acids are triterpene glycosides that selectively suppress taste responses to various sweet substances in humans but not in mice. This sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids is diminished by rinsing the tongue with γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids and the interaction between gymnemic acids versus sweet taste receptor and/or γ-CD. To investigate whether gymnemic acids directly interact with human (h) sweet receptor hT1R2 + hT1R3, we used the sweet receptor T1R2 + T1R3 assay in transiently transfected HEK293 cells. Similar to previous studies in humans and mice, gymnemic acids (100 μg/ml) inhibited the [Ca2+]i responses to sweet compounds in HEK293 cells heterologously expressing hT1R2 + hT1R3 but not in those expressing the mouse (m) sweet receptor mT1R2 + mT1R3. The effect of gymnemic acids rapidly disappeared after rinsing the HEK293 cells with γ-CD. Using mixed species pairings of human and mouse sweet receptor subunits and chimeras, we determined that the transmembrane domain of hT1R3 was mainly required for the sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids. Directed mutagenesis in the transmembrane domain of hT1R3 revealed that the interaction site for gymnemic acids shared the amino acid residues that determined the sensitivity to another sweet antagonist, lactisole. Glucuronic acid, which is the common structure of gymnemic acids, also reduced sensitivity to sweet compounds. In our models, gymnemic acids were predicted to dock to a binding pocket within the transmembrane domain of hT1R3. PMID:25056955

  6. EFFECTS OF SULFURIC ACID AEROSOLS ON VEGETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A continuous flow system for exposing plants to submicron aerosols of sulfuric acid has been developed and an operational model has been constructed. Exposure chambers have been designed to allow simultaneous exposures of the same plant to aerosol and control environments. All su...

  7. The effects of acid rain on forest nutrient status

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.; Turner, J.; Kelly, J.M.

    1982-06-01

    The effects of acidic atmospheric inputs on forest nutrient status must be assessed within the context of natural, internal acid production by carbonic and organic acids as well as the nutrient inputs and drains by management practices such as harvesting, fire, and fertilization. Soil acidification will occur only if the often substantial buffering capacity of the soil in question is exceeded by acid inputs and if cation weathering from primary minerals is insufficient to offset cation losses by leaching. Such circumstances are rare but certainly could occur given sufficiently large acid inputs on poorly buffered soils. Soils most sensitive to change are thought to be those of moderately acid pH and low cation exchange capacity. Neither very acid soils nor neutral, highly buffered soils are sensitive to acidification by acid rain. Given extremely high acid inputs, acid rain can cause temporary increases in nitrogen mineralization and nitrification as well as Al mobilization in soils. While temporary increases in N availability can cause increased forest growth in N-deficient forests, increased Al availability can cause toxic reactions in tree roots. Given sufficiently high inputs on sensitive sites, negative effects of acid rain must occur, as is true of inputs of any substance, including H/sub 2/O. Acid rain inputs of sufficient magnitude to cause acute effects, such as growth increase due to N mobilization or growth decrease due to Al mobilization, are apparently very rare under ambient field conditions. Long-term effects on forest nutrient status can be either beneficial or adverse, depending on site nutrient status, silvicultural practices, and amount of atmospheric inputs. (JMT)

  8. Effect of acid rain on the soil environment: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Rechcigl, J.E.; Sparks, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on acid rain, with emphasis on soils and leaching of soil elements. Several questions still exist concerning the effects of atmospheric acid deposition on soils: (1) does acid rain enhance mobilization of harmful heavy metals in soils which could leach into the groundwater; (2) does acid rain accelerate the kinetics of weathering of primary minerals and of secondary clay minerals in soils which would release large quantities of Al, Fe, and Si into the groundwater making it unfit for human consumption; and (3) do the beneficial effects of acid deposition outweigh the negative effects or vice versa. Literature pertaining to these questions is addressed in this review. 63 references.

  9. EFFECT OF ACIDITY ON SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION FROM ISOPRENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of particle-phase acidity on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene is investigated in a laboratory chamber study, in which the acidity of the inorganic seed aerosol was controlled systematically. The observed enhancement in SOA mass concentration is c...

  10. EFFECT OF LEAD ON GAMMA AMINO BUTYRIC ACID SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project studies the inhibitory effect of lead on the enzymatic activity of brain glutamic amino acid decarboxylase (GADC). The enzyme is responsible for the catalytic formation of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) inhibitory neurons which is believed to be involved with the tra...

  11. EFFECTIVE ACIDITY CONSTANT BEHAVIOR NEAR ZERO CHARGE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface site (>SOH group) acidity reactions require expressions of the form: Ka = [>SOHn-1(z-1)]aH+EXP(-DG/RT)/[>SOHnz] (where all variables have their usual meaning). One can rearrange this expression to generate an effective acidity constant historically defined as: Qa = Ka...

  12. Potential effects of chlorogenic acids on platelet activiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coffee (Coffea sp) is a most consumed beverage world-wide. Chlorogenic acids (CHAs) are naturally occurring phenolic acid esters abundantly found in coffee. They are reported to have potential health effects on several chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). At...

  13. Effects of bile acids on hepatocellular signaling and secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Beuers, U.

    1997-01-01

    Bile acids modulate hepatocellular signaling pathways in vitro at physiological concentrations. The present paper provides a brief overview of the effects of bile acids on three key messengers in liver cells: cytosolic free calcium, protein kinase A and protein kinase C. PMID:9626754

  14. Effects of acid precipitation on Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, S.; Cheetham, R.D.

    1980-08-01

    Pollutants derived from fossil fuel combustion and precipitated from the atmosphere have substantially increased in the past decades. These materials, precipitated in such industrialized areas as southeastern Canada, have caused considerable alterations in aquatic ecosystems. Precipitation over most of the eastern United States is presently 10 to 500 times more acidic than is natural. Most affected aquatic ecosystems contain oligotrophic waters in regions of thin poorly buffered soils. Zooplankton are an important link in food chains of aquatic ecosystems and their disappearance or decline could drastically affect trophic relationships. Declines in zooplankton density in response to acid precipitation have been reported and short term survival of Daphnia pulex between pH 4.3 and 10.4; however, its potential for reproduction was limited to a fairly narrow range. Anderson (1944) noted the advantages of using daphnia as test organisms, and concluded that Daphnia magna was representative of other abundant zooplankton in sensitivity to toxic substances.

  15. Effect of dilute acid on the accelerated weathering of wood

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.S.

    1988-02-01

    Western red cedar (Thuja plicata) specimens were soaked in acid solutions to determine the effect of acid conditions (such as low pH fog) on the weathering of wood. Daily 1-hour soaking in dilute sulfurous, sulfuric, or nitric acid (pH 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, or 4.0) increased the rate of accelerated (xenon arc) weathering of the specimens compared to controls soaked in distilled/deionized water. Weathering was manifested as the erosion rate of the wood surface and was determined gravimetrically be fitting the weight loss over time to a linear model. This method detected significant differences between acid-treated specimens and untreated controls within 300 hours of accelerated weathering. The erosion rate was dependent on the acid type and pH. Sulfurous acid treatment caused the fastest rate of erosion, followed by sulfuric then nitric acid. None of the acids affected the erosion rate at pH 3.5 or above. Below this threshold, the rate of erosion increased as the hydrogen ion concentration increased. Sugar analysis of residues from the acids and the distilled water used to soak the wood indicated acid-dependent degradation of polysaccharides.

  16. Effects of divalent amino acids on iron absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, J.M.; Ghannam, M.; Ayres, J.W.

    1984-09-01

    Solutions of each of 10 amino acids or ascorbic acid were mixed with iron and orally administered to rats. Iron was absorbed to a statistically significantly greater extent when mixed with asparagine, glycine, serine, or ascorbic acid as compared with a control solution of iron. The largest effects were for asparagine and glycine, which also increased iron absorption to a significantly greater extent than did serine or ascorbic acid. No statistically significant increase in iron absorption occurred when any of the other amino acids was mixed with iron. The extent of iron absorption from each test solution, as measured by area under the concentration of iron-59 in the blood-time curve (r2 . 0.0002), and the initial rate of iron absorption for each test solution (r2 . 0.01) showed no correlation with the stability constant of the amino acid-iron complex.

  17. Effect of fatty acids on energy coupling processes in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Wojtczak, L; Schönfeld, P

    1993-11-01

    Long-chain fatty acids are natural uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. The protonophoric mechanism of this action is due to transbilayer movement of undissociated fatty acid in one direction and the passage of its anion in the opposite direction. The transfer of the dissociated form of fatty acid can be, at least in some kinds of mitochondrion, facilitated by adenine nucleotide translocase. Apart from dissipating the electrochemical proton gradient, long-chain fatty acids decrease the activity of the respiratory chain by mechanism(s) not fully understood. In intact cells and tissues fatty acids operate mostly as excellent respiratory substrates, providing electrons to the respiratory chain. This function masks their potential uncoupling effect which becomes apparent only under special physiological or pathological conditions characterized by unusual fatty acid accumulation. Short- and medium-chain fatty acids do not have protonophoric properties. Nevertheless, they contribute to energy dissipation because of slow intramitochondrial hydrolysis of their activation products, acyl-AMP and acyl-CoA. Long-chain fatty acids increase permeability of mitochondrial membranes to alkali metal cations. This is due to their ionophoric mechanism of action. Regulatory function of fatty acids with respect to specific cation channels has been postulated for the plasma membrane of muscle cells, but not demonstrated in mitochondria. Under cold stress, cold acclimation and arousal from hibernation the uncoupling effect of fatty acids may contribute to increased thermogenesis, especially in the muscle tissue. In brown adipose tissue, the special thermogenic organ of mammals, long-chain fatty acids promote operation of the unique natural uncoupling protein, thermogenin. As anionic amphiphiles, long-chain fatty acids increase the negative surface charge of biomembranes, thus interfering in their enzymic and transporting functions. PMID:8399375

  18. GLYCOLIC ACID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, IMPURITIES, AND RADIATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Pickenheim, B.; Bibler, N.

    2010-06-08

    The DWPF is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H{sub 2} and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O{sub 2} when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and pumping of the solution may be

  19. Effect of Acids on Water Vapor Uptake by Pyrogenic Silica

    PubMed

    Bogdan; Kulmala

    1997-07-01

    Effect of gaseous HCl and HNO3 on the water vapor uptake by pyrogenic silica was studied at different relative humidities (RH) for pure water and different compositions of binary and ternary vapor mixtures. Experiments showed that the ability of silica to uptake water strongly depends on RH and on the type of acids and their concentration in the vapor mixtures. At low acid concentration in the binary mixtures the influence of acids is probably small. Water uptake by silica does not change monotonically with acid concentration: at first it decreases and then starts to grow. However, the presence of acids promotes water uptake, and the effect is very significant at low RH. HCl seems to be more effective acid to enhance water uptake than HNO3 . In the case of ternary mixtures the adsorbed weight of water is a bit larger than that adsorbed from the binary mixtures. Acids are accumulated by silica surface, and the accumulation is larger for nitric acid. PMID:9241208

  20. EFFECTS OF NITRIC ACID ON CRITICALITY SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, B.

    2011-08-18

    As nitric acid molarity is increased, there are two competing phenomena affecting the reactivity of the system. First, there is interaction between each of the 10 wells in the basket-like insert. As the molarity of the nitric acid solution is increased (it moves from 100% water to 100% HNO{sub 3}), the hydrogen atom density decreases by about 80%. However, it remains a relatively efficient moderator. The moderating ratio of nitric acid is about 90% that of water. As the media between the wells is changed from 100% water to 100% nitric acid, the density of the media increases by 50%. A higher density typically leads to a better reflector. However, when the macroscopic scattering cross sections are considered, nitric acid is a much worse reflector than water. The effectiveness of nitric acid as a reflector is about 40% that of water. Since the media between the wells become a worse reflector and still remains an effective moderator, interaction between the wells increases. This phenomenon will cause reactivity to increase as nitric acid molarity increases. The seond phenomenon is due to the moderating ratio changing in the high concentration fissile-nitric acid solution in the 10 wells. Since the wells contain relatively small volumes of high concentration solutions, a small decrease in moderating power has a large effect on reactivity. This is due to the fact that neutrons are more likely to escape the high concentration fissile solution before causing another fission event. The result of this phenomenon is that as nitric acid molarity increases, reactivity decreases. Recent studies have shown that the second phenomenon is indeed the dominating force in determining reactivity changes in relation to nitric acid molarity changes. When considering the system as a whole, as nitric acid molarity increases, reactivity decreases.

  1. Effect of long-term administration of arachidonic acid on n-3 fatty acid deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Harauma, Akiko; Tomita, Makiko; Muto, Daiki; Moriguchi, Toru

    2015-04-01

    The effect of long-term oral administration of arachidonic acid (ARA, 240 mg/kg/day) on brain function was assessed for mice maintained on an n-3 fatty acid adequate or deficient diet. The administration of ARA for 13 weeks resulted in an elevation of spontaneous motor activity, or the tendency thereof, in both the n-3 fatty acid adequate and deficient groups. However, the n-3 fatty acid deficient mice that were administered with ARA revealed marked deterioration in motor function in a motor coordination test. In the experiment to investigate changes over time, the motor activity of the ARA-administered group continued to increase mildly in n-3 deficient mice, although that of the control group showed a decrease involving habituation for both diet groups from the second week. The fatty acid composition of the brain at the end of the behavioral experiments indicated an increase in the levels of ARA and other n-6 fatty acids, as well as a decrease in the levels of docosahexaenoic acid. These results suggest that long-term administration of ARA causes an increase of futile spontaneous motor activity and the diminution of motor function by aggravation of n-3 fatty acid deficiency. PMID:25650363

  2. Effects of acid diffusibility and affinity to cellulose on strength loss of polycarboxylic acid crosslinked fabrics.

    PubMed

    Ji, Bolin; Zhao, Cunyi; Yan, Kelu; Sun, Gang

    2016-06-25

    1,2,3,4-Butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) imparts good anti-wrinkle property to cotton fabrics and results in significant strength loss due to cross-linking and acid degradation of cellulose simultaneously. However, benzophenone-3,3',4,4'- tetracarboxylic acid (BPTCA), an aromatic acid, crosslinks cellulose effectively but causes less strength loss to the products under similar conditions. The difference in damages to cellulose fibers was analyzed by using diffusibility and corresponding affinity of the acids to cellulose fibers, which were estimated by their molecular sizes and Hansen solubility parameters (HSP). Both experimental results and theoretical speculations revealed consistent agreement, indicating that smaller acid molecules could diffuse into cellulose fiber more rapidly and deeply, resulting in more acid degradation. Besides, the aliphatic acid such as BTCA has higher molecular affinity than BPTCA to cellulose, causing additional more degradation of cellulose. Both factors are potential reasons of the observed more severe tensile strength loss of the BTCA treated cotton fabrics. PMID:27083819

  3. Effects of phosphoric acid on the lead-acid battery reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Osamu; Iwakura, Chiaki; Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Tamura, Hideo

    1986-10-01

    The addition of a small amount of phosphoric acid to 5 M H2SO4 (commercial electrolyte of lead-acid batteries) results in various positive effects on the lead-acid battery reactions: (1) depression of the corrosion rate of the lead substrate through a preferential formation of alpha-PbO2 on the substrate surface; (2) retardation of hard sulfate formation or of deactivation of active materials; and (3) change in the crystal morphology of PbSO2 formed on the discharge of PbO2. Most of these effects results from chemisorption of phosphoric acid on PbSO4 crystals produced in the discharge process of PbO2.

  4. Dermatopharmacology of salicylic acid. II. Epidermal antihyperplastic effect of salicylic acid in animals.

    PubMed

    Weirich, E G; Longauer, J K; Kirkwood, A H

    1975-01-01

    The influence of salicylic acid on pathological epithelial proliferation has been evaluated by means of the peidermal hyperplasia inhibition test in the guinea pig. 3% w/w salicylic acid dissolved in ethanol reduced surface epithelial hyperplasia by 15%, i.e. exhibited activity comparable to that of hydrocortisone 0.1% w/w. 1% w/w salicylic acid dissolved in a dimethylacetamide-acetone-ethanol mixture exerted an even greater degree of antihyperplastic activity on the surface epithelium (-18%) and also a marked inhibitory effect on deep epithelial proliferation (-10%). PMID:1228007

  5. Effects of inhaled acids on respiratory tract defense mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Schlesinger, R B

    1985-01-01

    The respiratory tract is endowed with an interlocking array of nonspecific and specific defense mechanisms which protect it from the effects of inhaled microbes and toxicants, and reduce the risk of absorption of materials into the bloodstream, with subsequent systemic translocation. Ambient acids may compromise these defenses, perhaps providing a link between exposure and development of chronic and acute pulmonary disease. This paper reviews the effects of inhaled acids upon the nonspecific clearance system of the lungs. PMID:3908089

  6. Acute effect of ascorbic acid on fibrinolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Bordia, A; Paliwal, D K; Jain, K; Kothari, L K

    1978-08-01

    The acute effect of 1 g oral ascorbic acid on serum fibrinolytic activity was studied in 40 adult males. In Group I (healthy adults) administration of ascorbic acid raised the serum level by about 71%, while the fibrinolytic activity increased to a peak of 137% at 6 h. In patients with CAD (Group II) an essentially similar increase in FA was observed. In Group III, simultaneous administration of ascorbic acid with 100 g fat effectively prevented a fall in fibrinolytic activity and actually raised it by 64% above the fasting level. PMID:568476

  7. GLYCOLIC ACID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, IMPURITIES, AND RADIATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Hay, M.

    2011-06-20

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H{sub 2} and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O{sub 2} when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and

  8. Gastroprotective effect and cytotoxicity of labdeneamides with amino acids.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Jaime A; Theoduloz, Cristina; Valderrama, Jaime A

    2011-03-01

    Semisynthetic aromatic amides from ARAUCARIA ARAUCANA diterpene acids have been shown to display a relevant gastroprotective effect with low cytotoxicity. The aim of this work was to assess the gastroprotective effect of amino acid amides from imbricatolic acid and its 8(9)-en isomer in the ethanol/HCl-induced gastric lesions model in mice as well as to determine the cytotoxicity of the obtained compounds on the following human cell lines: normal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5), gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS), and liver hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2). The diterpenes 15-acetoxyimbricatolic acid, its 8(9)-en isomer, 15-hydroxyimbricatolic acid, and the 8(9)-en derivative, bearing a COOH function at C-19, were used as starting compounds. New amides with C-protected amino acids were prepared. The study reports the effect of a single oral administration of either compound 50 min before the induction of gastric lesions by ethanol/HCl. Some 20 amino acid monoamides were obtained. Dose-response experiments on the glycyl derivatives showed that at a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg, the compounds presented an effect comparable to the reference drug lansoprazole at 20 mg/kg and at 50 mg/kg reduced gastric lesions by about 50%. All derivatives obtained in amounts > 30 mg were compared at a single oral dose of 50 mg/kg. The best gastroprotective effect was observed for the exomethylene derivatives bearing a valine residue at C-19 either with an acetoxy or free hydroxy group at C-15. The tryptophanyl derivative from the acetate belonging to the 8,9-en series presented selective cytotoxicity against hepatocytes. The glycyl amide of 15-acetoxyimbricatolic acid was the most cytotoxic and less selective compound with IC₅₀ values between 47 and 103 µM for the studied cell lines. This is the first report on the obtention of semisynthetic amino acid amides from labdane diterpenes. PMID:20862639

  9. Individual bile acids have differential effects on bile acid signaling in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Peizhen Rockwell, Cheryl E. Cui, Julia Yue Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2015-02-15

    Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate BA synthesis and transport by the farnesoid X receptor in the liver (FXR-SHP) and intestine (FXR-Fgf15). However, the relative importance of individual BAs in regulating these processes is not known. Therefore, mice were fed various doses of five individual BAs, including cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxoycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA), and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in their diets at various concentrations for one week to increase the concentration of one BA in the enterohepatic circulation. The mRNA of BA synthesis and transporting genes in liver and ileum were quantified. In the liver, the mRNA of SHP, which is the prototypical target gene of FXR, increased in mice fed all concentrations of BAs. In the ileum, the mRNA of the intestinal FXR target gene Fgf15 was increased at lower doses and to a higher extent by CA and DCA than by CDCA and LCA. Cyp7a1, the rate-limiting enzyme in BA synthesis, was decreased more by CA and DCA than CDCA and LCA. Cyp8b1, the enzyme that 12-hydroxylates BAs and is thus responsible for the synthesis of CA, was decreased much more by CA and DCA than CDCA and LCA. Surprisingly, neither a decrease in the conjugated BA uptake transporter (Ntcp) nor increase in BA efflux transporter (Bsep) was observed by FXR activation, but an increase in the cholesterol efflux transporter (Abcg5/Abcg8) was observed with FXR activation. Thus in conclusion, CA and DCA are more potent FXR activators than CDCA and LCA when fed to mice, and thus they are more effective in decreasing the expression of the rate limiting gene in BA synthesis Cyp7a1 and the 12-hydroxylation of BAs Cyp8b1, and are also more effective in increasing the expression of Abcg5/Abcg8, which is responsible for biliary cholesterol excretion. However, feeding BAs do not alter the mRNA or protein levels of Ntcp or Bsep, suggesting that the uptake or efflux of BAs is not regulated by FXR at physiological and

  10. Virucidal effect of chlorinated water containing cyanuric acid.

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, T.; Sakae, K.; Ishihara, Y.; Isomura, S.; Inoue, H.

    1988-01-01

    The inhibitory influence of cyanuric acid on the virucidal effect of chlorine was studied. The time required for 99.9% inactivation of ten enteroviruses and two adenoviruses by 0.5 mg/l free available chlorine at pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C was prolonged approximately 4.8-28.8 times by the addition of 30 mg/l cyanuric acid. Comparative inactivation of poliovirus 1 by free available chlorine with or without cyanuric acid revealed the following. The inactivation rate by 1.5 mg/l free available chlorine with 30 mg/l cyanuric acid or by 0.5 mg/l free available chlorine with 1 mg/l cyanuric acid was slower than by 0.5 mg/l free available chlorine alone. Temperature and pH did not affect the inhibitory influence of cyanuric acid on the disinfectant action of chlorine. In the swimming-pool and tap water, cyanuric acid delayed the virucidal effect of chlorine as much as in the 'clean' condition of chlorine-buffered distilled water. The available chlorine value should be increased to 1.5 mg/l when cyanuric acid is used in swimming-pool water. PMID:2850940

  11. Patterns of effective permeability of leaf cuticles to acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, H.D.; Walters, K.D.; Berg, V.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Plants in the field are frequently exposed to anthropogenic acid precipitation with pH values of 4 and below. For the acid to directly affect leaf tissues, it must pass through the leaf cuticle, but little is known about the permeability of cuticles to protons, of about the effect of different anions on this permeability. We investigated the movement of protons through isolated astomatous leaf cuticles of grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi Macfady.), rough lemon (Citrus limon [L.] Burm. fils cv Ponderosa), and pear (Pyrus communis L.) using hydrochloric, sulfuric, and nitric acids. Cuticles were enzymically isolated from leaves and placed in a diffusion apparatus with pH 4 acid on the morphological outer surface of the cuticle and degassed distilled water on the inner surface. Changes in pH of the solution on the inner surface were used to determine rates of effective permeability of the cuticles to the protons of these acids. Most cuticles exhibited an initial low permeability, lasting hours to days, then after a short transition displayed a significant higher permeability, which persisted until equilibrium was approached. The change in effective permeability appears to be reversible. Effective permeabilities were higher for sulfuric acid than for the others. A model of the movement of protons through the cuticle is presented, proposing that dissociated acid groups in channels within the cutin are first protonated by the acid, accounting for the low initial effective permeability; then protons pass freely through the channels, resulting in a higher effective permeability. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Effect of ascorbic acid on the human electroencephalogram.

    PubMed

    Kerxhalli, J S; Vogel, W; Broverman, D M; Klaiber, E L

    1975-10-01

    Controversy exists over whether ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in doses in excess of known physiological requirements has demonstrable biological effects. The present study reports that such megadoses of vitamin C do significantly effect an objective electrophysiological measure, i.e., electroencephalogram (EEG) driving responses to photic stimulation. Four thousand milligrams of vitamin C administered 27 and 3 hours prior to assessment produced an effect on the EEGs of 18 healthy adolescent human males that was significantly different from a placebo. Fifty milligrams of ascorbic acid administered in this manner did not produce an effect on the EEG significantly different from placebo administration. PMID:1099176

  13. Effects of high pressure on unsaturated fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povedano, Isabel; Guignon, Bérengère; Montoro, Óscar R.; Sanz, Pedro D.; Taravillo, Mercedes; Baonza, Valentín G.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of high pressure processing on the molecular structure of some unsaturated fatty acids. Samples of elaidic acid, linoleic acid, ZE and EE conjugated linoleic acid are treated at 293 or 333 K at pressures up to 700 MPa. It is observed that the adiabatic heat generated from compression is able to bring the sample temperature above 373 K after 700 MPa. These relatively extreme conditions are of great interest for food sterilization, but they may induce undesirable change in fatty acid quality characteristics. To check for structural changes, Raman spectra of the samples are analysed after treatments. The comparison with Raman spectra of samples kept at atmospheric pressure shows that pressure induces some conformational changes at the hydrocarbon skeleton in solid samples, while the liquid ones remain unchanged. No cis/trans isomerization occurs, but gauche conformers are likely to be present.

  14. The effect of hyaluronic acid on brushite cement cohesion.

    PubMed

    Alkhraisat, M H; Rueda, C; Mariño, F T; Torres, J; Jerez, L B; Gbureck, U; Cabarcos, E L

    2009-10-01

    The improvement of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) cohesion is essential for its application in highly blood perfused regions. This study reports the effectiveness of hyaluronic acids of different molecular weights in the enhancement of brushite cement cohesion. The cement was prepared using a powder phase composed of a mixture of beta-tricalcium phosphate and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate, whereas the liquid phase was formed by 0.5M citric acid solution modified by the addition of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights. It was found that medium and high molecular weight hyaluronic acid enhances the cement cohesion and scarcely affects the cement mechanical properties. However, concentrations >0.5% (w/v) were less efficient to prevent the cement disintegration. It is concluded that hyaluronic acid could be applied efficiently to reduce brushite cement disintegration. PMID:19409871

  15. EFFECT OF TETRACYCLINES ON THE INTRACELLULAR AMINO ACIDS OF MOLDS.

    PubMed

    FREEMAN, B A; CIRCO, R

    1963-07-01

    Freeman, Bob A. (University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.) and Richard Circo. Effect of tetracyclines on the intracellular amino acids of molds. J. Bacteriol. 86:38-44. 1963.-The tetracycline antibiotics were shown to alter the amino acid metabolism of molds whose growth is not markedly affected. Eight molds were grown in the presence of these antiobiotics; four exhibited a general reduction in the concentration of the intracellular amino acids, except for glutamic acid and alanine. In most of these four cultures, the tetracyclines also caused the complete disappearance of arginine, lysine, proline, phenylalanine, and tyrosine from the intracellular amino acid pool. The significance of these observations and the usefulness of the method in the study of the mechanisms of antibiotic action are discussed. PMID:14051820

  16. Effect of phytic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and chitosan solutions on microhardness of the human radicular dentin

    PubMed Central

    Nikhil, Vineeta; Jaiswal, Shikha; Bansal, Parul; Arora, Rohit; Raj, Shalya; Malhotra, Pulkit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phytic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and chitosan solutions on the microhardness of human radicular dentin. Materials and Methods: Thirty dentin specimens were randomly divided into three groups of 10 specimens each according to the irrigant used: G1 — 1% phytic acid, G2 — 17% EDTA, and G3 — 0.2% chitosan. A standardized volume of each chelating solution was used for 3 min. Dentin microhardness was measured before and after application at the cervical, middle, and apical levels with a Vickers indenter under a 200-g load and a 10-s dwell time. The results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student's t test. Results: Microhardness of the radicular dentin varied at the cervical, middle, and apical levels. EDTA had the greatest overall effect, causing a sharp percentage reduction in dentin microhardness with a significant difference from phytic acid and chitosan (P = 0.002). However, phytic acid and chitosan differed insignificantly from each other (P = 0.887). Conclusion: All tested chelating solutions reduced microhardness of the radicular dentin layer at all the levels. However, reduction was least at the apical level. EDTA caused more reduction in dentin microhardness than chitosan while phytic acid reduced the least. PMID:27099428

  17. Effect of the Presence of Carbohydrates during Acid Hydrolysis upon the Subsequent Recovery Free Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, John; Presley, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Amino acid analysis is a classic biochemical technique which has been well characterized with pure protein samples. Much less is known about the effect of the presence other substances in hydrolyzed heterogeneous samples upon the final results. At the Molecular Structure Facility at UCDavis (MSF), we examined amino acid recovery following hydrolysis to determine if the presence of carbohydrates during hydrolysis influenced the recovery of the amino acids. The MSF works with a diverse sample set for different customers and have a keen interest if any of the many substances present in the sample can influence the final results. A typical sample is subjected to 6N HCl for 24hr at 110°C then brought back up in an acidic diluent to run on our dedicated Hitachi 8800 which utilizes ion-exchange chromatography with a post-column reaction with ninhydrin for quantification of each amino acid. We used this typical/routine hydrolysis in our experiments. One technique which is often employed to promote complete hydrolysis is to presoak the sample in dilute acid was also examined. Using various model proteins as well as varying percentages of carbohydrates we demonstrated that the presence of carbohydrates has little effect on the recovery of protein across a wide range of concentrations.

  18. Enzymatic polymerization of natural anacardic acid and antibiofouling effects of polyanacardic acid coatings.

    PubMed

    Chelikani, Rahul; Kim, Yong Hwan; Yoon, Do-Young; Kim, Dong-Shik

    2009-05-01

    Anacardic acid, separated from cashew nut shell liquid, is well known for its strong antibiotic and antioxidant activities. Recent findings indicate that phenolic compounds from plant sources have an effect on Gram-negative bacteria biofilm formation. In this work, a polyphenolic coating was prepared from anacardic acid using enzymatic synthesis and tested for its effects on biofilm formation of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Natural anacardic acid was enzymatically polymerized using soybean peroxidase. Hydrogen peroxide and phenothiazine-10-propionic acid were used as an oxidizing agent and redox mediator, respectively. Nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses showed the formation of oxyphenylene and phenylene units through the phenol rings. No linkage through the alkyl chain was observed, which proved a high chemo-selectivity of the enzyme. Aqueous solvents turned out to play an important role in the polymer production yield and molecular weight. With 2-propanol, the highest production yield (61%) of polymer (molecular weight = 3,900) was observed, and with methanol, higher-molecular-weight polymers (5,000) were produced with lower production yields (43%). The resulting polyanacardic acid was cross-linked on a solid surface to form a permanent natural polymer coating. The FTIR analysis indicates that the cross-linking between the polymers took place through the unsaturated alkyl side chains. The polyanacardic acid coating was then tested for its antibiofouling effect against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and compared with the antibiofouling effects of polycardanol coatings reported in the literature. The polyanacardic acid coating showed more reduction in biofilm formation on its surface than polycardanol coatings in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, while in the case of Gram-negative bacteria, it showed a similar reduction in biofilm formation as polycardanol. PMID:18592408

  19. Effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk in the offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intrauterine and early life exposure to folic acid has significantly increased in North America owing to folic acid fortification, widespread supplemental use and periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk ...

  20. Opposite regulation of CD36 ubiquitination by fatty acids and insulin: effects on fatty acid uptake.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jill; Su, Xiong; El-Maghrabi, Raafat; Stahl, Philip D; Abumrad, Nada A

    2008-05-16

    FAT/CD36 is a membrane scavenger receptor that facilitates long chain fatty acid uptake by muscle. Acute increases in membrane CD36 and fatty acid uptake have been reported in response to insulin and contraction. In this study we have explored protein ubiquitination as one potential mechanism for the regulation of CD36 level. CD36 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) or HEK 293 cells was found to be polyubiquitinated via a process involving both lysines 48 and 63 of ubiquitin. Using CHO cells expressing the insulin receptor (CHO/hIR) and CD36, it is shown that addition of insulin (100 nm, 10 and 30 min) significantly reduced CD36 ubiquitination. In contrast, ubiquitination was strongly enhanced by fatty acids (200 microm palmitate or oleate, 2 h). Similarly, endogenous CD36 in C2C12 myotubes was ubiquitinated, and this was enhanced by oleic acid treatment, which also reduced total CD36 protein in cell lysates. Insulin reduced CD36 ubiquitination, increased CD36 protein, and inhibited the opposite effects of fatty acids on both parameters. These changes were paralleled by changes in fatty acid uptake, which could be blocked by the CD36 inhibitor sulfosuccinimidyl oleate. Mutation of the two lysine residues in the carboxyl-terminal tail of CD36 markedly attenuated ubiquitination of the protein expressed in CHO cells and was associated with increased CD36 level and enhanced oleate uptake and incorporation into triglycerides. In conclusion, fatty acids and insulin induce opposite alterations in CD36 ubiquitination, modulating CD36 level and fatty acid uptake. Altered CD36 turnover may contribute to abnormal fatty acid uptake in the insulin-resistant muscle. PMID:18353783

  1. Effect of hyaluronic acid on chondrocyte apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Ronald Bispo; Sadigursky, David; de Rezende, Marcia Uchoa; Hernandez, Arnaldo José

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the percentage of apoptotic cells in a contusion model of osteoarthritis (OA) and to assess whether intra-articular injection of high doses of hyaluronic acid (HA) immediately after trauma reduces chondrocyte apoptosis. METHODS: Forty knees from adult rabbits were impacted thrice with a 1 kg block released through a 1 meter tall cylinder (29.4 Joules). Subsequently, 2 mL of HA was injected in one knee and 2 mL saline in the contra-lateral knee. Medication were administered twice a week for 30 days, when animals were sacrificed. Specimens were prepared for optical microscopy exam and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase end labeling assay (TUNEL). RESULTS: The apoptosis rate in the contusion model was 68.01% (± 19.73%), a higher rate than previously described. HA significantly reduced the rate of apoptosis to 53.52% (± 18.09) (p <0.001). CONCLUSION: Intra-articular HA administration started immediately after trauma reduces impact-induced chondrocyte apoptosis rates in rabbits. Level of Evidence I, Experimental Study. PMID:27069407

  2. [Inhibitory effects of organic acids and salts on selected micromycetes].

    PubMed

    Láníková, A; Toulová, M

    1992-12-01

    Inhibitory effects of two fungistatic preparations (A and B) and of propionic acid were tested in a complete feed mixture for broiler chickens (starter mixture). The water content of this mixture was 25.4%, environmental temperature was 24 degrees C and relative air humidity 90%. Propionic acid, which has a high fungistatic effect, served as a standard. The composition of the preparation A was as follows: propionic acid, acetic acid, sorbic acid, citric acid and calcium propionate. The preparation B contained: sorbic acid, citric acid and calcium propionate. Examinations were performed in a naturally contaminated and subsequently sterilized (25 kGy) feed mixture; it was then infected with Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. parasiticus and Penicillium purpurogenum from the Collection of Animal Pathogenic Microorganisms, Brno. A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. glaucus, Penicillium sp., Absidia corymbifera, Mucor sp., Rhizomucor pusillus were detected in the naturally contaminated feed mixture. The mycoflora which was found in the native substrate was resistant to both tested fungistatic preparations; and this resulted in mycelium growth from 7th day of incubation. The efficiency of the preparations A,B and of propionic acid in the feed mixture was identical at concentrations of 4 mg/kg, 7 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg, respectively, and their inhibitory effects were lowest at these concentrations (Fig. 2). A high water content in the nutrient substrate resulted in the rapid growth of fungi of the Mucorales species. The relative humidity of the environment (90%) and water content of tested samples affected markedly micromycetes growth in this experiment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1297244

  3. Solvent effects in acid-catalyzed biomass conversion reactions.

    PubMed

    Mellmer, Max A; Sener, Canan; Gallo, Jean Marcel R; Luterbacher, Jeremy S; Alonso, David Martin; Dumesic, James A

    2014-10-27

    Reaction kinetics were studied to quantify the effects of polar aprotic organic solvents on the acid-catalyzed conversion of xylose into furfural. A solvent of particular importance is γ-valerolactone (GVL), which leads to significant increases in reaction rates compared to water in addition to increased product selectivity. GVL has similar effects on the kinetics for the dehydration of 1,2-propanediol to propanal and for the hydrolysis of cellobiose to glucose. Based on results obtained for homogeneous Brønsted acid catalysts that span a range of pKa values, we suggest that an aprotic organic solvent affects the reaction kinetics by changing the stabilization of the acidic proton relative to the protonated transition state. This same behavior is displayed by strong solid Brønsted acid catalysts, such as H-mordenite and H-beta. PMID:25214063

  4. Acid rain effects on aluminum mobilization clarified by inclusion of strong organic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; Sutherland, J.W.; Boylen, C.W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. W.; Momen, B.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of acidic deposition effects on aquatic ecosystems have often been hindered by complications from naturally occurring organic acidity. Measurements of pH and ANCG, the most commonly used indicators of chemical effects, can be substantially influenced by the presence of organic acids. Relationships between pH and inorganic Al, which is toxic to many forms of aquatic biota, are also altered by organic acids. However, when inorganic Al concentrations are plotted against ANC (the sum of Ca2+, Mg 2+, Na+, and K+, minus SO42-, NO3-, and Cl-), a distinct threshold for Al mobilization becomes apparent. If the concentration of strong organic anions is included as a negative component of ANC, the threshold occurs at an ANC value of approximately zero, the value expected from theoretical charge balance constraints. This adjusted ANC is termed the base-cation surplus. The threshold relationship between the base-cation surplus and Al was shown with data from approximately 200 streams in the Adirondack region of New York, during periods with low and high dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and for an additional stream from the Catskill region of New York. These results indicate that (1) strong organic anions can contribute to the mobilization of inorganic Al in combination with SO42- and NO 3-, and (2) the presence of inorganic Al in surface waters is an unambiguous indication of acidic deposition effects. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  5. The effect of propionic acid and valeric acid on the cell cycle in root meristems of Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Tramontano, W.A.; Yang, Shauyu; Delillo, A.R. )

    1990-01-01

    Propionic acid and valeric acid at 1mM reduced the mitotic index of root meristem cells of Pisum sativum to < 1% after 12 hr in aerated White's medium. This effect varied with different acid concentrations. After a 12 hr exposure to either acid, seedlings transferred to fresh medium without either acid, resumed their normal mitotic index after 12 hr, with a burst of mitosis 8 hr post-transfer. Exposure of root meristem cells to either acid also inhibited ({sup 3}H)-TdR incorporation. Neither acid significantly altered the distribution of meristematic cells in G1 and G2 after 12 hr. The incorporation of ({sup 3}H) - uridine was also unaltered by the addition of either acid. This information suggests that propionic acid and valeric acid, limit progression through the cell cycle by inhibiting DNA synthesis and arresting cells in G1 and G2. These results were consistent with previous data which utilized butyric acid.

  6. Effect of Acidity of a Medium on Riboflavin Photodestruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astanov, S. Kh.; Turdiev, M.; Sharipov, M. Z.; Kurtaliev, É. N.; Nizomov, N. N.

    2016-03-01

    Effect of acidity of a medium on the spectroscopic characteristics of riboflavin aqueous solutions is investigated by the method of fluorescent and absorption spectroscopy. Significant deformation of the electronic spectra of riboflavin aqueous solutions irradiated with unfiltered light of a PRK-2 lamp is observed. It is established that riboflavin photostability in an acid medium is about twice as much as the photostability in a neutral medium, which is caused by the formation of a protonated species.

  7. Effects of cholic acid infusion in fetal lambs.

    PubMed

    Campos, G A; Guerra, F A; Israel, E J

    1986-01-01

    The effects of prolonged intravenous infusions of cholic acid into fetal lambs are described in this study. The ewes (n = 10, 11 fetuses) were operated on at 114 days of gestation (term = 150 days) by placing plastic catheters in maternal and fetal vessels and in the amniotic cavity. Gestational ages were confirmed after delivery by radiographic examination of the ossification centers of the fetal legs. Infusions of cholic acid (1.6 mumoles/min-1) started 8 to 10 days after surgery in 5 fetuses (including one twin). The remaining 6 fetuses (also including one twin) were infused with 5% dextrose in water. Total plasma bile acids at the beginning of the experiment were similar in both groups (23.8 +/- 6.6 vs. 24.3 +/- 5.7 microM). No significant changes in fetal heart rate, blood pressure, blood gases or pH were detected during the infusion. Meconium-stained amniotic fluid was observed during the third day of infusion in all the fetuses infused with cholic acid and in one control fetus. Fetuses infused with cholic acid were delivered alive 19-26 days before term. The concentration of plasma bile acids in the experimental group at delivery was 829 +/- 305 microM, i.e. significantly higher than that of the control group (24.4 +/- 5.7 microM). Control fetuses (except one twin) were delivered at term. We concluded that cholic acid, even at the high dose infused, is neither lethal nor severely harmful for the fetus. Meconium passage of the fetuses infused with cholic acid, in our experiment, appeared to be related to the stimulatory effect of cholic acid on fetal colonic motility rather than to fetal hypoxia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3716776

  8. An Inquiry into the Effect of Heating on Ascorbic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din Yan

    2009-01-01

    Investigations that study the effect of heating on ascorbic acid are commonly performed in schools, but the conclusions obtained are quite variable and controversial. Some results indicate that heating may destroy vitamin C, but others suggest that heating may have no effect. This article reports an attempt to resolve this confusion through a…

  9. Carryover effects of dichloroacetic acid on hepatic tumorigenesis in mice.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a major by-product of drinking water chlorination. Chronic DCA exposure has been shown to increase liver tumors in mice, although carryover effects and interactions with other promotional agents are not known. Here we evaluated effects...

  10. Combinatorial Effects of Fatty Acid Elongase Enzymes on Nervonic Acid Production in Camelina sativa

    PubMed Central

    Huai, Dongxin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chunyu; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Zhou, Yongming

    2015-01-01

    Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) with chain lengths of 20 carbons and longer provide feedstocks for various applications; therefore, improvement of VLCFA contents in seeds has become an important goal for oilseed enhancement. VLCFA biosynthesis is controlled by a multi-enzyme protein complex referred to as fatty acid elongase, which is composed of β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), β-ketoacyl-CoA reductase (KCR), β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase (HCD) and enoyl reductase (ECR). KCS has been identified as the rate-limiting enzyme, but little is known about the involvement of other three enzymes in VLCFA production. Here, the combinatorial effects of fatty acid elongase enzymes on VLCFA production were assessed by evaluating the changes in nervonic acid content. A KCS gene from Lunaria annua (LaKCS) and the other three elongase genes from Arabidopsis thaliana were used for the assessment. Five seed-specific expressing constructs, including LaKCS alone, LaKCS with AtKCR, LaKCS with AtHCD, LaKCS with AtECR, and LaKCS with AtKCR and AtHCD, were transformed into Camelina sativa. The nervonic acid content in seed oil increased from null in wild type camelina to 6-12% in LaKCS-expressing lines. However, compared with that from the LaKCS-expressing lines, nervonic acid content in mature seeds from the co-expressing lines with one or two extra elongase genes did not show further increases. Nervonic acid content from LaKCS, AtKCR and AtHCD co-expressing line was significantly higher than that in LaKCS-expressing line during early seed development stage, while the ultimate nervonic acid content was not significantly altered. The results from this study thus provide useful information for future engineering of oilseed crops for higher VLCFA production. PMID:26121034

  11. Combinatorial Effects of Fatty Acid Elongase Enzymes on Nervonic Acid Production in Camelina sativa.

    PubMed

    Huai, Dongxin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chunyu; Cahoon, Edgar B; Zhou, Yongming

    2015-01-01

    Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) with chain lengths of 20 carbons and longer provide feedstocks for various applications; therefore, improvement of VLCFA contents in seeds has become an important goal for oilseed enhancement. VLCFA biosynthesis is controlled by a multi-enzyme protein complex referred to as fatty acid elongase, which is composed of β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), β-ketoacyl-CoA reductase (KCR), β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase (HCD) and enoyl reductase (ECR). KCS has been identified as the rate-limiting enzyme, but little is known about the involvement of other three enzymes in VLCFA production. Here, the combinatorial effects of fatty acid elongase enzymes on VLCFA production were assessed by evaluating the changes in nervonic acid content. A KCS gene from Lunaria annua (LaKCS) and the other three elongase genes from Arabidopsis thaliana were used for the assessment. Five seed-specific expressing constructs, including LaKCS alone, LaKCS with AtKCR, LaKCS with AtHCD, LaKCS with AtECR, and LaKCS with AtKCR and AtHCD, were transformed into Camelina sativa. The nervonic acid content in seed oil increased from null in wild type camelina to 6-12% in LaKCS-expressing lines. However, compared with that from the LaKCS-expressing lines, nervonic acid content in mature seeds from the co-expressing lines with one or two extra elongase genes did not show further increases. Nervonic acid content from LaKCS, AtKCR and AtHCD co-expressing line was significantly higher than that in LaKCS-expressing line during early seed development stage, while the ultimate nervonic acid content was not significantly altered. The results from this study thus provide useful information for future engineering of oilseed crops for higher VLCFA production. PMID:26121034

  12. Gallic acid and gallic acid derivatives: effects on drug metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ow, Yin-Yin; Stupans, Ieva

    2003-06-01

    Gallic acid and its structurally related compounds are found widely distributed in fruits and plants. Gallic acid, and its catechin derivatives are also present as one of the main phenolic components of both black and green tea. Esters of gallic acid have a diverse range of industrial uses, as antioxidants in food, in cosmetics and in the pharmaceutical industry. In addition, gallic acid is employed as a source material for inks, paints and colour developers. Studies utilising these compounds have found them to possess many potential therapeutic properties including anti-cancer and antimicrobial properties. In this review, studies of the effects of gallic acid, its esters, and gallic acid catechin derivatives on Phase I and Phase II enzymes are examined. Many published reports of the effects of the in vitro effects of gallic acid and its derivatives on drug metabolising enzymes concern effects directly on substrate (generally drug or mutagen) metabolism or indirectly through observed effects in Ames tests. In the case of the Ames test an antimutagenic effect may be observed through inhibition of CYP activation of indirectly acting mutagens and/or by scavenging of metabolically generated mutagenic electrophiles. There has been considerable interest in the in vivo effects of the gallate esters because of their incorporation into foodstuffs as antioxidants and in the catechin gallates with their potential role as chemoprotective agents. Principally an induction of Phase II enzymes has been observed however more recent studies using HepG2 cells and primary cultures of human hepatocytes provide evidence for the overall complexity of actions of individual components versus complex mixtures, such as those in food. Further systematic studies of mechanisms of induction and inhibition of drug metabolising enzymes by this group of compounds are warranted in the light of their distribution and consequent ingestion, current uses and suggested therapeutic potential. However, it

  13. Effects of lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid on 4-aminophenol-mediated erythrocytic toxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Michael D; Williams, Charlotte; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2006-09-01

    The effects of the antioxidant lipoic acid and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), were studied on the process of the erythrocytic toxicity of 4-aminophenol in human erythrocytes in vitro. 4-Aminophenol alone caused a stepwise increase in methaemoglobin formation, along with a commensurate decrease in total thiols. At 10 min., in the presence of lipoic acid alone and the thiol depletor 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) alone, 4-aminophenol-mediated methaemoglobin formation was significantly increased, whilst thiol levels were significantly reduced compared with the 4-aminophenol alone. At 10 min., with DHLA and CDNB alone, 4-aminophenol was associated with significantly increased methaemoglobin formation. However, thiol levels were not significantly different in the presence of DHLA compared with 4-aminophenol alone, although thiol levels were different compared with control (4-aminophenol alone) in the incubations with CDNB alone. At 15 min., only CDNB/4-aminophenol methaemoglobin formation differed from control, whilst thiol levels were significantly lower in the presence of CDNB alone compared with 4-aminophenol alone. Lipoic acid enhanced the toxicity of 4-aminophenol in terms of increased methaemoglobin formation coupled with increased thiol depletion, whilst DHLA showed increased 4-aminophenol-mediated methaemoglobin formation without thiol depletion. Lipoic acid, and to a lesser extent its reduced derivative DHLA, acted as a prooxidant in the presence of 4-aminophenol, enhancing the oxidative stress effects of the amine in human erythrocytes. PMID:16930295

  14. Opposing effects of bile acids deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid on signal transduction pathways in oesophageal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Reynolds, John V

    2016-09-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was reported to reduce bile acid toxicity, but the mechanisms underlying its cytoprotective effects are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of UDCA on the modulation of deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced signal transduction in oesophageal cancer cells. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity was assessed using a gel shift assay. NF-κB activation and translocation was performed using an ELISA-based assay and immunofluorescence analysis. COX-2 expression was analysed by western blotting and COX-2 promoter activity was assessed by luciferase assay. DCA induced NF-κB and AP-1 DNA-binding activities in SKGT-4 and OE33 cells. UDCA pretreatment inhibited DCA-induced NF-κB and AP-1 activation and NF-κB translocation. This inhibitory effect was coupled with a blockade of IκB-α degradation and inhibition of phosphorylation of IKK-α/β and ERK1/2. Moreover, UDCA pretreatment inhibited COX-2 upregulation. Using transient transfection of the COX-2 promoter, UDCA pretreatment abrogated DCA-induced COX-2 promoter activation. In addition, UDCA protected oesophageal cells from the apoptotic effects of deoxycholate. Our findings indicate that UDCA inhibits DCA-induced signalling pathways in oesophageal cancer cells. These data indicate a possible mechanistic role for the chemopreventive actions of UDCA in oesophageal carcinogenesis. PMID:26378497

  15. Effects of Lipoic Acid on Acrylamide Induced Testicular Damage

    PubMed Central

    Lebda, Mohamed; Gad, Shereen; Gaafar, Hossam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acrylamide is very toxic to various organs and associated with significant increase of oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidants. Alpha-lipoic acid enhances cellular antioxidant defense capacity, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress. Aim of the study: This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of alpha-lipoic acid on the oxidative damage induced by acrylamide in testicular and epididymal tissues. Material and methods: Forty adult male rats were divided into four groups (10 rats each). Control group; acrylamide treated group administered acrylamide 0.05% (w/v) in drinking water for 21 days; alpha-lipoic acid group received basal diet supplemented with 1% alpha-lipoic acid and forth group was exposed to acrylamide and treated with alpha-lipoic acid at the same doses and treatment regimen mentioned before. Results: The administration of acrylamide resulted in significant elevation in testicular and epididymal malondialdehyde level (MDA) and significant reduction in the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR). Also, acrylamide significantly reduced serum total testosterone and progesterone but increased estradiol (E2) levels. Treatment with alpha-lipoic acid prior to acrylamide induced protective effects and attenuated these biochemical changes. Conclusion: Alpha-lipoic acid has been shown to possess antioxidant properties offering promising efficacy against oxidative stress induced by acrylamide administration. PMID:25126019

  16. Effects of acidity and ozone on airway epithelium. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, D.; Wang, A.; Cone, R.; Cohen, S.

    1991-12-01

    The study examined the in vitro effects of acidity and/or ozone on primary cultures of guinea pig airway epithelial cells. Surface acidification to pH 6 or pH 5, reduced protein synthesis and induced the synthesis of two stress proteins: hsp 72 and grp 78. No such effect was produced by nitric acid vapor (50 to 18,000 micrograms/cum). Acid exposure did not affect cytotoxicity or glycoconjugate, fibronectin or TGF(beta) synthesis or secretion. Exposure of these cells to ozone (0.05 - 0.2 ppm) caused concentration-dependent cytotoxicity and decreased protein synthesis, but produced no other detectable effects on cellular metabolism.

  17. Dietary hyodeoxycholic acid exerts hypolipidemic effects by reducing farnesoid X receptor antagonist bile acids in mouse enterohepatic tissues.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shiro; Fujita, Kyosuke

    2014-10-01

    Mice were fed a control diet or a diet supplemented with hyodeoxycholic acid, the most abundant bile acid contained in pig bile, for 4 weeks, after which their serum and livers were collected. The contents of total fatty acids of serum and liver cholesteryl esters, and of liver triglycerides, were reduced following the administration of the hyodeoxycholic acid-supplemented diet, which was mainly due to the reductions in the contents of monounsaturated fatty acids. Free cholesterol contents in the serum and liver were not changed by hyodeoxycholic acid administration. Hyodeoxycholic acid administration reduced the gene expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1. Hyodeoxycholic acid administration markedly changes the ratio of FXR-antagonist/FXR-agonist bile acids in the enterohepatic tissues of the mice (1.13 and 7.60 in hyodeoxycholic acid and control diet groups, respectively). Our findings demonstrate that hyodeoxycholic acid administration exerts the hypolipidemic effect in mice, in which downregulations of de novo lipogenesis and desaturation of saturated fatty acids are suggested to play important roles. In addition, regulation of FXR activation through the selective modification of the enterohepatic bile acid pool may be involved in the hypolipidemic effect of hyodeoxycholic acid administration. PMID:25189147

  18. Photosensitizing effect of cations on amino acids and peptides.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, N P; Khenokh, M A

    1969-01-01

    In connection with a study of the chemical evolution of abiogenically synthesized organic compounds on primitive Earth and the physical conditions of other planets, this paper reports the experimental results obtained by the photolysis of solutions of aliphatic amino acids (glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, n. leucine) and peptides in the atmosphere of the air, N2, Ar and CO2 in the presence of the most simple photocatalyzers-cations of sulphates. The evidence shows that the photochemical conversion of NH2 acids depends on the content of the atmosphere. The decay of NH2-group is most active in air. N2 and Ar exert no significant influence on deamination, whereas in the atmosphere of CO2 the formation of ammonia in valine, for example, was only 29 per cent of its total amount during photolysis in the air. Cu2+ and Fe2+ catalyzed while Al3+ inhibited the ammonia excretion. The formation of acetaldehyde during alanine photolysis was actually independent from the atmosphere of N2 and was inhibited in Ar and CO2. Oxydative processes inducing the formation of glyoxalic acid and formaldehyde were sharply inhibited in Ar, N2 and CO2. Under the influence of ultraviolet light of the decay of NH2-acids is also accompanied by the formation of new NH2-acids. The photosensitizing effect of cations induces a rupture of -CO-NH-bonds in peptides and, provided heavy radiation doses, prevents the formation of new NH2-acids. The longer the dipeptide chain, the more significant the quantum yield of its decomposition. The photolysis of dipeptides, leading to their decay, does not necessarily induce a hydrolytic rupture of -CO-NH-bonds resulting in the formation of three amino acids. The results obtained permit approaching problems concerning the effect of the gas content of the atmosphere and various cations (photocatalyzers) on photolytic conversion of abiogenically synthesized and biogenically significant substances, amino acids for example, at the action of ultraviolet light. PMID

  19. Polymeric complexes of isonicotinic acid hydrazide with antituberculosis effects.

    PubMed

    Slivkin, A I; Lapenko, V L; Bychuk, A I; Suslina, S N; Slivkin, D A; Kornienko, S V; Belenova, A S

    2013-10-01

    We studied the effects of an analogue of isonicotinic acid hydrazide on the treatment course of experimental tuberculosis. Complex analysis has demonstrated the efficiency of isonicotinic acid hydrazide immobilized on a carrier that consisted of water-soluble cation-active analogue of chitosan (N-chlorohydroxypropyl chitosan) in a complex with cobalt ions in the therapy of experimental tuberculosis. Immunostimulating activity of the polymeric metal complex was revealed. The obtained data can be used for the development of highly effective methods for tuberculosis treatment. PMID:24288761

  20. Enhancement effect of poly(amino acid)s on insulin uptake in alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Oda, Keisuke; Yumoto, Ryoko; Nagai, Junya; Katayama, Hirokazu; Takano, Mikihisa

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we elucidated the effect of poly(amino acid)s such as poly-L-ornithine (PLO) on FITC-insulin uptake in cultured alveolar type II epithelial cells, RLE-6TN. FITC-insulin uptake by RLE-6TN cells as well as its cell surface binding was markedly increased by PLO without cytotoxicity. The uptake of FITC-insulin in the presence of PLO was shown to be mediated by endocytosis, but in contrast to the uptake in the absence of PLO, the contribution of macropinocytosis emerged. Colocalization of FITC-insulin and LysoTracker Red was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy both in the absence and presence of PLO, indicating that FITC-insulin was partly targeted to lysosomes in the cells and degraded. The half-life of the intracellular degradation of FITC-insulin was, however, prolonged by the presence of PLO. PLO also stimulated the uptake of other FITC-labeled compounds. Among them, the enhancement effects of PLO on FITC-albumin and FITC-insulin uptake were prominent. The effect of PLO on insulin absorption was also examined in in-vivo pulmonary administration in rats, and co-administration of PLO enhanced the hypoglycemic action of insulin. These findings suggest that co-administration of poly(amino acid)s such as PLO is a useful strategy for enhancing insulin uptake by alveolar epithelial cells and subsequent absorption from the lung. PMID:22510869

  1. 1997 Canadian acid rain assessment. Volume 3: Aquatic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, D.S.

    1997-12-31

    This report is an assessment of information on the aquatic effects of acid rain, produced to act as technical support for development of an acid rain strategy. It first reviews the previous aquatic effects assessment of 1990 and aquatic effects monitoring and research conducted post-1990. It then presents and discusses results of research that proceeds from the knowledge base and status presented in the 1990 assessment. First, the chemical and biological changes observed in aquatic ecosystems since the early 1980s are assessed, including an analysis of the factors (such as declining acidic deposition) that influence the changes. Regional differences and hysteresis between acidification and recovery responses are also discussed. Second, interactions between the acidity stressor and other atmospherically based stressors such as climate change and contaminant deposition are considered. Third, the effectiveness of existing critical and target loads in protecting aquatic ecosystems is re-evaluated. Finally, the likely effect of full implementation of the planned sulphur dioxide controls in Canada and the United States on aquatic chemistry and biology is predicted using up-to-date modelling tools. Knowledge gaps are identified along with recommended actions to be implemented.

  2. Effect of inclusion complex on nitrous acid reaction with flavonoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalafi, Lida; Rafiee, Mohammad; Sedaghat, Sajjad

    2011-10-01

    The kinetic of the nitrous acid reactions with quercetin and catechin has been studied using spectrophotometric method in aqueous solution. The results show that these antioxidants participate in oxidation reactions with nitrous acid which is derived from protonation of nitrite ion in mild acidic conditions. Corresponding o-quinones as relatively stable products were detected by spectrophotometric techniques. pH dependence of the reactions has been examined and the rate constants of reactions were obtained by non-linear fitting of kinetic profiles. The effect of β-cyclodextrin on the oxidation pathway was another object of this study. It is shown that β-cyclodextrin has an inhibitory effect on the oxidation reaction. The rate constants of oxidation reactions for complexed forms and their stability constants were obtained based on changes in the reaction rates as a function of β-cyclodextrin concentration.

  3. Bile Acids Improve the Antimicrobial Effect of Rifaximin▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Darkoh, Charles; Lichtenberger, Lenard M.; Ajami, Nadim; Dial, Elizabeth J.; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; DuPont, Herbert L.

    2010-01-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most common infirmities affecting international travelers, occurring in 20 to 50% of persons from industrialized countries visiting developing regions. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common causative agent and is isolated from approximately half of the cases of traveler's diarrhea. Rifaximin, a largely water-insoluble, nonabsorbable (<0.4%) antibiotic that inhibits bacterial RNA synthesis, is approved for use for the treatment of traveler's diarrhea caused by diarrheagenic E. coli. However, the drug has minimal effect on the bacterial flora or the infecting E. coli strain in the aqueous environment of the colon. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect and bioavailability of rifaximin in aqueous solution in the presence and absence of physiologic concentrations of bile acids. The methods used included growth measurement of ETEC (strain H10407), rifaximin solubility measurements, total bacterial protein determination, and assessment of the functional activity of rifaximin by monitoring inhibition of bacterial β-galactosidase expression. Solubility studies showed rifaximin to be 70- to 120-fold more soluble in bile acids (approximately 30% in 4 mM bile acids) than in aqueous solution. Addition of both purified bile acids and human bile to rifaximin at subinhibitory and inhibitory concentrations significantly improved the drug's anti-ETEC effect by 71% and 73%, respectively, after 4 h. This observation was confirmed by showing a decrease in the overall amount of total bacterial protein expressed during incubation of rifaximin plus bile acids. Rifaximin-treated samples containing bile acids inhibited the expression of ETEC β-galactosidase at a higher magnitude than samples that did not contain bile acids. The study provides data showing that bile acids solubilize rifaximin on a dose-response basis, increasing the drug's bioavailability and antimicrobial effect. These observations suggest

  4. Effect of arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids on acute lung injury induced by hypochlorous acid

    PubMed Central

    Wahn, H; Ruenauver, N; Hammerschmidt, S

    2002-01-01

    Background: Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is the main oxidant of activated polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN) and generated by myeloperoxidase during respiratory burst. This study investigates the effects of HOCl on pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and vascular permeability and characterises the influence of arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on the observed effects. Methods: HOCl (500, 1000, 2000 nmol/min) was continuously infused into the perfusate (Krebs-Henseleit buffer solution, KHB). AA or EPA in subthreshold doses (both 2 nmol/min) or buffer were simultaneously infused using a separate port. PAP, pulmonary venous pressure (PVP), ventilation pressure, and lung weight gain were continuously recorded. The capillary filtration coefficient (Kf,c) was calculated before and 30, 60, and 90 minutes after starting the HOCl infusion. Results: HOCl application resulted in a dose dependent increase in PAP and Kf,c. The onset of these changes was inversely related to the HOCl dose used. The combined infusion of AA with HOCl resulted in a significant additional rise in pressure and oedema formation which forced premature termination of all experiments. The combination of EPA with HOCl did not result in an enhancement of the HOCl induced rise in pressure and oedema formation. Conclusions: Changes in the pulmonary microvasculature caused by HOCl are differently influenced by ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated free fatty acids, suggesting a link between neutrophil derived oxidative stress and pulmonary eicosanoid metabolism. PMID:12454302

  5. Effects of acid fog and ozone on conifers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Olszyk, D.M.; Takemoto, B.K.; McCool, P.M.; Musselman, R.C.

    1989-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of acidic fog (pH 2.0, 3.0, or 4.0) on the physiological, biochemical, and growth responses of two coniferous tree species (Pinus ponderosa and Abies concolor), and determined if exposure to acidic fog predisposed the tree seedlings to the phytotoxic effects of ozone (O{sub 3}). Results provide evidence that the growth and metabolic responses of two coniferous tree species could be altered by multiple applications of acidic fog, and by exposure to ambient O{sub 3}. In general, the alterations were slight to modest, which may be attributed to the low degree of stress severity, and the slow rate of tree growth. The findings indicate that exposure to acidic fog followed by O{sub 3} does not cause detectable changes in conifer seedling growth within a single-growing season. Nevertheless, it is clear that acidic fog and O{sub 3} cause temporal alterations in seedling physiology and biochemistry.

  6. EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID EXPOSURE DURING PREGNANCY IN THE MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory


    Title:

    Effects Of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure During Pregnancy In The Mouse

    Authors & affiliations:
    Lau, C., J.R. Thibodeaux*, R.G. Hanson* and J.M. Rogers. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC
    Abstract:<...

  7. THE EFFECTS OF ACID PERTURBATION ON A CONTROLLED ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Duplicate, 8-compartment, continuous-flow microcosms were used to study the effects of acid addition on community function, algal community structure, and degradation of a plasticizer, diethyl phthalate. Inputs of HCl decreased the alkalinity (measured as CACO3) from 25 to 8 mg/l...

  8. Effects of lactic acid bacteria contamination on lignocellulosic ethanol fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Slower fermentation rates, mixed sugar compositions, and lower sugar concentrations may make lignocellulosic fermentations more susceptible to contamination by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which is a common and costly problem to the corn-based fuel ethanol industry. To examine the effects of LAB con...

  9. ACID RAIN AND SOIL MICROBIAL ACTIVITY: EFFECTS AND THEIR MECHANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the investigation, our aim was to determine if acid rain affects soil microbial activity and to identify possible mechanisms of observed effects. A Sierran forest soil (pH 6.4) planted with Ponderosa pine seedlings was exposed to simulated rain (pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.6) with ...

  10. EFFECTS OF ACID DEPOSITION ON PAINTED WOOD SUBSTRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the progress that has been made within the Coatings Effect Research Program that EPA conducts for Task Group VII within the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). The major objective of this phase of the research program is to identify early...

  11. EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON WATER SUPPLIES IN THE NORTHEAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of the first study concerning the impact of acid precipitation on drinking water are reported in terms of health effects in humans as measured by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels. The study focused on sampling surface water and groundwat...

  12. The effect of oxalic and itaconic acids on threo-Ds-isocitric acid production from rapeseed oil by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Allayarov, Ramil K; Lunina, Julia N; Morgunov, Igor G

    2016-04-01

    The effect of oxalic and itaconic acids, the inhibitors of the isocitrate lyase, on the production of isocitric acid by the wild strain Yarrowia lipolytica VKM Y-2373 grown in the medium containing rapeseed oil was studied. In the presence of oxalic and itaconic acids, strain Y. lipolytica accumulated in the medium isocitric acid (70.0 and 82.7 g/L, respectively) and citric acid (23.0 and 18.4 g/L, respectively). In control experiment, when the inhibitors were not added to the medium, the strain accumulated isocitric and citric acids at concentrations of 62.0 and 28.0 g/L, respectively. Thus, the use of the oxalic and itaconic acids as additives to the medium is a simple and convenient method of isocitric acid production with a minimum content of citric acid. PMID:26851896

  13. Effects of Ascorbic Acid, Phytic Acid and Tannic Acid on Ferritin-Iron Bioavailability as Determined Using an In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of ascorbic acid, phytate and tannic acid on Fe bioavailability from Fe supplied as ferritin was compared to FeSO4 using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Horse spleen ferritin (HSF) was chemically reconstituted into a plant-type ferritin (P-HSF). In the presence of ascorbic acid...

  14. Effects of Ascorbic Acid, Phytic Acid and Tannic Acid on Iron Bioavailability from Reconstituted Ferritin Measured by an In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of ascorbic acid, phytate and tannic acid on Fe bioavailability from Fe supplied as ferritin was compared to FeSO4 using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Horse spleen ferritin (HSF) was chemically reconstituted into a plant-type ferritin (P-HSF). In the presence of ascorbic acid...

  15. The Cardioprotective Effects of Citric Acid and L-Malic Acid on Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xilan; Liu, Jianxun; Dong, Wei; Li, Peng; Li, Lei; Lin, Chengren; Zheng, Yongqiu; Hou, Jincai; Li, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids in Chinese herbs, the long-neglected components, have been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiplatelet aggregation activities; thus they may have potentially protective effect on ischemic heart disease. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the protective effects of two organic acids, that is, citric acid and L-malic acid, which are the main components of Fructus Choerospondiatis, on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanisms. In in vivo rat model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, we found that treatments with citric acid and L-malic acid significantly reduced myocardial infarct size, serum levels of TNF-α, and platelet aggregation. In vitro experiments revealed that both citric acid and L-malic acid significantly reduced LDH release, decreased apoptotic rate, downregulated the expression of cleaved caspase-3, and upregulated the expression of phosphorylated Akt in primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. These results suggest that both citric acid and L-malic acid have protective effects on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury; the underlying mechanism may be related to their anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet aggregation and direct cardiomyocyte protective effects. These results also demonstrate that organic acids, besides flavonoids, may also be the major active ingredient of Fructus Choerospondiatis responsible for its cardioprotective effects and should be attached great importance in the therapy of ischemic heart disease. PMID:23737849

  16. [PECULIARITIES OF THE CEREBROVASCULAR EFFECTS OF GLUTAMIC ACID].

    PubMed

    Gan'shina, T S; Kurza, E V; Kurdyumov, I N; Maslennikov, D V; Mirzoyan, R S

    2016-01-01

    Experiments on nonlinear rats subjected to global transient cerebral ischemia revealed the ability of glutamic acid to improve cerebral circulation. Consequently, the excitatory amino acid can produce adverse (neurotoxic) and positive (anti-ischemic) effects in cerebral ischemia. The cerebrovascular effect of glutamic acid in cerebral ischemia is attenuated on the background action of the MNDA receptor blocker MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg intravenously) and eliminated by bicuculline. When glutamic acid is combined with the non-competitive MNDA receptor antagonist MK-801, neither one nor another drug shows its vasodilator effect. The results are indicative of the interaction between excitatory and inhibitory systems on the level of cerebral vessels and once again confirm our previous conclusion about the decisive role of GABA(A) receptors in brain vessels in the implementation of anti-ischemic activity of endogenous compounds (melatonin) and well-known pharmacological substances (mexidol, afobazole), and new chemical compounds based on GABA-containing lipid derivatives. PMID:27455572

  17. Effects of organic acids, amino acids and ethanol on the radio-degradation of patulin in an aqueous model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Hyejeong; Lim, Sangyong; Jo, Cheorun; Chung, Jinwoo; Kim, Soohyun; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Dongho

    2008-06-01

    The effects of organic acids, amino acids, and ethanol on the radio-degradation of patulin by gamma irradiation in an aqueous model system were investigated. The patulin, dissolved in distilled water at a concentration of 50 ppm, was practically degraded by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 1.0 kGy, while 33% of the patulin remained in apple juice. In the aqueous model system, the radio-degradation of patulin was partially inhibited by the addition of organic acids, amino acids, and ethanol. The proportions of remaining patulin after irradiation with the dose of 1.0 kGy in the 1% solution of malic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, ascorbic acid, and ethanol were 31.4%, 2.3%, 31.2%, 6.1%, 50.8%, and 12.5%, respectively. During 30 days of storage, the remaining patulin was reduced gradually in the solution of ascorbic acid and malic acid compared to being stable in other samples. The amino acids, serine, threonine, and histidine, inhibited the radio-degradation of patulin. In conclusion, it was suggested that 1 kGy of gamma irradiation (recommended radiation doses for radicidation and/or quarantine in fruits) is effective for the reduction of patulin, but the nutritional elements should be considered because the radio-degradation effects are environment dependent.

  18. Exogenous Abscisic Acid and Gibberellic Acid Elicit Opposing Effects on Fusarium graminearum Infection in Wheat.

    PubMed

    Buhrow, Leann M; Cram, Dustin; Tulpan, Dan; Foroud, Nora A; Loewen, Michele C

    2016-09-01

    Although the roles of salicylate (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) have been well-characterized in Fusarium head blight (FHB)-infected cereals, the roles of other phytohormones remain more ambiguous. Here, the association between an array of phytohormones and FHB pathogenesis in wheat is investigated. Comprehensive profiling of endogenous hormones demonstrated altered cytokinin, gibberellic acid (GA), and JA metabolism in a FHB-resistant cultivar, whereas challenge by Fusarium graminearum increased abscisic acid (ABA), JA, and SA in both FHB-susceptible and -resistant cultivars. Subsequent investigation of ABA or GA coapplication with fungal challenge increased and decreased FHB spread, respectively. These phytohormones-induced effects may be attributed to alteration of the F. graminearum transcriptome because ABA promoted expression of early-infection genes, including hydrolases and cytoskeletal reorganization genes, while GA suppressed nitrogen metabolic gene expression. Neither ABA nor GA elicited significant effects on F. graminearum fungal growth or sporulation in axenic conditions, nor do these phytohormones affect trichothecene gene expression, deoxynivalenol mycotoxin accumulation, or SA/JA biosynthesis in F. graminearum-challenged wheat spikes. Finally, the combined application of GA and paclobutrazol, a Fusarium fungicide, provided additive effects on reducing FHB severity, highlighting the potential for combining fungicidal agents with select phytohormone-related treatments for management of FHB infection in wheat. PMID:27135677

  19. Effect of Ethionine on the Ribonucleic Acid, Deoxyribonucleic Acid, and Protein Content of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert C.; Salmon, W. D.

    1965-01-01

    Smith, Robert C. (Auburn University, Auburn, Ala.), and W. D. Salmon. Effect of ethionine on the ribonucleic acid, deoxyribonucleic acid, and protein content of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 89:687–692. 1965.—The addition of ethionine to cultures of Escherichia coli K-12 W6, a methionine-requiring auxotroph, led to inhibition of the rate of increase in optical density when the ratio of ethionine to methionine was 200:1. When the ratio was 600:1, the increase in optical density became linear. When ethionine was substituted for methionine in the medium, the optical density of the culture increased, and there was a parallel increase in protein content. There was no cell division in these cultures. The rate of synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in a culture containing ethionine was similar to that of a culture deprived of methionine, but the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid in a culture with ethionine was about twice that of a culture deprived of methionine. No detectable radioactivity from ethionine-ethyl-1-C14 was incorporated into RNA. Ethionine-ethyl-1-C14 was readily incorporated into the protein fraction. PMID:14273646

  20. Substituent effects on the gas-phase acidity of silane

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, M.S.; Volk, D.E. ); Gano, D.R. )

    1989-12-20

    In a previous paper, the gas-phase acidities of XH{sub n} compounds (X = C, N, O, F, Si, P, S, Cl) were predicted with ab initio wave functions. At the MP4{sup 2} level of theory with extended basis sets acidities for these species were determined to be within 2 kcal/mol of experimental value. In the present work, with 6-31G(d) geometries and full MP4/MC-311++G{sup 6}(3df,2pd) energies, the effects of CH{sub 3}, NH{sub 2}, OH, F, SiH{sub 3}, PH{sub 2}, SH, and Cl on the gas-phase acidity of silane are examined. Only a few related calculations have been carried out. All calculations were performed with Gaussian86, and all structures were verified as minima by diagonalizing the analytically determined hessians. Only the valence electrons were correlated in the perturbation theory calculations.

  1. The effect of ascetic acid on mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mariana, Oana C; Trujillo, Antoinette; Sanders, Claire K; Burnett, Kassidy S; Freyer, James P; Mourant, Judith R

    2010-01-01

    Effects of the contrast agent, acetic acid, on mammalian cells are studied using light scattering measurements, viability and fluorescence pH assays. Results depend on whether cells are in PBS or are live and metabolizing. Acetic acid is a contrast agent used to aid the detection of cancerous and precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix. Typically 3% or 5% acetic acid is applied to the swface of the cervix and areas of the tissue that turn 'acetowhite' are considered more likely to be precancerous. The mechanism of action of acetic acid has never been understood in detail, although there are several hypotheses. One is that a decrease in pH causes cytokeratins in epithelial cells to polymerize. We will present data demonstrating that this is not the sole mechanism of acetowhitening. Another hypothesis is that a decrease in pH in the nucleus causes deacetylation of the histones which in turn results in a dense chromatin structure. Relevant to this hypothesis we have measured the internal pH of cells. Additional goals of this work are to understand what physical changes result in acetowhitening, to understand why there is variation in how cells respond to acetic acid, and to investigate how acetowhitening affects the light scatter properties measured by a fiber-optic probe we have developed for cervical cancer diagnostics.

  2. Gastroprotective effect and cytotoxicity of carnosic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Theoduloz, Cristina; Pertino, Mariano Walter; Rodríguez, Jaime A; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2011-06-01

    Carnosic acid (CA) is the main phenolic diterpene of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lamiaceae) and presents gastroprotective effect in vitro and in vivo. To determine structure-activity relationships, seventeen esters and ethers of CA were prepared, comprising aliphatic, aromatic, and heterocyclic compounds. The naturally occurring 12-O-methylcarnosic acid (14) was also included in the study. The compounds were evaluated for their gastroprotective activity in the HCl/EtOH-induced gastric lesions model in mice, and for cytotoxicity in human adenocarcinoma AGS cells, Hep G2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and human lung fibroblasts. At 10 mg/kg, some of the CA derivatives (5, 8, 9, 12, 14, and 18) were more effective preventing gastric lesions than the reference compound lansoprazole at the same dose. The dibenzoate 9, diindoleacetate 12, and the derivative 18 showed the best gastroprotective effect combined with the lowest cytotoxicity. PMID:21246485

  3. Effect of borax on the crystallization kinetics of boric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Ömer

    2002-03-01

    The effect of different borax concentrations on the growth and dissolution rates of boric acid crystals were measured in a fluidized bed crystallizer under well-established conditions of supersaturation and undersaturation and fluidization. It was found that the presence of borax in boric-acid solution decreases the mass-transfer coefficient, kd, the surface-reaction constant, kr and reaction order r pertaining to growth and dissolution rates of boric acid crystals. The effectiveness factors were estimated from the growth rate data to evaluate the relative magnitudes of the two resistances in series, diffusion and integration. The controlling mechanism is mainly by integration for the crystal growth of boric acid in the pure state and in the presence of borax in solution. The kinetic parameters ( kr, kd, r) were determined by a new method which is called trial and error under no assumption. This method gives a high accuracy of determination of the mass-transfer coefficient, kd, the surface-reaction constant, kr and surface-reaction order, r. The relative standard deviation between the equation Rg= kr(( ρα- ρeq)- Rg(1- wα)/ kd) r and those experimentally obtained and represented by the equation Rg= kg( ρα- ρeq) g do not exceed 0.013 for both the growth and dissolution regions.

  4. Biochemical effects of the hypoglycaemic compound pent-4-enoic acid and related non-hypoglycaemic fatty acids. Carbohydrate metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Senior, A. E.; Sherratt, H. S. A.

    1968-01-01

    1. The effects of the hypoglycaemic compound, pent-4-enoic acid, and of four structurally related non-hypoglycaemic compounds (pent-2-enoic acid, pentanoic acid, cyclopropanecarboxylic acid and cyclobutanecarboxylic acid), on glycolysis, glucose oxidation and gluconeogenesis in some rat tissues were determined. 2. None of the compounds at low concentrations inhibited glycolysis by particle-free supernatant fractions from rat liver, skeletal muscle and intestinal mucosa, though there was inhibition by cyclopropanecarboxylic acid and cyclobutanecarboxylic acid at 3mm concentration. 3. Pent-4-enoic inhibited the oxidation of [1-14C]palmitate by rat liver slices, but did not increase the oxidation of [U-14C]glucose. 4. Pent-4-enoic acid (0·01mm) strongly inhibited gluconeogenesis by rat kidney slices from pyruvate or succinate, but none of the other compounds inhibited significantly at low concentrations. 5. There was also some inhibition of gluconeogenesis in kidney slices from rats injected with pent-4-enoic acid. 6. The mechanism of the hypoglycaemic effect of pent-4-enoic acid is discussed; it is suggested that there is an inhibition of fatty acid and ketone-body oxidation and of gluconeogenesis so that glucose reserves become exhausted, leading to hypoglycaemia. 7. The mechanism of the hypoglycaemic action of pent-4-enoic acid appears to be similar to that of hypoglycin. PMID:5701682

  5. Beneficial effects of humic acid on micronutrient availability to wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Grossl, P. R.; Bugbee, B. G.

    2001-01-01

    Humic acid (HA) is a relatively stable product of organic matter decomposition and thus accumulates in environmental systems. Humic acid might benefit plant growth by chelating unavailable nutrients and buffering pH. We examined the effect of HA on growth and micronutrient uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown hydroponically. Four root-zone treatments were compared: (i) 25 micromoles synthetic chelate N-(4-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (C10H18N2O7) (HEDTA at 0.25 mM C); (ii) 25 micromoles synthetic chelate with 4-morpholineethanesulfonic acid (C6H13N4S) (MES at 5 mM C) pH buffer; (iii) HA at 1 mM C without synthetic chelate or buffer; and (iv) no synthetic chelate or buffer. Ample inorganic Fe (35 micromoles Fe3+) was supplied in all treatments. There was no statistically significant difference in total biomass or seed yield among treatments, but HA was effective at ameliorating the leaf interveinal chlorosis that occurred during early growth of the nonchelated treatment. Leaf-tissue Cu and Zn concentrations were lower in the HEDTA treatment relative to no chelate (NC), indicating HEDTA strongly complexed these nutrients, thus reducing their free ion activities and hence, bioavailability. Humic acid did not complex Zn as strongly and chemical equilibrium modeling supported these results. Titration tests indicated that HA was not an effective pH buffer at 1 mM C, and higher levels resulted in HA-Ca and HA-Mg flocculation in the nutrient solution.

  6. Beneficial effects of humic acid on micronutrient availability to wheat.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, C L; Grossl, P R; Bugbee, B G

    2001-01-01

    Humic acid (HA) is a relatively stable product of organic matter decomposition and thus accumulates in environmental systems. Humic acid might benefit plant growth by chelating unavailable nutrients and buffering pH. We examined the effect of HA on growth and micronutrient uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown hydroponically. Four root-zone treatments were compared: (i) 25 micromoles synthetic chelate N-(4-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (C10H18N2O7) (HEDTA at 0.25 mM C); (ii) 25 micromoles synthetic chelate with 4-morpholineethanesulfonic acid (C6H13N4S) (MES at 5 mM C) pH buffer; (iii) HA at 1 mM C without synthetic chelate or buffer; and (iv) no synthetic chelate or buffer. Ample inorganic Fe (35 micromoles Fe3+) was supplied in all treatments. There was no statistically significant difference in total biomass or seed yield among treatments, but HA was effective at ameliorating the leaf interveinal chlorosis that occurred during early growth of the nonchelated treatment. Leaf-tissue Cu and Zn concentrations were lower in the HEDTA treatment relative to no chelate (NC), indicating HEDTA strongly complexed these nutrients, thus reducing their free ion activities and hence, bioavailability. Humic acid did not complex Zn as strongly and chemical equilibrium modeling supported these results. Titration tests indicated that HA was not an effective pH buffer at 1 mM C, and higher levels resulted in HA-Ca and HA-Mg flocculation in the nutrient solution. PMID:11885604

  7. Genotoxic effect of ethacrynic acid and impact of antioxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, William M.; Hoffman, Jared D.; Loo, George

    2015-07-01

    It is known that ethacrynic acid (EA) decreases the intracellular levels of glutathione. Whether the anticipated oxidative stress affects the structural integrity of DNA is unknown. Therefore, DNA damage was assessed in EA-treated HCT116 cells, and the impact of several antioxidants was also determined. EA caused both concentration-dependent and time-dependent DNA damage that eventually resulted in cell death. Unexpectedly, the DNA damage caused by EA was intensified by either ascorbic acid or trolox. In contrast, EA-induced DNA damage was reduced by N-acetylcysteine and by the iron chelator, deferoxamine. In elucidating the DNA damage, it was determined that EA increased the production of reactive oxygen species, which was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine but not by ascorbic acid and trolox. Also, EA decreased glutathione levels, which were inhibited by N-acetylcysteine. But, ascorbic acid, trolox, and deferoxamine neither inhibited nor enhanced the capacity of EA to decrease glutathione. Interestingly, the glutathione synthesis inhibitor, buthionine sulfoxime, lowered glutathione to a similar degree as EA, but no noticeable DNA damage was found. Nevertheless, buthionine sulfoxime potentiated the glutathione-lowering effect of EA and intensified the DNA damage caused by EA. Additionally, in examining redox-sensitive stress gene expression, it was found that EA increased HO-1, GADD153, and p21mRNA expression, in association with increased nuclear localization of Nrf-2 and p53 proteins. In contrast to ascorbic acid, trolox, and deferoxamine, N-acetylcysteine suppressed the EA-induced upregulation of GADD153, although not of HO-1. Overall, it is concluded that EA has genotoxic properties that can be amplified by certain antioxidants. - Highlights: • Ethacrynic acid (EA) caused cellular DNA damage. • EA-induced DNA damage was potentiated by ascorbic acid or trolox. • EA increased ROS production, not inhibited by ascorbic acid or trolox. • EA

  8. Cooperative Effects Between Arginine and Glutamic Acid in the Amino Acid-Catalyzed Aldol Reaction.

    PubMed

    Valero, Guillem; Moyano, Albert

    2016-08-01

    Catalysis of the aldol reaction between cyclohexanone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde by mixtures of L-Arg and of L-Glu in wet dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) takes place with higher enantioselectivity (up to a 7-fold enhancement in the anti-aldol for the 1:1 mixture) than that observed when either L-Glu or L-Arg alone are used as the catalysts. These results can be explained by the formation of a catalytically active hydrogen-bonded complex between both amino acids, and demonstrate the possibility of positive cooperative effects in catalysis by two different α-amino acids. Chirality 28:599-605, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27362554

  9. In vivo endocrine effects of naphthenic acids in fish.

    PubMed

    Knag, Anne Christine; Sebire, Marion; Mayer, Ian; Meier, Sonnich; Renner, Patrick; Katsiadaki, Ioanna

    2013-11-01

    Oil pollution from various sources, including exploration, production and transportation, is a growing global concern. The highest toxicity of hydrocarbon pollutants is associated with the water-soluble phase compounds, including naphthenic acids, a known component found in all hydrocarbon deposits. Recently, naphthenic acids (NAs) have shown estrogenic and anti-androgenic effects in vitro. For this reason we investigated the potential effects of two commercial mixtures of naphthenic acids on fish in vivo, using the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as a model species. Anti-androgenic and estrogenic properties of tested compounds were evaluated using the androgenized female stickleback screen (AFSS) and a variant of the 21-d fish screen (TG230) respectively. One-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the complex commercial NAs mixtures were dominated by acyclic carboxylic acids. In one experiment (freshwater) we found a clear effect of NA exposure on spiggin levels; this was contrary to our hypothesis since NAs enhanced the androgenic potency of DHT (when co-administered) without inducing spiggin when tested in the absence of DHT. Exposure to NAs did not have a statistically significant effect on vitellogenin (Vtg) production in male stickleback, although the Vtg responses were increasing with increasing exposure concentrations. This study shows that in contrast to previous in vitro data, NAs did not exhibit either estrogenic or anti-androgenic properties in vivo, at the concentrations tested. On the contrary, at least in freshwater, NAs appear to have an overall androgenic effect that is not mediated via the androgen receptor involved in spiggin synthesis. Possible reasons for this discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo results as well as between our studies are discussed. PMID:24034895

  10. Effects of humic acids on the growth of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonov, V. V.; Yakushev, A. V.; Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.; Byzov, B. A.; Demin, V. V.

    2010-03-01

    The influence of humic acids of different origins on the growth of bacterial cultures of different taxa isolated from the soil and the digestive tracts of earthworms ( Aporrectodea caliginosa)—habitats with contrasting conditions—was studied. More than half of the soil and intestinal isolates from the 170 tested strains grew on the humic acid of brown coal as the only carbon source. The specific growth rate of the bacteria isolated from the intestines of the earthworms was higher than that of the soil bacteria. The use of humic acids by intestinal bacteria confirms the possibility of symbiotic digestion by earthworms with the participation of bacterial symbionts. Humic acids at a concentration of 0.1 g/l stimulated the growth of the soil and intestinal bacteria strains (66 strains out of 161) on Czapek’s medium with glucose (1 g/l), probably, acting as a regulator of the cell metabolism. On the medium with the humic acid, the intestinal bacteria grew faster than the soil isolates did. The most active growth of the intestinal isolates was observed by Paenibacillus sp., Pseudomonas putida, Delftia acidovorans, Microbacterium terregens, and Aeromonas sp.; among the soil ones were the representatives of the Pseudomonas genus. A response of the bacteria to the influence of humic acids was shown at the strain level using the example of Pseudomonas representatives. The Flexom humin preparation stimulated the growth of the hydrocarbon-oxidizing Acinetobacter sp. bacteria. This effect can be used for creating a new compound with the elevated activity of bacteria that are destroyers of oil and oil products.

  11. Lactational effect of propionic acid and duodenal glucose in cows.

    PubMed

    Rigout, S; Hurtaud, C; Lemosquet, S; Bach, A; Rulquin, H

    2003-01-01

    Five dairy cows were arranged in a 5 x 5 Latin square design to compare the effects of two amounts of either duodenal glucose or ruminal propionic acid (C3) on milk yield and composition. Treatments consisted of a grass silage-based diet supplemented with glucogenic nutrients either infused in the rumen as a mixture of volatile fatty acids (control) or pure C3 (1.72 and 3.45 Mcal/d) or in the duodenum as glucose (1.72 and 3.45 Mcal/d). Treatments were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous and contained 100 and 115% of energy and protein requirements according to INRA (1989), respectively. Only C3 treatments significantly modified ruminal volatile fatty acid composition and linearly increased C3 percentage (up to 25.5%). Both treatments substantially decreased milk fat yield and content, and linearly increased milk and protein yields. Although no significant differences between glucose and C3 were highlighted for milk yield and composition, it seems that mechanisms involved in milk fat decrease are different. Indeed, whereas C3 treatments decreased fatty acid production in an homogeneous way, short- and long-chain fatty acids decreased and medium-chain fatty acid production increased with glucose treatments. A bibliographical study confirmed that increasing glucogenic precursors (GP) supply curvilinearly increase milk yield, linearly increase milk protein content (+ 0.04% per Mcal of GP) and curvilinearly decrease milk fat content (- 0.14% per Mcal of GP). Thus, it appears important to account for the nature of energy supplied by the ration in formulation. PMID:12613868

  12. Transport, metabolism, and effect of chronic feeding of lagodeoxycholic acid. A new, natural bile acid.

    PubMed

    Schmassmann, A; Angellotti, M A; Clerici, C; Hofmann, A F; Ton-Nu, H T; Schteingart, C D; Marcus, S N; Hagey, L R; Rossi, S S; Aigner, A

    1990-10-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid, the 7 beta-hydroxy epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid, is more hydrophilic and less hepatotoxic than chenodeoxycholic acid. Because "lagodeoxycholic acid," the 12 beta-hydroxy epimer of deoxycholic acid, is also more hydrophilic than deoxycholic acid, it was hypothesized that it should also be less hepatotoxic than deoxycholic acid. To test this, lagodeoxycholic acid was synthesized, and its transport and metabolism were examined in the rat, rabbit, and hamster. The taurine conjugate of lagodeoxycholic acid was moderately well transported by the perfused rat ileum (Tmax = 2 mumol/min.kg). In rats and hamsters with biliary fistulas, the taurine conjugate of lagodeoxycholic acid was well transported by the liver with a Tmax greater than 20 mumol/min.kg; for the taurine conjugate of deoxycholic acid, doses infused at a rate greater than 2.5 mumol/min.kg are known to cause cholestasis and death. Hepatic biotransformation of lagodeoxycholic acid in the rabbit was limited to conjugation with glycine; in the hamster, lagodeoxycholic acid was conjugated with glycine or taurine; in addition, 7-hydroxylation occurred to a slight extent (approximately 10%). When lagodeoxycholic acid was instilled in the rabbit colon, it was absorbed as such although within hours it was progressively epimerized by bacteria to deoxycholic acid. When injected intravenously and allowed to circulate enterohepatically, lagodeoxycholic acid was largely epimerized to deoxycholic acid in 24 hours. Surgical creation of a distal ileostomy abolished epimerization in the rabbit, indicating that exposure to colonic bacterial enzymes was required for the epimerization. Lagodeoxycholic acid was administered for 3 weeks at a dose of 180 mumol/day (0.1% by weight of a chow diet; 2-4 times the endogenous bile acid synthesis rate); other groups received identical doses of deoxycholic acid (hamster) or cholyltaurine, a known precursor of deoxycholic acid (rabbit). After 3 weeks of

  13. The antibacterial effect of fatty acids on Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Woo; Lee, Sang Woo

    2016-01-01

    Eradication of Helicobacter pylori is recommended for the management of various gastric diseases, including peptic ulcers and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Because of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance, the eradication rates of antibiotic-based therapies have decreased. Therefore, alternative treatments should be considered. The antibacterial properties of fatty acids (FAs) have been investigated in various organisms, including H. pylori. Some FAs, particularly polyunsaturated FAs, have been shown to have bactericidal activity against H. pylori in vitro; however, their antibacterial effects in vivo remain controversial. Poor solubility and delivery of FAs may be important reasons for this discrepancy. Recently, a series of studies demonstrated the antibacterial effects of a liposomal formulation of linolenic acid against H. pylori, both in vitro and in vivo. Further research is needed to improve the bioavailability of FAs and apply them in clinical use. PMID:26767854

  14. Protective effects of isolecanoric acid on neurodegenerative in vitro models.

    PubMed

    de Pedro, Nuria; Cantizani, Juan; Ortiz-López, Francisco Javier; González-Menéndez, Victor; Cautain, Bastien; Rodríguez, Lorena; Bills, Gerald F; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Vicente, Francisca

    2016-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by loss of dopaminergic or motor neurons, respectively. Although understanding of the PD and ALS pathogenesis remains incomplete, increasing evidence from human and animal studies has suggested that aberrant GSK3β, oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage are involved in their pathogenesis. Using two different molecular models, treatment with L-BMAA for ALS and rotenone for PD the effect of isolecanoric acid, a natural product isolated from a fungal culture, was evaluated. Pre-treatment with this molecule caused inhibition of GSK3β and CK1, and a decrease in oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, apoptosis and cell death. Taken together, these results indicated that isolecanoric acid might have a protective effect against the development of these neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26455662

  15. Numerical modeling of cloud chemistry effects on isocyanic acid (HNCO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, M. C.; Cochran, A. K.; Fiddler, M. N.; Roberts, J. M.; Bililign, S.

    2013-08-01

    acid (HNCO), a product of some combustion processes, can potentially have negative human health effects. While gas phase HNCO loss processes are slow, HNCO loss in the aqueous phase is much faster. The fate of HNCO is studied for different cloud chemistry conditions using a zero-dimensional chemical box model. Exposure to clouds reduces HNCO concentrations substantially under typical cumulus cloud conditions, resulting in the chemical lifetime of HNCO dropping to ~2 h compared to clear-sky conditions of several years. The effect of clouds on HNCO is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature, with more HNCO hydrolyzed at lower pH (more acidic drops) and higher temperatures. Thus, HNCO is most efficiently removed by fog or low-level stratus clouds and least efficiently removed under middle to upper troposphere conditions where cumulonimbus and pyrocumulus clouds reside. Deliquesced aerosols may be highly efficient at reducing HNCO concentrations.

  16. EFFECTS OF SULFURIC ACID MIST EXPOSURE ON PULMONARY FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of 2-hr exposure to sulfuric acid (H2SO4) on pulmonary functions in male nonsmokers were examined. Subjects were exposed to air and 233, 418 and 939 micrograms/cu m H2SO4 at 22C DB/55% RH or air and 314, 600 and 1107 micrograms/cu m H2SO4 at 35C DB/85% RH. Mass media diam...

  17. Theophylline-7-acetic acid: lack of absorption and therapeutic effectiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Fleetham, J A; Owen, J A; May, B; Munt, P W; Nakatsu, K

    1979-01-01

    A double-blind cross-over trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of oral theophylline-7-acetic acid (T7AA) in 13 asthmatic patients. Pulmonary function tests showed no difference between T7AA and placebo. No T7AA or theophylline was found in the sera of these patients or of healthy volunteers who took T7AA tablets or syrup. PMID:388714

  18. Acid soil infertility effects on peanut yields and yield components

    SciTech Connect

    Blamey, F.P.C.

    1983-01-01

    The interpretation of soil amelioration experiments with peanuts is made difficult by the unpredictibility of the crop and by the many factors altered when ameliorating acid soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of lime and gypsum applications on peanut kernel yield via the three first order yield components, pods per ha, kernels per pod, and kernel mass. On an acid medium sandy loam soil (typic Plinthustult), liming resulted in a highly significant kernel yield increase of 117% whereas gypsum applications were of no significant benefit. As indicated by path coefficient analysis, an increase in the number of pods per ha was markedly more important in increasing yield than an increase in either the number of kernels per pod or kernel mass. Furthermore, exch. Al was found to be particularly detrimental to pod number. It was postulated that poor peanut yields resulting from acid soil infertility were mainly due to the depressive effect of exch. Al on pod number. Exch. Ca appeared to play a secondary role by ameliorating the adverse effects of exch. Al.

  19. [Effectiveness of tolfenamic acid in the prevention of migraine].

    PubMed

    Vaitkus, Antanas; Pauza, Valius

    2002-01-01

    The migraine prophylactic effect of tolfenamic acid 300 mg versus pizotifen 1.5 was evaluated in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study. 192 patients were included with a frequency of 4-8 moderate to severe migraine attacks monthly, with or without aura, fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for migraine as defined by the International Headache Society. A four-week baseline period without medication was followed by 12 weeks of treatment with tolfenamic acid 300 mg or pizotifen 1.5 mg. In both periods patients were allowed to take escape medication (paracetamol and codeine) if the treatment was inefficient. All the patients had a headache diary before and during treatment. The primary criterion of efficacy was reduction in attack frequency per 4 weeks. Also reduction in intensity or duration of migraine attacks in hours at the end of 12 weeks treatment compared to the baseline period was measured. Both groups exhibited significant reduction in attack frequency (p < 0.001). Tolfenamic acid significantly reduced severity compared to the run-in period (p = 0.009). Patients treated with pizotifen needed more escape medication when compared to the run-in period (p < 0.01). Tolerance, especially weight gain, was a major drawback with pizotifen. Because of its high efficacy, excellent tolerability and low cost, tolfenamic acid is an interesting option for migraine prophylaxis. PMID:12474702

  20. Molecular Mechanisms of Ursodeoxycholic Acid Toxicity & Side Effects: Ursodeoxycholic Acid Freezes Regeneration & Induces Hibernation Mode

    PubMed Central

    Kotb, Magd A.

    2012-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a steroid bile acid approved for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). UDCA is reported to have “hepato-protective properties”. Yet, UDCA has “unanticipated” toxicity, pronounced by more than double number of deaths, and eligibility for liver transplantation compared to the control group in 28 mg/kg/day in primary sclerosing cholangitis, necessitating trial halt in North America. UDCA is associated with increase in hepatocellular carcinoma in PBC especially when it fails to achieve biochemical response (10 and 15 years incidence of 9% and 20% respectively). “Unanticipated” UDCA toxicity includes hepatitis, pruritus, cholangitis, ascites, vanishing bile duct syndrome, liver cell failure, death, severe watery diarrhea, pneumonia, dysuria, immune-suppression, mutagenic effects and withdrawal syndrome upon sudden halt. UDCA inhibits DNA repair, co-enzyme A, cyclic AMP, p53, phagocytosis, and inhibits induction of nitric oxide synthatase. It is genotoxic, exerts aneugenic activity, and arrests apoptosis even after cellular phosphatidylserine externalization. UDCA toxicity is related to its interference with drug detoxification, being hydrophilic and anti-apoptotic, has a long half-life, has transcriptional mutational abilities, down-regulates cellular functions, has a very narrow difference between the recommended (13 mg/kg/day) and toxic dose (28 mg/kg/day), and it typically transforms into lithocholic acid that induces DNA strand breakage, it is uniquely co-mutagenic, and promotes cell transformation. UDCA beyond PBC is unjustified. PMID:22942741

  1. Neuroprotective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in 3-nitropropionic acid-induced striatal neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bak, Jia; Kim, Hee Jung; Kim, Seong Yun; Choi, Yun-Sik

    2016-05-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), derived from honeybee hives, is a bioactive compound with strong antioxidant activity. This study was designed to test the neuroprotective effect of CAPE in 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP)-induced striatal neurotoxicity, a chemical model of Huntington's disease (HD). Initially, to test CAPE's antioxidant activity, a 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) antioxidant assay was employed, and CAPE showed a strong direct radical-scavenging eff ect. In addition, CAPE provided protection from 3NP-induced neuronal cell death in cultured striatal neurons. Based on these observations, the in vivo therapeutic potential of CAPE in 3NP-induced HD was tested. For this purpose, male C57BL/6 mice were repeatedly given 3NP to induce HD-like pathogenesis, and 30 mg/kg of CAPE or vehicle (5% dimethyl sulfoxide and 95% peanut oil) was administered daily. CAPE did not cause changes in body weight, but it reduced mortality by 29%. In addition, compared to the vehicle-treated group, robustly reduced striatal damage was observed in the CAPE-treated animals, and the 3NP-induced behavioral defi cits on the rotarod test were signifi cantly rescued after the CAPE treatment. Furthermore, immunohistochemical data showed that immunoreactivity to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and CD45, markers for astrocyte and microglia activation, respectively, were strikingly reduced. Combined, these data unequivocally indicate that CAPE has a strong antioxidant eff ect and can be used as a potential therapeutic agent against HD. PMID:27162482

  2. Neuroprotective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in 3-nitropropionic acid-induced striatal neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Jia; Kim, Hee Jung; Kim, Seong Yun

    2016-01-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), derived from honeybee hives, is a bioactive compound with strong antioxidant activity. This study was designed to test the neuroprotective effect of CAPE in 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP)-induced striatal neurotoxicity, a chemical model of Huntington's disease (HD). Initially, to test CAPE's antioxidant activity, a 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) antioxidant assay was employed, and CAPE showed a strong direct radical-scavenging eff ect. In addition, CAPE provided protection from 3NP-induced neuronal cell death in cultured striatal neurons. Based on these observations, the in vivo therapeutic potential of CAPE in 3NP-induced HD was tested. For this purpose, male C57BL/6 mice were repeatedly given 3NP to induce HD-like pathogenesis, and 30 mg/kg of CAPE or vehicle (5% dimethyl sulfoxide and 95% peanut oil) was administered daily. CAPE did not cause changes in body weight, but it reduced mortality by 29%. In addition, compared to the vehicle-treated group, robustly reduced striatal damage was observed in the CAPE-treated animals, and the 3NP-induced behavioral defi cits on the rotarod test were signifi cantly rescued after the CAPE treatment. Furthermore, immunohistochemical data showed that immunoreactivity to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and CD45, markers for astrocyte and microglia activation, respectively, were strikingly reduced. Combined, these data unequivocally indicate that CAPE has a strong antioxidant eff ect and can be used as a potential therapeutic agent against HD. PMID:27162482

  3. Impact of effects of acid precipitation on toxicity of metals.

    PubMed Central

    Nordberg, G F; Goyer, R A; Clarkson, T W

    1985-01-01

    Acid precipitation may increase human exposure to several potentially toxic metals by increasing metal concentrations in major pathways to man, particularly food and water, and in some instances by enhancing the conversion of metal species to more toxic forms. Human exposures to methylmercury are almost entirely by way of consumption of fish and seafood. In some countries, intakes by this route may approach the levels that can give rise to adverse health effects for population groups with a high consumption of these food items. A possible increase in methylmercury concentrations in fish from lakes affected by acid precipitation may thus be of concern to selected population groups. Human exposures to lead reach levels that are near those associated with adverse health effects in certain sensitive segments of the general population in several countries. The possibility exists that increased exposures to lead may be caused by acid precipitation through a mobilization of lead from soils into crops. A route of exposure to lead that may possibly be influenced by acid precipitation is an increased deterioration of surface materials containing lead and a subsequent ingestion by small children. A similar situation with regard to uptake from food exists for cadmium (at least in some countries). Human metal exposures via drinking water may be increased by acid precipitation. Decreasing pH increases corrosiveness of water enhancing the mobilization of metal salts from soil; metallic compounds may be mobilized from minerals, which may eventually reach drinking water. Also, the dissolution of metals (Pb, Cd, Cu) from piping systems for drinking water by soft acidic waters of high corrosivity may increase metal concentrations in drinking water. Exposures have occasionally reached concentrations which are in the range where adverse health effects may be expected in otherwise healthy persons. Dissolution from piping systems can be prevented by neutralizing the water before

  4. Genotoxic effect of ethacrynic acid and impact of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Ward, William M; Hoffman, Jared D; Loo, George

    2015-07-01

    It is known that ethacrynic acid (EA) decreases the intracellular levels of glutathione. Whether the anticipated oxidative stress affects the structural integrity of DNA is unknown. Therefore, DNA damage was assessed in EA-treated HCT116 cells, and the impact of several antioxidants was also determined. EA caused both concentration-dependent and time-dependent DNA damage that eventually resulted in cell death. Unexpectedly, the DNA damage caused by EA was intensified by either ascorbic acid or trolox. In contrast, EA-induced DNA damage was reduced by N-acetylcysteine and by the iron chelator, deferoxamine. In elucidating the DNA damage, it was determined that EA increased the production of reactive oxygen species, which was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine but not by ascorbic acid and trolox. Also, EA decreased glutathione levels, which were inhibited by N-acetylcysteine. But, ascorbic acid, trolox, and deferoxamine neither inhibited nor enhanced the capacity of EA to decrease glutathione. Interestingly, the glutathione synthesis inhibitor, buthionine sulfoxime, lowered glutathione to a similar degree as EA, but no noticeable DNA damage was found. Nevertheless, buthionine sulfoxime potentiated the glutathione-lowering effect of EA and intensified the DNA damage caused by EA. Additionally, in examining redox-sensitive stress gene expression, it was found that EA increased HO-1, GADD153, and p21mRNA expression, in association with increased nuclear localization of Nrf-2 and p53 proteins. In contrast to ascorbic acid, trolox, and deferoxamine, N-acetylcysteine suppressed the EA-induced upregulation of GADD153, although not of HO-1. Overall, it is concluded that EA has genotoxic properties that can be amplified by certain antioxidants. PMID:25817893

  5. The Effects of Borate Minerals on the Synthesis of Nucleic Acid Bases, Amino Acids and Biogenic Carboxylic Acids from Formamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saladino, Raffaele; Barontini, Maurizio; Cossetti, Cristina; di Mauro, Ernesto; Crestini, Claudia

    2011-08-01

    The thermal condensation of formamide in the presence of mineral borates is reported. The products afforded are precursors of nucleic acids, amino acids derivatives and carboxylic acids. The efficiency and the selectivity of the reaction was studied in relation to the elemental composition of the 18 minerals analyzed. The possibility of synthesizing at the same time building blocks of both genetic and metabolic apparatuses, along with the production of amino acids, highlights the interest of the formamide/borate system in prebiotic chemistry.

  6. Effects of acid fog and dew on materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfeld, F.; Henry, R.; Vijayakumar, R.

    1989-10-01

    Field exposure tests have been carried out in order to separate the effects of acidic fog on materials damage from those caused by rain, dew and natural weathering. The test sites were McKittrick and Visalia in the Central Valley and West Casitas Pass in Ventura County. The field tests have been supported by laboratory tests in which materials damage has been determined during exposure to carefully controlled fog water chemistry. Analysis of the field exposure results for galvanized steel and the paint samples shows that the corrosivity of the atmosphere at the three test sites have been very low. The result is confirmed by the ACRM data which show very low corrosion activity. Since corrosion rates were so low approaching those for natural weathering, it was not possible to determine the effects of acidic fog. Based on the aerometric data and the observed corrosion behavior, it is doubtful that acidic fog conditions prevailed for significant times during the exposure period of 1/87 - 3/88 at Visalia and McKittrick. The results of the laboratory tests show that exposure to HNO3 at low pH and to high pollutant concentration increased the corrosion rate of galvanized steel to over 10 micro m/year. Exposure to HNO3 caused serious corrosion damage to anodized aluminum and the paint.

  7. Effects of nocloprost clathrate on absorption of acetylsalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, W; Zschiesche, M; Franke, G; Amon, I

    1994-01-01

    The cytoprotective prostaglandin E2 analog nocloprost clathrate (NOCLO) is tested as a prophylactic for gastrointestinal lesions of NSAID. The effects of 400 micrograms NOCLO versus respective placebos with and without equivalent amounts of beta-cyclodextrin on the pharmacokinetic behavior of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), given 30 min after NOCLO, were studied in two single-blind, parallel-group trials. The trials were performed in 15 male healthy volunteers (age 21-25 years, body weight 62-94 kg, body height 172-187 cm) with known N-acetylation and debrisoquine type hydroxylation phenotype. ASA, salicylic acid (SA), and salicyluric acid (SU) in plasma and SA and SU in urine were measured by HPLC. NOCLO delayed the absorption of ASA (increased tmax, lower Cmax) significantly in comparison with both placebos. AUC and clearance values were not changed by NOCLO premedication. There were neither differences between the two placebo groups nor between the two groups pretreated with NOCLO with regard to any pharmacokinetic parameter. The changes in drug absorption are caused by the sum of those cytoprotective effects of prostaglandin which are also determinants of drug absorption. PMID:8199752

  8. Effect of ascorbic acid and other adjuvants on manganese absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Papaioannou, R.; Sohler, A.; Pfeiffer, C.C.

    1986-03-01

    Animal experiments have demonstrated that manganese is poorly absorbed from the gut and that it is rapidly removed from the blood by liver uptake and bilary excretion. Zinc supplements which are readily absorbed can induce a Mn deficiency so that Mn supplementation is necessary. Supplementation with a diet rich in Mn (high in legumes, nuts, whole grains, tea) failed to influence blood Mn levels. The present study is concerned with the route of Mn administration and the effect of various adjuvants on the absorption and availability of Mn. Oral and sublingual administration of 20 mgs of Mn as the chloride failed to elicit a blood level rise. A rise was noted after the intramuscular injection of 2.5 mgs Mn as Mn Cl/sub 2/. Blood Mn levels rose to a maximum in thirty minutes and were back to basal levels within three hours. Adjuvants such as arginine, lecithin, taurine, biotin, bioflavinoids, were tested with essentially negative results. Mn orotate also failed to increase absorption. Oral absorption was obtained with ascorbic acid in five female subjects when 20 mgs of Mn as the chloride was given orally with 1 gm of ascorbic acid. This effect was not observed with five male subjects. A 30-40% increase in blood Mn after 2 hours was found when Mn was administered with ascorbic acid in the female subjects.

  9. Effect of gastric acid suppressants on human gastric motility

    PubMed Central

    Parkman, H; Urbain, J; Knight, L; Brown, K; Trate, D; Miller, M; Maurer, A; Fisher, R

    1998-01-01

    Background—The effect of histamine H2 receptor antagonists on gastric emptying is controversial. 
Aims—To determine the effects of ranitidine, famotidine, and omeprazole on gastric motility and emptying. 
Patients and methods—Fifteen normal subjects underwent simultaneous antroduodenal manometry, electrogastrography (EGG), and gastric emptying with dynamic antral scintigraphy (DAS). After 30 minutes of fasting manometry and EGG recording, subjects received either intravenous saline, ranitidine, or famotidine, followed by another 30 minutes recording and then three hours of postprandial recording after ingestion of a radiolabelled meal. Images were obtained every 10-15 minutes for three hours to measure gastric emptying and assess antral contractility. Similar testing was performed after omeprazole 20 mg daily for one week. 
Results—Fasting antral phase III migrating motor complexes (MMCs) were more common after ranitidine (9/15 subjects, 60%), famotidine (12/15, 80%), and omeprazole (8/12, 67%) compared with placebo (4/14, 29%; p<0.05). Postprandially, ranitidine, famotidine, and omeprazole slowed gastric emptying, increased the amplitude of DAS contractions, increased the EGG power, and increased the antral manometric motility index. 
Conclusions—Suppression of gastric acid secretion with therapeutic doses of gastric acid suppressants is associated with delayed gastric emptying but increased antral motility. 

 Keywords: gastric motility; gastric emptying; histamine H2 receptor antagonists; proton pump inhibitors; gastric acid secretion; scintigraphy PMID:9536950

  10. Effect of humic acid source on humic acid adsorption onto titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Erhayem, Mohamed; Sohn, Mary

    2014-02-01

    In many studies, different humic acid (HA) sources are used interchangeably to evaluate the effect of organic matter on geochemical processes in the environment. This research looks more specifically at the effect of HA source on HA adsorption onto nano-TiO2 and how HA adsorption affects the fate and transport of nano-TiO2. In this study, six humic acids (HAs) were studied which were derived from soils (SLHA), or from sediments (SDHA) all originating from the state of Florida. Humic acid adsorption onto titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) and the sedimentation of HA-coated and uncoated nano-TiO2 were monitored by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Synchronous scan fluorescence (SSF) spectroscopy was used to complement the study of HA adsorption onto nano-TiO2. Phosphate buffer was found to reduce the amount of HA adsorbed onto nano-TiO2 relative to solutions of NaCl of the same pH and ionic strength. Adsorption constant values (Kads) for HAs varied in the order SLHA>FSDHA (freshwater sedimentary HA)>ESDHA (estuarine sedimentary HA). SSF results suggested that the more highly conjugated fractions of HA, which are more prevalent in SLHAs versus SDHAs, were preferentially adsorbed. In order to better understand the relationship between adsorption and aggregation, sedimentation studies were conducted and it was found that the percentage of nano-TiO2 sedimentation was preferentially enhanced in the order of the presence of SLHA>FSDHA>ESDHA. The extent of nano-TiO2 sedimentation was decreased with increasing HA concentration. TEM imaging of nano-TiO2 confirmed that nano-TiO2 was aggregated in the presence of HAs. The findings in this study suggest that HAs from different sources influence the fate and transport of nano-TiO2 in the environment differently. PMID:24140685

  11. Effects of ultrasonic fields in the phosphoric acid process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalska, E.; Mizera, J.; Jakobiec, H.

    1974-01-01

    A process of apatite decomposition with sulfuric acid was studied under the influence of ultrasound in the phosphoric acid production process. The studies were carried out with and without ultrasonic fields in the reaction mixture, which resembled the mixing ratio used in technical production processes. Ultrasound with a frequency of 20 kHz and an intensity of 1 W/sq cm was used in the studies. A very favorable ultrasonic effect upon the degree of apatite decomposition was observed. The ultrasonic field affects the shape of byproduct gypsum crystals. In the H3PO4 production process without ultrasound, the byproduct gypsum crystallizes as long, thin needles which cause problems in filtration. In the trials involving the application of wound, gypsum crystallized in the form of small platelets possessing a favorable ratio of length to width.

  12. Effect of mitochondrial ascorbic acid synthesis on photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Senn, M E; Gergoff Grozeff, G E; Alegre, M L; Barrile, F; De Tullio, M C; Bartoli, C G

    2016-07-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) is synthesized in plant mitochondria through the oxidation of l-galactono-1,4-lactone (l-GalL) and then distributed to different cell compartments. AA-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants (vtc2) and exogenous applications of l-GalL were used to generate plants with different AA content in their leaves. This experimental approach allows determining specific AA-dependent effects on carbon metabolism. No differences in O2 uptake, malic and citric acid and NADH content suggest that AA synthesis or accumulation did not affect mitochondrial activity; however, l-GalL treatment increased CO2 assimilation and photosynthetic electron transport rate in vtc2 (but not wt) leaves demonstrating a stimulation of photosynthesis after l-GalL treatment. Increased CO2 assimilation correlated with increased leaf stomatal conductance observed in l-GalL-treated vtc2 plants. PMID:27010742

  13. The effect of sorbitol on acid phosphatase deactivation.

    PubMed

    Gianfreda, L; Toscano, G; Pirozzi, D; Greco, G

    1991-12-01

    Acid phosphatase thermal deactivation follows a complex path: an initial decay toward an equilibrium distribution of at least two intermediate structures, mutually at the equilibrium, followed by a final breakdown toward a completely inactive enzyme configuration. The results obtained in the presence of sorbitol have been compared to those produced in the course of purely thermal deactivation of the native enzyme. For any sobitol concentration, an equivalent temperature is calculated that results in exactly the same activity-versus-time profile. This suggests enzyme deactivation to be controlled by a single, unchanging step. Immobilized enzyme runs have been performed, as well, by entrapping acid phosphates within a polymeric network formed onto the upstream surface of an ultrafiltration membrane. The stabilizing effect of entrapment cumulates with that produced by sorbitol. In this case, however, an equivalent temperature cannot be determined, thus indicating that a different deactivation mechanism is followed. PMID:18600710

  14. Interactions of gaseous-pollutant and acid-rain effects

    SciTech Connect

    Shriner, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    This research addresses the significance of individual and combined effects of gaseous pollutants and acid rain on plant growth and development. It is specifically structured to determine the importance of pollutant interactions at concentrations, combinations and exposure frequencies typical of the eastern regional environment. Laboratory, greenhouse, and field studies are designed to establish pollutant-concentration thresholds for damage from SO/sub 2/, O/sub 3/, NO/sub x/, and acid rain. Research to date has determined visible-injury thresholds and growth-and-yield thresholds for a variety of cultivars of bean, wheat, radish, tomato, and loblolly pine. The thresholds vary within cultivars of a species and between species.

  15. Effect of monoglycerides and fatty acids on a ceramide bilayer.

    PubMed

    Akinshina, Anna; Das, Chinmay; Noro, Massimo G

    2016-07-14

    Monoglycerides and unsaturated fatty acids, naturally present in trace amounts in the stratum corneum (top layer of skin) lipid matrix, are commonly used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and health care formulations. However, a detailed molecular understanding of how the oil additives get incorporated into the skin lipids from topical application and, once incorporated, how they affect the properties and integrity of the lipid matrix remains unexplored. Using ceramide 2 bilayers as skin lipid surrogates, we use a series of molecular dynamics simulations with six different natural oil ingredients at multiple concentrations to investigate the effect of the oils on the properties and stability of the bilayers. The six oils: monoolein, monostearin, monoelaidin, oleic acid, stearic acid and linoleic acid - all having the same length of the alkyl chain, C18, but a varying degree of saturation, allow us to systematically address the effect of unsaturation in the additives. Our results show that at low oil concentration (∼5%) the mixed bilayers containing any of the oils and ceramide 2 (CER2) become more rigid than pure CER2 bilayers due to more efficient lipid packing. Better packing also results in the formation of larger numbers of hydrogen bonds between the lipids, which occurs at the expense of the hydrogen bonds between lipids and water. The mixed bilayers with saturated or trans-unsaturated oils remain stable over the whole range of oil concentration. In contrast, the presence of the oils with at least one cis-double bond leads to bilayer instability and complete loss of bilayer structure at the oil content of about 50-65%. Two cis-double bonds in the lipid tail induce bilayer disruption at even lower concentration (∼30%). The mixed bilayers remain in the gel phase (without melting to a fluid phase) until the phase transition to a non-bilayer phase occurs. We also demonstrate that the stability of the bilayer strongly correlates with the order parameter of the lipid

  16. Differential effects of cyclosporin A on transport of bile acids by rat hepatocytes: relationship to individual serum bile acid levels.

    PubMed

    Azer, S A; Stacey, N H

    1994-02-01

    Cyclosporin A treatment has been reported to induce hepatotoxicity marked by a rise in total serum bile acid and total bilirubin. The mechanism of cyclosporin A-induced hepatotoxicity seems to be related to interference with hepatocellular transport of these substrates although this remains to be fully substantiated. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the hepatocellular uptake of the different bile acids, in the presence of cyclosporin A, is consistent with the changes in their respective individual serum bile acid concentrations. High-performance liquid chromatography has been used to assay individual serum bile acids in cyclosporin A-treated rats at doses of 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg/day for 4 days. Control rats were treated with Cremophor (1 ml/kg/day). At the higher doses, cyclosporin A produced a significant increase in levels of cholic acid, taurocholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and deoxycholic acid compared with controls. Serum glycocholate was unaffected even at the highest dose. Inhibition of initial rate of uptake and accumulation of [14C]cholic acid, [14C]chenodeoxycholic acid, and [14C]deoxycholic acid by isolated rat hepatocytes was consistent with the changes in their respective serum bile acids. Coincubation of rat hepatocytes with unlabeled cholic acid (100 microM), the major serum bile acid in cyclosporin A-treated rats, showed a further inhibitory effect on [14C]cholic acid and [14C]deoxycholic acid accumulation. The initial rate of uptake of [14C]glycocholate was also inhibited. However, accumulation of glycocholic acid did not show significant changes at the longer incubation times (2-30 min). In addition, coincubation of rat hepatocytes with unlabeled cholic acid (100 microM) plus cyclosporin A did not induce any inhibition of glycocholate accumulation. Together, these differences provide an explanation for the unchanged serum levels of glycocholate. In conclusion, the changes in individual serum bile acids in cyclosporin A

  17. Effects of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid on human colon carcinoma cell line HCT15

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Guo, Wei-Jian; Yang, Qing-Yao

    2002-01-01

    AIM: Ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) are triperpene acids having a similar chemical structure and are distributed wildly in plants all over the world. In recent years, it was found that they had marked anti-tumor effects. There is little literature currently available regarding their effects on colon carcinoma cells. The present study was designed to investigate their inhibitory effects on human colon carcinoma cell line HCT15. METHODS: HCT15 cells were cultured with different drugs. The treated cells were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and their morphologic changes observed under a light microscope. The cytotoxicity of these drugs was evaluated by tetrazolium dye assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry (FCM). Data were expressed as means ± SEM and Analysis of variance and Student’ t-test for individual comparisons. RESULTS: Twenty-four to 72 h after UA or OA 60 μmol/L treatment, the numbers of dead cells and cell fragments were increased and most cells were dead at the 72nd hour. The cytotoxicity of UA was stronger than that of OA. Seventy-eight hours after 30 μmol/L of UA or OA treatment, a number of cells were degenerated, but cell fragments were rarely seen. The IC50 values for UA and OA were 30 and 60 μmol/L, respectively. Proliferation assay showed that proliferation of UA and OA-treated cells was slightly increased at 24 h and significantly decreased at 48 h and 60 h, whereas untreated control cells maintained an exponential growth curve. Cell cycle analysis by FCM showed HCT15 cells treated with UA 30 and OA 60 for 36 h and 72 h gradually accumulated in G0/G1 phase (both drugs P < 0.05 for 72 h), with a concomitant decrease of cell populations in S phase (both drugs P < 0.01 for 72 h) and no detectable apoptotic fraction. CONCLUSION: UA and OA have significant anti-tumor activity. The effect of UA is stronger than that of OA. The possible mechanism of action is that both drugs have an inhibitory effect on tumor cell

  18. Effect of Lactic Acid Etching on Bonding Effectiveness of Orthodontic Bracket after Water Storage

    PubMed Central

    Alsulaimani, Fahad F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of lactic acid at various concentrations on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with the resin adhesive system before and after water storage. Materials and Methods. Hundred extracted human premolars were divided into 5 treatment groups and etched for 30 seconds with one of the following agents: lactic acid solution with (A) 10%, (B) 20%, (C) 30%, and (D) 50%; group E, 37% phosphoric acid (control). Metal brackets were bonded using a Transbond XT. Bonding effectiveness was assessed by shear bond strength after 24 hours and 6 months of water storage at 37°C. The data were analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test (α = .001). Results. Lactic acid concentration and water storage resulted in significant differences for brackets bond strength (P < .001). 20% lactic acid had significantly higher mean bond strength values (SD) for all conditions: 24 hours [12.2 (.7) MPa] and 6 months [10.1 (.6) MPa] of water storage. 37% phosphoric acid had intermediate bond strength values for all conditions: 24 hours [8.2 (.6) MPa] and 6 months [6.2 (.6) MPa] of water storage. Also, there were differences in bond strength between storage time, with a reduction in values from 24 hours and 6 months for all experimental groups (P < .001). Conclusion. Lactic acid could be used in place of phosphoric acid as an enamel etchant for bonding of orthodontic brackets. PMID:25006465

  19. Effects of microbial utilization of phenolic acids and their phenolic acid breakdown products on allelopathic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, U.

    1998-04-01

    Reversible sorption of phenolic acids by soils may provide some protection to phenolic acids from microbial degradation. In the absence of microbes, reversible sorption 35 days after addition of 0.5--3 {micro}mol/g of ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid was 8--14% in Cecil A{sub p} horizon and 31--38% in Cecil B{sub t} horizon soil materials. The reversibly sorbed/solution ratios (r/s) for ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid ranged from 0.12 to 0.25 in A{sub p} and 0.65 to 0.85 in B{sub t} horizon soil materials. When microbes were introduced, the r/s ratio for both the A{sub p} and B{sub t} horizon soil materials increased over time up to 5 and 2, respectively, thereby indicating a more rapid utilization of solution phenolic acids over reversibly sorbed phenolic acids. The increase in r/s ratio and the overall microbial utilization of ferulic acid and/or p-coumaric acid were much more rapid in A{sub p} than in B{sub t} horizon soil materials. Reversible sorption, however, provided protection of phenolic acids from microbial utilization for only very short periods of time. Differential soil fixation, microbial production of benzoic acids (e.g., vanillic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid) from cinnamic acids (e.g., ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, respectively), and the subsequent differential utilization of cinnamic and benzoic acids by soil microbes indicated that these processes can substantially influence the magnitude and duration of the phytotoxicity of individual phenolic acids.

  20. Effects of acetic acid and lactic acid on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a minimal medium.

    PubMed

    Narendranath, N V; Thomas, K C; Ingledew, W M

    2001-03-01

    Specific growth rates (mu) of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae decreased exponentially (R2 > 0.9) as the concentrations of acetic acid or lactic acid were increased in minimal media at 30 degrees C. Moreover, the length of the lag phase of each growth curve (h) increased exponentially as increasing concentrations of acetic or lactic acid were added to the media. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of acetic acid for yeast growth was 0.6% w/v (100 mM) and that of lactic acid was 2.5% w/v (278 mM) for both strains of yeast. However, acetic acid at concentrations as low as 0.05-0.1% w/v and lactic acid at concentrations of 0.2-0.8% w/v begin to stress the yeasts as seen by reduced growth rates and decreased rates of glucose consumption and ethanol production as the concentration of acetic or lactic acid in the media was raised. In the presence of increasing acetic acid, all the glucose in the medium was eventually consumed even though the rates of consumption differed. However, this was not observed in the presence of increasing lactic acid where glucose consumption was extremely protracted even at a concentration of 0.6% w/v (66 mM). A response surface central composite design was used to evaluate the interaction between acetic and lactic acids on the specific growth rate of both yeast strains at 30 degrees C. The data were analysed using the General Linear Models (GLM) procedure. From the analysis, the interaction between acetic acid and lactic acid was statistically significant (P < or = 0.001), i.e., the inhibitory effect of the two acids present together in a medium is highly synergistic. PMID:11420658

  1. Effect of antacid and ascorbic acid on serum salicylate concentration.

    PubMed

    Hansten, P D; Hayton, W L

    1980-01-01

    To determine the effect of antacid or ascorbic acid administration on plateau serum salicylate concentrations, nine healthy subjects were given each of the following treatments by balanced block design: choline salicylate (equivalent to 3.76 or 5.62 Gm/day of aspirin); choline salicylate plus magnesium-aluminum hydroxide (120 ml/day); or choline salicylate plus ascorbic acid (3 Gm/day). In subjects developing a control serum salicylate level above 10 mg/dl, antacid administration produced a decrease in serum salicylate level (mean 19.8 mg/dl vs. 15.8 mg/dl) (P less than 0.01). Ascorbic acid administration was not associated with a significant change in serum salicylate. The reduction in serum salicylate following antacid appears to be due to antacid-induced alkalinization of the urine with resultant increase in renal salicylate clearance. Antacid administration should be considered a potential cause of altered serum salicylate concentration in patients receiving large doses of salicylate. PMID:7400368

  2. Pulmonary effects of acid sulfate inhalation in the guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Silbaugh, S.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; Wolff, R.K.; Carpenter, R.L.; Brownstein, D.G.; Harkema, J.R.; Rothenberg, S.J.

    1982-07-01

    Guinea pigs were exposed by inhalation for 1 to 8 hours to sulfuric acid aerosols of various sizes and concentrations in order to provide quantitative information for standards setting. The effects of sulfuric acid aerosols were examined to determine acute mortality, changes in respiratory function and morphology, response mechanisms, differences in individual sensitivity and changes in airway response to bronchoconstrictors. An aerosol generator for another sulfur-containing pollutant, ammonium bisulfite, was developed for use in animal exposures. Also, lung lesions which simulate human emphysema were produced by intratracheal elastase instillation to investigate a potential impaired animal model for sulfur pollutant exposures. Pulmonary mechanics, lung morphology, and histamine sensitivity data all suggest that the guinea pig reacts to sulfuric acid aerosols with a nearly all-or-none airway constrictive response. Results also indicate that the concentration at which this response occurs is affected by aerosol size, exposure profile and individual animal sensitivity. No acute pulmonary function changes were noted at concentrations below 15 mg/m/sup 3/. The reason for these differences is unknown.

  3. Temperature effect on photolysis decomposing of perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tiliang; Pan, Gang; Zhou, Qin

    2016-04-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is recalcitrant to degrade and mineralize. Here, the effect of temperature on the photolytic decomposition of PFOA was investigated. The decomposition of PFOA was enhanced from 34% to 99% in 60min of exposure when the temperature was increased from 25 to 85°C under UV light (201-600nm). The limited degree of decomposition at 25°C was due to low quantum yield, which was increased by a factor of 12 at 85°C. Under the imposed conditions, the defluorination ratio increased from 8% at 25°C to 50% at 85°C in 60min. Production of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs, C7-C5), PFCAs (C4-C3) and TFA (trifluoroacetic acid, C2) accelerated and attained a maximum within 30 to 90min at 85°C. However, these reactions did not occur at 25°C despite extended irradiation to 180min. PFOA was decomposed in a step-wise process by surrendering one CF2 unit. In each cyclical process, increased temperature enhanced the quantum yields of irradiation and reactions between water molecules and intermediates radicals. The energy consumption for removing each μmol of PFOA was reduced from 82.5kJ at 25°C to 10.9kJ at 85°C using photolysis. Photolysis coupled with heat achieved high rates of PFOA degradation and defluorination. PMID:27090703

  4. Effect of fulvic acids on the electrolytes physiology in vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, O. Y.; Navarrete, J. M.; Gracia, I.; Macias, L.; Rivera, M.; Sanchez, F.

    2011-10-01

    Fulvic acids are the active principle in humus fertilizers which are the cause of better absorption of mineral ions from soil to plant tissues. Tested in mice by making use of radioactive labeled ions, they showed their action of enhancing by a factor greater than two the filtration through liver of PO 43- and Ca 2+ from digestive tract to blood serum as well as through kidney from blood serum to urine. Following this research, Fe 3+ and I 1- ions labeled with 59Fe and 131I have been tested and reported in the present paper. Results showed that iron ions are completely fixed in red cells, with no residue eliminated by urine, while iodine ions are fixed in thyroid gland, with some residue eliminated by urine. Both ions were fixed in said tissues by factors larger than two when they are escorted by fulvic acids. A general distribution of these ions in blood, urine, feces, liver, kidney and thyroid gland has been surveyed, trying to find the earliest effect of fulvic acids in the physiology of vertebrates.

  5. Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Background: Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Methods: Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Results: Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Conclusion: Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:22135611

  6. Effects of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid on the pharmacokinetics of valproic acid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo-Yun; Huh, Wooseong; Jung, Jin Ah; Yoo, Hye Min; Ko, Jae-Wook; Kim, Jung-Ryul

    2015-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is mainly metabolized via glucuronide, which is hydrolyzed by β-glucuronidase and undergoes enterohepatic circulation. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC) administration leads to decreased levels of β-glucuronidase-producing bacteria, suggesting that these antibiotics could interrupt enterohepatic circulation and thereby alter the pharmacokinetics of VPA. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of AMC on the pharmacokinetics of VPA. This was an open-label, two-treatment, one-sequence study in 16 healthy volunteers. Two treatments were evaluated; treatment VPA, in which a single dose of VPA 500 mg was administered, and treatment AMC + VPA, in which multiple doses of AMC 500/125 mg were administered three times daily for 7 days and then a single dose of VPA was administered. Blood samples were collected up to 48 hours. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental methods. Fifteen subjects completed the study. Systemic exposures and peak concentrations of VPA were slightly lower with treatment AMC + VPA than with treatment VPA (AUClast, 851.0 h·mg/L vs 889.6 h·mg/L; Cmax, 52.1 mg/L vs 53.0 mg/L). There were no significant between-treatment effects on pharmacokinetics (95% confidence interval [CI]) of AUClast and Cmax (95.7 [85.9–106.5] and 98.3 [91.6–105.6], respectively). Multiple doses of AMC had no significant effects on the pharmacokinetics of VPA; thus, no dose adjustment is necessary. PMID:26309401

  7. Effects of acidic solutions on sexual reproduction of Pteridium aquilinum

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.; Conway, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of acidic solutions on spermatozoid motility and fertilization of gametophytes of Pteridium aquilinum. Buffered solutions (approx 0.0025 m) were used to simulate exposures to acidic precipitation for up to a 3.5 hr exposure. Experimental results suggest that the spermatozoid population can be subdivided into several groups with respect to pH sensitivity: About 25% spermatozoids are immobile one min after exposure to pH 6.1 buffer while about an equal percentage remain motile after 30 min exposure to buffer of pH 5.1. Between these two response extremes are two other subpopulations. One is quite sensitive to pH but shows some recovery if pH is between 5.6 and 6.1, while the second subpopulation does not seem to exhibit any motility recovery at all but is more resistant to acidity than the first subpopulation. To complement experiments that evaluate spermatozoid responses, experiments were performed to view the process of fertilization under controlled environmental conditions as well as under the canopy of a forest. Fertilization of gametophytes in uncovered petri dishes under a forest canopy was similar to results in aseptic culture after gametophytes were exposed to various pH levels and 86.6 micrometers sulfate. Fertilization at pH 4.5 and 3.6 was about one-half that occurring at pH 6.1. Fertilization in gametophytes exposed to pH 3.0 was about 10-20% of that occurring at pH 6.1. Addition of 86.6 micrometers sulfate decreased fertilization under all culture conditions. These experimental results suggest that fertilization in p. Aquilinum may be used as a bioindicator of contaminants in rainwater. The results demonstrate that spermatozoid motility (and the process of fertilization) is more acid sensitive than gametophytic and sporophytic tissues.

  8. Distribution and effects of acidic deposition on wildlife and ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stromborg, K.L.; Longcore, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Acidic deposition occurs over most of the United States and the deposition patterns and theoretical vulnerabilities of aquatic ecosystems to chemical changes can be delineated, but few data exist on concomitant biological effects. Hypothetical direct effects are limited primarily to toxicity of various heavy metals mobilized at reduced pH. Results of studies in Scandinavia suggest that aluminum interferes with avian reproduction near acidified lakes. Some amphibian populations located on acid-vulnerable substrates may be adversely affected by reduced pH in the vernal pools used for egg laying and larval growth. Indirect effects on populations are difficult to detect because few historical data exist for wildlife populations and trophic relationships in vulnerable areas. Current research in the U.S.A. focuses on measuring habitat characteristics, food availability, and avian use of vulnerable wetland habitats. Results of Scandinavian studies suggest that some species of waterfowl may prefer acidified, I fish-free habitats because invertebrates essential for meeting nutritional requirements are more easily obtained in the absence of competition from fish. However, avian species dependent on fish would be absent from these habitats. Alteration of either the vegetative structure or primary productivity of wetlands might indirectly affect avian populations by causing decreased invertebrate productivity and consequent food limitations for birds.

  9. Effects of acidity on tree pollen germination and tube growth

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.S.; Van Rye, D.M.; Lassoie, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that pollen germination and tube growth are adversely affected by air pollutants. Pollutants may inhibit the function of pollen by reducing the number of pollen grains which germinate, by reducing the maximum length to which the pollen tubes grow, or by interfering with the formation of the generative cell. The paper reports on studies that are attempting to determine the effects acid rain may have on these crucial stages in the life histories of northeastern tree species. The first stage of this work assessed the effects of acidity in the growth medium on in vitro pollen germination for four deciduous forest species common to central New York State, Betula lutea (yellow birch), B. lenta (black birch), Acer saccharum (sugar maple), and Cornus florida (flowering dogwood). Measurements were taken at the end of the growth period to determine the percentage of grains which had germinated, and to estimate the average tube length. To determine the effects of pollen on the growth medium, the pH of the germination drop was measured at the end of the growth period.

  10. 8[prime]-Methylene Abscisic Acid (An Effective and Persistent Analog of Abscisic Acid).

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, S. R.; Rose, P. A.; Cutler, A. J.; Balsevich, J. J.; Lei, B.; Walker-Simmons, M. K.

    1997-01-01

    We report here the synthesis and biological activity of a new persistent abscisic acid (ABA) analog, 8[prime]-methylene ABA. This ABA analog has one additional carbon atom attached through a double bond to the 8[prime]-carbon of the ABA molecule. (+)-8[prime]-Methylene ABA is more active than the natural hormone (+)-ABA in inhibiting germination of cress seed and excised wheat embryos, in reducing growth of suspension-cultured corn cells, and in reducing transpiration in wheat seedlings. The (+)-8[prime]-methylene analog is slightly weaker than (+)-ABA in increasing expression of ABA-inducible genes in transgenic tobacco, but is equally active in stimulating a transient elevation of the pH of the medium of corn cell cultures. In corn cells, both (+)-ABA and (+)-8[prime]-methylene ABA are oxidized at the 8[prime] position. ABA is oxidized to phaseic acid and (+)-8[prime]-methylene ABA is converted more slowly to two isomeric epoxides. The alteration in the ABA structure causes the analog to be metabolized more slowly than ABA, resulting in longer-lasting and more effective biological activity relative to ABA. PMID:12223691

  11. Apoptotic effect of tannic acid on fatty acid synthase over-expressed human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nie, Fangyuan; Liang, Yan; Jiang, Bing; Li, Xiabing; Xun, Hang; He, Wei; Lau, Hay Tong; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2016-02-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers and is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide. Novel therapies and chemo-therapeutic drugs are urgently needed to be developed for the treatment of breast cancer. Increasing evidence suggests that fatty acid synthase (FAS) plays an important role in breast cancer, for the expression of FAS is significantly higher in human breast cancer cells than in normal cells. Tannic acid (TA), a natural polyphenol, possesses significant biological functions, including bacteriostasis, hemostasis, and anti-oxidant. Our previous studies demonstrated that TA is a natural FAS inhibitor whose inhibitory activity is stronger than that of classical FAS inhibitors, such as C75 and cerulenin. This study further assessed the effect and therapeutic potential of TA on FAS over-expressed breast cancer cells, and as a result, TA had been proven to possess the functions of inhibiting intracellular FAS activity, down-regulating FAS expression in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, and inducing cancer cell apoptosis. Since high-expressed FAS is recognized as a molecular marker for breast cancer and plays an important role in cancer prognosis, these findings suggest that TA is a potential drug candidate for treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26349913

  12. Effect of hyaluronic acid molecular weight on the morphology of quantum dot-hyaluronic acid conjugates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiseok; Park, Kitae; Hahn, Sei Kwang

    2008-01-01

    The morphological analysis of novel quantum dot-hyaluronic acid (QDot-HA) conjugates was carried out with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Adipic acid dihydrazide-modified HA (HA-ADH) was synthesized and conjugated to quantum dots (QDots) having carboxyl terminal ligands which were activated with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (sulfo-NHS). HA molecules with a molecular weight (MW) of 20K, 234 K and 3000 K were used to investigate the effect of MW on the morphology of QDot-HA conjugates. The TEM micrographs of QDot-HA conjugates showed branched and multi-layered chain type morphology formed by inter- and intra-molecular conjugation of QDots to HA molecules. The size of QDot-HA conjugate increased with the MW of HA. QDot-HA conjugate could be successfully used for real-time bio-imaging of HA derivatives in nude mice. The novel QDot-HA conjugate will be further used to investigate the biological roles of HA with a different MW in the body. PMID:17936350

  13. Central effects of acetylsalicylic acid on trigeminal-nociceptive stimuli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acetylsalicylic acid is one of the most used analgesics to treat an acute migraine attack. Next to the inhibitory effects on peripheral prostaglandin synthesis, central mechanisms of action have also been discussed. Methods Using a standardized model for trigeminal-nociceptive stimulation during fMRI scanning, we investigated the effect of acetylsalicylic acid on acute pain compared to saline in 22 healthy volunteers in a double-blind within-subject design. Painful stimulation was applied using gaseous ammonia and presented in a pseudo-randomized order with several control stimuli. All participants were instructed to rate the intensity and unpleasantness of every stimulus on a VAS scale. Based on previous results, we hypothesized to find an effect of ASA on central pain processing structures like the ACC, SI and SII as well as the trigeminal nuclei and the hypothalamus. Results Even though we did not find any differences in pain ratings between saline and ASA, we observed decreased BOLD signal changes in response to trigemino-nociceptive stimulation in the ACC and SII after administration of ASA compared to saline. This finding is in line with earlier imaging results investigating the effect of ASA on acute pain. Contrary to earlier findings from animal studies, we could not find an effect of ASA on the trigeminal nuclei in the brainstem or within the hypothalamic area. Conclusion Taken together our study replicates earlier findings of an attenuating effect of ASA on pain processing structures, which adds further evidence to a possibly central mechanism of action of ASA. PMID:25201152

  14. 40 CFR 72.69 - Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.69 Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits. (a) After the close of the public comment period, the Administrator will issue or deny an Acid Rain permit. The Administrator will serve a copy of any Acid...

  15. 40 CFR 72.69 - Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.69 Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits. (a) After the close of the public comment period, the Administrator will issue or deny an Acid Rain permit. The Administrator will serve a copy of any Acid...

  16. 40 CFR 72.69 - Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.69 Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits. (a) After the close of the public comment period, the Administrator will issue or deny an Acid Rain permit. The Administrator will serve a copy of any Acid...

  17. 40 CFR 72.69 - Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.69 Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits. (a) After the close of the public comment period, the Administrator will issue or deny an Acid Rain permit. The Administrator will serve a copy of any Acid...

  18. Comparison of natural antioxidants and their effects on omega-3 fatty acid oxidation in fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been found to offer a variety of health benefits including cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammatory effect and human development. It is known that fish and algae o...

  19. Effects of acid treatment duration and sulfuric acid molarity on purification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, Seyedeh; Novinrooz, Abdul; Reyhani, Ali; Mirershadi, Soghra

    2010-12-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were synthesized using a Fe-Ni bimetallic catalyst supported by MgO using thermal chemical vapor deposition. Purification processes to remove unwanted carbon structures and other metallic impurities were carried out by boiling in sulfuric acid solution. Various analytical techniques such as TGA/DSC, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, HRTEM and EDAX were employed to investigate the morphology, graphitization and quality of the carbon nanotubes. The obtained results reveal the molarity of sulfuric acid and immersed time of the carbon nanotubes in the acid solution is very effective at purifying multi-walled carbon nanotubes. It was also found that 5 M concentration of boiling sulfuric acid for a 3 h treatment duration led to the highest removal of the impurities with the least destructive effect. Moreover, it was observed that acid treatment results in decreasing of CNTs' diameter.

  20. Effects of acid treatment duration and sulfuric acid molarity on purification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, Seyedeh Z.; Novinrooz, Abdul J.; Reyhani, Ali; Mirershadi, Soghra

    2010-12-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were synthesized using a Fe-Ni bimetallic catalyst supported by MgO using thermal chemical vapor deposition. Purification processes to remove unwanted carbon structures and other metallic impurities were carried out by boiling in sulfuric acid solution. Various analytical techniques such as TGA/DSC, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, HRTEM and EDAX were employed to investigate the morphology, graphitization and quality of the carbon nanotubes. The obtained results reveal the molarity of sulfuric acid and immersed time of the carbon nanotubes in the acid solution is very effective at purifying multi-walled carbon nanotubes. It was also found that 5 M concentration of boiling sulfuric acid for a 3 h treatment duration led to the highest removal of the impurities with the least destructive effect. Moreover, it was observed that acid treatment results in decreasing of CNTs’ diameter.

  1. Going natural: Effective weed control in squash with pelargonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pelargonic acid, a natural, but not certified organic herbicide, has been shown to be phytotoxic, acting as a contact herbicide, injuring and killing plants through cell membrane disruption. Pelargonic acid, a fatty acid also known as nonanoic acid, is a nine-carbon chained organic compound found in...

  2. Anti-angiogenic effect of high doses of ascorbic acid

    PubMed Central

    Mikirova, Nina A; Ichim, Thomas E; Riordan, Neil H

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceutical doses of ascorbic acid (AA, vitamin C, or its salts) have been reported to exert anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. One proposed mechanism involves direct cytotoxicity mediated by accumulation of ascorbic acid radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the extracellular environment of tumor cells. However, therapeutic effects have been reported at concentrations insufficient to induce direct tumor cell death. We hypothesized that AA may exert anti-angiogenic effects. To test this, we expanded endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from peripheral blood and assessed, whether or not high dose AA would inhibit EPC ability to migrate, change energy metabolism, and tube formation ability. We also evaluated the effects of high dose AA on angiogenic activities of HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) and HUAECs (human umbilical arterial endothelial cells). According to our data, concentrations of AA higher than 100 mg/dl suppressed capillary-like tube formation on Matrigel for all cells tested and the effect was more pronounced for progenitor cells in comparison with mature cells. Co-culture of differentiated endothelial cells with progenitor cells showed that there was incorporation of EPCs in vessels formed by HUVECs and HUAECs. Cell migration was assessed using an in vitro wound healing model. The results of these experiments showed an inverse correlation between AA concentrations relative to both cell migration and gap filling capacity. Suppression of NO (nitric oxide) generation appeared to be one of the mechanisms by which AA mediated angiostatic effects. This study supports further investigation into non-cytotoxic antitumor activities of AA. PMID:18789157

  3. Effect of QMix, peracetic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on calcium loss and microhardness of root dentine

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Sonali; Kumari, Manju; Anand, Surbhi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this in vitro study was to assess the effect of different chelating agents on the calcium loss and its subsequent effect on the microhardness of the root dentin. Materials and Methods: Ten single rooted lower premolars were selected. The teeth were decoronated and thick transverse sections of 2 mm were obtained from the coronal third of the root. Each section was then divided into four quarters, each part constituting a sample specimen from the same tooth for each group. The treatment groups were: Group 1 (Control): 5% Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for 5 min + distilled water for 5 min; Group 2: 5% NaOCl for 5 min + 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) for 5 min; Group 3: 5% NaOCl for 5 min + 2.25% Peracetic acid (PAA) for 5 min and Group 4: 5% NaOCl for 5 min + QMix for 5 min respectively. The calcium loss of the samples was evaluated using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer followed by determination of their microhardness using Vickers Hardness Tester. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Post hoc Tukey test and Pearson correlation. Results: The maximum calcium loss and minimum microhardness was observed in Group 3 followed by Group 2, Group 4 and Group 1. There was a statistically significant difference between all the groups except between Groups 2 and 4. Conclusions: Irrigation with NaOCl + 2.25% PAA caused the maximum calcium loss from root dentin and reduced microhardness. A negative correlation existed between the calcium loss and reduction in the microhardness of root dentin. PMID:24778513

  4. Effects of obeticholic acid on lipoprotein metabolism in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pencek, R; Marmon, T; Roth, J D; Liberman, A; Hooshmand-Rad, R; Young, M A

    2016-09-01

    The bile acid analogue obeticholic acid (OCA) is a selective farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist in development for treatment of several chronic liver diseases. FXR activation regulates lipoprotein homeostasis. The effects of OCA on cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in healthy individuals were assessed. Two phase I studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of repeated oral doses of 5, 10 or 25 mg OCA on lipid variables after 14 or 20 days of consecutive administration in 68 healthy adults. Changes in HDL and LDL cholesterol levels were examined, in addition to nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of particle sizes and sub-fraction concentrations. OCA elicited changes in circulating cholesterol and particle size of LDL and HDL. OCA decreased HDL cholesterol and increased LDL cholesterol, independently of dose. HDL particle concentrations declined as a result of a reduction in medium and small HDL. Total LDL particle concentrations increased because of an increase in large LDL particles. Changes in lipoprotein metabolism attributable to OCA in healthy individuals were found to be consistent with previously reported changes in patients receiving OCA with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:27109453

  5. The anti-tumour effects of zoledronic acid

    PubMed Central

    Zekri, Jamal; Mansour, Maged; Karim, Syed Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Bone is the most common site for metastasis in patients with solid tumours. Bisphosphonates are an effective treatment for preventing skeletal related events and preserving quality of life in these patients. Zoledronic acid (ZA) is the most potent osteoclast inhibitor and is licensed for the treatment of bone metastases. Clodronate and pamidronate are also licensed for this indication. In addition, ZA has been demonstrated to exhibit antitumour effect. Direct and indirect mechanisms of anti-tumour effect have been postulated and at many times proven. Evidence exists that ZA antitumour effect is mediated through inhibition of tumour cells proliferation, induction of apoptosis, synergistic/additive to inhibitory effect of cytotoxic agents, inhibition of angiogenesis, decrease tumour cells adhesion to bone, decrease tumour cells invasion and migration, disorganization of cell cytoskeleton and activation of specific cellular antitumour immune response. There is also clinical evidence from clinical trials that ZA improved long term survival outcome in cancer patients with and without bone metastases. In this review we highlight the preclinical and clinical studies investigating the antitumour effect of bisphosphonates with particular reference to ZA. PMID:26909294

  6. Kinetics and effects of dichloroacetic acid in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons, Patrick N; Hoffman, Alex D; Lien, Gregory J; Hammermeister, Dean E; Nichols, John W

    2009-09-14

    Halogenated acetic acids (HAAs) produced by chlorine disinfection of municipal drinking water represent a potentially important class of environmental contaminants. Little is known, however, about their potential to adversely impact fish and other aquatic life. In this study we examined the kinetics and effects of dichloroacetic acid (DCA) in rainbow trout. Branchial uptake was measured in fish confined to respirometer-metabolism chambers. Branchial uptake efficiency was <5%, suggesting passive diffusion through aqueous channels in the gill epithelium. DCA concentrations in tissues following prolonged (72, 168, or 336 h) waterborne exposures were expressed as tissue:plasma concentration ratios. Concentration ratios for the kidney and muscle at 168 and 336 h were consistent with the suggestion that DCA distributes primarily to tissue water. Reduced concentration ratios for the liver, particularly at 72 h, indicated that DCA was highly metabolized by this tissue. Routes and rates of elimination were characterized by injecting chambered animals with a high (5.0mg/kg) or low (50 microg/kg) bolus dose. DCA was rapidly cleared by naïve animals resulting in elimination half-lives (t(1/2)) of less than 4h. Waterborne pre-treatment of fish with DCA increased the persistence of a subsequently injected dose. In high dose animals, pre-treatment caused a 4-fold decrease in whole-body clearance (CL(B)) and corresponding increases in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (extrapolated to infinity; AUC(0-->infinity)) and t(1/2). Qualitatively similar results were obtained in low dose fish, although the magnitude of the pre-treatment effect ( approximately 2.5-fold) was reduced. Renal and branchial clearance contributed little (combined, <3% of CL(B)) to the elimination of DCA. Biliary elimination of DCA was also negligible. The steady-state volume of distribution (V(SS)) did not vary among treatment groups and was consistent with results of the tissue distribution

  7. Protective effect of hyaluronic acid on cryopreserved boar sperm.

    PubMed

    Qian, Li; Yu, Sijiu; Zhou, Yan

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementing freezing and thawing media with hyaluronic acid (HA) on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. Boar semen samples were collected from seven mature Yorkshire boars once a week using the gloved hand technique; these samples were frozen-thawed in the extender with added HA. Boar sperm was cryopreserved in the extender with HA added at concentrations of 0 (used as control), 4, 6, 8, 8 and 12mg/L, and their effects on the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm were evaluated. HA addition to the extender significantly improved sperm motility, sperm membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity, acrosomal integrity, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but decreased sperm malondialdehyde level (p<0.05). Therefore, HA could be a promising cryoprotectant for boar sperm. PMID:26944660

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of the hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Graff, Emily C; Fang, Han; Wanders, Desiree; Judd, Robert L

    2016-02-01

    The hydroxycarboxylic acid receptors (HCA1-3) are a family of G-protein-coupled receptors that are critical for sensing endogenous intermediates of metabolism. All three receptors are predominantly expressed on adipocytes and mediate anti-lipolytic effects. In addition to adipocytes, HCA2 is highly expressed on immune cells, including macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils and dermal dendritic cells, among other cell types. The endogenous ligand for HCA2 is beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB), a ketone body produced by the liver through β-oxidation when an individual is in a negative energy balance. Recent studies demonstrate that HCA2 mediates profound anti-inflammatory effects in a variety of tissues, indicating that HCA2 may be an important therapeutic target for treating inflammatory disease processes. This review summarizes the roles of HCA2 on inflammation in a number of tissues and clinical states. PMID:26773933

  9. Bile Acids, FXR, and Metabolic Effects of Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Olivier F.; Still, Christopher D.; Argyropoulos, George; Edwards, Michael; Gerhard, Glenn S.

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity represent major risk factors for diabetes and related metabolic diseases. Obesity is associated with a chronic and progressive inflammatory response leading to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus, although the precise mechanism mediating this inflammatory process remains poorly understood. The most effective intervention for the treatment of obesity, bariatric surgery, leads to glucose normalization and remission of T2D. Recent work in both clinical studies and animal models supports bile acids (BAs) as key mediators of these effects. BAs are involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis primarily via the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) transcription factor. BAs are also involved in regulating genes involved in inflammation, obesity, and lipid metabolism. Here, we review the novel role of BAs in bariatric surgery and the intersection between BAs and immune, obesity, weight loss, and lipid metabolism genes. PMID:27006824

  10. Fluoxetine potentiation of omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect: evaluating pharmacokinetic and brain fatty acid-related aspects in rodents.

    PubMed

    Laino, Carlos Horacio; Garcia, Pilar; Podestá, María Fernanda; Höcht, Christian; Slobodianik, Nora; Reinés, Analía

    2014-10-01

    We previously reported that combined fluoxetine administration at antidepressant doses renders additive antidepressant effects, whereas non-antidepressant doses potentiate the omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate putative pharmacokinetic and brain omega-3 fatty acid-related aspects for fluoxetine potentiation of omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect in rats. Coadministration of omega-3 fatty acids with a non-antidepressant dose of fluoxetine (1 mg/kg day) failed to affect both brain fluoxetine concentration and norfluoxetine plasma concentration profile. Fluoxetine plasma concentrations remained below the sensitivity limit of the detection method. Either antidepressant (10 mg/kg day) or non-antidepressant (1 mg/kg day) doses of fluoxetine in combination with omega-3 fatty acids increased hippocampal docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 omega-3) levels. Although individual treatments had no effects on DPA concentration, DPA increase was higher when omega-3 were combined with the non-antidepressant dose of fluoxetine. Chronic DPA administration exerted antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test while increasing hippocampal docosahexaenoic (22:6 omega-3) and DPA levels. Our results suggest no pharmacokinetic interaction and reveal specific hippocampal DPA changes after fluoxetine and omega-3 combined treatments in our experimental conditions. The DPA role in the synergistic effect of fluoxetine and omega-3 combined treatments will be for sure the focus of future studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:3316-3325, 2014. PMID:25174836

  11. Epidemiologic Evidence on the Health Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA)

    PubMed Central

    Steenland, Kyle; Fletcher, Tony; Savitz, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective and sources We reviewed the epidemiologic literature for PFOA. Data synthesis Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) does not occur naturally but is present in the serum of most residents of industrialized countries (U.S. median, 4 ng/mL). Drinking water is the primary route of exposure in some populations, but exposure sources are not well understood. PFOA has been used to manufacture such products as Gore-Tex and Teflon. PFOA does not break down in the environment; the human half-life is estimated at about 3 years. PFOA is not metabolized in the body; it is not lipophilic. PFOA is not directly genotoxic; animal data indicate that it can cause several types of tumors and neonatal death and may have toxic effects on the immune, liver, and endocrine systems. Data on the human health effects of PFOA are sparse. There is relatively consistent evidence of modest positive associations with cholesterol and uric acid, although the magnitude of the cholesterol effect is inconsistent across different exposure levels. There is some but much less consistent evidence of a modest positive correlation with liver enzymes. Most findings come from cross-sectional studies, limiting conclusions. Two occupational cohort studies do not provide consistent evidence for chronic disease; both are limited by sample size and reliance on mortality data. Reproductive data have increased recently but are inconsistent, and any observed adverse effects are modest. Conclusions Epidemiologic evidence remains limited, and to date data are insufficient to draw firm conclusions regarding the role of PFOA for any of the diseases of concern. PMID:20423814

  12. A Kinetic Analysis of the Effects of Gibberellic Acid, Zeatin, and Abscisic Acid on Leaf Tissue Senescence in Rumex1

    PubMed Central

    Manos, Peter J.; Goldthwaite, Jonathan

    1975-01-01

    Hormones which inhibit senescence in Rumex leaf tissue in the dark include gibberellic acid and the cytokinin zeatin. Abscisic acid accelerates senescence in this tissue. Other workers have proposed that cytokinins, but not gibberellins, interact with abscisic acid in senescing Rumex leaf tissue. The present study reinvestigates the question of interaction using measurements of chlorophyll degradation kinetics as parameters of senescence rate and draws the conclusion that neither zeatin nor gibberellic acid interact with abscisic acid in this system. In support of this conclusion are these results. Zeatin clearly cannot overcome the effects of abscisic acid when hormone solutions are replaced every other day. The kinetics of chlorophyll breakdown for tissue treated with unreplaced saturating zeatin solutions is different from that of tissue exposed to saturating zeatin plus abscisic acid. The observed rates of chlorophyll breakdown for tissue treated with abscisic acid and zeatin agree closely with predicted rates using a multiplicative model for independent action of the two hormones. Zeatin solutions, when replaced every other day, show up to a 550-fold increase in effective concentration in the retardation of senescence. Less than a 10-fold increase could be accounted for by the addition of more zeatin molecules to the tissue. A nonbiological inactivation of zeatin or the production of an inhibitor of zeatin action by the tissue could not be demonstrated. It seems that zeatin is metabolically inactivated or sequestered in this tissue. The possible physiological significance of the inactivation of cytokinins in leaf tissue is discussed. PMID:16659049

  13. Effect of liver fatty acid binding protein on fatty acid movement between liposomes and rat liver microsomes.

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, M; Brecher, P

    1987-01-01

    Although movement of fatty acids between bilayers can occur spontaneously, it has been postulated that intracellular movement is facilitated by a class of proteins named fatty acid binding proteins (FABP). In this study we have incorporated long chain fatty acids into multilamellar liposomes made of phosphatidylcholine, incubated them with rat liver microsomes containing an active acyl-CoA synthetase, and measured formation of acyl-CoA in the absence or presence of FABP purified from rat liver. FABP increased about 2-fold the accumulation of acyl-CoA when liposomes were the fatty acid donor. Using fatty acid incorporated into liposomes made either of egg yolk lecithin or of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, it was found that the temperature dependence of acyl-CoA accumulation in the presence of FABP correlated with both the physical state of phospholipid molecules in the liposomes and the binding of fatty acid to FABP, suggesting that fatty acid must first desorb from the liposomes before FABP can have an effect. An FABP-fatty acid complex incubated with microsomes, in the absence of liposomes, resulted in greater acyl-CoA formation than when liposomes were present, suggesting that desorption of fatty acid from the membrane is rate-limiting in the accumulation of acyl-CoA by this system. Finally, an equilibrium dialysis cell separating liposomes from microsomes on opposite sides of a Nuclepore filter was used to show that liver FABP was required for the movement and activation of fatty acid between the compartments. These studies show that liver FABP interacts with fatty acid that desorbs from phospholipid bilayers, and promotes movement to a membrane-bound enzyme, suggesting that FABP may act intracellularly by increasing net desorption of fatty acid from cell membranes. PMID:3446187

  14. Genotype, production system and sex effects on fatty acid composition of meat from goat kids.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mustafa; Demirel, Gulcan; Yakan, Akın; Ekiz, Bülent; Tölü, Cemil; Savaş, Türker

    2015-02-01

    Two trials were performed to assess the meat fatty acid profile of goat kids from different genotypes, production systems and sex. In the first trial, genotype effect was determined in 24 suckling male kids from Turkish Saanen, Maltese and Gokceada breeds. In the second trial, male and female Gokceada Goat kids were used to compare the effect of extensive and semi-intensive production systems on fatty acid composition of meat. Significant genotype effect was observed in the percentages of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1 n-9), linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3), despite no differences on the ratios of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA) and n-6/n-3 (P > 0.05). The effect of production system had also significant effects on fatty acids, but sex only influenced significantly stearic acid (C18:0), C18:1 n-9 and C18:3 n-3 fatty acids and total PUFA level and PUFA/SFA ratio. This study confirms that dairy breeds are prone to produce higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids in their muscle. Meanwhile, meat from Gokceada goat kids, which is one of the indigenous breeds in Turkey, had similar PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios to Turkish Saanen and Maltase. PMID:25186278

  15. Quantitative Analysis and In vitro Anti-inflammatory Effects of Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid, and Quercetin from Radix Sanguisorbae

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Yoo, Sae-Rom; Lee, Na-Ri; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Radix Sanguisorbae has long been used to treat diarrhea, enteritis, duodenal ulcers, and internal hemorrhage. Objective: We investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of Radix Sanguisorbae and performed quantitative analyses of three marker components, namely gallic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin, using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. Materials and Methods: The three marker components were separated using a reversed-phase Gemini C18 analytical column maintained at 40°C by the gradient elution with two solvent systems. We examined the biological effects of the three marker compounds, gallic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin, by determining their anti-inflammatory activities in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Results: All of the marker compounds exhibited inhibitory effects on prostaglandin E2 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, with no cytotoxicity. Particularly, ellagic acid significantly inhibited production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ellagic acid is the most potent bioactive phytochemical component of radix Sanguisorbae in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. SUMMARY Established high-performance liquid chromatography method was applied in the quantitative analysis of gallic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin present in an extract from radix SanguisorbaeAmong the three compounds, the ellagic acid.(7.65.mg/g) is main component in radix SanguisorbaeEllagic acid significantly inhibited production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 cells. Abbreviations used: HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography, PDA: Photodiode array, TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL: Interleukin, LPS: Lipopolysaccharide, PGE2: Prostaglandin E2, NSAIDs

  16. Effects of feeding bile acids and a bile acid sequestrant on hepatic bile acid composition in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youcai; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2010-11-01

    An improved ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous analysis of various bile acids (BA) and applied to investigate liver BA content in C57BL/6 mice fed 1% cholic acid (CA), 0.3% deoxycholic acid (DCA), 0.3% chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), 0.3% lithocholic acid (LCA), 3% ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), or 2% cholestyramine (resin). Results indicate that mice have a remarkable ability to maintain liver BA concentrations. The BA profiles in mouse livers were similar between CA and DCA feedings, as well as between CDCA and LCA feedings. The mRNA expression of Cytochrome P450 7a1 (Cyp7a1) was suppressed by all BA feedings, whereas Cyp7b1 was suppressed only by CA and UDCA feedings. Gender differences in liver BA composition were observed after feeding CA, DCA, CDCA, and LCA, but they were not prominent after feeding UDCA. Sulfation of CA and CDCA was found at the 7-OH position, and it was increased by feeding CA or CDCA more in male than female mice. In contrast, sulfation of LCA and taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) was female-predominant, and it was increased by feeding UDCA and LCA. In summary, the present systematic study on BA metabolism in mice will aid in interpreting BA-mediated gene regulation and hepatotoxicity. PMID:20671298

  17. Effects of feeding bile acids and a bile acid sequestrant on hepatic bile acid composition in mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youcai; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2010-01-01

    An improved ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous analysis of various bile acids (BA) and applied to investigate liver BA content in C57BL/6 mice fed 1% cholic acid (CA), 0.3% deoxycholic acid (DCA), 0.3% chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), 0.3% lithocholic acid (LCA), 3% ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), or 2% cholestyramine (resin). Results indicate that mice have a remarkable ability to maintain liver BA concentrations. The BA profiles in mouse livers were similar between CA and DCA feedings, as well as between CDCA and LCA feedings. The mRNA expression of Cytochrome P450 7a1 (Cyp7a1) was suppressed by all BA feedings, whereas Cyp7b1 was suppressed only by CA and UDCA feedings. Gender differences in liver BA composition were observed after feeding CA, DCA, CDCA, and LCA, but they were not prominent after feeding UDCA. Sulfation of CA and CDCA was found at the 7-OH position, and it was increased by feeding CA or CDCA more in male than female mice. In contrast, sulfation of LCA and taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) was female-predominant, and it was increased by feeding UDCA and LCA. In summary, the present systematic study on BA metabolism in mice will aid in interpreting BA-mediated gene regulation and hepatotoxicity. PMID:20671298

  18. 40 CFR 72.69 - Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits. 72.69 Section 72.69 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.69 Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits....

  19. Unprecedented synergistic effects between weak Lewis and Brønsted acids in Prins cyclization.

    PubMed

    Borkar, Prashant; van de Weghe, Pierre; Reddy, B V Subba; Yadav, J S; Grée, René

    2012-09-25

    Novel synergistic effects between Lewis and Brønsted acids in Prins cyclization are reported. Non-reactive Lewis acids and non-reactive Brønsted acids, which failed to perform Prins cyclization when used alone, have shown remarkable synergistic effects when used in combination to perform the reaction successfully. PMID:22885680

  20. Effect of Cations on Effective Permeability of Leaf Cuticles to Sulfuric Acid.

    PubMed Central

    Smalley, S. J.; Hauser, H. D.; Berg, V. S.

    1993-01-01

    Many plants are exposed to prolonged episodes of anthropogenic acid precipitation with pH values of 4 or less, but there is little evidence of widespread direct damage to the plant cells. Acids appear to permeate leaf cuticle via charged pores, which act as a fixed buffer that delays but does not stop acid movement. We investigated the effect of cations on the movement of protons through astomatous isolated leaf cuticles of pear (Pyrus communis L.) and rough lemon (Citrus limon [L.] Burm. fils cv Ponderosa). Chloride salt solutions of Na, K, Ca, Cd, Mg, Gd, or Y in a diffusion apparatus were applied to the morphological inner surface of the cuticle, while the outer surface faced a large volume of pH 3 or 4 sulfuric acid. Effective permeability was calculated from the change in the pH of the inner solution as measured with a pH microelectrode. Monovalent cations caused either no change (pear) or promotion (rough lemon) of proton movement. Divalent cations reduced proton movement in a concentration-dependent manner (both species), whereas trivalent cations (rough lemon only) caused the effective permeability to decrease to near zero. Inhibition by 10 mM CaCl2 was reversed with water. The effects of these cations on the permeability of cuticles to protons was used to elucidate mechanisms by which cations can protect leaves from acid precipitation in nature. PMID:12231931

  1. Effect of oxalic acid on Nosema ceranae infection.

    PubMed

    Nanetti, Antonio; Rodriguez-García, Cristina; Meana, Aránzazu; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Higes, Mariano

    2015-10-01

    Nosema ceranae is a honey bee pathogen parasitizing the ventricular epithelium and potentially causing colony death. The effect of 0.25 M oxalic acid solution administered to the bees in the form of sugar syrup was determined in laboratory and field trials. The spore numbers in an 8-day laboratory experiment were significantly lower when AO was administered (treated: 11.86 ± 0.94 s.e. × 10^6; untreated: 30.64 ± 0.31 s.e.x10^6). When administered in autumn to free flying colonies twice, 3 weeks apart, the infection prevalence decreased in young (relative reduction of 53.8% ± 6.5 s.e.) and old bees (relative reduction of 44.4% ± 6.0 s.e.). Meanwhile increased prevalence in all the controls was detected (young and old bees: relative increase of 45.7% ± 22.8 s.e. and 10.2% ± 5.9 s.e., respectively). While all the treated colonies overwintered correctly, the untreated ones did not (3 out of 5 were dead). In the absence of commercial products approved in several countries to control nosemosis, oxalic acid syrup appears promising in the development of alternative management strategies. PMID:26412538

  2. Effect of dichloroacetate on plasma lactic acid in exercising dogs.

    PubMed

    Merrill, G F; Zambraski, E J; Grassl, S M

    1980-03-01

    Dichloroacetate sodium (DCA) has been shown to reduce circulating levels of lactic acid (LA) under a variety of experimental and clinical conditions. We have examined the effect of DCA on the lactacidemia of exercise in treadmill-exercised dogs. One group of animals (n = 8) was tested at light, moderate, and heavy exercise work loads. Plasma LA, 19 +/- 2mg/dl at rest, increased to 26 +/- 4, 38 +/- 5, and 52 +/- 6 mg/dl during the three workloads, respectively. In the same animals, when identical treadmill tests were conducted after DCA (100 mg/kg, iv), the rise in LA was significantly attenuated. Lactic acid values were 11 +/- 2 mg/dl at rest after DCA and 15 +/- 2, 20 +/- 4, and 23 +/- 3 mg/dl for the light, moderate, and heavy workloads, respectively. Another group of dogs (n = 6) performed prolonged moderate exercise. Under untreated conditions, LA increased from 24 +/- 1 mg/dl at rest, to 41 +/- 6 mg/dl at 10 min, and 50 +/- 5 mg/dl at 50 min. During repeat tests, DCA was given at 12 min when LA was 30 +/- 6 mg/dl. At 50 min, LA was 18 +/- 3 mg/dl or 60% lower than that observed during the untreated run. Because DCA has been shown to increase pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme activity, these data suggest that this enzyme may be an important factor in LA metabolism during exercise. PMID:7372512

  3. Overview of trans fatty acids: biochemistry and health effects.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Passi, Santosh Jain; Misra, Anoop

    2011-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are unsaturated fatty acids that contain at least one non-conjugated double bond in the trans configuration, resulting in a straighter shape. TFA present in our diet can either be industrially produced and ruminant or natural. The major process contributing to formation of industrial TFA is hydrogenation of vegetable oils. Thermal processes such as edible oil refining and frying also lead to the formation of TFA while, ruminant/natural TFA is formed in the rumen of ruminant animals through bio-hydrogenation. Industrial TFA poses severe effects on our health like cardiovascular problems, insulin resistance, infertility in women, compromised fetal development and cognitive decline. There are strict regulations for limiting/removing the TFA content from food supply across the world. However in India, there is scarcity of data on TFA content in foods and their consumption levels. Given the alarmingly rising trend of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in India, removal of TFA from the food supply along with generating awareness among the masses in this regard is of immense importance. PMID:22813572

  4. Acidosis, magnesium and acetylsalicylic acid: Effects on thrombin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisevich, Nikolaj; Loznikova, Svetlana; Sukhodola, Aleksandr; Halets, Inessa; Bryszewska, Maria; Shcharbin, Dzmitry

    2013-03-01

    Thrombin, an enzyme from the hydrolase family, is the main component of the blood coagulation system. In ischemic stroke it acts as a serine protease that converts soluble fibrinogen into insoluble strands of fibrin forming blood clots in the brain. It has been found to phosphoresce at room temperature in the millisecond and microsecond ranges. The phosphorescence of thrombin was studied under physiological conditions, in acidosis (decrease of pH from 8.0 to 5.0) and on the addition of salts (magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride) and of acetylsalicylic acid, and its connection with thrombin function is discussed. Acidosis significantly increased the internal dynamics of thrombin. We propose that lactate-acidosis plays a protective role in stroke, preventing the formation of clots. The addition of NaCl and MgSO4 in different concentrations increased the internal dynamics of thrombin. Also, the addition of MgSO4 decreased thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. However, magnesium sulfate and acetylsalicylic acid in the therapeutic concentrations used for treatment of ischemic stroke had no effect on thrombin internal dynamics. The data obtained will help to elucidate the conformational stability of thrombin under conditions modulating lactate-acidosis and in the presence of magnesium sulfate.

  5. Effect of amino acids on the interaction between cobalamin(II) and dehydroascorbic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dereven'kov, I. A.; Thi, Thu Thuy Bui; Salnikov, D. S.; Makarov, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    The kinetics of the reaction between one-electron-reduced cobalamin (cobalamin(II), Cb(II)) and the two-electron-oxidized form of vitamin C (dehydroascorbic acid, DHA) with amino acids in an acidic medium is studied by conventional UV-Vis spectroscopy. It is shown that the oxidation of Cbl(II) by dehydroascorbic acid proceeds only in the presence of sulfur-containing amino acids (cysteine, acetylcysteine). A proposed reaction mechanism includes the step of amino acid coordination on the Co(II)-center through the sulfur atom, along with that of the interaction between this complex and DHA molecules, which results in the formation of ascorbyl radical and the corresponding Co(III) thiolate complex.

  6. Folic Acid for Moms-To-Be Not as Effective as Thought?

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158957.html Folic Acid for Moms-to-Be Not as Effective as ... News) -- Fortifying cereals, grains and flour with folic acid has not protected against the risk of certain ...

  7. ACIDIC DEPOSITION IN THE NORTHEASTERN U.S.: SOURCES AND INPUTS, ECOSYSTEM EFFECTS, AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acidic deposition results from the emissions of air pollutants. Effects of acidic deposition in the northeastern US include the acidification of soil and water, causing stresses to terrestrial and aquatic biota.

  8. The effect of fatty acid surfactants on the uptake of nitric acid to deliquesced NaCl aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmler, K.; Vlasenko, A.; Guimbaud, C.; Ammann, M.

    2008-01-01

    Surface active organic compounds have been observed in marine boundary layer aerosol. Here, we investigate the effect such surfactants have on the uptake of nitric acid (HNO3), an important removal reaction of nitrogen oxides in the marine boundary layer. The uptake of gaseous HNO3 on deliquesced NaCl aerosol was measured in a flow reactor using HNO3 labelled with the short-lived radioactive isotope 13N. The uptake coefficient γ on pure deliquesced NaCl aerosol was γ=0.5±0.2 at 60% relative humidity and 30 ppb HNO3(g). The uptake coefficient was reduced by a factor of 5-50 when the aerosol was coated with saturated linear fatty acids with carbon chain lengths of 18 and 15 atoms in monolayer quantities. In contrast, neither shorter saturated linear fatty acids with 12 and 9 carbon atoms, nor coatings with the unsaturated oleic acid (C18, cis-double bond) had a detectable effect on the rate of HNO3 uptake. It is concluded that it is the structure of the monolayers formed, which determines their resistance towards HNO3 uptake. Fatty acids (C18 and C15), which form a highly ordered film in the so-called liquid condensed state, represent a significant barrier towards HNO3 uptake, while monolayers of shorter-chain fatty acids (C9, C12) and of the unsaturated oleic acid form a less ordered film in the liquid expanded state and do not hinder the uptake. Similarly, high contents of humic acids in the aerosol, a structurally inhomogeneous, quite water soluble mixture of oxidised high molecular weight organic compounds did not affect HNO3 uptake. As surfactant films on naturally occurring aerosol are expected to be less structured due to their chemical inhomogeneity, it is likely that their inhibitory effect on HNO3 uptake is smaller than that observed here for the C15 and C18 fatty acid monolayers.

  9. The effect of fatty acid surfactants on the uptake of nitric acid to deliquesced NaCl aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmler, K.; Vlasenko, A.; Guimbaud, C.; Ammann, M.

    2008-09-01

    Surface active organic compounds have been observed in marine boundary layer aerosol. Here, we investigate the effect such surfactants have on the uptake of nitric acid (HNO3), an important removal reaction of nitrogen oxides in the marine boundary layer. The uptake of gaseous HNO3 on deliquesced NaCl aerosol was measured in a flow reactor using HNO3 labelled with the short-lived radioactive isotope 13N. The uptake coefficient γ on pure deliquesced NaCl aerosol was γ=0.5±0.2 at 60% relative humidity and 30 ppb HNO3(g). The uptake coefficient was reduced by a factor of 5 50 when the aerosol was coated with saturated linear fatty acids with carbon chain lengths of 18 and 15 atoms in monolayer quantities. In contrast, neither shorter saturated linear fatty acids with 12 and 9 carbon atoms, nor coatings with the unsaturated oleic acid (C18, cis-double bond) had a detectable effect on the rate of HNO3 uptake. It is concluded that it is the structure of the monolayers formed, which determines their resistance towards HNO3 uptake. Fatty acids (C18 and C15), which form a highly ordered film in the so-called liquid condensed state, represent a significant barrier towards HNO3 uptake, while monolayers of shorter-chain fatty acids (C9, C12) and of the unsaturated oleic acid form a less ordered film in the liquid expanded state and do not hinder the uptake. Similarly, high contents of humic acids in the aerosol, a structurally inhomogeneous, quite water soluble mixture of oxidised high molecular weight organic compounds did not affect HNO3 uptake. As surfactant films on naturally occurring aerosol are expected to be less structured due to their chemical inhomogeneity, it is likely that their inhibitory effect on HNO3 uptake is smaller than that observed here for the C15 and C18 fatty acid monolayers.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasaka, Reiko; Chotimarkorn, Chatchawan; Shafiqul, Islam Md.; Hori, Masatoshi; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Ushio, Hideki . E-mail: hushio@kaiyodai.ac.jp

    2007-06-29

    NF-{kappa}B family of transcription factors are involved in numerous cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, and inflammation. It was reported that hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (HADs) are inhibitors of NF-{kappa}B activation. Rice bran oil contains a lot of phytosteryl ferulates, one of HADs. We have investigated effects of phytosteryl ferulates on NF-{kappa}B activation in macrophage. Cycloartenyl ferulate (CAF), one of phytosteryl ferulates, significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production and mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenese-2 but upregulated SOD activity. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay revealed that CAF inhibited DNA-binding of NF-{kappa}B. CAF and phytosteryl ferulates probably have potentially anti-inflammatory properties.

  11. The Effect of Supercritical Fluids on Solid Acid Catalyst Alkylation

    SciTech Connect

    Ginosar, Daniel Michael; Thompson, David Neil; Burch, Kyle Coates; Zalewski, D. J.

    2002-05-01

    The alkylation of isobutane with trans-2-butene was explored over six solid acid catalysts in the liquid, near-critical liquid, and supercritical regions through the addition of an inert cosolvent to the reaction feed mixture. The addition of supercritical cosolvents did not result in sustained catalytic alkylation activity. A modest improvement in product yield was obtained with the addition of methane in the modified-liquid region; however, catalyst longevity and product selectivity were decreased compared to cosolvent-free liquid conditions. This paper describes the catalyst screening and selection process, an exploration of catalyst performance with varying concentrations of methane, and an examination of the effects of seven supercritical fluids on catalyst performance. The catalysts included two zeolites, two sulfated metal oxides, and two Nafion catalysts. Three hydrocarbons, two fluorocarbons, carbon dioxide, and sulfur hexafluoride were explored as inert cosolvents added to the reaction mixture.

  12. THE ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF TRICHLORACETIC ACID (TCAA) IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) is a member of the family of compounds known as chloroacetic acids, which includes mono-, di- and trichloroacetic acid. The significant property these compounds share is that they are all phytotoxic. TCAA once was widely used as a potent herbicide. ...

  13. Nonequilibrium 2-Hydroxyoctadecanoic Acid Monolayers: Effect of Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lendrum, Conrad D.; Ingham, Bridget; Lin, Binhua; Meron, Mati; Toney, Michael F.; McGrath, Kathryn M.

    2012-02-06

    2-Hydroxyacids display complex monolayer phase behavior due to the additional hydrogen bonding afforded by the presence of the second hydroxy group. The placement of this group at the position {alpha} to the carboxylic acid functionality also introduces the possibility of chelation, a utility important in crystallization including biomineralization. Biomineralization, like many biological processes, is inherently a nonequilibrium process. The nonequilibrium monolayer phase behavior of 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid was investigated on each of pure water, calcium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate crystallizing subphases as a precursor study to a model calcium carbonate biomineralizing system, each at a pH of {approx}6. The role of the bicarbonate co-ion in manipulating the monolayer structure was determined by comparison with monolayer phase behavior on a sodium chloride subphase. Monolayer phase behavior was probed using surface pressure/area isotherms, surface potential, Brewster angle microscopy, and synchrotron-based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity. Complex phase behavior was observed for all but the sodium chloride subphase with hydrogen bonding, electrostatic and steric effects defining the symmetry of the monolayer. On a pure water subphase hydrogen bonding dominates with three phases coexisting at low pressures. Introduction of calcium ions into the aqueous subphase ensures strong cation binding to the surfactant head groups through chelation. The monolayer becomes very unstable in the presence of bicarbonate ions within the subphase due to short-range hydrogen bonding interactions between the monolayer and bicarbonate ions facilitated by the sodium cation enhancing surfactant solubility. The combined effects of electrostatics and hydrogen bonding are observed on the calcium carbonate crystallizing subphase.

  14. Effects of intermediate metabolite carboxylic acids of TCA cycle on Microcystis with overproduction of phycocyanin.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shijie; Dai, Jingcheng; Xia, Ming; Ruan, Jing; Wei, Hehong; Yu, Dianzhen; Li, Ronghui; Jing, Hongmei; Tian, Chunyuan; Song, Lirong; Qiu, Dongru

    2015-04-01

    Toxic Microcystis species are the main bloom-forming cyanobacteria in freshwaters. It is imperative to develop efficient techniques to control these notorious harmful algal blooms (HABs). Here, we present a simple, efficient, and environmentally safe algicidal way to control Microcystis blooms, by using intermediate carboxylic acids from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The citric acid, alpha-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, and malic acid all exhibited strong algicidal effects, and particularly succinic acid could cause the rapid lysis of Microcystis in a few hours. It is revealed that the Microcystis-lysing activity of succinic acid and other carboxylic acids was due to their strong acidic activity. Interestingly, the acid-lysed Microcystis cells released large amounts of phycocyanin, about 27-fold higher than those of the control. On the other hand, the transcription of mcyA and mcyD of the microcystin biosynthesis operon was not upregulated by addition of alpha-ketoglutaric acid and other carboxylic acids. Consider the environmental safety of intermediate carboxylic acids. We propose that administration of TCA cycle organic acids may not only provide an algicidal method with high efficiency and environmental safety but also serve as an applicable way to produce and extract phycocyanin from cyanobacterial biomass. PMID:25342454

  15. [Effect of gibberellic acid on RNA synthesis in dwarf peas].

    PubMed

    Kilev, S N; Kholodar', A V; Chekurov, V M; Mertvetsov, N P

    1982-04-01

    The effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on total RNA and polysomal poly-[A]+-RNA synthesis in epicotylia and embryos of dwarf pea of two varieties differing in their physiological sensitivity to GA was studied. It was found that incubation with GA increases the accumulation of total RNA in pea epicotylia, var. "Pioner" and "Polzunok". The maximal stimulation of RNA accumulation makes up to 40% for the low sensitivity variety "Polzunok" and 150% for the highly sensitive variety "Pioner". GA increases the synthesis of polysomal poly (A)+-mRNA in 5-year-old pea sprouts and that of newly synthesized poly (A)+-mRNA in epicotylian polysomes of both varieties 5, 24, 48 and 72 hrs after incubation with GA. GA at concentrations of 10(-6) and 10(-5) stimulates the incorporation of [3H]uridine into polysomal mRNA during the first 1--3 hours after treatment and enhances the accumulation of newly synthesized mRNA in pea embryonic polyribosomes. The stimulating effect is directly proportional to the dose of the hormone. The mechanisms of GA effect on the transcription and translation in pea plant cells are discussed. PMID:6177351

  16. The amelioration effect of tranexamic acid in wrinkles induced by skin dryness.

    PubMed

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Takahashi, Yumi; Mafune, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) is a medical amino acid widely used as an anti-inflammatory and a whitening agent. This study examined the effect of tranexamic acid administration in wrinkle formation following skin dryness. We administered tranexamic acid (750mg/kg/day) orally for 20 consecutive days to Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia (NOA) mice, which naturally develop skin dryness. In these NOA mice, deterioration of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), generation of wrinkles, decrease of collagen type I, and increases in mast cell proliferation and tryptase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) release were observed. However, these symptoms were improved by tranexamic acid treatment. Moreover, the increase in the β-endorphin level in the blood and the expression of μ-opioid receptor on the surface of fibroblasts increased by tranexamic acid treatment. In addition, when the fibroblasts induced by tranexamic acid treatment were removed, the amelioration effect by tranexamic acid treatment was halved. On the other hand, tranexamic acid treated NOA mice and mast cell removal in tranexamic acid treated NOA mice did not result in changes in the wrinkle amelioration effect. Additionally, the amelioration effect of mast cell deficient NOA mice was half that of tranexamic acid treated NOA mice. These results indicate that tranexamic acid decreased the proliferation of mast cells and increases the proliferation of fibroblasts, subsequently improving wrinkles caused by skin dryness. PMID:27133035

  17. Circulating Unmetabolized Folic Acid: Relationship to Folate Status and Effect of Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Carolyn; O'Connor, Deborah; Koren, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing concerns that exposure to unmetabolized folic acid, which results from folic acid intakes that overwhelm the liver's metabolic capacity, may be associated with adverse effects. In this paper, we examined the folic acid status of women of reproductive age in relation to dietary intake and the effect of folic acid supplementation (1.1 mg or 5 mg). Plasma unmetabolized folic acid was not significantly correlated with folate intake estimated by food frequency questionnaire or biomarkers. The proportion of women with detectable levels of unmetabolized folic acid increased from 65% to 100% after twelve weeks of supplementation (P < 0.05); however, the increase in concentrations did not reach statistical significance and the effect was not sustained. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the two doses. This suggests that there are mechanisms by which the body adapts to high folic acid intakes to limit exposure to unmetabolized folic acid. PMID:22529856

  18. The effect of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNB) on colonocyte arachidonic acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Stratton, M D; Sexe, R; Peterson, B; Kaminski, D L; Li, A P; Longo, W E

    1996-02-01

    In previous studies we found that luminal perfusion of the isolated left colon of the rabbit with the hapten, trinitrobenzene, resulted in the production of an acute inflammatory process associated with alterations in eicosanoid metabolism. As the colitis was attenuated by cyclooxygenase inhibitors it is possible that the inflammation was mediated by arachidonic acid metabolites. In the present study it was intended to evaluate the effect of trinitrobenzene on eicosanoid metabolism in transformed human colonic cells by exposing Caco-2++ cells to various doses of trinitrobenzene. Cell injury was evaluated by measuring lactate dehydrogenase levels and cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activity was evaluated by measuring prostanoid and leukotriene production. In separate experiments resting and trinitrobenzene stimulated cells were treated with indomethacin and dexamethasone. Trinitrobenzene produced increased prostaglandin E2 and 6-keto prostaglandin F1alpha++ and increased lactate dehydrogenase levels. Leukotriene B4 was significantly increased compared to control values at the highest TNB concentration administered. Indomethacin inhibited the lactate dehydrogenase and prostanoid changes, suggesting that the inflammatory changes produced were mediated by the prostanoids. Dexamethasone administered for 1 hr prior to trinitrobenzene decreased the 6-keto prostaglandin F1alpha but did not alter trinitrobenzene produced changes in lactate dehydrogenase concentrations. Exposure of Caco-2 cells to dexamethasone for 24 hr decreased the trinitrobenzene produced lactate dehydrogenase and eicosanoid changes. The results suggest that trinitrobenzene produces an acute injury to Caco-2 cells that may be mediated by the cyclooxygenase enzymes. PMID:8598672

  19. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  20. Neurotoxic effects induced by gammahydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in male rats.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Carmen; García, Francisca Belén; Navarro, José Francisco

    2009-10-01

    Gammahydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous constituent of the central nervous system that has acquired great social relevance for its use as a recreational 'club drug'. GHB, popularly known as 'liquid ecstasy', is addictive when used continuously. Although the symptoms associated with acute intoxication are well known, the effects of prolonged use remain uncertain. We examined in male rats the effect of repeated administration of GHB (10 and 100 mg/kg) on various parameters: neurological damage, working memory and spatial memory, using neurological tests, the Morris water maze and the hole-board test. The results showed that repeated administration of GHB, especially at doses of 10 mg/kg, causes neurological damage, affecting the 'grasping' reflex, as well as alteration in spatial and working memories. Stereological quantification showed that this drug produces a drastic neuronal loss in the CA1 hippocampal region and in the prefrontal cortex, two areas clearly involved in cognitive and neurological functions. No effects were noted after quantification in the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG), a region lacking GHB receptors. Moreover, NCS-382, a putative antagonist of GHB receptor, prevented both neurological damage and working- memory impairment induced by GHB. This suggests that the effects of administration of this compound may be mediated, at least partly, by specific receptors in the nervous system. The results show for the first time that the repeated administration of GHB, especially at very low doses, produces neurotoxic effects. This is very relevant because its abuse, especially by young persons, could produce considerable neurological alterations after prolonged abuse. PMID:19288974

  1. Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid administration on bile acid composition in hamster bile.

    PubMed

    Matejka, M; Vescina, C; Carducci, C N; Alayón, A; Dios, A; Scarlatto, E; Mamianetti, A

    1990-01-01

    The modification in the composition of bile acids in hamster by the administration of high dose of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into five groups: a control group, two groups that received 0.5 g of UDCA per 100 g of standard diet during 30 and 60 days and another two groups that received 1 g of UDCA per 100 g of standard diet during 30 and 60 days. After ether anaesthesia the gallbladder was removed and bile was immediately aspirated. Bile acids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Taurolithocholic (TLCA) and glycolithocholic acids (GLCA) increased significantly in all treated groups. The glyco/tauro ratio of 0.69 in controls became more than 1 in treated animals except in the case of lithocholic acid (LCA) conjugates which remained less than 1. UDCA derivatives increased proportionally to the administered dose and the cholic/cheno ratio diminished significantly. A moderate increase of 3- and 7-keto derivatives of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was observed in all treated groups but the above mentioned increment was especially evident in 3-keto derivatives. A high percentage of UDCA administered in the hamster was likely transformed to CDCA and the glyco conjugates of the bile acids were the predominant species except for the LCA derivatives. PMID:2367280

  2. Effects of bile acid administration on bile acid synthesis and its circadian rhythm in man

    SciTech Connect

    Pooler, P.A.; Duane, W.C.

    1988-09-01

    In man bile acid synthesis has a distinct circadian rhythm but the relationship of this rhythm to feedback inhibition by bile acid is unknown. We measured bile acid synthesis as release of 14CO2 from (26-14C)cholesterol every 2 hr in three normal volunteers during five separate 24-hr periods. Data were fitted by computer to a cosine curve to estimate amplitude and acrophase of the circadian rhythm. In an additional six volunteers, we measured synthesis every 2 hr from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. only. During the control period, amplitude (expressed as percentage of mean synthesis) averaged 52% and acrophase averaged 6:49 a.m. During administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (15 mg per kg per day), synthesis averaged 126% of baseline (p less than 0.1), amplitude averaged 43% and acrophase averaged 6:20 a.m. During administration of chenodeoxycholic acid (15 mg per kg per day), synthesis averaged 43% of baseline (p less than 0.001), amplitude averaged 53% and acrophase averaged 9:04 a.m. Addition of prednisone to this regimen of chenodeoxycholic acid to eliminate release of 14CO2 from corticosteroid hormone synthesis resulted in a mean amplitude of 62% and a mean acrophase of 6:50 a.m., values very similar to those in the baseline period. Administration of prednisone alone also did not significantly alter the baseline amplitude (40%) or acrophase (6:28 a.m.). We conclude that neither chenodeoxycholic acid nor ursodeoxycholic acid significantly alters the circadian rhythm of bile acid synthesis in man.

  3. Acute exposure to acid fog. Effects on mucociliary clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Laube, B.L.; Bowes, S.M. III; Links, J.M.; Thomas, K.K.; Frank, R. )

    1993-05-01

    Submicrometric sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol can affect mucociliary clearance without eliciting irritative symptoms or changes in pulmonary function. The effect of larger fog droplets containing H2SO4 on mucociliary clearance is unknown. We quantified mucociliary clearance from the trachea (n = 4) and small airways (n = 7) of young healthy male adults after an acute exposure to H2SO4 fog (MMAD = 10.3 microns; pH = 2.0; liquid water content = 481 +/- 65 mg/m3; osmolarity = 30 mOsm). Acid fog (AF) or saline fog (SF) (10.9 microns; 492 +/- 116 mg/m3; 30 mOsm) was administered for 40 min of unencumbered breathing (no mouth-piece) at rest and for 20 min of exercise sufficient to produce oronasal breathing. Fog exposures were followed by a methacholine (MCh) challenge (a measure of airway reactivity) or inhalation of technetium-99M radioaerosol (MMAD = 3.4 microns) on 2 study days each. Changes in symptoms and forced ventilatory function were also assessed. Clearance was quantified from computer-assisted analyses of gamma camera images of the lower respiratory tract in terms of %removal/min of the radiolabel from the trachea 25 min after inhalation and from the outer zone of the right lung after 1.9 to 3 h. Symptoms, forced ventilatory function, and MCh response were unaffected by either fog. Tracheal clearance was more rapid in four of four subjects after AF (0.83 +/- 1.58% removal/min) compared with that after SF (-0.54 +/- 0.85% removal/min). Outer zone clearance was more rapid in six of seven subjects after AF (0.22 +/- 0.15% removal/min) compared with that after SF (0.01 +/- 0.09% removal/min).

  4. Effects of Polysialic Acid on Sensory Innervation of the Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiuli; Zhang, Yuntao; Schwend, Tyler; Conrad, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Sensory trigeminal growth cones innervate the cornea in a coordinated fashion during embryonic development. Polysialic acid (polySia) is known for its important roles during nerve development and regeneration. The purpose of this work is to determine whether polySia, present in developing eyefronts and on the surface of sensory nerves, may provide guidance cues to nerves during corneal innervation. Expression and localization of polySia in embryonic day (E)5-14 chick eyefronts and E9 trigeminal ganglia were identified using Western blotting and immunostaining. Effects of polySia removal on trigeminal nerve growth behavior were determined in vivo, using exogenous endoneuraminidase (endoN) treatments to remove polySia substrates during chick cornea development, and in vitro, using neuronal explant cultures. PolySia substrates, made by the physical adsorption of colominic acid to a surface coated with poly-D-lysine (PDL), were used as a model to investigate functions of the polySia expressed in axonal environments. PolySia was localized within developing eyefronts and on trigeminal sensory nerves. Distributions of PolySia in corneas and pericorneal regions are developmentally regulated. PolySia removal caused defasciculation of the limbal nerve trunk in vivo from E7 to E10. Removal of polySia on trigeminal neurites inhibited neurite outgrowth and caused axon defasciculation, but did not affect Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM) expression or Schwann cell migration in vitro. PolySia substrates in vitro inhibited outgrowth of trigeminal neurites and promoted their fasciculation. In conclusion, polySia is localized on corneal nerves and in their targeting environment during early developing stages of chick embryos. PolySias promote fasciculation of trigeminal axons in vivo and in vitro, whereas, in contrast, their removal promotes defasciculation. PMID:25478909

  5. The effect of addition of linoleic acid on food intake regulation in linoleic acid tasters and linoleic acid non-tasters.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Marleen M J W; Saris, Wim H M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2003-07-01

    In a randomised, single blind, placebo-controlled crossover design study, we investigated whether healthy, non-smoking, dietary unrestrained women (n 24), divided into linoleic acid tasters (LAT, n 14) and linoleic acid non-tasters (LANT, n 10), differed in food intake regulation when linoleic acid was added to ice creams. The determination of subjects as LAT or LANT was done using a 10 microm-linoleic acid solution. The ice creams were characterised by the subjects and a taste perception test using the triangle test was conducted three times. Food intake and appetite were measured using the universal eating monitor. LAT and LANT did not differ in characterisation or in taste perception of the ice creams, even though LAT were able to increase their ability to discriminate between the ice cream with linoleic acid from the one containing oleic acid. No effect of LAT status or type of ice cream was found for hedonic value of the ice creams. Linoleic acid taster status did affect food intake regulation. For LAT, but not LANT, the amount eaten was a function of Deltasatiety. Subjects ate by weight of food and not by energy content. In conclusion, differences in food intake regulation were seen between LAT and LANT, in that the amount eaten by LAT was a function of Deltasatiety, but was not for LANT. PMID:12844392

  6. Ameliorative effects of phycocyanin against gibberellic acid induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Mohamed M A; Ali, Haytham A; Ahmed, Mona M

    2015-03-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA3) was used extensively unaware in agriculture in spite of its dangerous effects on human health. The current study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effects of the co-administration of phycocyanin with GA3 induced oxidative stress and histopathological changes in the liver. Forty male albino rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group I (control group) received normal saline for 6 weeks, Group II (GA3 treated group) received 3.85 mg/kg body weight GA3 once daily for 6 weeks, Group III (phycocyanin treated group) received Phycocyanin 200 mg/kg body weight/day for 6 weeks orally dissolved in distilled water and Group IV was treated with GA3 and phycocyanin at the same doses as groups 2 and 3. All treatments were given daily using intra-gastric intubation and continued for 6 weeks. Our results revealed significant downregulation of antioxidant enzyme activities and their mRNA levels (CAT, GPx and Cu-Zn, SOD) with marked elevation of liver enzymes and extensive fibrous connective tissue deposition with large biliary cells in hepatic tissue of GA3 treated rats, while treatment with phycocyanin improved the antioxidant defense system, liver enzymes and structural hepatocytes recovery in phycocyanin treated group with GA3. These data confirm the antioxidant potential of Phycocyanin and provide strong evidence to support the co-administration of Phycocyanin during using GA3. PMID:25868813

  7. The therapeutic effects of 4-phenylbutyric acid in maintaining proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Kolb, P S; Ayaub, E A; Zhou, W; Yum, V; Dickhout, J G; Ask, K

    2015-04-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing amount of literature published on the effects of 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) in various biological systems. 4-PBA is currently used clinically to treat urea cycle disorders under the trade name Buphenyl. Recent studies however have explored 4-PBA in the context of a low weight molecular weight chemical chaperone. Its properties as a chemical chaperone prevent misfolded protein aggregation and alleviate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. As the ER is responsible for folding proteins targeted for use in membranes or secreted out of the cell, failure of maintaining adequate ER homeostasis may lead to protein misfolding and subsequent cell and organ pathology. Accumulation of misfolded proteins within the ER activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), a molecular repair response. The activation of the UPR aims to restore ER and cellular proteostasis by regulating the rate of synthesis of newly formed proteins as well as initiating molecular programs aimed to help fold or degrade misfolded proteins. If proteostasis is not restored, the UPR may initiate pro-apoptotic pathways. It is suggested that 4-PBA may help fold proteins in the ER, attenuating the activation of the UPR, and thus potentially alleviating various pathologies. This review discusses the biomedical research exploring the potential therapeutic effects of 4-PBA in various in vitro and in vivo model systems and clinical trials, while also commenting on the possible mechanisms of action. PMID:25660369

  8. Effect of humic acid (HA) on sulfonamide sorption by biochars.

    PubMed

    Lian, Fei; Sun, Binbin; Chen, Xi; Zhu, Lingyan; Liu, Zhongqi; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-09-01

    Effect of quantity and fractionation of loaded humic acid (HA) on biochar sorption for sulfonamides was investigated. The HA was applied in two different modes, i.e. pre-coating and co-introduction with sorbate. In pre-coating mode, the polar fractions of HA tended to interact with low-temperature biochars via H-bonding, while the hydrophobic fractions were likely to be adsorbed by high-temperature biochars through hydrophobic and π-π interactions, leading to different composition and structure of the HA adlayers. The influences of HA fractionation on biochar sorption for sulfonamides varied significantly, depending on the nature of interaction between HA fraction and sorbate. Meanwhile, co-introduction of HA with sulfonamides revealed that the effect of HA on sulfonamide sorption was also dependent on HA concentration. These findings suggest that the amount and fractionation of adsorbed HA are tailored by the surface properties of underlying biochars, which differently affect the sorption for organic contaminants. PMID:26057361

  9. Antitumor effect of sonodynamically activated pyrrolidine tris-acid fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Yumiko; Nishi, Koji; Fujimori, Junya; Fukai, Toshio; Yumita, Nagahiko; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Chen, Fu-shin; Momose, Yasunori; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the sonodynamically induced antitumor effect of pyrrolidine tris-acid fullerene (PTF) was investigated. Sonodynamically induced antitumor effects of PTF by focused ultrasound were investigated using isolated sarcoma-180 cells and mice bearing ectopically-implanted colon 26 carcinoma. Cell damage induced by ultrasonic exposure was enhanced by 5-fold in the presence of 80 µM PTF. The combined treatment of ultrasound and PTF suppressed the growth of the implanted colon 26 carcinoma. Ultrasonically induced 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone-1-oxyl (4oxoTEMPO) production in the presence and absence of PTF was assessed, and it was shown that 80 µM PTF enhanced 4oxoTEMPO production as measured by ESR spectroscopy. Histidine, a reactive oxygen scavenger, significantly reduced cell damage and 4oxoTEMPO generation caused by ultrasonic exposure in the presence of PTF. These results suggest that singlet oxygen is likely to be involved in the ultrasonically induced cell damage enhanced by PTF.

  10. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on...

  11. Acute exposure to realistic acid fog: Effects on respiratory function and airway responsiveness in asthmatics

    SciTech Connect

    Leduc, D.; De Vuyst, P.; Yernault, J.C.

    1995-11-01

    The biological effects of acid fog composed primarily of ammonium ions and sulfate are described. Subjects with asthma were exposed for one hour to sulfuric acid aerosol. Significant changes were not observed. Other asthma subjects were exposed to acid fog containing sulfate and ammonium ions. Again, pulmonary and bronchial function were not modified after inhalation.

  12. Effect of d-amino acids on IgE binding to peanut allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    D-amino acids are formed when L-amino acids are exposed to heat. The objective was to determine the existence of D-amino acids in roasted peanut and their effect on IgE binding. Raw and roasted peanut protein extracts were hydrolyzed in 6 N HCL under vacuum. The hydrolysates were then analyzed for D...

  13. Acid rain and our nation`s capital: A guide to effects on buildings and monuments

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, E.

    1997-03-01

    This booklet focuses on acid rain and its impact on our Nation`s capital. This booklet will define acid rain, explain what effects it has on marble and limestone buildings, and show, on a walking tour, some of the places in our Nation`s capital where you can see the impact of acid precipitation.

  14. Effect of oleic acid on the allergenic properties of peanut and cashew allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid is the major fatty acid in peanuts and cashews. There is limited information about its effect on peanut and cashew allergens during heating. The objective was to determine if heat treatment with oleic acid changes the allergenic properties of these nut proteins. Peanut and cashew protein...

  15. Effect of ispaghula husk on the faecal output of bile acids in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, M F; Chaudhury, S; Dettmar, P W; Sykes, J; Shaw, A D; Davies, G J

    2000-04-01

    Faecal bile acids are associated with both colorectal cancer and serum cholesterol levels. We investigate whether dosing with ispaghula husk affects the faecal bile acid weights and concentrations in healthy adults. Sixteen healthy volunteers consumed 7.0 g/day ispaghula husk, containing 5.88 g/day Englyst-determinable dietary fibre, for the middle 8 weeks of a 12-week period. Stool samples were collected, analysed for faecal bile acids and their form and dry weight determined. Correlations between the faecal bile acids, the stool parameters and the dietary intake were tested. Ispaghula husk treatment significantly lowers faecal lithocholic and isolithocholic acids and the weighted ratio of lithocholic acids to deoxycholic acid. These effects revert towards their initial states at the end of the treatment period. These changes in the faecal bile acid profiles indicate a reduction in the hydrophobicity of the bile acids in the enterohepatic circulation. PMID:10822018

  16. Effects of phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid on stomata and the photosynthetic apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, T.D.; Raschke, K.

    1980-02-01

    Plant extracts containing phaseic acid (PA), as well as solutions of purified PA and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) were applied to leaves, isolated mesophyll cells, and isolated epidermal strips. In Commelina communis, stomatal closure began 4 minutes after the addition of either 20 micromolar (+-)-abscisic acid or 10 micromolar PA. Stomata closed less rapidly after treatment with 10 micromolar PA than after treatment with 10 micromolar (+-)-abscisic acid in Amaranthus powelli, Hordeum vulgare, Xanthium strumarium, and Zea mays and did not respond at all to PA in Vicia faba. DPA (10 micromolar) did not cause stomatal closure in any species. Plant extracts containing PA reduced photosynthesis. Subsequent experiments with PA purified by crystallization and with residues of solvents employed in the extraction of PA proved that it was not PA that impaired photosynthetic O/sub 2/ evolution or CO/sub 2/ uptake but unidentified contaminants of the allegedly pure solvents.

  17. Effect of abscisic acid on the linoleic acid metabolism in developing maize embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Abian, J.; Gelpi, E.; Pages, M. )

    1991-04-01

    Partially purified protein extracts from maize (Zea mays L.) embryos, whether treated or not with abscisic acid (ABA), were incubated with linoleic acid (LA) and 1-({sup 14}C)LA. The resulting LA metabolites were monitored by high performance liquid chromatography with a radioactivity detector and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. {alpha}- and {gamma}-ketol metabolites arising from 9-lipoxygenase activity were the more abundant compounds detected in the incubates, although the corresponding metabolites produced by 13-lipoxygenase were also present in the samples. In addition, a group of stereoisomers originating form two isomeric trihydroxy acids (9,12,13-trihydroxy-10-octadecenoic and 9,10,13-trihydroxy-11-octadecenoic acids) are described. Important variations in the relative proportions of the LA metabolites were observed depending on the embryo developmental stage and on ABA treatment. Two new ABA-induced compounds have been detected. These compounds are present in embryos at all developmental stages, being more abundant in old (60 days) embryos. Furthermore, ABA induction of these compounds is maximum at very young development stages, decreasing as maturation progresses. A tentative structure for these compounds (10-oxo-9,13-dihydroxy-11-octadecenoic acid and 12-oxo-9,13-dihydroxy-10-octadecenoic acid) is also provided. This study revealed an early stage in maize embryogenesis characterized by a higher relative sensitivity to ABA. The physiological importance of ABA on LA metabolism is discussed.

  18. [EFFECT OF MYCOPLASMA INFECTION TO FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF CALLUS CULTURE SUGAR BEET].

    PubMed

    Panchenko, L P; Korobkova, K S; Ostapchuk, A N

    2015-01-01

    It was studied the effect of Acholeplasma laidlawii var. granulum str. 118 to fatty acid composition of sugar beet calluses. It was established that acting of acholeplasma results to changes in the quantitative content of the individual fatty acids and in the qualitative composition of fatty acids in the lipids of calluses. The changing of the fatty acid composition of calluses lipids of sugar beet infected by A. laidlawii vargranulum str. 118 is observed as nonspecific response to biotic stress. PMID:26829840

  19. Effects of Boric Acid on Fracture Healing: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Gölge, Umut Hatay; Kaymaz, Burak; Arpaci, Rabia; Kömürcü, Erkam; Göksel, Ferdi; Güven, Mustafa; Güzel, Yunus; Cevizci, Sibel

    2015-10-01

    Boric acid (BA) has positive effects on bone tissue. In this study, the effects of BA on fracture healing were evaluated in an animal model. Standard closed femoral shaft fractures were created in 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats under general anesthesia. The rats were allocated into five groups (n = 8 each): group 1, control with no BA; groups 2 and 3, oral BA at doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg/day, respectively; group 4, local BA (8 mg/kg); and group 5, both oral and local BA (8 mg/kg/day orally and 8 mg/kg locally). After closed fracture creation, the fracture line was opened with a mini-incision, and BA was locally administered to the fracture area in groups 4 and 5. In groups 2, 3, and 5, BA was administered by gastric gavage daily until sacrifice. The rats were evaluated by clinical, radiological, and histological examinations. The control group (group 1) significantly differed from the local BA-exposed groups (groups 4 and 5) in the clinical evaluation. Front-rear and lateral radiographs revealed significant differences between the local BA-exposed groups and the control and other groups (p < 0.05). Clinical and radiological evaluations demonstrated adequate agreement between observers. The average histological scores significantly differed across groups (p = 0.007) and were significantly higher in groups 4 and 5 which were the local BA (8 mg/kg) and both oral and local BA (8 mg/kg/day orally and 8 mg/kg locally), respectively, compared to the controls. This study suggests that BA may be useful in fracture healing. Further research is required to demonstrate the most effective local dosage and possible use of BA-coated implants. PMID:25846213

  20. Asiatic Acid Prevents the Deleterious Effects of Valproic Acid on Cognition and Hippocampal Cell Proliferation and Survival.

    PubMed

    Umka Welbat, Jariya; Sirichoat, Apiwat; Chaijaroonkhanarak, Wunnee; Prachaney, Parichat; Pannangrong, Wanassanun; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Wigmore, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is commonly prescribed as an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. A recent study has demonstrated that VPA reduces histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, an action which is believed to contribute to the effects of VPA on neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation which may explain the cognitive impairments produced in rodents and patients. Asiatic acid is a triterpenoid derived from the medicinal plant Centella asiatica. Our previous study has shown that Asiatic acid improves working spatial memory and increases cell proliferation in the sub granular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. In the present study we investigate the effects of Asiatic acid in preventing the memory and cellular effects of VPA. Male Spraque-Dawley rats were orally administered Asiatic acid (30 mg/kg/day) for 28 days, while VPA-treated animals received injections of VPA (300 mg/kg) twice a day from Day 15 to Day 28 for 14 days. Spatial memory was determined using the novel object location (NOL) test and hippocampal cell proliferation and survival was quantified by immuostaining for Ki-67 and Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), respectively. The results showed that VPA-treated animals were unable to discriminate between objects in familiar and novel locations. Moreover, VPA significantly reduced numbers of Ki-67 and BrdU positive cells. These results indicate that VPA treatment caused impairments of spatial working memory, cell proliferation and survival in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). However, these abnormalities were restored to control levels by co-treatment with Asiatic acid. These data demonstrate that Asiatic acid could prevent the spatial memory and neurogenesis impairments caused by VPA. PMID:27213437

  1. Asiatic Acid Prevents the Deleterious Effects of Valproic Acid on Cognition and Hippocampal Cell Proliferation and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Umka Welbat, Jariya; Sirichoat, Apiwat; Chaijaroonkhanarak, Wunnee; Prachaney, Parichat; Pannangrong, Wanassanun; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Wigmore, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is commonly prescribed as an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. A recent study has demonstrated that VPA reduces histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, an action which is believed to contribute to the effects of VPA on neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation which may explain the cognitive impairments produced in rodents and patients. Asiatic acid is a triterpenoid derived from the medicinal plant Centella asiatica. Our previous study has shown that Asiatic acid improves working spatial memory and increases cell proliferation in the sub granular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. In the present study we investigate the effects of Asiatic acid in preventing the memory and cellular effects of VPA. Male Spraque-Dawley rats were orally administered Asiatic acid (30 mg/kg/day) for 28 days, while VPA-treated animals received injections of VPA (300 mg/kg) twice a day from Day 15 to Day 28 for 14 days. Spatial memory was determined using the novel object location (NOL) test and hippocampal cell proliferation and survival was quantified by immuostaining for Ki-67 and Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), respectively. The results showed that VPA-treated animals were unable to discriminate between objects in familiar and novel locations. Moreover, VPA significantly reduced numbers of Ki-67 and BrdU positive cells. These results indicate that VPA treatment caused impairments of spatial working memory, cell proliferation and survival in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). However, these abnormalities were restored to control levels by co-treatment with Asiatic acid. These data demonstrate that Asiatic acid could prevent the spatial memory and neurogenesis impairments caused by VPA. PMID:27213437

  2. Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Silica Content and Distribution in Sugarcane 12

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Peter B.; Ghosheh, Najati S.; Lee, Myong; Carlson, Thomas J.; Jones, John D.; Rigot, Ward; Bigelow, Wilbur C.; Kraus, Steve; Moore, Paul H.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of gibberellic acid on the content and distribution of silicon in the stem, leaf sheath, and leaf lamina of sugarcane was analyzed in relation to the effect of gibberellic acid on stem growth. Silicon content was measured by neutron activation analysis, and its distribution was followed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray analysis. Foliarly applied gibberellic acid increased stem length and fresh weight and decreased silicon content. Gibberellic acid treatments had little or no effect on growth or silicon content of leaf laminae or sheaths. The close correlation between increase in growth of an internode in response to gibberellic acid and the decrease in silicon content of that internode indicated a dilution effect of growth on the amount of silicon rather than a direct effect of gibberellic acid on silicon deposition. This conclusion was supported by scanning electrom microscopy, X-ray map photos, and counts of silica cells per unit of epidermis area. PMID:16661908

  3. EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID EXPOSURE DURING PREGNANCY IN THE MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids that have wide commercial applications, has recently been detected in humans and wildlife. The current study characterizes the developmental toxicity of PFOA in the mouse. Timed pregnant CD-1 mice were given 1,...

  4. EFFECTS OF ETHYLENE CHLOROHYDRIN ON FATTY ACID SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male chicks weighing 700 to 900 g. received an acute or eight doses IG of 60 or 40 mg/kg ethylene chlorohydrin (ECH) respectively and were sacrificed eighteen hours after the last dose. Mitochondrial elongation of fatty acids was decreased significantly while fatty acid synthetas...

  5. [Effect of organic composition of humic acids on Enterobacteria multiplication].

    PubMed

    Buzoleva, L S; Sidorenko, M L

    2001-01-01

    Enterobacteria have been found to be capable of active multiplication in humic acids isolated from bentonite clays containing carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Humic acids fractions have been found to be heterogeneous by their molecular weight and organic composition; consequently, they have been found to produce different influence in the multiplication of bacteria. PMID:11548272

  6. Tumorigenic effects of dichloroacetic acid in female F344 rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a halogenated organic acid produced during oxidant disinfection of drinking water. Prior studies indicate that DCA may increase liver tumors in mice. Here we evaluated the hepatic tumorigenicity of DCA in female rats when given alone ...

  7. EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION ON SOIL LEACHATE QUALITY: COMPUTER CALCULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The multipurpose computer program GEOCHEM was employed to calculate the equilibrium speciation in twenty-three examples of acid precipitation from New Hampshire, New York, and Maine, and in the same number of mixtures of acid precipitation with minerals characteristic of soils in...

  8. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of hen egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Szymczyk, Beata; Pisulewski, Paweł M

    2003-07-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg-yolk lipids. Forty-five 25-week-old laying hens were randomly distributed into five groups of nine hens each and maintained in individual laying cages, throughout 12 weeks of the experiment. They were assigned to the five treatments that consisted of commercial layer diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20 g pure CLA/kg. Feed intake of hens varied little and insignificantly. Egg mass was uniformly lower (P<0.05) in the hens fed the CLA-enriched diets. Feed conversion efficiency, when expressed per kg eggs, was impaired (P<0.05), although without obvious relation to the dietary CLA concentration. Feeding the CLA-enriched diets resulted in gradually increasing deposition of CLA isomers (P<0.01) in egg-yolk lipids. Saturated fatty acids were increased (P<0.01) and monounsaturated fatty acids decreased (P<0.01). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), when expressed as non-CLA PUFA, were also significantly decreased (P<0.01). The most striking effects (P<0.01) were observed for palmitic (16 : 0) and stearic (18 : 0) acids, which increased from 23.6 to 34 % and from 7.8 to 18 %, respectively. On the other hand, oleic acid (18 : 1n-9) decreased from 45.8 to 24.3 %. Among non-CLA PUFA, linoleic (18 : 2n-6) and alpha-linolenic (18 : 3n-3) acids were strongly (P<0.01) decreased, from 14.2 to 7.7 % and from 1.3 to 0.3 %, respectively. The same was true for arachidonic (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic (22 : 6n-3) acids. The cholesterol content of egg yolks, when expressed in mg/g yolk, was not affected by the dietary CLA concentrations. In conclusion, unless the adverse effects of CLA feeding to laying hens on the fatty acid profile of egg yolks are eliminated, the CLA-enriched eggs cannot be considered functional food products. PMID:12844380

  9. Assessment of antitussive effects by citric acid threshold.

    PubMed

    Rees, P J; Clark, T J

    1983-01-01

    The cough threshold to citric acid inhalation was measured in eight subjects by single inhalations of increasing concentrations of citric acid until a cough was consistently produced. The cough threshold was measured before and after 60 mg glaucine, 60 mg codeine and matched placebo on three separate days a week apart. Base-line cough threshold in each subject was consistent from week to week. Codeine increased the threshold by more than one citric acid concentration in three subjects. Placebo and glaucine did not produce a threshold change of more than one citric acid concentration. We conclude that the citric acid threshold is a simple measure of antitussive activity. No such activity was found with glaucine. PMID:6344901

  10. Latency, duration and dose response relationships of amino acid effects on human muscle protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rennie, Michael J; Bohé, Julien; Wolfe, Robert R

    2002-10-01

    The components of the stimulatory effect of food on net deposition of protein are beginning to be identified and separated. One of the most important of these appears to be the effect of amino acids per se in stimulating muscle anabolism. Amino acids appear to have a linear stimulatory effect within the range of normal diurnal plasma concentrations from postabsorptive to postprandial. Within this range, muscle protein synthesis (measured by incorporation of stable isotope tracers of amino acids into biopsied muscle protein) appears to be stimulated approximately twofold; however, little further increase occurs when very high concentrations of amino acids (>2.5 times the normal postabsorptive plasma concentration) are made available. Amino acids provided in surfeit of the ability of the system to synthesize protein are disposed of by oxidation, ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis. The stimulatory effect of amino acids appears to be time dependent; a square wave increase in the availability of amino acids causes muscle protein synthesis to be stimulated and to fall back to basal values, despite continued amino acid availability. The relationship between muscle protein synthesis and insulin availability suggests that most of the stimulatory effects occur at low insulin concentrations, with large increases having no effect. These findings may have implications for our understanding of the body's requirements for protein. The maximal capacity for storage of amino acids as muscle protein probably sets an upper value on the extent to which amino acids can be stored after a single meal. PMID:12368422

  11. Uranium Adsorption on Ferrihydrite - Effects of Phosphate and Humic Acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, T.E.; Davis, J.A.; Waite, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Uranium adsorption on ferrihydrite was studied as a function of pH in systems equilibrated with air, in the presence and absence of added phosphate and humic acid (HA). The objective was to determine the influence of PO43- and HA on uranium uptake. Below pH 7, the sorption of UO22+ typically increases with increasing pH (the 'low pH sorption edge'), with a sharp decrease in sorption above this pH value (the 'high pH edge'). The presence of ??PO43- of 10-4 mol/L moved the low pH edge to the left by approximately 0.8 pH units. The PO43- was strongly bound by the ferrihydrite surface, and the increased uptake of U was attributed to the formation of ternary surface complexes involving both UO22+ and PO43-. The addition of HA (9 mg/L) increased U uptake at pH values below 7, with little effect at higher pH values. The positions of the pH edges were also affected by the ionic strength and total U content. These experiments show that sorption interactions involving PO43 and HA must be considered in order to model the behavior of U in natural systems, in which these components are often present.

  12. Gibberellic Acid effects on greening in pea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Mathis, J N; Bradburne, J A; Dupree, M A

    1989-09-01

    The effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on light-induced greening of etiolated pea plants (Pisum sativum [L.] cultivars Alaska and Progress) was characterized. Progress, a GA-deficient dwarf of Alaska, was found to accumulate chlorophyll and light harvesting chlorophyll protein associated with photosystem II (LHC-II) more rapidly than Alaska, Alaska treated with GA, or Progress treated with GA. A slightly lower chlorophyll content was noted after 24 hours of light induced greening for Alaska treated with GA relative to untreated Alaska. GA-treated Progress, Alaska, and GA-treated Alaska all gave essentially identical patterns for LHC-II accumulation. Similar patterns of LHC-II mRNA induction were found in all four treatments indicating that differences in mRNA induction did not cause differences in LHC-II accumulation. Chlorophyll and LHC-II accumulation in each treatment followed the same patterns of accumulation and a significant correlation (at the 0.01 level of significance) was found between chlorophyll and LHC-II content. Since Progress treated with GA accumulated LHC-II and chlorophyll in a manner similar to that of Alaska, it is clear that GA alters the process of greening either directly or indirectly. PMID:16666994

  13. New data on harmful effects of trans-fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2016-01-01

    Various margarines containing trans-fatty acids were marketed as being healthier because of the absence of cholesterol, suggesting to use margarine instead of butter. Fifteen years ago, research documented the grave health risk of trans-fats (T-fat). US FDA in 2015 finalized its decision that T-fat is not safe and set a three-year time limit for complete removal of T-fat from all foods. The greatest danger from T-fat lies in its capacity to distort the cell membranes. The primary health risk identified for T-fat consumption is an elevated risk of coronary heart disease. T-fats have an adverse effect on the brain and nervous system. T-fat from the diet is incorporated into brain cell membranes and alter the ability of neurons to communicate. This can diminish mental performance. Relationship between T-fat intake and depression risk was observed. There is growing evidence for a possible role of T-fat in the development of Alzheimer´s disease and cognitive decline with age. PMID:27215959

  14. Pleiotropic effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Lavandera, Jimena; Rodríguez, Jorge; Ruspini, Silvina; Meiss, Roberto; Zuccoli, Johanna Romina; Martínez, María Del Carmen; Gerez, Esther; Batlle, Alcira; Buzaleh, Ana María

    2016-08-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) seems to be responsible for the neuropsychiatric manifestations of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP). Our aim was to study the effect of ALA on the different metabolic pathways in the mouse brain to enhance our knowledge about the action of this heme precursor on the central nervous system. Heme metabolism, the cholinergic system, the defense enzyme system, and nitric oxide metabolism were evaluated in the encephalon of CF-1 mice receiving a single (40 mg/kg body mass) or multiple doses of ALA (40 mg/kg, every 48 h for 14 days). We subsequently found ALA accumulation in the encephalon of the mice. ALA also altered the brain cholinergic system. After one dose of ALA, a decrease in superoxide dismutase activity and a reduction in glutathione levels were detected, whereas malondialdehyde levels and catalase activity were increased. Heme oxygenase was also increased as an antioxidant response to protect the encephalon against injury. All nitric oxide synthase isoforms were induced by ALA, these changes were more significant for the inducible isoform in glial cells. In conclusion, ALA affected several metabolic pathways in mouse encephalon. Data indicate that a rapid response to oxidative stress was developed; however, with long-term intoxication, the redox balance was probably restored, thereby minimizing oxidative damage. PMID:27472495

  15. Effects of humic acid-metal complexes on hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase, carnitine acetyltransferase and catalase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Fungjou Lu; Youngshin Chen . Dept. of Biochemistry); Tienshang Huang . Dept. of Medicine)

    1994-03-01

    A significant increase in activities of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase and carnitine acetyltransferase was observed in male Balb/c mice intraperitoneally injected for 40 d with 0.125 mg/0.1 ml/d humic acid-metal complexes. Among these complexes, the humic acid-As complex was relatively effective, whereas humic acid-25 metal complex was more effective, and humic acid-26 metal complex was most effective. However, humic acid or metal mixtures, or metal such as As alone, was not effective. Humic acid-metal complexes also significantly decreased hepatic catalase activity. A marked decrease of 60-kDa polypeptide in liver cytoplasm was also observed on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after the mice had been injected with the complexes. Morphological analysis of a histopathological biopsy of such treated mice revealed several changes in hepatocytes, including focal necrosis and cell infiltration, mild fatty changes, reactive nuclei, and hypertrophy. Humic acid-metal complexes affect activities of metabolic enzymes of fatty acids, and this results in accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and increase of the lipid peroxidation. The products of lipid peroxidation may be responsible for liver damage and possible carcinogenesis. Previous studies in this laboratory had shown that humic acid-metal complex altered the coagulation system and that humic acid, per se, caused vasculopathy. Therefore, humic acid-metal complexes may be main causal factors of not only so-called blackfoot disease, but also the liver cancer prevailing on the southwestern coast of Taiwan.

  16. Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Direct conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to drop in fuel molecules in a single biological system can be achieved from fatty acid-based biofuels such as fatty alcohols and alkanes. These molecules have similar properties to fossil fuels but can be produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Results Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strains containing either overexpression or deletion of the slr1609 gene, which encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS), have been constructed. The complete segregation and deletion in all mutant strains was confirmed by PCR analysis. Blocking fatty acid activation by deleting slr1609 gene in wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 led to a doubling of the amount of free fatty acids and a decrease of alkane production by up to 90 percent. Overexpression of slr1609 gene in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 had no effect on the production of either free fatty acids or alkanes. Overexpression or deletion of slr1609 gene in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strain with the capability of making fatty alcohols by genetically introducing fatty acyl-CoA reductase respectively enhanced or reduced fatty alcohol production by 60 percent. Conclusions Fatty acid activation functionalized by the slr1609 gene is metabolically crucial for biosynthesis of fatty acid derivatives in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. It is necessary but not sufficient for efficient production of alkanes. Fatty alcohol production can be significantly improved by the overexpression of slr1609 gene. PMID:22433663

  17. Inhibitory Effects of Caffeic Acid, a Coffee-Related Organic Acid, on the Propagation of Hepatitis C Virus.

    PubMed

    Tanida, Isei; Shirasago, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Abe, Ryo; Wakita, Takaji; Hanada, Kentaro; Fukasawa, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Multipurpose cohort studies have demonstrated that coffee consumption reduces the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Given that one of the main causes of HCC is hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we examined the effect of caffeic acid, a major organic acid derived from coffee, on the propagation of HCV using an in vitro naïve HCV particle-infection and production system within human hepatoma-derived Huh-7.5.1-8 cells. When cells were treated with 1% coffee extract or 0.1% caffeic acid for 1-h post HCV infection, the amount of HCV particles released into the medium at 3 and 4 days post-infection considerably decreased. In addition, HCV-infected cells cultured with 0.001% caffeic acid for 4 days, also released less HCV particles into the medium. Caffeic acid treatment inhibited the initial stage of HCV infection (i.e., between virion entry and the translation of the RNA genome) in both HCV genotypes 1b and 2a. These results suggest that the treatment of cells with caffeic acid may inhibit HCV propagation. PMID:25672401

  18. Neuroprotective effects of folic acid on experimental diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mustafa; Aktug, Huseyin; Oltulu, Fatih; Erbas, Oytun

    2016-05-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is widely considered as a degenerative complication of diabetic patients. The clinical effectiveness of folic acid (FA) on DPN is uncertain. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of FA in DPN using electromyography (EMG), histopathological examination, immunohistochemistry, inclined plane test, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as a marker for lipid peroxidation in experimental diabetic rats. A total of 21 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group, diabetes group, and FA-treated group. In EMG, compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude in the sciatic nerve was lower in the diabetes group compared with the control group. CMAP amplitude in the sciatic nerve was higher in the FA-treated group when compared with the diabetes group. Distal latency and CMAP duration in the sciatic nerve were lower in the FA-treated group when compared with the diabetes group. In histopathological examination of the sciatic nerve, peripheral fibrosis was present in the diabetic group; the fibrosis was lower in the FA-treated group. In comparison with the diabetes group, the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) was higher in the FA-treated group. The scores for the inclined plane test were lower in the diabetes group and higher in the FA-treated group than the control group. The MDA levels were significantly lower in the FA-treated group when compared with the diabetes group.The study suggests that FA can protect diabetic rats against DPN and that the underlying mechanism for this may be related to improvement of the expression of NGF and lower MDA levels. PMID:24311627

  19. Effect of transdermic acetylsalicylic acid on hemostasis in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Adriana B; Funosas, Esteban; Maestri, Lorella; Lucena, Perla Hermida

    2007-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) exerts an antiaggregatory effect on platelets by irreversible inhibition of the enzyme thrombocyte cyclooxigenase when it is administered orally at doses above 80 mg/day. For several years ASA has been available as a solution that can be topically applied on the skin. It is widely used by athletes and individuals with chronic rheumatic disorders. However, it has not been established to date whether the plasma levels that result from these doses of ASA affect hemostasis during odontological procedures that involve bleeding, causing platelet dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether topical application is capable of affecting hemostasis. Three studies were conducted: A, B y C. Each of the 3 groups included 12 healthy volunteers of both sexes. The aim of study A was to evaluate if the formulation for topical application resulted in plasma levels of ASA that resembled those observed for the oral formulation and affect hemostasis. In experiment A, plasma levels of salicylic acid (SA) were assessed for each volunteer at 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 6 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours after oral administration of a dose of 500 mg ASA. Experiment B was identical to experiment A except for the fact that ASA was topically applied employing a commercial preparation Aspirub in a predetermined area at a rate of 2 ml/day over a period of 15 days. Experiment C was designed in the same way as experiment B, for a higher dose and a longer period of time (4 ml/day over a period of 30 days). One of the volunteers exhibited detectable salicylemia that could affect hemostasis as occurs with the oral formulation. The following two studies (C1 and C2) employed doses of Aspirub of 8 and 16 ml/day respectively, over a period of 30 days. We measured biochemical parameters associated to platelet function. The dose of 8 ml/day induced moderate alterations in all the parameters related to platelet function and the daily dose of 16 ml inhibited platelet

  20. Hypolipidemic effects of lactic acid bacteria fermented cereal in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objectives of the present study were to investigate the efficacy of the mixed culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus (DSM 20242), Bifidobacterium bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lactobacillus helveticus (CK60) in the fermentation of maize and the evaluation of the effect of the fermented meal on the lipid profile of rats. Methods Rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups and each group placed on a Diet A (high fat diet into which a maize meal fermented with a mixed culture of Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), B bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) was incorporated), B (unfermented high fat diet) or C (commercial rat chow) respectively after the first group of 7 rats randomly selected were sacrificed to obtain the baseline data. Thereafter 7 rats each from the experimental and control groups were sacrificed weekly for 4 weeks and the plasma, erythrocytes, lipoproteins and organs of the rats were assessed for cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipids. Results Our results revealed that the mixed culture of Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), B bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) were able to grow and ferment maize meal into ‘ogi’ of acceptable flavour. In addition to plasma and hepatic hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, phospholipidosis in plasma, as well as cholesterogenesis, triglyceride constipation and phospholipidosis in extra-hepatic tissues characterized the consumption of unfermented hyperlipidemic diets. However, feeding the animals with the fermented maize diet reversed the dyslipidemia. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that consumption of mixed culture lactic acid bacteria (Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), Bifidobacterium bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) fermented food results in the inhibition of fat absorption. It also inhibits the activity of HMG CoA reductase. This inhibition may be by feedback inhibition or repression of the transcription of the gene encoding the enzyme via activation of the sterol

  1. Biliary bile acids in primary biliary cirrhosis: effect of ursodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed

    Combes, B; Carithers, R L; Maddrey, W C; Munoz, S; Garcia-Tsao, G; Bonner, G F; Boyer, J L; Luketic, V A; Shiffman, M L; Peters, M G; White, H; Zetterman, R K; Risser, R; Rossi, S S; Hofmann, A F

    1999-06-01

    Bile acid composition in fasting duodenal bile was assessed at entry and at 2 years in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) (10-12 mg/kg/d) taken as a single bedtime dose. Specimens were analyzed by a high-pressure liquid chromatography method that had been validated against gas chromatography. Percent composition in bile (mean +/- SD) for 98 patients at entry for cholic (CA), chenodeoxycholic (CDCA), deoxycholic (DCA), lithocholic (LCA), and ursodeoxycholic (UDCA) acids, respectively, were 57.4 +/- 18.6, 31.5 +/- 15.5, 8.0 +/- 9.3, 0.3 +/- 1.0, and 0.6 +/- 0.9. Values for CA were increased, whereas those for CDCA, DCA, LCA, and UDCA were decreased when compared with values in normal persons. Bile acid composition of the major bile acids did not change after 2 years on placebo medication. By contrast, in patients receiving UDCA for 2 years, bile became enriched with UDCA on average to 40.1%, and significant decreases were noted for CA (to 32.2%) and CDCA (to 19.5%). No change in percent composition was observed for DCA and LCA. Percent composition at entry and changes in composition after 2 years on UDCA were similar in patients with varying severity of PBC. In patients whose bile was not enriched in UDCA (entry and placebo-treated specimens), CA, CDCA, DCA, and the small amount of UDCA found in some of these specimens were conjugated to a greater extent with glycine (52%-64%) than with taurine (36%-48%). Treatment with UDCA caused the proportion of all endogenous bile acids conjugated with glycine to increase to 69% to 78%, while the proportion conjugated with taurine (22%-31%) fell (P <.05). Administered UDCA was also conjugated predominantly with glycine (87%). PMID:10347103

  2. Solvation and Acid Strength Effects on Catalysis by Faujasite Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Gounder, Rajamani P.; Jones, Andrew J.; Carr, Robert T.; Iglesia, Enrique

    2012-02-01

    Kinetic, spectroscopic, and chemical titration data indicate that differences in monomolecular isobutane cracking and dehydrogenation and methanol dehydration turnover rates (per H+) among FAU zeolites treated thermally with steam (H-USY) and then chemically with ammonium hexafluorosilicate (CDHUSY) predominantly reflect differences in the size and solvating properties of their supercage voids rather than differences in acid strength. The number of protons on a given sample was measured consistently by titrations with Na+, with CH3 groups via reactions of dimethyl ether, and with 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine during methanol dehydration catalysis; these titration values were also supported by commensurate changes in acidic OH infrared band areas upon exposure to titrant molecules. The number of protons, taken as the average of the three titration methods, was significantly smaller than the number of framework Al atoms (Alf) obtained from X-ray diffraction and 27Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on H-USY (0.35 H+/Alf) and CD-HUSY (0.69 H+/Alf). These data demonstrate that the ubiquitous use of Alf sites as structural proxies for active H+ sites in zeolites can be imprecise, apparently because distorted Al structures that are not associated with acidic protons are sometimes detected as Alf sites. Monomolecular isobutane cracking and dehydrogenation rate constants, normalized non-rigorously by the number of Alf species, decreased with increasing Na+ content on both H-USY and CD-HUSY samples and became undetectable at sub-stoichiometric exchange levels (0.32 and 0.72 Na+/Alf ratios, respectively), an unexpected finding attributed incorrectly in previous studies to the presence of minority ‘‘super-acidic’’ sites. These rate constants, when normalized rigorously by the number of residual H+ sites were independent of Na+ content on both H-USY and CD-HUSY samples, reflecting the stoichiometric replacement of protons that are uniform in

  3. Effects of acid rain on soil humic compounds.

    PubMed

    Calace, N; Fiorentini, F; Petronio, B M; Pietroletti, M

    2001-06-21

    The modifications induced by acid rain on the solubility, molecular configuration and molecular weight distribution of humic (HA) and fulvic (FA) acids were studied. A natural soil was subjected to simulated acid rain until a soil pH of 4 was obtained; HA and FA acids were then extracted and characterised. The results obtained were compared both with those of natural soil and with those of a soil subjected to acid rain. Elute analysis indicates the continuous release of soluble organic compounds as a consequence of acid rain simulation, although no relationship was found with the process of soil acidification. The yields of HA and FA show that HA values are the same while FA amount is higher in the natural soil; in acid soils their water solubility increases. The molecular weight distribution shows that HA consist of a mixture of compounds of different molecular weights; they are molecules for the most part larger than 100 kDa and their distribution is not changed by soil acidification. FA can be considered to form a much more homogeneous system; in natural soil, the molecules are larger than 50 kDa, while in acidified soil they are for the most part smaller than 3 kDa. PMID:18968306

  4. Effects of acid on vagal nociceptive afferent subtypes in guinea pig esophagus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoyun; Hu, Youtian; Yu, Shaoyong

    2014-08-15

    Acid reflux-induced heartburn and noncardiac chest pain are processed peripherally by sensory nerve endings in the wall of the esophagus, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. This study aims to determine the effects of acid on esophageal vagal nociceptive afferent subtypes. Extracellular single-unit recordings were performed in guinea pig vagal nodose or jugular C fiber neurons by using ex vivo esophageal-vagal preparations with intact nerve endings in the esophagus. We recorded action potentials (AP) of esophageal nodose or jugular C fibers evoked by acid perfusion and compared esophageal distension-evoked AP before and after acid perfusion. Acid perfusion for 30 min (pH range 7.4 to 5.8) did not evoke AP in nodose C fibers but significantly decreased their responses to esophageal distension, which could be recovered after washing out acid for 90 min. In jugular C fibers, acid perfusion not only evoked AP but also inhibited their responses to esophageal distension, which were not recovered after washing out acid for 120 min. Lower concentration of capsaicin perfusion mimicked acid-induced effects in nodose and jugular C fibers. Pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810, but not acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) inhibitor amiloride, significantly inhibited acid-induced effects in nodose and jugular C fiber. These results demonstrate that esophageal vagal nociceptive afferent nerve subtypes display distinctive responses to acid. Acid activates jugular, but not nodose, C fibers and inhibits both of their responses to esophageal distension. These effects are mediated mainly through TRPV1. This inhibitory effect is a novel finding and may contribute to esophageal sensory/motor dysfunction in acid reflux diseases. PMID:24994852

  5. Antiangiogenic effect of carnosic acid and carnosol, neuroprotective compounds in rosemary leaves.

    PubMed

    Kayashima, Tomoko; Matsubara, Kiminori

    2012-01-01

    Carnosic acid, a diterpene in rosemary, is considered to be beneficial in the prevention of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, it has been found that drugs with antiangiogenic activity lower the risk of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus it is of interest whether carnosic acid has antiangiogenic activity. In this study, carnosic acid suppressed microvessel outgrowth on ex vivo angiogenesis assay using a rat aortic ring at higher than 10 µM. The antiangiogenic effect of carnosic acid was found in angiogenesis models using human umbilical vein endothelial cells with regard to tube formation on reconstituted basement membrane, chemotaxis and proliferation. Although the carnosol in rosemary also suppressed angiogenesis, its effect was not more potent than that of carnosic acid in the ex vivo model. These results suggest that carnosic acid and rosemary extract can be useful in the prevention of disorders due to angiogenesis, and that their antiangiogenic effect can contribute to a neuroprotective effect. PMID:22232247

  6. Functional Roles of Fatty Acids and Their Effects on Human Health.

    PubMed

    Calder, Philip C

    2015-09-01

    A variety of fatty acids exists in the diet of humans, in the bloodstream of humans, and in cells and tissues of humans. Fatty acids are energy sources and membrane constituents. They have biological activities that act to influence cell and tissue metabolism, function, and responsiveness to hormonal and other signals. The biological activities may be grouped as regulation of membrane structure and function; regulation of intracellular signaling pathways, transcription factor activity, and gene expression; and regulation of the production of bioactive lipid mediators. Through these effects, fatty acids influence health, well-being, and disease risk. The effects of saturated, cis monounsaturated, ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated, and trans fatty acids are discussed. Although traditionally most interest in the health impact of fatty acids related to cardiovascular disease, it is now clear that fatty acids influence a range of other diseases, including metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Scientists, regulators, and communicators have described the biological effects and the health impacts of fatty acids according to fatty acid class. However, it is now obvious that within any fatty acid class, different members have different actions and effects. Thus, it would seem more appropriate to describe biological effects and health impacts of individual named fatty acids, although it is recognized that this would be a challenge when communicating outside of an academic environment (eg, to consumers). PMID:26177664

  7. Study on the effect of different acids on the structure and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Yanhui; Xu, Jingjing; Fu, Degang

    2009-10-01

    Nanocrystalline mesoporous titania was synthesized via a combined sol-gel process with surfactant-assisted templating method using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as the structure-directing agent. The process was catalyzed by different acid (hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, or phosphoric acid). The prepared samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, BET and FT-IR. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was determined by degradation of phenol in aqueous solution. Results showed that different acid had different effect on the structure and crystal phase of the samples. The sample adjusted by phosphoric acid showed highest surface area and photocatalytic activity. The formation mechanism of the samples catalyzed by different acid was also discussed.

  8. Protective Effect of Folic Acid on Oxidative DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Cui, Huan; Zhang, Haiyang; Guan, Xiaoju; Zhang, Zheng; Jia, Chaonan; Wu, Jia; Yang, Hui; Qiu, Wenting; Zhang, Chuanwu; Yang, Zuopeng; Chen, Zhu; Mao, Guangyun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although previous reports have linked DNA damage with both transmissions across generations as well as our own survival, it is unknown how to reverse the lesion. Based on the data from a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial, this study aimed to assess the efficacy of folic acid supplementation (FAS) on DNA oxidative damage reversal. In this randomized clinical trial (RCT), a total of 450 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to 3 groups to receive folic acid (FA) 0.4 mg/day (low-FA), 0.8 mg/day (high-FA), or placebo (control) for 8 weeks. The urinary 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and creatinine (Cr) concentration at pre- and post-FAS were measured with modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. A multivariate general linear model was applied to assess the individual effects of FAS and the joint effects between FAS and hypercholesterolemia on oxidative DNA damage improvement. This clinical trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02235948. Of the 438 subjects that received FA fortification or placebo, the median (first quartile, third quartile) of urinary 8-OHdG/Cr for placebo, low-FA, and high-FA groups were 58.19 (43.90, 82.26), 53.51 (38.97, 72.74), 54.73 (39.58, 76.63) ng/mg at baseline and 57.77 (44.35, 81.33), 51.73 (38.20, 71.30), and 50.65 (37.64, 76.17) ng/mg at the 56th day, respectively. A significant decrease of urinary 8-OHdG was observed after 56 days FA fortification (P < 0.001). Compared with the placebo, after adjusting for some potential confounding factors, including the baseline urinary 8-OHdG/Cr, the urinary 8-OHdG/Cr concentration significantly decreased after 56 days FAS [β (95% confidence interval) = −0.88 (−1.62, −0.14) and P = 0.020 for low-FA; and β (95% confidence interval) = −2.68 (−3.42, −1.94) and P < 0.001 for high-FA] in a dose-response fashion (Ptrend

  9. Silica precipitation in acidic solutions: mechanism, pH effect, and salt effect.

    PubMed

    Gorrepati, Elizabeth A; Wongthahan, Pattanapong; Raha, Sasanka; Fogler, H Scott

    2010-07-01

    This study is the first to show that silica precipitation under very acidic conditions ([HCl] = 2-8 M) proceeds through two distinct steps. First, the monomeric form of silica is quickly depleted from solution as it polymerizes to form primary particles approximately 5 nm in diameter. Second, the primary particles formed then flocculate. A modified Smoluchowski equation that incorporates a geometric population balance accurately describes the exponential growth of silica flocs. Variation of the HCl concentration between 2 and 8 M further showed that polymerization to form primary particles and subsequent particle flocculation become exponentially faster with increasing acid concentration. The effect of salt was also studied by adding 1 M chloride salts to the solutions; it was found that salts accelerated both particle formation and growth rates in the order: AlCl(3) > CaCl(2) > MgCl(2) > NaCl > CsCl > no salt. It was also found that ionic strength, over cation identity, determines silica polymerization and particle flocculation rates. This research reveals that precipitation of silica products from acid dissolution of minerals can be studied apart from the mineral dissolution process. Thus, silica product precipitation from mineral acidization follows a two-step process--formation of 5 nm primary particles followed by particle flocculation--which becomes exponentially faster with increasing HCl concentration and with salts accelerating the process in the above order. This result has implications for any study of acid dissolution of aluminosilicate or silicate material. In particular, the findings are applicable to the process of acidizing oil-containing rock formations, a common practice of the petroleum industry where silica dissolution products encounter a low-pH, salty environment within the oil well. PMID:20536253

  10. Inhibitory effect of succinic acid on epithelial cell proliferation of colonic mucosa in rats.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Akiko; Ichikawa, Hirofumi; Sakata, Takashi

    2007-08-01

    Microbial breakdown of carbohydrates in the large intestine mainly produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). SCFA stimulate epithelial cell proliferation of the digestive tract in vivo. Succinic acid sometimes accumulates in the colonic lumen. However, the effect of succinic acid on colonic epithelial cell proliferation is unknown. Thus, we planned to clarify the influence of succinic acid on colonic epithelial cell proliferation in vivo. We continuously administered infusate with or without succinic acid (100 mM) into the distal colon of rats for 6 d and measured accumulated mitosis per crypt of distal colon of these rats. Succinic acid infused into rat colons significantly inhibited colonic cell proliferation and reduced crypt size. These results clearly indicated the inhibitory effects of succinic acid on colonic epithelial cell proliferation in vivo. PMID:17934246

  11. Effectiveness of acidizing geothermal wells in the South German Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, S.; Schulz, R.

    2013-10-01

    In Germany, many hydro-geothermal plants have been constructed in recent years, primarily in the region of Munich. As the host formation here mainly consists of carbonates, nearly all recently drilled wells have been acidized in order to improve the well yield. In this study, the effectiveness of these acid treatments is analyzed with respect to the amount of acid used and the number of acid treatments carried out per well. The results show that the first acid treatment has the largest effect, while subsequent acidizing improves the well only marginally. Data also indicate that continued acidizing can lead to degradation of the well. These findings may not only be important for geothermal installations in Germany but also for projects, for example, in Austria, France or China where geothermal energy is produced from carbonate formations as well.

  12. Effect of Marine Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Biofilm Formation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    PubMed Central

    Thibane, Vuyisile S.; Kock, Johan L. F.; Ells, Ruan; van Wyk, Pieter W. J.; Pohl, Carolina H.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of marine polyunsaturated fatty acids on biofilm formation by the human pathogens Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis was investigated. It was found that stearidonic acid (18:4 n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3), docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) have an inhibitory effect on mitochondrial metabolism of both C. albicans and C. dubliniensis and that the production of biofilm biomass by C. dubliniensis was more susceptible to these fatty acids than C. albicans. Ultrastructural differences, which may be due to increased oxidative stress, were observed between treated and untreated cells of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis with formation of rough cell walls by both species and fibrillar structures in C. dubliniensis. These results indicate that marine polyunsaturated fatty acids may be useful in the treatment and/or prevention of biofilms formed by these pathogenic yeasts. PMID:21116408

  13. Effects of dietary trans-9 octadecenoic acid, trans-11 vaccenic acid and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Lim, Ji-Na; Lee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Sang-Bum; Hwang, Jin-Hee; Jung, U-Suk; Kim, Min-Jeong; Hwang, Dae-Youn; Lee, Sang-Rak; Roh, Sang-Gun; Lee, Hong-Gu

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary trans fatty acids in mice. Following the administration of a 0.5/100 g diet of trans-9 octadecenoic acid (EA), trans-11 vaccenic acid (TVA) or cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 4 weeks, the body weights and the weights of the liver, testis and mediastinal adipose tissue (MAT) of the animals gradually decreased (P<0.05). The EA group exhibited the lowest levels of magnesium and triglycerides (P<0.05). CLA increased villus length (P<0.05), while EA and TVA decreased villus length (P<0.05). The TVA group exhibited the lowest levels of low-density lipoprotein and tumor necrosis factor-α (P<0.05). Taken together, EA, TVA and CLA affected the physiological conditions of mice differently. The potential effects of three well-known fatty acids, including trans-9 octadecenoic acid (EA), trans-11 vaccenic acid (TVA) and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), in animals or humans remain to be elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, 32 animals were randomly divided into four groups and administered a 0.5/100 g diet of EA, TVA or CLA for 4 weeks. The results demonstrated that the body weights and the weights of the liver, testis and mediastinal adipose tissue (MAT) of the animals gradually decreased (P<0.05). Blood was collected individually via the external jugular veins and the EA group exhibited the lowest levels of magnesium and triglycerides (P<0.05). CLA increased villus length (P<0.05), while EA and TVA decreased villus length (P<0.05). The TVA group exhibited the lowest levels of low-density lipoprotein and tumor necrosis factor-α (P<0.05). Taken together, EA, TVA and CLA affected the physiological conditions of mice differently and these may further our understanding of the various effects of these fatty acids on animals and humans. PMID:25962361

  14. The memory-enhancing effect of erucic acid on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunji; Ko, Hae Ju; Jeon, Se Jin; Lee, Sunhee; Lee, Hyung Eun; Kim, Ha Neul; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2016-03-01

    Erucic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid isolated from the seed of Raphanus sativus L. that is known to normalize the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids in the brains of patients suffering from X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Here, we investigated whether erucic acid enhanced cognitive function or ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment using the passive avoidance, Y-maze and Morris water maze tasks. Erucic acid (3mg/kg, p.o.) enhanced memory performance in normal naïve mice. In addition, erucic acid (3mg/kg, p.o.) ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment, as assessed via the behavioral tasks. We then investigated the underlying mechanism of the memory-enhancing effect of erucic acid. The administration of erucic acid increased the phosphorylation levels of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and additional protein kinase B (Akt) in the hippocampus. These results suggest that erucic acid has an ameliorative effect in mice with scopolamine-induced memory deficits and that the effect of erucic acid is partially due to the activation of PI3K-PKCζ-ERK-CREB signaling as well as an increase in phosphorylated Akt in the hippocampus. Therefore, erucic acid may be a novel therapeutic agent for diseases associated with cognitive deficits, such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26780350

  15. Kinetics and Effects of Dichloroacetic Acid in Rainbow Trout

    EPA Science Inventory

    Halogenated acetic acids (HAAs) are continuously released to surface waters in municipal wastewater effluents. Very little is known, however, about their potential to adversely impact aquatic life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the uptake, distribution, elimination...

  16. Effect of Acid-Base Equilibrium on Absorption Spectra of Humic acid in the Presence of Copper Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrik, N. L.; Mulloev, N. U.

    2014-03-01

    The reaction between humic acid (HA, sample IHSS) and a metal ion (Cu2+) that was manifested as absorption bands in the range 210-350 nm was recorded using absorption spectroscopy. The reaction was found to be more effective as the pH increased. These data were interpreted in the framework of generally accepted concepts about the influence of acid-base equilibrium on the dissociation of salts, according to which increasing the solution pH increases the concentration of HA anions. It was suggested that [HA-Cu2+] complexes formed.

  17. Effect of Usnic Acid on Candida orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis

    PubMed Central

    Lucarini, Rodrigo; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares

    2012-01-01

    The activity of usnic acid against Candida orthopsilosis and Candida parapsilosis on planktonic and biofilm conditions was investigated by using a broth microdilution and microplate methods. Potent in vitro activities against different Candida species were obtained. The metabolic activity of sessile cells of C. parapsilosis complex was reduced by 80% at four times the 80% inhibitory concentration. The in vitro studies support further efforts to determine whether usnic acid can be used clinically to cure patients with Candida infections. PMID:22006006

  18. Effect of Wheat Dietary Fiber Particle Size during Digestion In Vitro on Bile Acid, Faecal Bacteria and Short-Chain Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Szwengiel, Artur; Górecka, Danuta; Gujska, Elżbieta; Kaczkowska, Joanna; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2016-06-01

    The influence of bile acid concentration on the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. bacteria was demonstrated. Exposing these bacteria to the environment containing bile acid salts, and very poor in nutrients, leads to the disappearance of these microorganisms due to the toxic effect of bile acids. A multidimensional analysis of data in the form of principal component analysis indicated that lactic acid bacteria bind bile acids and show antagonistic effect on E. coli spp. bacteria. The growth in E. coli spp. population was accompanied by a decline in the population of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. with a simultaneous reduction in the concentration of bile acids. This is direct proof of acid binding ability of the tested lactic acid bacteria with respect to cholic acid, lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid. This research demonstrated that the degree of fineness of wheat dietary fibre does not affect the sorption of bile acids and growth of some bacteria species; however, it has an impact on the profile of synthesized short-chained fatty acids. During the digestion of a very fine wheat fibre fraction (WF 90), an increase in the concentration of propionic and butyric acids, as compared with the wheat fiber fraction of larger particles - WF 500, was observed. Our study suggested that wheat fibre did not affect faecal bacteria growth, however, we observed binding of bile acids by Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. PMID:26924312

  19. Converting maslinic acid into an effective inhibitor of acylcholinesterases.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Stefan; Loesche, Anne; Lucas, Susana Dias; Sommerwerk, Sven; Serbian, Immo; Siewert, Bianka; Pianowski, Elke; Csuk, René

    2015-10-20

    During the last decade, maslinic acid has been evaluated for many biological properties, e.g. as an anti-tumor or an anti-viral agent but also as a nutraceutical. The potential of maslinic acid and related derivatives to act as inhibitors of acetyl- or butyryl-cholinesterase was examined in this communication in more detail. Cholinesterases do still represent an interesting group of target enzymes with respect to the investigation and treatment of the Alzheimer's disease and other dementia illnesses as well. Although other triterpenoic acids have successfully been tested for their ability to act as inhibitors of cholinesterases, up to now maslinic acid has not been part of such studies. For this reason, three series of maslinic acid derivatives possessing modifications at different centers were synthesized and subjected to Ellman's assay to determine their inhibitory strength and type of inhibitory action. While parent compound maslinic acid was no inhibitor in these assays, some of the compounds exhibited an inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in the single-digit micro-molar range. Two compounds were identified as inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase showing inhibition constants comparable to those of galantamine, a drug often used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, additional selectivity as well as cytotoxicity studies were performed underlining the potential of several derivatives and qualifying them for further investigations. Docking studies revealed that the different kinetic behavior within the same compound series may be explained by the ability of the compounds to enter the active site gorge of AChE. PMID:26383128

  20. Effect of sulfonylureas on hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, T.B.

    1986-08-01

    In isolated rat livers perfused with oleic acid (0.1 mM), infusion of tolbutamide or glyburide decreased the rate of ketogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was maximal at 2.0 mM and 10 M concentrations of tolbutamide and glyburide, respectively. Neither tolbutamide nor glyburide inhibited ketogenesis in livers perfused with octanoate. The inhibition of hepatic ketogenesis by sulfonylureas was independent of perfusate oleic acid concentration. Additionally, in rat livers perfused with oleic acid in the presence of L-(-)-carnitine (10 mM), submaximal concentrations of tolbutamide and glyburide did not inhibit hepatic ketogenesis. Finally, glyburide infusion into livers perfused with (U- $C)oleic acid (0.1 mM) increased the rate of UC label incorporation into hepatic triglycerides by 2.5-fold. These data suggest that both tolbutamide and glyburide inhibit long-chain fatty acid oxidation by inhibition the key regulatory enzyme, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, most probably by competing with L-(-)-carnitine.

  1. Dynamics of the anaerobic process: effects of volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Pind, Peter F; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte K

    2003-06-30

    A complex and fast dynamic response of the anaerobic biogas system was observed when the system was subjected to pulses of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). It was shown that a pulse of specific VFAs into a well-functioning continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system operating on cow manure affected both CH(4) yield, pH, and gas production and that a unique reaction pattern was seen for the higher VFAs as a result of these pulses. In this study, two thermophilic laboratory reactors were equipped with a novel VFA-sensor for monitoring specific VFAs online. Pulses of VFAs were shown to have a positive effect on process yield and the levels of all VFA were shown to stabilize at a lower level after the biomass had been subjected to several pulses. The response to pulses of propionate or acetate was different from the response to butyrate, iso-butyrate, valerate, or iso-valerate. High concentrations of propionate affected the degradation of all VFAs, while a pulse of acetate affected primarily the degradation of iso-valerate or 2-methylbutyrate. Pulses of n-butyrate, iso-butyrate, and iso-valerate yielded only acetate, while degradation of n-valerate gave both propionate and acetate. Product sensitivity or inhibition was shown for the degradation of all VFAs tested. Based on the results, it was concluded that measurements of all specific VFAs are important for control purposes and increase and decrease in a specific VFA should always be evaluated in close relationship to the conversion of other VFAs and the history of the reactor process. It should be pointed out that the observed dynamics of VFA responses were based on hourly measurements, meaning that the response duration was much lower than the hydraulic retention time, which exceeds several days in anaerobic CSTR systems. PMID:12701145

  2. EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN ON YIELD RESPONSE OF TWO SOYBEAN CULTIVARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An important component of the effects of acid rain on our ecosystem is its impact on the yield of agricultural crops. ield experiments were conducted for 3 yr to determine the effects of simulated acid rain on seed yield of two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars. 'Amsoy 7...

  3. Ingested boric acid effect on the venom chemistry of Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a field evaluation of a boric acid bait against the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, it was observed that workers of intoxicated colonies produced stings with less toxic effects compared to workers from healthy colonies. In this study, the effect of boric acid on the levels o...

  4. Therapeutic Effects of Glutamic Acid in Piglets Challenged with Deoxynivalenol

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Wenkai; Yin, Jie; Tan, Bie; Liu, Gang; Li, Lili; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Xiong, Xia; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most common food contaminants, primarily targets the gastrointestinal tract to affect animal and human health. This study was conducted to examine the protective function of glutamic acid on intestinal injury and oxidative stress caused by DON in piglets. Twenty-eight piglets were assigned randomly into 4 dietary treatments (7 pigs/treatment): 1) uncontaminated control diet (NC), 2) NC+DON at 4 mg/kg (DON), 3) NC+2% glutamic acid (GLU), and 4) NC+2% glutamic acid + DON at 4 mg/kg (DG). At day 15, 30 and 37, blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of CAT (catalase), T-AOC (total antioxidant capacity), H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), NO (nitric oxide), MDA (maleic dialdehyde), DAO (diamine oxidase) and D-lactate. Intestinal morphology, and the activation of Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway, as well as the concentrations of H2O2, MDA, and DAO in kidney, liver and small intestine, were analyzed at day 37. Results showed that DON significantly (P<0.05) induced oxidative stress in piglets, while this stress was remarkably reduced with glutamic acid supplementation according to the change of oxidative parameters in blood and tissues. Meanwhile, DON caused obvious intestinal injury from microscopic observations and permeability indicators, which was alleviated by glutamic acid supplementation. Moreover, the inhibition of DON on Akt/mTOR/4EBP1 signal pathway was reduced by glutamic acid supplementation. Collectively, these data suggest that glutamic acid may be a useful nutritional regulator for DON-induced damage manifested as oxidative stress, intestinal injury and signaling inhibition. PMID:24984001

  5. Effects of surfactants on low-molecular-weight organic acids to wash soil zinc.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Zhang, Shirong; Xu, Xiaoxun; Yao, Ping; Li, Ting; Wang, Guiyin; Gong, Guoshu; Li, Yun; Deng, Ouping

    2016-03-01

    Soil washing is an effective approach to the removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of the surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, and non-ionic polyacrylamide (NPAM) on oxalic acid, tartaric acid, and citric acid used to remove zinc from contaminated soils were investigated. The Zn removal efficiencies of all washing solutions showed a logarithmic increase with acid concentrations from 0.5 to 10.0 g/L, while they decreased as pH increased from 4 to 9. Increasing the reaction time enhanced the effects of surfactants on Zn removal efficiencies by the acids during washing and significantly (P < 0.05) improved the removal under some mixed cases. Oxalic acid suffered antagonistic effects from the three surfactants and seriously damaged soil nutrients during the removal of soil Zn. Notably, the three surfactants caused synergistic effects on tartaric and citric acid during washing, with NPAM leading to an increase in Zn removal by 5.0 g/L citric acid of 10.60 % (P < 0.05) within 2 h. NPAM also alleviated the loss of cation exchange capacity of washed soils and obviously improved soil nitrogen concentrations. Overall, combining citric acid with NPAM offers a promising approach to the removal of zinc from contaminated soil. PMID:26527338

  6. Effects of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase desensitization on glutamic acid production in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masaru; Sawada, Kazunori; Ogura, Kotaro; Shimono, Yuta; Hagiwara, Takuya; Sugimoto, Masakazu; Onuki, Akiko; Yokota, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032, a glutamic-acid producing actinobacterium, is subject to feedback inhibition by metabolic intermediates such as aspartic acid and 2-oxoglutaric acid, which implies the importance of PEPC in replenishing oxaloacetic acid into the TCA cycle. Here, we investigated the effects of feedback-insensitive PEPC on glutamic acid production. A single amino-acid substitution in PEPC, D299N, was found to relieve the feedback control by aspartic acid, but not by 2-oxoglutaric acid. A simple mutant, strain R1, having the D299N substitution in PEPC was constructed from ATCC 13032 using the double-crossover chromosome replacement technique. Strain R1 produced glutamic acid at a concentration of 31.0 g/L from 100 g/L glucose in a jar fermentor culture under biotin-limited conditions, which was significantly higher than that of the parent, 26.0 g/L (1.19-fold), indicative of the positive effect of desensitized PEPC on glutamic acid production. Another mutant, strain DR1, having both desensitized PEPC and PYK-gene deleted mutations, was constructed in a similar manner using strain D1 with a PYK-gene deleted mutation as the parent. This mutation had been shown to enhance glutamic acid production in our previous study. Although marginal, strain D1 produced higher glutamic acid, 28.8 g/L, than ATCC13032 (1.11-fold). In contrast, glutamic acid production by strain DR-1 was elevated up to 36.9 g/L, which was 1.42-fold higher than ATCC13032 and significantly higher than the other three strains. The results showed a synergistic effect of these two mutations on glutamic acid production in C. glutamicum. PMID:26168906

  7. Effects of Light and Temperature on Fatty Acid Production in Nannochloropsis Salina

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wagenen, Jonathan M.; Miller, Tyler W.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Hook, Paul W.; Crowe, Braden J.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2012-03-12

    Accurate prediction of algal biofuel yield will require empirical determination of physiological responses to the climate, particularly light and temperature. One strain of interest, Nannochloropsis salina, was subjected to ranges of light intensity (5-850 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and temperature (13-40 C); exponential growth rate, total fatty acids (TFA) and fatty acid composition were measured. The maximum acclimated growth rate was 1.3 day{sup -1} at 23 C and 250 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) after transesterification to corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). A sharp increase in TFA containing elevated palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) during exponential growth at high light was observed, indicating likely triacylglycerol accumulation due to photo-oxidative stress. Lower light resulted in increases in the relative abundance of unsaturated fatty acids; in thin cultures, increases were observed in palmitoleic and eicosapentaenoeic acids (C20:5{omega}3). As cultures aged and the effective light intensity per cell converged to very low levels, fatty acid profiles became more similar and there was a notable increase of oleic acid (C18:1{omega}9). The amount of unsaturated fatty acids was inversely proportional to temperature, demonstrating physiological adaptations to increase membrane fluidity. This data will improve prediction of fatty acid characteristics and yields relevant to biofuel production.

  8. Effect of an acid filler on hydrolysis and biodegradation of poly-lactic acid (PLA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iozzino, Valentina; Speranza, Vito; Pantani, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    The use of biodegradable polymers is certainly an excellent strategy to solve many of the problems related to the disposal of the traditional polymers, whose accumulation in the environment is harmful and damaging. In order to optimize the use of biodegradable polymers, it is very important to understand and control the transformation processes, the structures and the morphologies resulting from the process conditions used to produce the articles and, not least, the biodegradation. The latter is strictly dependent on the just mentioned variables. The poly-lactic acid, PLA, is a biodegradable polymer. Many studies have been carried out on the degradation process of this polymer. In the course of this work we performed degradation tests on the PLA, with a specific D-isomer content, having amorphous structure, and in particular of biodegradation and hydrolysis. An acid chemical, fumaric acid, was added to PLA with the objective of controlling the rate of hydrolysis and of biodegradation. The hydrolysis process was followed, as function of time, by means of different techniques: pH variation, variation of weight of samples and variation of crystallinity degree and glass transition temperature using DSC analysis. The samples were also analyzed in terms of biodegradability by means of a homemade respirometer apparatus, in controlled composting conditions.

  9. The effect of linoleic acid on the whole body synthesis rates of polyunsaturated fatty acids from α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid in free-living rats.

    PubMed

    Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Chen, Chuck T; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P Mark; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is thought to be important for brain function. The main dietary source of DHA is fish, however, DHA can also be synthesized from precursor omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), the most abundantly consumed being α-linolenic acid (ALA). The enzymes required to synthesize DHA from ALA are also used to synthesize longer chain omega-6 (n-6) PUFA from linoleic acid (LNA). The large increase in LNA consumption that has occurred over the last century has led to concern that LNA and other n-6 PUFA outcompete n-3 PUFA for enzymes involved in DHA synthesis, and therefore, decrease overall DHA synthesis. To assess this, rats were fed diets containing LNA at 53 (high LNA diet), 11 (medium LNA diet) or 1.5% (low LNA diet) of the fatty acids with ALA being constant across all diets (approximately 4% of the fatty acids). Rats were maintained on these diets from weaning for 8 weeks, at which point they were subjected to a steady-state infusion of labeled ALA and LNA to measure DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) synthesis rates. DHA and ARA synthesis rates were generally highest in rats fed the medium and high LNA diets, while the plasma half-life of DHA was longer in rats fed the low LNA diet. Therefore, increasing dietary LNA, in rats, did not impair DHA synthesis; however, low dietary LNA led to a decrease in DHA synthesis with tissue concentrations of DHA possibly being maintained by a longer DHA half-life. PMID:27012633

  10. Effect of fatty acids on self-assembly of soybean lecithin systems.

    PubMed

    Godoy, C A; Valiente, M; Pons, R; Montalvo, G

    2015-07-01

    With the increasing interest in natural formulations for drug administration and functional foods, it is desirable a good knowledge of the phase behavior of lecithin/fatty acid formulations. Phase structure and properties of ternary lecithin/fatty acids/water systems are studied at 37°C, making emphasis in regions with relatively low water and fatty acid content. The effect of fatty acid saturation degree on the phase microstructure is studied by comparing a fully saturated (palmitic acid, C16:0), monounsaturated (oleic acid, C18:1), and diunsaturated (linoleic acid, C18:2) fatty acids. Phase determinations are based on a combination of polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements. Interestingly, unsaturated (oleic acid and linoleic acid) fatty acid destabilizes the lamellar bilayer. Slight differences are observed between the phase diagrams produced by the unsaturated ones: small lamellar, medium cubic and large hexagonal regions. A narrow isotropic fluid region also appears on the lecithin-fatty acid axis, up to 8wt% water. In contrast, a marked difference in phase microsctructure was observed between unsaturated and saturated systems in which the cubic and isotropic fluid phases are not formed. These differences are, probably, a consequence of the high Krafft point of the C16 saturated chains that imply rather rigid chains. However, unsaturated fatty acids result in more flexible tails. The frequent presence of, at least, one unsaturated chain in phospholipids makes it very likely a better mixing situation than in the case of more rigid chains. This swelling potential favors the formation of reverse hexagonal, cubic, and micellar phases. Both unsaturated fatty acid systems evolve by aging, with a reduction of the extension of reverse hexagonal phase and migration of the cubic phase to lower fatty acid and water contents. The kinetic stability of the systems seems to be controlled by the unsaturation of fatty acids. PMID:25938851

  11. Chlorination effect on the fluorescence of nucleic acid staining dyes.

    PubMed

    Phe, M H; Dossot, M; Block, J C

    2004-10-01

    An alternative to culture methods for the control of drinking water disinfection would use fluorescent dyes that could evidence the nucleic acid damages provoked by sodium hypochlorite treatment. The two dyes selected in this study, SYBR Green II RNA gel stain and TOTO-1 iodide, efficiently stain nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and quite poorly the other biomolecules considered (Bovine serum albumin, palmitic acid and dextrane). After treatment of nucleic acid solutions with increasing amounts of sodium hypochlorite, a decrease of fluorescence intensity is observed for both DNA and RNA stained with either SYBR-II or TOTO-1. However, the two fluorochromes do not lead to the same results, which shows that the two dyes are not bound to nucleic acids in the same way. Contrary to TOTO-1, SYBR-II reveals to be sufficiently sensitive to indicate both DNA or RNA damages as soon as the latter are in contact with hypochlorite even at concentrations of HClO lower than 10 micromol/L. Moreover, SYBR-II offers the opportunity to make quantitative titration of chlorine treated DNA and therefore seems to be the appropriate candidate to control the efficiency of the hypochlorite disinfection process of drinking water samples. PMID:15350425

  12. Aluminum in acidic surface waters: chemistry, transport, and effects.

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, C T

    1985-01-01

    Ecologically significant concentrations of Al have been reported in surface waters draining "acid-sensitive" watersheds that are receiving elevated inputs of acidic deposition. It has been hypothesized that mineral acids from atmospheric deposition have remobilized Al previously precipitated within the soil during soil development. This Al is then thought to be transported to adjacent surface waters. Dissolved mononuclear Al occurs as aquo Al, as well as OH-, F-, SO4(2-), and organic complexes. Although past investigations have often ignored non-hydroxide complexes of Al, it appears that organic and F complexes are the predominant forms of Al in dilute (low ionic strength) acidic surface waters. The concentration of inorganic forms of Al increases exponentially with decreases in solution pH. This response is similar to the theoretical pH dependent solubility of Al mineral phases. The concentration of organic forms of Al, however, is strongly correlated with variations in organic carbon concentration of surface waters rather than pH. Elevated concentrations of Al in dilute acidic waters are of interest because: Al is an important pH buffer; Al may influence the cycling of important elements like P, organic carbon, and trace metals; and Al is potentially toxic to aquatic organisms. An understanding of the aqueous speciation of Al is essential for an evaluation of these processes. PMID:3935428

  13. Effects of oleic acid on pulmonary capillary leak and thromboxanes

    SciTech Connect

    Olanoff, L.S.; Reines, H.D.; Spicer, K.M.; Halushka, P.V.

    1984-06-01

    The role of arachidonic acid metabolites in oleic acid-induced lung injury in anesthetized dogs was investigated. Oleic acid was administered as a bolus injection into the pulmonary artery after either indomethacin (10 mg/kg iv) or vehicle. Measurements of hemodynamic parameters, mean systemic (MAP), pulmonary capillary wedge, and pulmonary artery pressures (PAP), cardiac output, arterial blood gases, extravascular lung waters (EVLW) by thermaldye double indicator dilution techniques and plasma immunoreactive thromboxane B2 (iTxB2), by radioimmunoassay were obtained at zero time (baseline) and 20 min following each oleic acid injection. A new noninvasive technique was employed to measure pulmonary capillary protein leak by the scintigraphic analysis of intravenously administered technetium-/sup 99/m radiolabeled human serum albumin (99mTc -HSA) in the cardiac and lung regions. Oleic acid injection caused a significant dose related fall in MAP, arterial pO/sup 2/, and cardiac output, and increases in EVLW and plasma iTxB2 in the vehicle pretreated animals, while mean PAP remained unchanged. In contrast, in the indomethacin pretreated dogs, MAP, EVLW, cardiac output, and plasma iTxB2 levels did not change from baseline values and there was an increase in mean PAP. Pulmonary vascular resistance was significantly elevated in both groups.

  14. Sulfuric acid rain effects on crop yield and foliar injury. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.J.; Neely, G.E.; Perrigan, S.C.

    1980-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the relative sensitivity of major U.S. crops to sulfuric acid rain. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions and exposed to simulated acid rain of three sulfuric acid concentrations (pH 3.0, 3.5, 4.0) or to a control rain (pH 5.7). Injury to foliage and effects on yield were common responses to acid rain. However, foliar injury was not a good indicator of effects on yield.

  15. Folic Acid Food Fortification—Its History, Effect, Concerns, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Crider, Krista S.; Bailey, Lynn B.; Berry, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Periconceptional intake of folic acid is known to reduce a woman’s risk of having an infant affected by a neural tube birth defect (NTD). National programs to mandate fortification of food with folic acid have reduced the prevalence of NTDs worldwide. Uncertainty surrounding possible unintended consequences has led to concerns about higher folic acid intake and food fortification programs. This uncertainty emphasizes the need to continually monitor fortification programs for accurate measures of their effect and the ability to address concerns as they arise. This review highlights the history, effect, concerns, and future directions of folic acid food fortification programs. PMID:22254102

  16. Acid mine drainage and subsidence: effects of increased coal utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, R D; Bates, E R

    1979-01-01

    The increases above 1975 levels for acid mine drainage and subsidence for the years 1985 and 2000 based on projections of current mining trends and the National Energy Plan are presented. No increases are projected for acid mine drainage from surface mines or waste since enforcement under present laws should control this problem. The increase in acid mine drainage from underground mines is projected to be 16 percent by 1985 and 10 percent by 2000. The smaller increase in 2000 over 1985 reflects the impact of the PL 95-87 abandoned mine program. Mine subsidence is projected to increase by 34 and 115 percent respectively for 1985 and 2000. This estimate assumes that subsidence will parallel the rate of underground coal production and that no new subsidence control measures are adopted to mitigate subsidence occurrence. PMID:540617

  17. Effect of Pre-Harvest Foliar Application of Citric Acid and Malic Acid on Chlorophyll Content and Post-Harvest Vase Life of Lilium cv. Brunello

    PubMed Central

    Darandeh, Nafiseh; Hadavi, Ebrahim

    2012-01-01

    Citric acid is a regular ingredient in many vase solution formulations but pre-harvest use of citric acid is a novel method in vase life extension of cut flowers, which is reported on tuberose earlier. In order to verify previous result, and check for possible substitution of citric acid by malic acid, the current research was designed. Citric acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) and malic acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) were used in a factorial design with three replications. Foliar sprays were applied two times during growth period of Lilium plants. The results point out that 0.15% citric acid alone had increased vase life from 11.8 in control treatment to 14 days (α < 0.05). The interesting finding was the effect of citric acid on bulbil weight, which was decreased from 9 g in control to 1.5 g in treatment containing combination of 0.075% citric acid and 0.075% malic acid. Malic acid while having no direct effect on pre-mentioned traits surprisingly increased the chlorophyll content significantly. The interaction effect between citric acid and malic acid on vase life and chlorophyll content proved significant and was evident in results, both as antagonistic and synergistic in various traits. PMID:22639626

  18. Effect of Pre-Harvest Foliar Application of Citric Acid and Malic Acid on Chlorophyll Content and Post-Harvest Vase Life of Lilium cv. Brunello.

    PubMed

    Darandeh, Nafiseh; Hadavi, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    Citric acid is a regular ingredient in many vase solution formulations but pre-harvest use of citric acid is a novel method in vase life extension of cut flowers, which is reported on tuberose earlier. In order to verify previous result, and check for possible substitution of citric acid by malic acid, the current research was designed. Citric acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) and malic acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) were used in a factorial design with three replications. Foliar sprays were applied two times during growth period of Lilium plants. The results point out that 0.15% citric acid alone had increased vase life from 11.8 in control treatment to 14 days (α < 0.05). The interesting finding was the effect of citric acid on bulbil weight, which was decreased from 9 g in control to 1.5 g in treatment containing combination of 0.075% citric acid and 0.075% malic acid. Malic acid while having no direct effect on pre-mentioned traits surprisingly increased the chlorophyll content significantly. The interaction effect between citric acid and malic acid on vase life and chlorophyll content proved significant and was evident in results, both as antagonistic and synergistic in various traits. PMID:22639626

  19. Neutrophil fatty acid composition: effect of a single session of exercise and glutamine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lagranha, C J; Alba-Loureiro, T C; Martins, E F; Pithon-Curi, T C; Curi, R

    2008-06-01

    The fatty acid composition of immune cells appears to contribute to variations of cell function. The independent and combined effects of a single session of exercise (SSE) and glutamine supplementation (GS) on neutrophil fatty acid composition were investigated. Compared to control (no treatment given--i.e. neither SSE or GS), single session of exercise decreased myristic, palmitic and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids, and increased lauric, oleic, linoleic, arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids whereas glutamine supplementation combined with SSE (GS+SSE) increased oleic acid. Polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and Unsaturation index were higher in neutrophils from the SSE and GS groups as compared with control. These findings support the proposition that SSE and GS may modulate neutrophil function through alterations in fatty acid composition. PMID:17721676

  20. Effect of monolaurin and lactic acid on Listeria monocytogenes attached to catfish fillets.

    PubMed

    Verhaegh, E G; Marshall, D L; Oh, D H

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of monolaurin and lactic acid, singly or combined, on Listeria monocytogenes attached to catfish fillets. Skinless catfish fillets were inoculated with L. monocytogenes and dip treated in monolaurin and/or lactic acid solution for various time periods. Results showed that monolaurin up to 400 micrograms/ml had no influence on counts. Conversely, lactic acid-treated fillets had reduced counts compared to controls. Dipping in 0.85, 1.70, or 2.55% lactic acid for 30 min reduced counts by 0.9, 1.4, or 1.3 logs, respectively. Extending the dipping time to 60 min resulted in little additional decrease in counts. Combining monolaurin with lactic acid yielded results similar to lactic acid alone. Hence, population reduction ability resides with lactic acid and not monolaurin. PMID:8796441

  1. Combined effects of lanthanum (III) chloride and acid rain on photosynthetic parameters in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) pollution and acid rain are environmental issues, and their deleterious effects on plants attract worldwide attention. These two issues exist simultaneously in many regions, especially in some rice-growing areas. However, little is known about the combined effects of REEs and acid rain on plants. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3), one type of REE salt, and acid rain on photosynthesis in rice were investigated. We showed that the combined treatment of 81.6 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 4.5 increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatic conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), Hill reaction activity (HRA), apparent quantum yield (AQY) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) in rice. The combined treatment of 81.6 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 3.5 began to behave toxic effects on photosynthesis (decreasing Pn, Gs, HRA, AQY and CE, and increasing Ci), and the maximally toxic effects were observed in the combined treatment of 2449.0 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 2.5. Moreover, the combined effects of LaCl3 and acid rain on photosynthesis in rice depended on the growth stage of rice, with the maximal effects occurring at the booting stage. Furthermore, the combined treatment of high-concentration LaCl3 and low-pH acid rain had more serious effects on photosynthesis in rice than LaCl3 or acid rain treatment alone. Finally, the combined effect of LaCl3 and acid rain on Pn in rice resulted from the changes in stomatic (Gs, Ci) and non-stomatic (HRA, AQY and CE) factors. PMID:25048927

  2. [Ultrasonic study of nucleic acids. Effect of pH].

    PubMed

    Braginskaia, F I; Sadykhova, S Kh

    1979-01-01

    The ultrasonic absorption of nucleic acids in water solutions was studied by the pulse ultrasonic technique depending on pH, at frequency 12 mHz T = 20 dedrees C. The obtained data show the occurrence of structural relaxation in DNA solutions caused by the proton exchange and transfer reactions with the extremal pH at 2.5 and 11.7. Possible mechanisms of the excess ultrasonic absorption were discussed concerning the protolytic processes with the charged DNA groups (N--P1 exchange and the hydrolysis of lactam groups at acid and alkaline pH correspondingly). PMID:36177

  3. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, P.F.; Reddy, M.M. ); Sherwood, S.I. )

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO[sub 2] gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  4. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, Susan I.

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO2) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO2 gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  5. Effects of acid fog on airway function in people with asthma. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, D.; Balmes, J.R.; Christian, D.

    1988-11-30

    The study was built on earlier work examining the effects of acidic fog on human subjects with asthma. Mouthpiece exposure studies on asthmatic subjects showed that both nitric and sulfuric acids potentiate the bronchoconstrictor effects of fog water, and that these acids appear to be similar in this respect. The work resulted in the exposure chamber at the University of California, San Francisco being extensively modified, based on improvements recommended in an earlier investigation, thus allowing human subjects to be exposed to rigorously controlled and monitored test fogs. The study used the chamber to first examine the effects of fog without acid, and then the effects of fog with acid, on exercising subjects with asthma.

  6. Effects of meconic and comenic acids on slow sodium channels of secondary neurons.

    PubMed

    Derbenev, A V; Krylov, B V; Shurygin AYa

    2000-01-01

    Effects of comenic and meconic acids on cultured dorsal root ganglion cells were investigated by the whole-cell patch clamp technique. The acids, having a well-known antiinflammatory and antibacterial action, decreased effective charge transfer in the activation gating system of TTX-resistant (slow) sodium channels in a dose-dependent manner. The effects were described by Hill's equation. The dissociation constant and Hill coefficient values were K(D) = 100 nM and X = 0.5 (for comenic acid) and K(D) = 10 nM and X = 0.34 (for meconic acid). The nonspecific antagonist of opioid receptors naltrexone totally blocked the effects. We suggest that the acids studied activate a subpopulation of opioid receptors negatively coupled to TTXr sodium channels. PMID:10768488

  7. Effects of some components of acid-mine drainage and acid deposition on the spermatozoa of longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of low pH and the metals aluminum, zinc, and cadmium, components of acid-mine effluents and acid deposition, on spermatozoa of longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis, were investigated. Sperm were exposed to solutions of 400 ppm aluminum chloride, 50 ppm zinc chloride, 2 ppm cadmium chloride, separately and in combination, at pH values of 6.9, 4.8, and 3.8. Sperm were additionally exposed to test solutions in which the metal salt concentration was reduced by one-half and observed for changes in motility and in the ability to exclude stain. All test solutions at a low pH were deleterious, the greatest damage occurring in solutions of a combination of all 3 metal chlorides and of aluminum chloride separately. Motility tests showed that both full and reduced metal concentrations had significant effects on motility. Staining tests were supportive of motility test results and indicated that in most cases shorter exposure times did not significantly improve survival rates. It was generally found that a decrease in pH increased the effects of each metal separately and when combined. Aluminum, zinc, and cadmium chlorides appeared to act antagonistically when tested in combination. It was concluded that the components of acid waters which were tested have deleterious effects on longer spermatozoa, reducing their viability and thereby reducing reproductive success of the species.

  8. Effects of free fatty acids on meibomian lipid films.

    PubMed

    Arciniega, Juan C; Nadji, Erfan J; Butovich, Igor A

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of free fatty acids (FFA), namely oleic (OA) and linoleic (LA) ones, on meibomian lipid films (MLF) using a Langmuir trough (LT) and a Brewster angle microscope (BAM). Human meibum was collected from healthy volunteers. A Tris-buffered saline (TBS, pH 7.4) was used as the control aqueous subphase for LT experiments. Then, varying amounts of OA and LA were dissolved in TBS to make FFA-containing subphases. Predetermined amounts of meibum were loaded onto the surface of the (TBS/±FFA) subphases to form MLF. Then, surface pressure-area (π/A) isotherms of MLF were recorded. Standard rheological parameters such as rigidity, elasticity, and hysteresis, were computed. In a separate experiment, OA and LA were pre-mixed with meibum at different weight ratios prior their spreading onto the control TBS subphase, and the (π/A) isotherms of the resulting mixed films of meibum and FFA were studied and analyzed in the same fashion as described above. When studied at the normal corneal temperature of 34 °C with the (TBS/-FFA) subphase, meibum formed stable films. When (TBS/+FFA) subphase was used, both FFA quickly disrupted the MLF, acting in a similar fashion. BAM revealed that the most dramatic changes in the structure of MLF occurred in the range of OA concentrations between 5 and 15 μM. However, this effect was apparent even with 2.5 μM OA. When OA was pre-mixed with meibum, but was absent from the subphase, it caused gradual concentration-dependent changes in the (π/A) isotherms, but the MLF did not disappear from the surface. Thus, tested FFA showed a remarkable ability to disrupt, and/or prevent the formation of, human MLF, which could contribute to the onset of those forms of dry eye disease that are associated with enhanced activity of lipolytic enzymes, such as chronic blepharitis. PMID:21718696

  9. Hypocholesterolemic effect of ursodeoxycholylcysteic acid in hamsters fed a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, H; Yoshii, M; Seki, A; Une, M; Hoshita, T

    1992-10-01

    We studied the effect of feeding ursodeoxycholylcysteic acid, the cysteic acid conjugated analog of ursodeoxycholyltaurine, on serum and liver cholesterol levels and on intestinal absorption of cholesterol and bile salts in hamsters. Addition of ursodeoxycholylcysteic acid to the cholesterol-enriched diet reduced the elevation of serum and liver cholesterol levels caused by feeding cholesterol. However, supplementation with ursodeoxycholylcysteic acid to the standard diet did not show any significant change in serum and liver cholesterol levels. Administration of ursodeoxycholylcysteic acid caused a decrease in dietary cholesterol absorption but did not interfere with the ileal transport of endogenous bile salts. Hence the hypocholesterolemic activity of dietary ursodeoxycholylcysteic acid is thought to be the effect on intestinal absorption of cholesterol but not to be the interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts. PMID:1494107

  10. Effect of acid rain on calcium carbonate saturation in the Albemarle sound of North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, K.A.; Burgess, S.K.; Willey, J.D.; Kieber, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    The effects of acidic rainwater additions on calcium carbonate solubility and alkalinity in the poorly buffered, biologically active and commercially important waters of the Albemarle Sound, NC are reported. Samples collected monthly at four sites were analyzed for salinity, pK total alkalinity, and calcium concentrations. Five percent and 10% dilutions of sulfuric acid at pH 4, mimicking acid rain additions, were added and total alkalinity and calcium concentrations again determined. The addition of acid decreased the alkalinity in the Albemarle samples by as much as 15%, although the magnitude of the impact depended both on site and season. The effects of acid additions on dissolved calcium concentrations were more variable,. and also displayed a site and season dependency. Calcium concentrations, alkalinity, and pH values were also determined during controlled laboratory experiments, where 25 mg/L Callinectes sapidus shells were added to Albemarle Sound water. All three analytes increased significantly upon acid additions relative to controls.

  11. Cyano substituent effects on enol and enethiol acidity and basicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Alberto; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Gal, Jean-François; Maria, Pierre-Charles

    2007-11-01

    The gas-phase basicity and acidity of 3-hydroxy-2-propenenitrile (3-hydroxyacrylonitrile) and its sulfur-containing analogue, 3-mercapto-2-propenenitrile, have been determined by means of high-level G3B3 ab initio calculations and, in the case of the latter compound, compared with the experimental values obtained by means of FT-ICR mass spectrometry techniques, and with previous reported values for the NC-CHCH-X (X = CH3, NH2, SiH3, PH2) analogues. For both compounds the Z-isomer is the dominant species in the gas-phase. Protonation takes place in both cases at the cyano group. The loss of the proton from the substituent, was found to be systematically much more favorable than the deprotonation at the HCCH group. 3-Hydroxy-2-propenenitrile is predicted to be a stronger base by ca. 5 kJ mol-1 than its thio analogue, but a weaker acid by 26 kJ mol-1. Both compounds are stronger acids than the corresponding unsubstituted vinyl compounds, because cyano substitution stabilizes much more the deprotonated species than the corresponding neutral compound. There is a clear disagreement between our theoretical estimates for both the gas-phase basicity and the gas-phase acidity of 3-mercapto-2-propenenitrile and the corresponding experimental values, which is consistent with its isomerization to yield isothiazole.

  12. Effects of Biomass in Polyethylene or Polylactic Acid Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that compounding Polyethylene (PE) or Polylactic acid (PLA) with a dairy-based bioplastic resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, mass ratios of a dairy-protein-based material (DBP) ranging from 0, 5, 10 and 20 wt% replaced equivalent masse...

  13. MATERNAL EFFECTS FOR FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN SOYBEAN SEED OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) oil accounts for nearly half of the edible vegetable oil production worldwide. The fatty acid composition of soybean seed oil affects its nutritional value and physical and chemical characteristics. In recent years, there has been an increasing demand to produce soy...

  14. Maternal Effects on Fatty Acid Composition of Soybean Seed Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seed oil affects its nutritional value and physical and chemical characteristics. The success of developing soybean lines with genetically altered seed oil is greatly determined by the rate of genetic gain through selection. Maternal effec...

  15. PROBABLE EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION ON PENNSYLVANIA WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project was to search for and identify any trends in water chemistry and fish communities in Pennsylvania waters which would indicate that acid precipitation was affecting them adversely. No new data collection was to be included. Five existing data bases, inc...

  16. EFFECTS OF PHOSGENE EXPOSURE ON LUNG ARACHIDONIC ACID METABOLISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phosgene is a pulmonary toxicant that can produce lung edema, bronchoconstriction, and immune suppression following an acute exposure. he response of the lung to phosgene inhalation may be mediated through alternations in the metabolism of arachidonic acid to the biologically pot...

  17. Effect of short-chain fatty acids on the formation of amylose microparticles by amylosucrase.

    PubMed

    Lim, Min-Cheol; Park, Kyu-Hwan; Choi, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Da-Hee; Letona, Carlos Andres Morales; Baik, Moo-Yeol; Park, Cheon-Seok; Kim, Young-Rok

    2016-10-20

    Amylose microparticles can be produced by self-assembly of amylose molecules through an amylosucrase-mediated synthesis. Here we investigated the role of short-chain fatty acids in the formation of amylose microparticles and the fate of these fatty acids at the end of the reaction. The rate of self-assembly and production yields of amylose microparticles were significantly enhanced in the presence of fatty acids. The effect was dependent on the length of the fatty acid carbon tail; butanoic acid (C4) was the most effective, followed by hexanoic acid (C6) and octanoic acid (C8). The amylose microparticles were investigated by carrying out SEM, XRD, Raman, NMR, FT-IR and DSC analysis. The size, morphology and crystal structure of the resulting amylose microparticles were comparable with those of amylose microparticles produced without fatty acids. The results indicated the carboxyl group of the fatty acid to be responsible for promoting the self-assembly of amylose chains to form microparticles. The fatty acids were eventually removed from the microstructure through the tight association of amylose double helices to form the amylose microparticles. PMID:27474606

  18. Butyric acid stimulates bovine neutrophil functions and potentiates the effect of platelet activating factor.

    PubMed

    Carretta, M D; Hidalgo, A I; Burgos, J; Opazo, L; Castro, L; Hidalgo, M A; Figueroa, C D; Taubert, A; Hermosilla, C; Burgos, R A

    2016-08-01

    Increased short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production is associated with subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and activation of inflammatory processes. In humans and rodents, SCFAs modulate inflammatory responses in the gut via free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2). In bovines, butyric acid is one of the most potent FFA2 agonists. Its expression in bovine neutrophils has recently been demonstrated, suggesting a role in innate immune response in cattle. This study aimed to evaluate if butyric acid modulates oxidative and non-oxidative functions or if it can potentiate other inflammatory mediators in bovine neutrophils. Our results showed that butyric acid can activate bovine neutrophils, inducing calcium (Ca(2+)) influx and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, two second messengers involved in FFA2 activation. Ca(2+) influx induced by butyric acid was dependent on the extracellular and intracellular Ca(2+) source and phospholipase C (PLC) activation. Butyric acid alone had no significant effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and chemotaxis; however, a priming effect on platelet-activating factor (PAF), a potent inflammatory mediator, was observed. Butyric acid increased CD63 expression and induced the release of neutrophil granule markers matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and lactoferrin. Finally, we observed that butyric acid induced neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation without affecting cellular viability. These findings suggest that butyric acid, a component of the ruminal fermentative process, can modulate the innate immune response of ruminants. PMID:27288853

  19. Effects of simulated acid rain on glucose mineralization and some physicochemical properties of forest soils

    SciTech Connect

    Strayer, R.F.; Alexander, M.

    1981-10-01

    To study the effects of acid rain, samples of forest soils were exposed to a continuous application of 100 cm of simulated acid rain (pH 3.2-4.1) at 5 cm/hour, or to intermittent 1-hour applications of 5 cm of simulated acid rain three times per week for 7 weeks. The major effects of the simulated acid rain were localized at the top of the soil and included lower pH values and glucose mineralization rates, and higher exchangeable Al and total and exchange acidity. The acidity penetrated further in the more acid soils. The mineralization of /sup 14/C-glucose was measured at concentrations of 1.5-54 ..mu..g glucose/g of soil. Glucose mineralization in the test soils (pH values of 4.4-7.1) was inhibited by the continuous exposure to simulated acid rain at pH 3.2 but not a pH 4.1. The extent of inhibition depended on the soil and the initial glucose concentration. Exposure of one soil to 7 weeks of intermittent applications of simulated acid rain at pH 3.2 reduced the mineralization rate at the three glucose concentrations tested. These data suggest that acid rain may have a significant impact on microbial activity.

  20. Effect of different polyphenol sources on the efficiency of ellagic acid release by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Leonardo; de la Cruz, Reynaldo; Buenrostro, José Juan; Ascacio-Valdés, Juan Alberto; Aguilera-Carbó, Antonio Francisco; Prado, Arely; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal Noé

    2016-01-01

    Fungal hydrolysis of ellagitannins produces hexahydroxydiphenic acid, which is considered an intermediate molecule in ellagic acid release. Ellagic acid has important and desirable beneficial health properties. The aim of this work was to identify the effect of different sources of ellagitannins on the efficiency of ellagic acid release by Aspergillus niger. Three strains of A. niger (GH1, PSH and HT4) were assessed for ellagic acid release from different polyphenol sources: cranberry, creosote bush, and pomegranate used as substrate. Polyurethane foam was used as support for solid-state culture in column reactors. Ellagitannase activity was measured for each of the treatments. Ellagic acid was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. When pomegranate polyphenols were used, a maximum value of ellagic acid (350.21 mg/g) was reached with A. niger HT4 in solid-state culture. The highest amount of ellagitannase (5176.81 U/l) was obtained at 8h of culture when cranberry polyphenols and strain A. niger PSH were used. Results demonstrated the effect of different polyphenol sources and A. niger strains on ellagic acid release. It was observed that the best source for releasing ellagic acid was pomegranate polyphenols and A. niger HT4 strain, which has the ability to degrade these compounds for obtaining a potent bioactive molecule such as ellagic acid. PMID:26916811

  1. The cellular protective effects of rosmarinic acid: from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria; Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is one of the most common household herbs, used as spices in a variety of foods, and employed in traditional medicine for its healing properties. Rosemary is a rich source of active antioxidant constituents such as phenolic diterpenes, flavonoids and phenolic acids. Caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid are the most important bioactive constituents. Rosmarinic acid is the ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid and is widely identified in different plant species. Chemical structure of rosmarinic acid contains two phenolic rings: one of them is derived from phenylalanine via caffeic acid and the other from tyrosine via dihydroxyphenyl-lactic acid. Its large-scale production is obtained from plant cell cultures of Coleus blumei Benth. It is easily absorbed through gastrointestinal tract as well as the skin. Rosmarinic acid is one of the most important and well known natural antioxidant compounds, which possesses neuroprotective effects in different models of neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, as well as chemicalinduced neurotoxicity and oxidative stress. Therefore, in present review, we aim to discuss about chemistry, sources, biotechnological production and neuroprotective actions of rosmarinic acid with emphasis on its possible molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection. PMID:25578431

  2. Ursodeoxycholic acid exerts farnesoid X receptor-antagonistic effects on bile acid and lipid metabolism in morbid obesity

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Michaela; Thorell, Anders; Claudel, Thierry; Jha, Pooja; Koefeler, Harald; Lackner, Carolin; Hoesel, Bastian; Fauler, Guenter; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Einarsson, Curt; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Trauner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Bile acids (BAs) are major regulators of hepatic BA and lipid metabolism but their mechanisms of action in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are still poorly understood. Here we aimed to explore the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in modulating the cross-talk between liver and visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) regarding BA and cholesterol metabolism and fatty acid/lipid partitioning in morbidly obese NAFLD patients. Methods In this randomized controlled pharmacodynamic study, we analyzed serum, liver and vWAT samples from 40 well-matched morbidly obese patients receiving UDCA (20 mg/kg/day) or no treatment three weeks prior to bariatric surgery. Results Short term UDCA administration stimulated BA synthesis by reducing circulating fibroblast growth factor 19 and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation, resulting in cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase induction mirrored by elevated C4 and 7α-hydroxycholesterol. Enhanced BA formation depleted hepatic and LDL-cholesterol with subsequent activation of the key enzyme of cholesterol synthesis 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. Blunted FXR anti-lipogenic effects induced lipogenic stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in the liver, thereby increasing hepatic triglyceride content. In addition, induced SCD activity in vWAT shifted vWAT lipid metabolism towards generation of less toxic and more lipogenic monounsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid. Conclusion These data demonstrate that by exerting FXR-antagonistic effects, UDCA treatment in NAFLD patients strongly impacts on cholesterol and BA synthesis and induces neutral lipid accumulation in both liver and vWAT. PMID:25617503

  3. Effect of nitrous acid on lung function in asthmatics: a chamber study.

    PubMed Central

    Beckett, W S; Russi, M B; Haber, A D; Rivkin, R M; Sullivan, J R; Tameroglu, Z; Mohsenin, V; Leaderer, B P

    1995-01-01

    Nitrous acid, a component of photochemical smog and a common indoor air pollutant, may reach levels of 100 ppb where gas stoves and unvented portable kerosene heaters are used. Nitrous acid is a primary product of combustion and may also be a secondary product by reaction of nitrogen dioxide with water. Because the usual assays for nitrogen dioxide measure several oxides of nitrogen (including nitrous acid) together, previous studies of indoor nitrogen dioxide may have included exposure to and health effects of nitrous acid. To assess the respiratory effects of nitrous acid exposure alone, we carried out a double-blinded crossover chamber exposure study with 11 mildly asthmatic adult subjects. Each underwent 3-hr exposures to 650 ppb nitrous acid and to filtered room air with three 20-min periods of moderate cycle exercise. Symptoms, respiratory parameters during exercise, and spirometry after exercise were measured. A statistically significant decrease in forced vital capacity was seen on days when subjects were exposed to nitrous acid. This effect was most marked at 25 min and 85 min after exposure began. Aggregate respiratory and mucous membrane symptoms were also significantly higher with nitrous acid. We conclude that this concentration and duration of exposure to nitrous acid alters lung mechanics slightly, does not induce significant airflow obstruction, and produces mild irritant symptoms in asthmatics. Images Figure 1. PMID:7607138

  4. Effect of dietary Fatty acids on human lipoprotein metabolism: a comprehensive update.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Esther M M; Watts, Gerald F; Ng, Theodore W K; Barrett, P Hugh R

    2015-06-01

    Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Dietary fatty-acid composition regulates lipids and lipoprotein metabolism and may confer CVD benefit. This review updates understanding of the effect of dietary fatty-acids on human lipoprotein metabolism. In elderly participants with hyperlipidemia, high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty-acids (PUFA) consumption diminished hepatic triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) secretion and enhanced TRL to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) conversion. n-3 PUFA also decreased TRL-apoB-48 concentration by decreasing TRL-apoB-48 secretion. High n-6 PUFA intake decreased very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations by up-regulating VLDL lipolysis and uptake. In a study of healthy subjects, the intake of saturated fatty-acids with increased palmitic acid at the sn-2 position was associated with decreased postprandial lipemia. Low medium-chain triglyceride may not appreciably alter TRL metabolism. Replacing carbohydrate with monounsaturated fatty-acids increased TRL catabolism. Trans-fatty-acid decreased LDL and enhanced high-density lipoprotein catabolism. Interactions between APOE genotype and n-3 PUFA in regulating lipid responses were also described. The major advances in understanding the effect of dietary fatty-acids on lipoprotein metabolism has centered on n-3 PUFA. This knowledge emphasizes the importance of regulating lipoprotein metabolism as a mode to improve plasma lipids and potentially CVD risk. Additional studies are required to better characterize the cardiometabolic effects of other dietary fatty-acids. PMID:26043038

  5. Effect of A Long Chain Carboxylate Acid on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelle Structure: A SANS Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriati, Arum; Giri Rachman Putra, Edy; Seok Seong, Baek

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a different hydrocarbon chain length of carboxylate acid, i.e. dodecanoic acid, CH3(CH)10COOH or lauric acid and hexadecanoic acid, CH3(CH2)14COOH or palmitic acid as a co-surfactant in the 0.3 M sodium dedecyl sulfate, SDS micellar solution has been studied using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The present of lauric acid has induced the SDS structural micelles. The ellipsoid micelles structures changed significantly in length (major axis) from 22.6 Å to 37.1 Å at a fixed minor axis of 16.7 Å in the present of 0.005 M to 0.1 M lauric acid. Nevertheless, this effect did not occur in the present of palmitic acid with the same concentration range. The present of palmitic acid molecules performed insignificant effect on the SDS micelles growth where the major axis of the micelle was elongated from 22.9 Å to 25.3 Å only. It showed that the appropriate hydrocarbon chain length between surfactant and co-surfactant molecules emerged as one of the determining factors in forming a mixed micelles structure.

  6. Inhibitory effects of rosemary extracts, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid on the growth of various human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem; Sevimli, Canan; Bedir, Erdal; Vardar-Sukan, Fazilet

    2010-06-01

    The leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis harvested from three different locations of Turkey were extracted by both methanolic and supercritical CO(2) extraction. Subsequently, six extracts and the active compounds, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid were applied to various human cancer cell lines including NCI-H82 (human, small cell lung, carcinoma), DU-145 (human, prostate, carcinoma), Hep-3B (human, black, liver, carcinoma, hepatocellular), K-562 (human chronic myeloid leukemia), MCF-7 (human, breast, adenocarcinoma), PC-3 (human, prostate, adenocarcinoma) and MDA-MB-231 (human, breast, adenocarcinoma) by MTT assay. Supercritical CO(2) extracts had superior antiproliferative effect compared to the soxhlet extracts. Although the extracts exhibited various cytotoxic effects against different cell lines, comparatively low IC(50) values ranging between 12.50 and 47.55 microg/ml were attained against K-562, being the most sensitive cell line. Moreover, carnosic acid caused the lowest cell viability with values ranging from 13 to 30 % at a concentration of 19 muM after 48 h of treatments, resulting in superior antiproliferative effect. Rosemary extract is a potential candidate to be included in the anti-cancer diet with pre-determined doses avoiding toxicity. PMID:20449663

  7. Effects of L-glutamine on acetylsalycylic acid induced gastric lesions and acid back diffusion in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hung, C R; Takeuchi, K; Okabe, S; Murata, T; Takagi, K

    1976-12-01

    Effects of L-glutamine on acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)-induced gastric mucosal lesions were studied in mongrel dogs. It was confirmed that when oral ASA at 1.0 or 2.0 g per dog is given in two divided doses, there is severe and consistent dose-dependent mucosal damage in the glandular portion of the stomach in fasted dogs. However, when L-glutamine 2.0 or 4.0 g per dog in two divided doses is given concomitantly with ASA 2.0 g per dog orally, the gastric irritation is significantly inhibited. Instillation of 20 mM of ASA in 100 mM HCl solution into the Heidenhain pouch of Beagle dogs produced a significant loss of H+ from the pouch and a gain of Na+ in the lumen compared with ASA-free controls. When L-glutamine (100 mM) was given concomitantly with ASA (20 mM) into the pouch, changes of electrolyte fluxes in response to ASA alone were significantly suppressed. However, 50 mM of L-glutamine had no appreciable effect on acid back diffusion caused by ASA 20 mM. The amino acid itself had little effect on the ionic movement in the pouch. Gross bleeding from the pouch treated with ASA was never observed with the concomitant dosing of ASA and L-glutamine 50 or 100 mM. PMID:15154

  8. Studies on Kochiae Fructus. V. Antipruritic effects of oleanolic acid glycosides and the structure-requirement.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Dai, Y; Ido, Y; Murakami, T; Matsuda, H; Yoshikawa, M; Kubo, M

    1998-11-01

    We examined the antipruritic effects of various oleanolic acid glycosides from natural medicines such as Kochiae Fructus (the fruit of Kochia scoparia SCHRAD.) and Momordicae Radix (the roots of Momordica cochinchinensis SPRENG.) using a compound 48/80-induced pruritic model in mice. Oleanolic acid 3-O-monodesmosides showed an antipruritic effect, while oleanolic acid 3,28-O-bisdesmosides and their common sapogenol oleanolic acid lacked the activity. This evidence indicated that the 3-O-glycoside moiety and the 28-carboxyl group in oleanolic acid glycosides were essential for exhibiting the antipruritic effect. Furthermore, it was found that the 3-O-glucuronides showed more potent activity than the corresponding 3-O-glucosides. PMID:9853421

  9. Effects of topical petrolatum and salicylic acid upon skin photoreaction to UVA.

    PubMed

    Birgin, Bahar; Fetil, Emel; Ilknur, Turna; Tahsin Güneş, Ali; Ozkan, Sebnem

    2005-01-01

    Various agents which can be used in combination can also interfere with phototherapy. In this study, the effects of topical petrolatum and 20% salicylic acid in petrolatum upon skin photoreaction to UVA were investigated, in an in vivo test. Minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) test was performed on 31 volunteers and the test was repeated with thin (0.1 cc/25 cm(2)) petrolatum, thick (0.3 cc/25 cm(2)) petrolatum, thin 20% salicylic acid in petrolatum, thick 20% salicylic acid in petrolatum and sunscreen. The effect of each agent on MPD was investigated. MPD was increased with thin and thick applications of all agents. Also, MPD was increased with 20% salicylic acid in petrolatum when compared with pure petrolatum, in the same thickness. The application of petrolatum and salicylic acid in petrolatum just before PUVA therapy is not recommended because of their blocking effects. PMID:15908297

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING DILUTE OXALIC ACID TO DISSOLVEHIGH LEVEL WASTE IRON BASED SLUDGE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, E

    2008-07-11

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken South Carolina, there is a crucial need to remove residual quantities of highly radioactive iron-based sludge from large select underground storage tanks (e.g., 19,000 liters of sludge per tank), in order to support tank closure. The use of oxalic acid is planned to dissolve the residual sludge, hence, helping in the removal. Based on rigorous testing, primarily using 4 and 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions, it was concluded that the more concentrated the acid, the greater the amount of residual sludge that would be dissolved; hence, a baseline technology on using 8 wt% oxalic acid was developed. In stark contrast to the baseline technology, reports from other industries suggest that the dissolution will most effectively occur at 1 wt% oxalic acid (i.e., maintaining the pH near 2). The driver for using less oxalic acid is that less (i.e., moles) would decrease the severity of the downstream impacts (i.e., required oxalate solids removal efforts). To determine the initial feasibility of using 1 wt% acid to dissolve > 90% of the sludge solids, about 19,000 liters of representative sludge was modeled using about 530,000 liters of 0 to 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions. With the chemical thermodynamic equilibrium based software results showing that 1 wt% oxalic acid could theoretically work, simulant dissolution testing was initiated. For the dissolution testing, existing simulant was obtained, and an approximate 20 liter test rig was built. Multiple batch dissolutions of both wet and air-dried simulant were performed. Overall, the testing showed that dilute oxalic acid dissolved a greater fraction of the stimulant and resulted in a significantly larger acid effectiveness (i.e., grams of sludge dissolved/mole of acid) than the baseline technology. With the potential effectiveness confirmed via simulant testing, additional testing, including radioactive sludge testing, is planned.

  11. BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF SULFURIC ACID MIST INHALATION BY HUMAN SUBJECTS WHILE AT REST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluated the effect of sulfuric acid aerosol exposure for 2 consecutive days on seven human biochemical blood parameters. A total of 20 human subjects were exposed to 100 micrograms per cu. m. sulfuric acid aerosol for 4 hr/day for 2 consecutive days. A total of 17 hum...

  12. EFFECT OF HUMIC ACID ON UPTAKE AND TRANSFER OF COPPER FROM MICROBES TO CILIATES TO COPEPODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research is part of an ongoing project designed to determine the effect of humic acid on the uptake and transfer of metals by marine organisms at the lower end of the food chain. Binding affinities for Cu, Cd, Zn, and Cr to Suwannee River humic acid were determined at variou...

  13. Effects of acid, salt and soaking time on the dielectric properties of acidified vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to design a continuous microwave process for pasteurization of acidified vegetables, equilibration phenomena in acid and salt solutions must be examined with regards to changes in dielectric properties. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of acid and salt concentration o...

  14. EFFECTS OF CHLORENDIC ACID, A PRIORITY TOXIC SUBSTANCES, ON LABORATORY AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were conducted to estimate the effects of chlorendic acid and its neutralized form on laboratory aquatic ecosystems. In short-term flask studies, chlorendic acid concentrations of 500 mg/L (pH 3.5) completely inhibited algal growth and microfaunal activity, 250 mg/L (...

  15. EFFECT OF DIETARY DIACETOXYSCIRPENOL AND FUSARIC ACID ON TURKEY POULT PERFORMANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of dietary diacetoxyscirpenol and fusaric acid were determined on day-old turkey poults by randomly placing poults in batteries and feeding them one of four dietary treatments: control (C); control plus 4ppm diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS); control plus 300ppm fusaric acid (FA); and control plus 4p...

  16. COMBINED EFFECT OF OZONE AND SULFURIC ACID ON PULMONARY FUNCTION IN MAN (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A potential synergistic effect of ozone and sulfuric acid mist (H2SO4) on respiratory function has been postulated for humans exposed to these two pollutants simultaneously. Nine young men were exposed to 0.25 ppm ozone (03), 1200-1600 mcg/cu m sulfuric acid aerosol (H2SO4), and ...

  17. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Phthalic Acids (o-, m-, p-)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Phthalic Acids (o-, m-, p-) was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams. Quantitative estimates have been presented provided sufficient data are available. p-Phthalic acid has been de...

  18. Comparative effects of oral aromatic and branched-chain amino acids on urine calcium and excretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aromatic amino acids (AAAs) bind to the calcium sensor receptor (CaR) but branched-chain amino acids (B-CAAs) do not; by binding to this receptor, AAAs have an increased potential to affect calcium homeostasis. This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of AAAs and B-CAAs on calci...

  19. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  20. Effects of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) extract on volatile fatty acid production by rumen bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To determine the effects of hops extract, on in vitro volatile fatty acid (VFA) production by bovine rumen microorganisms. Methods and Results: When mixed rumen microbes were suspended in media containing carbohydrates, the initial rates of VFA production were suppressed by beta-acid rich hops...

  1. Effect of GxE interaction on oil content and fatty acid composition of cultivated peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-nine entries of varieties and advanced breeding lines were grown in two locations in three years with three replications to estimate the effects of G x E interaction on oil content and fatty acid composition of cultivated peanuts. Oil content and fatty acid composition were quantified by NMR ...

  2. Effect of carbonaceous soil amendments on potential mobility of weak acid herbicides in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of carbonaceous amendments in soil has been proposed to decrease potential offsite transport of weak acid herbicides and metabolites by increasing their sorption to soil. The effects of organic olive mill waste, biochars from different feed stocks, and humic acid bound to clay on sorption of MCP...

  3. Alkyl substituent effects on gas-phase acidities - The influence of hybridization.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauman, J. I.; Blair, L. K.

    1971-01-01

    Exploration of the effect on acidity of alkyl groups bonded to trigonal and digonal carbon. Some results on the relative acidities of toluene and p-xylene, and acetylene and substitute acetylenes, as determined by ion cyclotron resonance (icr) spectroscopy, are described. Some limitations of the CNDO/2 calculation method are discussed.

  4. Effect of chronic ethanol consumption on fatty acid profile of heart tissue in rats.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Tubío, A; Carreras, O; Tavares, E; Delgado, M J

    1999-03-01

    The effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on fatty acid composition and lipid content of heart tissue in rats, and whether this effect depends on age, was studied. Rats were maintained on a 30% ethanol solution in drinking water for 3 and 5 months. Control animals were given water. Phospholipid concentration was unchanged in the ethanol-fed groups, compared with control groups, whereas total cholesterol content was increased at 5 months of treatment. An increase in stearic acid, palmitoleic acid, and 22:5n6 were observed at 3 months of ethanol ingestion. When ethanol was administered for 5 months, polyunsaturated fatty acids series n3 were decreased with respect to control. The effect of age on the profile of fatty acids of heart showed an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids and a decrease of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in both control and ethanol-fed rats. The effect of ethanol ingestion on fatty acid composition of heart tissue is not very pronounced, but the small changes observed could contribute to the development of functional and electrophysiological features of alcoholic heart disease. PMID:10195810

  5. Simple Amides of Oleanolic Acid as Effective Penetration Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Bednarczyk-Cwynar, Barbara; Partyka, Danuta; Zaprutko, Lucjusz

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal transport is now becoming one of the most convenient and safe pathways for drug delivery. In some cases it is necessary to use skin penetration enhancers in order to allow for the transdermal transport of drugs that are otherwise insufficiently skin-permeable. A series of oleanolic acid amides as potential transdermal penetration enhancers was formed by multistep synthesis and the synthesis of all newly prepared compounds is presented. The synthetized amides of oleanolic acid were tested for their in vitro penetration promoter activity. The above activity was evaluated by means of using the Fürst method. The relationships between the chemical structure of the studied compounds and penetration activity are presented. PMID:26010090

  6. Effectiveness and utility of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Migliore, Alberto; Procopio, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Summary Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease characterized by pain and progressive functional limitation. Viscosupplementation with intra-articular hyaluronic acid is a treatment option in knee OA that is included in the professional guidelines for treatment of this joint disease, but potentially should apply to all synovial joints in order to reduce pain and improve joint lubrication. Exogenous HA can enhance chondrocyte HA synthesis, prevent the degradation of cartilage and promote its regeneration. Moreover it can reduce the production of proinflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinases involved in OA pathogenesis. This mini review highlights the evidence of hyaluronic acid in reducing osteoarthritis symptoms and structural damage, as well as its ability to delay prosthetic surgery. Viscosupplementation should be considered as a long-term therapy. PMID:26136793

  7. The effect of uric acid on outdoor copper and bronze.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, E; Bowden, D J; Brimblecombe, P; Kenneally, H; Morselli, L

    2009-03-15

    Bird droppings are often quoted as a decay agent for outdoor goods, in particular buildings and statues. Undoubtedly, they represent one of the major causes of aesthetic damage on outdoor materials, but the real chemical damage they are able to induce, in particular on metals, is not so well studied. This work focused on the short term role of uric acid, the main constituent of bird urine, with respect to copper, which make such an important contribution to architectural elements of buildings and outdoor sculpture. Preliminary results of laboratory tests and analyses on real exposed samples showed that uric acid chemically affects copper and bronzes: the surface of the metal is modified and copper urates formed. Also natural patina, formed on statues and roof, react with uric acid, even if it seems to afford some protection toward bird droppings. In general, experimental results confirm that the potential chemical damage by bird droppings is significant when considering external cultural heritage such as statues, metal monuments and buildings with historic copper roofs. PMID:19157513

  8. Effects of acetic acid on light scattering from cells

    PubMed Central

    Marina, Oana C.; Sanders, Claire K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Acetic acid has been used for decades as an aid for the detection of precancerous cervical lesions, and the use of acetic acid is being investigated in several other tissues. Nonetheless, the mechanism of acetowhitening is unclear. This work tests some of the hypotheses in the literature and measures changes in light scattering specific to the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Wide angle side scattering from both the nucleus and the cytoplasm increases with acetic application to tumorigenic cells, with the increase in nuclear scattering being greater. In one cell line, the changes in nuclear scattering are likely due to an increase in number or scattering efficiency of scattering centers smaller than the wavelength of excitation light. There are likely several cellular changes that cause acetowhitening and the cellular changes may differ with cell type. These results should lead to a better understanding of acetowhitening and potentially the development of adjunct techniques to improve the utility of acetic acid application. For the well-studied case of cervical tissue, acetowhitening has been shown to be sensitive, but not specific for oncogenic changes needing treatment. PMID:23224185

  9. [Effect of amino acid solutions on the blood ammonia level].

    PubMed

    Sanjo, K; Harihara, Y; Kawasaki, S; Umekita, N; Idezuki, Y

    1985-09-01

    We have carried out several basic experiments on artificial liver support and found that the plasma free amino acid balance was lost after treatment according to this procedure. Application of fluid therapy--Using conventional amino acid preparations available on the market--Is not adequate during and after the treatment with artificial liver. Fluid therapy using mainly special amino acid preparations should have been established; preparations, named Todai Hospital fluid (THF), are intended to correct the deranged aminogram, supply nutrition and promote the improvement in symptoms. Furthermore, experimental animals with acute hepatic insufficiency of diverse severity were prepared and basic experiments were performed which these animals to see how the efficacy of THF developed. In the basic experiments, psychoneurotic symptoms and the electroencephalogram were improved with the lowering of the blood ammonia level. Clinically, THF was not only used as a therapeutic agent after treatment by artificial liver support in patients with fulminant hepatitis, but is also served as a further indication in hepatic encephalopathy accompanying chronic liver diseases in late stages. Improvement in encephalopathy was observed immediately after the administration of THF and persisted while the aminogram pattern returned to the premedication representation. There was more improvement in patients in whom ammonemia was complicated, and the blood ammonia level was reduced markedly. PMID:4088243

  10. Soil sorption of acidic pesticides: modeling pH effects.

    PubMed

    Spadotto, Claudio A; Hornsby, Arthur G

    2003-01-01

    A model of acidic pesticide sorption in soils was developed from theoretical modeling and experimental data, which initially considered a combination of a strongly acidic pesticide and a variable-charge soil with high clay content. Contribution of 2,4-D [(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid] anionic-form sorption was small when compared with molecular sorption. Dissociation of 2,4-D was not sufficient to explain the variation in Kd as a function of pH. Accessibility of soil organic functional groups able to interact with the pesticide (conformational changes) as a function of organic matter dissociation was proposed to explain the observed differences in sorption. Experimental 2,4-D sorption data and K(oc) values from literature for flumetsulam [N-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-5-methyl [1,2,4] triazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidine-2-sulfonamide] and sulfentrazone [N-[2,4-dichloro-5-[4-(difluromethyl)-4,5-dihydro-3-methyl-5-oxo-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl] phenyl] methanesulfonamide] in several soils fit the model. PMID:12809295

  11. Effects of acidic mixtures on pulmonary macrophage functions: A pilot study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Phalen, R.F.; Kikkawa, Y.; Nadziejko, C.; Kleinman, M.T.

    1992-02-01

    Fischer 344 rats were examined for effects of inhaled nitric acid and ozone on macrophage cell function, to evaluate new endpoints for future acid inhalation studies. Pulmonary macrophage respiratory burst activity, production of arachidonic acid metabolites (leukotriene B4 and leukotriene C4) by macrophages, and lavage fluid elastase inhibitory capacity were found to be affected by in vivo exposure to nitric acid vapor, alone or in combination with ozone. These results have implications with respect to the development of lung infections, asthma, and emphysema.

  12. Synergistic effects of sodium lauroyl sarcosinate and glutamic acid in inhibition assembly against copper corrosion in acidic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yinzhe; Zhang, Daquan; Zeng, Huijing; Xie, Bin; Gao, Lixin; Lin, Tong

    2015-11-01

    A self-assembled multilayer (SAM) from sodium lauroyl sarcosinate (SLS) and glutamic acid (GLU) is formed on copper surface. Its inhibition ability against copper corrosion is examined by electrochemical analysis and weight loss test. In comparison to SAM formed by just SLS or GLU, a synergistic effect is observed when the coexistence of SLS and GLU in SAM. The SLS/GLU SAM has an acicular multilayer structure, and SAM prepared under the condition of 5 mM SLS and 1 mM GLU shows the best protection efficiency. PM6 calculation reveals that the synergistic effect stems from interactions between SLS, GLU and cupric ions.

  13. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 + 0.7% and 8.8 + 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 + 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 + 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 + 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  14. Effects of fatty acids on motility retention by Treponema pallidum in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, H M; Jenkin, H M; Crilly, K; Sandok, P L

    1978-01-01

    Treponema pallidum (Nichols virulent strain) was incubated under 75% N2 + 20% H2 + 5% CO2 in prereduced serum-free modified Eagle-Richter medium supplemented with different concentrations of various long-chain fatty acids complexed with fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin. Motility retention was greater in medium with oleic acid containing 15 rather than 2 mg of albumin per ml. Palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid alone caused rapid loss of motility at concentrations as low as 5 microgram/ml. Elaidic acid (92 microgram/ml) alone had no effect on motility. Various combinations of saturated plus unsaturated fatty acids did not inhibit motility retention or were less inhibitory than either of the individual fatty acid components. The combination of palmitic plus oleic acids was least toxic. Rapid loss of motility occurred with pairs of unsaturated or saturated fatty acids, or with Tween 40, 60, or 80, alone or combined. Autoxidation of oleic acid resulted in decreased toxicity for T. pallidum but increased toxicity for baby hamster kidney cells. PMID:346485

  15. Metabolic effects of intestinal absorption and enterohepatic cycling of bile acids.

    PubMed

    Ferrebee, Courtney B; Dawson, Paul A

    2015-03-01

    The classical functions of bile acids include acting as detergents to facilitate the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gut. In addition, bile acids also act as signaling molecules to regulate glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and energy expenditure. The signaling potential of bile acids in compartments such as the systemic circulation is regulated in part by an efficient enterohepatic circulation that functions to conserve and channel the pool of bile acids within the intestinal and hepatobiliary compartments. Changes in hepatobiliary and intestinal bile acid transport can alter the composition, size, and distribution of the bile acid pool. These alterations in turn can have significant effects on bile acid signaling and their downstream metabolic targets. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the inter-relationship between the enterohepatic cycling of bile acids and the metabolic consequences of signaling via bile acid-activated receptors, such as farnesoid X nuclear receptor (FXR) and the G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5). PMID:26579438

  16. Effects of caffeic acid on learning deficits in a model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunliang; Wang, Yutong; Li, Jinfeng; Hua, Linlin; Han, Bing; Zhang, Yuzhen; Yang, Xiaopeng; Zeng, Zhilei; Bai, Hongying; Yin, Honglei; Lou, Jiyu

    2016-09-01

    Caffeic acid is a type of phenolic acid and organic acid. It is found in food (such as tomatoes, carrots, strawberries, blueberries and wheat), beverages (such as wine, tea, coffee and apple juice) as well as Chinese herbal medicines. In the present study, we examined the effects of caffeic acid on learning deficits in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The rats were randomly divided into three groups: i) control group, ii) AD model group and iii) caffeic acid group. Caffeic acid significantly rescued learning deficits and increased cognitive function in the rats with AD as demonstrated by the Morris water maze task. Furthermore, caffeic acid administration resulted in a significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity and nitrite generation in the rats with AD compared with the AD model group. Furthermore, caffeic acid suppressed oxidative stress, inflammation, nuclear factor‑κB‑p65 protein expression and caspase‑3 activity as well as regulating the protein expression of p53 and phosphorylated (p-)p38 MAPK expression in the rats with AD. These experimental results indicate that the beneficial effects of caffeic acid on learning deficits in a model of AD were due to the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:27430591

  17. Effects of Long Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis and Associated Gene Expression in Microalga Tetraselmis sp

    PubMed Central

    Adarme-Vega, T. Catalina; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Lim, David K. Y.; Schenk, Peer M.

    2014-01-01

    With the depletion of global fish stocks, caused by high demand and effective fishing techniques, alternative sources for long chain omega-3 fatty acids are required for human nutrition and aquaculture feeds. Recent research has focused on land-based cultivation of microalgae, the primary producers of omega-3 fatty acids in the marine food web. The effect of salinity on fatty acids and related gene expression was studied in the model marine microalga, Tetraselmis sp. M8. Correlations were found for specific fatty acid biosynthesis and gene expression according to salinity and the growth phase. Low salinity was found to increase the conversion of C18:4 stearidonic acid (SDA) to C20:4 eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA), correlating with increased transcript abundance of the Δ-6-elongase-encoding gene in salinities of 5 and 10 ppt compared to higher salinity levels. The expression of the gene encoding β-ketoacyl-coenzyme was also found to increase at lower salinities during the nutrient deprivation phase (Day 4), but decreased with further nutrient stress. Nutrient deprivation also triggered fatty acids synthesis at all salinities, and C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) increased relative to total fatty acids, with nutrient starvation achieving a maximum of 7% EPA at Day 6 at a salinity of 40 ppt. PMID:24901700

  18. The effect of humic acids on the element release from high level waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.; Van Iseghem, P.

    1997-12-31

    Eu and Am doped glasses were interacted with synthetic interstitial clay water (SiC) and corresponding reference leachant, humic acids free interstitial solution (IS) to investigate the influence of humic acids on the leaching behavior of the waste glass. Static leach tests were carried out at 40 C and 90 C. The release of the lanthanide Eu and the actinide Am from the glass was obviously enhanced by the presence of humic acids. The leaching of transition elements, Fe and Ti strongly depends on the humic acids concentration. The leaching of glass matrix components, Al and B was also influenced by the concentrations of humic acids. However, humic acids have little effect on the leaching of glass matrix element Si.

  19. Synergistic effects between Lewis and Brønsted acids: application to the Prins cyclization.

    PubMed

    Breugst, Martin; Grée, René; Houk, K N

    2013-10-01

    Brønsted and Lewis acids can catalyze the Prins cyclization, an efficient method for the synthesis of tetrahydropyrans from homoallylic alcohols and carbonyl compounds. Synergistic effects between weak Brønsted and Lewis acids in these reactions have been analyzed by density functional theory [M06-L/def2-QZVP/IEFPCM(CH2Cl2)//M06-L/6-311+G(2df,2p)]. In order to characterize the reactivities of the employed Lewis acids, methyl anion and hydroxide affinities were determined. On the basis of our calculations, we found that the coordination of Lewis acids to carboxylic and sulfonic acids results in a significant increase in the Brønsted acidities of the latter. PMID:23984760

  20. Effect of methyl jasmonate application to grapevine leaves on grape amino acid content.

    PubMed

    Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Portu, Javier; López, Rosa; Santamaría, Pilar

    2016-07-15

    Over the last few years, considerable attention has been paid to the application of elicitors to vineyard. However, research about the effect of elicitors on grape amino acid content is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of foliar application of methyl jasmonate on must amino acid content. Results revealed that total amino acid content was not modified by the application of methyl jasmonate. However, the individual content of certain amino acids was increased as consequence of methyl jasmonate foliar application, i.e., histidine, serine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, asparagine, methionine, and lysine. Among them, phenylalanine content was considerably increased; this amino acid is precursor of phenolic and aromatic compounds. In conclusion, foliar application of methyl jasmonate improved must nitrogen composition. This finding suggests that methyl jasmonate treatment might be conducive to obtain wines of higher quality since must amino acid composition could affect the wine volatile composition and the fermentation kinetics. PMID:26948648

  1. Effect of free fatty acids on liposome susceptibility to imidazole antifungals.

    PubMed Central

    Sud, I J; Chou, D L; Feingold, D S

    1979-01-01

    The presence of free fatty acids in liposome model membranes sensitizes these membranes to the action of the imidazole antifungals, clotrimazole, micronazole, and sulconazole. Unsaturation of the fatty acids is an important variable; the effect of linoleic and oleic acids is much greater than that of stearic acid. The imidazoles differ somewhat in action, with clotrimazole potency greatest both on membranes with and without fatty acids. Sulconazole has very little activity on membranes without fatty acids even at the highest concentrations tested. The data are discussed with reference to the susceptibility of various cells to the imidazoles and the specificity of imidazole action. A modification of the enzymatic method generally used for assay of marker glucose with liposome systems is also presented. PMID:393166

  2. Effect of acidity and elevated PCO2 on acid. Neutralization within pulsed limestone bed reactors receiving coal mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watten, B.J.; Sibrell, P.L.; Schwartz, M.F.

    2004-01-01

    Limestone has potential for reducing reagent costs and sludge volume associated with the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD), but its use has been restricted by slow dissolution rates and sensitivity to scale forming reactions that retard transport of H+ at the solid-liquid interface. We evaluated a pulsed limestone bed (PLB) remediation process designed to circumvent these problems through use of intermittently fluidized beds of granular limestone and elevated carbon dioxide pressure. PLB limestone dissolution (LD, mg/L), and effluent alkalinity (Alk, mg/L) were correlated with reactor pressure (PCO2, kPa), influent acidity (Acy, mg/L) and reactor bed height (H, cm) using a prototype capable of processing 10 L/min. The PLB process effectively neutralized sulfuric acid acidity over the range of 6-1033 mg/L (as CaCO3) while generating high concentrations of alkalinity (36-1086 mg/L) despite a hydraulic residence time of just 4.2-5.0 min. Alk and LD (mg/L CaCO3) rose with increases in influent acidity and PCO2 (p < 0.001) according to the models: Alk = 58 + 38.4 (PCO2)0.5 + 0.080 (Acy) - 0.0059(PCO2) 0.5 (Acy); LD = 55 + 38.3 (PCO2)0.5 + 1.08 (Acy) - 0.0059 (PCO2)0.5 (Acy). Alkalinity decreased at an increasing rate with reductions in H over the range of 27.3-77.5 cm (p < 0.001). Carbon dioxide requirements (Q(avg)CO2, L/min) increased with PCO2 (p < 0.001) following the model Q(avg)CO2 = 0.858 (PCO2)0.620, resulting in a greater degree of pH buffering (depression) within the reactors, a rise in limestone solubility and an increase in limestone dissolution related to carbonic acid attack. Corresponding elevated concentrations of effluent alkalinity allow for sidestream treatment with blending. Numerical modeling demonstrated that carbon dioxide requirements are reduced as influent acidity rises and when carbon dioxide is recovered from system effluent and recycled. Field trials demonstrated that the PLB process is capable of raising the pH of AMD above that

  3. Effect of Chicoric Acid on Mast Cell-Mediated Allergic Inflammation in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Na Young; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Jin, Jong Sik; Bang, Keuk Soo; Eom, Ye-Jin; Hong, Chul-Hee; Nugroho, Agung; Park, Hee-Jun; An, Hyo-Jin

    2015-12-24

    Chicoric acid (dicaffeoyl-tartaric acid), is a natural phenolic compound found in a number of plants, such as chicory (Cichorium intybus) and Echinacea (Echinacea purpurea), which possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and analgesic activities. Although these biological effects of chicoric acid have been investigated, there are no reports of its antiallergic-related anti-inflammatory effects in human mast cells (HMC)-1 or anaphylactic activity in a mouse model. Therefore, we investigated the antiallergic-related anti-inflammatory effect of chicoric acid and its underlying mechanisms of action using phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated HMC-1 cells. Chicoric acid decreased the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β. We studied the inhibitory effects of chicoric acid on the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activation of caspase-1. However, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was not sufficient to abrogate the stimulus. In addition, we investigated the ability of chicoric acid to inhibit compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis in vivo. Oral administration of chicoric acid at 20 mg/kg inhibited histamine release and protected mice against compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic mortality. These results suggest that chicoric acid has an antiallergic-related anti-inflammatory effect that involves modulating mast cell-mediated allergic responses. Therefore, chicoric acid could be an efficacious agent for allergy-related inflammatory disorders. PMID:26593037

  4. Effects of fatty acids and growth hormone on liver fatty acid binding protein and PPARalpha in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, L; Lindén, D; Jalouli, M; Oscarsson, J

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and growth hormone (GH) in the regulation of liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha). Cultured rat hepatocytes were given oleic acid (OA; 500 microM) and GH (100 ng/ml) for 3 days. LFABP mRNA increased 3.6-fold by GH and 5.7-fold by OA, and combined incubation with GH and OA increased LFABP mRNA 17.6-fold. PPARalpha mRNA was decreased 50% by GH, but OA had no effect. Hypophysectomized (Hx) female rats were treated with L-thyroxine, cortisol, GH, and dietary fat for 7 days. PPARalpha mRNA levels were three- to fourfold higher in Hx than in normal female rats. GH decreased PPARalpha mRNA 50% in Hx rats. Dietary triglycerides (10% corn oil) increased LFABP mRNA and cytosolic LFABP about twofold but had no effect on PPARalpha mRNA in Hx rats. GH and dietary triglycerides had an additive effect on LFABP expression. Dietary triglycerides increased mitochondrial hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase mRNA only in the presence of GH. The diet increased serum triglycerides in Hx rats, and GH treatment prevented this increase. Addition of cholesterol to the diet did not influence LFABP levels but mitigated increased hepatic triglyceride content. In summary, these studies show that GH regulates LFABP expression independently of PPARalpha. Moreover, GH has different effects on PPARalpha-responsive genes and does not counteract the effect of LCFA on the expression of these gene products. PMID:11551854

  5. Effects of acetic acid on the viability of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs

    PubMed Central

    Beyhan, Yunus E.; Yilmaz, Hasan; Hokelek, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of acetic acid on durable Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs to determine the effective concentration of vinegar and the implementation period to render the consumption of raw vegetables more reliable. Methods: This experimental study was performed in May 2015 in the Parasitology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey. The A. lumbricoides eggs were divided into 2 groups. Eggs in the study group were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 10% acetic acid concentrations, and eggs in the control group were treated with Eosin. The eggs’ viability was observed at the following points in time during the experiment: 0, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. Results: The 1% acetic acid was determined insufficient on the viability of Ascaris eggs. At the 30th minute, 3% acetic acid demonstrated 95% effectiveness, and at 5% concentration, all eggs lost their viability. Treatment of acetic acid at the ratio of 4.8% in 30 minutes, or a ratio of 4.3% in 60 minutes is required for full success of tretment. Conclusion: Since Ascaris eggs have 3 layers and are very resistant, the acetic acid concentration, which can be effective on these eggs are thought to be effective also on many other parasitic agents. In order to attain an active protection, after washing the vegetables, direct treatment with a vinegar containing 5% acetic acid for 30 minutes is essential. PMID:26905351

  6. Evaluation of toxic effects of several carboxylic acids on bacterial growth by toxicodynamic modelling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Effects of organic acids on microbial fermentation are commonly tested in investigations about metabolic behaviour of bacteria. However, they typically provide only descriptive information without modelling the influence of acid concentrations on bacterial kinetics. Results We developed and applied a mathematical model (secondary model) to capture the toxicological effects of those chemicals on kinetic parameters that define the growth of bacteria in batch cultures. Thus, dose-response kinetics were performed with different bacteria (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Carnobacterium pisicola, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Listonella anguillarum) exposed at increasing concentrations of individual carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic). In all bioassays the acids affected the maximum bacterial load (Xm) and the maximum growth rate (vm) but only in specific cases the lag phase (λ) was modified. Significance of the parameters was always high and in all fermentations the toxicodynamic equation was statistically consistent and had good predictability. The differences between D and L-lactic acid effects were significant for the growth of E. coli, L. mesenteroides and C. piscicola. In addition, a global parameter (EC50,τ) was used to compare toxic effects and provided a realistic characterization of antimicrobial agents using a single value. Conclusions The effect of several organic acids on the growth of different bacteria was accurately studied and perfectly characterized by a bivariate equation which combines the basis of dose-response theory with microbial growth kinetics (secondary model). The toxicity of carboxylic acids was lower with the increase of the molecular weight of these chemicals. PMID:22118421

  7. Effect of boric acid supplementation of ostrich water on the expression of Foxn1 in thymus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Rehman, Zia Ur; Khaliq, Haseeb; Song, Hui; Tang, Juan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Wei; Sun, Peng-Peng; Zhong, Juming; Peng, Ke-Mei

    2015-11-01

    Foxn1 is essential for thymus development. The relationship between boric acid and thymus development, optimal dose of boric acid in ostrich diets, and the effects of boric acid on the expression of Foxn1 were investigated in the present study. Thirty healthy ostriches were randomly divided into six groups: Group I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and supplemented with boric acid at the concentration of 0 mg/L, 40 mg/L, 80 mg/L, 160 mg/L, 320 mg/L, 640 mg/L, respectively. The histological changes in thymus were observed by HE staining, and the expression of Foxn1 analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. TUNEL method was used to label the apoptotic cells. Ostrich Foxn1 was sequenced by Race method. The results were as following: Apoptosis in ostrich thymus was closely related with boric acid concentrations. Low boric acid concentration inhibited apoptosis in thymus, but high boric acid concentration promoted apoptosis. Foxn1-positive cells were mainly distributed in thymic medulla and rarely in cortex. Foxn1 is closely related to thymus growth and development. The nucleotide sequence and the encoded protein of Foxn1 were 2736 bases and 654 amino acids in length. It is highly conserved as compared with other species. These results demonstrated that the appropriate boric acid supplementation in water would produce positive effects on the growth development of ostrich thymus by promoting Foxn1 expression, especially at 80 mg/L, and the microstructure of the thymus of ostrich fed 80 mg/L boric acid was well developed. The supplementation of high dose boron (>320 mg/L) damaged the microstructure of thymus and inhibited the immune function by inhibiting Foxn1 expression, particularly at 640 mg/L. The optimal dose of boric acid supplementation in ostrich diets is 80 mg/L boric acid. The genomic full-length of African ostrich Foxn1 was cloned for the first time in the study. PMID:25665795

  8. Mobilization of soil-borne arsenic by three common organic acids: Dosage and time effects.

    PubMed

    Onireti, Olaronke O; Lin, Chuxia

    2016-03-01

    A batch experiment was conducted to investigate the mobilization of soil-borne arsenic by three common low-molecular-weight organic acids with a focus on dosage and time effects. The results show that oxalic acid behaved differently from citric acid and malic acid in terms of mobilizing As that was bound to iron compounds. At an equivalent molar concentration, reactions between oxalic acid and soil-borne Fe were kinetically more favourable, as compared to those between either citric acid or malic acid and the soil-borne Fe. It was found that reductive dissolution of soil-borne Fe played a more important role in liberating As, as compared to non-reductive reactions. Prior to the 7th day of the experiment, As mobility increased with increasing dose of oxalic acid while there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in mobilized As among the treatments with different doses of citric acid or malic acid. The dosage effect on soil-borne As mobilization in the citric acid and malic acid treatments became clear only after the 7th day of the experiment. Soluble Ca present in the soils could cause re-immobilization of As by competing with solution-borne Fe for available organic ligands to form practically insoluble organic compounds of calcium (i.e. calcium oxalate). This resulted in transformation of highly soluble organic complexes of iron (i.e. iron oxalate complexes) into slightly soluble organic compounds of iron (i.e. iron oxalate) or free ferric ion, which then reacted with the solution-borne arsenate ions to form practically insoluble iron arsenates in the latter part of the experiment. PMID:26774299

  9. Effect of repeated harvesting on the content of caffeic acid and seven species of caffeoylquinic acids in sweet potato leaves.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kazunori; Oki, Tomoyuki; Kai, Yumi; Nishiba, Yoichi; Okuno, Shigenori

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated harvesting on the content of caffeic acid (CA) and seven species of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in sweet potato leaves using a newly developed high-performance liquid chromatography method. Six cultivars and two breeding lines were used in this study. Leaves were collected at monthly intervals from 1st harvest (May) to 4th harvest (August) in 2011 and 2012. ANOVA analysis revealed that the contents of CQAs were significantly different among all cultivars and breeding lines, but no significant differences were found for CA. No annual variation was confirmed in CA and CQAs. Repeated harvest of sweet potato leaves affected the content of only 4-CQA and 5-CQA. Post-hoc comparisons using Tukey's method indicated that the contents of 4-CQA and 5-CQA in sweet potato leaves harvested at first time were significantly higher compared to those at the other harvest times. PMID:25971339

  10. Inhibitory effect of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid from Eriobotrya fragrans on A549 cell viability in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y S; Yuan, Y; Song, G; Lin, S Q

    2016-01-01

    Loquat [Eriobotrya japonica (Lindl.)] is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been used as an anti-inflammatory and for curing chronic bronchitis among other potential applications. Extracted ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) from wild loquat were previously found capable of suppressing the proliferation of A549 cells in vitro. In the current study, nude mice were used to determine the inhibitory effect of UA and OA on tumor formation in vivo. The results demonstrate that UA and OA reduced the proliferation of A549 cells in nude mice, and increased the expression of Bid while decreasing the protein levels of MMP-2, Ki-67, and CD34. In this study, we identified potential antitumor activity in a wild loquat extract containing UA and OA, which demonstrates that traditional Chinese medicine may have a role in treating certain types of cancer. PMID:27323036

  11. The Potential Benefits and Adverse Effects of Phytic Acid Supplement in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Omoruyi, F. O.; Budiaman, A.; Eng, Y.; Olumese, F. E.; Hoesel, J. L.; Ejilemele, A.; Okorodudu, A. O.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of phytic acid supplement on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetic rats were fed rodent chow with or without phytic acid supplementation for thirty days. Blood and organ samples were collected for assays. The average food intake was the highest and the body weight gain was the lowest in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the diabetic and normal control groups. There was a downward trend in intestinal amylase activity in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the other groups. The spike in random blood glucose was the lowest in the same group. We noted reduced serum triglycerides and increased total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels in the group fed phytic acid supplement. Serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine amino transferase activities were significantly (P < 0.05) increased by phytic acid supplementation. Systemic IL-1β level was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in the diabetic control and supplement treated groups. The liver lipogenic enzyme activities were not significantly altered among the groups. These results suggest that phytic acid supplementation may be beneficial in the management of diabetes mellitus. The observed adverse effect on the liver may be due to the combined effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and phytic acid supplementation. PMID:24454345

  12. Effects of Acid Treatment on Dental Zirconia: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Haifeng; Shen, Shuping; Qian, Mengke; Zhang, Feimin; Chen, Chen; Tay, Franklin R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hydrofluoric (HF) acid, acetic acid, and citric acid treatments on the physical properties and structure of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) at ambient temperature. In total, 110 bar-shaped zirconia specimens were randomly assigned to 11 groups. The specimens in the control group (C) received no surface treatment, while those in the Cage group were hydrothermally aged at 134°C and 0.2 MPa for 20 h. Ten specimens each were immersed at ambient temperature in 5% and 40% HF acid for 2 h (40HF0), 1 day (5HF1, 40HF1), and 5 days (5HF5, 40HF5), while 10 each were immersed at ambient temperature in 10% acetic acid and 20% citric acid for 7 (AC7, CI7) and 14 days (AC14, CI14). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to quantitatively estimate the monoclinic phase. Furthermore, flexural strength, surface roughness, and surface Vickers hardness were measured after treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the surface morphology. The Cage group specimens exhibited an increased monoclinic phase and flexural strength. Furthermore, 40% HF acid immersion decreased the flexural strength and surface hardness and deteriorated the surface finish, while 5% HF acid immersion only decreased the surface hardness. All the HF acid-immersed specimens showed an etched surface texture on SEM observations, while the other groups did not. These findings suggest that the treatment of Y-TZP with 40% HF acid at ambient temperature causes potential damage, while treatment with 5% HF acid, acetic acid, and citric acid is safe. PMID:26301413

  13. Intestinal absorption of lithocholic acid sulfates in the rat: inhibitory effects of calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Kuipers, F.; Heslinga, H.; Havinga, R.; Vonk, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    Sulfation of lithocholic acid has been proposed as a mechanism for elimination of this hepatotoxic bile acid from the body by accelerating its fecal excretion. However, quantitative data on the absorption characteristics of sulfated lithocholic acid conjugates in vivo are scarce. We studied the intestinal absorption of /sup 14/C-labeled glycolithocholic acid (GLC), taurolithocholic acid (TLC), and their 3 alpha-sulfate esters, SGLC and STLC, respectively. Studies were performed in unanesthetized rats with a permanent biliary drainage. At an intestinal infusion rate of 125 nmol/min, which is comparable to 7% of the normal biliary bile acid output in the rat, the absorption of sulfated lithocholic acid conjugates was delayed when compared with their unsulfated precursors but quantitatively only slightly reduced over a 24-h period: SGLC 90.9 +/- 3.6%, GLC 94.4 +/- 1.1%, STLC 84.4 +/- 3.0%, and TLC 94.2 +/- 2.1%. Urinary excretion of sulfated and unsulfated bile acids was similar and never exceeded 2% of the dose. SGLC absorption was dose dependent, was not altered by coinfusion of rat bile, and was only slightly reduced by a sixfold overdose of taurocholic acid. SGLC and STLC were excreted into bile largely unchanged in form. In contrast, GLC and TLC were extensively metabolized to more polar bile acids, predominantly to beta-muricholic acid conjugates. Replacement of NaCl in the infusion fluid by CaCl2 reduced the absorption of SGLC and STLC by 63 and 52%, respectively. This calcium effect was less pronounced for the unsulfated bile acids: GLC -22%, and TL-19%. Absorption of taurocholic acid was unaffected by CaCL2.

  14. Effect of Amino Acids on Steady-State Growth of a Group A Hemolytic Streptococcus1

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Helen C.; Karush, Fred; Rudd, Joanne H.

    1965-01-01

    Davies, Helen C. (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia), Fred Karush, and Joanne H. Rudd. Effect of amino acids on steady-state growth of a group A hemolytic streptococcus. J. Bacteriol. 89:421–427. 1965.—A study has been made of amino acid utilization by a strain of type 4, group A streptococcus growing under steady-state conditions in a continuous-culture device and supplied with a completely synthetic medium. At a fixed growth rate, corresponding to a generation of time of 84 min, and with the pH maintained constant at 7.4, the bacterial turbidity was made dependent on the concentration of one of the amino acids of the defined medium. Under these conditions, the extracellular concentration of the limiting amino acid is fixed by the preset growth rate. The steady-state concentration of each of 14 essential l-amino acids was measured by means of C14-labeled amino acids in such limited cultures. At approximately equal turbidities, these concentrations ranged from 1.6 × 10−6m for methionine to 4.3 × 10−4m for glutamic acid. The rates of utilization of the amino acids ranged from 26 mμmoles per mg (dry weight) of bacteria per hr for histidine to 310 mμmoles per mg (dry weight) of bacteria per hr for glutamic acid. The percentage of the limiting amino acid used varied from 95% for threonine and methionine to 43% for gluamic acid. The rate of utilization of the limiting amino acid at unit concentration (tmoles per gram per hour per m) differed by a factor of 27 between extremes. These observations reflect the variation in the capacity of this streptococcal cell to take up and use different amino acids. PMID:14255710

  15. The effect of several organic acids on phytate phosphorus hydrolysis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Liem, A; Pesti, G M; Edwards, H M

    2008-04-01

    Supplementation of some organic acids to a P-deficient diet has been shown to improve phytate P utilization. Two experiments were conducted from 0 to 16 d in battery brooders to determine the effect of various organic acids supplementation on phytate P utilization. In both experiments, birds were fed P-deficient corn and soybean meal-based diets. In experiment 1, citric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, and EDTA were supplemented. Experiment 2 had a 2 x 2 factorial design with 2 sources of Met, 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) and dl-Met, with or without 500 U/kg of phytase. In experiment 1, the addition of citric, malic, and fumaric acids increased percentage of bone ash, but only the effect of citric acid was significant. The addition of citric and malic acids also significantly increased the retention of P and phytate P (P<0.05). In experiment 2, the addition of phytase to the diet significantly increased 16-d BW gain, feed intake, percentage of bone ash, milligrams of bone ash, phytate P disappearance, and decreased the incidence of P-deficiency rickets. Methionine source did not affect 16-d BW gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, milligrams of bone ash, or P rickets incidence. However, the birds fed HMB had a higher percentage of bone ash and phytate P disappearance compared with the groups fed dl-Met only when phytase was added to the diets. The additions of citric acid and HMB improved phytate P utilization. However, the reason why some organic acids are effective whereas others are not is not apparent. PMID:18339989

  16. Acid attack on hydrated cement — Effect of mineral acids on the degradation process

    SciTech Connect

    Gutberlet, T.; Hilbig, H.; Beddoe, R.E.

    2015-08-15

    During acid attack on concrete structural components, a degraded layer develops whose properties as a protective barrier are decisive for durability. {sup 29}Si NMR spectroscopy and {sup 27}Al NMR spectroscopy were used with XRD to investigate the degraded layer on hardened cement paste exposed to HCl and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The layer comprises an amorphous silica gel with framework silicates, geminate and single silanol groups in which Si is substituted by Al. Amorphous Al(OH){sub 3} and Fe(OH){sub 3} are present. The gel forms by polycondensation and cross-linking of C-A-S-H chains at AlO{sub 4} bridging tetrahedra. In the transition zone between the degraded layer and the undamaged material, portlandite dissolves and Ca is removed from the C-A-S-H phases maintaining their polymer structure at first. With HCl, monosulphate in the transition zone is converted into Friedel's salt and ettringite. With H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, gypsum precipitates near the degradation front reducing the thickness of the transition zone and the rate of degradation.

  17. Effect of trans-10 cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on bovine oocyte competence and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Lapa, M; Marques, C C; Alves, S P; Vasques, M I; Baptista, M C; Carvalhais, I; Silva Pereira, M; Horta, A E M; Bessa, R J B; Pereira, R M

    2011-10-01

    The reproductive performance of dairy cows may be improved by feeding conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements during early lactation. The mechanism of action of t10,c12 CLA is not clearly known. Our objective was to investigate the effect of t10,c12 CLA on oocyte maturation and lipid composition of cumulus oocyte complexes (COC). The developmental potential of oocytes incubated in in vitro maturation (IVM) medium supplemented with t10,c12 CLA to the blastocyst stage and embryo quality were also assessed. In experiment 1, abattoir-derived oocytes were matured in TCM199 + 10% serum supplemented with 100 μM t10,c12 CLA (t10,c12 CLA n = 672) or without it (control n = 672). Mature oocytes were either stained for chromatin configuration or inseminated and cultured for embryo development assessment. In experiment 2, COC and IVM culture media were subjected to fatty acid (FA) analysis prior and after maturation with t10,c12 CLA or without it (control). Total lipids and FA profiles in oocytes, cumulus cells and culture media were determined by gas chromatography. t10,c12 CLA supplementation to IVM medium improved (p = 0.05) embryo quality evaluated morphologically. This effect was associated with t10,c12 CLA presence (3.1 ± 0.7%, p = 0.04) and lower levels of arachidonic acid in FA profile of t10,c12 CLA mature oocytes (immature oocytes = 4.4 ± 1.9%, t10,c12 CLA mature oocytes = 1.0 ± 0.7%, p = 0.05). Differences in myristic and eicotrienoic acids, saturated and unsaturated FA concentrations between oocytes and cumulus cells were detected (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the presence of t10,c12 CLA during maturation interfered on lipid metabolism improving bovine oocyte competence to develop into higher quality embryos. PMID:21366717

  18. Health effects of air pollutants: Sulfuric acid, the old and the new

    SciTech Connect

    Amdur, M.O. )

    1989-05-01

    Data from exposure of experimental animals and human subjects to sulfuric acid presents a consistent picture of its toxicology. Effects on airway resistance in asthmatic subjects were well predicted by data obtained on guinea pigs. Sulfuric acid increases the irritant response to ozone in both rats and man. In donkeys, rabbits, and human subjects, sulfuric acid alters clearance of particles from the lung in a similar manner. These changes resemble those produced by cigarette smoke and could well lead to chronic bronchitis. Data obtained on guinea pigs indicate that very small amounts of sulfuric acid on the surface of ultrafine metal oxide aerosols produce functional, morphological, and biochemical pulmonary effects. Such particles are typical of those emitted from coal combustion and smelting operations. Sulfate is an unsatisfactory surrogate in existing epidemiology studies. Sulfuric acid measurement is a critical need in such studies. 31 references.

  19. EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACIDIC RAIN ON YIELDS OF FIELD-GROWN CROPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of simulated acidic rainfall on yields of radish (Raphanus sativa), garden beet (Beta vulgaris), kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under standard agronomic practices. The experimental design a...

  20. Folic Acid for Moms-To-Be Not as Effective as Thought?

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Folic Acid for Moms-to-Be Not as Effective as Thought? Study authors stress women should still take ... protected against the risk of certain birth defects as much as experts thought it would, a large, ...

  1. The effects of trans-fatty acids on TAG regulation in mice depend on dietary unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Saín, Juliana; González, Marcela Aída; Lavandera, Jimena Verónica; Scalerandi, María Victoria; Bernal, Claudio Adrián

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of trans-fatty acids (TFA) on liver and serum TAG regulation in mice fed diets containing different proportions of n-3, n-6 and n-9 unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) from olive (O), maize (C) or rapeseed (R) oils partially substituted or not with TFA (Ot, Ct and Rt, respectively). Male CF1 mice were fed (30 d) one of these diets. The effects of the partial substitution (1 %, w/w) of different UFA with TFA on the activity and expression of hepatic enzymes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acids oxidation were evaluated, as well as their transcription factor expressions. Some of the mechanisms involved in the serum TAG regulation, hepatic VLDL rich in TAG (VLDL-TAG) secretion rate and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity were assessed. In liver, TFA induced an increase in TAG content in the Ot and Rt groups, and this effect was associated with an imbalance between lipogenesis and β-oxidation. In the Ot group, exacerbated lipogenesis may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the liver steatosis induced by TFA, whereas in Rt it has been related to a decreased β-oxidation, compared with their respective controls. The enhanced hepatic VLDL-TAG secretion in the Ot and Rt groups was compensated with a differential removal of TAG by LPL enzyme in extrahepatic tissues, leading to unchanged serum TAG levels. In brief, the effects of low levels of TFA on liver and serum TAG regulation in mice depend on the dietary proportions of n-3, n-6 and n-9 UFA. PMID:27464460

  2. Dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, fatty acids and benzoic acid in PM2.5 aerosol collected during CAREBeijing-2007: an effect of traffic restriction on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, K. F.; Huang, R.-J.; Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, S. C.; Ho, S. S. H.; Zhu, T.; Tian, L.

    2015-03-01

    Thirty water-soluble organic species, including dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, fatty acids and benzoic acid were determined as well as organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in PM2.5 samples collected during the Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing 2007 (CAREBeijing-2007) in the urban and suburban areas of Beijing. The objective of this study is to identify the influence of traffic emissions and regional transport to the atmosphere in Beijing during summer. PM2.5 samples collected with or without traffic restriction in Beijing are selected to evaluate the effectiveness of local traffic restriction measures on air pollution reduction. The average concentrations of the total quantified bifunctional organic compounds (TQBOCs), total fatty acids and benzoic acid during the entire sampling period were 1184±241, 597±159 and 1496±511 ng m-3 in Peking University (PKU), and 1050±303, 475±114 and 1278±372 ng m-3 in Yufa, Beijing. Oxalic acid (C2) was found as the most abundant dicarboxylic acid at PKU and Yufa followed by phthalic acid (Ph). A strong even carbon number predominance with the highest level at stearic acid (C18:0), followed by palmitic acid (C16:0) was found for fatty acids. According to the back trajectories modeling results, the air masses were found to originate mainly from the northeast, passing over the southeast or south of Beijing (heavily populated, urbanized and industrialized areas), during heavier pollution events, whereas they are mainly from the north or northwest sector (mountain areas without serious anthropogenic pollution sources) during less pollution events. The data with wind only from the same sector (minimizing the difference from regional contribution) but with and without traffic restriction in Beijing were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of local traffic restriction measures on the reduction of local air pollution in Beijing. The results suggested

  3. Some organic acids attenuate the effects of furosemide on the endocochlear potential.

    PubMed

    Rybak, L P; Whitworth, C

    1987-01-01

    A series of organic acid transport inhibitors significantly reduced the endocochlear potential (EP) decline produced by furosemide in the chinchilla. Probenecid, sodium salicylate and penicillin G were much more effective than novobiocin, meclofenamate or diatrizoate. Inhibitors of organic base transport, choline and N-methyl nicotinamide, had no effect on the furosemide-induced drop of the EP. These findings suggest that at least part of furosemide ototoxicity may be mediated by organic acid transport. PMID:2951360

  4. Lipoic acid suppression of neutrophil respiratory burst: effect of NADPH.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Heidi C; Rancourt, Raymond C; White, Carl W

    2008-02-01

    Lipoic acid (LA) and its reduced product dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) are potent antioxidants with capacity to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and recycle endogenous antioxidants. LA may increase cellular glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant lacking in the lung's epithelial lining fluid in lung disorders such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Neutrophils (PMN) are key innate responders and are pivotal in clearing bacterial infection, therefore it is crucial to understand the impact LA may have on their function. Circulating neutrophils were isolated from healthy volunteers and pretreated with LA or diluent. Cells were subsequently activated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 100 ng/ml) to induce ROS production. SOD-inhibitable reduction of acetylated cytochrome c demonstrated the PMA-dependent respiratory burst was suppressed by LA. Oxygen consumption also was diminished when PMA-stimulated cells were pretreated with LA. PMN respiratory burst was partially restored by addition of NADPH but not other pyridine nucleotides. LA did not inhibit glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity of PMN. These data together suggest that the reduction of LA to DHLA using cellular NADPH may limit the capacity of the PMN NADPH oxidase to produce superoxide. Further studies will be required to determine if LA can diminish excessive superoxide produced by PMN and/or alveolar macrophages in IPF or relevant disease models in vivo. PMID:18158760

  5. Substituent effects on the energetics and aromaticity of aminomethylbenzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Lima, Carlos F R A C; Gomes, Lígia R; Santos, Luís M N B F

    2007-10-25

    The standard (p0 = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of combustion of six aminomethylbenzoic acids were measured at T = 298.15 K by static bomb calorimetry. With these values, the standard molar enthalpies of formation in the crystalline state were obtained. Combining these results with the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, the standard molar enthalpies of formation in the gaseous phase were derived. For the 10 possible isomers, the obtained experimental results were compared to and correlated with the relative stability obtained by ab initio calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Seeking a better understanding of the aromatic behavior and energetics of aminomethylbenzoic acids in the gas phase, calculations of NICS values, HOMA indices, and dihedral angles between the aromatic carbon and the amino group, Phi(Ar-NHH), were also performed computationally. The significant differences observed in the energetics, as well as in the NICS values, HOMA indices, and Phi(Ar-NHH) dihedral angles for these 10 isomers suggest a strong dependency on the identity and relative position of the three substituents on the benzene ring. This study points out a marked tendency for a decrease of the ring aromaticity, accompanied by an increase in the respective system stability, as the conjugation between the substituents becomes more extensive. PMID:17914759

  6. Combined effects of lead and acid rain on photosynthesis in soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huiqing; Wang, Lihong; Liao, Chenyu; Fan, Caixia; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-10-01

    To explore how lead (Pb) and acid rain simultaneously affect plants, the combined effects of Pb and acid rain on the chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence reaction, Hill reaction rate, and Mg(2+)-ATPase activity in soybean seedlings were investigated. The results indicated that, when soybean seedlings were treated with Pb or acid rain alone, the chlorophyll content, Hill reaction rate, Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, and maximal photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) were decreased, while the initial fluorescence (F 0) and maximum quantum yield (Y) were increased, compared with those of the control. The combined treatment with Pb and acid rain decreased the chlorophyll content, Hill reaction rate, Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, F(v)/F(m), and Y and increased F 0 in soybean seedlings. Under the combined treatment with Pb and acid rain, the two factors showed additive effects on the chlorophyll content in soybean seedlings and exhibited antagonistic effects on the Hill reaction rate. Under the combined treatment with high-concentration Pb and acid rain, the two factors exhibited synergistic effects on the Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, F 0, F v/F m, as well as Y. In summary, the inhibition of the photosynthetic process is an important physiological basis for the simultaneous actions of Pb and acid rain in soybean seedlings. PMID:25069575

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in THP-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Guixiang; Etherton, Terry D.; Martin, Keith R.; Vanden Heuvel, John P.; Gillies, Peter J.; West, Sheila G.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M. . E-mail: pmk3@psu.edu

    2005-10-28

    The effects of linoleic acid (LA), {alpha}-linolenic acid (ALA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were compared to that of palmitic acid (PA), on inflammatory responses in human monocytic THP-1 cells. When cells were pre-incubated with fatty acids for 2-h and then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide for 24-h in the presence of fatty acids, secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1{beta}, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF{alpha}) was significantly decreased after treatment with LA, ALA, and DHA versus PA (P < 0.01 for all); ALA and DHA elicited more favorable effects. These effects were comparable to those for 15-deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) and were dose-dependent. In addition, LA, ALA, and DHA decreased IL-6, IL-1{beta}, and TNF{alpha} gene expression (P < 0.05 for all) and nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B DNA-binding activity, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) DNA-binding activity was increased. The results indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids may be, in part, due to the inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activation via activation of PPAR{gamma}.

  8. Neutralization of the antimicrobial effect of glyphosate by humic acid in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Awad A; Kühnert, Manfred; Haufe, Svent; Krüger, Monika

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the neutralization ability of the antimicrobial effect of glyphosate by different humic acids was investigated. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of glyphosate for different bacteria such as Bacillus badius, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Escherichia coli, E. coli 1917 strain Nissle, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium were determined in the presence or absence of different concentrations of humic acid (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg mL(-1)). Our findings indicated that humic acids inhibited the antimicrobial effect of glyphosate on different bacteria. This information can help overcome the negative impact of glyphosate residues in feed and water. PMID:24268342

  9. Effects of stretching and disuse on amino acids in muscles of rat hind limbs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, Stephen R.; Henriksen, Erik J.; Satarug, Soisungwan; Tischler, Marc E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of disuse and passive stretch on the concentrations of amino acids and ammonia in the unloaded soleus muscle was investigated in hindquarter-suspended (for six days by casting one foot in dorsiflexion) tail-casted rats. For a comparison with the condition of unloading, amino acids and ammonia were also measured in shortened extensor digitorum longus in the same casted limb and in denervated leg muscles. The results obtained suggest that passive stretch diminishes some of the characteristic alterations of amino acid concentrations due to unloading. This effect of stretch is considered to be due to the maintenance of muscle tension.

  10. Characterizing Corrosion Effects of Weak Organic Acids Using a Modified Bono Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuqin; Turbini, Laura J.; Ramjattan, Deepchand; Christian, Bev; Pritzker, Mark

    2013-12-01

    To meet environmental requirements and achieve benefits of cost-effective manufacturing, no-clean fluxes (NCFs) or low-solids fluxes have become popular in present electronic manufacturing processes. Weak organic acids (WOAs) as the activation ingredients in NCFs play an important role, especially in the current lead-free and halogen-free soldering technology era. However, no standard or uniform method exists to characterize the corrosion effects of WOAs on actual metallic circuits of printed wiring boards (PWBs). Hence, the development of an effective quantitative test method for evaluating the corrosion effects of WOAs on the PWB's metallic circuits is imperative. In this paper, the modified Bono test, which was developed to quantitatively examine the corrosion properties of flux residues, is used to characterize the corrosion effects of five WOAs (i.e., abietic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, and malic acid) on PWB metallic circuits. Experiments were performed under three temperature/humidity conditions (85°C/85% RH, 60°C/93% RH, and 40°C/93% RH) using two WOA solution concentrations. The different corrosion effects among the various WOAs were best reflected in the testing results at 40°C and 60°C. Optical microscopy was used to observe the morphology of the corroded copper tracks, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) characterization was performed to determine the dendrite composition.

  11. Acid mist and ozone effects on the leaf chemistry of two western conifer species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westman, Walter E.; Temple, Patrick J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of ozone and acid-mist exposures on the leaf chemistry of Jeffrey pine and giant sequoia seedlings grown in filtered-air greenhouses were investigated. Acid-mist treatments (pH 4.1, 3.4, 2.7, or 2.0) were administered for 3 h, and ozone exposures (0, 0.10, and 0.20 microliter/liter), which followed acid-mist treatments, for 4 h, each for three days a week for six to nine weeks. It was found that seedlings were more susceptible to acid-mist and acid mist/ozone combinations, than to ozone alone. Acid mist treatment resulted in higher levels of nitrogen and sulfur (both present in acid mist) as well as Na. Leaves of giant sequoia exhibited increased K and decreased Mn, while Jeffrey pine showed increases in Fe and Mn. In sequoia leaves, concentrations of Ca, Mg, and Ba decreased. Acid treatment also reduced chlorophyll b concentrations in both conifer species. Extensive changes induced by acid mist are consistent with earlier observations of changes in spectral reflectance of conifer seedlings observed after three weeks of fumigation.

  12. Effects of ascorbic acid and sodium ascorbate on cyclic nucleotide metabolism in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, J P; Weiss, A; Ito, M; Kelly, J; Parker, C W

    1979-01-01

    L-ascorbic acid (LAA) augmented cGMP many-fold in highly purified human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The cGMP response occurred within 10 sec and persisted for at least 60 min. D-ascorbic acid (DAA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) were also equally active in enhancing cGMP concentrations but metabolic precursors of ascorbic acid and other inorganic acids did not increase cGMP levels. Determination of the amount of DHAA contaminating the LAA precluded the possibility that it was solely responsible for the enhanced cGMP levels. The sodium or calcium salts of ascorbic acid did not increase cGMP concentrations. If these neutralized preparations were acidified, increased cGMP concentrations were then noted. In broken cell preparations, LAA, DAA, and DHAA and to a lesser extent sodium ascorbate (NaA) enhanced guanylate cyclase activity while neither inhibited cAMP or cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. The possible role of H2O2, fatty acid liberation, prostaglandin production, oxidizing-reducing agents, and free radical formation in mediating the effects of ascorbic acid on cGMP levels were evaluated, but none of these potential mechanisms were definitively proven to be a required intermediary for the cGMP enhancing activity of ascorbic acid. LAA, DHAA or NaA did not induce lymphocyte transformation or modulate lectin-induced mitogenesis. PMID:36416

  13. Modulatory effects of unsaturated fatty acids on the binding of glucocorticoids to rat liver glucocorticoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Vallette, G; Vanet, A; Sumida, C; Nunez, E A

    1991-09-01

    Binding of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone to the rat liver cytosol glucocorticoid receptor was inhibited by physiological concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids as a function of increasing dose, degree of unsaturation, and chain length of the fatty acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most potent inhibitors. Scatchard analysis and Line-weaver-Burk plots of the binding data revealed that both the association constants and number of binding sites decreased and that polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibition was of a mixed non-competitive type. The dissociation rate constant of [3H]dexamethasone from glucocorticoid receptors was increased by up to 10 times in the presence of docosahexaenoic acid, whereas a competitive inhibitor like the glucocorticoid antagonist RU 38486 had no effect. Moreover, sucrose density gradient analysis showed that docosahexaenoic acid inhibited the binding of [3H] dexamethasone to both the 8.8S and 4S forms. The results strongly suggest that unsaturated fatty acids are interacting at a site on the receptor different from the hormone binding site and the heat shock protein and that by binding to a second site unsaturated fatty acids greatly change the conformation of the hormone binding site to reduce its affinity for the hormone, either partially or completely depending on the concentration and the class of the fatty acid. PMID:1874175

  14. Effects of ozone and sulfuric acid aerosol on gas trapping in the guinea pig lung

    SciTech Connect

    Silbaugh, S.A.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Four groups of 20 guinea pigs were sequentially exposed by inhalation to either air followed by sulfuric acid aerosol, ozone followed by sulfuric acid aerosol, ozone followed by air, or air followed by air to determine whether ozone preexposure sensitizes guinea pigs to the airway constrictive effects of sulfuric acid aerosol. All first exposures to ozone or air were 2 h in duration; all second exposures to sulfuric acid or air were for 1 h. All ozone and sulfuric acid exposures were 0.8 ppm and 12 mg/m3, respectively. Animals were observed for respiratory distress during exposure, and excised lungs were quantitated for trapped gas and wet/dry ratios. None of the guinea pigs developed dyspnea, and wet/dry ratios were not altered. Ozone significantly (p less than 0.05) increased trapped gas volumes, which were 44% (ozone-acid) to 68% (ozone-air) greater than in the air-air group. Trapped gas volume was 23% greater in the ozone-acid group than in the air-acid group, but the difference was not statistically significant (p less than 0.20). Thus, ozone increased gas trapping but did not significantly sensitize guinea pigs to the bronchoconstrictive action of sulfuric acid.

  15. The effect of low solublility organic acids on the hygroscopicity of sodium halide aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñambres, L.; Méndez, E.; Sánchez, M. N.; Castaño, F.; Basterretxea, F. J.

    2014-02-01

    In order to accurately assess the influence of fatty acids on the hygroscopic and other physicochemical properties of sea salt aerosols, hexanoic, octanoic or lauric acid together with sodium halide salts (NaCl, NaBr and NaI) have been chosen to be performed in this study. The hygroscopic properties of sodium halide submicrometer particles covered with organic acids have been examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in an aerosol flow cell. Covered particles were generated by flowing atomized sodium halide particles (either dry or aqueous) through a heated oven containing the gaseous acid. The obtained results indicate that gaseous organic acids easily nucleate onto dry and aqueous sodium halide particles. On the other hand, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images indicate that lauric acid coating on NaCl particles makes them to aggregate in small clusters. The hygroscopic behaviour of covered sodium halide particles in deliquescence mode shows different features with the exchange of the halide ion: whereas the organic covering has little effect in NaBr particles, NaCl and NaI covered particles change their deliquescence relative humidities, with different trends observed for each of the acids studied. In efflorescence mode, the overall effect of the organic covering is to retard the loss of water in the particles. It has been observed that the presence of gaseous water in heterogeneously nucleated particles tends to displace the cover of hexanoic acid to energetically stabilize the system.

  16. The effect of low solubility organic acids on the hygroscopicity of sodium halide aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñambres, L.; Méndez, E.; Sánchez, M. N.; Castaño, F.; Basterretxea, F. J.

    2014-10-01

    In order to accurately assess the influence of fatty acids on the hygroscopic and other physicochemical properties of sea salt aerosols, hexanoic, octanoic or lauric acid together with sodium halide salts (NaCl, NaBr and NaI) have been chosen to be investigated in this study. The hygroscopic properties of sodium halide sub-micrometre particles covered with organic acids have been examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in an aerosol flow cell. Covered particles were generated by flowing atomized sodium halide particles (either dry or aqueous) through a heated oven containing the gaseous acid. The obtained results indicate that gaseous organic acids easily nucleate onto dry and aqueous sodium halide particles. On the other hand, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicate that lauric acid coating on NaCl particles makes them to aggregate in small clusters. The hygroscopic behaviour of covered sodium halide particles in deliquescence mode shows different features with the exchange of the halide ion, whereas the organic surfactant has little effect in NaBr particles, NaCl and NaI covered particles experience appreciable shifts in their deliquescence relative humidities, with different trends observed for each of the acids studied. In efflorescence mode, the overall effect of the organic covering is to retard the loss of water in the particles. It has been observed that the presence of gaseous water in heterogeneously nucleated particles tends to displace the cover of hexanoic acid to energetically stabilize the system.

  17. Anti-inflammatory drugs and uterine cervical cancer cells: Antineoplastic effect of meclofenamic acid

    PubMed Central

    SORIANO-HERNANDEZ, ALEJANDRO D.; MADRIGAL-PÉREZ, DANIELA; GALVAN-SALAZAR, HECTOR R.; MARTINEZ-FIERRO, MARGARITA L.; VALDEZ-VELAZQUEZ, LAURA L.; ESPINOZA-GÓMEZ, FRANCISCO; VAZQUEZ-VUELVAS, OSCAR F.; OLMEDO-BUENROSTRO, BERTHA A.; GUZMAN-ESQUIVEL, JOSE; RODRIGUEZ-SANCHEZ, IRAM P.; LARA-ESQUEDA, AGUSTIN; MONTES-GALINDO, DANIEL A.; DELGADO-ENCISO, IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Uterine cervical cancer (UCC) is one of the main causes of cancer-associated mortality in women. Inflammation has been identified as an important component of this neoplasia; in this context, anti-inflammatory drugs represent possible prophylactic and/or therapeutic alternatives that require further investigation. Anti-inflammatory drugs are common and each one may exhibit a different antineoplastic effect. As a result, the present study investigated different anti-inflammatory models of UCC in vitro and in vivo. Celecoxib, sulindac, nimesulide, dexamethasone, meclofenamic acid, flufenamic acid and mefenamic acid were tested in UCC HeLa, VIPA, INBL and SiHa cell lines. The cytotoxicity of the drugs was evaluated in vitro. Celecoxib, sulindac, nimesulide, mefenamic acid and flufenamic acid presented with slight to moderate toxicity (10–40% of cell death corresponding to 100 µM) in certain cell lines, while meclofenamic acid exhibited significant cytotoxicity in all essayed cell lines (50–90% of cell death corresponding to 100 µM). The meclofenamic acid was tested in murine models (immunodeficient and immunocompetent) of UCC, which manifested a significant reduction in tumor growth and increased mouse survival. It was demonstrated that of the evaluated anti-inflammatory drugs, meclofenamic acid was the most cytotoxic, with a significant antitumor effect in murine models. Subsequent studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical utility of this drug. PMID:26622892

  18. Physiological and metabolic effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid for mitigating salinity stress in creeping bentgrass.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhimin; Chang, Zuoliang; Sun, Lihong; Yu, Jingjin; Huang, Bingru

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether foliar application of a chlorophyll precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), could mitigate salinity stress damages in perennial grass species by regulating photosynthetic activities, ion content, antioxidant metabolism, or metabolite accumulation. A salinity-sensitive perennial grass species, creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), was irrigated daily with 200 mM NaCl for 28 d, which were foliar sprayed with water or ALA (0.5 mg L-1) weekly during the experiment in growth chamber. Foliar application of ALA was effective in mitigating physiological damage resulting from salinity stress, as manifested by increased turf quality, shoot growth rate, leaf relative water content, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Foliar application of ALA also alleviated membrane damages, as shown by lower membrane electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation, which was associated with increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Leaf content of Na+ was reduced and the ratio of K+/Na+ was increased with ALA application under salinity stress. The positive effects of ALA for salinity tolerance were also associated with the accumulation of organic acids (α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, and malic acid), amino acids (alanine, 5-oxoproline, aspartic acid, and γ -aminobutyric acid), and sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, lyxose, allose, xylose, sucrose, and maltose). ALA-mitigation of physiological damages by salinity could be due to suppression of Na+ accumulation and enhanced physiological and metabolic activities related to photosynthesis, respiration, osmotic regulation, and antioxidant defense. PMID:25551443

  19. Physiological and Metabolic Effects of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid for Mitigating Salinity Stress in Creeping Bentgrass

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhimin; Chang, Zuoliang; Sun, Lihong; Yu, Jingjin; Huang, Bingru

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether foliar application of a chlorophyll precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), could mitigate salinity stress damages in perennial grass species by regulating photosynthetic activities, ion content, antioxidant metabolism, or metabolite accumulation. A salinity-sensitive perennial grass species, creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), was irrigated daily with 200 mM NaCl for 28 d, which were foliar sprayed with water or ALA (0.5 mg L−1) weekly during the experiment in growth chamber. Foliar application of ALA was effective in mitigating physiological damage resulting from salinity stress, as manifested by increased turf quality, shoot growth rate, leaf relative water content, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. Foliar application of ALA also alleviated membrane damages, as shown by lower membrane electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation, which was associated with increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Leaf content of Na+ was reduced and the ratio of K+/Na+ was increased with ALA application under salinity stress. The positive effects of ALA for salinity tolerance were also associated with the accumulation of organic acids (α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, and malic acid), amino acids (alanine, 5-oxoproline, aspartic acid, and γ -aminobutyric acid), and sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose, lyxose, allose, xylose, sucrose, and maltose). ALA-mitigation of physiological damages by salinity could be due to suppression of Na+ accumulation and enhanced physiological and metabolic activities related to photosynthesis, respiration, osmotic regulation, and antioxidant defense. PMID:25551443

  20. The effect of linoleic acid on the Sauvignon blanc fermentation by different wine yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Casu, Francesca; Pinu, Farhana R; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Greenwood, David R; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2016-08-01

    The level of linoleic acid in the Sauvignon blanc (SB) grape juice affects the development of different aroma compounds during fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118, including key varietal thiols such as 3-mercaptohexanol (3MH) and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA). However, it is still unknown if linoleic acid would affect in a similar way other commonly used S. cerevisiae wine strains. Here we investigated the effect of grape juice linoleic acid on the development of aroma compounds and other metabolites of SB wines using different wine yeast strains: EC1118, AWRI796 and VIN13. Linoleic acid clearly affected the levels of acetylated aroma compounds, several amino acids, and antioxidant molecules, independent of yeast strain, but the production of 3MH was affected by linoleic acid in a strain-specific manner. Moreover, the supplementation of deuterium-labelled 3MH also affected the production of varietal thiols in a strain-specific way. Linoleic acid reduced the acetylation process probably by inhibiting an acetyltransferase, an effect that was independent of the yeast strain. However, regulation of the 3MH biosynthesis is strain-specific, which suggests a mindful consideration not only towards the wine yeast but also to the linoleic acid concentration in the grape juice in order to obtain the desired wine aroma characteristics. PMID:27364827

  1. Assessing physio-macromolecular effects of lactic acid on Zygosaccharomyces bailii cells during microaerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kuanyshev, Nurzhan; Ami, Diletta; Signori, Lorenzo; Porro, Danilo; Morrissey, John P; Branduardi, Paola

    2016-08-01

    The ability of Zygosaccharomyces bailii to grow at low pH and in the presence of considerable amounts of weak organic acids, at lethal condition for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, increased the interest in the biotechnological potential of the yeast. To understand the mechanism of tolerance and growth effect of weak acids on Z. bailii, we evaluated the physiological and macromolecular changes of the yeast exposed to sub lethal concentrations of lactic acid. Lactic acid represents one of the important commodity chemical which can be produced by microbial fermentation. We assessed physiological effect of lactic acid by bioreactor fermentation using synthetic media at low pH in the presence of lactic acid. Samples collected from bioreactors were stained with propidium iodide (PI) which revealed that, despite lactic acid negatively influence the growth rate, the number of PI positive cells is similar to that of the control. Moreover, we have performed Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) microspectroscopy analysis on intact cells of the same samples. This technique has been never applied before to study Z. bailii under this condition. The analyses revealed lactic acid induced macromolecular changes in the overall cellular protein secondary structures, and alterations of cell wall and membrane physico-chemical properties. PMID:27381983

  2. Nephroprotective Effect of Ursolic Acid in a Murine Model of Gentamicin-Induced Renal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Preethi G.; Chamari Nawarathna, Savindika; Kulkarni, Avdhooth; Habeeba, Umma; Reddy C., Sudarshan; Teerthanath, Srinivas; Shenoy, Jnaneshwara P.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluates the nephroprotective effects of ursolic acid in a murine model of gentamicin induced renal damage. Wistar albino rats of either sex, weighing 150–200 g were divided into 5 groups; normal saline, gentamicin 80 mg/kg, intraperitoneally for 8 days, ursolic acid at 2, 5, and 10 mg/kg, per oral for 8 days, ursolic acid administered 3 days prior and concurrently with gentamicin for 5 days. Blood urea, serum creatinine, uric acid and blood urea nitrogen analyses and microscopic examination of kidney were performed. Gentamicin treatment caused nephrotoxicity as evidenced by marked elevation in serum urea, serum uric acid, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (162.33 ± 9.92 mg/dL, 3.13 ± 0.12 mg/dL, 6.85 ± 0.35 mg/dL and 75.86 ± 4.64 mg/dL; resp.) when compared to the saline treated groups. Co-administration of ursolic acid with gentamicin decreased the rise in these parameters in a dose dependent manner. Histopathological analysis revealed epithelial loss with intense granular degeneration in gentamicin treated rats, whereas ursolic acid mitigated the severity of gentamicin-induced renal damage. To conclude, our data suggest that ursolic acid exhibits renoprotective effect in gentamicin induced renal damage and further studies on its mechanis of action are warranted. PMID:22811930

  3. Inhibitory Effects of d-Amino Acids on Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Development ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hochbaum, Allon I.; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Foulston, Lucy; Kolter, Roberto; Aizenberg, Joanna; Losick, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Biofilms are communities of cells held together by a self-produced extracellular matrix typically consisting of protein, exopolysaccharide, and often DNA. A natural signal for biofilm disassembly in Bacillus subtilis is certain d-amino acids, which are incorporated into the peptidoglycan and trigger the release of the protein component of the matrix. d-Amino acids also prevent biofilm formation by the related Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Here we employed fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy to investigate how d-amino acids prevent biofilm formation by S. aureus. We report that biofilm formation takes place in two stages, initial attachment to surfaces, resulting in small foci, and the subsequent growth of the foci into large aggregates. d-Amino acids did not prevent the initial surface attachment of cells but blocked the subsequent growth of the foci into larger assemblies of cells. Using protein- and polysaccharide-specific stains, we have shown that d-amino acids inhibited the accumulation of the protein component of the matrix but had little effect on exopolysaccharide production and localization within the biofilm. We conclude that d-amino acids act in an analogous manner to prevent biofilm development in B. subtilis and S. aureus. Finally, to investigate the potential utility of d-amino acids in preventing device-related infections, we have shown that surfaces impregnated with d-amino acids were effective in preventing biofilm growth. PMID:21856845

  4. Ameliorative Effect of Chronic Supplementation of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Upasana; Upaganlawar, Aman; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200-250 g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for a period of 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Result. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (haemoglobin content, red blood cells, white blood cells, and total iron content), tissue parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide content), and membrane bound phosphatase (ATPase) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity. Conclusion. Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride induced splenic toxicity in rats. PMID:27418998

  5. Effects of Oils Rich in Linoleic and α-Linolenic Acids on Fatty Acid Profile and Gene Expression in Goat Meat

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Goh, Yong Meng

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST) muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p < 0.05) the α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) concentration in the ST muscle. The diet high in α-linolenic acid (p < 0.05) decreased the arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) c-9 t-11 content in the ST muscle. There was a significant (p < 0.05) upregulation of PPARα and PPARγ gene expression and downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene in the ST muscle for the high α-linolenic acid group compared with the low α-linolenic acid group. The results of the present study show that flaxseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid can be incorporated into the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression. PMID:25255382

  6. Ameliorative Effect of Chronic Supplementation of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Upasana; Upaganlawar, Aman; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200–250 g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for a period of 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Result. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (haemoglobin content, red blood cells, white blood cells, and total iron content), tissue parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide content), and membrane bound phosphatase (ATPase) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity. Conclusion. Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride induced splenic toxicity in rats. PMID:27418998

  7. Peripheral mechanisms involved in the pressor and bradycardic effects of centrally administered arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cenk; Yalcin, Murat

    2008-06-01

    In the current study, we aimed to determine the cardiovascular effects of arachidonic acid and peripheral mechanisms mediated these effects in normotensive conscious rats. Studies were performed in male Sprague Dawley rats. Arachidonic acid was injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) at the doses of 75, 150 or 300 microg and it caused dose- and time-dependent increase in mean arterial pressure and decrease in heart rate in normal conditions. Maximal effects were observed 10 min after 150 and 300 microg dose of arachidonic acid and lasted within 30 min. In order to evaluate the role of main peripheral hormonal mechanisms in those cardiovascular effects, plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, vasopressin levels and renin activity were measured after arachidonic acid (150 microg; i.c.v.) injection. Centrally injected arachidonic acid increased plasma levels of all these hormones and renin activity. Intravenous pretreatments with prazosin (0.5 mg/kg), an alpha1 adrenoceptor antagonist, [beta-mercapto-beta,beta-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl1, O-Me-Tyr2-Arg8]-vasopressin (10 microg/kg), a vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist, or saralasin (250 microg/kg), an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, partially blocked the pressor response to arachidonic acid (150 microg; i.c.v.) while combined administration of these three antagonists completely abolished the effect. Moreover, both individual and combined antagonist pretreatments fully blocked the bradycardic effect of arachidonic acid. In conclusion, our findings show that centrally administered arachidonic acid increases mean arterial pressure and decreases heart rate in normotensive conscious rats and the increases in plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, vasopressin levels and renin activity appear to mediate the cardiovascular effects of the drug. PMID:18571395

  8. Effects of acid deposition on terrestrial ecosystems and their rehabilitation strategies in China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zong-wei; Miao, Hong; Zhang, Fu-zhu; Huang, Yi-zong

    2002-04-01

    South China has become the third largest region associated with acid deposition following Europe and North America, the area subject to damage by acid deposition increased from 1.75 million km2 in 1985 to 2.8 million km2 in 1993. Acid deposition has caused serious damage to ecosystem. Combined pollution of acid rain and SO2 showed the obvious multiple effects on crops. Vegetable was more sensitive to acid deposition than foodstuff crops. Annual economic loss of crops due to acid deposition damage in eleven provinces of south China was 4.26 billion RMB Yuan. Acid deposition caused serious damage to forest. Annual economic loss of wood volume was about 1.8 billion RMB Yuan and forest ecological benefit loss 16.2 billion in eleven provinces of south China. Acid deposition in south China was typical "sulfuric acid type". According to the thoughts of sustainable development, some strategies were brought forward as follows: (1) enhancing environmental management, specifying acid-controlling region, controlling and abating the total emission amount of SO2; (2) selecting practical energy technologies of clean coal, for example, cleansing and selecting coal, sulfur-fixed-type industrial briqutting, abating sulfur from waste gas and so on; (3) developing other energy sources to replace coal, including water electricity, atomic energy and the new energy such as solar energy, wind energy and so on; (4) in acid deposition region of south China, selecting acid-resistant type of crop and tree to decrease agricultural losses, planting more green fertilizer crops, using organic fertilizers and liming, in order to improve buffer capacities of soil. PMID:12046292

  9. Acid fluids from Copahue Volcano, Argentina, and their environmental effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Kading, T.

    2010-12-01

    The acid hydrothermal system of Copahue volcano (province of Neuquen, Argentina) consists of a crater lake, acid hot springs (both with pH values of <1 to 2) and a severely acidified fluvial-lake system, with the voluminous Lake Caviahue (0.5 km3; pH 2.2 - 3). Annual measurements of river water fluxes and water compositions and vertical lake water profiles provide a 12 year record of geochemical evolution of the system. Copahue erupted in 2000, and the hydrothermal dissolved element fluxes peaked at that time. Since 2001, the K and Al fluxes have decreased notably as a result of alunite saturation within the hydrothermal system, whereas over the last few years redissolution of that alunite has led to increases in K and Al discharges. The fluxes of Mg and Fe have remained high over time, while the overall system has become more dilute since 2000. Once the distal downstream system reached pH values of 2.9-3.2, the mineral Schwertmannite started to precipitate through a bacterially mediated pathway. The precipitation front gradually moved upstream with ongoing dilution, and reached the exit of Lake Caviahue in 2009. The lake bottom waters were already saturated with the mineral at that time, and if this trend continues, the currently clear blue lake may turn into a bright yellow-brown mass of Schwertmannite over the next few years. Schwertmannite is common in acid mine drainage fluids but has not often been described from volcanic environments. It strongly adsorbs oxyanions (or structurally incorporates them) and the precipitates contain up to 6000 ppm P, 1100 ppm V and 1000 ppm As. The Schwertmannite appears to convert to goethite-like minerals over time, although the exact stoichiometry has been difficult to constrain (variable mixtures of FeOOH and Fe8O8(OH)6SO4 nH2O). The oxyanions appear to remain in the mineral mix during aging. If Lake Caviahue becomes a focus of Schwertmannite deposition, the precipitates will scavenge As, P and V from the watercolumn and

  10. The effect of pH on the toxicity of fatty acids and fatty acid amides to rainbow trout gill cells.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Matthew J; Voronca, Delia C; Chapman, Robert W; Moeller, Peter D R

    2014-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) expose aquatic organisms to multiple physical and chemical stressors during an acute time period. Algal toxins themselves may be altered by water chemistry parameters affecting their bioavailability and resultant toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two abiotic parameters (pH, inorganic metal salts) on the toxicity of fatty acid amides and fatty acids, two classes of lipids produced by harmful algae, including the golden alga, Prymnesium parvum, that are toxic to aquatic organisms. Rainbow trout gill cells were used as a model of the fish gill and exposed to single compounds and mixtures of compounds along with variations in pH level and concentration of inorganic metal salts. We employed artificial neural networks (ANNs) and standard ANOVA statistical analysis to examine and predict the effects of these abiotic parameters on the toxicity of fatty acid amides and fatty acids. Our results demonstrate that increasing pH levels increases the toxicity of fatty acid amides and inhibits the toxicity of fatty acids. This phenomenon is reversed at lower pH levels. Exposing gill cells to complex mixtures of chemical factors resulted in dramatic increases in toxicity compared to tests of single compounds for both the fatty acid amides and fatty acids. These findings highlight the potential of physicochemical factors to affect the toxicity of chemicals released during algal blooms and demonstrate drastic differences in the effect of pH on fatty acid amides and fatty acids. PMID:24240104

  11. Effect of dietary fatty acid supplements, varying in fatty acid composition, on milk fat secretion in dairy cattle fed diets supplemented to less than 3% total fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, C M; Crump, P M; Armentano, L E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids can affect both milk fat yield and fatty acid (FA) composition. This relationship is well established when the dietary level of FA exceeds 3% of diet dry matter (DM). We could find no reports directly examining the effects of dietary FA profile on milk fat at levels below 3%. Twenty-four primiparous and 36 multiparous lactating cows were paired by production (1 high with 1 low, within parity) to form 30 experimental units. Pairs were fed 6 diets in five 6×6 balanced Latin squares with 21-d periods, and data were collected during the last 5d of each period. Two control diets were fed: a corn control diet (CC; 29% corn silage, 16% alfalfa silage, 19% corn grain, and 8% distillers grain on a DM basis) containing 1.8% FA; and a low-oil control diet (LOC; 9% corn silage, 35% alfalfa silage, 20% food-grade corn starch, and 8% corn gluten feed on a DM basis) containing 1.2% FA. A portion of the food-grade corn starch in LOC was replaced with 4 different FA supplements to create the 4 treatment diets. Treatments were 1.7% (DM basis) of a 50:50 blend of corn oil and high-linoleic safflower oil (LO), 1.7% high-oleic sunflower oil (OO), 1.7% palm oil (PO), or 1.8% calcium salts of palm fatty acids (PFA). The resultant diets were thus enriched in linoleic (LO), oleic (OO), or palmitic acid (PO and PFA). Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake. Addition of any of the fat sources to LOC resulted in increased milk yield, but milk fat yields and milk FA composition were variable for the different treatments. The LO treatment resulted in lower milk fat yield, fat concentration, and C16:0 yield but increased both trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 yields compared with the other added FA treatments. Diets PO and PFA resulted in increased milk C16:0 yield and decreased total milk C18 yield compared with OO. Regression analysis revealed a negative coefficient for dietary linoleic acid content over basal (LOC) for both milk short-chain FA yield and

  12. SERS effect of isonicotinic acid adsorbed on a copper electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Lucia K.; Sala, O.

    1987-11-01

    The surface enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of isonicotinic acid adsorbed on a copper electrode were obtained in order to verify their dependence on the type of electrolyte solution, pH and applied potential. The results are discussed considering the most characteristic bands of the species (protonated or nonprotonated) in the ring nitrogen and in the carboxylic group. In specifically adsorbed electrolytes (Cl - and mainly I -) the completely protonated species is more stabilized on the electrode surface than it is in non-specifically adsorbed anions (ClO -4), because of the formation of ion pairs with the coadsorbed halide ions. For more negative potentials, even at low pH values, the spectra are characteristic of the nonprotonated species.

  13. In vivo cytogenetic effects of natural humic acid.

    PubMed

    Bernacchi, F; Ponzanelli, I; Minunni, M; Falezza, A; Loprieno, N; Barale, R

    1996-09-01

    As humic compounds are naturally widespread in the environment and present in surface water, studies on their genotoxicity are justified. Humic acid (HA) has not been demonstrated to be genotoxic either in vitro or in vivo. In the present paper we investigated its activity both in intestinal and bone marrow cells following a single dose (100 mg/kg b.w. corresponding to 0.5 ml per animal of an aqueous solution of 4 g/l) of HA administered to mice by gastric intubation, to mimic the most likely route of human exposure. HA induced structural and, in particular, numerical chromosome abnormalities in intestinal cells. A marginal, non-significant induction of aneuploidy was also found in bone marrow cells. PMID:8921508

  14. Effect of Citric Acid and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid on the Surface Morphology of Young and Old Root Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Scelza, Miriam Zaccaro; de Noronha, Fernando; da Silva, Licinio Esmeraldo; Maurício, Marcos; Gallito, Marco Antonio; Scelza, Pantaleo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of 10% citric acid and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) irrigating solutions on the surface morphology of young and old root dentin by determining the number and diameter of dentinal tubules using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods and Materials: Fifty healthy human teeth collected from young (≤30 years) and old (≥60 years) individuals (n=25) were first prepared with a Largo bur #2 to produce smear layer on the root canal surface. Subsequently, the crowns and the root middle and apical thirds were sectioned and removed, and the cervical thirds were sectioned vertically in the buccal-lingual direction into two equal halves. The obtained samples were then immersed in 2.5% sodium hypochlorite for 30 min and randomly separated into two treatment groups for each age group. In each age group, ten samples were selected as controls and did not receive any type of treatment. The rest of the specimens were then rinsed, dried and treated for 4 min with 10% citric acid or 17% EDTA. The samples were then assessed with SEM regarding the number and diameter of dentinal tubules. All data were assessed using Student’s t-test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Regardless of the type of treatment, no significant differences were observed in the number of open tubules between the young and old root dentin (P>0.05). Nonetheless, the diameter of the tubules in the old root dentin was larger when 17% EDTA was used (P<0.05). Both, young and old root dentin did not differ with the 10% citric acid treatment (P>0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that 17% EDTA treatment induced a significant demineralization in old root dentin. PMID:27471529

  15. Effects of different fatty acid chain lengths on fatty acid oxidation-related protein expression levels in rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, Rie; Masuda, Kazumi; Sakata, Susumu; Nakatani, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscles can adapt to dietary interventions that affect energy metabolism. Dietary intake of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) enhances mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids (FAO) in type IIa skeletal muscle fibers. However, the effect of MCFAs diet on mitochondrial or cytoplasmic FAO-related protein expression levels in different types of muscle fibers remains unclear. This study aims to examine the effects of a high-fat diet, containing MCFAs, on mitochondrial enzyme activities and heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) levels in different types of skeletal muscle fibers. Five-week-old male Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following three dietary conditions: standard chow (SC, 12% of calories from fat), high-fat MCFA, or high-fat long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) diet (60% of calories from fat for both). The animals were provided food and water ad libitum for 4 weeks, following which citrate synthase (CS) activity and H-FABP concentration were analyzed. The epididymal fat pads (EFP) were significantly smaller in the MCFA group than in the LCFA group (p < 0.05). MCFA-fed group displayed an increase in CS activity compared with that observed in SC-fed controls in all types of skeletal muscle fibers (triceps, surface portion of gastrocnemius (gasS), deep portion of gastrocnemius (gasD), and soleus; p < 0.05,). H-FABP concentration was significantly higher in the LCFA group than in both the SC-fed and MCFA-fed groups (triceps, gasS, gasD, and soleus; p < 0.05,). However, no significant difference was observed in the H-FABP concentrations between the SC-fed and MCFA-fed groups. The results of this study showed that the MCFA diet can increase the expression of the mitochondrial enzyme CS, but not that of H-FABP, in both fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibers, suggesting that H-FABP expression is dependent on the chain length of fatty acids in the cytoplasm of skeletal muscles cells. PMID:25766930

  16. Effect of organic acids found in cottonseed hull hydrolysate on the xylitol fermentation by Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Wu, Dapeng; Tang, Pingwah; Yuan, Qipeng

    2013-08-01

    Five organic acids (acetic, ferulic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, formic and levulinic acids) typically associated in the hemicellulose hydrolysate were selected to study their effects on the xylitol fermentation. The effects of individual and combined additions were independently evaluated on the following parameters: inhibitory concentration; initial cell concentration; pH value; and membrane integrity. The results showed that the toxicities of organic acids were related to their hydrophobility and significantly affected by the fermentative pH value. In addition, it was revealed that the paired combinations of organic acids did not impose synergetic inhibition. Moreover, it was found that the fermentation inhibition could be alleviated with the simple manipulations by increasing the initial cell concentration, raising the initial pH value and minimizing furfural levels by evaporation during the concentration of hydrolysates. The proposed strategies for minimizing the negative effects could be adopted to improve the xylitol fermentation in the industrial applications. PMID:23138642

  17. Reactions of clofibric acid with oxidative and reductive radicals-Products, mechanisms, efficiency and toxic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csay, Tamás; Rácz, Gergely; Salik, Ádám; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2014-09-01

    The degradation of clofibric acid induced by hydroxyl radical, hydrated electron and O2-•/HO2• reactive species was studied in aqueous solutions. Clofibric acid was decomposed more effectively by hydroxyl radical than by hydrated electron or O2-•/HO2•. Various hydroxylated, dechlorinated and fragmentation products have been identified and quantified. A new LC-MS method was developed based on 18O isotope labeling to follow the formation of hydroxylated derivatives of clofibric acid. Possible degradation pathways have been proposed. The overall degradation was monitored by determination of sum parameters like COD, TOC and AOX. It was found that the organic chlorine degrades very effectively prior to complete mineralization. After the treatment no toxic effect was found according to Vibrio fischeri tests. However, at early stages some of the reaction products were more harmful than clofibric acid.

  18. Protective effect of taurohyodeoxycholic acid from Pulvis Fellis Suis on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid induced ulcerative colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    He, Jiao; Liang, Jinru; Zhu, Sha; Zhao, Wenna; Zhang, Yongmin; Sun, Wenji

    2011-11-16

    Ulcerative colitis is a nonspecific inflammatory disorder characterized by oxidative and nitrosative stress, leucocyte infiltration and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of taurohyodeoxycholic acid (THDCA) isolated from Pulvis Fellis Suis on acute ulcerative colitis model induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in mice. The efficacy of THDCA was studied by macroscopical and histological scoring systems as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Serum levels, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 were assayed by enzyme-linked immunoassay. The expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in the colons was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis. Treatment with THDCA in doses of 25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day and sulfasalazine in a dose of 500 mg/kg/day used as reference for 7 consecutive days after the induction of colitis, significantly decreased colonic MPO activity, TNF-α, IL-6 serum levels and the expression of COX-2 in colon compared with TNBS induced ulcerative colitis model group. Moreover, THDCA attenuated the macroscopic colonic damage and the histopathological changes induced by TNBS. All the effects of these parameters were comparable to that of the standard sulfasalazine, especially at the highest dose level. The results suggested that THDCA from Pulvis Fellis Suis has a protective effect in TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis which might be due to its anti-inflammatory activities, and that it may have therapeutic value in the setting of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:21925164

  19. Profibrinolytic Effect of the Epigenetic Modifier Valproic Acid in Man

    PubMed Central

    Saluveer, Ott; Larsson, Pia; Ridderstråle, Wilhelm; Hrafnkelsdóttir, Thórdís J.; Jern, Sverker; Bergh, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    Aims The aim of the study was to test if pharmacological intervention by valproic acid (VPA) treatment can modulate the fibrinolytic system in man, by means of increased acute release capacity of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) as well as an altered t-PA/Plasminogen activator inhibitor -1 (PAI-1) balance. Recent data from in vitro research demonstrate that the fibrinolytic system is epigenetically regulated mainly by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. HDAC inhibitors, including VPA markedly upregulate t-PA gene expression in vitro. Methods and Results The trial had a cross-over design where healthy men (n = 10), were treated with VPA (Ergenyl Retard) 500 mg depot tablets twice daily for 2 weeks. Capacity for stimulated t-PA release was assessed in the perfused-forearm model using intra-brachial Substance P infusion and venous occlusion plethysmography. Each subject was investigated twice, untreated and after VPA treatment, with 5 weeks wash-out in-between. VPA treatment resulted in considerably decreased levels of circulating PAI-1 antigen from 22.2 (4.6) to 10.8 (2.1) ng/ml (p<0.05). It slightly decreased the levels of circulating venous t-PA antigen (p<0.05), and the t-PA:PAI-1 antigen ratio increased (p<0.01). Substance P infusion resulted in an increase in forearm blood flow (FBF) on both occasions (p<0.0001 for both). The acute t-PA release in response to Substance P was not affected by VPA (p = ns). Conclusion Valproic acid treatment lowers plasma PAI-1 antigen levels and changes the fibrinolytic balance measured as t-PA/PAI-1 ratio in a profibrinolytic direction. This may in part explain the reduction in incidence of myocardial infarctions by VPA treatment observed in recent pharmacoepidemiological studies. Trial Registration The EU Clinical Trials Register 2009-011723-31 PMID:25295869

  20. Protective effect of oleanolic acid on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Patil, Chandragouda R; Jadhav, Ramchandra B; Singh, Pushparaj K; Mundada, Sneha; Patil, Prabhakar R

    2010-01-01

    Oleanolic acid is a molecule of current therapeutic interest. In the present study, oleanolic acid isolated from the cuticular epithelium of Viscum articulatum Burm. f. (Viscaceae) was investigated for its protective effects on gentamicin-induced renal damage in rats. Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of gentamicin at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day for 8 days. The effect of Oleanolic acid administered orally at doses 40, 60 and 80 mg/kg/day was assessed biochemically by determination of albumin, urea and creatinine in serum and urine samples and also through histopathological examination of the kidneys. Oleanolic acid protected the rat kidneys from gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity as evident from a decrease in the serum and urine levels of creatinine, albumin and urea. Oleanolic acid also protected the rat kidneys from histological alterations induced by gentamicin and also improved the glomerular filtration rate. Compared with an earlier report on intraperitoneal administration of oleanolic acid in paracetamol-induced nephrotoxicity in rats, the data show that orally administered oleanolic acid also exerted a nephroprotective effect even in the case of a nephrotoxicant such as gentamicin, which directly deteriorates the kidney function without prior metabolism. PMID:19548288

  1. Antimicrobial Effect of Calcium Chloride Alone and Combined with Lactic Acid Injected into Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Alahakoon, Amali U.; Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Sun Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Chicken breast meat was injected with calcium chloride alone and in combination with lactic acid (0.01% and 0.002%, respectively). The inhibitory effects of the treatments on microbial growth were determined in the injected chicken breast meat stored at 4°C under aerobic packaging condition for 0, 3, and 7 d. Calcium chloride combined with 0.002% and 0.01% lactic acid reduced microbial counts by 0.14 and 1.08 Log CFU/g, respectively, however, calcium chloride alone was unable to inhibit microbial growth. Calcium chloride combined with 0.01% lactic acid was the most effective antimicrobial treatment and resulted in the highest initial redness value. Calcium chloride alone and combined with lactic acid suppressed changes in pH and the Hunter color values during storage. However, injection of calcium chloride and lactic acid had adverse effects on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics. The higher TBARS values were observed in samples treated with calcium chloride and lactic acid when compared to control over the storage period. Addition of calcium chloride and lactic acid resulted in lower sensory scores for parameters tested, except odor and color, compared to control samples. Therefore, the formulation should be improved in order to overcome such defects prior to industrial application. PMID:26760942

  2. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, D. U.; Nam, K. C.

    2004-09-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% α-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+α-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  3. Sensitive determination of D-amino acids in mammals and the effect of D-amino-acid oxidase activity on their amounts.

    PubMed

    Hamase, Kenji; Konno, Ryuichi; Morikawa, Akiko; Zaitsu, Kiyoshi

    2005-09-01

    The determination of small amounts of D-amino acids in mammalian tissues is still a challenging theme in the separation sciences. In this review, various gas-chromatographic and high-performance liquid chromatographic methods are discussed including highly selective and sensitive column-switching procedures. Based on these methods, the distributions of D-aspartic acid, D-serine, D-alanine, D-leucine and D-proline have been clarified in the mouse brain. As the regulation mechanisms of D-amino acid amounts in mammals, we focused on the D-amino-acid oxidase, which catalyzes the degradation of D-amino acids. Using the mutant mouse strain lacking D-amino-acid oxidase activity, the effects of the enzymatic activity on the amounts and distributions of various D-amino acids have been investigated. PMID:16141519

  4. Effect alteration of methamphetamine by amino acids or their salts on ambulatory activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuribara, H; Tadokoro, S

    1983-02-01

    Effect alterations of methamphetamine by pretreatment of amino acids or their salts on ambulatory activity in mice were investigated to confirm a fact that certain amino acids, particularly monosodium L-glutamate, are added to methamphetamine by the street users, and that the amino acids augment the effect of methamphetamine. The ambulatory activity of mouse was measured by a tilting-type round activity cage of 25 cm in diameter. The amino acids or their salts tested were monosodium L-glutamate, monosodium L-aspartate, gamma-amino-butyric acid, L-alanine, L-lysine hydrochloride and L-arginine hydrochloride. A single administration of each chemical at doses of 1 and 2 g/kg i.p. did not induce a marked change in the ambulatory activity in mice. Methamphetamine 2 mg/kg s.c. induced an increase in the ambulatory activity with a peak at 40 min after the administration, and the increased ambulatory activity persisted for 3 hr. The ambulation-increasing effect of methamphetamine was augmented by the pretreatment of monosodium L-glutamate and monosodium L-aspartate at 30 min before the methamphetamine administration, while attenuated by the pretreatment of L-lysine hydrochloride and L-arginine hydrochloride in a dose-dependent manner. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and L-alanine did not affect the effect of methamphetamine. Similar augmentation and attenuation in the ambulation-increasing effect of methamphetamine were induced by the pretreatment of sodium bicarbonate 0.9 g/kg i.p. (urinary alkalizer) and ammonium chloride 0.07 g/kg i.p. (urinary acidifier), respectively. The urinary pH level was elevated by the administration of monosodium L-glutamate, monosodium L-aspartate and sodium bicarbonate, and decreased by L-lysine hydrochloride, L-arginine hydrochloride and ammonium chloride. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and L-alanine did not elicit a marked change in the urinary pH level. The present experiment confirms the fact in human that monosodium L-glutamate augments the effect of

  5. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Garzke, Jessica; Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M H; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1-5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts. PMID:27224476

  6. Maternal effects and maternal selection arising from variation in allocation of free amino acid to eggs

    PubMed Central

    Newcombe, Devi; Hunt, John; Mitchell, Christopher; Moore, Allen J

    2015-01-01

    Maternal provisioning can have profound effects on offspring phenotypes, or maternal effects, especially early in life. One ubiquitous form of provisioning is in the makeup of egg. However, only a few studies examine the role of specific egg constituents in maternal effects, especially as they relate to maternal selection (a standardized selection gradient reflecting the covariance between maternal traits and offspring fitness). Here, we report on the evolutionary consequences of differences in maternal acquisition and allocation of amino acids to eggs. We manipulated acquisition by varying maternal diet (milkweed or sunflower) in the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. Variation in allocation was detected by examining two source populations with different evolutionary histories and life-history response to sunflower as food. We measured amino acids composition in eggs in this 2 × 2 design and found significant effects of source population and maternal diet on egg and nymph mass and of source population, maternal diet, and their interaction on amino acid composition of eggs. We measured significant linear and quadratic maternal selection on offspring mass associated with variation in amino acid allocation. Visualizing the performance surface along the major axes of nonlinear selection and plotting the mean amino acid profile of eggs from each treatment onto the surface revealed a saddle-shaped fitness surface. While maternal selection appears to have influenced how females allocate amino acids, this maternal effect did not evolve equally in the two populations. Furthermore, none of the population means coincided with peak performance. Thus, we found that the composition of free amino acids in eggs was due to variation in both acquisition and allocation, which had significant fitness effects and created selection. However, although there can be an evolutionary response to novel food resources, females may be constrained from reaching phenotypic optima with

  7. Maternal effects and maternal selection arising from variation in allocation of free amino acid to eggs.

    PubMed

    Newcombe, Devi; Hunt, John; Mitchell, Christopher; Moore, Allen J

    2015-06-01

    Maternal provisioning can have profound effects on offspring phenotypes, or maternal effects, especially early in life. One ubiquitous form of provisioning is in the makeup of egg. However, only a few studies examine the role of specific egg constituents in maternal effects, especially as they relate to maternal selection (a standardized selection gradient reflecting the covariance between maternal traits and offspring fitness). Here, we report on the evolutionary consequences of differences in maternal acquisition and allocation of amino acids to eggs. We manipulated acquisition by varying maternal diet (milkweed or sunflower) in the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. Variation in allocation was detected by examining two source populations with different evolutionary histories and life-history response to sunflower as food. We measured amino acids composition in eggs in this 2 × 2 design and found significant effects of source population and maternal diet on egg and nymph mass and of source population, maternal diet, and their interaction on amino acid composition of eggs. We measured significant linear and quadratic maternal selection on offspring mass associated with variation in amino acid allocation. Visualizing the performance surface along the major axes of nonlinear selection and plotting the mean amino acid profile of eggs from each treatment onto the surface revealed a saddle-shaped fitness surface. While maternal selection appears to have influenced how females allocate amino acids, this maternal effect did not evolve equally in the two populations. Furthermore, none of the population means coincided with peak performance. Thus, we found that the composition of free amino acids in eggs was due to variation in both acquisition and allocation, which had significant fitness effects and created selection. However, although there can be an evolutionary response to novel food resources, females may be constrained from reaching phenotypic optima with

  8. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1–5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts. PMID:27224476

  9. Erosive effects of different acids on bovine enamel: release of calcium and phosphate in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hannig, Christian; Hamkens, Arne; Becker, Klaus; Attin, Rengin; Attin, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    The present study intended to investigate minimal erosive effects of different acids on enamel during short time incubation via determination of calcium and phosphate dissolution. Bovine enamel specimens were eroded for 1-5 min with eight different acids of pH 2, 2.3 and 3 (citric (CA), maleic (MA), lactic (LA), tartaric (TA), phosphoric (PA), oxalic (OA), acetic (AA) and hydrochloric acid (HCl)). Calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) release were determined photometrically using arsenazo III (calcium) and malachite green (phosphate) as substrates. Each subgroup contained eight enamel specimens. Amount of titratable acid was determined for all acidic solutions. MA, LA, TA, AA and HCl caused linear release of Ca and P, PA of Ca, CA of P. For CA, MA, LA, TA, AA, PA and HCl mineral loss was shown to be pH-dependent. Ca dissolution varied between 28.6+/-4.4 (LA, pH 2) and 2.4+/-0.7 nmol mm(-2)min(-1) (HCl, pH 3), P dissolution ranged between 17.2+/-2.6 (LA, pH 2) and 1.4+/-0.4 nmol mm(-2)min(-1) (HCl, pH 3). LA was one of the most erosive acids. AA was very erosive at pH 3. HCl and MA were shown to have the lowest erosive effects. There was only a weak correlation (r=0.28) between P and Ca release and the amount of titratable acid. The method of the present study allows investigation of minimal erosive effects via direct determination of P and Ca dissolution. During short time exposition at constant pH level, erosive effects mainly depend on pH and type of acid but not on amount of titratable acid. PMID:15848147

  10. Phenolcarboxylic acids from medicinal herbs exert anticancer effects through disruption of COX-2 activity.

    PubMed

    Tao, Li; Wang, Sheng; Zhao, Yang; Sheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Aiyun; Zheng, Shizhong; Lu, Yin

    2014-09-25

    Integrated research of herbs and formulas characterized by functions of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis is one of the most active fields in traditional Chinese medicine. This paper strives to demonstrate the roles of a homologous series of phenolcarboxylic acids from these medicinal herbs in cancer treatment via targeting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a well-recognized mediator in tumorigenesis. We selected thirteen typical phenolcarboxylic acids (benzoic acid derivatives, cinnamic acid derivatives and their dehydration-condensation products), and found gallic acid, caffeic acid, danshensu, rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B showed 50% inhibitory effects on hCOX-2 activity and A549 cells proliferation. 2D-quantitative method was introduced to describe the potential structural features that contributed to certain bioactivities. We also found these compounds underwent responsible hydrogen bonding to Arg120 and Ser353 in COX-2 active site residues. We further extensively focused on danshensu [d-(+)-β-(3,4-dihydoxy-phenylalanine)] or DSS, which exerted COX-2 dependent anticancer manner. Both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of COX-2 could enhance the ability of DSS inhibiting A549 cells growth. Additionally, COX-2/PGE2/ERK signaling axis was essential for the anticancer effect of DSS. Furthermore, combined treatment with DSS and celecoxib could produce stronger anticancer effects in experimental lung metastasis of A549 cells in vivo. All these findings indicated that phenolcarboxylic acids might possess anticancer effects through jointly targeting COX-2 activity in cancer cells and provided strong evidence in cancer prevention and therapy for the herbs characterized by blood-activating and stasis-resolving functions in clinic. PMID:24916702

  11. 1997 Canadian acid rain assessment. Volume 5: The effects on human health

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.

    1997-12-31

    The goal of this report is to provide a broad framework from the latest available data, mostly since 1990, in an attempt to estimate the specific agents within the air pollution mixture of acid rain that are related to adverse effects on human health. Direct and indirect health effects of sulphur dioxide and its derivatives, sulfate, particulate matter, and acid aerosols are reviewed separately. Information is included on the distribution of sulphur oxides across Canada and on epidemiological, clinical, and toxicological studies related to the direct health effects. In addition, indirect health effects such as changes in visibility and climate, and leaching of metals into water supplies, are also reviewed.

  12. 1997 Canadian acid rain assessment. Volume 4: The effects on Canada`s forests

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, P.

    1997-12-31

    This report reviews the state of acid rain assessment related to Canadian forests as it has progressed since the last assessment carried out in 1990. The assessment also highlights key policy issues and the uncertainties associated with addressing them. Sections of the report cover the following: Acid rain and current forest decline in coastal birch, sugar maple, and high elevation forests; the effects of acid rain on tree physiology and soil chemistry; results of forest health monitoring in national, North American, Ontario, and Quebec networks; the critical loads or levels of acid deposition, with reference to case studies; and international involvement in acid rain research and abatement. Finally, research and information needs are identified.

  13. Gene Activation in Eukaryotes: Are Nuclear Acidic Proteins the Cause or the Effect?

    PubMed Central

    Pederson, Thoru

    1974-01-01

    Nuclear acidic proteins have been implicated in the positive control of gene transcription in eukaryotes. This hypothesis was examined in greater detail by analysis of these proteins during experimental gene activation by a technique for fractionating nuclei into chromatin and the ribonucleoprotein particles that contain heterogeneous nuclear RNA. When synthesis of rat-liver heterogeneous nuclear RNA was stimulated by administration of hydrocortisone, there was a parallel increase in the labeling of acidic proteins in ribonucleoprotein particles. However, there was no detectable effect on the labeling of either acidic chromatin proteins or histones. Thus, the nuclear acidic proteins that respond to the hormone are concerned with a post-transcriptional event, namely the assembly and processing of ribonucleoprotein particles that contain heterogeneous RNA, rather than with direct gene activation. Increases in synthesis of “chromatin” acidic proteins during gene activation observed by others may reflect the presence of these ribonucleoprotein particles in crude chromatin preparations. Images PMID:4522777

  14. Effect of hyaluronic acid on postoperative intraperitoneal adhesion formation in the rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Urman, B.; Gomel, V.; Jetha, N. )

    1991-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of hyaluronic acid solution in preventing intraperitoneal (IP) adhesions. The study design was prospective, randomized and blinded and involved 83 rats. Measured serosal injury was inflicted using a CO2 laser on the right uterine horn of the rat. Animals randomized to groups 1 and 2 received either 0.4% hyaluronic acid or its diluent phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) intraperitoneally before and after the injury. In groups 3 and 4, the same solutions were used only after the injury. Postoperative adhesions were assessed at second-look laparotomy. Histologic assessment of the fresh laser injury was carried out on uteri pretreated with hyaluronic acid, PBS, or nothing. Pretreatment with hyaluronic acid was associated with a significant reduction in postoperative adhesions and a significantly decreased crater depth. Hyaluronic acid appears to reduce postoperative IP adhesion formation by coating the serosal surfaces and decreasing the extent of initial tissue injury.

  15. Fluorinated amino acids: compatibility with native protein structures and effects on protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Salwiczek, Mario; Nyakatura, Elisabeth K; Gerling, Ulla I M; Ye, Shijie; Koksch, Beate

    2012-03-21

    Fluorinated analogues of the canonical α-L-amino acids have gained widespread attention as building blocks that may endow peptides and proteins with advantageous biophysical, chemical and biological properties. This critical review covers the literature dealing with investigations of peptides and proteins containing fluorinated analogues of the canonical amino acids published over the course of the past decade including the late nineties. It focuses on side-chain fluorinated amino acids, the carbon backbone of which is identical to their natural analogues. Each class of amino acids--aliphatic, aromatic, charged and polar as well as proline--is presented in a separate section. General effects of fluorine on essential properties such as hydrophobicity, acidity/basicity and conformation of the specific side chains and the impact of these altered properties on stability, folding kinetics and activity of peptides and proteins are discussed (245 references). PMID:22130572

  16. Biological and Nutritional Properties of Palm Oil and Palmitic Acid: Effects on Health.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Annamaria; Imperlini, Esther; Nigro, Ersilia; Montagnese, Concetta; Daniele, Aurora; Orrù, Stefania; Buono, Pasqualina

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence highlights the close association between nutrition and human health. Fat is an essential macronutrient, and vegetable oils, such as palm oil, are widely used in the food industry and highly represented in the human diet. Palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid, is the principal constituent of refined palm oil. In the last few decades, controversial studies have reported potential unhealthy effects of palm oil due to the high palmitic acid content. In this review we provide a concise and comprehensive update on the functional role of palm oil and palmitic acid in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The atherogenic potential of palmitic acid and its stereospecific position in triacylglycerols are also discussed. PMID:26393565

  17. The effects of addition of citric acid on the morphologies of ZnO nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Zao . E-mail: yangzao888@tom.com; Liu Quanhui; Yang Lei

    2007-02-15

    ZnO nanorods of 25-100 nm in diameter and 0.2-1 {mu}m in length were fabricated through citric acid assisted annealing process. The microstructure of ZnO nanorods was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. As a result, it was found that ZnO nanorods were single crystalline and pure. The effects of the growth conditions such as addition of citric acid, annealing temperature on the morphologies of ZnO nanostructures have also been investigated. At the given temperature the length decreased but the diameter increased with addition of the mass of citric acid. With the rising of the calcining heat, the shape of ZnO changed from rod to granule for a given amount of citric acid. Finally, the mechanism for citric acid assisted annealing synthesis of the ZnO nanostructure is discussed.

  18. [Study on compatibility of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma based on pharmacokinetics of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-ying; Zhang, Hong; Dong, Yu; Ren, Wei-guang; Chen, Heng-wen

    2015-04-01

    A study was made on the pharmacokinetic regularity of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (SMRR) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma(CR) in rats, so as to discuss the compatibility mechanism of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma. Rats were randomly divided into three groups and intravenously injected with 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B for the single SMRR extracts group, 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the single CR extracts group and 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B + 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the SMRR and CR combination group. The blood samples were collected at different time points and purified by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. With chloramphenicol as internal standard (IS), UPLC was adopted to determine concentrations of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid. The pharmacokinetic parameters of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid were calculated with WinNonlin 6.2 software and analyzed by SPSS 19.0 statistical software. The UPLC analysis method was adopted to determine salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma, including linear equation, stability, repeatability, precision and recovery. The established sample processing and analysis methods were stable and reliable, with significant differences in major pharmacokinetic parameters, e.g., area under the curve (AUC), mean residence time (MRT) and terminal half-life (t(1/2)). According to the experimental results, the combined application of SMRR and CR can significantly impact the pharmacokinetic process of their effective components in rats and promote the wide distribution, shorten the action time and prolong the in vivo action time of salvianolic acid B and increase the blood drug concentration and accelerate the clearance of ferulic acid in vivo. PMID:26281604

  19. Effect of butyric acid on the performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Leeson, S; Namkung, H; Antongiovanni, M; Lee, E H

    2005-09-01

    Short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate are considered potential alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters. The efficacy of butyric acid on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens was tested in two studies. The effect of dietary butyrate on the ability to withstand coccidial oocyte challenge also was investigated. In experiment 1, male broiler chickens were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 11 ppm virginiamycin or 0.2 or 0.4% butyric acid (as mono-, di-, and triglyceride). In experiment 2, broilers were fed bacitracin methylene disalicylate or 0.1 or 0.2% butyric acid. In another trial, birds vaccinated against coccidiosis were challenged with oocytes at 21 d and examined 6 d later. In experiment 1, diet treatments had no effect on body weight gain. Feed intake of the birds fed 0.4% butyric acid was decreased (P < 0.01) compared with birds fed the nonmedicated diet during the starter period, whereas birds fed 0.2% butyric acid had similar feed intake to the control birds. In experiment 2, diet treatments did not affect the performance of broiler chicks while carcass weight and breast meat yield increased (P < 0.01) in birds fed 0.2% butyric acid. With oocyte challenge, birds that had received butyric acid before challenge showed higher growth rate following the challenge compared with birds that received nonmedicated feed. Bacitracin decreased (P < 0.05%) duodenal villi crypt depth, whereas villus length was similar in birds fed butyric acid or the nonmedicated control diet. These results show that 0.2% butyric acid can help to maintain the performance and carcass quality of broilers, especially in vaccinated birds challenged with coccidiosis. PMID:16206563

  20. The antiviral effect of jiadifenoic acids C against coxsackievirus B3

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Miao; Wang, Huiqiang; Zhang, Guijie; Yu, Shishan; Li, Yuhuan

    2014-01-01

    Coxsackievirus B type 3 (CVB3) is one of the major causative pathogens associated with viral meningitis and myocarditis, which are widespread in the human population and especially prevalent in neonates and children. These infections can result in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and other severe clinical complications. There are no vaccines or drugs approved for the prevention or therapy of CVB3-induced diseases. During screening for anti-CVB3 candidates in our previous studies, we found that jiadifenoic acids C exhibited strong antiviral activities against CVB3 as well as other strains of Coxsackie B viruses (CVBs). The present studies were carried out to evaluate the antiviral activities of jiadifenoic acids C. Results showed that jiadifenoic acids C could reduce CVB3 RNA and proteins synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Jiadifenoic acids C also had a similar antiviral effect on the pleconaril-resistant variant of CVB3. We further examined the impact of jiadifenoic acids C on the synthesis of viral structural and non-structural proteins, finding that jiadifenoic acids C could reduce VP1 and 3D protein production. A time-course study with Vero cells showed that jiadifenoic acids C displayed significant antiviral activities at 0–6 h after CVB3 inoculation, indicating that jiadifenoic acids C functioned at an early step of CVB3 replication. However, jiadifenoic acids C had no prophylactic effect against CVB3. Taken together, we show that jiadifenoic acids C exhibit strong antiviral activities against all strains of CVB, including the pleconaril-resistant variant. Our study could provide a significant lead for anti-CVB3 drug development. PMID:26579396

  1. Physical properties of ceramides: effect of fatty acid hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Shah, J; Atienza, J M; Rawlings, A V; Shipley, G G

    1995-09-01

    The structural and thermotropic properties of alpha-hydroxy fatty acid (HFA) and non-hydroxy fatty acid (NFA) ceramides (CER) have been studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction techniques. The DSC of anhydrous HFA-CER shows a single, sharp reversible transition at 95.6 degrees C (delta H = 15.3 kcal/mol). At intermediate hydrations HFA-CER exhibited more complex behavior but at maximum hydration only a single reversible transition is observed at 80.0 degrees C (delta H = 8.5 kcal/mol). X-ray diffraction of hydrated (74% water) HFA-CER at 20 degrees C shows a lamellar structure with a bilayer periodicity d = 60.7 Angstrum; a single wide angle reflection at 4.2 Angstrum is characteristic of hexagonal chain packing. Above the main transition temperature at 91 degrees C, a hexagonal (HII) phase is observed. In contrast, DSC of anhydrous NFA-CER demonstrates two thermal transitions at 81.3 degrees C (delta H = 6.8 kcal/mol) and 85.9 degrees C (delta H = 3.5 kcal/mol). With increasing hydration, both transitions shift towards lower temperatures; at maximum hydration, on heating, the endothermic transitions occur at 72.7 degrees C (delta H = 9.8 kcal/mol) and 81.1 degrees C (delta H = 4.0 kcal/mol). On cooling, there is hysteresis of both transitions. X-ray diffraction of NFA-CER (80% water) at 20 degrees C shows a well-ordered lamellar structure with a bilayer periodicity d = 58.6 Angstrum and three wide-angle reflections at 4.6 Angstrum, 4.2 Angstrum, and 3.8 Angstrum. At 77 degrees C (between the two transitions), again a lamellar structure exists with reduced bilayer periodicity d = 53.1 Angstrum and four wide-angle reflections at 4.6 Angstrum, 4.2 Angstrum, and 3.8 Angstrum are observed. Above the second transition, only a single low angle reflection at 30.0 Angstrum is observed; a diffuse reflection at 4.6 Angstrum is indicative of a melted chain phase. Thus, HFA-CER exhibits a simple phase behavior involving the reversible

  2. Effect of humic acids with different characteristics on fermentative short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Chen, Yinguang; Xiao, Naidong; Zheng, Xiong; Li, Mu

    2015-04-21

    Recently, the use of waste activated sludge to bioproduce short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) has attracted much attention as the sludge-derived SCFA can be used as a preferred carbon source to drive biological nutrient removal or biopolymer (polyhydroxyalkanoates) synthesis. Although large number of humic acid (HA) has been reported in sludge, the influence of HA on SCFA production has never been documented. This study investigated the effects on sludge-derived SCFA production of two commercially available humic acids (referred to as SHHA and SAHA purchased respectively from Shanghai Reagent Company and Sigma-Aldrich) that differ in chemical structure, hydrophobicity, surfactant properties, and degree of aromaticity. It was found that SHHA remarkably enhanced SCFA production (1.7-3.5 folds), while SAHA had no obvious effect. Mechanisms study revealed that all four steps (solubilization, hydrolysis, acidification, and methanogenesis) involved in sludge fermentation were unaffected by SAHA. However, SHHA remarkably improved the solubilization of sludge protein and carbohydrate and the activity of hydrolysis enzymes (protease and α-glucosidase) owing to its greater hydrophobicity and protection of enzyme activity. SHHA also enhanced the acidification step by accelerating the bioreactions of glyceradehyde-3P → d-glycerate 1,3-diphosphate, and pyruvate → acetyl-CoA due to its abundant quinone groups which served as electron acceptor. Further investigation showed that SHHA negatively influenced the activity of acetoclastic methanogens for its competition for electrons and inhibition on the reaction of acetyl-CoA → 5-methyl-THMPT, which caused less SCFA being consumed. All these observations were in correspondence with SHHA significantly enhancing the production of sludge derived SCFA. PMID:25825920

  3. Protective Effects of Oleic Acid Against Palmitic Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Pancreatic AR42J Cells and Its Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Joung Hoon; Kim, Min Hye; Kwon, Hyung Joo; Choi, Soo Young

    2013-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PAM), one of the most common saturated fatty acid (SFA) in animals and plants, has been shown to induce apoptosis in exocrine pancreatic AR42J cells. In this study, we investigated cellular mechanisms underlying protective effects of oleic acid (OLA) against the lipotoxic actions of PAM in AR42J cells. Exposure of cells to long-chain SFA induced apoptotic cell death determined by MTT cell viability assay and Hoechst staining. Co-treatment of OLA with PAM markedly protected cells against PAM-induced apoptosis. OLA significantly attenuated the PAM-induced increase in the levels of pro-apoptotic Bak protein, cleaved forms of apoptotic proteins (caspase-3, PARP). On the contrary, OLA restored the decreased levels of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1) in PAM-treated cells. OLA also induced up-regulation of the mRNA expression of Dgat2 and Cpt1 genes which are involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and mitochondrial β-oxidation, respectively. Intracellular TAG accumulation was increased by OLA supplementation in accordance with enhanced expression of Dgat2 gene. These results indicate that restoration of anti-apoptotic/pro-apoptotic protein balance from apoptosis toward cell survival is involved in the cytoprotective effects of OLA against PAM-induced apoptosis in pancreatic AR42J cells. In addition, OLA-induced increase in TAG accumulation and up-regulation of Dgat2 and Cpt1 gene expressions may be possibly associated in part with the ability of OLA to protect cells from deleterious actions of PAM. PMID:23440052

  4. Effect of temperature on the acid-base properties of the alumina surface: microcalorimetry and acid-base titration experiments.

    PubMed

    Morel, Jean-Pierre; Marmier, Nicolas; Hurel, Charlotte; Morel-Desrosiers, Nicole

    2006-06-15

    Sorption reactions on natural or synthetic materials that can attenuate the migration of pollutants in the geosphere could be affected by temperature variations. Nevertheless, most of the theoretical models describing sorption reactions are at 25 degrees C. To check these models at different temperatures, experimental data such as the enthalpies of sorption are thus required. Highly sensitive microcalorimeters can now be used to determine the heat effects accompanying the sorption of radionuclides on oxide-water interfaces, but enthalpies of sorption cannot be extracted from microcalorimetric data without a clear knowledge of the thermodynamics of protonation and deprotonation of the oxide surface. However, the values reported in the literature show large discrepancies and one must conclude that, amazingly, this fundamental problem of proton binding is not yet resolved. We have thus undertaken to measure by titration microcalorimetry the heat effects accompanying proton exchange at the alumina-water interface at 25 degrees C. Based on (i) the surface sites speciation provided by a surface complexation model (built from acid-base titrations at 25 degrees C) and (ii) results of the microcalorimetric experiments, calculations have been made to extract the enthalpic variations associated respectively to first and second deprotonation of the alumina surface. Values obtained are deltaH1 = 80+/-10 kJ mol(-1) and deltaH2 = 5+/-3 kJ mol(-1). In a second step, these enthalpy values were used to calculate the alumina surface acidity constants at 50 degrees C via the van't Hoff equation. Then a theoretical titration curve at 50 degrees C was calculated and compared to the experimental alumina surface titration curve. Good agreement between the predicted acid-base titration curve and the experimental one was observed. PMID:16504204

  5. Effects of simulated acid rain on yield response of two soybean cultivars

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, P.M.; Banwart, W.L.; Hassett, J.J.; Finke, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted for 3 yrs. to determine the effects of simulated acid rain on seed yield of two soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivars, 'Amsoy 71' and 'Williams 82'. Plants were treated biweekly with simulated rain of pH 5.6, 4.6, 4.2, 3.8, 3.4, and 3.0. For Amsoy 71 there was a linear decrease in yield with increasing rainfall acidity for 1 of 3 yrs but no significant effects for the other two. Thus, acid rain appears to reduce the yield of some soybean cultivars slightly, but this effect is not consistent from year to year. Amsoy 71 and Williams 82 soybean treated with the most-acidic rain, pH 3.0, resulted in average yields for the 3 yrs of the study of approximately 3% and 4% lower than the average yields for the other treatments, respectively. However, calculations from the response functions developed have shown that, at current levels of rainfall acidities, the effects on yield are very small. With an increase in rainfall acidity of 50% in Illinois, the predicted yield decrease for Amsoy 71 and Williams 82 soybean would be less than 1%. Similarly, the expected increase in yield of these cultivars would be 1% or less if acidity in the rainfall were reduced by 50%. While there may be beneficial effects of reduced S and N oxide emissions, these results suggest the resultant lower rainfall acidities are not likely to produce noticeable changes in soybean yields.

  6. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  7. Effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acid and gamma-linolenic acid on acne vulgaris: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Yoon; Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Hong, Jong Soo; Yoon, Ji Young; Park, Mi Sun; Jang, Mi Young; Suh, Dae Hun

    2014-09-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical efficacy, safety, and histological changes induced by dietary omega-3 fatty acid and γ-linoleic acid in acne vulgaris. A 10-week, randomised, controlled parallel dietary intervention study was performed in 45 participants with mild to moderate acne, which were allocated to either an omega-3 fatty acid group (2,000 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), a γ-linoleic acid group (borage oil containing 400 mg γ-linoleic acid), or a control group. After 10 weeks of omega-3 fatty acid or γ-linoleic acid supplementation, inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions decreased significantly. Patient subjective assessment of improvement showed a similar result. Heamatoxylin & eosin staining of acne lesions demonstrated reductions in inflammation and immunohistochemical staining intensity for interleukin-8. No severe adverse effect was reported. This study shows for the first time that omega-3 fatty acid and γ-linoleic acid could be used as adjuvant treatments for acne patients. PMID:24553997

  8. Interactive effects of acid rain and gaseous air pollutants on natural terrestrial vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Baes, C.F. III; Taylor, G.E.; Walker, R.F.; Sigal, L.L.; McConathy, R.K.; Norby, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    This research is designed to identify concentration thresholds for individual and combined effects of acid rain and O/sub 3/ on growth and growth processes of both forest tree seedlings and lichens and to document the significance of changing patterns of deposition and/or mobilization of trace metals and nutrients in tree rings. Greenhouse studies have focused on effects of varying levels of rainfall acidity on growth (amount and distribution) and nutrient uptake efficiency of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal seedlings of white oak and loblolly pine from soil nutrient pools. Results to date show significant diameter preduction in mycorrhizal infected white oak seedlings at pH 4.2, compared to pH 4.8. Combined effects of rainfall acidity (pH 4.0 and 5.0), mist acidity (pH 3.5 and 5.0), and ozone (0 and 0.12 ppM) and soil type on growth and physiology of red spruce in two soil types have also been examined. Preliminary results indicate no adverse effects of acid rain, acid mist, or ozone on seedling growth but significant differences in response of seedlings on different soil types. Studies of the uptake and distribution of trace metals in tree rings of shortleaf pine have documented increases in aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc in recent decades which appear to reflect changing regional and/or local availability of those elements. 8 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Effects of perfluoroalkyl acids on the function of the thyroid hormone and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    Long, Manhai; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2013-11-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are perfluorinated compounds that widely exist in the environment and can elicit adverse effects including endocrine disruption in humans and animals. This study investigated the effect of seven PFAAs on the thyroid hormone (TH) system assessing the proliferation of the 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thryonine (T3)-dependent rat pituitary GH3 cells using the T-screen assay and the effect on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transactivation in the AhR-luciferase reporter gene bioassay. A dose-dependent impact on GH3 cells was observed in the range 1×10(-9)-1×10(-4) M: seven PFAAs (perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA)) inhibited the GH3 cell growth, and four PFAAs (PFOS, PFHxS, PFNA, and PFUnA) antagonized the T3-induced GH3 cell proliferation. At the highest test concentration, PFHxS showed a further increase of the T3-induced GH3 growth. Among the seven tested PFAAs, only PFDoA and PFDA elicited an activating effect on the AhR. In conclusion, PFAAs possess in vitro endocrine-disrupting potential by interfering with TH and AhR functions, which need to be taken into consideration when assessing the impact on human health. PMID:23539207

  10. Effect of ambient air quality on throughfall acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.W.; Clesceri, N.L.; Gherini, S.A.; Goldstein, R.A.

    1985-06-01

    Observations at Woods Lake-watershed in the Adirondacks (New York) indicate that precipitation is further acidified by passage through coniferous canopies; conversely, passage through deciduous canopies has a net alkalizing effect. Both effects are dependent upon the levels of air quality. If the aerosol concentrations were to decrease to 35% of the current levels, both types of canopy would have a net alkalizing effect on incident precipitation. If the aerosol concentrations doubled, both canopy types would be net acidifiers of throughfall. The experimental procedure of varying aerosol concentration in an enclosed chamber may provide a means for measuring foliar exudation.

  11. A new look at liming as an approach to accelerate recovery from acidic deposition effects.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Burns, Douglas A; Riva-Murray, Karen

    2016-08-15

    Acidic deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion has degraded aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in North America for over four decades. The only management option other than emissions reductions for combating the effects of acidic deposition has been the application of lime to neutralize acidity after it has been deposited on the landscape. For this reason, liming has been a part of acid rain science from the beginning. However, continued declines in acidic deposition have led to partial recovery of surface water chemistry, and the start of soil recovery. Liming is therefore no longer needed to prevent further damage, so the question becomes whether liming would be useful for accelerating recovery of systems where improvement has lagged. As more is learned about recovering ecosystems, it has become clear that recovery rates vary with watershed characteristics and among ecosystem components. Lakes appear to show the strongest recovery, but recovery in streams is sluggish and recovery of soils appears to be in the early stages. The method in which lime is applied is therefore critical in achieving the goal of accelerated recovery. Application of lime to a watershed provides the advantage of increasing Ca availability and reducing or preventing mobilization of toxic Al, an outcome that is beneficial to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the goal should not be complete neutralization of soil acidity, which is naturally produced. Liming of naturally acidic areas such as wetlands should also be avoided to prevent damage to indigenous species that rely on an acidic environment. PMID:27092419

  12. Effect of oxalic acid treatment on sediment arsenic concentrations and lability under reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Bostick, Benjamin C; Mailloux, Brian J; Ross, James M; Chillrud, Steven N

    2016-07-01

    Oxalic acid enhances arsenic (As) mobilization by dissolving As host minerals and competing for sorption sites. Oxalic acid amendments thus could potentially improve the efficiency of widely used pump-and-treat (P&T) remediation. This study investigates the effectiveness of oxalic acid on As mobilization from contaminated sediments with different As input sources and redox conditions, and examines whether residual sediment As after oxalic acid treatment can still be reductively mobilized. Batch extraction, column, and microcosm experiments were performed in the laboratory using sediments from the Dover Municipal Landfill and the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund sites. Oxalic acid mobilized As from both Dover and Vineland sediments, although the efficiency rates were different. The residual As in both Dover and Vineland sediments after oxalic acid treatment was less vulnerable to microbial reduction than before the treatment. Oxalic acid could thus improve the efficiency of P&T. X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis indicated that the Vineland sediment samples still contained reactive Fe(III) minerals after oxalic acid treatment, and thus released more As into solution under reducing conditions than the treated Dover samples. Therefore, the efficacy of enhanced P&T must consider sediment Fe mineralogy when evaluating its overall potential for remediating groundwater As. PMID:26970042

  13. A new look at liming as an approach to accelerate recovery from acidic deposition effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Burns, Douglas A.; Murray, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Acidic deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion has degraded aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in North America for over four decades. The only management option other than emissions reductions for combating the effects of acidic deposition has been the application of lime to neutralize acidity after it has been deposited on the landscape. For this reason, liming has been a part of acid rain science from the beginning. However, continued declines in acidic deposition have led to partial recovery of surface water chemistry, and the start of soil recovery. Liming is therefore no longer needed to prevent further damage, so the question becomes whether liming would be useful for accelerating recovery of systems where improvement has lagged. As more is learned about recovering ecosystems, it has become clear that recovery rates vary with watershed characteristics and among ecosystem components. Lakes appear to show the strongest recovery, but recovery in streams is sluggish and recovery of soils appears to be in the early stages. The method in which lime is applied is therefore critical in achieving the goal of accelerated recovery. Application of lime to a watershed provides the advantage of increasing Ca availability and reducing or preventing mobilization of toxic Al, an outcome that is beneficial to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the goal should not be complete neutralization of soil acidity, which is naturally produced. Liming of naturally acidic areas such as wetlands should also be avoided to prevent damage to indigenous species that rely on an acidic environment.

  14. Amphiphilic calixresorcinarene associates as effective solubilizing agents for hydrophobic organic acids: construction of nano-aggregates.

    PubMed

    Morozova, Ju E; Syakaev, V V; Kazakova, E Kh; Shalaeva, Ya V; Nizameev, I R; Kadirov, M K; Voloshina, A D; Zobov, V V; Konovalov, A I

    2016-07-01

    Here we represent the first example of the formation of mixed nanoscale associates, constructed from amphiphilic calixresorcinarenes and hydrophobic carboxylic acids including drugs. The amidoamino-calixresorcinarene self-associates effectively solubilize hydrophobic carboxylic acids - drugs such as naproxen, ibuprofen, ursodeoxycholic acid and aliphatic dodecanoic acid - with the formation of the mixed aggregates with the macrocycle/substrate stoichiometry from 1/1 to 1/7. The ionization of organic acids and the peripheral nitrogen atoms of the macrocycles with the subsequent inclusion of hydrophobic acids into the macrocycle self-associates is the driving force of solubilization. In some cases, this leads to the co-assembly of the macrocycle polydisperse associates into supramolecular monodisperse nanoparticles with the diameter of about 100 nm. The efficiency of drug loading into the nanoparticles is up to 45% and depends on the structure of organic acid. The dissociation of the mixed aggregates and release of organic acid are attained by decreasing pH. PMID:27252123

  15. Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on drug-sensitive and resistant tumor cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies showed that γ-linolenic acid (GLA, 18: 3 ω-6), arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4 ω -6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20: 5 ω -3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 ω -3) have selective tumoricidal action. In the present study, it was observed that dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) and AA, EPA and DHA have cytotoxic action on both vincristine-sensitive (KB-3-1) and resistant (KB-ChR-8-5) cancer cells in vitro that appeared to be a free-radical dependent process but not due to the formation of prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes. Uptake of vincristine and fatty acids was higher while their efflux was lower in KB-3-1 cells compared with KB-ChR-8-5 cells, suggesting that drug resistant cells have an effective efflux pump. GLA, DGLA, AA, EPA and DHA enhanced the uptake and decreased efflux in both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cells and augmented the susceptibility of tumor cells especially, of drug-resistant cells to the cytotoxic action of vincristine. These results suggest that certain polyunsaturated fatty acids have tumoricidal action and are capable of enhancing the cytotoxic action of anti-cancer drugs specifically, on drug-resistant cells by enhancing drug uptake and reducing its efflux. Thus, polyunsaturated fatty acids either by themselves or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs have the potential as anti-cancer molecules. PMID:21917129

  16. Effect of Transition Metals on Polysialic Acid Structure and Functions.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Raghavendra Vasudeva; Bharate, Priya; Gade, Madhuri; Sangabathuni, Sivakoti; Kikkeri, Raghavendra

    2016-04-01

    Polysialic acid (PSA) is one of the most abundant glycopolymer present in embryonic brain, and it is known to be involved in key roles such as plasticity in the central nervous system, cell adhesion, migration and localization of neurotrophins. However, in adult brain, its expression is quite low. The exception to this is in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, where significantly increased levels of polysilylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) have been reported. Here, we confirm the role of PSA as a metal chelator, allowing it to decrease cytotoxicity caused by high levels of transition metals, commonly found in AD brain, and as a regulator of cell behavior. UV-visible (UV-vis) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) techniques were used to investigate the assembly of PSA-metals complexes. These PSA-metal complexes exhibited less toxicity compared to free metal ions, and in particular, the PSA-Cu(2+) complex synergistically promoted neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. PMID:26990355

  17. Toxic Effects of Domoic Acid in the Seabream Sparus aurata

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Isabel; Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Afonso, António; Rivera, Socorro; Azevedo, Joana; Monteiro, Rogério; Cervantes, Rosa; Gago-Martinez, Ana; Vasconcelos, Vítor

    2010-01-01

    Neurotoxicity induced in fish by domoic acid (DA) was assessed with respect to occurrence of neurotoxic signs, lethality, and histopathology by light microscopy. Sparus aurata were exposed to a single dose of DA by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 0, 0.45, 0.9, and 9.0 mg DA kg−1 bw. Mortality (66.67 ± 16.67%) was only observed in dose of 9.0 mg kg−1 bw. Signs of neurological toxicity were detected for the doses of 0.9 and 9.0 mg DA kg−1 bw. Furthermore, the mean concentrations (±SD) of DA detected by HPLC-UV in extracts of brain after exposure to 9.0 mg DA kg−1 bw were 0.61 ± 0.01, 0.96 ± 0.00, and 0.36 ± 0.01 mg DA kg−1 tissue at 1, 2, and 4 hours. The lack of major permanent brain damage in S. aurata, and reversibility of neurotoxic signs, suggest that lower susceptibility to DA or neuronal recovery occurs in affected individuals. PMID:21116416

  18. Buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi: lowering acidity, elevating lactic acid bacterial population and dextransucrase activity.

    PubMed

    Chae, Seo Eun; Moon, Jin Seok; Jung, Jee Yun; Kim, Ji-Sun; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Kim, So-Young; Yoon, Hyang Sik; Han, Nam Soo

    2009-12-01

    This study investigates the buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi on total acidity, microbial population, and dextransucrase activity. Calcium chloride or calcium carbonate was added in dongchimi-kimchi, a watery-radish kimchi, and their effects on various biochemical attributes were analyzed. The addition of 0.1% calcium chloride produced a milder decrease in the pH after 24 days of incubation, which allowed the lactic acid bacteria to survive longer than in the control. In particular, the heterofermentative Leuconostoc genus population was 10-fold higher than that in the control. When sucrose and maltose were also added along with the calcium salts, the dextransucrase activity in the kimchi was elevated and a higher concentration of isomaltooligosaccharides was synthesized when compared with the control. Calcium chloride was determined as a better activator compound of dextransucrase than calcium carbonate, probably because of its higher solubility. Therefore, the results of this study confirm the ability of the proposed approach to modulate the kimchi fermentation process and possibly enhance the quality of kimchi based on the addition of dietary calcium salts. PMID:20075632

  19. Proteomic and redox-proteomic evaluation of homogentisic acid and ascorbic acid effects on human articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Braconi, Daniela; Laschi, Marcella; Taylor, Adam M; Bernardini, Giulia; Spreafico, Adriano; Tinti, Laura; Gallagher, James A; Santucci, Annalisa

    2010-11-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare genetic disease associated with the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA) and its oxidized/polymerized products in connective tissues up to the deposition of melanin-like pigments (ochronosis). Since little is known on the effects of HGA and its metabolites on articular cells, we carried out a proteomic and redox-proteomic analysis to investigate how HGA and ascorbic acid (ASC) affect the human chondrocytic protein repertoire. We settled up an in vitro model using a human chondrocytic cell line to evaluate the effects of 0.33 mM HGA, alone or combined with ASC. We found that HGA and ASC significantly affect the levels of proteins with specific functions in protein folding, cell organization and, notably, stress response and cell defense. Increased protein carbonyls levels were found either in HGA or ASC treated cells, and evidences produced in this paper support the hypothesis that HGA-induced stress might be mediated by protein oxidation. Our finding can lay the basis towards the settling up of more sophisticated models to study AKU and ochronosis. PMID:20665660

  20. The effect of organic acids on plagioclase dissolution rates and stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Susan A.; Ullman, William J.

    1993-06-01

    The rates of plagioclase dissolution in solutions containing organic acids are up to ten times greater than the rates determined in solutions containing inorganic acids at the same acidity. Initial rates of dissolution are poorly reproduced in replicate experiments. After a day, however, the rates of plagioclase dissolution calculated from the rates of silicon release are reproducible and constant for up to nineteen days. Steady-state rates of dissolution are highest (up to 1.3 × 10 -8 mol/m 2/sec) in acidic solutions (pH ≈ 3) and decrease (to 1 × 10 -11 mol/m 2/sec) as acidity decreases toward neutral pH. The polyfunctional acids, oxalate, citrate, succinate, pyruvate, and 2-ketoglutarate, are the most effective at promoting dissolution. Acetate and propionate are not as effective as the other organic acids but are nonetheless more effective than solutions containing only inorganic acids. The degree of ligand-promoted enhancement of dissolution rate (rate in organic-containing solution/rate in inorganic solution at the same pH) decreases as acidity increases, indicating that the ligand-promoted dissolution mechanism becomes relatively more important as the rate of proton-promoted dissolution decreases. The stoichiometry of release to solution indicates that dissolution is selective even after the rates of dissolution become constant. As in previously published studies, Na and Ca are rapidly released from the plagioclase feldspar, leaving a surface enriched in Si and/or Al. The ratio of Al/Si released to solution indicates that the stoichiometry of the residual plagioclase surface is a function of pH and the nature of the organic ligand. The ligands which remove Al in preference to Si from the dissolving mineral surface are also those which enhance overall plagioclase dissolution rates.

  1. Characterization of retinoic acid-induced neurobehavioral effects in developing zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujiang; Chen, Jiangfei; Du, Changchun; Li, Chunqi; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2014-02-01

    Retinoic signaling plays an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation. Disruption of retinoic signaling via excessive or deficient retinoic acid can cause teratogenic effects on developing embryos. Similar to retinoic acid, many xenobiotic environmental pollutants have been found to disrupt retinoic signaling through binding and eliciting agonistic activity on retinoic acid receptors. Currently, studies of retinoic acid or retinoic acid-like compounds in aquatic organisms have mainly focused on teratogenicity and few studies have explored their neurobehavioral toxicity. In the present study, the authors used retinoic acid as an example to explore the neurobehavioral toxicity associated with developmental exposure of retinoic acid-like compounds in zebrafish. The findings confirmed retinoic acid's teratogenic effects such as bent spine, malformed tail, and pericardial edema in developing zebrafish with a median effective concentration of 2.47 nM. Retinoic acid-induced cell apoptosis at 24 h postfertilization was consistently found in the eye and tail regions of embryos. Spontaneous movement as characterized by tail bend frequency was significantly increased in zebrafish embryos following exposure to 2 nM and 8 nM retinoic acid. Relatively low-dose retinoic acid exposure of 2 nM led to fast locomotion behavior in the dark period and hyperactivity during light-dark photoperiod stimulation. The 2-nM retinoic acid exposure also led to alterations of neurobehavior- and optic nerve-related genes, with the transforming growth factor-β signal transduction inhibitor noggin (nog) and the spinal cord marker homeobox c3a (hox) being underexpressed and the retinal G protein-coupled receptor a (rgr), the photoreceptor cell marker rhodopsin (rho), and the short wave-sensitive cone pigment opsin 1 (opn1sw1) being overexpressed. Increased expression of opn1sw1 and rho was confirmed by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Whether the misexpression of these genes leads

  2. Effects of cobalt in lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagshaw, N. B.

    The effects of cobalt additions (0.1-1 g/1) to the electrolyte have been studied by anodic corrosion tests on sheets of various alloys, and by continuous charge, cycling and charge retention tests on thick plate automotive-type of batteries. Positive grid corrosion decreases with increase in cobalt concentration but the effect is less marked for alloys with high intrinsic corrosion resistance. Cobalt oxidizes some types of separator even at a relatively low concentration. The top-of-charge voltage is reduced by the presence of cobalt, the effect occurring mainly at the positive plate. Cobalt causes increased open-circuit losses but the effect is fairly small at low concentrations (0.1-0.15 g/1).

  3. Metabolic effects and distribution space of flufenamic acid in the isolated perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Lopez, C H; Bracht, A; Yamamoto, N S; dos Santos, M D

    1998-11-01

    The following aspects were investigated in the present work: (a) the action of flufenamic acid on hepatic metabolism (oxygen uptake, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, uricogenesis and glycogenolysis), (b) the action of flufenamic acid on the cellular adenine nucleotide levels, and (c) the transport and distribution space of flufenamic acid in the liver parenchyma. The experimental system was the isolated perfused rat liver. Perfusion was accomplished in an open, non-recirculating system. The perfusion fluid was Krebs/Henseleit-bicarbonate buffer (pH 7.4), saturated with a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide (95:5) by means of a membrane oxygenator and heated to 37 degrees C. The distribution space of flufenamic acid was measured by means of the multiple-indicator dilution technique with constant infusion (step input) of [3H]water plus flufenamic acid. The results of the present work indicate that the metabolic effects of flufenamic acid are the consequence of an uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, a conclusion based on the following observations: (a) flufenamic acid increased oxygen uptake, a common property of all uncouplers; (b) the drug also increased glycolysis and glycogenolysis in livers from fed rats (these are expected compensatory phenomena for the decreased mitochondrial ATP formation); (c) flufenamic acid inhibited glucose production from fructose, an energy-dependent process; (d) the cellular ATP levels were decreased by flufenamic acid whereas the AMP levels were increased; and (e) the total adenine nucleotide content was decreased by flufenamic acid and uric acid production was stimulated. Indicator-dilution experiments with flufenamic acid revealed that this substance undergoes flow-limited distribution in the liver and that its apparent distribution space greatly exceeds the aqueous space of the liver. Flufenamic acid changed its behaviour when the portal concentration was increased from 25 to 50 microM. At 25 microM the initial upslope of the

  4. The effects of short intensive exercise on plasma free amino acids in standardbred trotters.

    PubMed

    Hackl, S; van den Hoven, R; Zickl, M; Spona, J; Zentek, J

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short intense exercise on plasma amino acid concentrations in trotters and to test the repeatability of plasma amino acids concentration in samples obtained on two independent days under field conditions. Plasma amino acid concentrations were analysed in blood samples of 36 standardbred trotters before and after intense exercise over a distance of 2000 m. Sampling was repeated in 20 horses after 35 days. Exercise intensity was estimated from post-exercise lactate levels. Horses were divided in two groups according to a cut-off lactate concentration at 15 mmol/l. The plasma concentrations of alanine, aspartate, glutamate, isoleucine, leucine, lysine and taurine increased and arginine, asparagine, citrulline, glutamine, glycine, histidine, methionine, serine, tryptophan and 3-methylhistidine decreased after exercise. Ornithine, threonine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and valine concentrations remained constant. Higher intensity of exercise significantly decreased tryptophan and increased taurine concentrations. Sampling day had a significant effect on the absolute pre- and post-exercise amino acid concentrations. Exercise had a significant influence on the concentrations of most plasma amino acids in trotters. These changes could reflect shifts between the free amino acid compartments, but there were also some indications for muscle catabolism. The amino acid supply of sporting horses could be of specific significance for maintaining muscle integrity and for the improvement of post-exercise recovery of competition horses. PMID:19320929

  5. Comparison of inhibition effects of some benzoic acid derivatives on sheep heart carbonic anhydrase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliç, Deryanur; Yildiz, Melike; Şentürk, Murat; Erdoǧan, Orhan; Küfrevioǧlu, Ömer Irfan

    2016-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a family of metalloenzymes that requires Zn as a cofactor and catalyze the quick conversion of CO2 to HCO3- and H+. Inhibitors of the carbonic anhydrases (CAs) have medical usage of significant diseases such as glaucoma, epilepsy, gastroduodenal ulcers, acid-base disequilibria and neurological disorders. In the present study, inhibition of CA with some benzoic derivatives (1-6) were investigated. Sheep heart CA (shCA) enzyme was isolated by means of designed affinity chromatography gel (cellulose-benzyl-sulfanylamide) 42.45-fold in a yield of 44 % with 564.65 EU/mg. Purified shCA enzyme was used in vitro studies. In the studies, IC50 values were calculated for 3-aminobenzoic acid (1), 4-aminobenzoic acid (2), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), 2-benzoylbenzoic acid (4), 2,3-dimethoxybenzoic acid (5), and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid (6), showing the inhibition effects on the purified enzyme. Such molecules can be used as pioneer for discovery of novel effective CA inhibitors for medicinal chemistry applications.

  6. Physiological effects of sublethal levels of acid water on three species of fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Pegg, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Static toxicity tests revealed the need to assess the effect of acid mine water using some procedure that would gradually increase the concentration of acidity over a period of time. A relatively long-term (2-5 days) experiment involving the devlopment of a sublethal acid treatment gradient was chosen as potentially being the most representative of natural environments which are periodically subjected to changing inputs from coal mine drainage. Since respiratory change is an indication of physiological stress, the measurement of oxygen consumption rate was chosen as the major variable representing the effect of acid waters on fishes. Bluegill sunfish Lepomes macrochirus Rafinesque, pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus), and brown bullhead, Ictalurus nebulosus (LeSueur) were collected from the Monongahela River and backwater areas in the region of Morgantown, West Virginia. The sublethal acid water treatments decreased the oxygen consumption rates for brown bullhead and bluegill sunfish, while increasing the oxygen consumption rate for pumpkinseed sunfish. Further, the rhythms of the oxygen consumption rates were generally modified in both frequency and amplitude as a result of exposure to acid water. Acid water treatments also caused negative phase shifts in oxygen consumption rate for brown bullhead sand bluegill sunfish, while positive phase shifts occurred for pumpkinseed sunfish.

  7. Five Decades with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Chemical Synthesis, Enzymatic Formation, Lipid Peroxidation and Its Biological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Catalá, Angel

    2013-01-01

    I have been involved in research on polyunsaturated fatty acids since 1964 and this review is intended to cover some of the most important aspects of this work. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have followed me during my whole scientific career and I have published a number of studies concerned with different aspects of them such as chemical synthesis, enzymatic formation, metabolism, transport, physical, chemical, and catalytic properties of a reconstructed desaturase system in liposomes, lipid peroxidation, and their effects. The first project I became involved in was the organic synthesis of [1-14C] eicosa-11,14-dienoic acid, with the aim of demonstrating the participation of that compound as a possible intermediary in the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid “in vivo.” From 1966 to 1982, I was involved in several projects that study the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the eighties, we studied fatty acid binding protein. From 1990 up to now, our laboratory has been interested in the lipid peroxidation of biological membranes from various tissues and different species as well as liposomes prepared with phospholipids rich in PUFAs. We tested the effect of many antioxidants such as alpha tocopherol, vitamin A, melatonin and its structural analogues, and conjugated linoleic acid, among others. PMID:24490074

  8. The time effect of chronic ethanol feeding on phospholipid fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, M.T.; Tang, A.B.; Halsted, C.H.; Phinney, S.D. )

    1992-02-26

    The authors have previously shown that chronic ethanol feeding reduces arachidonic acid (AA) and other products of {delta}6 and {delta}5 desaturases in various tissues including muscle, the largest phospholipid (PL) pool. In this study they investigated the time-course effect of ethanol feeding on tissue fatty acid (FA) profiles. Five Yucatan micropigs were fed 89 kcal/kg body wt of diet containing ethanol and fat as 40 and 34% of energy, respectively. Five control pigs were pairfed corn starch instead of ethanol. Corn oil, 61% linoleic acid (LA), supplied most of dietary fat. PL fatty acids were quantitated by thin layer and gas chromatography. Below are FA profiles of control/ethanol groups by wt%. Underlined values differ p<0.05. In liver PL, ethanol resulted in increased LA but decreased palmitic acid, AA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at 2 months. These changes remained constant for 12 months, whereas alpha-linolenic acid and DHA showed a progressive decline. For muscle, however, significant differences were not seen until 12 months. These results indicate time differences in ethanol effect on w6 and w3 FA composition, and that liver and muscle differ in their rates of response to ethanol. Their findings suggest that ethanol affects both desaturase activity and the precursor pool, and thus may alter membrane function.

  9. Effect of carbonyl inhibitors and their H₂O₂ detoxification on lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Caiqing; Tu, Maobing; Han, Pingping; Wu, Yonnie

    2015-04-01

    Biomass degradation compounds significantly inhibit biochemical conversion of biomass prehydrolysates to biofuels and chemicals, such as lactic acid. To characterize the structure-activity relationship of carbonyl inhibition on lactic acid fermentation, we examined effects of eight carbonyl compounds (furfural, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, vanillin, syringaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, phthalaldehyde, benzoic acid, and pyrogallol aldehyde) and creosol on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Pyrogallol aldehyde reduced the cell growth rate by 35 % at 1.0 mM and inhibited lactic acid production completely at 2.0 mM. By correlating the molecular descriptors to the inhibition constants in lactic acid fermentation, we found a good relationship between the hydrophobicity (Log P) of aldehydes and their inhibition constants in fermentation. The inhibitory effect of carbonyl inhibitors appeared to correlate with their thiol reactivity as well. In addition, we found that H2O2 detoxified pyrogallol aldehyde and phthalaldehyde inhibitory activity. H2O2 detoxification was applied to real biomass prehydrolysates in lactic acid fermentation. PMID:25666370

  10. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of phosphoric acid solution compared to other root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    PRADO, Maíra; da SILVA, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal; DUQUE, Thais Mageste; ZAIA, Alexandre Augusto; FERRAZ, Caio Cezar Randi; de ALMEIDA, José Flávio Affonso; GOMES, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoric acid has been suggested as an irrigant due to its effectiveness in removing the smear layer. Objectives : The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of a 37% phosphoric acid solution to other irrigants commonly used in endodontics. Material and Methods : The substances 37% phosphoric acid, 17% EDTA, 10% citric acid, 2% chlorhexidine (solution and gel), and 5.25% NaOCl were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was tested against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Actinomyces meyeri, Parvimonas micra, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella nigrescens according to the agar diffusion method. The cytotoxicity of the irrigants was determined by using the MTT assay. Results : Phosphoric acid presented higher antimicrobial activity compared to the other tested irrigants. With regard to the cell viability, this solution showed results similar to those with 5.25% NaOCl and 2% chlorhexidine (gel and solution), whereas 17% EDTA and 10% citric acid showed higher cell viability compared to other irrigants. Conclusion : Phosphoric acid demonstrated higher antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity similar to that of 5.25% NaOCl and 2% chlorhexidine (gel and solution). PMID:26018307

  11. The effect of pantothenic acid deficiency on keratinocyte proliferation and the synthesis of keratinocyte growth factor and collagen in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Daisaku; Kusama, Miho; Onda, Masaaki; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2011-01-01

    It has been reported that pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and panthenol, an alcohol derivative of pantothenic acid, have beneficial moisturizing effects on the skin. However, few studies have investigated the mechanism of action of pantothenic acid on skin tissues. We tried to clarify the role of pantothenic acid on skin function by using keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The depletion of pantothenic acid from the culture medium suppressed keratinocyte proliferation and promoted differentiation. Moreover, pantothenic acid depletion decreased the synthesis of keratinocyte growth factor and procollagen 4a2 in fibroblasts. These results suggest that pantothenic acid is essential for maintaining keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. PMID:21258175

  12. Effects of aliphatic acids, furfural, and phenolic compounds on Debaryomyces hansenii CCMI 941.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Luís C; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Neves, Inês; Gírio, Francisco M

    2005-01-01

    Debaryomyces hansenii is a polyol overproducing yeast that can have a potential use for upgrading lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Therefore, the establishment of its tolerance to metabolic inhibitors found in hydrolysates is of major interest. We studied the effects of selected aliphatic acids, phenolic compounds, and furfural. Acetic acid favored biomass production for concentrations <6.0 g/L. Formic acid was more toxic than acetic acid and induced xylitol accumulation (maximum yield of 0.21 g/g of xylose). All tested phenolics strongly decreased the specific growth rate. Increased toxicity was found for hydroquinone, syringaldehyde, and 4-methylcatechol and was correlated to the compound's hydrophobicity. Increasing the amount of furfural led to longer lag phases and had a detrimental effect on specific growth rate and biomass productivity. PMID:15917618

  13. The Curative and Prophylactic Effects of Xylopic Acid on Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boampong, J. N.; Ameyaw, E. O.; Aboagye, B.; Asare, K.; Kyei, S.; Donfack, J. H.; Woode, E.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts have been intensified to search for more effective antimalarial agents because of the observed failure of some artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) treatments of malaria in Ghana. Xylopic acid, a pure compound isolated from the fruits of the Xylopia aethiopica, was investigated to establish its attributable prophylactic, curative antimalarial, and antipyretic properties. The antimalarial properties were determined by employing xylopic acid (10–100 mg/kg) in ICR mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Xylopic acid exerted significant (P < 0.05) effects on P. berghei infection similar to artemether/lumefantrine, the standard drug. Furthermore, it significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced fever in Sprague-Dawley rats similar to prednisolone. Xylopic acid therefore possesses prophylactic and curative antimalarial as well as antipyretic properties which makes it an ideal antimalarial agent. PMID:23970953

  14. Are the Adaptogenic Effects of Omega 3 Fatty Acids Mediated via Inhibition of Proinflammatory Cytokines?

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Joanne; Brooks, Lyndon; Myers, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    The study was undertaken to estimate the size of the impact of n-3 fatty acids in psychological stress and the extent to which it is mediated via proinflammatory cytokines. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze data from 194 healthy Australians. Biomarkers used were erythrocyte polyunsaturated fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA)), ex-vivo stimulated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukins (IL-1 and IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)). Stress was measured with the perceived stress scale (PSS-10), found to comprise three factors: Coping (items 4, 7, 5), Overwhelm (2, 10, 6 and 8), and Emotional (1, 9 and 3). This modeling demonstrated that the effects of DHA on coping are largely direct effects (0.26, t = 2.05) and were not significantly mediated via the suppression of proinflammatory cytokines. Future modeling should explore whether adding EPA to the model would increase the significance of the mediation pathways. PMID:22007258

  15. Calcium inhibits the damaging and compensatory proliferative effects of fatty acids on mouse colon epithelium.

    PubMed

    Wargovich, M J; Eng, V W; Newmark, H L

    1984-07-01

    Intrarectal instillations of the fatty acids (FA), lauric, linoleic or oleic acids induce inflammation and superficial lysis of the colon epithelium. This reaction is followed by increases in colonic mitotic activity and the number of cells engaged in DNA synthesis in compensatory regeneration for the cells that were lost. This explains, in part, the promotional effect of dietary fat in carcinogenesis. Concomitant oral administration of calcium salts, as CaCO3, largely reduced the mitogenic effects of fatty acids on colon epithelium, presumably by forming biologically inert calcium soaps. Calcium soap formation of dietary fatty acids may be one natural mechanism by which colon epithelium cells are protected hence reducing the impact of dietary fat on carcinogenesis for this organ. PMID:6744249

  16. Differential effects of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids upon oxidant-stimulated release and uptake of arachidonic acid in human lymphoma U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Obajimi, Oluwakemi; Black, Kenneth D; MacDonald, Donald J; Boyle, Rose M; Glen, Iain; Ross, Brian M

    2005-08-01

    The use of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, as found in fish-oil derived dietary supplements, as anti-inflammatory agents is supported by a variety of biochemical and physiological data. Recent studies investigating the therapeutic potential of long chain (>C20) n-3 fatty acids in mental illness have lead to the conclusion, however, that not all n-3 fatty acid types are equally efficacious. In particular eicosapentaeoic acid (EPA) appears to possess antidepressant and antipsychotic activity, while docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) does not, an effect suggested to be due to a differential ability to antagonize arachidonic acid (AA)-dependent cell signalling. In this study, we examine the effect of EPA and DHA supplementation upon uptake and release of arachidonic acid stimulated by tert-butyl hydroperoxide/Fe2+ in U937 cells. Oxidant-stimulated 3H-AA release from cells was enhanced by pre-treatment with EPA, DHA and AA, but not stearic or oleic acids for 18 days, with the order of effect magnitude being EPA > DHA = AA. Supplementation of cells for 1 day gave qualitatively similar results, although the effect magnitude was smaller. To determine whether enhanced release was due to decreased reuptake of AA, cells were cultured in the presence of 10 microM fatty acids. Pre-treatment of cells with EPA, and to a lesser extent AA, but not DHA, inhibited uptake of 3H-AA measured subsequent to the removal of unesterified fatty acids. This study suggests that, in U937 cells, EPA can alter the rate of uptake and release of AA from phospholipids in an exposure time-dependent manner, whereas DHA has no or little effect. Our results predict that EPA will have a more pronounced effect upon AA-dependent processes compared to DHA, and suggests that the relative amounts of EPA and DHA in fish oil supplements may modify their biochemical, and potentially, behavioural effects. PMID:15967385

  17. Effect of amino acid immobilization on the impedance of graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Minh-Hai; Han, Jinwoo; Min, Byeong June; Lee, ChangWoo; Jang, Sei-Heon; Jeong, Hae Kyung

    2015-05-01

    A single residue, dipeptide, or tripeptide of alanine or histidine is covalently attached to graphene oxide (GO), and the effect of the amino acid immobilization on the impedance of GO is investigated using the impedance spectroscopy. The histidine of a tripeptide exhibits the lowest resistance compared to the single or dipeptide histidine in the KCl electrolyte, and the single alanine residue shows the lowest resistance in an acidic electrolyte compared to the dipeptide or tripeptide alanine. The peculiar behavior of the impedance could be explained by different net charges of the amino acids, chain length, and π-π stacking interaction.

  18. Evaluation of structure effects on the pharmacological behavior of radioiodinated phenylpentadecanoic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.; Machulla, H.J.; Knust, E.J.; Kartje, M.; Vyska, K.

    1986-01-01

    For studying the pharmacokinetic behaviour of fatty acids with different chemical structures four STI-labelled compounds, i.e., the ortho and para STI-isomers of 15-phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) and 3-methyl-15-phenylpentadecanoic acid were prepared and the organ distribution determined in mice. The results show a significant decrease of the maximal heart uptake for the two ortho compounds. Further, the hypothesis of a blocked metabolism as an effect of the US -methylation could not be confirmed. Both US -methylated compounds show a biexponential elimination behavior from the heart. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on copper-induced oxidative changes in human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Kemp, J.

    1985-01-01

    A previously reported study indicated that ascorbic acid reduces the occurrence of copper acetate-induced methemoglobin (METHB) formation in vitro. The present study was designed to evaluate these findings in an in vivo exposure of ascorbic acid (1 gm/day) for up to four weeks with an in vitro copper acetate incubation stress at baseline (just prior to supplementation) and at two and four weeks after initiation of treatment. The results indicated that the ascorbic acid supplementation had no significant effects on the occurrence of copper acetate induced oxidant stress (i.e. METHB increase and GSH decrease). Possible explanations for this apparent discrepancy are provided.

  20. Effect of adipic dihydrazide modification on the performance of collagen/hyaluronic acid scaffold.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Xiao, Yumei; Jiang, Bo; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

    2010-02-01

    Collagen and hydrazide-functionalized hyaluronic acid derivatives were hybridized by gelating and genipin crosslinking to form composite hydrogel. The study contributed to the understanding of the effects of adipic dihydrazide modification on the physicochemical and biological properties of the collagen/hyaluronic acid scaffold. The investigation included morphology observation, mechanical measurement, swelling evaluation, and collagenase degradation. The results revealed that the stability of composites was increased through adipic dihydrazide modification and genipin crosslinking. The improved biocompatibility and retention of hyaluronic acid made the composite material more favorable to chondrocytes growing, suggesting the prepared scaffold might be high potential for chondrogenesis. PMID:19810117

  1. A field test of the effect of acidic rain on ion balance in a woodland salamander

    SciTech Connect

    Frisbie, M.P.; Wyman, R.L. )

    1994-06-01

    Earlier laboratory studies demonstrated that red-backed salamanders, Plethodon cinereus, are susceptible to osmotic disruption by low pH substrates. In natural systems, however, acidic input from precipitation may be mediated by soils before it impacts salamanders. We tested the effect of acidic rain on sodium balance in salamanders by confining individuals in enclosure in two forest types (hemlock, beech) for 34 d. Enclosures received artificial rain of either pH 3 or 5 every 3-4 d. Soils inside enclosures in the hemlock forest were more acidic than those in the beech forest at the outset. At termination, [H[sup +

  2. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of menhaden oil with conjugated linoleic acid: effect of water content.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carlos F; Hill, Charles G

    2002-06-01

    The effect of the water content on the lipase-catalyzed (Candida rugosa) interesterification (acidolysis) of menhaden oil with conjugated linoleic acid was studied for amounts of added water ranging from 0-4% (w/w). The rate of the acidolysis reaction increased with increasing water content, but the corresponding percentage of n-3 fatty acids liberated also increased. The implications of water content for minimization of the release of n-3 fatty acid residues while maximizing incorporation of CLA are discussed. PMID:12115120

  3. Effects of ursodeoxycholic acid on serum liver enzymes and bile acid metabolism in chronic active hepatitis: a dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Crosignani, A; Battezzati, P M; Setchell, K D; Camisasca, M; Bertolini, E; Roda, A; Zuin, M; Podda, M

    1991-02-01

    The effect of ursodeoxycholic acid administration on liver function tests and on bile acid metabolism was investigated in 18 patients with chronic active hepatitis. Three different doses of ursodeoxycholic acid--250 mg, 500 mg and 750 mg--were administered daily to each patient for consecutive 2-mo periods. The order of doses was randomly assigned according to a replicated Latin-square design. A significant decrease in serum transaminases and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase occurred with the lowest dose of ursodeoxycholic acid, which corresponded to 4 mg/kg body wt/day, and no further significant decrease with the higher doses was seen. Biliary bile acid composition was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. At entry the relative proportions of major bile acids were similar to those observed in normal individuals. During treatment the mean percentage of ursodeoxycholic acid in bile (22% with the 250 mg dose, 32% with the 500 mg dose and 34% with the 750 mg dose) was lower than values previously reported for patients with gallstones and normal liver function. The major bile acids were cholic, chenodeoxycholic and deoxycholic acids. A number of unusual bile acids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, but these accounted for only 3% to 5% of the total and did not change during ursodeoxycholic acid therapy. No correlation between the improvement in liver function tests and the percentage of ursodeoxycholic acid in bile existed. These data suggest that even a slight enrichment of bile with ursodeoxycholic acid, as is attained with 250 mg/day, is effective in improving biochemical markers of liver function in patients with chronic active hepatitis. PMID:1671665

  4. Effect of fulvic acid on neodymium uptake by goethite.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Christopher R; Wood, Scott A

    2012-12-01

    Experimental studies of the interaction of aqueous neodymium (Nd), Suwannee River fulvic acid (FA), and solid phase goethite were conducted. Results from blank systems (individual Nd and FA), binary systems (Nd-goethite, FA-goethite, and Nd-FA), and ternary systems (Nd-FA-goethite) at 0.1 mol/kg and 25°C are reported. In the binary Nd-goethite system a classic sorption edge is observed, whereby virtually all Nd is removed from solution above the goethite point of zero charge (PZC). Similarly, the binary FA-goethite system exhibits strong FA sorption; However in this system near complete removal of FA from solution is observed below the goethite PZC. In the binary Nd-FA system, both aqueous Nd and FA feature a sharp decrease in concentration at ca. pH 9. Various experiments in the ternary system were conducted. For all concentrations, FA enhanced Nd sorption below the goethite PZC, attributed to the formation of a Type B ternary surface complex (mineral-ligand-metal ion). Notably, the 100 ppm FA ternary system showed anomalously high dissolved Nd in solution above the PZC (i.e., Nd sorption suppression) and a concomitant increase in goethite dissolution (∼9 ppm total Fe(3+) observed above circa pH 9.5). Our results suggest that Nd-FA complexation plays a key role in Nd uptake by goethite, and that this process is largely governed by pH: Whereas at pHs below the goethite PZC, Nd-FA complexation facilitates Nd sorption, above the PZC, and particularly at elevated FA concentrations, the formation of aqueous Nd-FA complexes suppresses Nd removal. Moreover, under these conditions, goethite dissolution may also play a role in mitigating Nd uptake by goethite. PMID:22958855

  5. The ulcerogenic effect of bile and bile acid in rats during immobilization stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisener, J.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations of oxen bile and individual bile acids or their sodium salts on the gastric mucosa of rats was investigated in combination with immobilization stress. A statistically significant higher frequency of ulcers was only determined in the application of 10% oxen bile. Dosages on 10% sodium glycocholic acid demonstrated strong toxic damage with atonic dilation of the stomach and extensive mucosal bleeding.

  6. The antimicrobial effect of acetic acid--an alternative to common local antiseptics?

    PubMed

    Ryssel, H; Kloeters, O; Germann, G; Schäfer, Th; Wiedemann, G; Oehlbauer, M

    2009-08-01

    Acetic acid has been commonly used in medicine for more than 6000 years for the disinfection of wounds and especially as an antiseptic agent in the treatment and prophylaxis of the plague. The main goal of this study was to prove the suitability of acetic acid, in low concentration of 3%, as a local antiseptic agent, especially for use in salvage procedures in problematic infections caused by organisms such as Proteus vulgaris, Acinetobacter baumannii or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study was designed to compare the in vitro antimicrobial effect of acetic acid with those of common local antiseptics such as povidone-iodine 11% (Betaisodona), polyhexanide 0.04% (Lavasept), mafenide 5% and chlohexidine gluconate 1.5% cetrimide 15% (Hibicet). Former studies suggest the bactericidal effect of acetic acid, but these data are very heterogeneous; therefore, a standardised in vitro study was conducted. To cover the typical bacterial spectrum of a burn unit, the following Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains were tested: Escherichia coli, P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and beta-haemolytic Streptococcus group A and B. The tests showed excellent bactericidal effect of acetic acid, particularly with problematic Gram-negative bacteria such as P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. The microbiological spectrum of acetic acid is wide, even when tested at a low concentration of 3%. In comparison to our currently used antiseptic solutions, it showed similar - in some bacteria, even better - bactericidal properties. An evaluation of the clinical value of topical application of acetic acid is currently underway. It can be concluded that acetic acid in a concentration of 3% has excellent bactericidal effect and, therefore, seems to be suitable as a local antiseptic agent, but further clinical studies are necessary. PMID:19286325

  7. Anti-glutamatergic effect of riluzole: comparison with valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, J-E; Kim, D-S; Kwak, S-E; Choi, H-C; Song, H-K; Choi, S-Y; Kwon, O-S; Kim, Y-I; Kang, T-C

    2007-06-15

    Riluzole, an anti-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis drug, known to decrease presynaptic glutamate release, is viewed as a candidate supplementary medication for epilepsy. In the present study, we compared the effects of riluzole and valproate (VPA) in the pilocarpine-induced limbic seizure model and in the gamma-hydroxybutyrate lactone (GBL)-induced absence seizure model. We applied immunohistochemical study for vesicular transporter 1 (VGLUT1) and extracellular recording in the rat dentate gyrus of both pilocarpine- and GBL-induced seizure models to measure effects of riluzole and VPA. Both VPA and riluzole treatments reduced VGLUT1 immunoreactivity. Riluzole treatment completely inhibited pre-ictal spikes and spike-wave discharges in the pilocarpine- and GBL-induced epilepsy models, whereas VPA partially inhibited these phenomena. In both seizure models, the anti-epileptic effects of VPA and riluzole are basically related to anti-glutamatergic (reducing field excitatory postsynaptic potential slope and excitability ratio), not GABAergic (paired-pulse inhibition) effect. Riluzole was more effective at reducing seizure activity in both epilepsy models than VPA. These results suggest that riluzole is a potential antiepileptic drug with activity against limbic seizure and absence seizure. PMID:17507170

  8. Evidence for the Involvement of Xenobiotic-responsive Nuclear Receptors in Transcriptional Effects Upon Perfluoroalkyl Acid Exposure in Diverse Species.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans and other species have detectable body burdens of a number of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAA) including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). In mouse and rat liver these compounds elicit transcriptional and phenotypic effects similar to pe...

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Moderate Effects of Physical Activity on Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Leckie, Regina L.; Manuck, Stephen B.; Bhattacharee, Neha; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Flory, Janine M.; Erickson, Kirk I.

    2014-01-01

    Greater amounts of physical activity (PA) and omega-3 fatty acids have both been independently associated with better cognitive performance. Because of the overlapping biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids and PA, fatty acid intake may modify the effects of PA on neurocognitive function. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining whether the ratio of serum omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid levels would moderate the association between PA and executive and memory functions in 344 participants (Mean age = 44.42 years, SD = 6.72). The Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), serum fatty acid levels, and performance on a standard neuropsychological battery were acquired on all subjects. A principal component analysis reduced the number of cognitive outcomes to three factors: n-back working memory, Trail Making test, and Logical Memory. We found a significant interaction between PA and the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid serum levels on Trail Making performance and n-back performance, such that higher amounts of omega-3 levels offset the deleterious effects of lower amounts of PA. These effects remained significant in a subsample (n=299) controlling for overall dietary fat consumption. There were no significant additive or multiplicative benefits of higher amounts of both omega-3 and PA on cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids might mitigate the effect of lower levels of PA on cognitive performance. This study illuminates the importance of understanding dietary and PA factors in tandem when exploring their effects on neurocognitive health. PMID:24813150

  10. Omega-3 fatty acids moderate effects of physical activity on cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Leckie, Regina L; Manuck, Stephen B; Bhattacharjee, Neha; Muldoon, Matthew F; Flory, Janine M; Erickson, Kirk I

    2014-07-01

    Greater amounts of physical activity (PA) and omega-3 fatty acids have both been independently associated with better cognitive performance. Because of the overlapping biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids and PA, fatty acid intake may modify the effects of PA on neurocognitive function. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining whether the ratio of serum omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid levels would moderate the association between PA and executive and memory functions in 344 participants (Mean age=44.42 years, SD=6.72). The Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), serum fatty acid levels, and performance on a standard neuropsychological battery were acquired on all subjects. A principal component analysis reduced the number of cognitive outcomes to three factors: n-back working memory, Trail Making test, and Logical Memory. We found a significant interaction between PA and the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid serum levels on Trail Making performance and n-back performance, such that higher amounts of omega-3 levels offset the deleterious effects of lower amounts of PA. These effects remained significant in a subsample (n=299) controlling for overall dietary fat consumption. There were no significant additive or multiplicative benefits of higher amounts of both omega-3 and PA on cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids might mitigate the effect of lower levels of PA on cognitive performance. This study illuminates the importance of understanding dietary and PA factors in tandem when exploring their effects on neurocognitive health. PMID:24813150

  11. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels on nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-05-01

    Poultry feed is a potential vector for pathogens. Heat processing and organic acid treatments may decontaminate feed and can affect bird performance as well as feed digestibility. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of different thermal treatments including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), or expanding at 110°C (E110) and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) without or with 0.75 and 1.5% organic acid supplementation (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and organ weights of broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. Performance variables were determined, and the relative organ weights and ileal and total amino acid (AA) digestibilities were measured at d 35. The organic acid inclusion linearly improved feed efficiency in the first week (P ≤ 0.05). The acid inclusion levels and thermal treatments had no significant effect on the performance variables at later intervals of the growing period of the birds. The L group showed the lowest ileal AA and CP digestibility. The inclusion of organic acids had a quadratic effect on total and ileal digestibility of isoleucine (P ≤ 0.05), whereas it had no significant effect on the ileal digestibility of other AA and nutrients. The relative weights of the jejunum and small intestine were significantly higher in the E130 group compared with P and L (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that long-term heat conditioning can decrease ileal nutrient digestibility, whereas pelleting and expansion, independently of organic acid addition, seemed to have no negative impact on broiler performance and nutrient digestibilities. Moreover, adding a blend of organic acids to broiler diets had neither positive nor negative effects on nutrient digestibility and final broiler performance. This indicates the feasibility of short-term thermal

  12. The effects of dormancy status on the endogenous contents and biological activities of jasmonic acid, n-(jasmonoyl)-isoleucine, and tuberonic acid in potato tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of storage and dormancy progression on the endogenous contents and the growth-regulating activities of jasmonic acid (JA), jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), and tuberonic acid (TA) were determined in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank) minitubers and seed tubers over several ha...

  13. Effect of mycolic acid on surface activity of binary surfactant lipid monolayers.

    PubMed

    Chimote, G; Banerjee, R

    2008-12-15

    In pulmonary tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis lies in close physical proximity to alveolar surfactant. Cell walls of the mycobacteria contain loosely bound, detachable surface-active lipids. In this study, the effect of mycolic acid (MA), the most abundant mycobacterial cell wall lipid, on the surface activity of phospholipid mixtures from lung surfactant was investigated using Langmuir monolayers and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In the presence of mycolic acid, all the surfactant lipid mixtures attained high minimum surface tensions (between 20 and 40 mN/m) and decreased surface compressibility moduli <50 mN/m. AFM images showed that the smooth surface topography of surfactant lipid monolayers was altered with addition of MA. Aggregates with diverse heights of at least two layer thicknesses were found in the presence of mycolic acid. Mycolic acids could aggregate within surfactant lipid monolayers and result in disturbed monolayer surface activity. The extent of the effect of mycolic acid depended on the initial state of the monolayer, with fluid films of DPPC-POPC and DPPC-CHOL being least affected. The results imply inhibitory effects of mycolic acid toward lung surfactant lipids and could be a mechanism of lung surfactant dysfunction in pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:18848703

  14. Comparison of Neuroprotective Effects of Melissa officinalis Total Extract and Its Acidic and Non-Acidic Fractions against A β-Induced Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Soodi, Maliheh; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Soleimani, Masoud; Sahraei, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that was characterized with deposit of beta amyloid (Aβ) aggregate in senile plaque. Oxidative damage to neurons and loss of cholinergic neurons in forebrain region are observed in this disease. Melissa officinalis is a medicinal plant from Lamiaceae family, used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive disorders. It has cholinomimetic and potent antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of total ethanolic extract, acidic and nonacidic fraction of Melissa officinalis on Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in PC12 cells and also measured their in-vitro anticholinesterase activity. PC12 cells were incubated with the extract and fractions prior to the incubation with Aβ and cell toxicity was assessed by MTT assay. In addition, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity were measured. Pretreatment of cells with total extract and acidic fraction (not non-acidic fraction) had protective effect against Aβ-induced oxidative changes and cell death. In concentrations in which both total extracts of an acidic fraction showed neuroprotective effects, inhibition of cholinesterase activity was not significant. Then, the protective effects of Melissa officinalis total extract and acidic fraction were not attributed to their anticholinesterase activity. Acidic fraction showed more potent protective effect compared to the total extract, leading to the fact that polyphenolic compounds and terpenoic acids are the most effective components in the total extract concentrated in this fraction. PMID:24250617

  15. Effect of acidic solutions on the surface degradation of a micro-hybrid composite resin.

    PubMed

    Münchow, Eliseu A; Ferreira, Ana Cláudia A; Machado, Raissa M M; Ramos, Tatiana S; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval A; Zanchi, Cesar H

    2014-01-01

    Composite resins may undergo wear by the action of chemical substances (e.g., saliva, alcohol, bacterial acids) of the oral environment, which may affect the material's structure and surface properties. This study evaluated the effect of acidic substances on the surface properties of a micro-hybrid composite resin (Filtek Z-250). Eighty specimens were prepared, and baseline hardness and surface roughness (KMN0 and Ra0, respectively) were measured. The specimens were subjected to sorption (SO) and solubility (SL) tests according to ISO 4049:2009, but using different storage solutions: deionized water; 75/25 vol% ethanol/water solution; lactic acid; propionic acid; and acetic acid. The acids were used in two concentrations: PA and 0.02 N. pH was measured for all solutions and final hardness (KMN1) and surface roughness (Ra1) were measured. Data were analyzed with paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=5%). All solutions decreased hardness and increased the Ra values, except for the specimens stored in water and 0.02 N lactic acid, which maintained the hardness. All solutions produced similar SO and SL phenomena, except for the 0.02 N lactic acid, which caused lower solubility than the other solutions. Ethanol showed the highest pH (6.6) and the 0.02 N lactic acid the lowest one (2.5). The solutions affected negatively the surface properties of the composite resin; in addition, an acidic pH did not seem to be a significant factor that intensifies the surface degradation phenomena. PMID:25250496

  16. Citric Acid Effects on Brain and Liver Oxidative Stress in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Youness, Eman R.; Mohammed, Nadia A.; Morsy, Safaa M. Youssef; Omara, Enayat A.; Sleem, Amany A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in the greatest amounts in citrus fruits. This study examined the effect of citric acid on endotoxin-induced oxidative stress of the brain and liver. Mice were challenged with a single intraperitoneal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 200 μg/kg). Citric acid was given orally at 1, 2, or 4 g/kg at time of endotoxin injection and mice were euthanized 4 h later. LPS induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver tissue, resulting in marked increase in lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]) and nitrite, while significantly decreasing reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) showed a pronounced increase in brain tissue after endotoxin injection. The administration of citric acid (1–2 g/kg) attenuated LPS-induced elevations in brain MDA, nitrite, TNF-α, GPx, and PON1 activity. In the liver, nitrite was decreased by 1 g/kg citric acid. GPx activity was increased, while PON1 activity was decreased by citric acid. The LPS-induced liver injury, DNA fragmentation, serum transaminase elevations, caspase-3, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression were attenuated by 1–2 g/kg citric acid. DNA fragmentation, however, increased after 4 g/kg citric acid. Thus in this model of systemic inflammation, citric acid (1–2 g/kg) decreased brain lipid peroxidation and inflammation, liver damage, and DNA fragmentation. PMID:24433072

  17. Inhibitory effect of PYY on vagally stimulated acid secretion is mediated predominantly by Y1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, K C; Grandt, D; Aurang, K; Eysselein, V E; Schimiczek, M; Reeve, J R

    1996-01-01

    Two molecular forms of peptide YY (PYY), PYY-(1--36) and PYY-(3--36), are abundant in rabbit intestine and blood. We have previously shown that PYY-(1--36) (PYYI) activates equipotently Y1 and Y2 receptors and PYY-(3--36) (PYY II) is a highly selective agonist for Y2 receptors. In the present study, we examined the effect of exogenous infusion of PYY on vagally stimulated gastric acid secretion in awake rabbits with chronic gastric fistula. To determine the specific PYY receptor(s) that mediates this effect, we used a highly selective Y1 agonist, Pro34-PYY, a synthetic PYY, and a Y2-selective agonist, PYY II. Vagal stimulation of acid secretion was elicited by an intravenous bolus injection of insulin (0.125 U/kg) 30 min after beginning a 180-min intravenous infusion of either PYY I, PYY II, or [Pro34]-PYY after a 50 micrograms/kg i.v. bolus of atropine followed immediately by a 500 micrograms/kg sc injection. During infusion of 200 pmol.kg 1.h-1 PYY I, acid output was significantly inhibited to 45 +/- 13% of maximum acid output 60 min after injection of insulin. Similarly, acid output during infusion of 200 pmol.kg-1.h-1 [Pro34]-PYY was significantly inhibited to 52 +/- 12% of maximum. In contrast, acid output during infusion of 200 pmol.kg-1.h-1 of PYY II was not significantly inhibited (101 +/- 18% of maximum). Infusion of double the dose (400 pmol.kg-1.h-1) of PYY II resulted in acid inhibition (51 = 15% of maximum), whereas infusion of the same dose did not significantly enhance acid inhibition by infusion of either PYY I or [Pro34]-PYY (28 +/- 11 and 42 +/- 15% of maximum). These results indicate that PYY, acting predominantly at Y1 receptors, is a potent inhibitor of vagally stimulated acid secretion in adult rabbits. PMID:8772509

  18. [Effects