Sample records for acid benzoic acid

  1. Molecular Structure of Benzoic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-05-08

    Benzoic acid is a medium-strong acid found in human foods such as berries, and is used as a plasticizer, insecticide, fungicide, an antifungal agent and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. It is more hydrophobic, water fearing, in comparison with other carboxylic acids and therefore can be extracted easily from all types of solvents. This acid is slightly soluble in water and has a melting point of 122 degrees Celsius. Benzoic acid is industrially manufactured from toluene, benzotrichloride and phthalic anhydride. It is purified by the process of sublimation, and the extremely pure form is used as a titrimetric and calorimetric standard in analytical chemistry.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and Drugs...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7 H6...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and Drugs...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7 H6...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3021 Benzoic acid. (a) Product. Benzoic acid. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3021 Benzoic acid. (a) Product. Benzoic acid. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3021 Benzoic acid. (a) Product. Benzoic acid. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3021 Benzoic acid. (a) Product. Benzoic acid. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally...

  8. 21 CFR 573.210 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 573.210 Section 573.210 Food and Drugs... Food Additive Listing § 573.210 Benzoic acid. The food additive, benzoic acid, may be safely used in the manufacture of...

  9. Oxidation of Benzaldehyde to Benzoic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongyan Yan; Chunsheng Liu; Genxiang Luo

    2005-01-01

    Benzaldehyde was oxidized to benzoic acid using Na2WO4·2H2O as a catalyst. Different factors, such as different acidic additives, the reaction time, the amount of catalyst, and hydrogen peroxide dosage, on the isolated yield of benzoic acid were investigated. The effects of surfactants on yield of benzoic acid were also discussed in the acid-free system. The results indicated that both acidic

  10. Crystal structures of monohalogenated benzoic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olga V. Grineva; Petr M. Zorky; Evgenij S. Rostov

    2007-01-01

    Crystal structures resulting from a combination of different types of specific intermolecular interactions have been analysed\\u000a using examples of 12 monohalogenated benzoic acids (HBA). These have been compared with structures known for corresponding\\u000a monofunctional compounds, namely benzoic acid, fluorobenzene, chlorobenzene and iodobenzene. It is found that common for carboxylic\\u000a acids centrosymmetric hydrogen-bonded dimers exist in all HBA, and at the same

  11. Degradation of benzoic acid and its derivatives in subcritical water.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Edward; Yang, Yu

    2011-04-15

    In this research, the stability of benzoic acid and three of its derivatives (anthranilic acid, salicylic acid, and syringic acid) under subcritical water conditions was investigated. The stability studies were carried out at temperatures ranging from 50 to 350°C with heating times of 10-630 min. The degradation of the benzoic acid derivatives increased with rising temperature and the acids became less stable with longer heating time. The three benzoic acid derivatives showed very mild degradation at 150°C. Severe degradation of benzoic acid derivatives was observed at 200°C while their complete degradation occurred at 250°C. However, benzoic acid remained stable at temperatures up to 300°C. The degradation products of benzoic acid and the three derivatives were identified and quantified by HPLC and confirmed by GC/MS. Anthranilic acid, salicylic acid, syringic acid, and benzoic acid in high-temperature water underwent decarboxylation to form aniline, phenol, syringol, and benzene, respectively. PMID:20846661

  12. Degradation of benzoic acid and its derivatives in subcritical water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Lindquist; Yu Yang

    2011-01-01

    In this research, the stability of benzoic acid and three of its derivatives (anthranilic acid, salicylic acid, and syringic acid) under subcritical water conditions was investigated. The stability studies were carried out at temperatures ranging from 50 to 350°C with heating times of 10–630min. The degradation of the benzoic acid derivatives increased with rising temperature and the acids became less

  13. Caldensinic acid, a prenylated benzoic acid from Piper caldense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovana C. Freitas; Rodrigo O. Saga Kitamura; Joăo Henrique G. Lago; Maria Claudia M. Young; Elsie F. Guimarăes; Massuo J. Kato

    2009-01-01

    The CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts from leaves of Piper caldense were subjected to chromatographic separation procedures to afford the new prenylated benzoic acid, caldensinic acid (3-[(2?E,6?E,10?E)-11?-carboxy-3?,7?,15?-trimethylhexadeca-2?,6?,10?,14?-tetraenyl]-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid) whose structure was determined by spectral analysis, mainly NMR (1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC) and ESI-MS. The natural compound and derivatives displayed antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum by

  14. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721...Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject to...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721...Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject to...

  16. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  17. Catabolism of substituted benzoic acids by streptomyces species.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, J B; Crawford, D L; Pometto, A L

    1981-02-01

    Four thermotolerant actinomycetes from soil, identified as Streptomyces albulus 321, Streptomyces sioyaensis P5, Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, and Streptomyces sp. V7, were grown at 45 degrees C in media containing either benzoic acid or hydroxyl- and methoxyl-substituted benzoic acids as the principal carbon sources. Benzoic acid was converted to catechol; p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, and veratric acids were converted to protocatechuic acid; and m-hydroxybenzoic acid was converted to gentisic acid. Catechol, protocatechuic acid, and gentisic acid were cleaved by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase, and gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, respectively. Dioxygenases appeared only in induced cultures. m-Hydroxybenzoic, m-anisic, and p-anisic acids were gratuitous inducers of dioxygenases in some strains. One strain converted vanillic acid to guaiacol. PMID:16345718

  18. Effect of formic acid and benzoic acid esters on grass preservation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of formic acid and benzoic acid esters on grass preservation A Rauramaa A Tommila J Ltd, Espoo Reseach Centre, PO Box 44, 02271 Espoo, Finland Formic acid is known to improve silage hygienic quality. Formic acid based additive containing propionic and benzoic acids inhibits more

  19. Inactivation of myeloperoxidase by benzoic acid hydrazide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiansheng; Smith, Forrest; Panizzi, Jennifer R; Goodwin, Douglas C; Panizzi, Peter

    2015-03-15

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is expressed by myeloid cells for the purpose of catalyzing the formation of hypochlorous acid, from chloride ions and reaction with a hydrogen peroxide-charged heme covalently bound to the enzyme. Most peroxidase enzymes both plant and mammalian are inhibited by benzoic acid hydrazide (BAH)-containing compounds, but the mechanism underlying MPO inhibition by BAH compounds is largely unknown. Recently, we reported MPO inhibition by BAH and 4-(trifluoromethyl)-BAH was due to hydrolysis of the ester bond between MPO heavy chain glutamate 242 ((HC)Glu(242)) residue and the heme pyrrole A ring, freeing the heme linked light chain MPO subunit from the larger remaining heavy chain portion. Here we probed the structure and function relationship behind this ester bond cleavage using a panel of BAH analogs to gain insight into the constraints imposed by the MPO active site and channel leading to the buried protoporphyrin IX ring. In addition, we show evidence that destruction of the heme ring does not occur by tracking the heme prosthetic group and provide evidence that the mechanism of hydrolysis follows a potential attack of the (HC)Glu(242) carbonyl leading to a rearrangement causing the release of the vinyl-sulfonium linkage between (HC)Met(243) and the pyrrole A ring. PMID:25688920

  20. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10109 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10109 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10109 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10109 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with...

  4. Degradation of Phthalic Acids and Benzoic Acid from Terephthalic Acid Wastewater by Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramesh Thiruvenkatachari; Tae Ouk Kwon; Il Shik Moon

    2006-01-01

    Terephthalic acid (TPA) wastewater is traditionally being treated by biological method. This study investigates the degradation of three major toxic target organic species, namely terephthalic acid (TPA), isophthalic acid (IPA), benzoic acid (BA), present in the TPA wastewater, by several advanced oxidation processes. The performance of three main oxidation processes such as photofenton oxidation (UV-H2O2-Fe), photocatalytic ozonation (UV-O3-Fe) and photofenton

  5. Benzoic acid biosynthesis in cell cultures of Hypericum androsaemum.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M A; Beerhues, Ludger

    2002-03-01

    Biosynthesis of benzoic acid from cinnamic acid has been studied in cell cultures of Hypericum androsaemum L. The mechanism underlying side-chain shortening is CoA-dependent and non-beta-oxidative. The enzymes involved are cinnamate:CoA ligase, cinnamoyl-CoA hydratase/lyase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase. Cinnamate:CoA ligase was separated from benzoate:CoA ligase and 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, which belong to xanthone biosynthesis and general phenylpropanoid metabolism, respectively. Cinnamoyl-CoA hydratase/lyase catalyzes hydration and cleavage of cinnamoyl-CoA to benzaldehyde and acetyl-CoA. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase finally supplies benzoic acid. In cell cultures of H. androsaemum, benzoic acid is a precursor of xanthones, which accumulate during cell culture growth and after methyl jasmonate treatment. Both the constitutive and the induced accumulations of xanthones were preceded by increases in the activities of all benzoic acid biosynthetic enzymes. Similar changes in activity were observed for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and the xanthone biosynthetic enzymes benzoate:CoA ligase and benzophenone synthase. PMID:11882941

  6. Studies on the anaerobic degradation of benzoic acid and 2-aminobenzoic acid by a denitrifying Pseudomonas strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ziegler; K. Braun; A. Biickler; G. Fuchs

    1987-01-01

    The growth of a denitrifying Pseudomonas strain on benzoic acid and 2-aminobenzoic acid (anthranilic acid) has been studied. The organism grew aerobically on benzoate, 2-aminobenzoate, and gentisate, but not on catechol or protocatechuic acid. These and other findings suggest that aerobic degradation of benzoic acid was via gentisic acid. Under completely anaerobic conditions in the presence of nitrate, benzoate and

  7. Silver-catalysed protodecarboxylation of ortho-substituted benzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Cornella, Josep; Sanchez, Carolina; Banawa, David; Larrosa, Igor

    2009-12-14

    Catalytic amounts of Ag(I) salts in DMSO have been found to promote the protodecarboxylation of a wide variety of ortho-substituted benzoic acids under mild conditions and in excellent yields, highlighting a possible role for silver in decarboxylative cross-couplings. PMID:19921021

  8. Inhibition of benzoic acid on the polyaniline–polyphenol oxidase biosensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengqi Li; Yongyan Tan; Peng Wang; Jinqing Kan

    2010-01-01

    A polyaniline–polyphenol oxidase (PANI–PPO) biosensor for detecting benzoic acid is reported. The biosensor is based on the inhibition of benzoic acid on the biocatalytic activity of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The Michaelis–Menten constant (k?m) and maximum response current (Imax) in both the absence and presence of benzoic acid are also evaluated. The kinetic analyses show that the inhibition of benzoic

  9. Relative reactivities of solid benzoic acids 

    E-print Network

    Warwas, Edwin James

    1967-01-01

    -t-butylbenzoic acid and potassium p-t-butylbenzoate shows the growth of whisker-like protuberances of the reaction product on the surface of the salt crystal. After the whiskers virtually covered the salt surface, an X-ray powder diagram of the product was made.... This powder diagram matched identically the powder diagram of syntheti- cally prepared potassium hydrogen di-p-t-butylbenzoate. No evidence of reaction on the surface of the acid was ever observed. The time needed for complete reaction in the weighing...

  10. 2-(m-Tol­yloxy)benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Fang

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C14H12O3, the mol­ecules form classical O—H?O hydrogen-bonded carb­oxy­lic acid dimers. The dihedral angle between the two rings is 80.9?(3)°. PMID:22090979

  11. Gas phase measurements of mono-fluoro-benzoic acids and the dimer of 3-fluoro-benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Daly, Adam M; Carey, Spencer J; Pejlovas, Aaron M; Li, Kexin; Kang, Lu; Kukolich, Stephen G

    2015-04-14

    The microwave spectrum of the mono-fluoro-benzoic acids, 2-fluoro-, 3-fluoro-, and 4-fluoro-benzoic acid have been measured in the frequency range of 4-14 GHz using a pulsed beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. Measured rotational transition lines were assigned and fit using a rigid rotor Hamiltonian. Assignments were made for 3 conformers of 2-fluorobenzoic acid, 2 conformers of 3-fluorobenzoic acid, and 1 conformer of 4-fluorobenzoic acid. Additionally, the gas phase homodimer of 3-fluorobenzoic acid was detected, and the spectra showed evidence of proton tunneling. Experimental rotational constants are A(0(+)) = 1151.8(5), B(0(+)) = 100.3(5), C(0(+)) = 87.64(3) MHz and A(0(-)) = 1152.2(5), B(0(-)) = 100.7(5), C(0(-)) = 88.85(3) MHz for the two ground vibrational states split by the proton tunneling motion. The tunneling splitting (?E) is approximately 560 MHz. This homodimer appears to be the largest carboxylic acid dimer observed with F-T microwave spectroscopy. PMID:25877574

  12. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10111 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10110 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10110 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10110 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10111 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10111 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10110 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10111 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10110 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10111 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  2. Palladium-catalyzed chemoselective decarboxylative ortho acylation of benzoic acids with ?-oxocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jinmin; Ge, Haibo

    2013-06-21

    Palladium-catalyzed chemoselective decarboxylative cross coupling of benzoic acids with ?-oxocarboxylic acids was realized via an arene sp(2) C-H functionalization process. This work represents the first example of transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with two acids acting in different roles. The synthetic utility of this method was confirmed by the synthesis of pitofenone, an antispasmodic used in the combined drug Spasmalgon. PMID:23721458

  3. Antiherbivore prenylated benzoic acid derivatives from Piper kelleyi.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Christopher S; Leonard, Michael D; Glassmire, Andrea E; Dodson, Craig D; Richards, Lora A; Kato, Massuo J; Dyer, Lee A

    2014-01-24

    The known prenylated benzoic acid derivative 3-geranyl-4-hydroxy-5-(3?,3?-dimethylallyl)benzoic acid (1) and two new chromane natural products were isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Piper kelleyi Tepe (Piperaceae), a midcanopy tropical shrub that grows in lower montane rain forests in Ecuador and Peru. Structure determination using 1D and 2D NMR analysis led to the structure of the chromene 2 and to the reassignment of the structure of cumanensic acid as 4, an isomeric chromene previously isolated from Piper gaudichaudianum. The structure and relative configuration of new chromane 3 was determined using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and was found to be racemic by ECD spectropolarimetry. The biological activity of 1-3 was evaluated against a lab colony of the generalist caterpillar Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae), and low concentrations of 2 and 3 were found to significantly reduce fitness. Further consideration of the biosynthetic relationship of the three compounds led to the proposal that 1 is converted to 2 via an oxidative process, whereas 3 is produced through hetero-[4+2] dimerization of a quinone methide derived from the chromene 2. PMID:24422717

  4. Solid-State 17O NMR Study of Benzoic Acid Adsorption On Metal Oxide Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W [ORNL; Chen, Banghao [ORNL; Jiao, Jian [ORNL; Parsons, Williams [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state 17O NMR spectra of 17O-labeled benzoic and anisic acids are reported and benzoic acid is used to probe the surface of metal oxides. Complexes formed when benzoic acid is dry-mixed with mesoporous silica, and nonporous titania and alumina are characterized. Chemical reactions with silica are not observed. The nature of benzoic acid on silica is a function of the water content of the oxide. The acid disperses in the pores of the silica if the silica is in equilibrium with ambient laboratory humidity. The acid displays high mobility as evidenced by a liquid-like, Lorentzian resonance. Excess benzoic acid remains as the crystalline hydrogen-bonded dimer. Benzoic acid reacts with titania and alumina surfaces in equilibrium with laboratory air to form the corresponding titanium and aluminum benzoates. In both materials the oxygen of the 17O-labeled acid is bound to the metal, showing the reaction proceeds by bond formation between oxygen deficient metal sites and the oxygen of the carboxylic acid. 27Al MAS NMR confirms this mechanism for the reaction on alumina. Dry mixing of benzoic acid with alumina rapidly quenches pentacoordinate aluminum sites, excellent evidence that these sites are confined to the surface of the alumina particles.

  5. Comparison of Several Extraction Methods for the Isolation of Benzoic Acid Derivatives from Melissa officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriela Karasová; Jozef Lehotay; Ewa K?odzinska; Bogus?aw Buszewski

    2006-01-01

    Several extraction techniques, such as Soxhlet extraction, solid phase extraction using molecularly imprinted polymer, matrix solid phase dispersion, and supercritical fluid extraction were evaluated for the isolation and purification of phenolic compounds, e.g., benzoic acids from natural samples of Melissa officinalis. The extracts of benzoic acids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in reversed phase modus (C18 column)

  6. A study of rates of reaction of some substituted benzoic acids and diphenyldiazomethane 

    E-print Network

    Westmoreland, John Sherman

    1957-01-01

    hours B after which it was distilled through a twelve-bulb Snyder column under anhydrous conditions. The middle seventy per cent of each batch was used. Benzoic Acid ? This acid, purchased from the Mallinckrodt Chemical &orks was analytical reagents...

  7. Benzoic acid derivatives from Piper species and their fungitoxic activity against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum.

    PubMed

    Lago, Joăo Henrique G; Ramos, Clécio Sousa; Casanova, Diego Campos C; Morandim, Andreia de A; Bergamo, Debora Cristina B; Cavalheiro, Alberto J; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S; Furlan, Maysa; Guimarăes, Elsie F; Young, Maria Claudia M; Kato, Massuo J

    2004-11-01

    Piper crassinervium, P. aduncum, P. hostmannianum, and P. gaudichaudianum contain the new benzoic acid derivatives crassinervic acid (1), aduncumene (8), hostmaniane (18), and gaudichaudianic acid (20), respectively, as major secondary metabolites. Additionally, 19 known compounds such as benzoic acids, chromenes, and flavonoids were isolated and identified. The antifungal activity of these compounds was evaluated by bioautographic TLC assay against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum. PMID:15568762

  8. Estimate of intake of benzoic acid in the Belgian adult population.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, S; Andjelkovic, M; De Wil, M; Vinkx, C; Huybrechts, I; Van Loco, J; Van Oyen, H; Goeyens, L

    2009-07-01

    An exposure assessment was performed to estimate average daily benzoic acid intake for Belgian adults. Food consumption data were retrieved from the national food-consumption survey. As a first step, individual food-consumption data were multiplied with the maximum permitted use levels for benzoic acid per food group (Tier 2). As a second step, a label survey to identify the foods where benzoic acid is effectively used as an additive and a literature review of the possible occurrence of benzoic acid as a natural substance were performed. With this information, a refined list of foods was drafted for the quantification of benzoic acid, which was performed by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, optimized and validated for this purpose. Individual food-consumption data were then multiplied with the actual average concentrations of benzoic acid per food group (Tier 3). Usual intakes were calculated using the Nusser method. The mean benzoic acid intake was 1.58 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) (Tier 2) and 1.25 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) (Tier 3). In Tier 2, men exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 5 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) at the 99th percentile. The greatest contributors to the benzoic acid intake were soft drinks. Benzoic acid as a natural substance represents only a small percentage of the total intake. The results show that actual benzoic acid intake is very likely to be below the ADI. However, there is a need to collect national food-consumption data for children as they might be more vulnerable to an excessive intake. PMID:19680971

  9. Preparation of fermentable lingonberry juice through removal of benzoic acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arto Visti; Sanna Viljakainen; Simo Laakso

    2003-01-01

    Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) is a commercially important wild, uncultivated berry in northern regions of the world. It contains high amounts of benzoic acid, which contributes to the acidity of the berry and, as a microbisidic compound, prevents fermentation of lingonberry juice. Therefore a method was developed utilizing the pH-dependent ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to remove benzoic acid from solutions. By

  10. A study of rates of reaction of some substituted diphenyldiazomethanes and benzoic acid 

    E-print Network

    Gilby, Ralph Fredrick

    1954-01-01

    -nitrodiphenyIdiazomethane, benzoyl chloride - pre? pared from benzoic acid (Mallinckrodt Chemical Works) and thionyl (20). I. M. Seilbron, "Dictionary of Organic Compounds", Oxford Uni? versity Press, New York, K.Y., 1938, Vol. IU, p. 188. (21). I. M... of the benzoic acid (Mallinckrodt Chemical Works) used in this study were as follows: Analytical Reagent, Primary Standard, assay 99*95 to 100.05# benzoic acid. This material was dried at 100? C. for two hours before use. 22 EXPERIMENTAL The rates...

  11. Differential changes in taste perception induced by benzoic acid prickling.

    PubMed

    Otero-Losada, M E

    2003-03-01

    Benzoic acid (Bz) is a prickling compound used to preserve foods. However, its effects on taste are unknown. This work examines Bz-taste interaction using psychophysical methods [magnitude estimation (ME) and paired comparison (PC)] to measure taste intensity in aqueous solutions of pure tastants (T) and their respective mixtures with 10 mM Bz (Mix). Prototypical tastants induced basic taste qualities (mM): sucrose [90-1440, sweetness (Sw)], citric acid [1-64, sourness (So)], NaCl [15-960, saltiness (Sa)], quinine [0.01-0.64, bitterness (Bitt)], KCl (12.5-400, Sa and Bitt). MEs were analysed using Steven's and Beidler's equations. Bz increased Sw (all concentrations) and ionic tastes (low concentrations) and Bz effects were reduced by concentration increase according with quality and tastant Bz reduced Bitt(Quinine) (high concentrations). Bz reduced taste slopes (percentage decrease): Sw 45% (P<.02), So 34% (P<.01), Sa 35% or 41% (NaCl or KCl, P<.03), Bitt 33% or 60% (quinine P<.01 or KCl P<.04). Bz reduced K(diss) (affinity(-1)) (percentage reduction): Sw 79% (P<.0002), So 40% (P<.03), Sa(NaCl) 63% (P<.005), Sa(KCl) 48% (P<.04), Bitt(KCl) 64% (P<.04). Bz reduced ME(max) (percentage reduction): Sw 31% (P<.004), Bitt(Quinine) 29% (P<.03). PCs confirmed taste increases by Bz (percentage of 'Mix(intensity)>T(intensity)' answers/total answers): Sw 79-69% (90-1440 mM sucrose), So 75% (1 mM citric acid) and 71% (2 mM citric acid), Sa 75-71% (15-120 mM NaCl). Negative concentration dependence of taste increases by Bz suggests different levels of interaction. Biophysical and neurophysiological changes are discussed in relation with Bz properties and mechanism of interaction with taste. PMID:12676277

  12. Optimized Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction and Determination of Sorbic Acid and Benzoic Acid in Beverage Samples by Gas Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taher Ahmadzadeh Kokya; Khalil Farhadi; Aram AliMohammad Kalhori

    A new rapid method for direct determination of trace levels of sorbic and benzoic acids was developed by dispersive liquid–liquid\\u000a microextraction and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. In the proposed approach, the separation procedure\\u000a of sorbic and benzoic acids was performed on a general chromatographic column without any prior derivatization processes.\\u000a Some effective parameters on the microextraction recovery were

  13. SYNTHESIS AND STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF COPPER(II) COMPLEXES OF BENZOIC ACID AND METHYL SUBSTITUTED BENZOIC ACID HYDRAZIDES AND X-RAY STRUCTURE OF Cu[C6H5CONHNH2]2(NO3)2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olusegun A. Odunola; Idowu O. Adeoye; Joseph A. O. Woods

    2002-01-01

    The synthesis, spectroscopic, magnetic and biological activities of copper(II) complexes of benzoic acid hydrazides (BAH) and o, m, and p-substituted methylbenzoic acid hydrazides (MBAH) and the single crystal X-ray structure for bis(benzoic acid hydrazide)copper(II) nitrate {Cu[BAH]2-(NO3)2} (BAH=Benzoic acid hydrazide) are reported. The composition of the ligands was established by elemental analyses, H NMR, and GC-MS. Magnetic susceptibility, electronic and infrared

  14. Hydrogen peroxide oxidation of benzylic alcohols to benzaldehydes and benzoic acids under halide-free conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiko Sato; Junko Takagi; Masao Aoki; Ryoji Noyori

    1998-01-01

    A series of benzaldehyde and benzoic acid derivatives can be obtained from benzylic alcohols by tungsten-catalyzed oxidation with aqueous hydrogen peroxide under halide-free, aqueous\\/organic biphasic conditions.

  15. Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Resin-m-Amino Benzoic Acid Composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Thakkar

    1995-01-01

    The curing behaviour of epoxy resin-m-amino benzoic acid, the condensation product of epoxy resin namely; diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) and m-amino benzoic acid (m-ABA) was studied by differential scanning calaorimetry (DSC). The resultant neat products of DGEBA-m-ABA were characterised by infrared (IR) spectral studies and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The glass fiber reinforced composites were prepared and evaluated for their

  16. Arabidopsis Chy1 null mutants are deficient in benzoic acid-containing glucosinolates in the seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibdah, M; Pichersky, E

    2009-07-01

    The specific set of reactions that lead to the synthesis of benzoic acid in plants is still unclear, and even the subcellular compartment in which these reactions occur is unknown. Biosynthesis of both vegetative tissues and seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana contain a class of defense compounds termed glucosinolates, but only the seeds synthesize and store high levels of two glucosinolate compounds that contain a benzoic acid moiety. To identify genes involved in the synthesis of benzoic acid (directly or via benzaldehyde) in Arabidopsis, we analysed the levels of benzoylated glucosinolates in several lines that carry mutations in genes with homology to Pseudomonas fluorescens feruloyl-CoA hydratase, an enzyme that converts feruloyl-CoA to vanillin and acetyl-CoA, a reaction analogous to the conversion of cinnamoyl-CoA to benzaldehyde. We show here that mutations in the gene At5g65940, previously shown to encode a peroxisomal protein with beta-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase activity and designated as Chy1, lead to a deficiency of benzoic acid-containing glucosinolates in the seeds. Furthermore, Chy1 exhibits cinnamoyl-CoA hydrolase activity with a K(m) of 2.9 mum. Our findings suggest that at least a part of benzoic acid biosynthesis occurs in the peroxisomes, although the specific pathway that leads to benzoic acid and the specific biochemical role of Chy1 remain unclear. PMID:19538395

  17. Ferrocene containing chelating ligands 3. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, electrochemical behaviour and interaction with metal ions of new ligands obtained by condensation of ferrocenecarboxaldehyde with 2-amino-benzoic acid derivatives. Crystal structures of 2-ferrocenylmethylamino-5-methyl-benzoic acid and 2-bis(ferrocenylmethyl)ammonium-5-methyl-benzoic acid perchlorate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Cano; Angel Benito; Ramón Martínez-Máńez; Juan Soto; Jordi Payá; Francesc Lloret; Miguel Julve; M. Dolores Marcos; Ekkehard Sinn

    1995-01-01

    Ferrocenecarboxaldehyde reacts with 2-amino-benzoic acid, 2-amino-5-methyl-benzoic acid or 3-amino-2-naphthoic acid to give the corresponding Schiff-base derivatives 2-ferrocenylmethylidenimino-benzoic acid (1), 2-ferrocenylmethylidenimino-5-methyl-benzoic acid (2) and 3-ferrocenylmethylidenimino-2-naphthoic acid (3). 1, 2 and 3 are stable in the solid state but easily hydrolyze in solution. This hydrolysis has been studied kinetically in a methanol-water medium. In order to increase the stability in solution to

  18. Metabolism of benzoic acid by bacteria: 3,5-cyclohexadiene-1,2-diol-1-carboxylic acid is an intermediate in the formation of catechol.

    PubMed

    Reiner, A M

    1971-10-01

    3,5-Cyclohexadiene-1,2-diol-1-carboxylic acid (1,2-dihydro-1,2-dihydroxy-benzoic acid) is converted enzymatically to catechol in cell extracts from Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Azotobacter, and three Pseudomonas species. This enzymatic activity is present only in cultures which have been grown in the presence of benzoic acid, and which convert benzoic acid to catechol rather than to protocatechuic acid. The reaction is assayed by the concomitant formation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. The conversion of [(14)C]benzoic acid to [(14)C]dihydrodihydroxybenzoic acid is demonstrated in cell extracts. A scheme for the conversion of benzoic acid to catechol in bacteria is presented, involving the formation of dihydrodihydroxybenzoic acid from benzoic acid by a dioxygenase which is unstable in cell extracts, followed by the dehydrogenation and decarboxylation of dihydrodihydroxybenzoic acid to catechol by a previously undescribed enzyme. Experiments with anthranilic acid and phthalic acid suggest that dihydrodihydroxybenzoic acid is a metabolite unique to benzoic acid metabolism. Two new methods for assaying benzoic acid dioxygenase are suggested. PMID:4399343

  19. Pressure-imposed changes of benzoic acid crystals.

    PubMed

    Cysewski, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    Structural and energetic properties of benzoic acid crystals at pressure elevated from ambient condition up to 2.21 GPa were characterized. The directly observed variations of cell parameters and consequently cell volume are associated with many other changes including energetic, geometric, and electronic characteristics. First of all the non-monotonous change of lattice energy are noticed with the rise of pressure since the increase of stabilization up to 1GPa is followed by systematic decrease of lattice energies after extending the hydrostatic compression. There is also an observed increase of C2(2)(8) synthon stabilization interaction with increase of pressure. The lattice response rather than interaction within synthons are source of observed pressure-related trend of lattice energy changes. The energy decomposition analysis revealed that the total steric interactions determine the overall trend of lattice energy change with the rise of pressure. Besides geometric aromaticity index was used as a measure of geometric changes. Serious discrepancies were noticed between HOMA values computed with the use of experimental and optimized geometries of the ring. Even inclusion of uncertainties of experimental geometries related to limited precision of X-ray diffraction measurements does not cancel mentioned discrepancies. Although HOMA exhibit similar trends at modest pressures the diversity became surprisingly high at more extreme conditions. This might suggest limitations of periodic DFT computations at elevated pressures and the experimentally observed breaking of molecules at very high pressures will probably not be accounted properly in this approach. Also limitation of direct use of experimental geometries were highlighted. PMID:25764324

  20. Dietary exposure estimates for the food preservatives benzoic acid and sorbic acid in the total diet in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ling, Min-Pei; Lien, Keng-Wen; Wu, Chiu-Hua; Ni, Shih-Pei; Huang, Hui-Ying; Hsieh, Dennis P H

    2015-02-25

    The purpose was to assess the health risk to general consumers in Taiwan associated with dietary intake of benzoic acid and sorbic acid by conducting a total diet study (TDS). The hazard index (HI) in percent acceptable daily intake (%ADI) of benzoic acid and sorbic acid for eight exposure groups classified by age were calculated. In high-intake consumers, the highest HI of benzoic acid was 54.1%ADI for males aged 1-2 years old at the 95th percentile, whereas for females, the HI was 61.7%ADI for aged over 66 years old. The highest HI of sorbic acid for male and female consumers aged 3-6 years old at the 95th percentile were 14.0%ADI and 12.2%ADI, respectively. These results indicate that the use of benzoic acid and sorbic acid as preservatives at the current level of use in the Taiwanese diet does not constitute a public health and safety concern. PMID:25633072

  1. 4-Amino-pyridinium 4-nitro-benzoate 4-nitro-benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Quah, Ching Kheng; Jebas, Samuel Robinson; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C(5)H(7)N(2) (+)·C(7)H(4)NO(4) (-)·C(7)H(5)NO(4), consists of an amino-pyridinium cation, a 4-nitro-benzoate anion and a neutral 4-nitro-benzoic acid mol-ecule. The pyridine ring forms dihedral angles of 64.70?(5)° and 70.37?(5)°, respectively, with the benzene rings of 4-nitro-benzoic acid and 4-nitro-benzoate. In the crystal structure, the cations, anions and the neutral 4-nitro-benzoic acid mol-ecules are linked by O-H?O and N-H?O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (001). Adjacent networks are cross-linked via C-H?O hydrogen bonds and ?-? stacking inter-actions [centroid-centroid distances 3.6339?(6) and 3.6566?(6)?Ć]. PMID:21201092

  2. Effect of benzoic acid on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, gastrointestinal microflora and parameters of microbial metabolism in piglets.

    PubMed

    Kluge, H; Broz, J; Eder, K

    2006-08-01

    In order to investigate the effects of benzoic acid on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and gastrointestinal microflora of piglets, we conducted a performance experiment and a separate balance study. The performance experiment involved four different dietary treatments: (1) basal diet (negative control); (2) basal diet supplemented with benzoic acid at 5 g/kg; (3) basal diet supplemented with benzoic acid at 10 g/kg; (4) basal diet supplemented with potassium diformate at 12 g/kg. Each dietary treatment was assigned to nine replicate groups, each consisting of two piglets. Live weight, daily weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were monitored as performance parameters over a 35-day period. Supplementation of the diet with benzoic acid resulted in a dose-dependent increase in feed intake and body weight gain and an improved feed conversion ratio. Piglets fed the diet supplemented with benzoic acid at 10 g/kg outperformed the control piglets in mean feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio by 9%, 15% and 6% respectively. Growth performance of the piglets fed the diet with benzoic acid at 10 g/kg was similar to that of piglets fed the diet supplemented with potassium diformate. In the balance experiment three groups of six piglets each were fed either a control diet or diets supplemented with benzoic acid at 5 or 10 g/kg respectively. Benzoic acid did not significantly affect nutrient digestibility but increased nitrogen retention. Piglets fed the diets supplemented with benzoic acid at 5 or 10 g/kg retained 5% and 6% more nitrogen, respectively, than control piglets. Supplementation of benzoic acid did not influence the pH value or the concentration of ammonia in the gastrointestinal tract but reduced the number of bacteria in the digesta. In the stomach the number of total aerobic, total anaerobic, lactic acid forming and gram-negative bacteria was reduced; in the duodenum the presence of benzoic acid reduced the number of gram-negative bacteria and in the ileum the number of total aerobic bacteria in a dose-dependent manner. Benzoic acid also considerably reduced the concentration of acetic acid in the duodenum. In conclusion, the data of this study suggest that benzoic acid exerts strong antimicrobial effects in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets and therefore enhances growth performance and nitrogen retention. PMID:16867077

  3. Correlation between chemical structure and rodent repellency of benzoic acid derivatives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fearn, J.E.; DeWitt, J.B.

    1965-01-01

    Sixty-five benzoic acid derivatives were either prepared or obtained from commercial concerns, tested for rat repellency, and their indices of repellency computed. The data from these tests were considered analytically for any correlation between chemical structure and rat repellency. The results suggest a qualitative relationship which is useful in deciding probability of repellency in other compounds.

  4. RETINOIDAL BENZOIC ACIDS (AROTENOIDS) AND OTHER RETINOIDS INHIBIT IN VITRO TRANSFORMATION OF EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five retinoids were calcluated for their ability to inhibit N-methyl-N'nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induccd transformation of primary rat trachcal epithelial (RTE) cells in culture at concentrations that did not affect cell survival. wo retinoidal benzoic acids (arotcnoids), R...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10424 - Benzoic acid, 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, methyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...The chemical substance identified as benzoic acid, 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, methyl (PMN P-12-33, CAS No. 26537-19-9) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described in paragraph (a)(2)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10424 - Benzoic acid, 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, methyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...The chemical substance identified as benzoic acid, 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, methyl (PMN P-12-33, CAS No. 26537-19-9) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described in paragraph (a)(2)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10424 - Benzoic acid, 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, methyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...The chemical substance identified as benzoic acid, 4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, methyl (PMN P-12-33, CAS No. 26537-19-9) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described in paragraph (a)(2)...

  8. The effect of benzoic acid or its ethyl ester on rumen fermentation parameters

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The effect of benzoic acid or its ethyl ester on rumen fermentation parameters J Nousiainen Valio response of BA or its ethyl ester (EB) on the rumen fermentation parameters in the continuous culture to represent the maximum amount in vivo. The fermentation apparatus and the design of trials as well

  9. Quantitative solubility-structure relationships for some meta- and para-substituted benzoic acids

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, John Norman

    1963-01-01

    lla bonds wi, th solvent molecules of high polarity, ", such as water and ethanol? In solvents of low polarity, molecular weight studies show these acids existing to a large degree in a dimerized 12 state as illustrated below. 2 CBH5002H ~ (CSH5C02...OVANTITATIVE SOLVBILITV-STRVCTVRE RELATIONSHIPR FOR SOME META- AND FARAMUBSTITDTED BENZOIC ACIDS A Thesis by JOHN NORMAN PAWLOSKI Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment...

  10. Preparation, characterization and catalytic properties of MCM-48 supported tungstophosphoric acid mesoporous materials for green synthesis of benzoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Chen, Xi; Chen, Ya; Zheng, Xiu-Cheng, E-mail: zhxch@zzu.edu.cn

    2014-03-15

    MCM-48 and tungstophosphoric acid (HPW) were prepared and applied for the synthesis of HPW/MCM-48 mesoporous materials. The characterization results showed that HPW/MCM-48 obtained retained the typical mesopore structure of MCM-48, and the textural parameters decreased with the increase loading of HPW. The catalytic oxidation results of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde with 30% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} indicated that HPW/MCM-48 was an efficient catalyst for the green synthesis of benzoic acid. Furthermore, 35 wt% HPW/MCM-48 sample showed the highest activity under the reaction conditions. Highlights: • 5–45 wt% HPW/MCM-48 mesoporous catalysts were prepared and characterized. • Their catalytic activities for the green synthesis of benzoic acid were investigated. • HPW/MCM-48 was approved to be an efficient catalyst. • 5 wt% HPW/MCM-48 exhibited the highest catalytic activity.

  11. Effects of Benzoic Acid and Thymol on Growth Performance and Gut Characteristics of Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Hui; Zheng, Ping; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Mao, Xiangbing; Yu, Jie; Chen, Daiwen

    2015-01-01

    A total of 144 weaned crossed pigs were used in a 42-d trial to explore the effects of different concentrations/combinations of benzoic acid and thymol on growth performance and gut characteristics in weaned pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments: i) control (C), basal diet, ii) C+1,000 mg/kg benzoic acid+100 mg/kg thymol (BT1), iii) C+1,000 mg/kg benzoic acid+200 mg/kg thymol (BT2) and, iv) C+2,000 mg/kg benzoic acid+100 mg/kg thymol (BT3). Relative to the control, pigs fed diet BT3 had lower diarrhoea score during the overall period (p<0.10) and improved feed to gain ratio between days 1 to 14 (p<0.05), which was accompanied by improved apparent total tract digestibility of ether extract, Ca and crude ash (p<0.05), and larger lipase, lactase and sucrose activities in the jejunum (p<0.05) at d 14 and d 42. Similarly, relative to the control, pigs fed diet BT3 had higher counts for Lactobacillus spp in digesta of ileum at d 14 (p<0.05), and pigs fed diets BT1, BT2, or BT3 also had higher counts of Bacillus spp in digesta of caecum at d 14 (p<0.05), and lower concentration of ammonia nitrogen in digesta of caecum at d 14 and d 42 (p<0.05). Finally, pigs fed diet BT3 had higher concentration of butyric acid in digesta of caecum at d 42 (p<0.05), and a larger villus height:crypt depth ratio in jejunum and ileum at d 14 (p<0.05) than pigs fed the control diet. In conclusion, piglets fed diet supplementation with different concentrations/combinations of benzoic acid and thymol could improve feed efficiency and diarrhoea, and improve gut microfloral composition. The combination of 2,000 mg/kg benzoic acid+100 mg/kg thymol produced better effects than other treatments in most measurements. PMID:25925060

  12. Quantitative relationships between structure and solubility for some m- and p-substituted benzoic acids 

    E-print Network

    Idoux, John Paul

    1965-01-01

    solute/100 grams of saturated solution (1) 1. 0936 (2) 0. 8192- b (3) 0. 3517 (4) O. 814S Benzoic Acid 2. 13 1. 61 0. 69 1. 60 50. 873 50. 882 50. 971 50. 906 Ave . = 50. 908 (1) 0, 5143 (2) 0. 6179 (3) 0. 6371 (4) 0. 5607 4...-Nitrobenzoic Acid 3. 41 4. 10 4. 22 3. 72 15. 082 15. 071 15. 097 15. 073 Ave . = 15. 081 (1) 0. 1604 (2) o. 28oo (3) 0. 2602 (4) 0. 0870 4-Methoxybenzoic Acid 1. 23 2. 14 2. 00 0. 67 13 ~ 041 13. 084 13. 010 12. 985 Ave. 13. 030...

  13. Antihyperlipidemic action of a newly synthesized benzoic acid derivative, S-2E

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Ohmori; Haruo Yamada; Akio Yasuda; Akira Yamamoto; Naosuke Matsuura; Mamoru Kiniwa

    2003-01-01

    A newly synthesized benzoic acid derivative, (+)-(S)-p-[1-(p-tert-butylphenyl)-2-oxo-4-pyrrolidinyl]methoxybenzoic acid (S-2E), has the capacity to inhibit the biosynthesis of both sterol and fatty acids. Here, we report the mechanism by which S-2E lowers blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels. In the liver, S-2E was converted into its active metabolite, S-2E-CoA. S-2E-CoA noncompetitively inhibited the enzymatic activities of both 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A (HMG-CoA) reductase and

  14. 3-[4-(Acetamido)­benzene­sulfonamido]­benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Sidra Muzaffar; Mustafa, Ghulam; Khan, Islam Ullah; Zia-ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Shafiq, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C15H14N2O5S, the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 63.20?(11)?Ć. The crystal structure displays classical inter­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bonding typical for carb­oxy­lic acids, forming centrosymmetric dimers. These dimers are further connected by N—H?O and C—H?O hydrogen bonds to form an extended network. PMID:21522739

  15. 2-(3-Meth­oxy­phen­oxy)benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Fang

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C14H12O4, the mol­ecules form classical O—H?O hydrogen-bonded carb­oxy­lic acid dimers. These dimers are linked by C—H?pi; inter­actions into a three-dimensional network. The benzene rings are oriented at a dihedral angle of 69.6?(3)°. PMID:21754401

  16. Dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, ?-dicarbonyls, fatty acids, and benzoic acid in urban aerosols collected during the 2006 Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing (CAREBeijing-2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, K. F.; Lee, S. C.; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Tachibana, Eri; Cheng, Y.; Zhu, Tong

    2010-10-01

    Ground-based studies of PM2.5 were conducted for determination of 30 water-soluble organic species, including dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and dicarbonyls, nine fatty acids, and benzoic acid, during the Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing 2006 (CAREBeijing-2006; 21 August to 4 September 2006) at urban (Peking University, PKU) and suburban (Yufa) sites of Beijing. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids demonstrated that oxalic acid (C2) was the most abundant species, followed by phthalic acid (Ph) and succinic acid (C4) at both sites. The sum of three dicarboxylic acids accounted for 71% and 74% of total quantified water-soluble organics (327-1552 and 329-1124 ng m-3) in PKU and Yufa, respectively. Positive correlation was found between total quantified water-soluble species and water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC). On a carbon basis, total quantified dicarboxylic acids and ketocarboxylic acids and dicarbonyls account for up to 14.2% and 30.4% of the WSOC in PKU and Yufa, respectively, suggesting that they are the major WSOC fractions in Beijing. The distributions of fatty acids are characterized by a strong even carbon number predominance with maximum at hexadecanoic acid (C16:0). The ratio of octadecanoic acid (C18:0) to hexadecanoic acid (C16:0) (0.39-0.85, with an average of 0.36) suggests that in addition to vehicular emissions, an input from cooking emissions is important, as is biogenic emission. Benzoic acid that has been proposed as a primary pollutant from vehicular exhaust and a secondary product from photochemical reactions was found to be abundant: 72.2 ± 58.1 ng m-3 in PKU and 78.0 ± 47.3 ng m-3 in Yufa. According to the 72 hour back trajectory analysis, when the air mass passed over the southern or southeastern part of Beijing (24-25 August and 1-2 September), the highest concentrations of organic compounds were observed. On the contrary, when the clean air masses came straight from the north during 3-4 September, the lowest levels of organic compounds were recorded. This study demonstrates that pollution episodes in Beijing were strongly controlled by wind direction; that is, air quality in Beijing is good when air masses originate from the north and northwest, whereas it deteriorates when the air mass originates from the south and southeast.

  17. The ortho-substituent effect on the Ag-catalysed decarboxylation of benzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Rachel; Cornella, Josep; Blakemore, David C; Larrosa, Igor; Campanera, Josep M

    2014-12-01

    A combined experimental and computational investigation on the Ag-catalysed decarboxylation of benzoic acids is reported herein. The present study demonstrates that a substituent at the ortho position exerts dual effects in the decarboxylation event. On one hand, ortho-substituted benzoic acids are inherently destabilised starting materials compared to their meta- and para-substituted counterparts. On the other hand, the presence of an ortho-electron-withdrawing group results in an additional stabilisation of the transition state. The combination of both effects results in an overall reduction of the activation energy barrier associated with the decarboxylation event. Furthermore, the Fujita-Nishioka linear free energy relationship model indicates that steric bulk of the substituent can also exert a negative effect by destabilising the transition state of decarboxylation. PMID:25336158

  18. Screening of organic halogens and identification of chlorinated benzoic acids in carbonaceous meteorites.

    PubMed

    Schöler, Heinz F; Nkusi, Gerard; Niedan, Volker W; Müller, German; Spitthoff, Bianca

    2005-09-01

    The occurrence of halogenated organic compounds measured as a sum parameter and the evidence of chlorinated benzoic acids in four carbonaceous meteorites (Cold Bokkeveld, Murray, Murchison and Orgueil) from four independent fall events is reported. After AOX (Adsorbable organic halogen) and EOX (Extractable organic halogen) screening to quantify organically bound halogens, chlorinated organic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography. AOX concentrations varying from 124 to 209 microg Cl/g d.w. were observed in carbonaceous meteorites. Ion chromatographic analysis of the distribution of organically bound halogens performed on the Cold Bokkeveld meteorite revealed that chlorinated and brominated organic compounds were extractable, up to 70%, whereas only trace amounts of organofluorines could be extracted. Chlorinated benzoic acids have been identified in carbonaceous meteorite extracts. Their presence and concentrations raise the question concerning the origin of halogenated, especially chlorinated, organic compounds in primitive planetary matter. PMID:16083757

  19. TAC101, a benzoic acid derivative, inhibits liver metastasis of human gastrointestinal cancer and prolongs the life-span

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Murakami; Konstanty Wierzba; Masaki Sano; Jiro Shibata; Kazuhiko Yonekura; Akihiro Hashimoto; Koji Sato; Yuji Yamada

    1998-01-01

    We examined the anti-tumor effect of a novel benzoic acid derivative, TAC-101 (4-[3,5-bis(trimethylsilyl) benzamide] benzoic acid) on models with liver metastasis. Oral administration of TAC-101 significantly inhibited spontaneous liver metastasis of AZ-521 (human gastric cancer ) by orthotopic implan-tation to athymic nude mice. It also inhibited both the liver metastasis of AZ-521 induced by intrasplenic injection and the secondary lung

  20. A note on effect of benzoic acid supplementation on the performance and microbiota population of broiler chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Józefiak; S. Kaczmarek; M. Bochenek; A. Rutkowski

    In order to determine the efficiency of benzoic acid, a feeding experiment was carried out on 400 one-day-old Cobb 500 cockerels. The birds were divided into four dietary treatments: control without additives, or with 2.5, 5 and 7.5 g of benzoic acid per kg diet, respectively. Performance was similar in birds fed the control diet and that with 2.5 g

  1. Crystal structure of 4-acetamido­benzoic acid monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wen-Juan; Chi, Shao-Ming; Kou, Jun-Feng; Liu, Feng-Yi

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C9H9NO3·H2O, the plane of the acetamide group is oriented at 20.52?(8)° with respect to the benzene ring, whereas the plane of the carb­oxy­lic acid group is essentially coplanar with the benzene ring [maximum deviation = 0.033?(1)?Ć]. In the crystal, classical O—H?O and N—H?O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H?O hydrogen bonds link the organic mol­ecules and water mol­ecules of crystallization into a three-dimensional supra­molecular architecture. PMID:25484798

  2. Influence of dietary benzoic acid addition on nutrient digestibility and selected biochemical parameters in fattening rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Papadomichelakis; K. C. Mountzouris; E. Zoidis; K. Fegeros

    2011-01-01

    The effects of two inclusion levels of benzoic acid (5 and 20g\\/kg diet; B5 and B20, respectively) vs. a control (C) and an antibiotic (tiamulin) supplemented (A; 150mg\\/kg) diet on nutrient digestibility and selected biochemical parameters were investigated in 48 weaned (n=12 per treatment) rabbits (35 days old). Blood samples were obtained (at 45 and 85 days of age) to

  3. Quantitative solubility-structure relationships for some meta- and para-substituted benzoic acids 

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, John Norman

    1963-01-01

    by John Norman Pawloski The solubilities of benzoic acid and of 16 m- and p- substituted ben4oic acids have been determined at 30 C in benzene and in cyc1ohexane and are reported as: (1) mole fraction of solutei (2) mole ratio of solute, and (3) grams... of solute per 100 grams of solution. The analysis of the linear regression of log (NB/N ) on Hammett's g gives log (NB/NC) 0 701 + 0 ~ 82+ r ~ Oi950a s ~ 0 131, where NB is the mole fraction of solute in benzene and NC is the mole fraction of solute...

  4. Dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, ?-dicarbonyls, fatty acids and benzoic acid in PM2.5 aerosol collected during CAREBeijing-2007: an effect of traffic restriction on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, K. F.; Huang, R.-J.; Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, S. C.; Ho, S. S. H.; Zhu, T.; Tian, L.

    2014-06-01

    Thirty water-soluble organic species, including dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, ?-dicarbonyls, fatty acids, and benzoic acid were determined as well as organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in PM2.5 samples collected during the Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing 2007 (CAREBeijing-2007) in the urban and suburban areas of Beijing. The objective of this study is to identify the influence of traffic emissions and regional transport to the atmosphere in Beijing during summer. PM2.5 samples collected with or without traffic restriction in Beijing are selected to evaluate the effectiveness of local traffic restriction measure on air pollution reduction. The average concentrations of the total quantified bifunctional organic compounds (TQBOC), total fatty acids and benzoic acid during the entire sampling period were 1184 ± 241 ng m-3, 597 ± 159 ng m-3 and 1496 ± 511ng m-3 in PKU, and 1050 ± 303 ng m-3, 475 ± 114 ng m-3 and 1278 ± 372 ng m-3 in Yufa. Oxalic acid (C2) was found as the most abundant dicarboxylic acid at PKU and Yufa, followed by phthalic acid (Ph). A strong even carbon number predominance with the highest level at palmitic acid (C16:0), followed by stearic acid (C18:0) was found for fatty acids. According to the back trajectories modeling results, the air masses were found to originate mainly from northeast, passing over southeast or south of Beijing (heavily populated, urbanized and industrialized areas), during heavier pollution events, whereas they are mainly from north or northwest sector (mountain areas without serious anthropogenic pollution sources) during cleaner events. The data with wind only from the same sector (minimizing the difference from regional contribution) but with and without traffic restriction in Beijing were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of local traffic restriction measure on the reduction of local air pollution in Beijing. The results suggested that the "traffic restriction" measure can reduce the air pollutants, but the decrease of pollutants is generally smaller in Yufa compared to that in PKU. Moreover, an enhancement of elemental carbon (EC) value indicates elevated primary emissions in Yufa during restriction period than non-restriction period. This study demonstrates that even when primary exhaust was controlled by traffic restriction, the contribution of secondary organic species formed from photochemical processes was critical with long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants.

  5. 40 CFR 180.1110 - 3-Carbamyl-2,4,5-trichloro-benzoic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...4,5-trichloro-benzoic acid; exemption from the requirement...4,5-trichloro-benzoic acid; exemption from the requirement...3-carbamyl-2,4,5-trichlorobenzoic acid in or on all raw agricultural...inadvertent residue resulting from the soil metabolism of...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1110 - 3-Carbamyl-2,4,5-trichloro-benzoic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...4,5-trichloro-benzoic acid; exemption from the requirement...4,5-trichloro-benzoic acid; exemption from the requirement...3-carbamyl-2,4,5-trichlorobenzoic acid in or on all raw agricultural...inadvertent residue resulting from the soil metabolism of...

  7. Inhibition of Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin release by derivatives of benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Chipley, J R; Uraih, N

    1980-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of o-nitrobenzoate, p-aminobenzoate, benzocaine (ethyl aminobenzoate), ethyl benzoate, methyl benzoate, salicylic acid (o-hydroxybenzoate), trans-cinnamic acid (beta-phenylacrylic acid), trans-cinnamaldehyde (3-phenylpropenal), ferulic acid (p-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid), aspirin (o-acetoxy benzoic acid), and anthranilic acid (o-aminobenzoic acid) upon growth and aflatoxin release in Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3145 and A. parasiticus NRRL 3240. A chemically defined medium was supplemented with various concentrations of these compounds and inoculated with spores, and the developing cultures were incubated for 4, 6, and 8 days at 27 degree C in a mechanical shaker. At the beginning of day 8 of incubation, aflatoxins were extracted from cell-free filtrates, separated by thin-layer chromatography, and quantitated by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The structure of these aromatic compounds appeared to be critically related to their effects on mycelial growth and aflatoxin release. At concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0 mg per 25 ml of medium, methyl benzoate and ethyl benzoate were the most effective in reducing both mycelial growth and aflatoxin release by A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Inhibition of mycelial growth and aflatoxin release by various concentrations of the above-named aromatic compounds may indicate the possibility of their use as fungicides. PMID:6781406

  8. Molecular structures of benzoic acid and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, obtained by gas-phase electron diffraction and theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Aarset, Kirsten; Page, Elizabeth M; Rice, David A

    2006-07-20

    The structures of benzoic acid (C6H5COOH) and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (C6H4OHCOOH) have been determined in the gas phase by electron diffraction using results from quantum chemical calculations to inform restraints used on the structural parameters. Theoretical methods (HF and MP2/6-311+G(d,p)) predict two conformers for benzoic acid, one which is 25.0 kJ mol(-1) (MP2) lower in energy than the other. In the low-energy form, the carboxyl group is coplanar with the phenyl ring and the O-H group eclipses the C=O bond. Theoretical calculations (HF and MP2/6-311+G(d,p)) carried out for 2-hydroxybenzoic acid gave evidence for seven stable conformers but one low-energy form (11.7 kJ mol(-1) lower in energy (MP2)) which again has the carboxyl group coplanar with the phenyl ring, the O-H of the carboxyl group eclipsing the C=O bond and the C=O of the carboxyl group oriented toward the O-H group of the phenyl ring. The effects of internal hydrogen bonding in 2-hydroxybenzoic acid can be clearly observed by comparison of pertinent structural parameters between the two compounds. These differences for 2-hydroxybenzoic acid include a shorter exocyclic C-C bond, a lengthening of the ring C-C bond between the substituents, and a shortening of the carboxylic single C-O bond. PMID:16836466

  9. Effect of several electrolyzed waters on the skin permeation of lidocaine, benzoic Acid, and isosorbide mononitrate.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Toshihiko; Todo, Hiroaki; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2009-02-01

    The effects of several electrolyzed waters were evaluated on the permeation of model base, acid and non-ionized compounds, lidocaine (LC), benzoic acid (BA), and isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN), respectively, through excised hairless rat skin. Strong alkaline-electrolyzed reducing water (ERW) enhanced and suppressed the skin permeation of LC and BA, respectively, and it also increased the skin permeation of ISMN, a non-ionized compound. On the contrary, strong acidic electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) enhanced BA permeation, whereas suppressing LC permeation. Only a marginal effect was observed on the skin permeation of ISMN by EOW. These marked enhancing effects of ERW on the skin permeation of LC and ISMN were explained by pH partition hypothesis as well as a decrease in skin impedance. The present results strongly support that electrolyzed waters, ERW and EOW, can be used as a new vehicle in topical pharmaceuticals or cosmetics to modify the skin permeation of drugs without severe skin damage. PMID:19065312

  10. Simultaneous determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in milk products using an optimised microextraction technique followed by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Abdol-Samad; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Azadniya, Ebrahim; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad; Khaksar, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and reliable method for direct determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in milk products was developed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID). A response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design (CCD) was applied for optimisation of the main variables, such as volume of extraction and dispersive solvents, pH and salt effect. The primary extraction of sorbic and benzoic acids were performed in 8 mL NaOH (0.1 M) in a closed-vessel system. Carrez solutions (potassium hexaferrocyanide and zinc acetate) were used for protein sedimentation. The best simultaneous extraction efficiency was identified using acetone and 1-octanal as dispersive and extraction solvents, respectively. For DLLME, central composite design resulted in the optimised values of microextraction parameters as follows: 475 ”L of dispersive and 60 ”L of extraction solvents, 2 g NaCl at pH 2.5. Under optimum conditions, the calibration curve was linear over the range 0.1-50 ?g mL(-1) and the square of correlation coefficient (R(2)) was 0.9992 for sorbic acid and 0.9994 for benzoic acid. Relative standard deviation (RSD %) was 6.1% and 3.1% (n = 5) for sorbic and benzoic acids, respectively. Limits of detection were 150 ng g(-1) for sorbic acid and 140 ng g(-1) for benzoic acid and recoveries were 88% and 103.7% respectively. Good reproducibility (RSD %), short extraction time and no matrix interference were advantages of the proposed method which was successfully applied to the determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in milk products. PMID:24397823

  11. 3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of benzoic acid and salicylic acid but benzaldehyde is not.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, A P; Schaaf, O; Oldham, N J

    2000-12-01

    Stable-isotope-labelled (2H6, 18O) 3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid, a putative intermediate in the biosynthesis of benzoic acid (BA) and salicylic acid (SA) from cinnamic acid, has been synthesized and administered to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and Nicotiana attenuata (Torrey). Analysis of the products by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed incorporation of labelling into BA and SA, but not into benzaldehyde. In a separate experiment, 3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid was found to be a metabolite of phenylalanine, itself the primary metabolic precursor of BA and SA. These data suggest that cinnamic acid chain shortening is probably achieved by beta-oxidation, and that the proposed "non-oxidative" pathway of side-chain degradation does not function in the biosynthesis of BA and SA, in cucumber and N. attenuata. PMID:11219576

  12. Ultrafast formation of the benzoic acid triplet upon ultraviolet photolysis and its sequential photodissociation in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chunfan; Su, Hongmei; Sun, Xuezhong; George, Michael W.

    2012-05-01

    Time-resolved infrared (TR-IR) absorption spectroscopy in both the femtosecond and nanosecond time domain has been applied to examine the photolysis of benzoic acid in acetonitrile solution following either 267 nm or 193 nm excitation. By combining the ultrafast and nanosecond TR-IR measurements, both the excited states and the photofragments have been detected and key mechanistic insights were obtained. We show that the solvent interaction modifies the excited state relaxation pathways and thus the population dynamics, leading to different photolysis behavior in solution from that observed in the gas phase. Vibrational energy transfer to solvents dissipates excitation energy efficiently, suppressing the photodissociation and depopulating the excited S2 or S3 state molecules to the lowest T1 state with a rate of ˜2.5 ps after a delayed onset of ˜3.7 ps. Photolysis of benzoic acid using 267 nm excitation is dominated by the formation of the T1 excited state and no photofragments could be detected. The results from TR-IR experiments using higher energy of 193 nm indicate that photodissociation proceeds more rapidly than the vibrational energy transfer to solvents and C-C bond fission becomes the dominant relaxation pathway in these experiments as featured by the prominent observation of the COOH photofragments and negligible yield of the T1 excited state. The measured ultrafast formation of T1 excited state supports the existence of the surface intersections of S2/S1, S2/T2, and S1/T1/T2, and the large T1 quantum yield of ˜0.65 indicates the importance of the excited state depopulation to triplet manifold as the key factor affecting the photophysical and photochemical behavior of the monomeric benzoic acid.

  13. A benzoic acid derivative and flavokawains from Piper species as schistosomiasis vector controls.

    PubMed

    Rapado, Ludmila N; Freitas, Giovana C; Polpo, Adriano; Rojas-Cardozo, Maritza; Rincón, Javier V; Scotti, Marcus T; Kato, Massuo J; Nakano, Eliana; Yamaguchi, Lydia F

    2014-01-01

    The search of alternative compounds to control tropical diseases such as schistosomiasis has pointed to secondary metabolites derived from natural sources. Piper species are candidates in strategies to control the transmission of schistosomiasis due to their production of molluscicidal compounds. A new benzoic acid derivative and three flavokawains from Piper diospyrifolium, P. cumanense and P. gaudichaudianum displayed significant activities against Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Additionally, "in silico" studies were performed using docking assays and Molecular Interaction Fields to evaluate the physical-chemical differences among the compounds in order to characterize the observed activities of the test compounds against Biomphalaria glabrata snails. PMID:24762961

  14. Sorbic and benzoic acid in non-preservative-added food products in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Ruziye; Cagri-Mehmetoglu, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    Sorbic acid (SA) and benzoic acid (BA) were determined in yoghurt, tomato and pepper paste, fruit juices, chocolates, soups and chips in Turkey by using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Levels were compared with Turkish Food Codex limits. SA was detected only in 2 of 21 yoghurt samples, contrary to BA, which was found in all yoghurt samples but one, ranging from 10.5 to 159.9?mg/kg. Both SA and BA were detected also in 3 and 6 of 23 paste samples in a range of 18.1-526.4 and 21.7-1933.5?mg/kg, respectively. Only 1 of 23 fruit juices contained BA. SA was not detected in any chips, fruit juice, soup, or chocolate sample. Although 16.51% of the samples was not compliant with the Turkish Food Codex limits, estimated daily intake of BA or SA was below the acceptable daily intake. PMID:24786625

  15. DFT and ab initio study of structure of dyes derived from 2-hydroxy and 2,4-dihydroxy benzoic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabbagh, Hossein A.; Teimouri, Abbas; Najafi Chermahini, Alireza; Shahraki, Maryam

    2008-02-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the structural, infrared spectra and visible spectra of a series of azo dyes preparation of salicylic acid and 2,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid derivatives as the coupling component. The preparation of these azo dyes with salicylic acid and 2,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid derivatives (salicylic acid, methyl salicylate, ethyl salicylate, butyl salicylate, methyl 2,4-dihydroxy benzoate, ethyl 2,4-dihydroxy benzoate, salicylaldehyde, salicylamide, 2,4-dihydroxy benzamide, salicylaldoxime) have been investigated theoretically by performing HF and DFT levels of theory using the standard 6-31G* basis set. The optimized geometries and calculated vibrational frequencies are evaluated via comparison with experimental values. The vibrational spectral data obtained from solid phase FT-IR spectra are assigned modes based on the results of the theoretical calculations. The observed spectra are found to be in good agreement with the calculations.

  16. An environment-friendly procedure for the high performance liquid chromatography determination of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in soy sauce.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mingzhen; Peng, Jing; Ma, Shaoling; Zhang, Yuchao

    2015-09-15

    A rapid, accurate and environment-friendly procedure has been developed for the HPLC-based determination of benzoic acid and sorbic acid contents in soy sauce. A C18 column served as the stationary phase, methanol-ammonium acetate buffer (0.02M) (30:70, v/v) was used as the mobile phase, the flow rate was 1mL/min, the UV detector was set at 225nm and cinnamic acid was selected as an internal standard. Under such optimized conditions, benzoic acid, sorbic acid and the internal standard were separated within 8.1min. This newly developed procedure also showed excellent recurrence, with a relative standard deviation of less than 3% and recoveries were 96.1-104.3%. PMID:25863605

  17. Augmenting the activity of antifungal agents against aspergilli using structural analogues of benzoic acid as chemosensitizing agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Structure-activity analysis revealed that antifungal activities of benzoic and gallic acids were increased against strains of Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus and A. terreus, causative agents of human aspergillosis, by addition of a methyl, methoxyl or a chloro group at position 4 of the aromatic ri...

  18. Low temperature Raman study of a liquid crystalline system 4-Decyloxy benzoic acid (4DBA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikram, K.; Nandi, Rajib; Singh, Ranjan K.

    2013-08-01

    The Raman spectra of a liquid crystalline system, 4-Decyloxy benzoic acid (4DBA) have been recorded at different temperatures within the interval 300-78 K in order to identify the structural changes in crystalline state of a nematogen and to understand the molecular alignment therein. The earlier predicted dimer structure of 4DBA was optimized with DFT method and the theoretical Raman spectra of dimer as well as monomer have been calculated for comparison with the experimental spectra. The mode specific quartic coupling coefficient; Ai,? and phonon frequency; ?i have been calculated using temperature dependent anharmonic perturbation theory. The precise band shape analysis of Raman bands at ˜807, ˜881, ˜1255, ˜1282, ˜1436, ˜1576, ˜1604, ˜2881 and ˜3081 cm-1 gives signature of temperature induced slow crystal modification. The structural changes leading to crystal modification have been discussed.

  19. Acaricidal activities of paeonol and benzoic acid from Paeonia suffruticosa root bark and monoterpenoids against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridae).

    PubMed

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2006-06-01

    The acaricidal activities of paeonol (2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone) and benzoic acid identified in the root bark of tree peony, Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews, against copra mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), adults were examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays and compared with those of cinnamyl acetate, cinnamyl alcohol and 37 monoterpenoids as well as the acaricides benzyl benzoate, dibutyl phthalate and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Based on LD(50) values in fabric piece contact toxicity bioassays, the acaricidal activities of benzoic acid (4.80 microg cm(-2)) and paeonol (5.29 microg cm(-2)) were comparable to that of benzyl benzoate (4.46 microg cm(-2)) but more pronounced than those of DEET (30.03 microg cm(-2)) and dibutyl phthalate (25.23 microg cm(-2)). In vapour phase toxicity bioassays, paeonol and benzoic acid were much more effective in closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the effects of these compounds were largely due to action in the vapour phase. As judged by 24 h LD(50) values, (1S)-(-)-verbenone (7.42 mg per disc) was the most toxic fumigant, followed by (1S)-(-)-camphor, (S)-(+)-carvone, (R)-(-)-linalool and (+/-)-camphor (10.45-18.18 mg). Potent fumigant toxicity was also observed with paeonol, (2S,5R)-(-)-menthone, (+/-)-citronellal, benzoic acid, (1S,4R)-(-)-alpha-thujone and (R)-(+)-pulegone (25.10-34.63 mg). Neither benzyl benzoate, DEET nor dibutyl phthalate caused fumigant toxicity. Paeonia root bark-derived materials, particularly paeonol and benzoic acid, as well as the monoterpenoids described, merit further study as potential acaricides or as leads for the control of T. putrescentiae. PMID:16602084

  20. Dietary Supplementation of Benzoic Acid and Essential Oil Compounds Affects Buffering Capacity of the Feeds, Performance of Turkey Poults and Their Antioxidant Status, pH in the Digestive Tract, Intestinal Microbiota and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Giannenas, I.; Papaneophytou, C. P.; Tsalie, E.; Pappas, I.; Triantafillou, E.; Tontis, D.; Kontopidis, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a basal diet with benzoic acid or thymol or a mixture of essential oil blends (MEO) or a combination of benzoic acid with MEO (BMEO) on growth performance of turkey poults. Control groups were fed a basal diet. In trial 1, benzoic acid was supplied at levels of 300 and 1,000 mg/kg. In trial 2, thymol or the MEO were supplied at levels of 30 mg/kg. In trial 3, the combination of benzoic acid with MEO was evaluated. Benzoic acid, MEO and BMEO improved performance, increased lactic acid bacteria populations and decreased coliform bacteria in the caeca. Thymol, MEO and BMEO improved antioxidant status of turkeys. Benzoic acid and BMEO reduced the buffering capacity compared to control feed and the pH values of the caecal content. Benzoic acid and EOs may be suggested as an effective alternative to AGP in turkeys. PMID:25049947

  1. Summer and winter variations of dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids and benzoic acid in PM2.5 in Pearl Delta River Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, K. F.; Ho, S. S. H.; Lee, S. C.; Kawamura, K.; Zou, S. C.; Cao, J. J.; Xu, H. M.

    2010-11-01

    Ground-based PM2.5 samples collected in Pearl River Delta (PRD) region during winter and summer (from 14 December 2006 to 28 January 2007 in winter and from 4 July 2007 to 9 August 2007 in summer) were analyzed for 30 water-soluble organic species, including dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and dicarbonyls, nine fatty acids, and benzoic acid. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids demonstrated that oxalic acid (C2) was the most abundant species followed by phthalic acid (Ph) in PRD region. The concentrations of total dicarboxylic acids ranged from 99 to 1340 ng m-3, with an average of 438 ± 267 ng m-3 in PRD. The concentrations of total ketocarboxylic acids ranged from 0.6 to 207 ng m-3 (43 ± 48 ng m-3 on average) while the concentrations of total ?-dicarbonyls, including glyoxal and methylglyoxal, ranged from 0.2 to 89 ng m-3, with an average of 11 ± 18 ng m-3 in PRD. The total quantified water-soluble organic carbon (TQWOC) accounted for 3.4 ± 2.2% of OC and 14.3 ± 10.3% of water-soluble OC (WSOC). Hexadecanoic acid (C16:0), octadecanoic acid (C18:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) are the three most abundant fatty acids in PRD. The distributions of fatty acids are characterized by a strong even carbon number predominance with a maximum (Cmax) at hexadecanoic acid (C16:0). Ratio of C18:1 to C18:0 acts as an indicator for aerosol aging. In PRD, an average of C18:1/C18:0 ratio was 0.53 ± 0.39, suggesting an enhanced photochemical degradation of unsaturated fatty acid. Seasonal variations of the pollutant concentrations were found in the four sampling cities. Higher concentrations of TQWOC were observed in winter (544 ng m-3) than in summer (318 ng m-3). However, the abundances of TQWOC in OC mass were higher in summer (1.8-12.4%, 5.4% on average) than in winter (1.1-5.7, 2.6% on average), being consistent with enhanced secondary production of dicarboxylic acids in warmer weather. Spatial variations of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids were characterized by higher concentrations in Hong Kong and lower concentrations Guangzhou (GZ)/Zhaoqing (ZQ) during winter whereas highest concentrations were observed in GZ/ZQ during summer. These spatial and seasonal distributions are consistent with photochemical production and the subsequent accumulation under different meteorological conditions.

  2. A re-investigation of the reaction of hemimellitic acid with sulphur tetrafluoride. A simple preparation of 2,6-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wojciech Dmowski; Wojciech Wiszniewski

    1997-01-01

    The reaction of hemimellitic acid (1) with SF4\\/HF gives a 1 : 3.5 : 13 mixture of 1,2,3-tris (trifluoromethyl) benzene (2), 1,1,3,3-tetrafluoro 4-trifluoromethyl-l, 3-dihydroisobenzofuran (3) and 2,6-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl fluoride (4). Treatment of the crude reaction mixture with aqueous KOH, followed by acidification of the water phase, gives a good yield of pure 2,6-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid (5).

  3. Summer and winter variations of dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids and benzoic acid in PM2.5 in Pearl Delta River Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, K. F.; Ho, S. S. H.; Lee, S. C.; Kawamura, K.; Zou, S. C.; Cao, J. J.; Xu, H. M.

    2011-03-01

    Ground-based PM2.5 samples collected at four different sites in Pearl River Delta region (PRD) during winter and summer (from 14 December 2006 to 28 January 2007 in winter and from 4 July to 9 August 2007 in summer) were analyzed for 30 water-soluble organic species, including dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and dicarbonyls, nine fatty acids, and benzoic acid. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids demonstrated that oxalic acid (C2) was the most abundant species followed by phthalic acid (Ph) in PRD region. The concentrations of total dicarboxylic acids ranged from 99 to 1340 ng m-3, with an average of 438 ± 267 ng m-3 in PRD. The concentrations of total ketocarboxylic acids ranged from 0.6 to 207 ng m-3 (43 ± 48 ng m-3 on average) while the concentrations of total ?-dicarbonyls, including glyoxal and methylglyoxal, ranged from 0.2 to 89 ng m-3, with an average of 11 ± 18 ng m-3 in PRD. The total quantified water-soluble compounds (TQWOC) (organic carbon) accounted for 3.4 ± 2.2% of OC and 14.3 ± 10.3% of water-soluble OC (WSOC). Hexadecanoic acid (C16:0), octadecanoic acid (C18:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) were the three most abundant fatty acids in PRD. The distributions of fatty acids were characterized by a strong even carbon number predominance with a maximum (Cmax) at hexadecanoic acid (C16:0). Ratio of C18:1 to C18:0 acts as an indicator for aerosol aging. In PRD, an average of C18:1/C18:0 ratio was 0.53 ± 0.39, suggesting an enhanced photochemical degradation of unsaturated fatty acid. Moreover, the concentrations of benzoic acid ranged from 84 to 306 ng m-3, (165 ± 48 ng m-3 on average), which can be emitted as primary pollutant from motor vehicles exhaust, or formed from photochemical degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Seasonal variations of the organic specie concentrations were found in the four sampling cities. Higher concentrations of TQWOC were observed in winter (598 ± 321 ng m-3) than in summer (372 ± 215 ng m-3). However, the abundances of TQWOC in OC mass were higher in summer (0.9-12.4%, 4.5 ± 2.7% on average) than in winter (1.1-5.7, 2.5 ± 1.2% on average), being consistent with enhanced secondary production of dicarboxylic acids in warmer weather. Spatial variations of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids were characterized by higher concentrations in Hong Kong and lower concentrations in Guangzhou (GZ)/Zhaoqing (ZQ) during winter whereas the highest concentrations were observed in GZ/ZQ during summer. These spatial and seasonal distributions are consistent with photochemical production and the subsequent accumulation under different meteorological conditions.

  4. Completion of the core ?-oxidative pathway of benzoic acid biosynthesis in plants.

    PubMed

    Qualley, Anthony V; Widhalm, Joshua R; Adebesin, Funmilayo; Kish, Christine M; Dudareva, Natalia

    2012-10-01

    Despite the importance of benzoic acid (BA) as a precursor for a wide array of primary and secondary metabolites, its biosynthesis in plants has not been fully elucidated. BA formation from phenylalanine requires shortening of the C(3) side chain by two carbon units, which can occur by a non-?-oxidative route and/or a ?-oxidative pathway analogous to the catabolism of fatty acids. Enzymes responsible for the first and last reactions of the core BA ?-oxidative pathway (cinnamic acid ? cinnamoyl-CoA ? 3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA ? 3-oxo-3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA ? BA-CoA) have previously been characterized in petunia, a plant with flowers rich in phenylpropanoid/benzenoid volatile compounds. Using a functional genomics approach, we have identified a petunia gene encoding cinnamoyl-CoA hydratase-dehydrogenase (PhCHD), a bifunctional peroxisomal enzyme responsible for two consecutively occurring unexplored intermediate steps in the core BA ?-oxidative pathway. PhCHD spatially, developmentally, and temporally coexpresses with known genes in the BA ?-oxidative pathway, and correlates with emission of benzenoid volatiles. Kinetic analysis of recombinant PhCHD revealed it most efficiently converts cinnamoyl-CoA to 3-oxo-3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA, thus forming the substrate for the final step in the pathway. Down-regulation of PhCHD expression in petunia flowers resulted in reduced CHD enzyme activity, as well as decreased formation of BA-CoA, BA and their derived volatiles. Moreover, transgenic lines accumulated the PhCHD substrate cinnamoyl-CoA and the upstream pathway intermediate cinnamic acid. Discovery of PhCHD completes the elucidation of the core BA ?-oxidative route in plants, and together with the previously characterized CoA-ligase and thiolase enzymes, provides evidence that the whole pathway occurs in peroxisomes. PMID:22988098

  5. Completion of the core ?-oxidative pathway of benzoic acid biosynthesis in plants

    PubMed Central

    Qualley, Anthony V.; Widhalm, Joshua R.; Adebesin, Funmilayo; Kish, Christine M.; Dudareva, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of benzoic acid (BA) as a precursor for a wide array of primary and secondary metabolites, its biosynthesis in plants has not been fully elucidated. BA formation from phenylalanine requires shortening of the C3 side chain by two carbon units, which can occur by a non–?-oxidative route and/or a ?-oxidative pathway analogous to the catabolism of fatty acids. Enzymes responsible for the first and last reactions of the core BA ?-oxidative pathway (cinnamic acid ? cinnamoyl-CoA ? 3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA ? 3-oxo-3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA ? BA-CoA) have previously been characterized in petunia, a plant with flowers rich in phenylpropanoid/benzenoid volatile compounds. Using a functional genomics approach, we have identified a petunia gene encoding cinnamoyl-CoA hydratase-dehydrogenase (PhCHD), a bifunctional peroxisomal enzyme responsible for two consecutively occurring unexplored intermediate steps in the core BA ?-oxidative pathway. PhCHD spatially, developmentally, and temporally coexpresses with known genes in the BA ?-oxidative pathway, and correlates with emission of benzenoid volatiles. Kinetic analysis of recombinant PhCHD revealed it most efficiently converts cinnamoyl-CoA to 3-oxo-3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA, thus forming the substrate for the final step in the pathway. Down-regulation of PhCHD expression in petunia flowers resulted in reduced CHD enzyme activity, as well as decreased formation of BA-CoA, BA and their derived volatiles. Moreover, transgenic lines accumulated the PhCHD substrate cinnamoyl-CoA and the upstream pathway intermediate cinnamic acid. Discovery of PhCHD completes the elucidation of the core BA ?-oxidative route in plants, and together with the previously characterized CoA-ligase and thiolase enzymes, provides evidence that the whole pathway occurs in peroxisomes. PMID:22988098

  6. A limited LCA of bio-adipic acid: manufacturing the nylon-6,6 precursor adipic acid using the benzoic acid degradation pathway from different feedstocks.

    PubMed

    van Duuren, J B J H; Brehmer, B; Mars, A E; Eggink, G; Dos Santos, V A P Martins; Sanders, J P M

    2011-06-01

    A limited life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed on a combined biological and chemical process for the production of adipic acid, which was compared to the traditional petrochemical process. The LCA comprises the biological conversion of the aromatic feedstocks benzoic acid, impure aromatics, toluene, or phenol from lignin to cis, cis-muconic acid, which is subsequently converted to adipic acid through hydrogenation. Apart from the impact of usage of petrochemical and biomass-based feedstocks, the environmental impact of the final concentration of cis, cis-muconic acid in the fermentation broth was studied using 1.85% and 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid. The LCA focused on the cumulative energy demand (CED), cumulative exergy demand (CExD), and the CO(2) equivalent (CO(2) eq) emission, with CO(2) and N(2) O measured separately. The highest calculated reduction potential of CED and CExD were achieved using phenol, which reduced the CED by 29% and 57% with 1.85% and 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid, respectively. A decrease in the CO(2) eq emission was especially achieved when the N(2) O emission in the combined biological and chemical process was restricted. At 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid, the different carbon backbone feedstocks contributed to an optimized reduction of CO(2) eq emissions ranging from 14.0 to 17.4 ton CO(2) eq/ton adipic acid. The bulk of the bioprocessing energy intensity is attributed to the hydrogenation reactor, which has a high environmental impact and a direct relationship with the product concentration in the broth. PMID:21328320

  7. Electrophoretic deposition of TiO 2 and composite TiO 2–MnO 2 films using benzoic acid and phenolic molecules as charging additives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Wu; Y. Wang; I. Zhitomirsky

    2010-01-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method has been developed for the fabrication of TiO2 and MnO2 films. Benzoic acid and phenolic molecules, such as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, salicylic acid and salicylic acid sodium salt were investigated as charging additives for the EPD of TiO2 and MnO2 particles. The deposition yield has been studied as a function of the additive

  8. Tyrosinase biosensor for benzoic acid inhibition-based determination with the use of a flow-batch monosegmented sequential injection system.

    PubMed

    Kochana, Jolanta; Kozak, Joanna; Skrobisz, Agata; Wo?niakiewicz, Micha?

    2012-07-15

    Amperometric tyrosinase based biosensor for benzoic acid determination with the use of a flow-batch monosegmented sequential injection system is proposed. The functioning of the biosensor is based on the inhibition effect of benzoic acid on the biocatalytic activity of tyrosinase, polyphenol oxidase. In the biosensor, tyrosinase is entrapped in titania gel modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and Nafion. The procedure of optimization of experimental conditions affecting the biosensor response, as well as its analytical characteristics and results of the approach verification using synthetic samples and a reference material are presented. The developed biosensor exhibits linear range up to 2.46?M, good sensitivity toward benzoic acid (1.06?A?M(-1)) and low detection limit (0.03?M). The approach has been applied to benzoic acid determination in a real beverage sample giving the result consistent with that obtained using the HPLC method. PMID:22817942

  9. Benzoic acid and phenol derivatives of nitronyl nitroxide biradical as building blocks of organic molecule-based ferrimagnets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kamiyama; D. Shiomi; S. Hase; M. Nishizawa; K. Sato; M. Kozaki; K. Okada; T. Takui

    2000-01-01

    A crystal-engineering approach to organic ferrimagnets is reported. Coulombic energy between an anionic biradical withS = 1 and a cationic monoradical withS = 1\\/2 can be utilized as a driving force of cocrystallization of open-shell molecules with different spin quantum numbers,\\u000a leading to organic salt ferrimagnets. In this study, 3,5-substituted phenol and benzoic acid derivatives of nitronyl nitroxide\\u000a biradicals were

  10. Effect of 4-(12-Dihydroartemisininoxy) Benzoic Acid hydrazide Transferrin Tagged Drug on Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Ling XIE; Pei-Hui YANG; Xin ZENG; Ji-Ye CAI

    2009-01-01

    As target-carrier, holotransferrin (Tf) was conjugated with dihydroartemisinin (DHA) to form a new targeted drug. An analog of DHA, 4-(12-dihydroartemisininoxy) benzoic acid hydrazide (DBAH) have been synthesized and characterized by UV\\/vis spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, NMR, and electrochemistry. Periodate was used to oxidize hydroxy groups on the N-glycoside chains of C-domain on Tf surface, and then DBAH reacted with the oxidized

  11. Synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation, ot-QSAR and mt-QSAR studies of 2-amino benzoic acid derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuldeep Mahiwal; Pradeep Kumar; Balasubramanian Narasimhan

    A series of 2-amino benzoic acid derivatives (1–28) were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against the panel of Gram positive, Gram negative\\u000a bacterial and fungal strains. The results of antimicrobial studies indicated that, in general, the synthesized compounds were found to be bacteriostatic\\u000a and fungistatic in action. QSAR studies performed by the development of one target

  12. Unusual behavior of benzoic acid at low temperature: Raman spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesov, Boris A.

    2015-05-01

    The Raman spectra of benzoic acid single crystals have been measured in the temperature range of 5-300 K. At T < 60 K the spectra show at least two anomalous features, one of which is of direct relevance to intensity changes of the lattice modes in the low-wavenumber region. The intensity of modes at ?86 and ?146 cm-1 tends to zero at T ? 0 K. It is associated with appearance of two H-bonds of different length in the same L-tautomer, and with the loss of the inversion center in the dimer. The modes at ?86 and ?146 cm-1 are assigned to symmetric stretching intra-dimer vibrations of the Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds of the first and second order, respectively. The assignment is based on the measurements of spectral parameters as function of temperature. The other anomaly is that the series of weak and narrow bands arises in the high-wavenumber region of 2500-3700 cm-1. The bands are assigned to combination tones of O-H hydrogen bonded stretching vibration and intramolecular modes. This effect results from a low-temperature transition of a conventional two wells potential of short H-bond in the L-tautomer to asymmetrical single well potential, and is due to a strong coupling of intramolecular vibrations to O-H stretching.

  13. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of benzoic acid using Au doped TiO2 thin films.

    PubMed

    Mohite, V S; Mahadik, M A; Kumbhar, S S; Hunge, Y M; Kim, J H; Moholkar, A V; Rajpure, K Y; Bhosale, C H

    2015-01-01

    Highly transparent pure and Au doped TiO2 thin films are successfully deposited by using simple chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The effect of Au doping onto the structural and physicochemical properties has been investigated. The PEC study shows that, both short circuit current (Isc) and open circuit voltage (Voc) are (Isc=1.81mA and Voc=890mV) relatively higher at 3at.% Au doping percentage. XRD study shows that the films are nanocrystalline in nature with tetragonal crystal structure. FESEM images show that the film surface covered with a smooth, uniform, compact and rice shaped nanoparticles. The Au doped thin films exhibit indirect band gap, decreases from 3.23 to 3.09eV with increase in Au doping. The chemical composition and valence states of pure and Au doped TiO2 films are studied by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic degradation effect is 49% higher in case 3at.% Au doped TiO2 than the pure TiO2 thin film photoelectrodes in the degradation of benzoic acid. It is revealed that Au doped TiO2 can be reused for five cycles of experiments without a requirement of post-treatment while the degradation efficiency was retained. PMID:25550120

  14. Adsorption of Benzoic Acid in Aqueous Solution by Bagasse Fly Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, S.

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports the studies on the benzoic acid (BA) onto bagasse fly ash (BFA) was studied in aqueous solution in a batch system. Physico-chemical properties including surface area, surface texture of the GAC before and after BA adsorption onto BFA were analysed using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The optimum initial pH for the adsorption of BA was found to be 5.56. The adsorbent dose was 10 g/l for BFA and the equilibrium time 8 h of reaction. Pseudo first and second order models were used to find the adsorption kinetics. It was found that intraparticle diffusion played important role in the adsorption mechanisms of BA and the adsorption kinetics followed pseudo-second order kinetic model rather than the pseudo first order kinetic model. Isotherm data were generated for BA solution having initial concentrations of BA in the range of 10-200 mg/l for the BFA dosage of 10 g/l at temperatures of 288, 303, and 318 K. The adsorption of BA onto BFA was favorably influenced by an increase in temperature. Equilibrium data were well represented by the Redlich-Peterson isotherm model. Values of the change in entropy ( ?S 0), heat of adsorption ( ?H 0) for adsorption of BA on BFA was found to be 120.10 and 19.61 kJ/mol respectively. The adsorption of BA onto BFA was an endothermic reaction. Desorption of BA from BFA was studied by various solvents method. Acetic acid was found to be a better eluant for desorption of BA with a maximum desorption efficiency of 55.2 %. Owing to its heating value, spent BFA can be used as a co-fuel for the production of heat in boiler furnaces.

  15. Effects of Benzoic Acid and Dietary Calcium:Phosphorus Ratio on Performance and Mineral Metabolism of Weanling Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Gutzwiller, A.; Schlegel, P.; Guggisberg, D.; Stoll, P.

    2014-01-01

    In a 2Ś2 factorial experiment the hypotheses tested were that the metabolic acid load caused by benzoic acid (BA) added to the feed affects bone mineralization of weanling pigs, and that a wide dietary calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) ratio in phytase-supplemented feeds with a marginal P concentration has a positive effect on bone mineralization. The four experimental diets, which contained 0.4% P and were supplemented with 1,000 FTU phytase/kg, contained either 5 g BA/kg or no BA and either 0.77% Ca or 0.57% Ca. The 68 four-week-old Large White pigs were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for six weeks and were then slaughtered. Benzoic acid increased feed intake (p = 0.009) and growth rate (p = 0.051), but did not influence the feed conversion ratio (p>0.10). Benzoic acid decreased the pH of the urine (p = 0.031), but did not affect breaking strength and mineralization of the tibia (p>0.10). The wide Ca:P ratio decreased feed intake (p = 0.034) and growth rate (p = 0.007) and impaired feed the conversion ratio (p = 0.027), but increased the mineral concentration in the fat-free DM of the tibia (p = 0.013) without influencing its breaking strength (p>0.10). The observed positive effect of the wide Ca:P ratio on bone mineralization may be attributed, at least in part, to the impaired feed conversion ratio, i.e. to the higher feed intake and consequently to the higher mineral intake per kg BW gain. The negative impact on animal performance of the wide dietary Ca:P ratio outweighs its potentially positive effect on bone mineralization, precluding its implementation under practical feeding conditions. PMID:25049984

  16. Application of Organolithium and Related Reagents in Synthesis, Part 31: Effective Conversion of 3?Arylphthalides into 2?(1?Aryl?3?oxo?4?alkoxycarbonyl?butyl)benzoic Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Bieniek; Krystyna K. Kulikiewicz; Monika M. Bartczak

    2006-01-01

    A convenient three?step protocol preparation of the ortho?alkylated (long?chain substituent with terminal methylcarbonyl or acetoacetate moiety) aromatic carboxylic acids 15 or 16 from benzoic acids anilides 10 was developed, which exploited the reductive alkylation of phthalides 13 with dimethyl?6?methylene?4?(trimethoxysiloxy)?1,3?diox?4?ene (9) as a key step.

  17. Supramolecular Columnar Liquid Crystals Formed by Hydrogen Bonding between a Clicked Star-Shaped s-Triazine and Benzoic Acids.

    PubMed

    Feringán, Beatriz; Romero, Pilar; Serrano, José Luis; Giménez, Raquel; Sierra, Teresa

    2015-06-01

    A star-shaped tris(triazolyl)triazine is shown to establish hydrogen-bond interactions with polycatenar benzoic acids. The formation of hydrogen-bonded triazine/acid complexes has been demonstrated both in solution and in bulk by different techniques. The complexes, mainly formed by nonmesogenic components, all show enantiotropic hexagonal columnar mesomorphism, which relies on the formation of hydrogen-bond complexes in a triazine/acid ratio of 1:3. This approach combines the straightforward synthesis of a nonmesomorphic triazine core by click chemistry, and the preparation of a supramolecular complex, providing a much more convenient route than covalent synthesis to modify the periphery of triazine discotics and thus to modulate their functionality. PMID:25962742

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of trace cadmium in vegetables with 3,5-bis(4-phenylazophenylaminodiazo)benzoic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuangming Meng; Buqin Jing; Yueqin Fan; Yongwen Liu; Yong Guo

    2011-01-01

    A new highly sensitive and selective chromogenic reagent, 3,5-bis(4-phenylazophenylaminodiazo)benzoic acid (BPPABA) has been synthesized and applied to the determination of trace cadmium(II) in vegetables. The method is based on the color\\u000a reaction between BPPABA and cadmium (II). In the presence of Triton X-100, cadmium(II) reacts with BPPABA in Na2B4O7-NaOH buffer solution (pH 10.5), forming red complex with maximum absorption at

  19. Benzoic and sorbic acid in soft drink, milk, ketchup sauce and bread by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with HPLC.

    PubMed

    Javanmardi, Fardin; Nemati, Mahboob; Ansarin, Masood; Arefhosseini, Seyyed Rafie

    2015-01-01

    Benzoic acid and sorbic acid are widely used for food preservation. These preservatives are generally recognised as safe. The aim of this study was to determine the level of benzoic and sorbic acid in food samples that are usually consumed in Iran. Therefore, 54 samples, including 15 soft drinks, 15 ultra-high-temperature milk, 15 ketchup sauces and 9 bread samples, were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Benzoic acid was detected in 50 (92.5%) of the samples ranging from 3.5 to 1520 ”g mL(-1), while sorbic acid was detected in 29 (50.3%) samples in a range of 0.8 and 2305 ”g mL(-1). Limits of detection and limits of quantification for benzoate were found to be 0.1 and 0.5 ”g mL(-1), respectively, and for sorbate 0.08 and 0.3 ”g mL(-1), respectively. The results showed that benzoic acid and sorbic acid widely occur in food products in Iran. PMID:25135626

  20. In situ N2O emissions are not mitigated by hippuric and benzoic acids under denitrifying conditions.

    PubMed

    Krol, D J; Forrestal, P J; Lanigan, G J; Richards, K G

    2015-04-01

    Ruminant urine patches deposited onto pasture are a significant source of greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) from livestock agriculture. Increasing food demand is predicted to lead to a rise in ruminant numbers globally, which, in turn will result in elevated levels of urine-derived N2O. Therefore mitigation strategies are urgently needed. Urine contains hippuric acid and together with one of its breakdown products, benzoic acid, has previously been linked to mitigating N2O emissions from urine patches in laboratory studies. However, the sole field study to date found no effect of hippuric and benzoic acid concentration on N2O emissions. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the in situ effect of these urine constituents on N2O emissions under conditions conducive to denitrification losses. Unadulterated bovine urine (0 mM of hippuric acid, U) was applied, as well as urine amended with either benzoic acid (96 mM, U+BA) or varying rates of hippuric acid (8 and 82 mM, U+HA1, U+HA2). Soil inorganic nitrogen (N) and N2O fluxes were monitored over a 66 day period. Urine application resulted in elevated N2O flux for 44 days. The largest N2O fluxes accounting for between 13% (U) and 26% (U+HA1) of total loss were observed on the day of urine application. Between 0.9 and 1.3% of urine-N was lost as N2O. Cumulative N2O loss from the control was 0.3 kg N2O-Nha(-1) compared with 11, 9, 12, and 10 kg N2O-Nha(-1) for the U, U+HA1, U+HA2, and U+BA treatments, respectively. Incremental increases in urine HA or increase in BA concentrations had no effect on N2O emissions. Although simulation of dietary manipulation to reduce N2O emissions through altering individual urine constituents appears to have no effect, there may be other manipulations such as reducing N content or inclusion of synthetic inhibitory products that warrant further investigation. PMID:25553550

  1. Encapsulation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzoic acid with native and modified cyclodextrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendiran, N.; Jude Jenita, M.

    2015-02-01

    Inclusion complex formation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid (HMBA) and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid (HDMBA) with ?-CD, ?-CD, HP-?-CD and HP-?-CD were studied by absorption, steady state fluorescence, time resolved fluorescence, FT-IR, 1H NMR and molecular modeling methods. The effect of the CDs with HMBA and HDMBA were studied in pH ? 1, pH ? 7 and pH ? 10 buffer solutions. The study revealed that both hydroxybenzoic acids formed 1:1 complex with the four CDs. The theoretical values suggest that both guests are partially encapsulated into the CDs cavity. The hydroxy group is present in the interior part of the CD cavity and carboxyl group is present in the hydrophilic part of the CD cavity. Molecular modeling studies proved that (i) the negative Gibbs energy and enthalpy changes for the inclusion complexes indicated that the formation of these complexes were spontaneous and exothermic, (ii) hydrogen bonding interactions played a major role in the inclusion process, (iii) the dipole moment values for guests increased when they entered into the CDs cavities which is an indication of the increase of the polarity and the formation of complex and (iv) differences in binding energy and enthalpy change suggest that the ?-CD formed more stable complex than ?-CD.

  2. Benzoic acid fermentation from starch and cellulose via a plant-like ?-oxidation pathway in Streptomyces maritimus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Benzoic acid is one of the most useful aromatic compounds. Despite its versatility and simple structure, benzoic acid production using microbes has not been reported previously. Streptomyces are aerobic, Gram-positive, mycelia-forming soil bacteria, and are known to produce various kinds of antibiotics composed of many aromatic residues. S. maritimus possess a complex amino acid modification pathway and can serve as a new platform microbe to produce aromatic building-block compounds. In this study, we carried out benzoate fermentation using S. maritimus. In order to enhance benzoate productivity using cellulose as the carbon source, we constructed endo-glucanase secreting S. maritimus. Results After 4?days of cultivation using glucose, cellobiose, or starch as a carbon source, the maximal level of benzoate reached 257, 337, and 460?mg/l, respectively. S. maritimus expressed ?-glucosidase and high amylase-retaining activity compared to those of S. lividans and S. coelicolor. In addition, for effective benzoate production from cellulosic materials, we constructed endo-glucanase-secreting S. maritimus. This transformant efficiently degraded the phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC) and then produced 125?mg/l benzoate. Conclusions Wild-type S. maritimus produce benzoate via a plant-like ?-oxidation pathway and can assimilate various carbon sources for benzoate production. In order to encourage cellulose degradation and improve benzoate productivity from cellulose, we constructed endo-glucanase-secreting S. maritimus. Using this transformant, we also demonstrated the direct fermentation of benzoate from cellulose. To achieve further benzoate productivity, the L-phenylalanine availability needs to be improved in future. PMID:22545774

  3. Photolytic degradation of chlorophenols from industrial wastewaters by organic oxidants peroxy acetic acid, para nitro benzoic acid and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide: identification of reaction products.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Swati; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi; Murthy, Zagabathuni Venkata Panchakshari

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, chlorophenol (CP) containing industrial wastewater was remediated by ultraviolet irradiation in conjunction with organic oxidants, peroxy acetic acid (PAA); para nitro benzoic acid (PNBA); and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP). CP mineralization was studied with regard to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and chloride ion release under identical test conditions. COD depletion to the extent of 81% by PAA, 66% by PNBA, and 67% by MEKP was noted along with an upwardly mobile trend of chloride ion release upon irradiation of samples at 254 nm. A 90-99% decrease in CP concentration (as per high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis) was achieved with an additional 15.0 ml of organic oxidant in all cases. Gas chromatography high resolution mass spectroscopy (GC-HRMS) results also indicated the formation of such reaction products as are free from chlorine substitutions. This treatment also leads to total decolorization of the collected samples. PMID:24647192

  4. Syntheses and structures of three heterometallic coordination polymers derived from 4-pyridin-3-yl-benzoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Wei-Hui; Yang, Guo-Yu, E-mail: ygy@fjirsm.ac.cn

    2014-04-01

    Three lanthanide–transition-metal coordination polymers, namely, [Er{sub 2}L{sub 6}(H{sub 2}O)][Cu{sub 2}I{sub 2}] (1), [ErL{sub 3}][CuI] (2), and [Dy{sub 2}L{sub 6}(BPDC){sub 0.5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}][Cu{sub 3}I{sub 2}] (3) (HL=4-pyridin-3-yl-benzoic acid, H{sub 2}BPDC=4,4?-biphenyldicarboxylic acid) have been made by reacting Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CuI with HL at different temperatures under hydrothermal conditions. All the complexes are characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, respectively. 1–3 all construct from dimeric (Ln{sub 2}) and (Cu{sub 2}) units and exhibit two types of the structural features: 1 is a two-dimensional layer, 2–3 are three-dimensional frameworks. Interestingly, the in situ formation of the BPDC ligand is found in the structure of 3. The distinct architectures of these complexes indicated that the reaction temperature plays an important role in the formation of higher dimensional coordination polymers. - Graphical abstract: By hydrothermal reaction of lanthanide oxide, copper halide, and 4-pyridin-3-yl-benzoic ligand at different temperatures, a series of 1-D to 3-D 3d–4f coordination polymers, namely [ErL{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][CuI], [Er{sub 2}L{sub 6}(H{sub 2}O)][Cu{sub 2}I{sub 2}], [ErL{sub 3}][CuI], and [Dy{sub 2}L{sub 6}(BPDC){sub 0.5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}][Cu{sub 3}I{sub 2}], have been made, respectively. - Highlights: • Three novel heterometallic coordination polymers derived from 4-pyridin-3-yl-benzoic acid have been hydrothermally synthesized. • Mixed dinuclear motifs of (Ln{sub 2}) and (Cu{sub 2}) serve as secondary building units to generate 2-D layer and 3-D frameworks. • It is proved that higher temperature is apt to permit construction of high dimensional architectures.

  5. Optical dephasing by uncorrelated phonon scattering to librations. An optical and picosecond photon echo study of a photosite of pentacene in benzoic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurens W. Molenkamp; Douwe A. Wiersma

    1984-01-01

    We report results of an optical and picosecond photon echo study on the zero-phonon line of photosite I of pentacene in benzoic acid. The results show that optical dephasing in this system proceeds via uncorrelated phonon scattering processes from the ground and optically excited state to singly excited librational levels. It is also shown that the data can not be

  6. Dietary supplementation with benzoic acid improves apparent ileal digestibility of total nitrogen and increases villous height and caecal microbial diversity in weaner pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Halas; C. F. Hansen; D. J. Hampson; B. P. Mullan; J. C. Kim; R. H. Wilson; J. R. Pluske

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding two different levels of benzoic acid (BA) and three different levels of inulin (IN) on weaner pig performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility of total nitrogen (CAIDN), small intestinal structure, diversity of caecal microbiota, indices of bacterial fermentation, incidence of post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)

  7. Effects of a reduced calcium, phosphorus and protein intake and of benzoic acid on calcium and phosphorus metabolism of growing pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gutzwiller; H. D. Hess; A. Adam; D. Guggisberg; A. Liesegang; P. Stoll

    2011-01-01

    In order to minimise environmental pollution, many pig feeds contain low phosphorus and protein concentrations as well as benzoic acid (BA), an additive which reduces ammonia formation in the slurry. Since both a low P intake and metabolic acidosis compromise bone mineralisation, the effect of a diet with a low concentration of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and crude protein (CP)

  8. Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of Two Novel Lanthanide (III) Perchlorate Complexes with Bis(benzoylmethyl) Sulfoxide and Benzoic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Xian Li; Wen-Juan Chai; Xiao-Jun Sun; Tie Ren; Xiao-Yan Shi

    2010-01-01

    Two novel ternary rare earth complexes of Tb(III) and Dy(III) perchlorates with bis(benzoylmethyl) sulfoxide (L) and benzoic\\u000a acid (L?) had been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, coordination titration analysis, molar conductivity,\\u000a IR, TG-DSC, 1HNMR and UV spectra. The results indicated that the composition of these complexes was REL5L?(ClO4)2·nH2O (RE= Tb(III), Dy(III); L=C6H5COCH2SOCH2COC6H5, L?=C6H5COO; n?=?6,8). The fluorescence spectra illustrated that

  9. Synthesis and characterization of polyimides and co-polyimides having pendant benzoic acid moiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahesh Kulkarni; Sandeep Kothawade; Girish Arabale; Deepali Wagh; K. Vijayamohanan; R. A. Kulkarni; S. P. Vernekar

    2005-01-01

    A novel diamine monomer, 2,4-diamino-4?-carboxy diphenyl ether had been synthesized. Several polyimides were prepared by reacting this diamine with commercially available dianhydrides, such as benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (BTDA), 4,4?-bis{hexafluoroisopropylidene bis (phthalic anhydride)}(6-FDA), oxydiphthalic anhydride (ODPA) and 3,3?,4,4?-biphenyltetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (BPDA). Furthermore, copolymers from the resulting diamine and oxydianiline (ODA) with 6 FDA were also synthesized. The inherent viscosities of

  10. Degradation of Methoxylated Benzoic Acids by a Nocardia from a Lignin-Rich Environment: Significance to Lignin Degradation and Effect of Chloro Substituents

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, R. L.; McCoy, Elizabeth; Harkin, J. M.; Kirk, T. K.; Obst, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Strain A81 of Nocardia corallina hydroxylates or demethylates p-anisic acid to p-hydroxybenzoic acid and isovanillic acid. It demethylates veratric acid to a mixture of vanillic and isovanillic acids. These are both demethylated to protocatechuic acid, which undergoes ring cleavage to afford ?-carboxy-cis-cis-muconic acid. The intermediacy of protocatechuic acid in the catabolic pathway of veratric acid was confirmed by blocking ring cleavage with an additional substituent in the ring: 5-chlorovanillic acid was demethylated to 5-chloro-protocatechuic acid, which accumulated. Chloro substituents in the ring of other methoxylated benzoic acids also arrested their normal metabolism by the Nocardia: an ortho-chloro substituent thwarted both demethylation and ring-opening. ortho-Hydroxylation of p-methoxybenzoic acid to isovanillic acid was unaffected by a chlorine ortho to the methoxyl group. Washed whole cells of veratric acid-grown N. corallina A81 produced no detected structural changes in an isolated lignin. The implications of this observation are discussed. PMID:4743871

  11. Design of a turn-linker-turn foldamer by incorporating meta-amino benzoic acid in the middle of a helix forming hexapeptide sequence: A helix breaking approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Arpita; Drew, Michael G. B.; Pramanik, Animesh

    2009-07-01

    Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the incorporation of meta-amino benzoic acid in the middle of a helix forming hexapeptide sequence such as in peptide I Boc-Ile(1)-Aib(2)-Val(3)- m-ABA(4)-Ile(5)-Aib(6)-Leu(7)-OMe (Aib: ?-amino isobutyric acid; m-ABA: meta-amino benzoic acid) breaks the helix propagation to produce a turn-linker-turn (T-L-T) foldamer in the solid state. In the crystalline state two conformational isomers of peptide I self-assemble in antiparallel fashion through intermolecular hydrogen bonds and aromatic ?-? interactions to form a molecular duplex. The duplexes are further interconnected through intermolecular hydrogen bonds to form a layer of peptides. The layers are stacked one on top of the other through van der Waals interactions to form hydrophilic channels filled with solvent methanol.

  12. Ternary copper complexes and manganese (III) tetrakis(4-benzoic acid) porphyrin catalyze peroxynitrite-dependent nitration of aromatics.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Sueta, G; Ruiz-Ramírez, L; Radi, R

    1997-12-01

    Peroxynitrite is a powerful oxidant formed in biological systems from the reaction of nitrogen monoxide and superoxide and is capable of nitrating phenols at neutral pH and ambient temperature. This peroxynitrite-mediated nitration is catalyzed by a number of Lewis acids, including CO2 and transition-metal ion complexes. Here we studied the effect of ternary copper-(II) complexes constituted by a 1,10-phenanthroline and an amino acid as ligands. All the complexes studied accelerate both the decomposition of peroxynitrite and its nitration of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid at pH > 7. The rate of these reactions depends on the copper complex concentration in a hyperbolic plus linear manner. The yield of nitrated products increases up to 2.6-fold with respect to proton-catalyzed nitration and has a dependency on the concentration of copper complexes which follows the same function as observed for the rate constants. The manganese porphyrin complex, Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin [Mn(tbap)], also promoted peroxynitrite-mediated nitration with an even higher yield (4-fold increase) than the ternary copper complexes. At pH = 7.5 +/- 0.2 the catalytic behavior of the copper complexes can be linearly correlated with the pKa of the phenanthroline present as a ligand, implying that a peroxynitrite anion is coordinated to the copper ion prior to the nitration reaction. These observations may prove valuable to understand the biological effects of these transition-metal complexes (i.e., copper and manganese) that can mimic superoxide dismutase activity and, in the case of the ternary copper complexes, show antineoplastic activity. PMID:9437523

  13. Decarboxylative C-H arylation of benzoic acids under radical conditions.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sangwon; Slater, Mark; Greaney, Michael F

    2012-05-18

    A decarboxylative radical cyclization reaction has been developed for the synthesis of fluorenones. The reaction uses Ag(I)/K2S2O8 to oxidatively decarboxylate an aroylbenzoic acid to an aryl radical, which undergoes cyclization to afford fluorenone products in good yield. PMID:22571756

  14. Crystal structure of CYP199A2, a para-substituted benzoic acid oxidizing cytochrome P450 from Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    PubMed

    Bell, Stephen G; Xu, Feng; Forward, Ian; Bartlam, Mark; Rao, Zihe; Wong, Luet-Lok

    2008-11-14

    CYP199A2, a cytochrome P450 enzyme from Rhodopseudomonas palustris, oxidatively demethylates 4-methoxybenzoic acid to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. 4-Ethylbenzoic acid is converted to a mixture of predominantly 4-(1-hydroxyethyl)-benzoic acid and 4-vinylbenzoic acid, the latter being a rare example of CC bond dehydrogenation of an unbranched alkyl group. The crystal structure of CYP199A2 has been determined at 2.0-A resolution. The enzyme has the common P450 fold, but the B' helix is missing and the G helix is broken into two (G and G') by a kink at Pro204. Helices G and G' are bent back from the extended BC loop and the I helix to open up a clearly defined substrate access channel. Channel openings in this region of the P450 fold are rare in bacterial P450 enzymes but more common in eukaryotic P450 enzymes. The channel is hydrophobic except for the basic residue Arg246 at the entrance, which probably plays a role in the specificity of this enzyme for charged benzoates over neutral phenols and benzenes. The substrate binding pocket is hydrophobic, with Ser97 and Ser247 being the only polar residues. Computer docking of 4-ethylbenzoic acid into the active site suggests that the substrate carboxylate oxygens interact with Ser97 and Ser247, and the beta-methyl group is located over the heme iron by Phe185, the side chain of which is only 6.35 A above the iron in the native structure. This binding orientation is consistent with the observed product profile of exclusive attack at the para substituent. Putidaredoxin of the CYP101A1 system from Pseudomonas putida supports substrate oxidation by CYP199A2 at approximately 6% of the activity of the physiological ferredoxin. Comparison of the heme proximal faces of CYP199A2 and CYP101A1 suggests that charge reversal surrounding the surface residue Leu369 in CYP199A2 may be a significant factor in this low cross-activity. PMID:18762195

  15. Quantitative relationships between structure and solubility for some m- and p-substituted benzoic acids

    E-print Network

    Idoux, John Paul

    1965-01-01

    . 296 27. 389 27. 335 Ave. = 27. 323 (1) 0. 79 02 (2) o. sso2 (3) 0. 6680 (4) 0. 6394 4-Aminobenzoic Acid 2. 24 1. 56 1. 89 1. 81 35. 277 35 269 35. 344 35. 326 Ave. = 35. 304 (1) 1. 2010 (2) 1. 2272 (3) 0. 6208 (4) 0. 788O 3.... 5033 0. 4251 3. 48 3 . 54 3. 58 3. 04 14. 060 14. 037 14. 058 13 . 984 Ave. = 14. 035 4-Aminobenzoic Acid (I) 5. 07 (2) 3. 76 (3) 6. 26 (4) 5. 55 0. 2755 0. 2043 D. 3401 0. 3016 2. 37 1. 75 2. 90 2. 58 11. 624 11. 674 11. 728...

  16. Interfacial Behavior of Naphthenic Acids and Multivalent Cations in Systems with Oil and Water. I. A Pendant Drop Study of Interactions Between n?Dodecyl Benzoic Acid and Divalent Cations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Űystein Brandal; Johan Sjöblom; Gisle Űye

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic interfacial tension (IFT) measurements were used to investigate the interactions between a dissociated model naphthenic acid (p?(n?dodecyl) benzoic acid) and various divalent metallic cations (Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) across a toluene\\/hexadecane–water interface. The measurements were performed by using the pendant drop technique. The results obtained, plotted as IFT vs. time gave curves with similar shapes but different slopes

  17. Stabilization of two smallest possible diastereomeric ?-hairpins in a water soluble tetrapeptide containing non-coded ?-amino isobutyric acid (Aib) and m-amino benzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutt, Anita; Dutta, Arpita; Kar, Sudeshna; Koley, Pradyot; Drew, Michael G. B.; Pramanik, Animesh

    2009-06-01

    Single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals that the water soluble tetrapeptide H 2N-Ile-Aib-Leu- m-ABA-CO 2H, containing non-coded Aib (?-amino isobutyric acid) and m-ABA ( meta-amino benzoic acid), crystallizes with two smallest possible diastereomeric ?-hairpin molecules in the asymmetric unit. Although in both of the molecules the chiralities at Ile(1) and Leu(3) are S, a conformational reversal in the back bone chain is observed to produce the ?-hairpins with ?-turn conformations of type II and II'. Interestingly Aib which is known to adopt helical conformation, adopts unusual semi-extended conformation with ?: -49.5(5)°, ?: 135.2(5)° in type II and ?: 50.6(6)°, ?: -137.0(4)° in type II' for occupying the i + 1 position of the ?-turns. The two hairpin molecules are further interlocked through intermolecular hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions between - CO2- and - +NH 3 groups to form dimeric supramolecular ?-hairpin aggregate in the crystal state. The CD measurement and 2D NMR study of the peptide in aqueous medium support the existence of ?-hairpin structure in water.

  18. 4-[3,5Bis(trimethylsilyl)benzamido] benzoic acid (TAC101) inhibits the intrahepatic spread of hepatocellular carcinoma and prolongs the life-span of tumor-bearing animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Murakami; Tomokazu Matsuura; Masaki Sano; Akihiro Hashimoto; Kazuhiko Yonekura; Rieko Sakukawa; Yuji Yamada; Ikuo Saiki

    1998-01-01

    We examined the in vivo anti-tumor activity of the benzoic acid derivative, TAC-101 (4-[3,5- bis(trimethylsilyl)benzamido] benzoic acid), for intrahepatic spread of JHH-7 human hepatocellular carci-noma (HCC) cells and its mechanism of action. Oral administration of TAC-101 markedly inhibited liver tumor of JHH-7 cells and prolonged the life-span of tumor-bearing mice without affecting the body weight. The life-prolonging effect of TAC-101

  19. 4-Aza-1-azoniabicyclo­[2.2.2]octa­ne–2-amino­benzoate–2-amino­benzoic acid (1/1/1)

    PubMed Central

    Arman, Hadi D.; Kaulgud, Trupta; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2011-01-01

    A 4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo­[2.2.2]octane cation, a 2-amino­benzoate anion and a neutral 2-amino­benzoic acid mol­ecule comprise the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C6H13N2 +·C7H6NO2 ?·C7H7NO2. An intra­molecular N—H?O hydrogen bond occurs in the anion and in the neutral 2-amino­benzoic acid mol­ecule. The cation provides a charge-assisted N—H?O hydrogen bond to the anion, and the 2-amino­benzoic acid mol­ecule forms an O—H?N hydrogen bond to the unprotonated amino N atom in the cation. In this way, a three-component aggregate is formed. These are connected into a three-dimensional network by amino–carboxyl­ate N—H?O hydrogen bonds. N—H?N hydrogen bonds are also observed. PMID:22219964

  20. Reduction of benzenoid synthesis in petunia flowers reveals multiple pathways to benzoic acid and enhancement in auxin transport.

    PubMed

    Orlova, Irina; Marshall-Colón, Amy; Schnepp, Jennifer; Wood, Barbara; Varbanova, Marina; Fridman, Eyal; Blakeslee, Joshua J; Peer, Wendy Ann; Murphy, Angus S; Rhodes, David; Pichersky, Eran; Dudareva, Natalia

    2006-12-01

    In plants, benzoic acid (BA) is believed to be synthesized from Phe through shortening of the propyl side chain by two carbons. It is hypothesized that this chain shortening occurs via either a beta-oxidative or non-beta-oxidative pathway. Previous in vivo isotope labeling and metabolic flux analysis of the benzenoid network in petunia (Petunia hybrida) flowers revealed that both pathways yield benzenoid compounds and that benzylbenzoate is an intermediate between L-Phe and BA. To test this hypothesis, we generated transgenic petunia plants in which the expression of BPBT, the gene encoding the enzyme that uses benzoyl-CoA and benzyl alcohol to make benzylbenzoate, was reduced or eliminated. Elimination of benzylbenzoate formation decreased the endogenous pool of BA and methylbenzoate emission but increased emission of benzyl alcohol and benzylaldehyde, confirming the contribution of benzylbenzoate to BA formation. Labeling experiments with 2H5-Phe revealed a dilution of isotopic abundance in most measured compounds in the dark, suggesting an alternative pathway from a precursor other than Phe, possibly phenylpyruvate. Suppression of BPBT activity also affected the overall morphology of petunia plants, resulting in larger flowers and leaves, thicker stems, and longer internodes, which was consistent with the increased auxin transport in transgenic plants. This suggests that BPBT is involved in metabolic processes in vegetative tissues as well. PMID:17194766

  1. Crystal structure of complexes of bivalent Co, Ni, and Cd with anions of benzoic and 2-(acetylamino)-5-nitrobenzoic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Rzaeva, M. F. [Azerbaijan State Agricultural University (Azerbaijan); Askerov, R. K. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan); Movsumov, E. M. [Azerbaijan State Agricultural University (Azerbaijan); Sergienko, V. S.; Ilyukhin, A. B. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-15

    The structure of three complexes of bivalent metals (cobalt, nickel, and cadmium) with anions of benzoic (HL{sup 1}) and 2-(acetylamino)-5-nitrobenzoic (HL{sup 2}) acids, namely, [Co{sub 2}{sup 1} (H{sub 2}O){sub 2}({mu}-C{sub 4}H{sub 4}N{sub 2})]{sub n} (I), [NiL{sup 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}]L{sup 2} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O (II), and [Cd({mu}-L{sup 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} {center_dot} 2nH{sub 2}O (III), is determined. In chainlike structure I, cobalt atoms are connected by bridging pyrazine molecules; structure II contains isolated complexes. In structure III, centrosymmetric (CdOCO){sub 2} cycles and polymeric ribbons are formed due to the coordination of the carboxylate group of the L{sup 2} ligand to two cadmium atoms.

  2. Effect of MN (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin by photodynamically generated free radicals on SODs keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Nistico, S; Ventrice, D; Dagostino, C; Lauro, F; Ilari, S; Gliozzi, M; Colica, C; Musolino, V; Carresi, C; Strongoli, M C; Vecchio, I; Rizzo, M; Mollace, V; Muscoli, C

    2013-01-01

    Superoxide, a reactive form of oxygen, can be produced in vivo either in normal and under pathophysiologic conditions or by photosensitizing chemicals, as during photodynamic treatment. Photodynamic therapies (PDT), widely adopted in Dermatology and Oncology, are known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and may contribute to structural alterations and oxidatively generated modifications of cellular antioxidants. We hypothesized that over-production of free radicals would decrease the enzymatic activities of endogenous cellular antioxidants. To test this hypothesis, keratinocytes were treated with the photosensitizer Photofrin plus visible light to produce free radicals and CuZnSOD and MnSOD activities were measured. Photodynamic treatment of keratinocytes increases malonylaldehyde production, nitrotyrosine staining and superoxide production. The enzymatic activities of CuZnSOD and MnSOD were significantly decreased after Photofrin plus visible light treatment. Our results suggest that the main cellular antioxidant system can be inactivated by photodynamically generated ROS. Pretreatment of keratinocytes with free radicals scavenger such as Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP) was able to restore the endogenous antioxidant system activities, inhibiting the MDA formation, nitrotyrosine staining and superoxide formation. Antioxidant therapy could therefore be a useful tool in protecting healthy epidermal cells against common side effects induced by antitumor targeted therapies. PMID:24152829

  3. Conformational stability, vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) spectra and computational analysis of m-trifluoromethyl benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, V; Karpagam, V; Santhi, G; Revathi, B; Ilango, G; Kavimani, M

    2015-02-25

    In this work, the vibrational characteristics of m-trifluoromethyl benzoic acid have been investigated and both the experimental and theoretical vibrational data indicate the presence of functional groups in the title molecule. The density functional theoretical (DFT) computations were performed at the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p), LSDA/6-31G (d, p), MP2/6-31G (d, p) levels to derive the optimized geometry, vibrational wavenumbers. Furthermore, the molecular orbital calculations such as natural bond orbitals (NBO), HOMO-LUMO energy gap and Mapped molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surfaces, The Mulliken charges, the first-order hyperpolarizability were also performed with the same level of DFT. The thermal flexibility of molecule in associated with vibrational temperature was also illustrated on the basis of correlation graphs. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out with the aid of potential energy distribution (PED) results obtained from MOLVIB program. The delocalization of electron density of various constituents of the molecule has been discussed with the aid of NBO and HOMO-LUMO energy gap analysis. PMID:25218226

  4. Dehalogenation and biodegradation of brominated phenols and benzoic acids under iron-reducing, sulfidogenic, and methanogenic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Monserrate, E; Häggblom, M M

    1997-01-01

    The anaerobic biodegradation of monobrominated phenols and benzoic acids by microorganisms enriched from marine and estuarine sediments was determined in the presence of different electron acceptors [i.e., Fe(III), SO4(2-), or HCO3-]. Under all conditions tested, the bromophenol isomers were utilized without a lengthy lag period whereas the bromobenzoate isomers were utilized only after a lag period of 23 to 64 days. 2-Bromophenol was debrominated to phenol, with the subsequent utilization of phenol under all three reducing conditions. Debromination of 3-bromophenol and 4-bromophenol was also observed under sulfidogenic and methanogenic conditions but not under iron-reducing conditions. In the bromobenzoate-degrading cultures, no intermediates were observed under any of the conditions tested. Debromination rates were higher under methanogenic conditions than under sulfate-reducing or iron-reducing conditions. The stoichiometric reduction of sulfate or Fe(III) and the utilization of bromophenols and phenol indicated that biodegradation was coupled to sulfate or iron reduction, respectively. The production of phenol as a transient intermediate demonstrates that reductive dehalogenation is the initial step in the biodegradation of bromophenols under iron- and sulfate-reducing conditions. PMID:9480645

  5. Conformational stability, vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) spectra and computational analysis of m-trifluoromethyl benzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, V.; Karpagam, V.; Santhi, G.; Revathi, B.; Ilango, G.; Kavimani, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the vibrational characteristics of m-trifluoromethyl benzoic acid have been investigated and both the experimental and theoretical vibrational data indicate the presence of functional groups in the title molecule. The density functional theoretical (DFT) computations were performed at the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p), LSDA/6-31G (d, p), MP2/6-31G (d, p) levels to derive the optimized geometry, vibrational wavenumbers. Furthermore, the molecular orbital calculations such as natural bond orbitals (NBO), HOMO-LUMO energy gap and Mapped molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surfaces, The Mulliken charges, the first-order hyperpolarizability were also performed with the same level of DFT. The thermal flexibility of molecule in associated with vibrational temperature was also illustrated on the basis of correlation graphs. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out with the aid of potential energy distribution (PED) results obtained from MOLVIB program. The delocalization of electron density of various constituents of the molecule has been discussed with the aid of NBO and HOMO-LUMO energy gap analysis.

  6. catena-Poly[[aqua­(4-ethyl­benzoic acid-?O)lanthanum(III)]-tri-?-4-ethyl­benzoato

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Juan; Li, Jiantong; Wang, Qiufen

    2010-01-01

    The reaction of lanthanum nitrate and 4-ethyl­benzoic acid (EBAH) in aqueous solution yielded the title polymer, [La(C9H9O2)3(C9H10O2)(H2O)]n. The asymmetric unit contains one LaIII atom, three 4-ethyl­benzoate (EBA) ligands, one neutral EBAH ligand and one coordinated water mol­ecule. Each LaIII ion is eight-coordinated by six O atoms from six bridging-bidentate EBA ligands, one O atom from a monodentate EBAH ligand and one water O atom in a distorted bicapped trigonal-prismatic geometry. The adjacent LaIII ions are linked by the carboxyl­ate groups of EBA ligands in a bridging-bidetate coordination mode, resulting in an infinite chain structure along the c axis. O—H?O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the water mol­ecules, carboxyl­ate groups and carboxyl H atoms are formed within the one-dimensional polymer. One of the ethyl groups is disordered over two positions with occupancies of 0.717?(7) and 0.283?(7). PMID:21579652

  7. Crystal structure of 4-benzamido-2-hy­droxy­benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Muhammad; Choudhary, Muhammad Aziz; Butt, Arshad Farooq; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Salim, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C14H11NO4, the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the aromatic rings is 3.96?(12)° and an intra­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bond closes an S(6) ring. A short intra­molecular C—H?O contact is also seen. In the crystal, carb­oxy­lic acid inversion dimers linked by pairs of O—H?O hydrogen bonds generate R 2 2(8) loops. Conversely, the N—H group does not form a hydrogen bond. Aromatic ?–? inter­actions exist at a centroid–centroid distance of 3.8423?(15)?Ć between the benzene rings. An extremely weak C—H?? inter­action also is present.

  8. XAS studies on Cu(II) complexes with derivatives of phenoxyacetic and benzoic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepka, Marcin T.; Drzewiecka, Aleksandra; Wolska, Anna; Ferenc, Wieslawa

    2012-11-01

    The geometry of metal-ligand interaction of three Cu(II) complexes with carboxylic acids has been determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Around Cu(II) cation in a complex with 4-methoxy-3-nitrobenzoate anion a square geometry is formed by the carboxylate groups from two monodentate ligands and two water molecules. The tetragonal pyramid around Cu(II) composed by two carboxylate groups from two monodentate ligands and three water molecules is observed for 2-methoxyphenoxyacetate complex. The 4-chlorophenoxyacetate complex with Cu(II) exhibits tetragonal-bipyramidal geometry, with two carboxylate and two ether oxygen atoms from bidentate ligands and two water molecules in the coordination sphere.

  9. Crystal structure of 3-bromo-2-hy­droxy­benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Laus, Gerhard; Kahlenberg, Volker; Gelbrich, Thomas; Nerdinger, Sven; Schottenberger, Herwig

    2015-01-01

    Mutual carbox­yl–carboxyl O—H?O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules of the title compound, C7H5BrO3, into centrosymmetric dimers which display a central R 2 2(8) ring motif. In addition, there is an intra­molecular hydrox­yl–carboxyl O—H?O inter­action present. A comparison with the crystal structures of 59 other substituted derivatives of salicylic acid shows that both the centrosymmetric carbox­yl–carboxyl O—H?O dimer and the stacking mode of mol­ecules along the short a axis observed in the title structure are frequent packing motifs in this set. PMID:25995873

  10. 4-Amino-N-(4,6-dimethyl­pyrimidin-2-yl)benzene­sulfonamide–2-nitro­benzoic acid (1/1)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D.

    2013-01-01

    In the asymmetric unit of the title co-crystal, C12H14N4O2S·C7H5NO4, the sulfamethazine and 2-nitro­benzoic acid mol­ecules form a heterodimer through inter­molecular amide–carb­oxy­lic acid N—H?O and carb­oxy­lic acid–pyrimidine O—H?N hydrogen-bond pairs, giving a cyclic motif [graph set R 2 2(8)]. The dihedral angle between the two aromatic ring systems in the sulfamethazine mol­ecule is 88.96?(18)° and the nitro group of the acid is 50% rotationally disordered. Secondary aniline N—H?Osulfone hydrogen-bonding associations give a two-dimensional structure lying parallel to the ab plane. PMID:23424513

  11. Excited state intramolecular proton transfer and dual emission of the cyclic homo- and heterodimers of 2-hydroxy and 2,6-dihydroxy benzoic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, G. S.; Golubev, N. S.; Schreiber, V. M.; Shajakhmedov, Sh. S.; Shurukhina, A. V.

    1996-07-01

    The fluorescence and excitation spectra of homo- and heterodimers formed by salicylic and 2,6-dihydroxy benzoic acids (SA and DHBA respectively) with various carboxylic acids were obtained in the crystalline state, liquid and frozen glassy solutions within the temperature range 300-90 K. In all the cases, dual emission has been found with the low frequency band attributed to the excited state with intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) and the high frequency one to a state without ESIPT. The relative intensities of these bands depend strongly on the temperature, excitation wavelength and the pK a value of the second acid molecule involved in a cyclic dimer. The dual emission of molecules like methyl salicylate is conventionally explained in terms of the ground state tautomeric equilibrium with the OH ⋯ OH intramolecularly hydrogen bonded isomer incapable of ESIPT. Since in the case of 2,6-dihydroxy benzoic acid the only stable isomer with two hydrogen bonds can exist, this explanation seems to be at least insufficient. Other explanations of the dual emission origin are discussed. An attempt is made to explain the available experimental data using the hypothesis involving double well potential surface of the cyclic dimer in the excited state. In the framework of this hypothesis, the barrier between two wells emerges from the reorganization of the whole hydrogen bonded system of a dimer.

  12. Mn (III) Tetrakis (4-Benzoic Acid) Porphyrin Protects Against Neuronal and Glial Oxidative Stress and Death after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Valluru, Lokanatha; Diao, Yao; Hachmeister, Jorge E.; Liu, Danxia

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the ability of a catalytic antioxidant, Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP), to protect against neuronal and glial oxidative stress and death after spinal cord injury (SCI). Nine different doses of MnTBAP were administered into the intrathecal space of the rat spinal cord immediately following moderate SCI to establish dose - response curves for prevention of lipid peroxidation and neuron death. An optimal dose was determined by comparing the effectiveness of MnTBAP protection among doses. The optimal dose was then administered and the cords were removed 24 h post-administration and processed for staining. The cells in the cord sections at different distances from the epicenter were counted to obtain the spatial profiles of MnTBAP protection. Comparison of the counts between MnTBAP- and vehicle-treated groups in the sections double immuno-fluorescence-stained with oxidative and cellular markers demonstrated that MnTBAP significantly reduced numbers of nitrotyrosine- and DNP-positive (stained with an antibody against 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH)-labeled protein carbonyls) neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Comparison of the counts between the two treatments in the sections immuno-stained with cellular markers revealed that MnTBAP significantly increased numbers of neurons, motoneurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. MnTBAP more effectively reduced neuronal than glial cell death. Post-injury treatment with the optimal dose of MnTBAP at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h post-SCI demonstrated that the effective time window for reducing protein nitration and neuron death was at least 12 h. Our results demonstrated that MnTBAP combats oxidative stress, thereby attenuating all types of cell death after SCI. PMID:22483303

  13. Macromolecular Organic Acids in the Murchison Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, J. S.; Sephton, M. A.; Gilmour, I.

    2005-03-01

    This study has detected bound organic acids within the Murchison meteorite organic macromolecule. Benzoic acid was the most abundant compound; other abundant compounds include C1 and C2 benzoic acids. Their origin and significance will be discussed.

  14. Divanadium(V) complexes with 4- R-benzoic acid (1-methyl-3-oxo-butylidene)-hydrazides: Syntheses, structures and properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anindita Sarkar; Samudranil Pal

    2009-01-01

    In acetonitrile, reactions of bis(acetylacetonato)oxidovanadium(IV) ([VO(acac)2]) with 4-R-benzoylhydrazine in 1:1 mole ratio provide coordinatively symmetrical complexes (1–5) of the {OV(?-O)VO}4+ motif in 40–47% yields. On the other hand, in methanol the same reactants provide complexes (6–10) containing the {OV(?-OMe)2VO}4+ core in 37–50% yields. In both series of complexes, the ligand is the O,N,O-donor deprotonated Schiff base system 4-R-benzoic acid (1-methyl-3-oxo-butylidene)-hydrazide

  15. Triorganotin(IV) esters of 2-{[N-(2-oxo-2H-naphthalene-1-yliden)hydrazo]}benzoic acid, instability of the cyclohexyl derivative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Chalupa; Libor Dušek; Zde?ka Pad?lková; Petr Švec; Vladimír Pejchal; Aleš R?ži?ka

    2009-01-01

    Three triorganotin(IV) esters of 2-{[N-(2-oxo-2H-naphthalene-1-yliden)hydrazo]}benzoic acid were prepared and studied by IR and NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography for the tributyl- and triethyltin(IV)-2-{[N-(2-oxo-2H-naphthalene-1-yliden)hydrazo]}benzoates (2, 3). These compounds are monomeric in solution with four-coordinate tin. The hydrazo tautomeric forms are present in chloroform solution as well as in the solid state. The coordination geometries of tin in 2 and 3 are

  16. Application of chitosan functionalized with 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid moiety for on-line preconcentration and determination of trace elements in water samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akhmad Sabarudin; Osamu Noguchi; Mitsuko Oshima; Keiro Higuchi; Shoji Motomizu

    2007-01-01

    .  Chitosan resin functionalized with 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid (CCTS-DHBA resin) was used as a packing material for flow injection\\u000a (FI) on-line mini-column preconcentration in combination with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES)\\u000a for the determination of trace elements such as silver, bismuth, copper, gallium, indium, molybdenum, nickel, uranium, and\\u000a vanadium in environmental waters. A 5-mL aliquot of sample (pH 5.5) was

  17. D77, one benzoic acid derivative, functions as a novel anti-HIV-1 inhibitor targeting the interaction between integrase and cellular LEDGF/p75

    SciTech Connect

    Du Li [Drug Discovery and Design Center, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Zhao Yaxue [School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Chen, Jing [Drug Discovery and Design Center, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Yang Liumeng; Zheng Yongtang [Laboratory of Molecular Immunopharmacology, Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China); Tang Yun [School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)], E-mail: ytang234@ecust.edu.cn; Shen Xu [Drug Discovery and Design Center, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)], E-mail: xshen@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Jiang Hualiang [Drug Discovery and Design Center, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2008-10-10

    Integration of viral-DNA into host chromosome mediated by the viral protein HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an essential step in the HIV-1 life cycle. In this process, Lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is discovered to function as a cellular co-factor for integration. Since LEDGF/p75 plays an important role in HIV integration, disruption of the LEDGF/p75 interaction with IN has provided a special interest for anti-HIV agent discovery. In this work, we reported that a benzoic acid derivative, 4-[(5-bromo-4-{l_brace}[2,4-dioxo-3-(2-oxo-2-phenylethyl) -1,3-thiazolidin-5-ylidene]methyl{r_brace}-2-ethoxyphenoxy)methyl]benzoic acid (D77) could potently inhibit the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction and affect the HIV-1 IN nuclear distribution thus exhibiting antiretroviral activity. Molecular docking with site-directed mutagenesis analysis and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assays has clarified possible binding mode of D77 against HIV-1 integrase. As the firstly discovered small molecular compound targeting HIV-1 integrase interaction with LEDGF/p75, D77 might supply useful structural information for further anti-HIV agent discovery.

  18. Synthesis of a New Thermal and Photostable Reference Probe for Qf Measurement in Aqua: Water Soluble N,N'-bis-(2Hydroxy4-benzoic Acid)-3,4,9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huriye Icil; Duygu Uzun; Nur Pasaogullari

    1998-01-01

    N,N?-bis(2-hydroxy-4-benzoic acid)-3,4,9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide) is synthesized from perylene 3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride and 4-amino-3-hydroxy benzoic acid in 90% yield. Together with the photostability the dye is also very stable thermally. The fluorescence quantum yield is measured as one, Qf=1.The diimide dissolves in water at PH = 8 completely. The diimide is an ideal reference probe for fluorescence quantum yield measurements in 500–650 nm region

  19. Probe depth matters in dermal microdialysis sampling of benzoic acid after topical application: an ex vivo study in human skin.

    PubMed

    Holmgaard, R; Benfeldt, E; Bangsgaard, N; Sorensen, J A; Brosen, K; Nielsen, F; Nielsen, J B

    2012-01-01

    Microdialysis (MD) in the skin - dermal microdialysis (DMD) - is a unique technique for sampling of topically as well as systemically administered drugs at the site of action, e.g. sampling of dermatological drug concentrations in the dermis. Debate has concerned the existence of a correlation between the depth of the sampling device - the probe - in the dermis and the amount of drug sampled following topical drug administration. This study evaluates the relation between probe depth and drug sampling using dermal DMD sampling ex vivo in human skin. We used superficial (<1 mm), intermediate (1-2 mm) and deep (>2 mm) positioning of the linear MD probe in the dermis of human abdominal skin, followed by topical application of 4 mg/ml of benzoic acid (BA) in skin chambers overlying the probes. Dialysate was sampled every hour for 12 h and analysed for BA content by high-performance liquid chromatography. Probe depth was measured by 20-MHz ultrasound scanning. The area under the time-versus-concentration curve (AUC) describes the drug exposure in the tissue during the experiment and is a relevant parameter to compare for the 3 dermal probe depths investigated. The AUC(0-12) were: superficial probes: 3,335 ± 1,094 ?g·h/ml (mean ± SD); intermediate probes: 2,178 ± 1,068 ?g·h/ml, and deep probes: 1,159 ± 306 ?g·h/ml. AUC(0-12) sampled by the superficial probes was significantly higher than that of samples from the intermediate and deeply positioned probes (p value <0.05). There was a significant inverse correlation between probe depth and AUC(0-12) sampled by the same probe (p value <0.001, r(2) value = 0.5). The mean extrapolated lag-times (±SD) for the superficial probes were 0.8 ± 0.1 h, for the intermediate probes 1.7 ± 0.5 h, and for the deep probes 2.7 ± 0.5 h, which were all significantly different from each other (p value <0.05). In conclusion, this paper demonstrates that there is an inverse relationship between the depth of the probe in the dermis and the amount of drug sampled following topical penetration ex vivo. The result is of relevance to the in vivo situation, and it can be predicted that the differences in sampling at different probe depths will have a more significant impact in the beginning of a study or in studies of short duration. Based on this study it can be recommended that studies of topical drug penetration using DMD sampling should include measurements of probe depth and that efforts should be made to minimize probe depth variability. PMID:21849814

  20. Copper(II) complexes with 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid: Syntheses, crystal structures and antifungal activities

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Pingping [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China); Li, Jie [Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology, Xi'an 710069 (China); Bu, Huaiyu, E-mail: 7213792@qq.com [Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology, Xi'an 710069 (China); Wei, Qing [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China); Zhang, Ruolin [Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology, Xi'an 710069 (China); Chen, Sanping, E-mail: sanpingchen@126.com [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Reaction of Cu(II) with an asymmetric semi-rigid organic ligand 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid (HL), yielded five compounds, [Cu{sub 0.5}L]{sub n} (1), [Cu(HL){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}]{sub n} (2), [Cu(HL){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)] (3), [Cu(L){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (4) and [Cu(L)(phen)(HCO{sub 2})]{sub n} (5), which have been fully characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. As for compounds 1, 2 and 5, Cu(II) is bridged through HL, Cl{sup -}, and formic acid, respectively, featuring 1D chain-structure. In compound 3, Cu(II) with hexahedral coordination sphere is assembled through hydrogen-bonding into 3D supramolecular framework. In compound 4, 1D chain units –Cu–O–Cu–O– are ligand-bridged into a 3D network. All compounds were tested on fungi (Fusarium graminearum, Altemaria solani, Macrophoma kawatsukai, Alternaria alternata and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). Compound 1 exhibits a better antifungal effect compared to other compounds. An effect of structure on the antifungal activity has also been correlated. - Graphical abstract: Copper(II) compounds with 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid, were prepared, structurally characterized and investigated for antifungal activity. - Highlights: • The title compounds formed by thermodynamics and thermokinetics. • The five compounds show higher inhibition percentage than reactants. • The structure effect on the antifungal activity.

  1. Thermodynamical and Optical Studies of Ternary Mixtures of 4-n-Heptyloxy Benzoic Acid, 4-n-Decyloxy Benzoic Acid, and 5-Cholesten-3ß-ol 3-octanoate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Dhar; M. B. Pandey; V. K. Agrawal

    2004-01-01

    Binary eutectic mixture of 4-n-heptyloxybenzoic acid (HOBA) and 4-n-decyloxybenzoic acid (DOBA) shows smectic C (SmC) and nematic (N) phases over a wide temperature range. 5-cholesten-3?-ol 3-octanoate(ChO), which has monotropic chiral nematic (N?) phase, has been added as third component in the eutectic bi-component mixture (BCM) of HOBA-DOBA in different mole ratios. Transition temperatures and enthalpies of the ternary mixtures have

  2. New mesogens with cubic phases: hydrogen-bonded bipyridines and siloxane-containing benzoic acids I. Preparation and phase behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Etsushi Nishikawa; Edward T. Samulski

    2000-01-01

    Several 4-(oligodimethylsiloxyl)alkoxybenzoic acids and their hydrogen-bonded complexes with 4,4-dipyridyl or 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane were prepared and their phase behaviour studied by DSC and polarized optical microscopy. The neat acids showed no liquid crystalline phases. The 4,4-dipyridyl complex of 4-(n-heptamethyltrisiloxyl)hexyloxybenzoic acid (Si3C6BA) exhibits an optically isotropic, highly viscous liquid crystalline phase below a smectic A phase. The 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane complex of Si3C6BA also shows

  3. Studies on salts of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) and 2,4,6-trinitroanilino benzoic acid (TABA): potential energetic ballistic modifiers.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, P B; Reddy, T S; Nair, J K; Nazare, A N; Talawar, M B; Mukundan, T; Asthana, S N

    2005-08-31

    The Co/Cu/Ni/Fe salts of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) and 2,4,6-trinitroanilino benzoic acid (TABA) were prepared and characterized during this work. All the salts exhibited exothermic decomposition in DSC. The FT-IR spectra of the gaseous products evolved during TGA of NTO salts indicated the release of NO2 and cleavage of NTO ring during the course of decomposition. Thermal decomposition of TABA salts also produced NO2 on decomposition. The transition metal salts enhanced the burning rates of AP-HTPB composite propellant evaluated during this work. The best catalytic effect was obtained with Fe-NTO salt which increased the burning rate to the extent of approximately 80% as well as brought down the pressure index (n) to 0.18 (2-9MPa). PMID:15939535

  4. Syntheses and characterizations of five coordination polymers constructed by 3,5-bis(pyridin-3-ylmethoxy)benzoic acid ligand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guang-Juan Xu; Ya-Hui Zhao; Kui-Zhan Shao; Guang-Sheng Yang; Ya-Qian Lan; Zhong-Min Su; Li-Kai Yan

    2009-01-01

    Five coordination polymers, namely [Cd(L3)2]·H2O (1), [Zn(L3)2] (2), [Co(L3)2] (3), [Ni(L3)2] (4) and [Cu2(L3)2]·3H2O (5), where L3=3,5-bis(pyridin-3-ylmethoxy)benzoic acid, have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Compound 1 is a binodal (3,4)-connected net with (63)(66) topology. Compounds 2–4 are isostructural

  5. Metabolic profile of 2-(2-hydroxypropanamido) benzoic acid in rats by ultra high performance liquid chromatography combined with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jiao; Zhang, Qili; Rong, Rong; Han, Fei; Zhu, Heyun; Zhao, Yunli; Song, Aihua; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-07-01

    An ultra high performance liquid chromatography combined with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (UHPLC-FT-ICR-MS) method was developed to investigate the in vivo metabolism of 2-(2-hydroxypropanamido) benzoic acid (HPABA), a marine-derived anti-inflammatory drug, for the first time. Plasma, urine, feces and bile samples were collected from male and female rats after a single intragastric administration of HPABA at a dose of 100mg/kg. Besides the parent drug, a total of 13 metabolites (3 phase I and 10 phase II metabolites) were detected and tentatively identified through comparing their mass spectrometry profiles with those of HPABA. Results demonstrated that metabolic pathways of HPABA in rats included decarboxylation, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, glucuronidation, glycine conjugation and N-acetyl conjugation. In summary, this work provided valuable information regarding the metabolism of HPABA in rats, which would contribute to better understanding of its safety and mechanism of action. PMID:25988429

  6. Development and validation of an HPLC-DAD method for simultaneous determination of cocaine, benzoic acid, benzoylecgonine and the main adulterants found in products based on cocaine.

    PubMed

    Floriani, Gisele; Gasparetto, Joăo Cleverson; Pontarolo, Roberto; Gonçalves, Alan Guilherme

    2014-02-01

    Here, an HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of cocaine, two cocaine degradation products (benzoylecgonine and benzoic acid), and the main adulterants found in products based on cocaine (caffeine, lidocaine, phenacetin, benzocaine and diltiazem). The new method was developed and validated using an XBridge C18 4.6mmŚ250mm, 5?m particle size column maintained at 60°C. The mobile phase consisted of a gradient of acetonitrile and ammonium formate 0.05M - pH 3.1, eluted at 1.0mL/min. The volume of injection was 10?L and the DAD detector was set at 274nm. Method validation assays demonstrated suitable sensitivity, selectivity, linearity, precision and accuracy. For selectivity assay, a MS detection system could be directly adapted to the method without the need of any change in the chromatographic conditions. The robustness study indicated that the flow rate, temperature and pH of the mobile phase are critical parameters and should not be changed considering the conditions herein determined. The new method was then successfully applied for determining cocaine, benzoylecgonine, benzoic acid, caffeine, lidocaine, phenacetin, benzocaine and diltiazem in 115 samples, seized in Brazil (2007-2012), which consisted of cocaine paste, cocaine base and salt cocaine samples. This study revealed cocaine contents that ranged from undetectable to 97.2%, with 97 samples presenting at least one of the degradation products or adulterants here evaluated. All of the studied degradation products and adulterants were observed among the seized samples, justifying the application of the method, which can be used as a screening and quantification tool in forensic analysis. PMID:24447449

  7. Study on degradation kinetics of 2-(2-hydroxypropanamido) benzoic acid in aqueous solutions and identification of its major degradation product by UHPLC/TOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qili; Guan, Jiao; Rong, Rong; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-08-10

    A RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the degradation kinetic study of 2-(2-hydroxypropanamido) benzoic acid (HPABA), a promising anti-inflammatory drug, which would provide a basis for further studies on HPABA. The effects of pH, temperature, buffer concentration and ionic strength on the degradation kinetics of HPABA were discussed. Experimental parameters such as degradation rate constants (k), activation energy (Ea), acid and alkali catalytic constants (kac, kal), shelf life (t1/2) and temperature coefficient (Q10) were calculated. The results indicated that degradation kinetics of HPABA followed zero-order reaction kinetics; degradation rate constants (k) of HPABA at different pH values demonstrated that HPABA was more stable in neutral and near-neutral conditions; the function of temperature on k obeyed the Arrhenius equation (r=0.9933) and HPABA was more stable at lower temperature; with the increase of ionic strength and buffer concentration, the stability of HPABA was decreased. The major unknown degradation product of HPABA was identified by UHPLC/TOF-MS/MS with positive electrospray ionization. Results demonstrated that the hydrolysis product was the primary degradation product of HPABA and it was deduced as anthranilic acid. PMID:25935790

  8. Suitable combination of promoter and micellar catalyst for kilo fold rate acceleration on benzaldehyde to benzoic acid conversion in aqueous media at room temperature: a kinetic approach.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Aniruddha; Saha, Rumpa; Ghosh, Sumanta K; Mukherjee, Kakali; Saha, Bidyut

    2013-05-15

    The kinetics of oxidation of benzaldehyde by chromic acid in aqueous and aqueous surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS, alkyl phenyl polyethylene glycol, Triton X-100 and N-cetylpyridinium chloride, CPC) media have been investigated in the presence of promoter at 303 K. The pseudo-first-order rate constants (kobs) were determined from a logarithmic plot of absorbance as a function time. The rate constants were found to increase with introduction of heteroaromatic nitrogen base promoters such as Picolinic acid (PA), 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). The product benzoic acid has been characterized by conventional melting point experiment, NMR, HRMS and FTIR spectral analysis. The mechanism of both unpromoted and promoted reaction path has been proposed for the reaction. In presence of the anionic surfactant SDS, cationic surfactant CPC and neutral surfactant TX-100 the reaction can undergo simultaneously in both aqueous and micellar phase with an enhanced rate of oxidation in the micellar phase. Both SDS and TX-100 produce normal micellar effect whereas CPC produce reverse micellar effect in the presence of benzaldehyde. The observed net enhancement of rate effects has been explained by considering the hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the surfactants and reactants. SDS and bipy combination is the suitable one for benzaldehyde oxidation. PMID:23501718

  9. Suitable combination of promoter and micellar catalyst for kilo fold rate acceleration on benzaldehyde to benzoic acid conversion in aqueous media at room temperature: A kinetic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Aniruddha; Saha, Rumpa; Ghosh, Sumanta K.; Mukherjee, Kakali; Saha, Bidyut

    2013-05-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of benzaldehyde by chromic acid in aqueous and aqueous surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS, alkyl phenyl polyethylene glycol, Triton X-100 and N-cetylpyridinium chloride, CPC) media have been investigated in the presence of promoter at 303 K. The pseudo-first-order rate constants (kobs) were determined from a logarithmic plot of absorbance as a function time. The rate constants were found to increase with introduction of heteroaromatic nitrogen base promoters such as Picolinic acid (PA), 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). The product benzoic acid has been characterized by conventional melting point experiment, NMR, HRMS and FTIR spectral analysis. The mechanism of both unpromoted and promoted reaction path has been proposed for the reaction. In presence of the anionic surfactant SDS, cationic surfactant CPC and neutral surfactant TX-100 the reaction can undergo simultaneously in both aqueous and micellar phase with an enhanced rate of oxidation in the micellar phase. Both SDS and TX-100 produce normal micellar effect whereas CPC produce reverse micellar effect in the presence of benzaldehyde. The observed net enhancement of rate effects has been explained by considering the hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the surfactants and reactants. SDS and bipy combination is the suitable one for benzaldehyde oxidation.

  10. 4,4?-{[1,2-Phenyl­enebis(methyl­ene)]bis­(­oxy)}di­benzoic acid di­methyl­formamide disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhen-Zhe; Jing, Bi; Li, Qiu-Xia; Zhu, Ai-Xin

    2014-01-01

    In the title solvate, C22H18O6·2C3H7NO, the complete dicarboxylic acid molecule is generated by a crystallographic twofold axis, which bisects the central benzene ring and one N,N-di­methyl­formamide solvent mol­ecule. The dihedral angle between the central and pendant benzene rings is 54.53?(5)° while that between the pendant rings is 45.44?(5)°. In the crystal, the acid molecules are linked to the solvent molecules via O—H?O and weak C—H?O hydrogen bonds. Further weak C—H?O inter­actions link adjacent acid mol­ecules into a three-dimensional network. PMID:24860345

  11. Helical self-assembly of substituted benzoic acids: influence of weaker X...X and C-H...X interactions.

    PubMed

    Moorthy, J Narasimha; Natarajan, R; Mal, Prasenjit; Venugopalan, P

    2002-06-12

    The X-ray crystal packing analyses of the sterically encumbered halogen-substituted benzene carboxylic acids 1-4 reveal a novel and unprecedented crystal packing in that the association of the carboxyl groups through O-H...O bonds results in the generation of a helix along the 41-screw axis. Such an organization of the acids is shown convincingly to be a result of the close packing, which exploits the weaker X...X and C-H...X interactions in conjunction with the stronger O-H...O hydrogen bonds. In contrast, the chloro- and bromo-substituted durene carboxylic acids 6 and 7 exhibit a pattern that is akin to tape/ribbon involving the centrosymmetric-dimer motif and X...X short intermolecular interactions. The structural investigations demonstrate the ability of the weaker interactions in modifying the supposedly "robust" centrosymmetric-dimer motif of the carboxyl groups in a decisive manner. PMID:12047162

  12. Establishing the ellipsoidal geometry of a benzoic acid-based amphiphile via dimer switching: insights from intramolecular rotation and facial H-bond torsion.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Nivarthi; Sarangi, Nirod Kumar; Patnaik, Archita

    2013-05-01

    Soft molecular ellipsoids conceived from 3,4-di(dodecyloxy)benzoic acid (DDBA) amphiphile draw attention to monomer structure design, intramolecular -COOH headgroup twist (?°) and cyclic-acyclic dimer switching through facial H-bond torsion (?°). Generically, precipitation in hydrogen bonded systems has been the prime phenomenon once the critical aggregation concentrations were reached in the bulk solution. DDBA was no exception to this generalization. It formed precipitates in chloroform and methanol with no specific geometry but with cyclic dimer motifs in them. On the contrary, surface pressure modulated interfacial aggregation with ellipsoidal geometry followed acyclic dimerization (catemer motif) with various levels of headgroup torsion, established through real-time polarization modulated infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, that estimated the energy costs for these unexplored pathways. The reaction coordinates ?° and ?° in consonance with 2D surface pressure modulation thus directed the shape anisotropy during the dynamic self-assembly of DDBA. Changes in subphase pH and metal ionic environment had a derogatory effect on the ellipsoid formation, the structural requirement for which strictly followed a stringent need for twin alkyl chains in an asymmetric unit cell, as 4-dodecyloxybenzoic acid (MABA) with a single alkyl chain formed exclusively spherical assemblies with no dimer modulation. The investigation thus reports unexplored energy pathways toward ellipsoidal geometry of the amphiphile in the course of its interfacial aggregation. PMID:23534676

  13. Bis(1H-imidazole-?N 3)bis­(2-methyl­benzoato-?O)bis­(2-methyl­benzoic acid-?O)copper(II)

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Sheng-Liang; Zhao, Ming-Xing; Ge, Hai-Xia

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, [Cu(C8H7O2)2(C3H4N2)2(C8H8O2)2], consists of centrosymmetric monomeric units, in which the CuII atom has a tetra­gonally distorted octa­hedral coordination involving two imidazole N atoms and two carboxyl­ate O atoms in the square plane [Cu—N = 1.964?(3) and Cu—O = 1.960?(2)?Ć] and 2-methyl­benzoic acid O atoms in axial sites [Cu—O = 2.753?(3)?Ć]. Within the complex, the carb­oxy­lic acid forms intra­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bonds, while the mol­ecules are assembled through N—H?O(carbox­yl) hydrogen bonds into chains extending along the a-axis direction. These chains are further linked by weak ?–? inter­actions [centroid–centroid separation = 3.930?(2)?Ć]. PMID:22090889

  14. Crystal structure of di-?-benzato-?4 O:O?-bis­[aqua­(benzato-?O)(benzato-?2 O,O?)(2,2?:6?,2??-terpyridine-?3 N,N?,N??)europium(III)]–benzoic acid (1/2)

    PubMed Central

    White, Frankie; Sykora, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, [Eu2(C7H5O2)6(C15H11N3)2(H2O)2]·2C7H6O2, is a co-crystalline compound containing a dinuclear EuIII coordination complex with inversion symmetry co-crystallized with benzoic acid in a 1:2 ratio. The Eu3+ ions within the dimer are nine-coordinate, containing one tridentate terpyridine, one water, and four benzoate ions, two of which bridge the Eu3+ ions. Of the four benzoate ligands coordinating to each Eu3+ position, three distinct coordination modes [monodentate, bidentate–chelating, and bidentate–bridging (twice)] are observed. Within the crystal, there are two additional uncoordinating benzoic acid mol­ecules per dinuclear complex. Within the dimer, the water bound to each Eu3+ ion participates in intra­molecular hydrogen bonding with a coordinating benzoate. Additionally, the carb­oxy­lic acid group on the benzoic acid participates in inter­molecular hydrogen bonding with a benzoate ligand bound to the dimer complex. PMID:25309184

  15. Crystal structure of di-?-benzato-?(4) O:O'-bis-[aqua-(benzato-?O)(benzato-?(2) O,O')(2,2':6',2''-terpyridine-?(3) N,N',N'')europium(III)]-benzoic acid (1/2).

    PubMed

    White, Frankie; Sykora, Richard E

    2014-09-01

    The title compound, [Eu2(C7H5O2)6(C15H11N3)2(H2O)2]·2C7H6O2, is a co-crystalline compound containing a dinuclear Eu(III) coordination complex with inversion symmetry co-crystallized with benzoic acid in a 1:2 ratio. The Eu(3+) ions within the dimer are nine-coordinate, containing one tridentate terpyridine, one water, and four benzoate ions, two of which bridge the Eu(3+) ions. Of the four benzoate ligands coordinating to each Eu(3+) position, three distinct coordination modes [monodentate, bidentate-chelating, and bidentate-bridging (twice)] are observed. Within the crystal, there are two additional uncoordinating benzoic acid mol-ecules per dinuclear complex. Within the dimer, the water bound to each Eu(3+) ion participates in intra-molecular hydrogen bonding with a coordinating benzoate. Additionally, the carb-oxy-lic acid group on the benzoic acid participates in inter-molecular hydrogen bonding with a benzoate ligand bound to the dimer complex. PMID:25309184

  16. Crystal structure of (E)-4-{2-[4-(all­yloxy)phen­yl]diazen­yl}benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Mohd. Yusoff, Mashitah; Ismail, Jamil; Kwong, Huey Chong; Quah, Ching Kheng

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C16H14N2O3, has an E conformation about the azo­benzene [—N=N– = 1.2481?(16)?Ć] linkage. The benzene rings are almost coplanar [dihedral angle = 1.36?(7)°]. The O atoms of the carb­oxy­lic acid group are disordered over two sets of sites and were refined with an occupancy ratio of 0.5:0.5. The two disordered components of the carb­oxy­lic acid group make dihedral angles of 1.5?(14) and 3.8?(12)° with the benzene ring to which they are attached. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via pairs of O—H?O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers. The dimers are connected via C—H?O hydrogen bonds, forming ribbons lying parallel to [120]. These ribbons are linked via C—H?? inter­actions, forming slabs parallel to (001). PMID:25552976

  17. 3-Eth­oxy­carbonyl-2-hy­droxy-6-meth­oxy-4-methyl­benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yun-Xia; Guo, Tao; Xie, Hui; Pan, Sheng-Li

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C12H14O6, a substituted isophthalic acid monoester which was isolated from the lichen Thamnolia vermicularis var. subuliformis, displays intra­molecular carbox­yl–meth­oxy O—H?O and hy­droxy–carboxyl O—H?O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions. The terminal methyl group of the ethyl ester is disordered over two sets of sites with occupancies of 0.599?(19) and 0.401?(19). PMID:22590305

  18. Fischer indolisation of N-(?-ketoacyl)anthranilic acids into 2-(indol-2-carboxamido)benzoic acids and 2-indolyl-3,1-benzoxazin-4-ones and their NMR study.

    PubMed

    Proisl, Karel; Kafka, Stanislav; Urankar, Damijana; Gazvoda, Martin; Kimmel, Roman; Košmrlj, Janez

    2014-12-21

    N-(?-ketoacyl)anthranilic acids reacted with phenylhydrazinium chloride in boiling acetic acid to afford 2-(indol-2-carboxamido)benzoic acids in good to excellent yields and 2-indolyl-3,1-benzoxazin-4-ones as by-products. The formation of the latter products could easily be suppressed by a hydrolytic workup. Alternatively, by increasing the reaction temperature and/or time, 2-indolyl-3,1-benzoxazin-4-ones can be obtained exclusively. Optimisations of the reaction conditions as well as the scope and the course of the transformations were investigated. The products were characterized by (1)H, (13)C and (15)N NMR spectroscopy. The corresponding resonances were assigned on the basis of the standard 1D and gradient selected 2D NMR experiments ((1)H-(1)H gs-COSY, (1)H-(13)C gs-HSQC, (1)H-(13)C gs-HMBC) with (1)H-(15)N gs-HMBC as a practical tool to determine (15)N NMR chemical shifts at the natural abundance level of (15)N isotope. PMID:25347568

  19. A quantitative relationship between structure and reactivity for the reactions between diphenyldiazomethanes and benzoic acids in toluene at 25° C 

    E-print Network

    Westmoreland, John Sherman

    1958-01-01

    -order if the acid concentration is several times that of the c J. F. Norris and W. H. Strain, ibid., 57, 187 (1935)* 7J. D. Roberts, E. A. McElhill, and R. Armstrong, ibid., 71, 2923 (19^9). o F. D. Snell and C. J. Snell, "Colorimetric Methods of Analysis," D.... Hancock, under whose able guidance this research was conducted. This study was supported in part by a research grant from the Robert A. Welch Foundation. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION........ MATERIALS .......... EXPERIMENTAL........ DATA AND COMPUTATIONS...

  20. 13C-NMR analysis of chain microstructure of copolyimides on the basis of 2,2-bis[(3,4-dicarboxyphenoxyl)-phenyl]-propane dianhydride synthesized in molten benzoic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander A. Kuznetsov; Anna Yu. Tsegelskaya; Nikolay S. Perov

    2012-01-01

    Three series of copolyimides CPI-1, CPI-2 and CPI-3 were prepared in molten benzoic acid, based on 2,2-bis-[(3,4-dicarboxyphenoxy)-phenyl]-propane dianhydride (intermonomer) and three pairs of diamines (comonomers): aromatic\\/aliphatic (CPI-1, CPI-3) and moderate basic aromatic\\/low basic aromatic (CPI-2). The chain microstructure of copolyimides was determined by means of the high resolution 13C NMR spectroscopy. It was found that microstructure of copolyimides depends on

  1. Application of ChemDraw NMR Tool: Correlation of Program-Generated (Super 13)C Chemical Shifts and pK[subscript a] Values of Para-Substituted Benzoic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongyi Wang

    2005-01-01

    A study uses the ChemDraw nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) tool to process 15 para-substituted benzoic acids and generate (super 13)C NMR chemical shifts of C1 through C5. The data were plotted against their pK[subscript a] value and a fairly good linear fit was found for pK[subscript a] versus delta[subscript c1].

  2. Application of organolithium and related reagents in synthesis. Part 25: Novel specific synthesis of the 4-arylisochroman-3-acetic acids via conversion of benzoic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Bieniek; Jan Epsztajn; Justyna A Kowalska; Zbigniew Malinowski

    2001-01-01

    The transformation of the benzanilides 1 into 4-arylisochroman-3-acetic acids 8 applying the following sequence of reactions is described. At first, the 3-arylphthalides 3 were obtained via metallation [n-BuLi] of benzanilides 1 and subsequent treatment of the generated bis-lithiated anilides 2 with aromatic aldehydes. Next, the 3-arylphthalides 3 were reduced [LiBH4] to phthalanes 5 and then, via reductive metallation [Li\\/C10H8] and

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance using electronic referencing: method validation and evaluation of the measurement uncertainties for the quantification of benzoic acid in orange juice.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Bruno C; de Carvalho, Lucas J

    2015-02-01

    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance measurements have become more popular over the last decade. The introduction of new methods and experimental parameters has been of fundamental importance in the development of new applications. Amongst these new developments is the introduction of electronic referencing for quantifications. The use of electronic referencing eliminates errors in the analyses as a result of weighting of internal standards as well as undesired problems as a result of the solubility of the standards in the analyte solution and chemical interactions between the analyte and the internal standard. In this work, we have studied the quantification of a very important analyte in a food matrix, benzoic acid in orange juice, as a model to the validation and measurement uncertainty estimation of electronic referencing using (1)H NMR in food analyses. The referencing method applied was the pulse length-based concentration measurement. Method was validated and showed good results for the precision and accuracy parameters evaluated. A certified reference material and a reference material candidate were analyzed, and extremely good results were obtained. Reported relative expanded uncertainties are in the 1.07-1.39% range that can be considered an extremely good performance for the analysis of a food complex matrix. Measurement uncertainty was evaluated by two different approaches, and the pulse calibrations for the samples and for the reference have been shown to account for approximately 80% of the total uncertainty of the measurement. PMID:25303142

  4. Isolation of 3-amino-4-nitro­benzyl acetate: evidence of an undisclosed impurity in 5-amino-2-nitro­benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Quillian, Brandon; Hendricks, Jordan; Trivitayakhun, Matthew; Padgett, Clifford W.

    2015-01-01

    Yellow crystals of the title compound 3-amino-4-nitro­benzyl acetate, C9H10N2O4, were isolated from the reaction of acetic anhydride with (5-amino-2-nitro­phen­yl)methanol, prepared from reduction of commerically available 5-amino-2-nitro­benzoic acid with borane–THF. The mol­ecule is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.028?Ć). The mol­ecules are linked by inter­molecular N—H?O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions between the carbonyl and amine groups, forming a zigzag chain along the b-axis direction lying in a plane parallel to (-102). The chains are stacked along the c axis by ?–? inter­actions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.6240?(3) and 3.5855?(4)?Ć]. A strong intra­molecular N—H?O hydrogen-bonding inter­action is observed between the nitro group and the amine group [2.660?(2)?Ć]. PMID:26090132

  5. Behavior-selective apoptotic capacity of 4-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenoxy) benzoic acid and its methyl derivatives on two breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuan-Han; Ho, Wen-Yueh; Wu, Shu-Jing; Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Huang, Po-Jui; Wang, Clay C C; Hung, Jui-Hsiang

    2014-04-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common tumors in females. The therapeutic resistance of breast cancer has motivated the development of new agents for prevention and treatment. For the present study, several compounds were designed and analyzed for their antitumor activity in many cancer cell lines. 4-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenoxy) benzoic acid (compound 1) and its derivatives were selected for studying the anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects on five human cancer cell lines. Results indicated that compounds 1 and 2 significantly suppressed the cell viability of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cancer cells. However, compounds 1 and 2 had only minor effects on HepG2, Huh-7, and Hela cells. Moreover, compounds 1 and 2 exhibited a novel anti-tumor activity through the induction of cell-cycle arrest at G2/M and apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-486 breast cancer cells. Both compounds reduced colony-forming ability in MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that caspase-3 activity was increased in response to treatment with compounds 1 and 2. Taken together, these findings suggest that the novel compounds 1 and 2 are potential anticancer agents with clinical promise for breast cancer therapy. PMID:24692713

  6. Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and theoretical approach of Cu(II) complex with 4-{(Z)-[(2-hydroxybenzoyl)hydrazono]methyl}benzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shi-Liang; Liu, Zheng; Liu, Jie; Han, Guo-Cheng; Li, Yan-Hong

    2012-04-01

    The metal complex of [CuL2]·2DMF (L = 4-{(Z)-[(2-hydroxybenzoyl)hydrazono]methyl}benzoic acid, DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide) (1) had been synthesized and characterized by spectral method(IR), UV-Vis electronic absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, elemental analysis, electrochemistry, thermal analysis (TG, DTG) and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. In the complex, the ligands act as univalent anion bidentate and coordination takes place in the enol tautomeric form with the enolic oxygen and azomethine nitrogen atoms. Molecular geometry from X-ray experiment of the title compound in the ground-state has been compared using the density functional method (B3LYP) and LANL2DZ basis set. DFT calculations at B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory prove that the electronic spectra of CuL2·2DMF is attributed to intra-complex electronic transitions as well as ?-?* electronic transitions. Also, Mulliken charge analysis, natural bond orbitals (NBO), Wiberg bond index and frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) were performed at B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory. In addition, complex 1 exhibits strong photoluminescent emission at room temperature. The electrochemical studies reveal that redox of Cu2+/Cu+ in the complex are quasi-reversible processes. The result of TG analysis shows that the title complex was stable under 100.0 °C.

  7. Spectroscopic and molecular structure (monomeric and dimeric structure) investigation of 2-[(2-hydroxyphenyl) carbonyloxy] benzoic acid by DFT method: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthu, S.; Isac Paulraj, E.

    2013-04-01

    The experimental and theoretical study on the structures and vibrations of 2-[(2-hydroxyphenyl) carbonyloxy] benzoic acid (abbreviated as HPCBA) are presented. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the title compound have been recorded in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-100 cm-1 respectively. The molecular structures, vibrational wavenumbers, infrared intensities, Raman activities were calculated using DFT (B3LYP) method with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The most stable conformer of HPCBA is identified from the computational results. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQMFF) methodology. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds are discussed in dimer structure of the molecule. The first order hyperpolarizability (?0) and related properties (?, ?0 and ??) of HPCBA are calculated. The stability and charge delocalization of the molecule was studied by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The molecule orbital contributions are studied by density of energy states (DOSs). UV-Visible spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 200-400 nm and the electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies were determined by time-dependent TD-DFT approach. Fukui functions, local softness and electrophilicity indices for selected atomic sites of the title compound are determined. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges is also calculated. Thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures are calculated.

  8. The polyphenol 3, 4, 5 - tri-hydroxy benzoic acid inhibits indian daboia russelli venom and its hemorrhagic complex induced local toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mahadeswaraswamy, Y H; Kumar, M S; Gowtham, Yashonandana J; Nagaraju, S; Girish, K S; Kemparaju, K

    2011-01-01

    Despite a long history on treatment and management of snakebite, as of now, no satisfactory cure exists to treat local toxicity, including anti-venom therapy. Several natural compounds from plants and their synthetic analogs have shown to be protective. In this study 3, 4, 5-tri-hydroxy benzoic acid, the gallic acid (GA) was tested against the local toxicity of Daboia russelli (DR) venom and its purified hemorrhagic complex (HC). GA inhibited in vitro proteolytic activity of both DR venom and HC but, it did not inhibit phospholipase activity of DR venom. GA inhibited hemorrhage, edema forming, dermo- and myonecrotic activities of both HC and DR venom in in vivo experiments. GA was particularly effective against hemorrhagic activity but, GA inhibition had a greater effect on HC when compared to DR venom. The inhibition was likely due to GA induced structural changes in HC as revealed by alterations in fluorescence emission and CD spectral properties. However, the inhibition was not due to chelating property of GA as suggested by UV-visible spectral studies. Inhibition of collagen type IV, laminin and fibronectin degradation essentially provided the biochemical basis for GA which inhibited local effects of HC as well as DR venom. Thus, the study appears highly promising to explore GA and its generics against ruthless local effects and perhaps systemic hemorrhage of DR and other snake bites as well. Further, these agents will possibly find an immense value in the regulation of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) in processes such as wound healing, inflammation and in the treatment of cancer. PMID:21682684

  9. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid is neuroprotective in rat model of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Jafar Sadik B.; Ahmad, Muzamil; Li, Wenjin; Rose, Marie E.; Foley, Lesley M.; Hitchens, T. Kevin; Graham, Steven H.; Hwang, Sung Hee; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) diminishes vasodilatory and neuroprotective effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids by hydrolyzing them to inactive dihydroxy metabolites. The primary goals of this study were to investigate the effects of acute sEH inhibition by trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB) on infarct volume, functional outcome, and changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in a rat model of ischemic stroke. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced in rats for 90 min followed by reperfusion. At the end of 24 h after reperfusion rats were euthanized for infarct volume assessment by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Brain cortical sEH activity was assessed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Functional outcome at 24 and 48 h after reperfusion was evaluated by arm flexion and sticky-tape tests. Changes in CBF were assessed by arterial spin-labeled-MRI at baseline, during ischemia, and at 180 min after reperfusion. Neuroprotective effects of t-AUCB were evaluated in primary rat neuronal cultures by Cytotox-Flour kit and propidium iodide staining. t-AUCB significantly reduced cortical infarct volume by 35% (14.5 ± 2.7% vs. 41.5 ± 4.5%), elevated cumulative epoxyeicosatrienoic acids-to-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids ratio in brain cortex by twofold (4.40 ± 1.89 vs. 1.97 ± 0.85), and improved functional outcome in arm-flexion test (day 1: 3.28 ± 0.5 s vs. 7.50 ± 0.9 s; day 2: 1.71 ± 0.4 s vs. 5.28 ± 0.5 s) when compared with that of the vehicle-treated group. t-AUCB significantly reduced neuronal cell death in a dose-dependent manner (vehicle: 70.9 ± 7.1% vs. t-AUCB0.1?M: 58 ± 5.11% vs. t-AUCB0.5?M: 39.9 ± 5.8%). These findings suggest that t-AUCB may exert its neuroprotective effects by affecting multiple components of neurovascular unit including neurons, astrocytes, and microvascular flow. PMID:24043255

  10. Strigolactone analogues and mimics derived from phthalimide, saccharine, p-tolylmalondialdehyde, benzoic and salicylic acid as scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zwanenburg, Binne; Mwakaboko, Alinanuswe S

    2011-12-15

    A series of new strigolactone (SL) analogues is derived from simple and cheap starting materials. These SL analogues are designed using a working model. The first analogue is a modified Nijmegen-1, the second contains saccharin as substituent (bio-isosteric replacement of a carbonyl in Nijmegen-1 by a sulfonyl group) and the third one is derived from p-tolylmalondialdehyde. These new SL analogues are appreciably to highly active as germination stimulants of seeds of Striga hermonthica and Orobanche cernua. The SL analogue derived from saccharin is the most active one. A serendipitous and most rewarding finding is that the compound obtained by a direct coupling of saccharin with the chlorobutenolide exhibits a high germination activity especially towards O. cernua seeds. Two other SL mimics are obtained from benzoic and salicylic aid by a direct coupling reaction with chlorobutenolide, both of them are very active germinating agents. These SL mimics represent a new type of germination stimulants. A tentative molecular mechanism for the mode of action of these SL mimics has been proposed. PMID:22082666

  11. Hydrogen bonding in the anhydrous 1:1 proton-transfer compounds of isonipecotamide with nitro-substituted benzoic acids: the salts of the three isomeric mononitrobenzoic acids and of 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D

    2010-12-01

    The structures of the anhydrous 1:1 proton-transfer compounds of isonipecotamide (piperidine-4-carboxamide) with the three isomeric mononitro-substituted benzoic acids and with 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, namely 4-carbamoylpiperidinium 2-nitrobenzoate, (I), 4-carbamoylpiperidinium 3-nitrobenzoate, (II), and 4-carbamoylpiperidinium 4-nitrobenzoate, (III), all C(6)H(13)N(2)O(+)·C(7)H(4)NO(4)(-), and 4-carbamoylpiperidinium 3,5-dinitrobenzoate, C(6)H(13)N(2)O(8)(+)·C(7)H(3)N(2)O(6)(-), (IV), respectively, have been determined at 200?K. All the salts form hydrogen-bonded structures, viz. three-dimensional in (I), two-dimensional in (II) and (III), and one-dimensional in (IV). Featured in the hydrogen bonding of three of these [(I), (II) and (IV)] is the cyclic head-to-head amide-amide homodimer motif [graph set R(2)(2)(8)] through a duplex N-H...O association, the dimer then giving structure extension via either piperidinium or amide H-atom donors and carboxylate O-atom and, in some examples [(II) and (IV)], nitro O-atom acceptors. In (I), the centrosymmetric amide-amide homodimers are expanded laterally through N-H...O hydrogen bonds via cyclic R(4)(2)(8) interactions, forming ribbons which extend along the c cell direction. These ribbons incorporate the 2-nitrobenzoate cations through centrosymmetric cyclic piperidine-carboxylate N-H...O associations [graph set R(4)(4)(12)], giving interconnected sheets in the three-dimensional structure. In (II), in which no amide-amide homodimer is present, duplex piperidinium-amide N-H...O homomolecular hydrogen-bonding associations [graph set R(2)(2)(14)] give centrosymmetric head-to-tail dimers. Structure extension occurs through hydrogen-bonding associations between both the amide H-atom donors and carboxylate and nitro O-atom acceptors, as well as a three-centre piperidinium-carboxylate N-H...O,O' cyclic R(1)(2)(4) association, giving the two-dimensional network structure. In (III), the centrosymmetric amide-amide dimers are linked through the two carboxylate O-atom acceptors of the anions via bridging piperidinium N-H...O,O'...H-N(amide) hydrogen bonds, giving the two-dimensional sheet structure which features centrosymmetric cyclic R(4)(4)(12) associations. In (IV), the amide-amide dimer is also centrosymmetric, with the dimers linked to the anions through amide-nitro N-H...O interactions. The piperidinium groups extend the structure into one-dimensional ribbons via N-H...O(carboxylate) hydrogen bonds. The structures reported here further demonstrate the utility of the isonipecotamide cation in molecular assembly. They also highlight the efficacy of the cyclic R(2)(2)(8) amide-amide hydrogen-bonding homodimer motif in this process and provide an additional homodimer motif type in the head-to-tail R(2)(2)(14) association. PMID:21123896

  12. Chromatographic Determination of Derivatives of p?Hydroxybenzoic Acid in Melissa officinalis by HPLC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriela Karasová; Jozef Lehotay

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a fast method for the determination of phenolic compounds–benzoic acids in Melissa officinalis. Soxhlet extraction has been optimized for the isolation of benzoic acids (gallic acid, p?hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid) from plant material. The conditions of Soxhlet extraction, such as solvent composition and extraction time were studied. The efficient extraction

  13. Synthesis of new 4-pyrrol-1-yl benzoic acid hydrazide analogs and some derived oxadiazole, triazole and pyrrole ring systems: A novel class of potential antibacterial and antitubercular agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Joshi; H. M. Vagdevi; V. P. Vaidya; G. S. Gadaginamath

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, a novel series of 4-pyrrol-1-yl benzoic acid hydrazide analogs, some derived 5-substituted-2-thiol-1,3,4-oxadiazoles, 5-substituted-4-amino-1,2,4-triazolin-3-thione and 2,5-dimethyl pyrroles have been synthesized in good yields and characterized by IR, NMR, mass spectral and elemental analyses. Compounds were evaluated for their preliminary in vitro antibacterial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and compounds were screened for antitubercular activity against

  14. Fluorescence enhancement of europium(III) perchlorate by benzoic acid on bis(benzylsulfinyl)methane complex and its binding characteristics with the bovine serum albumin (BSA).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Wen-Xian; Ao, Bo-Yang; Feng, Shu-Yan; Xin, Xiao-Dong

    2014-01-24

    A novel ligand with double sulfinyl groups, bis(benzylsulfinyl)methane L, was synthesized by a new method. Its novel ternary complex, EuL2.5?L'·(ClO4)2?5H2O, has been synthesized [using L as the first ligand, and benzoic acid L' as the second ligand], and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, coordination titration analysis, FTIR, TG-DSC, (1)H NMR and UV-vis. In order to study the effect of the second ligand on the fluorescence properties of rare-earth sulfoxide complex, a novel binary complex EuL2.5·(ClO4)3·3H2O has been synthesized. Photoluminescent measurement showed that the first ligand L could efficiently transfer the energy to Eu(3+) ions in the complex. Furthermore, the detailed luminescence analyses on the rare earth complexes indicated that the ternary Eu (III) complex manifested stronger fluorescence intensities, longer lifetimes, and higher fluorescence quantum efficiencies than the binary Eu (III) materials. After introducing the second ligand L', the fluorescence emission intensities and fluorescence lifetimes of the ternary complex enhanced more obviously than the binary complex. This illustrated that the presence of both the first ligand L and the second ligand L' could sensitize fluorescence intensities of Eu (III) ions. The fluorescence spectra, fluorescence lifetime and phosphorescence spectra were also discussed. To explore the potential biological value of Eu (III) complexes, the binding interaction among Eu (III) complexes and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by fluorescence spectrum. The result indicated that the reaction between Eu (III) complexes and BSA was a static quenching procedure. The binding site number, n, of 0.60 and 0.78, and binding constant, Ka, of 0.499 and 4.46 were calculated according to the double logarithm regression equation, respectively for EuL2.5?L'?(ClO4)2?5H2O and EuL2.5?(ClO4)3?3H2O systems. PMID:24161860

  15. Fluorescence enhancement of europium(III) perchlorate by benzoic acid on bis(benzylsulfinyl)methane complex and its binding characteristics with the bovine serum albumin (BSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Wen-Xian; Ao, Bo-Yang; Feng, Shu-Yan; Xin, Xiao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    A novel ligand with double sulfinyl groups, bis(benzylsulfinyl)methane L, was synthesized by a new method. Its novel ternary complex, EuL2.5?L?·(ClO4)2?5H2O, has been synthesized [using L as the first ligand, and benzoic acid L? as the second ligand], and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, coordination titration analysis, FTIR, TG-DSC, 1H NMR and UV-vis. In order to study the effect of the second ligand on the fluorescence properties of rare-earth sulfoxide complex, a novel binary complex EuL2.5·(ClO4)3·3H2O has been synthesized. Photoluminescent measurement showed that the first ligand L could efficiently transfer the energy to Eu3+ ions in the complex. Furthermore, the detailed luminescence analyses on the rare earth complexes indicated that the ternary Eu (III) complex manifested stronger fluorescence intensities, longer lifetimes, and higher fluorescence quantum efficiencies than the binary Eu (III) materials. After introducing the second ligand L?, the fluorescence emission intensities and fluorescence lifetimes of the ternary complex enhanced more obviously than the binary complex. This illustrated that the presence of both the first ligand L and the second ligand L? could sensitize fluorescence intensities of Eu (III) ions. The fluorescence spectra, fluorescence lifetime and phosphorescence spectra were also discussed. To explore the potential biological value of Eu (III) complexes, the binding interaction among Eu (III) complexes and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by fluorescence spectrum. The result indicated that the reaction between Eu (III) complexes and BSA was a static quenching procedure. The binding site number, n, of 0.60 and 0.78, and binding constant, Ka, of 0.499 and 4.46 were calculated according to the double logarithm regression equation, respectively for EuL2.5?L??(ClO4)2?5H2O and EuL2.5?(ClO4)3?3H2O systems.

  16. Structural diversity and magnetic properties of six metal-organic polymers based on semirigid tricarboxylate ligand of 3,5-bi(4-carboxyphenoxy)benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liming; Fan, Weiliu; Song, Weikuo; Sun, Liming; Zhao, Xian; Zhang, Xiutang

    2014-11-14

    Solvothermal reactions of the semirigid 3,5-bi(4-carboxyphenoxy)benzoic acid (H3BCP) and transitional metal cations with the help of three ancillary bridging imidazole linkers afforded six coordination polymers, namely, [Co(HBCP)(1,4-bib)0.5]n (), {[Mn1.5(BCP)(1,4-bib)0.5(?2-H2O)(H2O)2]·(1,4-bib)0.5}n (), {[Mn0.5(1,4-bib)(H2O)]·(H2BCP)}n (), {[Fe(BCP)0.5(HCOO)0.5(4,4'-bibp)0.5]·2H2O}n (), [Ni2.5(HBCP)(BCP)(4,4'-bibp)2(?2-H2O)(H2O)2]n (), and [Ni(HBCP)(1,4-bidb)1.5(H2O)2]n (), (1,4-bib = 1,4-bis(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene, 1,4-bidb = 1,4-bis(1-imidazol-yl)-2,5-dimethyl benzene, 4,4'-bibp = 4,4'-bis(imidazol-1-yl)biphenyl). Their structures and properties were determined by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analyses, IR spectra, elemental analyses, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Complex displays unusual 2D + 2D?2D parallel entangled networks consisting of (3,4)-connected 3,4L83 sheets. Complex exhibits an interesting 2-fold interpenetrated framework with a trinodal (4,4,6)-connected (3·4·5·6(2)·7)2(3·6·7(4))2(3(2)·4(2)·5(2)·6(2)·7(6)·9) topology. The host network of complex is a 2D 4-connected (4(4)·6(2))-sql sheet. Complex affords unprecedented 3D (4,6,6)-coordinated framework with point symbol of (4(5)·6)(4(8)·6(7))(4(9)·6(3)·8(3))2, in which the 1D helix water chains occupy the void channels. Complex can be regarded as a novel self-penetrating (4,4,4,5)-coordinated framework with point symbol of (4·5(4)·6)2(4·6(5)·7·8(3))2(5·6·7·8(3))2(5(2)·8(3)·9(2)), which contains two interpenetrated (3,4,4,5)-coordinated (4·5(4)·6)2(4·6(5)·7·8(3))2(5·6·7)2(5(2)·8(3)·9(2)) subnets linked by ?2-H2O. Complex shows a 1D ladder chain, which are further assembled into a 3D supramolecular structure via O-HO and ?? interactions. Moreover, magnetic studies indicate that both complex and show antiferromagnetic properties. PMID:25233393

  17. Quantitation of Flavanols, Proanthocyanidins, Isoflavones, Flavanones, Dihydrochalcones, Stilbenes, Benzoic Acid Derivatives Using Ultraviolet Absorbance after Identification by Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M.

    2013-01-01

    A general method was developed for the systematic quantitation of flavanols, proanthocyanidins, isoflavones, flavanones, dihydrochalcones, stilbenes, and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives (mainly hydrolyzable tannins) based on UV band II absorbance arising from the benzoyl structure. The compound structures and the wavelength maximum were well correlated and were divided into four groups: the flavanols and proanthocyanidins at 278 nm, hydrolyzable tannins at 274 nm, flavanones at 288 nm, and isoflavones at 260 nm. Within each group, molar relative response factors (MRRFs) were computed for each compound based on the absorbance ratio of the compound and the group reference standard. Response factors were computed for the compounds as purchased (MRRF), after drying (MRRFD), and as the best predicted value (MRRFP). Concentrations for each compound were computed based on calibration with the group reference standard and the MRRFP. The quantitation of catechins, proanthocyanidins, and gallic acid derivatives in white tea was used as an example. PMID:22577798

  18. Quantitation of flavanols, proanthocyanidins, isoflavones, flavanones, dihydrochalcones, stilbenes, benzoic acid derivatives using ultraviolet absorbance after identification by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M

    2012-06-13

    A general method was developed for the systematic quantitation of flavanols, proanthocyanidins, isoflavones, flavanones, dihydrochalcones, stilbenes, and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives (mainly hydrolyzable tannins) based on UV band II absorbance arising from the benzoyl structure. The compound structures and the wavelength maximum were well correlated and were divided into four groups: the flavanols and proanthocyanidins at 278 nm, hydrolyzable tannins at 274 nm, flavanones at 288 nm, and isoflavones at 260 nm. Within each group, molar relative response factors (MRRFs) were computed for each compound based on the absorbance ratio of the compound and the group reference standard. Response factors were computed for the compounds as purchased (MRRF), after drying (MRRFD), and as the best predicted value (MRRFP). Concentrations for each compound were computed based on calibration with the group reference standard and the MRRFP. The quantitation of catechins, proanthocyanidins, and gallic acid derivatives in white tea was used as an example. PMID:22577798

  19. Tetra-?-benzoato-?4 O:O?;?3 O:O,O?;?3 O,O?:O?-bis­[(benzoato-?2 O,O?)(1,10-phenanthroline-?2 N,N?)europium(III)] benzoic acid disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Ping Howe; Teoh, Siang Guan; Yeap, Chin Sing; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title complex, [Eu2(C7H5O2)6(C12H8N2)2]·2C6H5COOH, contains one-half of the complex mol­ecule, the complete mol­ecule being generated by inversion symmetry, and one benzoic acid solvent mol­ecule. The two EuIII ions are linked by four bridging benzoate ions, with an Eu?Eu distance of 3.96041?(12)?Ć. Each EuIII ion is coordinated by one phenanthroline heterocycle and a bidentate benzoate ion. The irregular nine-coordinated geometry of the metal ion is composed of seven O and two N atoms. The mol­ecular structure is stabilized by intra­molecular C—H?O hydrogen bonds. In the crystal structure, mol­ecules are linked into chains by inter­molecular C—H?O hydrogen bonds along the a axis. The crystal structure is further stabilized by inter­molecular C—H?O and C—H?? inter­actions. Weak ?–? inter­actions are also observed [centroid–centroid distances = 3.6962?(10)–3.6963?(10)?Ć]. PMID:21579069

  20. 4-(6,7-Dihydro-5,8-dioxothiazolo[4,5-g]phthalazin-2-yl)benzoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester as a highly sensitive chemiluminescence derivatization reagent for amines in liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, H; Nakao, R; Matsuo, T; Nohta, H; Yamaguchi, M

    2001-01-12

    4-(6,7-Dihydro-5,8-dioxothiazolo[4,5-g]phthalazin-2-yl)benzoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester was synthesized as a highly sensitive and selective chemiluminescence derivatization reagent for primary and secondary amines in liquid chromatography. Methyl-n-octylamine, n-nonylamine and n-decylamine were used as model compounds to optimize the derivatization, separation and chemiluminescence reaction conditions. This reagent reacts selectively with amines in the presence of triethylamine to give the highly chemiluminescent derivatives, which produce chemiluminescence by reaction with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) in an alkaline medium. The chemiluminescent derivatives of the three amines can be separated within 20 min by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with isocratic elution, followed by chemiluminescence detection. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio=3) for primary and secondary amines are at sub-fmol levels for a 20-microl injection. Furthermore, this method was applicable to the determination of amantadine in human plasma. PMID:11217046

  1. Modeling, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Potential Retinoid-X-Receptor (RXR) Selective Agonists: Novel Analogs of 4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8- Pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2- naphthyl)ethynyl]benzoic Acid (Bexarotene)

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Carl E.; Jurutka, Peter W.; Marshall, Pamela A.; Groy, Thomas L.; van der Vaart, Arjan; Ziller, Joseph W.; Furmick, Julie K.; Graeber, Mark E.; Matro, Erik; Miguel, Belinda V.; Tran, Ivy T.; Kwon, Jeng Eun S.; Tedeschi, Jamie N.; Moosavi, Shahram; Danishyar, Amina; Philp, Joshua S.; Khamees, Reina O.; Jackson, Jevon N.; Grupe, Darci K.; Badshah, Syed L.; Hart, Justin W.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the synthesis of analogs of 4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethynyl]benzoic acid (1), commonly known as bexarotene, and their analysis in acting as retinoid-X-receptor (RXR)-specific agonists. Compound 1 has FDA approval to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL); however, its use can cause side effects such as hypothyroidism and increased triglyceride concentrations, presumably by disruption of RXR heterodimerization with other nuclear receptors. The novel analogs in the present study have been evaluated for RXR activation in an RXR mammalian-2-hybrid assay as well as an RXRE-mediated transcriptional assay, and for their ability to induce apoptosis, as well as for their mutagenicity and cytotoxicity. Analysis of 11 novel compounds revealed the discovery of 3 analogs that best induce RXR-mediated transcriptional activity, stimulate apoptosis, have comparable Ki and EC50 values to 1, and are selective RXR agonists. Our experimental approach suggests that rational drug design can develop new rexinoids with improved biological properties. PMID:19791803

  2. Synthesis, biological activity and structure-activity relationships of new benzoic acid-based protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors endowed with insulinomimetic effects in mouse C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ottanà, Rosaria; Maccari, Rosanna; Mortier, Jérémie; Caselli, Anna; Amuso, Simona; Camici, Guido; Rotondo, Archimede; Wolber, Gerhard; Paoli, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a complex altered metabolic condition characterized by impaired insulin signaling and implicated in the pathogenesis of serious human diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, neurodegenerative pathologies. In pursuing our aim to identify new agents able to improve cellular insulin sensitivity, we have synthesized new 4-[(5-arylidene-4-oxo-2-phenylimino/oxothiazolidin-3-yl)methyl]benzoic acids (5, 8) and evaluated their inhibitory activity towards human protein tyrosine phosphatases PTP1B, LMW-PTP and TCPTP, enzymes which are involved in the development of insulin resistance. Compounds 5 and 8 showed from moderate to significant selectivity toward PTP1B over both the highly homologous TCPTP and the two isoforms of human LMW-PTP. In addition, most of the tested compounds selectively inhibited LMW-PTP IF1 over the isoform IF2. Docking studies into the active sites of PTP1B and LMW-PTP aided the rationalization of the observed PTP inhibitory profile. Moreover, most tested compounds were capable to induce the insulin metabolic pathway in mouse C2C12 skeletal muscle cells by remarkably stimulating both IR? phosphorylation and 2-deoxyglucose cellular uptake. PMID:24287560

  3. 3,5-Dimethoxy-4-(3-(2-carbonyl-ethyldisulfanyl)-propionyl)-benzoic acid 4-guanidino-butyl ester: a novel twin drug that prevents primary cardiac myocytes from hypoxia-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunhua; Guo, Wei; Maerz, Stefanie; Gu, Xianfeng; Zhu, Yizhun

    2013-01-30

    Leonurine possesses cardioprotective effects in myocardial ischemia due to its anti-apoptotic properties. However, the process to isolate and purify leonurine is difficult, because of its low content in the Herb Leonuri and its impurity. Moreover, the high dosage used indicates low potency of leonurine. To overcome these defects, we had synthesized a novel twin drug of leonurine, 3,5-dimethoxy-4-(3-(2-carbonyl-ethyldisulfanyl)-propionyl)-benzoic acid 4-guanidino-butyl ester (compound 2). In this paper, we focused on investigating the cardioprotective effect and underlying mechanisms of compound 2. Our data showed that cell viability was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) were also significantly attenuated in the compound 2-treated group. In addition, we observed the cardioprotective effects by Hoechst 33258 nucleus staining, JC-1 staining, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and transmission electron microscopy. Compound 2 inhibited apoptosis by reducing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, decreasing cleaved-caspase-3 expression and enhancing the phosphorylation of Akt. Furthermore, the phosphorylation effect of compound 2 was reversed by LY294002 the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor from happening. We concluded that compound 2 played a cardioprotective role in hypoxia-induced primary cardiac myocytes apoptosis partly via modulating the PI3K/Akt pathway at a 10-fold lower concentration than leonurine. PMID:23305837

  4. New syntheses of aminoalkylphosphonic acids 

    E-print Network

    DeBardeleben, John Frederick

    1963-01-01

    to remove any remaining benzoic acid, The aqueous layer was evaporated on a steam bath in vacuum. To the residue 100 ml, of ethyl alcohol was added. The resulting mixture was filtered while hot to remove sodium chloride. The alcohol was removed by dis.... Only three ? valine (VIII a), leucine (VIII b), and isoleucine (VIII c) ? corresponded to naturally occurring amino carboxylic acids. Mono- and dialkylmalonamidic acids (IX) were caused to react with sodium hypobromite, yielding the desired amino...

  5. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of diorganotin derivatives with 2-[(2,6-dimethylphenyl)amino]benzoic acid. Crystal and molecular structure of the first complexes of 2-[(2,6-dimethylphenyl)amino]benzoic acid. Crystal and molecular structures of 1,2:3,4-di- ? 2-2-[(2,6-dimethylphenyl)amino]-benzoato- O,O-1,3-bis-2-[(2,6-dimethylphenyl)amino]benzoato- O-1,2,4:2,3,4-di- ? 3-oxo-tetrakis[di-butyltin(IV)] and bis-2-[(2,6-dimethylphenyl)amino]benzoato-di- n-butyltin(IV)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vaso Dokorou; Mavroudis A Demertzis; Jerry P Jasinski; Dimitra Kovala-Demertzi

    2004-01-01

    The complexes [Bu2(DMPA)SnOSn(DMPA)Bu2]2 (2) and [Bu2Sn(DMPA)2] (3), where HDMPA is 2-[bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)amino]benzoic acid, have been prepared and structurally characterized by means of, vibrational, ultra-violet, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies. The crystal structure of complexes 2 and 3 have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Three distannoxane rings are present to the dimeric tetraorganodistannoxane of planar ladder arrangement of 2. The structure is

  6. Preparation of some amino phosphonic acids 

    E-print Network

    Chambers, James Richard

    1958-01-01

    chloride and sodium hydroxide, rapid stirring was continued for another 30 minutes. This solution was then made acidic to congo red with 6 N hydro? chloric acid, extracted with 13 ml. of diethyl ether to remove unreacted benzoyl chloride and any benzoic... acid is insoluble in ethyl alcohol but its hydrochloride is soluble; therefore, the free acid can be obtained easily by dissolving the hydro? chloride in ethyl alcohol and precipitating the free acid (III) with butene oxide, A 0 + CH...

  7. Effect of (S)-4-(1-(5-chloro-2-(4-fluorophenyoxy)benzamido)ethyl) benzoic acid (CJ-42794), a selective antagonist of prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4, on ulcerogenic and healing responses in rat gastrointestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Koji; Tanaka, Akiko; Kato, Shinichi; Aihara, Eitaro; Amagase, Kikuko

    2007-09-01

    Recent research showed the involvement of prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4) in hypersensitivity to inflammatory pain and suggested that the EP4 receptor is a potential target for the pharmacological treatment of inflammatory pain. We examined the effects of (S)-4-(1-(5-chloro-2-(4-fluorophenyoxy) benzamido)ethyl) benzoic acid (CJ-42794), a selective EP4 antagonist, on gastrointestinal ulcerogenic and healing responses in rats, in comparison with those of various cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors. CJ-42794 alone, given p.o., did not produce any damage in the gastrointestinal mucosa, similar to 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazole (SC-560) (COX-1 inhibitor) or rofecoxib (COX-2 inhibitor), whereas indomethacin (nonselective COX inhibitor) caused gross lesions. Rofecoxib but not CJ-42794, however, damaged these tissues when coadministered with SC-560 and aggravated gastric lesions produced by aspirin. Indomethacin and SC-560 worsened the gastric ulcerogenic response to cold-restraint stress, yet neither CJ-42794 nor rofecoxib had any effect. Furthermore, indomethacin and SC-560 at lower doses damaged the stomach and small intestine of adjuvant arthritic rats. In arthritic rats, rofecoxib but not CJ-42794 provoked gastric ulceration, whereas CJ-42794 produced little damage in the small intestine. The repeated administration of CJ-42794 and rofecoxib as well as indomethacin impaired the healing of chronic gastric ulcers with a down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the ulcerated mucosa. These results suggest that CJ-42794 does not cause any damage in the normal rat gastrointestinal mucosa and in the arthritic rat stomach and does not worsen the gastric ulcerogenic response to stress or aspirin in normal rats, although this agent slightly damages the small intestine of arthritic rats and impairs the healing of gastric ulcers. PMID:17578900

  8. Five new Zn(II) and Cd(II) coordination polymers constructed by 3,5-bis-oxyacetate-benzoic acid: Syntheses, crystal structures, network topologies and luminescent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xian-Rong; Yuan, Hong-Yan; Feng, Yun-Long

    2012-07-01

    Five Zn(II) and Cd(II) coordination polymers, [Zn2(BOABA)(bpp)(OH)]·0.5H2O (1), [Cd3(BOABA)2(bpp)2(H2O)6]·2H2O (2), [Cd3(BOABA)2(2,2'-bipy)3(H2O)4]·5.5H2O (3), [CdNa(BOABA)(H2O)]2·H2O (4) and [Cd2(BOABA)(bimb)Cl(H2O)2]·H2O (5) (H3BOABA=3,5-bis-oxyacetate-benzoic acid, bpp=1,3-bi(4-pyridyl)propane, 2,2'-bipy=2,2'-bipyridine, bimb=1,4-bis(imidazol-1'-yl)butane), have been solvothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, IR spectra and TG analyses. 1 is an uninodal 4-connected 2D square grid network based on binuclear zinc clusters. 2 is 2D wavelike layer structure and further linked by hydrogen bonds into the final 3D (5,6,6)-connected topology network. 3 is 3-connected 2D topology network and the 2,2'-bipy ligands decorate in two different types. 4 is a (4,8)-connected 2D topology network with heterocaryotic {Cd2Na2} clusters and BOABA3- ligands. 5 can be rationalized as a (3,10)-connected 3D topology network with tetranuclear {Cd4Cl2} clusters and BOABA3- ligands. Meanwhile, photoluminescence studies revealed that these five coordination polymers display strong fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature.

  9. Metal-organic frameworks built from achiral 3-(5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)benzoic acid: syntheses and structures of metal(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yun; Zhang, Miao Miao; Hua, Wei; Sun, Jun Liang; Shi, Hui Fang; Jiang, Peng Gang; Liao, Fu Hui; Lin, Jian Hua

    2014-01-01

    Using a novel flexible achiral ligand, 3-(5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)benzoic acid (HL), four metal(II)-complexes formulated as ZnL2·2H2O (1), CdL2(H2O)2·8H2O (2) and ML2(H2O)·H2O (M = Co 3 and Ni 4) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complexes 1, 3 and 4 all feature a uninodal 2D layer with a 4(4)-sql topology, and two such (4,4) nets interpenetrate in a parallel manner. Complex 2 exhibits a similar 4(4)-sql topology, but no interpenetration is observed in complex 2. Among the four complexes, only complex 1 is a homochiral network, which is evidenced by the CD spectrum. In complex 1, packing of the 2D layers generates a 41 screw axis along the c direction, and two-fold axes along the a and b directions, respectively. In complex 2, the Zn(II) center lies about an inversion center, giving rise to the centrosymmetric structure of complex 2. In complexes 3 and 4, packing of the 2D units generates a 21 screw axis along the c direction in the two complexes, and an inversion center is found between two neighboring 2-fold interpenetrated layers. The work indicates that the chirality of the space group for the homochiral complex 1 comes from the supramolecular packing of the 2D layers. PMID:24096305

  10. Biosynthesis and metabolism of salicylic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H I; León, J; Raskin, I

    1995-01-01

    Pathways of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and metabolism in tobacco have been recently identified. SA, an endogenous regulator of disease resistance, is a product of phenylpropanoid metabolism formed via decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to benzoic acid and its subsequent 2-hydroxylation to SA. In tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco leaves, newly synthesized SA is rapidly metabolized to SA O-beta-D-glucoside and methyl salicylate. Two key enzymes involved in SA biosynthesis and metabolism: benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, which converts benzoic acid to SA, and UDPglucose:SA glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.35), which catalyzes conversion of SA to SA glucoside have been partially purified and characterized. Progress in enzymology and molecular biology of SA biosynthesis and metabolism will provide a better understanding of signal transduction pathway involved in plant disease resistance. PMID:11607533

  11. Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy of humic acid europium(III) complexation by comparison to model substances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Plaschke; Jörg Rothe; Melissa A. Denecke; Thomas Fanghänel

    2004-01-01

    To provide the experimental basis for a deeper understanding of humic acid (HA) C 1s-near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra with and without metal ion complexation, a set of model compounds is investigated. Phthalic acid and hydroxyl substituted benzoic acids (benzoic, 4-hydroxy benzoic, protocatechuic, and gallic acid) are examined in an attempt to describe the C 1s-NEXAFS spectra

  12. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...phthalic anhydride with steam in the presence of a zinc oxide catalyst, by the hydrolysis of benzotrichloride...or sodium bichromate or with air in the presence of a transition metal salt catalyst. (b) The ingredient meets...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...phthalic anhydride with steam in the presence of a zinc oxide catalyst, by the hydrolysis of benzotrichloride...or sodium bichromate or with air in the presence of a transition metal salt catalyst. (b) The ingredient meets...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...phthalic anhydride with steam in the presence of a zinc oxide catalyst, by the hydrolysis of benzotrichloride...or sodium bichromate or with air in the presence of a transition metal salt catalyst. (b) The ingredient meets...

  15. 2-Amino-5-nitro­benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Odaba?o?lu, Hakk? Yasin; Büyükgüngör, Orhan; Avinç, Osman Ozan; Odaba?o?lu, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C7H6N2O4, an intra­molecular N—H?O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of O—H?O hydrogen bonds generate R 2 2(8) loops. Inter­molecular N—H?O and C—H?O hydrogen bonds then link the dimers, generating R 3 3(16)R 2 1(6) motifs. The whole mol­ecule is essentially planar, with the greatest deviation from the mean plane being 0.065?(2)?Ć. PMID:22347111

  16. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  17. Crystal and solution structures of di- n-butyltin(IV) complexes of 5-[( E)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-diazenyl]quinolin-8-ol and benzoic acid derivatives: En route to elegant self-assembly via modulation of the tin coordination geometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tushar S. Basu Baul; Archana Mizar; Anup Paul; Giuseppe Ruisi; Rudolph Willem; Monique Biesemans; Anthony Linden

    2009-01-01

    Reactions of nBu2SnCl(L1) (1), where L1=acid residue of 5-[(E)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-diazenyl]quinolin-8-ol, with various substituted benzoic acids in refluxing toluene, in the presence of triethylamine, yielded dimeric mixed ligand di-n-butyltin(IV) complexes of composition [nBu2Sn(L1)(L2–6)]2 where L2=benzene carboxylate (2), L3=2-[(E)-2-(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-1-diazenyl]benzoate (3), L4=5-[(E)-2-(4-methylphenyl)-1-diazenyl]-2-hydroxybenzoate (4), L5=2-{(E)-4-hydroxy-3-[(E)-4-chlorophenyliminomethyl]-phenyldiazenyl}benzoate (5) and L6=2-[(E)-(3-formyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-diazenyl]benzoate (6). All complexes (1–6) have been characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1H, 13C and 117Sn NMR and

  18. Aristolochic Acids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sciences NIH-HHS www.niehs.nih.gov Aristolochic Acids Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Known to be human carcinogens Aristolochia Clematitis Aristolochic Acids n Known human carcinogens n Found in certain ...

  19. Rosmarinic acid.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2003-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid is an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. It is commonly found in species of the Boraginaceae and the subfamily Nepetoideae of the Lamiaceae. However, it is also found in species of other higher plant families and in some fern and hornwort species. Rosmarinic acid has a number of interesting biological activities, e.g. antiviral, antibacterial, antiinflammatory and antioxidant. The presence of rosmarinic acid in medicinal plants, herbs and spices has beneficial and health promoting effects. In plants, rosmarinic acid is supposed to act as a preformed constitutively accumulated defence compound. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid starts with the amino acids L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine. All eight enzymes involved in the biosynthesis are known and characterised and cDNAs of several of the involved genes have been isolated. Plant cell cultures, e.g. from Coleus blumei or Salvia officinalis, accumulate rosmarinic acid in amounts much higher than in the plant itself (up to 36% of the cell dry weight). For this reason a biotechnological production of rosmarinic acid with plant cell cultures has been proposed. PMID:12482446

  20. Varieties in symmetry non-equivalent structural arrangements in solvates of 2-(3-methylene-1,3,7-trioxo-6-(2-carboxy-phenyl)-3,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1 H-pyrrolo[3,4- f]isoindol-2-yl)benzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Devendra; Baruah, Jubaraj B.

    2009-11-01

    The crystal structures of few solvates of 2-(3-methylene-1,3,7-trioxo-6-(2-carboxy-phenyl)-3,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1 H-pyrrolo[3,4- f]isoindol-2-yl)benzoic acid ( A) namely A·4H 2O; A·2DMF; A·2Py;A·3Py are determined (where Py = pyridine, DMF = dimethylformamide). The crystal structure of the hydrated form has Z' = 0.5, whereas other solvates with DMF and pyridine has Z' = 1. The neighboring host molecules in the crystal lattices of these solvates have different orientations; these orientations are related by translation or translation cum rotation of the orientation to the neighboring host molecules that has the most symmetric structure.

  1. Basically Acids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Houston,

    Students learn the basics of acid/base chemistry in a fun, interactive way by studying instances of acid/base chemistry found in popular films such as Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and National Treasure. Students learn what acids, bases and indicators are and how they can be used, including invisible ink. They also learn how engineers use acids and bases every day to better our quality of life. Students' interest is piqued by the use of popular culture in the classroom.

  2. Pathway of Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis in Healthy and Virus-Inoculated Tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Yalpani, N.; Leon, J.; Lawton, M. A.; Raskin, I.

    1993-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a likely endogenous regulator of localized and systemic disease resistance in plants. During the hypersensitive response of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), SA levels rise dramatically. We studied SA biosynthesis in healthy and TMV-inoculated tobacco by monitoring the levels of SA and its likely precursors in extracts of leaves and cell suspensions. In TMV-inoculated leaves, stimulation of SA accumulation is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the levels of benzoic acid. 14C-Tracer studies with cell suspensions and mock-or TMV-inoculated leaves indicate that the label moves from trans-cinnamic acid to SA via benzoic acid. In healthy and TMV-inoculated tobacco leaves, benzoic acid induced SA accumulation. o-Coumaric acid, which was previously reported as a possible precursor of SA in other species, did not increase SA levels in tobacco. In healthy tobacco tissue, the specific activity of newly formed SA was equal to that of the supplied [14C]benzoic acid, whereas in TMV-inoculated leaves some isotope dilution was observed, presumably because of the increase in the pool of endogenous benzoic acid. We observed accumulation of pathogen-esis-related-1 proteins and increased resistance to TMV in benzoic acid- but not in o-coumaric acid-treated tobacco leaves. This is consistent with benzoic acid being the immediate precursor of SA. We conclude that in healthy and virus-inoculated tobacco, SA is formed from cinnamic acid via benzoic acid. PMID:12231938

  3. Acid test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-06

    Baking soda can be used as an indicator of how much acid a substance contains. Lemons and limes have more acid in them than grapefruits and oranges. Indophenol can be used as an indicator of how much vitamin C is in a substance.

  4. Acids (GCMP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". We will observe the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with three acid solutions. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

  5. Domoic Acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bailey, Christina

    This online student report discusses the chemistry of domoic acid, a biotoxin that is produced by the diatom Psuedo-nitzschia and associated with Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). In addition to a descriptive summary and images, the report links to other areas of interest related to domoic acid poisoning including signs and symptoms, modes of action, and treatment.

  6. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (US))

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  7. Acid Rain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gene E. Likens; Richard F. Wright; James N. Galloway; Thomas J. Butler

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the acidity of rain and snow reveal that in parts of the eastern U.S. and of western Europe precipitation has changed from a nearly neutral solution 200 years ago to a dilute solution of sulfuric and nitric acids today. The trend is a result of the emission of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere accompanying the rise

  8. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  9. Acid Precipitation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tyser, Jim

    Acid precipitation will be defined. At different points in the lesson students will write balanced reactions for the formation acid precipitation from atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen oxides and the neutralization of acids by limestone. Students will determine which states are most at risk from acid precipitation and assess how that risk has changed from 1996 to 2006. Sources of atmospheric sulfur (burning of high-sulfur coal) and nitrogen oxides (automobile exhaust) will be listed. The buffering effect of limestone soils and its mitigating effect on acid precipitation will be discussed. Students will correlate these areas with sulfur and nitrogen oxide production, population, composition of coal fields, and soil composition. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student worksheets.

  10. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for ?-lipoic acid in ?-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

  11. A change of phenolic acids content in poplar leaves induced by methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu An; Ying-bai Shen; Li-juan Wu; Zhi-xiang Zhang

    2006-01-01

    The contents of seven different phenolic acids such as gallic acid, catechinic acid, pyrocatechol, caffeic acid, coumaric\\u000a acid, ferulic acid and benzoic acid in the poplar leaves (Populus Simonii Ś Populus Pyramibalis c. v and Populus deltoids) suffocated by Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and Methyl salicylate (MeSA) were monitored for analyzing their functions in interplant\\u000a communications by using high-pressure liquid chromatography

  12. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic properties of diorganotin derivatives. Crystal and molecular structure of the first complex of 2-(2-methyl-3-nitroanilino)benzoic acid of 1,2:3,4-di-?2-2-(2-methyl-3-nitroanilino)benzoato- O, O-1,3-bis-2-(2-methyl-3-nitroanilino)benzoato- O-1,2,4:2,3,4-di-?3-oxo-tetrakis[di-methyltin(IV)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vaso N. Dokorou; Dimitra Kovala-Demertzi; Maria Louloudi; Anca Silvestru; Mavroudis A. Demertzis

    2008-01-01

    The complexes [Me2(MNAB)SnOSn(MNAB)Me2]2 (2) and [Me2Sn(MNAB)2] (3), where HMNAB is 2-(2-methyl-3-nitroanilino)benzoic acid, (1), have been prepared and structurally characterized by means of vibrational, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies. The crystal structure of [Me2(MNAB)SnOSn(MNAB)Me2]2 has been determined by X-ray crystallography. Three distannoxane rings are present to the dimeric tetraorganodistannoxane of planar ladder arrangement. The structure is centro-symmetric and features a central

  13. Effects of microbial utilization of phenolic acids and their phenolic acid breakdown products on allelopathic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, U. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Botany] [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Botany

    1998-04-01

    Reversible sorption of phenolic acids by soils may provide some protection to phenolic acids from microbial degradation. In the absence of microbes, reversible sorption 35 days after addition of 0.5--3 {micro}mol/g of ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid was 8--14% in Cecil A{sub p} horizon and 31--38% in Cecil B{sub t} horizon soil materials. The reversibly sorbed/solution ratios (r/s) for ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid ranged from 0.12 to 0.25 in A{sub p} and 0.65 to 0.85 in B{sub t} horizon soil materials. When microbes were introduced, the r/s ratio for both the A{sub p} and B{sub t} horizon soil materials increased over time up to 5 and 2, respectively, thereby indicating a more rapid utilization of solution phenolic acids over reversibly sorbed phenolic acids. The increase in r/s ratio and the overall microbial utilization of ferulic acid and/or p-coumaric acid were much more rapid in A{sub p} than in B{sub t} horizon soil materials. Reversible sorption, however, provided protection of phenolic acids from microbial utilization for only very short periods of time. Differential soil fixation, microbial production of benzoic acids (e.g., vanillic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid) from cinnamic acids (e.g., ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, respectively), and the subsequent differential utilization of cinnamic and benzoic acids by soil microbes indicated that these processes can substantially influence the magnitude and duration of the phytotoxicity of individual phenolic acids.

  14. The effects of pH on the enzymatic formation of ?-glucuronides of various retinoids by induced and noninduced microsomal UDPGA-glucuronosyltransferases of several rat tissues in vitro 1 1 Abbreviations used: acitretin, 9-(2?,3?,6? trimethyl, 4?methoxybenzyl1?) 3,7 dimethyl, nona-2,4,6,8 tetraenoic acid; acitretin-G, acitretin-glucuronide; BHT, butylated hydroxytoluene; CD367, tetramethyl, tetrahydro-anthracenyl-benzoic acid; CD367-G, CD367 glucuronide; HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography; 3MC, 3-methylcholanthrene; MES, 2-[N-morpholino]ethanesulfonic acid; NEM, N-ethylmaleimide; 4-oxo-RA, 4-oxoretinoic acid; 4-oxo-RAG, 4-oxoretinoyl ?-glucuronide; RA, retinoic acid; RAG, retinoyl ?-glucuronide; RAR, retinoic acid receptor; ROL, retinol; RXR, retinoid X receptor; Tris, tris [hydroxymethyl] aminomethane; TTNPB, tetramethyl, tetrahydronaphthenyl-propenyl-benzoic acid; TTNPB-G, TTNPB glucuronide; UDPGA, UDP-glucuronic acid; UGT, UDPGA-glucuronosyl transferase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Genchi; Arun B Barua; Wei Wang; Wayne R Bidlack; James A Olson

    1998-01-01

    All-trans retinoyl-?-glucuronide, a prominent water-soluble metabolite of all-trans retinoic acid (RA) in animals, is formed by the enzymic transfer of the glucuronyl moiety of uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid to RA. Uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs) of microsomal preparations catalyze this reaction. In noninduced rat liver microsomes, maximal activity was observed in the physiologic range (pH 6.9–7.5) for all-trans-RA, 9-cis-RA, all-trans-4-oxo-RA,

  15. Folic Acid

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... register. I'm interested in: Pregnancy Baby growth & care Research Volunteer opportunities Advocacy in government For health ... acid During your pregnancy Your pregnant body Prenatal care Eating and nutrition Physical activity Emotional and life ...

  16. ACID RAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

  17. Carnosic acid.

    PubMed

    Birti?, Simona; Dussort, Pierre; Pierre, François-Xavier; Bily, Antoine C; Roller, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Carnosic acid (salvin), which possesses antioxidative and antimicrobial properties, is increasingly exploited within the food, nutritional health and cosmetics industries. Since its first extraction from a Salvia species (?70years ago) and its identification (?50years ago), numerous articles and patents (?400) have been published on specific food and medicinal applications of Rosmarinus and Salvia plant extracts abundant in carnosic acid. In contrast, relevant biochemical, physiological or molecular studies in planta have remained rare. In this overview, recent advances in understanding of carnosic acid distribution, biosynthesis, accumulation and role in planta, and its applications are summarised. We also discuss the deficiencies in our understanding of the relevant biochemical processes, and suggest the molecular targets of carnosic acid. Finally, future perspectives and studies related to its potential roles are highlighted. PMID:25639596

  18. Synthesis of a novel amino acid based dendrimer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne J. E. Mulders; Arwin J. Brouwer; Peter G. J. van der Meer; Rob M. J. Liskamp

    1997-01-01

    An easy accessible dendrimer monomer 3,5-bis(2-tert-butyloxycarbonyl aminoethoxy) benzoic acid methyl ester 1 was designed. The monomer was converted to both the “surface” and “braching” monomer in a versatile synthesis of a novel amino acid based dendrimer by the covergent method, using the well established and high-yielding BOP-peptide coupling method.

  19. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  20. Metabolite Profiles of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Grass Silage?

    PubMed Central

    Broberg, Anders; Jacobsson, Karin; Ström, Katrin; Schnürer, Johan

    2007-01-01

    The metabolite production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on silage was investigated. The aim was to compare the production of antifungal metabolites in silage with the production in liquid cultures previously studied in our laboratory. The following metabolites were found to be present at elevated concentrations in silos inoculated with LAB strains: 3-hydroxydecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid, benzoic acid, catechol, hydrocinnamic acid, salicylic acid, 3-phenyllactic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, (trans, trans)-3,4-dihydroxycyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid, p-hydrocoumaric acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, hydroferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, hydrocaffeic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid. Among these metabolites, the antifungal compounds 3-phenyllactic acid and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid were previously isolated in our laboratory from liquid cultures of the same LAB strains by bioassay-guided fractionation. It was concluded that other metabolites, e.g., p-hydrocoumaric acid, hydroferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid, were released from the grass by the added LAB strains. The antifungal activities of the identified metabolites in 100 mM lactic acid were investigated. The MICs against Pichia anomala, Penicillium roqueforti, and Aspergillus fumigatus were determined, and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid showed the lowest MIC (0.1 mg ml?1 for two of the three test organisms). PMID:17616609

  1. Generation of nitric oxide and possibly nitroxyl by nitrosation of sulfohydroxamic acids and hydroxamic acids.

    PubMed

    Shirota, F N; DeMaster, E G; Lee, M J; Nagasawa, H T

    1999-12-01

    Diazeniumdiolates (NONOates) and sulfohydroxamic acids are chemical entities that spontaneously generate nitric oxide (NO) and nitroxyl (HNO), respectively, at physiological pH and temperature. By combining the functional aspects of the NONOates with the hydroxamic acids and sulfohydroxamic acids, hybrid NONOate-type compounds that could theoretically generate nitroxyl or nitric oxide can be rationalized. Although the instability of these compounds, viz., the N-nitrosohydroxamic acids and the N-nitrososulfohydroxamic acids, precluded their chemical characterization by actual isolation, their transient existence was deduced by identification of the products of their decomposition. Thus, treatment of benzohydroxamic acid (BHA) with limiting or excess nitrous acid (from NaNO(2) and H(3)PO(4)) gave rise to quantitative generation of N(2)O, possibly via HNO, based on the limiting reactant. Nitrosation of N-t-butyloxycarbonyl hydroxylamine gave similar results. The organic acid produced from BHA was identified as benzoic acid. No nitric oxide was detected from these reactions. In contrast, treatment of Piloty's acid (benzenesulfohydroxamic acid) and methanesulfohydroxamic acid (MSHA) with nitrous acid under the same conditions as above gave 36% of the theoretical quantity of NO from Piloty's acid and 47% of NO from MSHA, although finite quantities of HNO (measured as N(2)O) were also formed. The organic acid produced from Piloty's acid was identified by reverse-phase HPLC as the redox product, benzenesulfinic acid. PMID:10637122

  2. Acid Stomach

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2003-08-07

    This Science NetLinks lesson is intended for a high-school, introductory chemistry class or health class. The lesson begins with an article on the history of the development of aspirin. Students will then complete a lab that compares the reaction of regular aspirin, buffered aspirin, and enteric aspirin in neutral, acidic, and basic solutions. They will then analyze the results of the experiment to gain insight into how this information was used by researchers to solve some of the problems associated with aspirin. To complete the lesson, students must understand acids and bases.

  3. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  4. Folic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lifelong disabilities. They may also need many surgeries. Anencephaly (an-en-SEF-uh-lee), which is when most or all of the brain does not develop. Babies with this problem die before or shortly after birth. The results of some studies suggest that folic acid might also help to prevent other types of ...

  5. Acid Rain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online examination into acid rain and sulfur dioxide emissions. Students research which states have succeeded in reducing sulfur dioxide emissions between 1980 and 1999, and which states emissions have increased. This activity is accompanied by a page of websites for further information.

  6. Acid Attack

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    In this activity, students explore the effect of chemical erosion on statues and monuments. They use chalk to see what happens when limestone is placed in liquids with different pH values. They also learn several things that engineers are doing to reduce the effects of acid rain.

  7. Azelaic acid.

    PubMed

    Nazzaro-Porro, M

    1987-12-01

    This review is an update on the literature accumulated over the past 10 years following the original observation that azelaic acid, a naturally occurring and nontoxic C9 dicarboxylic acid, possesses significant biologic properties and a potential as a therapeutic agent. These studies have shown that azelaic acid is a reversible inhibitor of tyrosinase and other oxidoreductases in vitro and that it inhibits mitochondrial respiration. It can also inhibit anaerobic glycolysis. Both in vitro and in vivo it has an antimicrobial effect on both aerobic and anaerobic (Propionibacterium acnes) microorganisms. In tissue culture it exerts a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect on malignant melanocytes, associated with mitochondrial damage and inhibition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis. Tumoral cell lines not containing tyrosinase are equally affected. Normal cells in culture exposed to the same concentrations of the diacid that are toxic for tumoral cells are in general not damaged. Radioactive azelaic acid has been shown to penetrate tumoral cells at a higher level than normal cells of the corresponding line. Topically applied (a 20% cream), it has been shown to be of therapeutic value in skin disorders of different etiologies. Its beneficial effect on various forms of acne (comedogenic, papulopustular, nodulocystic) has been clearly demonstrated. Particularly important is its action on abnormal melanocytes, which has led to the possibility of obtaining good results on melasma and highly durable therapeutic responses on lentigo maligna. It is also capable of causing regression of cutaneous malignant melanoma, but its role in melanoma therapy remains to be investigated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2963038

  8. Pharmacology of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Liu

    1995-01-01

    Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are triterpenoid compounds that exist widely in food, medicinal herbs and other plants. This review summarizes the pharmacological studies on these two triterpenoids. Both oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are effective in protecting against chemically induced liver injury in laboratory animals. Oleanolic acid has been marketed in China as an oral drug for human liver

  9. Simple and sensitive determination of nucleic acids using palladium(II) complex with 2-(2-thiazolylazo)-5-dimethylaminobenzoic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Mei Hao; Han-Xi Shen

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the use of the palladium(II) complex with 2-(2-thiazolylazo)-5-dimethylamino-benzoic acid (TAMB) for the spectrophotometric determination of nucleic acids with the detection limit at ng levels. At pH 5.9, Pd(II), TAMB and nucleic acids interact rapidly at room temperature to form a supermolecular complex, leading to absorbance decreases at 621 and 675nm of the palladium(II)–TAMB complex. With 675nm as

  10. Crystal structures of the co-crystalline adduct 5-(4-bromo-phen-yl)-1,3,4-thia-diazol-2-amine-4-nitro-benzoic acid (1/1) and the salt 2-amino-5-(4-bromo-phen-yl)-1,3,4-thia-diazol-3-ium 2-carb-oxy-4,6-di-nitro-phenolate.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham; Lynch, Daniel E

    2014-11-01

    The structures of the 1:1 co-crystalline adduct C8H6BrN3S·C7H5NO4, (I), and the salt C8H7BrN3S(+)·C7H3N2O7 (-), (II), obtained from the inter-action of 5-(4-bromo-phen-yl)-1,3,4-thia-diazol-2-amine with 4-nitro-benzoic acid and 3,5-di-nitro-salicylic acid, respectively, have been determined. The primary inter-species association in both (I) and (II) is through duplex R (2) 2(8) (N-H?O/O-H?O) or (N-H?O/N-H?O) hydrogen bonds, respectively, giving heterodimers. In (II), these are close to planar [the dihedral angles between the thia-diazole ring and the two phenyl rings are 2.1?(3) (intra) and 9.8?(2)° (inter)], while in (I) these angles are 22.11?(15) and 26.08?(18)°, respectively. In the crystal of (I), the heterodimers are extended into a chain along b through an amine N-H?Nthia-diazole hydrogen bond but in (II), a centrosymmetric cyclic hetero-tetra-mer structure is generated through N-H?O hydrogen bonds to phenol and nitro O-atom acceptors and features, together with the primary R (2) 2(8) inter-action, conjoined R (4) 6(12), R (2) 1(6) and S(6) ring motifs. Also present in (I) are ?-? inter-actions between thia-diazole rings [minimum ring-centroid separation = 3.4624?(16)?Ć], as well as short Br?Onitro inter-actions in both (I) and (II) [3.296?(3) and 3.104?(3)?Ć, respectively]. PMID:25484726

  11. The use of hydroxy acids on the skin: characteristics of C8-lipohydroxy acid.

    PubMed

    Saint-Léger, Didier; Lévêque, Jean-Luc; Verschoore, Michèle

    2007-03-01

    The hydroxy acids are widely used in skin creams because of their exfoliating and rejuvenating effect on photoaged skin. As a member of this family, the salicylic acid derivative known in the literature as 2-hydroxy-5-octanoyl benzoic acid or beta-lipohydroxy acid has also been proposed as an exfoliant and as a treatment of photoaged skin and acne. This article reviews the effects of the hydroxy acids and compares them to those of the salicylic acid derivative. We propose the name C(8)-lipohydroxy acid (C8-LHA) for this derivative to differentiate it from other related compounds. The lipophilic nature of C8-LHA and its relatively slow penetration in the skin afford it an exfoliating effect that is efficient at low concentrations. It appears to have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anticomedogenic properties, which make it effective against acne. Its antifungal and exfoliating properties are also likely to prove useful in combating dandruff. PMID:17348998

  12. Domoic Acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    INCHEM

    This highly detailed chemical information page features domoic acid, a toxin associated with Amnesic shellfish poisoning and naturally produced by the red algae Chondria armata and diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Created by the International Programme on Chemical Safety, this web page organizes information under the following sections: Name, Summary, Physio-Chemical Properties, Uses, Routes of Entry, Kinetics, Toxicology, Toxicological and Biomedical Investigations, Clinical Effects, Management, Illustrative Cases, Additional Information, References, and Authors.

  13. Theoretical modeling of the OH stretch infrared spectrum of carboxylic acid dimers based on first-principles anharmonic couplings

    E-print Network

    Zwier, Timothy S.

    Theoretical modeling of the OH stretch infrared spectrum of carboxylic acid dimers based on first, Wisconsin 53706-1396 Received 20 September 2002; accepted 28 October 2002 Carboxylic acid dimers serve, and OH bend internal coordinates for the formic acid and benzoic acid dimers. These are then projected

  14. Isolation of benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives from the grains of Sorghum bicolor and their inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phi-Hung; Zhao, Bing Tian; Lee, Jeong Hyung; Kim, Young Ho; Min, Byung Sun; Woo, Mi Hee

    2015-02-01

    Two new caffeoylglycerols, (hwanggeumchal A-B, 9-10), together with eight known derivatives (1-8) were isolated from the grains of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench var. hwanggeumchal. Their chemical structures were established mainly by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and MS data analysis. Amongst those, methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (2), 3,4,5-trihydroxycinnamate (3), methyl 3,4-dihydroxycinnamate (5), caffeoylglycolic acid methyl ester (7) and 1-O-caffeoylglycerol (8) displayed potential inhibitory effects against LPS-induced NO production in macrophage RAW264.7 cells with IC50 values of 11.9, 2.9, 27.1, 29.0 and 18.5?M, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds dose-dependently reduced the LPS-induced iNOS expression. In addition, pre-incubation of cells with compounds 2, 3 and 5 significantly suppressed LPS-induced COX-2 protein expression. SAR investigation revealed that compounds with a methyl ester (COOCH3) group possessed stronger activity. Our obtained data suggest that S. bicolor and its caffeoylglyceride-enrich extracts may be applied as supplemental and/or functional foods having a beneficial effect against inflammation. PMID:25172742

  15. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  16. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  17. Acid Ocean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The I2I-Acid Ocean virtual lab is an e-learning activity where students become virtual scientists studying the impact of ocean acidification on sea urchin larval growth. Students recreate a real, up-to-date climate change experiment. They also learn important general scientific principles, such as the importance of sample size and numbers of replicates, and discuss what this research into a specific impact of climate change may mean for the future of our oceans. There is a French translation available.

  18. Brnsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid**

    E-print Network

    Reed, Christopher A.

    Brűnsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid** Mark Juhasz, Stephan Hoffmann, Evgenii Stoyanov, Kee-Chan Kim, and Christopher A. Reed* Acids based on carborane anions as conjugate bases (Figure 1) are a new class of Brűnsted (protic) acids, notable for their "strong yet gentle" qualities.[1] For example

  19. A cyclohexanecarboxylic acid utilizing yeast: isolation, identification, and nutritional characteristics.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, K; Obata, H; Tokuyama, T

    1982-08-01

    A yeast capable of utilizing cyclohexanecarboxylic acid as sole carbon and energy source, strain KUY-6A, was isolated from soil by enrichment cultures. Taxonomical studies indicated that strain KUY-6A was Trichosporon cutaneum. Strain KUY-6A grew on a number of carboxylic acids. Among the cyclic compounds tested, cyclohexanecarboxylic acid was the best substrate. Cyclopentanecarboxylic acid, cycloheptanecarboxylic acid, cyclopentanone, cyclohexanone, and cyclopentanol also supported growth. In addition, the organism used the monocarboxylic acids, butyric, valeric, and caproic; the dicarboxylic acids succinic, glutaric, adipic, pimelic, and suberic; and the aromatic acids, benzoic and o-, m-, and p-hydroxybenzoic. The yeast did not require any vitamins for growth, although thiamine gave slight stimulation. The cell dry weight yield was 0.75 g from 1 g cyclohexanecarboxylic acid used. PMID:7139408

  20. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, R.H.; Boyle, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acid rain, says Boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of North America and Europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time. Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon; the effects on man, wildlife, water, and our cultural heritage. He probes the delays of politicians and the frequent self-serving arguments advanced by industry in the face of what scientists have proved. The solutions he offers are to strengthen the Clean Air Act and require emission reductions that can be accomplished by establishing emission standards on a regional or bubble basis, burn low-sulfur coal, install scrubbers at critical plants, and invest in alternative energy sources. 73 references, 1 figure.

  1. Controlled-potential coulometry for the analysis of carboxylic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Abdullina; O. A. Lira; G. K. Ziyatdinova; G. K. Budnikov; N. P. Kodryanu

    2009-01-01

    Coulometric titration methods with potentiometric indication of the end-point have been developed for determining benzoic,\\u000a salicylic, nicotinic, and ascorbic acids in various pharmaceutical dosage forms, liniments, and aqueous alcohol solutions.\\u000a The relative standard deviation was within 0.01–0.02.

  2. Hydrogen Peroxide Stimulates Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis in Tobacco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José León; Michael A. Lawton

    Hydrogen peroxide induced the accumulation of free benzoic acid (BA) and salicylic acid (SA) in tobacco (Nicotiana fabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc) leaves. Six hours after infiltration with 300 mM H202, the levels of BA and SA in leaves increased 5-fold over the levels detected in control leaves. The accumulation of BA and SA was preceded by the rapid activation of

  3. Determination of organic acids (Câ-Cââ) in the atmosphere, motor exhaust, and engine oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimitaka Kawamura; Lai Ling Ng; Isaac R. Kaplan

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of volatile organic acids in the atmosphere, motor exhausts, and engine oils. Atmospheric organic acids were collected on a KOH impregnated quartz filter and derivatized to p-bromophenacyl esters. The derivatives were analyzed by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Câ-Cââ aliphatic organic acids and benzoic acid were detected in Los Angeles

  4. Formic Acid Mechanical,

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Formic Acid Fire Ant Starch Mechanical, Industrial Chemical, Petroleum Biological What Do and engineering. Products will range from starch, to polylactic acid, to corn fiber, to motor fuels. Progressive systems. Fire ants make formic acid. U of I researchers are developing fuel cells that use formic acid (1

  5. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  6. Field enhancement sample stacking for analysis of organic acids in traditional Chinese medicine by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qianqian; Xu, Xueqin; Huang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Liangjun; Chen, Guonan

    2012-07-13

    A technique known as field enhancement sample stacking (FESS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation has been developed to analyze and detect organic acids in the three traditional Chinese medicines (such as Portulaca oleracea L., Crataegus pinnatifida and Aloe vera L.). In FESS, a reverse electrode polarity-stacking mode (REPSM) was applied as on-line preconcentration strategy. Under the optimized condition, the baseline separation of eight organic acids (linolenic acid, lauric acid, p-coumaric acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, caffeic acid, succinic acid and fumaric acid) could be achieved within 20 min. Validation parameters of this method (such as detection limits, linearity and precision) were also evaluated. The detection limits ranged from 0.4 to 60 ng/mL. The results indicated that the proposed method was effective for the separation of mixtures of organic acids. Satisfactory recoveries were also obtained in the analysis of these organic acids in the above traditional Chinese medicine samples. PMID:22381886

  7. Acids and Bases (Netorials)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Acids and Bases: this is a resource in the collection "Netorials". In this module there is an introduction to the chemical properties of acids and bases. Afterwards, the sections include topics such as Molecular Structures of Acids and Bases, Ionization constants, properties of salts, buffers and Lewis theory of Acids and Bases. The Netorials cover selected topics in first-year chemistry including: Chemical Reactions, Stoichiometry, Thermodynamics, Intermolecular Forces, Acids & Bases, Biomolecules, and Electrochemistry.

  8. Cyclic fatty acids from linolenic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Eisenhauer; R. E. Beal; E. L. Griffin

    1964-01-01

    Linolenic acid of 95% purity was heated with excess alkali in ethylene glycol to produce cyclic fatty acids. Reaction variables,\\u000a which are associated with the cyclization reaction and which were investigated, included solvent-to-fatty-acid ratio, catalyst\\u000a concentration, and reaction temperature, headspace gas (N2 or C2H4), and head-space gas pressure.\\u000a \\u000a Yields of cyclic acids were improved by increasing solvent ratio (1.5–6 wt

  9. Free and chemically bonded phenolic acids in barks of Viburnum opulus L. and Sambucus nigra L.

    PubMed

    Turek, Sebastian; Cisowski, Wojciech

    2007-01-01

    Liquid column chromatography, planar chromatography (TLC) on modified and unmodified silica layers, reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), as well as ESI-TOF MS and 1H-NMR have been used for separation, purification and identification of phenolic acids in the barks of Sambucus nigra and Viburnum opulus (Caprifoliaceae). By the use of these procedures three cinnamic acid derivatives: caffeic acid, p-coumaric, and ferulic acid, four benzoic acid derivatives: gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid, two phenylacetic acid derivatives: 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homogentisic acid, and two depsides: chlorogenic acid and ellagic acid were detected and identified in the bark of Viburnum opulus. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, syringic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid and chlorogenic acid were also detected and identified in the bark of Sambucus nigra. Except for chlorogenic acid, this is the first time these phenolic acids have been isolated, detected, and identified in the bark of V. opulus and S. nigra. PMID:18536165

  10. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  11. Syntheses of ?-resorcylic acid derivatives, novel potato micro-tuber inducing substances isolated from Lasiodiplodia theobromae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Yang; Hiroaki Toshima; Teruhiko Yoshihara

    2001-01-01

    The syntheses of ?-resorcylic acid derivatives 1 and 2, isolated from fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, and their dimethyl ethers were accomplished. (R)-(?)-1,3-Butanediol was used as a chiral source of the side chain C6-synthon. The dianion of the benzoic acid moiety was alkylated with C6-bromide to give the desired skeleton. Several ?-resorcylic acid derivatives including 1 and 2 were synthesized via hydrogenation,

  12. Complex formation of uranium(VI) with 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid and related compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Vulpius; G. Geipel; L. Baraniak; A. Rossberg; G. Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    Summary  The complex formation of uranium(VI) with 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid as well as with benzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic\\u000a acid was studied. In aqueous solution weak carboxylic 1 : 1 complexes, are formed in which the carboxyl group is bidentately\\u000a coordinated to the metal atom. The logarithmic stability constants of these complexes regarding the reaction of the uranyl\\u000a ion with the single charged

  13. DETERMINATION OF URINARY TRANS, TRANS MUCONIC ACID BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY IN GASOLINE SERVICE ATTENDANTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pornpimol Kongtip; Sasithorn Leelapaiboon

    This study aims to develop the reliable method for analysis of urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-ma) using methanol in acid medium (HCl) as derivatization reagent, a low cost and less toxic reagent and analysis by GC\\/FID. The urinary t,t-ma and benzoic acid internal standard was extracted, derivatized into dimethyl cis trans, trans-muconate and methyl benzoate, and analysis with GC. The

  14. Solubility of organic acids in various methanol and salt concentrations: the implication on organic acid sorption in a cosolvent system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minhee; Kim, Juhee; Hyun, Seunghun

    2012-09-01

    The well-known cosolvency-induced sorption model is not applicable to predict the sorption of carboxylic acids in cosolvent system. To investigate the phenomenon, sorption and solubility of chlorinated phenols (2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP)) and carboxylic acids (benzoic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)) were measured in soil-methanol mixture with various ionic strengths. The sorption (K(m)) of chlorinated phenols was explained by a cosolvency-induced sorption model; the inverse log-linear relationship between the K(m) and methanol volume fraction (f(c)). However, the K(m) of carboxylic acids increased with increasing f(c). This discrepancy was attributed to the effect of the carboxylic moiety. To explain the effect, solubility was measured for benzoic acid and 2,4,6-TCP from various liquid conditions. For both solutes, the cosolvency power (?) increased with CaCl(2) concentrations and the salting constant (K(s)) became smaller as f(c) increased. However, the ? value at a given salt concentration and the K(s) value at a given f(c) were greater for 2,4,6-TCP than for benzoic acid, both of which were due to the greater hydrophobicity of the former. Overall, the solubility profiles of the both solutes on combination of f(c) and CaCl(2) concentration evidenced no specific role of the carboxylic moiety. Therefore, it can be reasonably concluded that the positive relationship between K(m) and f(c) for carboxylic organic acid can be attributed to the modification of the activity coefficient occurred in the solid phase, which cannot be traceable by cosolvency-based model. PMID:22587953

  15. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePLUS

    Lactate test ... test. Exercise can cause a temporary increase in lactic acid levels. ... not getting enough oxygen. Conditions that can increase lactic acid levels include: Heart failure Liver disease Lung disease ...

  16. Plasma amino acids

    MedlinePLUS

    Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino ... Laboratory error High or low amounts of individual plasma amino acids must be considered with other information. ...

  17. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  18. Dendritic Cells Hyaluronic Acid

    E-print Network

    Schüler, Axel

    Keywords Dendritic Cells Hyaluronic Acid CD44 Human CD90 Melanoma » Prof. Dr. Jan C. Simon the role of HYALURONIC ACID (HA) and small fragments of HA during DC activation and the participating receptors on DC. (ii) Investigation of the extracellular glucosaminoglycan HYALURONIC ACID, its metabolism

  19. Neutralizing Acids and Bases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-04-08

    Learners use their knowledge of color changes with red cabbage indicator to neutralize an acidic solution with a base and then neutralize a basic solution with an acid. Use this as a follow-up activity to the related activity, "Color Changes with Acids and Bases."

  20. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  1. Anaerobic Amino Acid Metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Reggiani; A. Bertani

    2003-01-01

    Anoxic stress induces a strong change in sugar, protein, and amino acid metabolism in higher plants. Sugars are rapidly consumed through the anaerobic glycolysis to sustain energy production. Protein degradation under anoxia is a mechanism to release free amino acids contributing in this way to maintaining the osmotic potential of the tissue under stress. Among free amino acids, a particular

  2. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  3. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  4. Effect of anions on the efficiency of aromatic carboxylic acid corrosion inhibitors in near neutral media: Experimental investigation and theoretical modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Agarwal; D. Landolt

    1998-01-01

    The influence of the nature and concentration of electrolyte anions on the efficiency of carboxylic acid based inhibitors for steel in neutral solution was studied using anodic and cathodic polarization at a rotating disk electrode. The N-ethyl-morpholine salts of a ?-benzoyl alcanoic acid model compound and of benzoic acid were used as inhibitors. Both compounds were found to inhibit the

  5. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  6. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Waunakee, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow; Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  7. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  8. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  9. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  10. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  11. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  12. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  13. The linoleic acid and trans fatty acids of margarines1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Beare-Rogers; L. M. Gray; R. Hollywood

    Fifty brands of margarine were analysed for cis-polyunsaturated acids by lipox- idase, for trans fatty acid by infrared spectroscopy, and for fatty acid composition by gas-liquid chromatography. High concentrations of trans fatty acids tended to be associated with low concentrations of hinoleic acid. Later analyses on eight of the brands, representing various proportions of linoleic to trans fatty acids, indicated

  14. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ...AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0057; FRL-9381-2] Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION:...

  15. Demospongic Acids Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Kornprobst, Jean-Michel; Barnathan, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    The well-known fatty acids with a ?5,9 unsaturation system were designated for a long period as demospongic acids, taking into account that they originally occurred in marine Demospongia sponges. However, such acids have also been observed in various marine sources with a large range of chain-lengths (C16–C32) and from some terrestrial plants with short acyl chains (C18–C19). Finally, the ?5,9 fatty acids appear to be a particular type of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids (NMA FAs). This article reviews the occurrence of these particular fatty acids in marine and terrestrial organisms and shows the biosynthetic connections between ?5,9 fatty acids and other NMI FAs. PMID:21116406

  16. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  17. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  18. Prediction of Effective Acid Penetration and Acid Volume for Matrix Acidizing Treatments in Naturally Fractured Carbonates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiong Hongjie

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses a new method and a corresponding computer model developed to investigate matrix acidizing in naturally fractured carbonates. With this method, the effective acid penetration distance and acid volume needed for acid treatments in naturally fractured carbonates can be predicted. The new model simulates acid flowing in the natural fracture network and the acid\\/rock reaction. During the simulation,

  19. CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID OR EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID, BUT NOT ARACHIDONIC ACID,

    E-print Network

    Wurtman, Richard

    CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID OR EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID, BUT NOT ARACHIDONIC ACID circulating precursors: choline; a pyrimidine (e.g. uridine); and a poly- unsaturated fatty acid, with UMP plus the omega-3 fatty acid docosa- hexaenoic acid (given by gavage), produces substantial in

  20. Acid Rain Learning Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    These suggestions for activities allow students to learn about acid deposition in new and interactive ways, both in and out of the classroom. The suggestions are for individuals and small groups, the class as a whole, or for field trips. Students may contact local experts about acid rain issues, investigate the energy sources used to generate electricity by their local power companies, collect cartoons about acid rain and air pollution, or play the roles of scientists or interested parties involved in investigations of acid rain issues. Field trip ideas include visiting a local museum or science center to see exhibits or resources on acid rain, and visiting a local cemetary to examine the effects of acid rain on the headstones.

  1. Kidney amino acid transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Verrey; Dustin Singer; Tamara Ramadan; Raphael N. Vuille-dit-Bille; Luca Mariotta; Simone M. R. Camargo

    2009-01-01

    Near complete reabsorption of filtered amino acids is a main specialized transport function of the kidney proximal tubule.\\u000a This evolutionary conserved task is carried out by a subset of luminal and basolateral transporters that together form the\\u000a transcellular amino acid transport machinery similar to that of small intestine. A number of other amino acid transporters\\u000a expressed in the basolateral membrane

  2. Bile Acid Metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Y. L. Chiang

    \\u000a Bile acids are physiological agents that facilitate biliary secretion of lipids and metabolites, and intestinal absorption\\u000a of fat and nutrients. Bile acids are also signaling molecules that activate nuclear receptors and cell signaling pathways\\u000a to regulate hepatic lipid metabolism and homeostasis. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver, stored in\\u000a the gallbladder, secreted to the intestine and reabsorbed

  3. Acid rain on Bermuda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Jickells; Anthony Knap; Thomas Church; James Galloway; John Miller

    1982-01-01

    Increased acidity of precipitation due to combustion of fossil fuels has been well documented for both the eastern USA1 and Canada2. The SO2 and NOxemitted by the burning of coal, natural gas, fuel oil and petrol are oxidized in the atmosphere to sulphuric and nitric acids which subsequently give rise to acid precipitation1. However, the SO2 and NOx emitted, and

  4. Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This on-line exercise is focused on lactic acid bacteria, a group of related bacteria that produce lactic acid as a result of carbohydrate fermentation. It includes a protocol for the enrichment of lactic acid bacteria from enriched samples (like yogurt, sauerkraut, decaying plant matter, and tooth plaque). Three parameters are measured: growth, culture diversity, and pH. The exercise also includes instructions for the isolation of some of these bacteria by using the streak-plate method.

  5. Molecular Structure of Fumaric acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-11-05

    Fumaric acid is odorless and colorless or white crystalline powder with a fruit acid taste. Fumaric acid is used as a substitute of tartaric acid in beverages and baking powders and as a replacement for citric acid in fruits drinks. It is also used as antioxidant to prevent rancidity in butter, cheese, powdered milk, and other foodstuff. In addition, fumaric acid is a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, synthetic resins and plastics. Fumaric acid can be prepared by catalytic oxidation of benzene or by bacterial action on glucose and it is involved in the production of energy from food. Fumaric acid (known as trans-butanedioic acid) is the trans isomer of maleic acid (also called cis-butanedioic acid). Fumaric acid is more stable than maleic acid and can be prepared by heating maleic acid.

  6. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  7. Recovery of organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  8. Idiopathic bile acid catharsis.

    PubMed Central

    Thaysen, E H; Pedersen, L

    1976-01-01

    In the course of extensive routine screening for bile acid malabsorption a few patients were detected in whom chronic diarrhoea was apparently induced by excess bile acid loss which was neither associated with demonstrable conventional ileopathy nor with any other disorder allied to diarrhoea. In three patients subjected to scrutiny the results obtained were in harmony with a concept of idiopathic bile acid catharsis. Ingestion of cholestyramine was followed by immediate relief, but the diarrhoea recurred whenever this treatment was withdrawn. It it suggested that idiopathic bile acid catharsis should be suspected in patients with unexplained chronic diarrhoea and especially in those with a diagnosis of irritable colon with diarrhoea. PMID:1017717

  9. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  10. Acid Rain Students' Site

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The EPA developed this colorful website to teach students all about acid rain. First, through clear descriptions and helpful figures users can learn the characteristics of acid rain, its dangers, and how to control it. The website offers an interactive connect-the-dots, word searches, crossword puzzles, and other games. A short movie provides an overview of how the use of coal contributes to acid rain and acid rain's impacts on ecosystems and human health. The website also offers an introduction to the pH scale and tools to measure the pH.

  11. Aerobic biodegradation of 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid produced from dibenzothiophene metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.F.; Cheng, S.M.; Fedorak, P.M. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Science

    2006-01-15

    Dibenzothiophene is a sulfur heterocycle found in crude oils and coal. The biodegradation of dibenzothiophene through the Kodama pathway by Pseudomonas sp. strain BT1d leads to the formation of three disulfides: 2-oxo-2-(2-thiophenyl)ethanoic acid disulfide, 2-oxo-2-(2-thiophenyl)ethanoic acid-2-benzoic acid disulfide, and 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid. When provided as the carbon and sulfur source in liquid medium, 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid was degraded by soil enrichment cultures. Two bacterial isolates, designated strains RM1 and RM6, degraded 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid when combined in the medium. Isolate RM6 was found to have an absolute requirement for vitamin B{sub 12}, and it degraded 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid in pure culture when the medium was supplemented with this vitamin. Isolate RM6 also degraded 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid in medium containing sterilized supernatants from cultures of isolate RM1 grown on glucose or benzoate. Isolate RM6 was identified as a member of the genus Variovorax using the Biolog system and 16S rRNA gene analysis. Although the mechanism of disulfide metabolism could not be determined, benzoic acid was detected as a transient metabolite of 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid biodegradation by Variovorax sp. strain RM6. In pure culture, this isolate mineralized 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid, releasing 59% of the carbon as carbon dioxide and 88% of the sulfur as sulfate.

  12. Aerobic biodegradation of 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid produced from dibenzothiophene metabolites.

    PubMed

    Young, Rozlyn F; Cheng, Stephanie M; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2006-01-01

    Dibenzothiophene is a sulfur heterocycle found in crude oils and coal. The biodegradation of dibenzothiophene through the Kodama pathway by Pseudomonas sp. strain BT1d leads to the formation of three disulfides: 2-oxo-2-(2-thiophenyl)ethanoic acid disulfide, 2-oxo-2-(2-thiophenyl)ethanoic acid-2-benzoic acid disulfide, and 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid. When provided as the carbon and sulfur source in liquid medium, 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid was degraded by soil enrichment cultures. Two bacterial isolates, designated strains RM1 and RM6, degraded 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid when combined in the medium. Isolate RM6 was found to have an absolute requirement for vitamin B12, and it degraded 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid in pure culture when the medium was supplemented with this vitamin. Isolate RM6 also degraded 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid in medium containing sterilized supernatants from cultures of isolate RM1 grown on glucose or benzoate. Isolate RM6 was identified as a member of the genus Variovorax using the Biolog system and 16S rRNA gene analysis. Although the mechanism of disulfide metabolism could not be determined, benzoic acid was detected as a transient metabolite of 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid biodegradation by Variovorax sp. strain RM6. In pure culture, this isolate mineralized 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid, releasing 59% of the carbon as carbon dioxide and 88% of the sulfur as sulfate. PMID:16391083

  13. Silicic acid: boric acid complexes as wood preservatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haruhiko Yamaguchi

    2003-01-01

    Wood was treated with a low molecular-weight silicic acid: boric acid agent and examined for increased resistance to termites and combustion. Wood treated with silicic acid only exhibited increased termite resistance, but not to the marked extent observed after treatment with a mixture of silicic and boric acids. Increasing the quantity of boric acid also increased the termite mortality rate

  14. EXPOSURES TO ACIDIC AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient monitoring of acid aerosol in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. easurements made in Kingston, TN, and Stuebenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m3 more than 10 ti...

  15. Proteins and Amino Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins are the most abundant substances in living organisms and cells. All proteins are constructed from the same twenty amino acids that are linked together by covalent bonds. Shorter chains of two or more amino acids can be linked by covalent bonds to form polypeptides. There are twenty amino...

  16. Tautomerism of Penicillic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Munday

    1949-01-01

    THE existence of tautomeric forms of penicillic acid was first postulated by Birkinshaw, Oxford arid Raistrick1. Recent workers have tended to the view that the hypothesis of tautomerism was not needed to explain the chemical properties of penicillic acid2.

  17. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePLUS

    Propa pHź Peel-Off Acne Mask ... pimples and skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat ... medications called keratolytic agents. Topical salicylic acid treats acne by reducing swelling and redness and unplugging blocked ...

  18. Strong Acids (GCMP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Strong Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore the properties of common strong acids. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

  19. Acids and Salts (GCMP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Acids and Salts: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore a few properties of common acids and their salts. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

  20. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  1. Controlling acid rain

    E-print Network

    Fay, James A.

    1983-01-01

    High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn the northeastern USA are caused by the large scale combustion of fossil fuels within this region. Average precipitation acidity is pH 4.2, but spatial and temporal ...

  2. What Causes Acid Rain?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The phenomenon is the formation of acid rain. The resource explains the chemical reaction that begins when compounds like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the air, mix and react with water and other chemicals to form more acidic pollutants that dissolve very easily in water and can be carried long distances where they become part of rain, sleet, snow, and fog.

  3. EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reviews of available data indicate that precipitation in a large region of North America is highly acidic when its pH is compared with the expected pH value of 5.65 for pure rain water in equilibrium with CO2. A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsib...

  4. Characterization of acid tars.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Sunday A; Stegemann, Julia A; Roy, Amitava

    2010-03-15

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain. PMID:19857924

  5. Acid in water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laszlo Ilyes (None; )

    2007-05-16

    Plants and animals that live in water create some amount of acid in the water. The carbon dioxide that plants and animals release into the water makes the water acidic and unsafe for living organisms. This is why the water of captive aquatic animals and plants must be changed often.

  6. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  7. Hydrogen bonding of some organic acid in supercritical CO 2 with polar cosolvents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Ke; Shunzi Jin; Buxing Han; Haike Yan; Deyan Shen

    1997-01-01

    FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the hydrogen bonding of benzoic acid and salicylic acid with ethanol and methanol in supercritical CO2. The extent of hydrogen bonding was estimated from the hydrogen-bonded and nonhydrogen-bonded infrared absorption bands. It was found that the solutes and the cosolvents can form hydrogen bondings even their concentrations are very low. At constant solute concentrations,

  8. Acid Rain Revisited

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sanders, Hilary C.

    2001-01-01

    The results of a long term study of the effects of acidic deposition in the Northeast were published in Bioscience this week, and they suggest that forests, lakes, and streams of the Northeastern US are not recovering from the toxic effects of acid rain despite significant cuts in the power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide -- two major contributors to the problem. "Acid rain," more accurately called acidic deposition, causes toxic forms of aluminum to concentrate in soil and water, vital calcium and magnesium to be leached from trees, and surface waters to become inhospitable to aquatic biota. The study showed that, after 30 years of federally mandated air emission reductions, sulfur dioxide emissions have decreased while nitrogen oxide emissions have remained the same and that acidic deposition-related problems continue to plague New York and New England.

  9. Sialic Acid Utilization123

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Norbert; Duncan, Peter I.

    2012-01-01

    Early postnatal development encounters milk as a key environmental variable and yet the sole nutrient source. One evolutionary conserved constituent of milk is sialic acid, which is generally displayed on glycoconjugates and free glycans. During early postnatal development, high sialic acid need was proposed to be unmet by the endogenous sialic acid synthetic capacity. Hence, milk sialic acid was proposed to serve as a conditional nutrient for the newborn. In the elderly, at the other end of ontogeny, decreased sialylation in the brain, saliva, and immune system is observed. Analogous to the neonatal situation, the endogenous synthetic capacity may be unable to keep up with the need in this age group. The data discussed here propose a functional dietary role of sialic acid as a building block for sialylation and beyond. PMID:22585917

  10. Carboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 90 CARBOXYLIC ACID UNKNOWN

    E-print Network

    Jasperse, Craig P.

    Carboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 90 CARBOXYLIC ACID UNKNOWN A. Solubility Tests: Water, Na the formula weight. #12;Carboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 91 Note: Do your titration once, and check

  11. CLA production from ricinoleic acid by lactic acid bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akinori Ando; Jun Ogawa; Shigenobu Kishino; Sakayu Shimizu

    2003-01-01

    The ability to produce CLA from ricinoleic acid is widely distributed in lactic acid bacteria. Washed cells of Lactobacillus plantarum JCM 1551 were selected as a potential catalyst for CLA production from ricinoleic acid. Cells cultivated in medium supplemented\\u000a with a mixture of ?-linolenic acid and linoleic acid showed enhanced CLA productivity. Under optimal reaction conditions,\\u000a with the free acid

  12. Antioxidant activity of caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?lhami Gülçin

    2006-01-01

    Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) is among the major hydroxycinnamic acids present in wine; sinapic acid, which is a potent antioxidant. It has also been identified as one of the active antioxidant. In the present study, the antioxidant properties of the caffeic acid were evaluated by using different in vitro antioxidant assays such as 2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free

  13. ORGANOSULPHUR PHOSPHORUS ACID COMPOUNDS. PART 4. FLUOROBENZYLPHOSPHONO-SULPHONIC ACIDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Montoneri; P. Savarino; G. Viscardi; M. C. Gallazzi

    1994-01-01

    Four new organosulphur phosphorus acid compounds have been obtained by sulphonation with liquid SO3: 2-fluorobenzylphosphonic and 4-fluorobenzylphosphonic acids gave 2-fluorobenzylphosphono-5-sulphonic and 4-fluorobenzylphosphono-3-sulphonic acids respectively, in nearly quantitative yields; 3-fluorobenzylphosphonic acid gave 3-fluorobenzylphosphono-6-sulphonic acid (85%) and 3-fluorobenzylphosphono-4-sulphonic acid (15%). Product structures are based on C magnetic resonance data. The entry of the SO3H group into the aromatic ring seems mainly ruled

  14. WASTE ACID DETOXIFICATION AND RECLAMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) project demonstrated the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) systems ability to recover waste electropolish acid solutions generated during the manufacturing of gun-tubes, and reuse the clean acid. ...

  15. Gluconic acid production.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes. PMID:19075839

  16. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  17. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  18. Dog bites man or man bites dog? The enigma of the amino acid conjugations

    PubMed Central

    Beyo?lu, Diren; Smith, Robert L.; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The proposition posed is that the value of amino acid conjugation to the organism is not, as in the traditional view, to use amino acids for the detoxication of aromatic acids. Rather, the converse is more likely, to use aromatic acids that originate from the diet and gut microbiota to assist in the regulation of body stores of amino acids, such as glycine, glutamate, and, in certain invertebrates, arginine, that are key neurotransmitters in the CNS. As such, the amino acid conjugations are not so much detoxication reactions, rather they are homeostatic and neuroregulatory processes. Experimental data have been culled in support of this hypothesis from a broad range of scientific and clinical literature. Such data include the low detoxication value of amino acid conjugations and the Janus nature of certain amino acids that are both neurotransmitters and apparent conjugating agents. Amino acid scavenging mechanisms in blood deplete brain amino acids. Amino acids glutamate and glycine when trafficked from brain are metabolized to conjugates of aromatic acids in hepatic mitochondria and then irreversibly excreted into urine. This process is used clinically to deplete excess nitrogen in cases of urea cycle enzymopathies through excretion of glycine or glutamine as their aromatic acid conjugates. Untoward effects of high-dose phenylacetic acid surround CNS toxicity. There appears to be a relationship between extent of glycine scavenging by benzoic acid and psychomotor function. Glycine and glutamine scavenging by conjugation with aromatic acids may have important psychosomatic consequences that link diet to health, wellbeing, and disease. PMID:22227274

  19. Molecular Structure of Gallic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-05-08

    Gallic acid is found in its free state and combined with the tannin molecule, from which it can be extracted by the hydrolysis of tannic acid with sulfuric acid. Since one molecule of gallic acid has a carboxylic acid group and hydroxyl groups, it can react with another molecule of gallic acid to form an ester, digallic acid. When heated above 200 degrees C, gallic acid loses carbon dioxide to form pyrogallol (1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene, C6H3(OH)3), which is used in the production of azo dyes, photographic developers, and in laboratories for absorbing oxygen.

  20. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty or scaly ... photosensitizing agents. When aminolevulinic acid is activated by light, it damages the cells of actinic keratosis lesions.

  1. Acid-Base Tutorial

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    MD Alan W. Grogono (Tulane University School of Medicine Dept. of Anesthesiology)

    2002-06-01

    Website for anyone wanting to become more familiar with the physiology of acid-base balance in clinical medicine. Several pages are interactive. Numerical results are accompanied by text interpretations to facilitate recognition and understanding.

  2. Fatty Acid Carcass Mapping 

    E-print Network

    Turk, Stacey N.

    2010-01-14

    We hypothesized that subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue would differ in monounsaturated (MUFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition among different depots throughout a beef carcass. To test this, 50 carcasses from a variety of breed types...

  3. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePLUS

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after a period of not eating so that fluid is all that remains in the ... the stomach through the esophagus (food pipe). To test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  4. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria, including infections of the ears, lungs, sinus, skin, ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Clavulanic acid is in a class of medications ...

  5. ACID RAIN CONTROL OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE) both develo...

  6. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  7. Folic acid (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... show that an increase in the mother's dietary folic acid before conception and during the first month of pregnancy reduces the risk of having a child with a neural tube defect. The recommendation is that women of childbearing years ...

  8. Diversity of Oleic Acid, Ricinoleic Acid and Linoleic Acid Conversions Among Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsung Min Kuo; Lawrence K. Nakamura

    2004-01-01

    Sixteen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, including patent strain NRRL B-18602, three recent isolates from composted materials amended with ricinoleic acid, and 12 randomly selected from the holdings of the ARS Culture Collection, were examined for their fatty acid converting abilities. The study examined the bioconversion of oleic acid to 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) and ricinoleic acid to 7,10,12-trihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (TOD). A new

  9. Folic Acid Recommendations Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Pinkham; K. Cobb

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the current practices of women's health care providers with regard to folic acid knowledge and recommendations. Two-hundred-twenty obstetrician\\/gynecologists and certified nurse-midwives participated by completing questionnaires.A gap between the belief that folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects [NTDs] and the lack of widespread supplementation recommendations was revealed. Results showed that only 45%

  10. Acid-base chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).

  11. Acid Rain Lesson Plan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Five articulated lessons focus on air quality using classroom and field data collection activities. Case study in Great Smoky Mountains has broader application. Background and data for lessons on: the pH scale, understanding acid vs. base, collecting data, mapping relationship of weather events to acid rain. Links to NPS data on air quality, current values, atlas and reports, packaged datasets on ozone, meteorological conditions and other parameters. Also available: teacher resources; educator workshops.

  12. Biodegradation of polyhydroxyalkanoic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Jendrossek; A. Schirmer; H. G. Schlegel

    1996-01-01

    Stimulated by the commercial availability of bacteriologically produced polyesters such as poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid], and encouraged by the discovery of new constituents of polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA), a considerable\\u000a body of knowledge on the metabolism of PHA in microorganisms has accumulated. The objective of this essay is to give an overview\\u000a on the biodegradation of PHA. The following topics are discussed: (i)

  13. Thin-layer chromatography of gallic acid, methyl gallate, pyrogallol, phloroglucinol, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Om Prakash Sharma; Tej Krishan Bhat; Bhupinder Singh

    1998-01-01

    Six solvent systems of varying suitability are reported for the thin-layer chromatographic separation of simple phenolics and related compounds such as gallic acid, methyl gallate, pyrogallol, phloroglucinol, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid. The solvent system chloroform-ethyl acetate-acetic acid (50:50:1) facilitated the separation of all the compounds except pyrogallol and ferulic acid;

  14. Managing bile acid diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Julian R. F.; Pattni, Sanjeev S.

    2010-01-01

    Bowel symptoms including diarrhoea can be produced when excess bile acids (BA) are present in the colon. This condition, known as bile acid or bile salt malabsorption, has been under recognized, as the best diagnostic method, the 75Se-homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) test, is not available in many countries and is not fully utilized in others. Reduced SeHCAT retention establishes that this is a complication of many other gastrointestinal diseases. Repeated studies show SeHCAT tests are abnormal in about 30% of patients otherwise diagnosed as diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome or functional diarrhoea, with an estimated population prevalence of around 1%. Recent work suggests that the condition previously called idiopathic bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is not in fact due to a defect in absorption, but results from an overproduction of BA because of defective feedback inhibition of hepatic bile acid synthesis, a function of the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19). The approach to treatment currently depends on binding excess BA, to reduce their secretory actions, using colestyramine, colestipol and, most recently, colesevelam. Colesevelam has a number of potential advantages that merit further investigation in trials directed at patients with bile acid diarrhoea. PMID:21180614

  15. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.

    PubMed

    Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

    2013-11-21

    A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies. PMID:24030680

  16. Original article Acid stress susceptibility and acid adaptation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Acid stress susceptibility and acid adaptation of Propionibacterium freudenreichii as their use in cheese tech- nology implies exposure to various environmental stresses, including acidic pH. The acid tolerance response (ATR) of Propionibacterium freudenreichii was investigated. One strain present

  17. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  18. Free dicarboxylic and aromatic acids in the carbonaceous chondrites Murchison and Orgueil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Z.; Watson, J. S.; Sephton, M. A.; Botta, O.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Gilmour, I.

    We have analyzed an important fraction of the free carboxylic acids present in water extracts of the CM2 chondrite Murchison and the CI1 chondrite Orgueil using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The free nature of the carboxylic acids analyzed was ensured by employing a single-step water extraction. Analyses revealed the presence of a structurally diverse suite of both aliphatic and aromatic acids in Murchison, while Orgueil exhibits a simpler distribution of exclusively aromatic acids. Within the Murchison aromatic acids, there are previously unreported phthalic acids, methyl phthalic acids, and hydroxybenzoic acids. In Orgueil, benzoic acid and very small amounts of methylbenzoic acids and methylhydroxybenzoic acids were detected. For the aromatic acids in both Murchison and Orgueil, most structural isomers were identified, suggesting an origin by abiotic processes. Quantitative differences are evident between acids in the two meteorites; carboxylic acids are much more abundant in Murchison than in Orgueil. The data suggest that differing levels of aqueous alteration on the meteorite parent body(ies) has produced dissimilar distributions of carboxylic acids.

  19. What is Acid Rain? Explore the Acid Lake

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Earth Day Canada

    2010-01-01

    Acid rain is a type of air pollution that occurs when certain chemicals mix with water in the air. Most chemicals that cause acid rain come from the emissions from factories and cars. Acid rain looks just like 'normal' rain but when it falls, it can hurt plants and animals. For example, when acid rain falls into a lake or river, it makes that body of water more acidic. Many plants and animals cannot live in acidic water. Play this game, from Earth Day Canada's EcoKids program, to learn more about acid rain and its impact on the environment.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of some ricinoleic acid oleic acid derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur F. Novak; Gladys C. Clark; Harold P. Dupuy

    1961-01-01

    Ricinoleic and acid oleic acid derivatives were screened for their antimicrobial activity, under optimum growing-conditions,\\u000a against several species of bacteria, yeasts, and molds. Several ricinoleic acid derivatives and petroselinic (iso-oleic) acid\\u000a exhibited considerable activity; in fact, their activity against some micro-organisms was comparable to sorbic and 10-undecenoic\\u000a acid, known antimicrobial agents, as indicated by this test.

  1. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonas Korlach; Watt W. Webb; Michael Levene; Stephen Turner; Harold G. Craighead; Mathieu Foquet

    2008-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is

  2. Ursodeoxycholic acid, 7-ketolithocholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid are primary bile acids of the nutria (Myocastor coypus).

    PubMed

    Tint, G S; Bullock, J; Batta, A K; Shefer, S; Salen, G

    1986-03-01

    Because ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids are interconverted in humans via 7-ketolithocholic acid, bile acid metabolism was studied in the nutria (Myocastor coypus), the bile of which is known to contain these three bile acids. Relative concentrations of ursodeoxycholic (37% +/- 20%), 7-ketolithocholic (33% +/- 17%), and chenodeoxycholic (17% +/- 9%) acids in gallbladder bile were unchanged by 5-20 h of complete biliary diversion (n = 7). Injection of either [14C]cholesterol, [14C]ursodeoxycholic, [14C]7-ketolithocholic acid, or a mixture of [7 beta-3H]chenodeoxycholic acid and [14C]chenodeoxycholic acid into bile fistula nutria demonstrated that all three bile acids can be synthesized hepatically from cholesterol, that they are interconverted sparingly (2%-5%) by the liver, but that 7-ketolithocholic acid is an intermediate in the hepatic transformation of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid. An animal that had been fed antibiotics showed an unusually elevated concentration of ursodeoxycholic acid in gallbladder and hepatic bile, suggesting that bacterial transformation of ursodeoxycholic acid in the intestine may be a source of some biliary chenodeoxycholic acid and 7-ketolithocholic acid. PMID:3943698

  3. Acid Catalysis in Modern Organic

    E-print Network

    Snyder, Scott A.

    Acid Catalysis in Modern Organic Synthesis "Acid is one of the oldest, but the most important follows their earlier book "Lewis Acids in Organic Synthesis (2000)", and covers the new developments of university studies, in which an evil-smelling carbox- ylic acid and an alcohol were converted into a fragrant

  4. Molecular Structure of Malonic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-10-10

    Propanedioic acid is a dibasic carboxylic acid that was first synthesized by oxidizing malic acid in 1858 by a scientist named Dessaigne. Naturally, propandioic acid is found in apples. This chemical is relatively unstable and has few uses, but its ester derivative, diethyl malonate, is used to synthesize useful compounds such as barbiturates, flavors, fragrances, and vitamins (B1 and B6).

  5. Atmospheric Dust and Acid Rain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars O. Hedin; Gene E. Likens

    1996-01-01

    Why is acid rain still an environmental problem in Europe and North America despite antipollution reforms? The answer really is blowing in the wind: atmospheric dust. These airborne particles can help neutralize the acids falling on forests, but dust levels are unusually low these days. In the air dust particles can neutralize acid rain. What can we do about acid

  6. Corrosion inhibitors used in acidizing

    SciTech Connect

    Cizek, A. (Baker Performance Chemicals Inc., Houston, TX (United States). Aquaness Chemical Division)

    1994-01-01

    The history of the development of oil well acidizing and acid corrosion inhibitors used by this industry is reviewed. As deeper and hotter wells were drilled, stimulation acids were exposed to hotter conditions and the organic inhibitors required intensifiers. High-temperature acid corrosion inhibitors are also discussed.

  7. Triterpenic acids in table olives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Concepción Romero; Aranzazu García; Eduardo Medina; Antonio de Castro; Manuel Brenes

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out for the first time on the triterpenic acids in table olives. Maslinic acid was found in a higher concentration than oleanolic acid in the flesh of 17, unprocessed olive varieties, with the Picual and the Manzanilla varieties showing the highest and almost the lowest contents, respectively. The level of triterpenic acids in several types

  8. Pelargonic acid weed control parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers and researchers are interested in pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid) as a broad-spectrum post-emergence or burn-down herbicide. Pelargonic acid is a fatty acid naturally occurring in many plants and animals, and present in many foods we consume. The objective of this research was to determine...

  9. Molecular Structure of Succinic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-11-11

    Succinic acid is an odorless and colorless crystal, triclinic or monoclinic prism with a very acid taste. Succinic acid is one of the natural acids found in broccoli, rhubarb, beets, asparagus, fresh meat extracts, sauerkraut and cheese. It is also a constituent of almost all plant and animal tissues and plays an important role in intermediary metabolism. Succinic acid is produced commercially by catalytic hydrogenation of maleic or fumaric acid or by acid hydrolysis of succinonitrile. Succinic acid is used in flavoring for food and beverages, and in the manufacture of lacquers, dyes, esters for perfumes, succinates, in photography and in foods as a sequestrant, buffer and neutralizing agent. Succinic acid has uses in certain drug compounds and in agricultural production. An interesting fact, succcinic acid has also been found in meteorites.

  10. Hydrogen Peroxide Stimulates Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis in Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Leon, J.; Lawton, M. A.; Raskin, I.

    1995-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide induced the accumulation of free benzoic acid (BA) and salicylic acid (SA) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc) leaves. Six hours after infiltration with 300 mM H2O2, the levels of BA and SA in leaves increased 5-fold over the levels detected in control leaves. The accumulation of BA and SA was preceded by the rapid activation of benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H) in the H2O2-infiltrated tissues. This enzyme catalyzes the formation of SA from BA. Enzyme activation could be reproduced in vitro by addition of H2O2 or cumene hydroperoxide to the assay mixture. H2O2 was most effective in vitro when applied at 6 mM. In vitro activation of BA2H by peroxides was inhibited by the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole. We suggest that H2O2 activates SA biosynthesis via two mechanisms. First, H2O2 stimulates BA2H activity directly or via the formation of its substrate, molecular oxygen, in a catalase-mediated reaction. Second, higher BA levels induce the accumulation of BA2H protein in the cells and provide more substrate for this enzyme. PMID:12228572

  11. Asphaltene damage in matrix acidizing 

    E-print Network

    Hinojosa, Roberto Antonio

    1996-01-01

    REVIEW CONSTRUCTION OF APPARATUS . DESCRIPTION OF CORE SAMPLES DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTAL ACID TREATMENT . . . ACIDIZING RESULTS BRINE SATURATED CORE L1D ACIDIZING RESULTS BRINE/CRUDE OIL SATURATED CORE S2A . . . ACIDIZING RESULTS BRINE/KEROSENE OIL... experiment they used HCl saturated kerosene to test the same crude samples. Deposition occurred with the HCl saturated acid. The authors concluded, though deposition at an interface was preferential, sludge formation did not require an interface. Moore et...

  12. Molecular Structure of Citric Acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-13

    Citric Acid was first isolated in 1734 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Citric acid is found in many fruits, in particular lemons, grapefruit, and oranges. Several types of bacteria and fungi are also known to produce citric acid. In fact, the fungus Aspergillus niger produces the vast majority of citric acid, which is used in almost all carbonated sodas. Additionally, citric acid is also used to clean stainless steel.

  13. Science Shorts: Understanding Acid Rain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kathleen Damonte

    2004-11-01

    You may have heard acid rain mentioned as an environmental problem. It doesn't mean that a strong chemical is raining from the sky. The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. However, a small change in how acidic precipitation is can have a profound effect. This month's activity will help students understand the effect of acid rain on buildings and statues.

  14. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Nekimken, Howard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carey, W. Patrick (Lynnwood, WA); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

  15. Acid neutralizing capacity, alkalinity, and acid-base status of natural waters containing organic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold F. Hemond

    1990-01-01

    The terms acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and alkalinity (Alk) are extensively employed in the characterization of natural waters, including soft circumneutral or acidic waters. However, in the presence of organic acids, ANC measurements are inconsistent with many conceptual definitions of ANC or Alk and do not provide an adequate characterization of the acid-base chemistry of water. Knowledge of Gran ANC

  16. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  17. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject...

  18. Encapsulated hydrogen-bonded dimers of amide and carboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzeli, Demeter; Petsalakis, Ioannis D.; Theodorakopoulos, Giannoula; Ajami, Dariush; Jiang, Wei; Rebek, Julius

    2012-10-01

    A theoretical DFT study on benzamide and benzoic acid dimers in the gas phase and encapsulated in two cages of different size has been carried out in order to explain experimental observations regarding the % distributions of the different dimers formed in these cages. The results show that the % distribution of encapsulated dimers in the larger cage is similar to the gas-phase distribution. In the smaller cage interaction of amide with the cage leads to lower dimerization energy and a reduced % fraction of the corresponding encapsulated dimers, compared to the large cage % distribution, in agreement with experiment.

  19. Thiol modified mycolic acids.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Mohammed O; Huws, Enlli H; Sirhan, Muthana M; Saleh, Ahmed D; Al Dulayymi, Juma'a R; Pilcher, Lynne; Verschoor, Jan A; Baird, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Patient serum antibodies to mycolic acids have the potential to be surrogate markers of active tuberculosis (TB) when they can be distinguished from the ubiquitously present cross-reactive antibodies to cholesterol. Mycolic acids are known to interact more strongly with antibodies present in the serum of patients with active TB than in patients with latent TB or no TB. Examples of single stereoisomers of mycolic acids with chain lengths corresponding to major homologues of those present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis have now been synthesised with a sulfur substituent on the terminal position of the ?-chain; initial studies have established that one of these binds to a gold electrode surface, offering the potential to develop second generation sensors for diagnostic patient antibody detection. PMID:23603063

  20. Bioavailability of ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Bourne, L C; Rice-Evans, C

    1998-12-18

    There is a wealth of evidence for the powerful antioxidant properties in vitro of flavonoid components of the diet. However, few studies have been undertaken concerning the hydroxycinnamates, major constituents of fruit, some vegetables, beverages, and grains, particularly the extent to which they are absorbed in vivo from the diet. The study described here has investigated the bioavailability of ferulic acid in humans, from tomato consumption, through the monitoring of the pharmacokinetics of excretion in relation to intake. The results show that the peak time for maximal urinary excretion is approximately 7 h and the recovery of ferulic acid in the urine, on the basis of total free ferulic acid and feruloyl glucuronide excreted, is 11-25% of that ingested. PMID:9878519

  1. Oleanolic acid ethanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Froelich, Anna; Gzella, Andrzej K.

    2010-01-01

    Crystals of the title compound (systematic name: 3?-hy­droxy­olean-12-en-28-oic acid ethanol monosolvate), C30H48O3·C2H5OH, were obtained from unsuccessful co-crystallization trials. The asymmetric unit contains two symmetry-independent oleanolic acid mol­ecules, as well as two ethanol solvent mol­ecules. Inter­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bonds stabilize the crystal packing. In the oleanolic acid mol­ecules, ring C has a slightly distorted envelope conformation, while rings A, B, D and E adopt chair conformations and rings D and E are cis-fused. Both independent ethanol mol­ecules are orientationally disordered [occupancy ratios of 0.742?(8):0.258?(8) and 0.632?(12):0.368?(12). PMID:21588987

  2. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination. PMID:20649031

  3. Acid rain in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

    1992-07-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

  4. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented. PMID:24966721

  5. Acid Deposition Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity students will design an apparatus and carry out tests of fossil fuels to determine their impact on acid deposition by placing a small amount of a fossil fuel on a cotton puff and burning it to measure if acidic compounds are given off. Students will provide a diagram of their collection device and describe how it should function. Students will then draw a map showing the location of their precipitation collector and develop a graph or chart based on the results they have collected.

  6. Lactic acid bacterial cell factories for gamma-aminobutyric acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haixing Li; Yusheng Cao

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid that is widely present in organisms. Several important physiological functions\\u000a of gamma-aminobutyric acid have been characterized, such as neurotransmission, induction of hypotension, diuretic effects,\\u000a and tranquilizer effects. Many microorganisms can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid including bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Among\\u000a them, gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria have been a focus of research in recent

  7. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  8. Molecular Structure of Aspartic Acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-20

    Aspartate was first isolated in 1868 from legumin in plant seeds. Aspartic acid forms colorless crystals that are soluble in water and insoluble in alcohols and ethers. This is a naturally occurring nonessential amino acid that is produced in the liver from oxaloacetic acid, but is plentiful in meats and sprouting seeds. The amino acid is important in the Krebs cycle as well as the urea cycle, where it is vital in the elimination of dietary waste products. Aspartic acid is required for stamina, brain and neural health. This acid has been found to be important in the functioning of ribonucleic acid (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and in the production of immunoglobin and antibody synthesis. A deficiency of aspartate will lead to fatigue and depression. Aspartic acid has many uses that include biological and clinical studies, preparation of culture media, and it also functions as a detergent, fungicide, germicide, and metal complexation.

  9. Synthesis, spectral, thermal and thermodynamic studies of oxovanadium(IV) complexes of Schiff bases derived from 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid with salicylaldehyde derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Khosro; Niad, Mahmood; Irandoost, Amene

    2013-04-01

    Synthesis and evaluation of three new oxovanadium(IV) complexes, formed by the interaction of vanadyl acetylacetonate and the Schiff bases: 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (L1), 3,4-bis-((E)-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (L2) and 3,4-bis((E)-2,4-dihydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (L3) in methanol. The complexes have been characterized and studied by IR spectra, UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetry in order to evaluate their thermal stability and thermal decomposition. According to the results discussed from TG curves, the order of thermal stability for the complexes is VOL3 > VOL1 > VOL2. Their formation constants (Kf) were obtained by UV-Vis spectroscopic titration at 15, 25, 35 and 45 °C in methanol by SQUAD software. The trend of formation constants of the complexes as follows: VOL3 > VOL2 > VOL1.

  10. Early membrane events induced by salicylic acid in motor cells of the Mimosa pudica pulvinus.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Saed; Rocher, Françoise; Bonmort, Janine; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Roblin, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Salicylic acid (o-hydroxy benzoic acid) (SA) induced a rapid dose-dependent membrane hyperpolarization (within seconds) and a modification of the proton secretion (within minutes) of Mimosa pudica pulvinar cells at concentrations higher than 0.1mM. Observations on plasma membrane vesicles isolated from pulvinar tissues showed that SA acted directly at the membrane level through a protonophore action as suggested by the inhibition of the proton gradient and the lack of effect on H(+)-ATPase catalytic activity. Comparative data obtained with protonophores (carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone and 2,4-dinitrophenol) and inhibitors of ATPases (vanadate, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and diethylstilbestrol) corroborated this conclusion. Consequently, the collapse of the proton motive force led to an impairment in membrane functioning. This impairment is illustrated by the inhibition of the ion-driven turgor-mediated seismonastic reaction of the pulvinus following SA treatment. SA acted in a specific manner as its biosynthetic precursor benzoic acid induced much milder effects and the m- and p-OH benzoic acid derivatives did not trigger similar characteristic effects. Therefore, SA may be considered both a membrane signal molecule and a metabolic effector following its uptake in the cells. PMID:23487303

  11. Cysteic Acid Transaminase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven Darling

    1952-01-01

    IT has previously been reported by Cohen1 that enzyme preparations catalysing the reactions : (1) Alanine + alpha-ketoglutarate rlharr glutamate + pyruvate; (2) Aspartate + alpha-ketoglutarate rlharr glutamate + oxalo acetate; are also capable of catalysing : (3) Cysteic acid + alpha-ketoglutarate rlharr glutamate + sulphopyruvate. (In a succeeding paper it will be shown that reaction (3) is reversible, which

  12. Microbial hyaluronic acid production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barrie Fong Chong; Lars M. Blank; Richard Mclaughlin; Lars K. Nielsen

    2005-01-01

    sHyaluronic acid (HA) is a commercially valuable medical biopolymer increasingly produced through microbial fermentation. Viscosity limits product yield and the focus of research and development has been on improving the key quality parameters, purity and molecular weight. Traditional strain and process optimisation has yielded significant improvements, but appears to have reached a limit. Metabolic engineering is providing new opportunities and

  13. Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given sin...

  14. Fumaric acid esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Rostami Yazdi; Ulrich Mrowietz

    2008-01-01

    Several clinical studies have shown that systemic therapy with fumaric acid esters (FAEs) in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis is effective and has a good long-term safety profile. For therapeutic use, tablets with a defined mixture of FAEs (dimethylfumarate [DMF] and three different salts of monoethylfumarate) are registered in Germany. There is evidence that DMF is the most essential

  15. ACID AEROSOL MEASUREMENT WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the discussion and results of the U.S. EPA Acid Aerosol Measurement Workshop, conducted February 1-3, 1989, in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. t was held in response to recommendations by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) regarding ...

  16. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  17. Acid Rain Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  18. Acid rain bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, C.S.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography identifies 900 citations on various aspects of Acid Rain, covering published bibliographies, books, reports, conference and symposium proceedings, audio visual materials, pamphlets and newsletters. It includes five sections: citations index (complete record of author, title, source, order number); KWIC index; title index; author index; and source index. 900 references.

  19. Federal Acid Rain Games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur J. Caplan; Emilson C. D. Silva

    1999-01-01

    Federal environmental policy, designed to control acid rain, is shaped after the hierarchy of the system, and is controlled simultaneously by regional and central governments. Each governmental level controls one of two policy instruments: pollution abatement production and pollution tax. In a two-stage game where regional governments are Stackelberg leaders and control pollution taxes, the subgame perfect equilibrium is socially

  20. Effects of Acid Rain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This portal provides links to information on the potential damage caused to the environment by acid rain. An introductory paragraph briefly describes the damage to lakes and streams, building materials, and monuments. Each link access additional information on these topics: surface waters and aquatic animals, forests, automotive coatings, soluble building materials such as marble or limestone, atmospheric haze, and human health effects.

  1. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  2. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for…

  3. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  4. Acidification and Acid Rain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Norton

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw

  5. Acid Mine Drainage Remediation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-12-10

    In this video, an environmental technologist visits an abandoned coal mine in Kentucky to talk about how a remediation system (a series of settling ponds and treatment cells) is neutralizing the acid drainage flowing from the mine and keeping it from damaging a creek downstream.

  6. Acid Rain: Science Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a science activity designed to help students monitor the pH of rainfall. Materials, procedures and follow-up activities are listed. A list of domestic and foreign sources of information is provided. Topics which relate to acid precipitation are outlined. (CW)

  7. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  8. Inhibition of oxidative degradation of hyaluronic acid by uric acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, K M; Swann, D; Lee, P; Lam, K W

    1984-08-01

    It has been postulated that glycosaminoglycans in the trabeculum have an influence on aqueous humor drainage. Ascorbate reduces the viscosity of hyaluronic acid, and also increases outflow facility. Our recent observation of high urate concentrations in some glaucomatous eyes led us to study the influence of urate on oxidative degradation of hyaluronic acid by ascorbate. The viscosity of rooster comb hyaluronic acid was reduced slowly by ascorbate. Cupric sulfate accelerated ascorbate oxidation and also enhanced hyaluronic acid degradation. Urate inhibited ascorbate oxidation and prevented the copper catalyzed oxidative degradation of rooster comb hyaluronic acid. The range of urate concentrations used in this study was within the range of urate concentrations observed in glaucomatous eyes. The partially purified umbilical cord hyaluronic acid had lower viscosity than rooster comb hyaluronic acid, and rapidly degraded in the presence of ascorbate. The ascorbate effect on umbilical cord hyaluronic acid was partially prevented by urate. PMID:6488856

  9. Photostabilization of ascorbic acid with citric acid, tartaric acid and boric acid in cream formulations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I; Ali Sheraz, M; Ahmed, S; Shad, Z; Vaid, F H M

    2012-06-01

    This study involves the evaluation of the effect of certain stabilizers, that is, citric acid (CT), tartaric acid (TA) and boric acid (BA) on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AH(2) ) in oil-in-water cream formulations exposed to the UV light and stored in the dark. The apparent first-order rate constants (0.34-0.95 Ś 10(-3) min(-1) in light, 0.38-1.24 Ś 10(-2) day(-1) in dark) for the degradation reactions in the presence of the stabilizers have been determined. These rate constants have been used to derive the second-order rate constants (0.26-1.45 Ś 10(-2) M(-1) min(-1) in light, 3.75-8.50 Ś 10(-3) M(-1) day(-1) in dark) for the interaction of AH(2) and the individual stabilizers. These stabilizers are effective in causing the inhibition of the rate of degradation of AH(2) both in the light and in the dark. The inhibitory effect of the stabilizers is in the order of CT > TA > BA. The rate of degradation of AH(2) in the presence of these stabilizers in the light is about 120 times higher than that in the dark. This could be explained on the basis of the deactivation of AH(2) -excited triplet state by CT and TA and by the inhibition of AH(2) degradation through complex formation with BA. AH(2) leads to the formation of dehydroascorbic acid (A) by chemical and photooxidation in cream formulations. PMID:22296174

  10. Recovery of Carboxylic Acids from Fermentation Broth via Acid Springing

    E-print Network

    Dong, Jipeng

    2010-01-14

    RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM FERMENTATION BROTH VIA ACID SPRINGING A Thesis by JIPENG DONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2008 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM FERMENTATION BROTH VIA ACID SPRINGING A Thesis by JIPENG DONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

  11. Fatty acid selectivity of lipases: Erucic acid from rapeseed oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip E. Sonnet; Thomas A. Foglia; Stephen H. Feairheller

    1993-01-01

    The fatty acid selectivity of several commercial lipases was evaluated in the hydrolysis of high-erucic acid rapeseed oil\\u000a (HEARO). The lipase ofPseudomonas cepacia catalyzed virtually complete hydrolysis of the oil (94–97%), while that ofGeotrichum candidum discriminated strongly against erucic acid, especially in esterification. A two-step process is suggested for obtaining a\\u000a highly enriched erucic acid in which theG. candidum lipase

  12. Thiobarbituric Acid Spray Reagent for Deoxy Sugars and Sialic Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard Warren

    1960-01-01

    RECENTLY, new sensitive assays have been reported for deoxy sugars1, 2-keto,3-deoxy sugar acids2-4, and sialic acids5,6. In these assays, the products of periodate oxidation, malonaldehyde from deoxy sugars and beta-formylpyruvic acid from the latter two groups of compounds, are coupled with 2-thiobarbituric acid to produce a bright red chromophore. I wish to report an adaptation of these methods for spraying

  13. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids for women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marie Bourre

    2007-01-01

    This review details the specific needs of women for omega-3 fatty acids, including alpha linoleic acid (ALA) and the very long chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acid (dietary or in capsules) ensures that a woman's adipose tissue contains a reserve of these fatty acids for the developing fetus and the breast-fed newborn infant.

  14. Acid placement and coverage in the acid jetting process 

    E-print Network

    Mikhailov, Miroslav I.

    2009-05-15

    Many open-hole acid treatments are being conducted by pumping acid through jetting ports placed at the end of coiled tubing or drill pipe. The filter-cake on the bore-hole is broken by the jet; the acid-soluble material is dissolved, creating...

  15. Acid Placement in Acid Jetting Treatments in Long Horizontal Wells 

    E-print Network

    Sasongko, Hari

    2012-07-16

    In the Middle East, extended reach horizontal wells (on the order of 25,000 feet of horizontal displacement) are commonly acid stimulated by jetting acid out of drill pipe. The acid is jetted onto the face of the openhole wellbore as the drill pipe...

  16. SPECTROFLUOROMETRIC ASSAY FOR HYPOHALITE AND PEROXYACETIC ACID USING KOJIC ACID

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hypochlorite reacted with kojic acid to form an intensely fluorescent product with excitation and emission wavelengths at 395 and 495 nm, respectively. Hypobromite, generated by reaction of hypochlorite or peroxyacetic acid with NaBr, also reacted with kojic acid to generate an identical fluorescen...

  17. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  18. Acid adaptation sensitizes Salmonella typhimurium to hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed Central

    Leyer, G J; Johnson, E A

    1997-01-01

    Acid adaptation of Salmonella typhimurium at a pH of 5.0 to 5.8 for one to two cell doublings resulted in marked sensitization of the pathogen to halogen-based sanitizers including chlorine (hypochlorous acid) and iodine. Acid-adapted S. typhimurium was more resistant to an anionic acid sanitizer than was its nonadapted counterpart. A nonselective plating medium of tryptose phosphate agar plus 1% pyruvate was used throughout the study to help recover chemically stressed cells. Mechanisms of HOCl-mediated inactivation of acid-adapted and nonadapted salmonellae were investigated. Hypochlorous acid oxidized a higher percentage of cell surface sulfhydryl groups in acid-adapted cells than in nonadapted cells, and sulfhydryl oxidation was correlated with cell inactivation. HOCl caused severe metabolic disruptions in acid-adapted and nonadapted S. typhimurium, such as respiratory loss and inability to restore the adenylate energy charge from a nutrient-starved state. Sensitization of S. typhimurium to hypochlorous acid by acid adaptation also involved increased permeability of the cell surface because nonadapted cells treated with EDTA became sensitized. The results of this study establish that acid-adapted S. typhimurium cells are highly sensitized to HOCl oxidation and that inactivation by HOCl involves changes in membrane permeability, inability to maintain or restore energy charge, and probably oxidation of essential cellular components. This study provides a basis for improved practical technologies to inactivate Salmonella and implies that acid pretreatment of food plant environments may increase the efficacy of halogen sanitizers. PMID:9023924

  19. Focus Sheet | Hydrofluoric Acid Health hazards of hydrofluoric acid

    E-print Network

    Wilcock, William

    Focus Sheet | Hydrofluoric Acid Health hazards of hydrofluoric acid Hydrofluoric acid (HF eye damage. HF vapors can seriously damage the lungs. Pulmonary edema (flooding of the lungs characterized by weight loss, brittle bones, anemia, and general ill health. Safe use If possible, avoid working

  20. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    MedlinePLUS

    Pantothenic acid is a vitamin, also known as vitamin B5. It is widely found in both plants and animals ... Vitamin B5 is commercially available as D-pantothenic acid, as well as dexpanthenol and calcium pantothenate, which ...

  1. Molecular Structure of Glutaric acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-11-10

    Glutaric acid is a colorless liquid and white crystals as a solid occurring in plants and animal tissues. It is used in organic synthesis and as an intermediate for the manufacture of polymers such as polyamides and polyesters, ester plasticizers and corrosion inhibitors. It is also useful in the application of decreasing polymer elasticity and in a variety of industrial applications. In addition glutaric acid plays an important role as an intermediary in the Krebs cycle and is used in medication against a large number of viruses and in animal diabetes. Glutaric acid can be prepared from cyclopentanone by oxidative ring fission with nitric acid and in the presence of a catalyst. Glutaric acid has the lowest melting point among dicarboxylic acids (98 C); it is very soluble in water and the solution in water is a medium strong acid. Short-term exposure to glutaric acid may cause irritation to the eyes, skin and the respiratory tract.

  2. Molecular Structure of Maleic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-11-10

    Maleic acid is colorless to white crystals with a faint acidulous odor and a characteristic repulsive, astringent taste. Maleic acid is used in making polyesters, surface coatings, lubricant additives, agricultural chemicals and paint vehicles. It is used in organic synthesis of fumaric acid, succinic, aspartic, tartaric, propionic, lactic, malonic, acrylic and hydrocarylic acids. Maleic acid and its anhydride are prepared industrially by the catalytic oxidation of benzene. Maleic acid may be released into waste water during its production and used in the manufacture of polymer products. Dust of maleic acid is irritating to the eyes, nose and throat. The general population is exposed to maleic acid in areas with heavy traffic since it is found in aerosols from auto exhaust.

  3. Uranium (VI) - Chromotropic Acid Chelate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samir K. Banerji; Arun K. Dey

    1963-01-01

    DISODIUM- 1:8-dihydroxy naphthalene-3:6-disulphonate (trivial name chromotropic acid-sodium salt)yields coloured lakes with various cations1. Investigations of chelates of chromotropic acid with iron (III)2 and titanium (IV)3,4 have already been made. Sommer et al. have extensively examined chelates of titanium with chromotropic acid and various polyphenols5-7 and have discussed the structure of the metal chelates. The use of chromotropic acid in the

  4. Fatty acid signaling in Arabidopsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward E. Farmer; Hans Weber; Sabine Vollenweider

    1998-01-01

    .   Many organisms use fatty acid derivatives as biological regulators. In plants, for example, fatty acid-derived signals have\\u000a established roles in the regulation of developmental and defense gene expression. Growing numbers of these compounds, mostly\\u000a derived from fatty acid hydroperoxides, are being characterized. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is serving a vital role in the discovery of fatty acid-derived signal

  5. Molecular Structure of Trimesic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-05-08

    Trimesic Acid is made up of a benzene ring with three carboxylic groups at the 1, 3, and 5 positions, and it can be synthesized from the oxidation of 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene. The acid is an important building block in crystal engineering which is used to form honeycomb structures, but it has the ability to form diverse supramolecular structures. Also, trimesic acid salt and the free trimesic acid are useful as a plasticizer.

  6. Molecular Structure of Acetic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-06-02

    Acetic Acid commonly associated with vinegar; it is the most commercially important organic acid and is used to manufacture a wide range of chemical products, such as plastics and insecticides. Acetic acid is produced naturally by Aceto bacteria but, except for making vinegar, is usually made through synthetic processes. Ethanoic acid is used as herbicide, as a micro-biocide, as a fungicide and for pH adjustment.

  7. Molecular Structure of Octanoic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-10-11

    Caprylic acid is a colorless oil manufactured from 1-heptene or 1-octanol. Octanoic acid has an unpleasant rancid taste. When converted from the carboxlic acid to an ester, it has a pleasant taste. In addition, esters of caprylic acid are used in the preparation of dyes, perfumes, and food preservatives. This compound has also been found to have antifungal activity and is used to treat yeast infections.

  8. Acid rain: Reign of controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Kahan, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Acid Rain is a primer on the science and politics of acid rain. Several introductory chapters describe in simple terms the relevant principles of water chemistry, soil chemistry, and plant physiology and discuss the demonstrated or postulated effects of acid rain on fresh waters and forests as well as on statuary and other exposed objects. There follow discussions on the economic and social implications of acid rain (for example, possible health effects) and on the sources, transport, and distribution of air pollutants.

  9. Enviropedia: Introduction to Acid Rain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource provides information about acid rain, a widespread term used to describe all forms of acid precipitation. The sources, nature, and chemistry of acid rain are discussed, along with its impact on buildings, soils, freshwater lakes, trees, and wildlife. Other topics include measuring, modeling, and monitoring acid rain; and vehicle and industrial emission controls. The problem of airborne pollutants migrating across international borders is also discussed.

  10. Factors Controlling Naphthenic Acid Corrosion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Turnbull; Evelina Slavcheva; Bryan Shone

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to elucidate the influence of chemical and physical parameters on corrosion of type 1018 carbon steel (CS, UNS G10180) and 5% Cr-0.5% Mo steel in oils containing naphthenic acids (NAs) for application to crude oil refinery systems. Effects of test duration, temperature, and acid concentration were assessed for a range of single acids of varying

  11. Nucleic Acids Molecular Biology Tools

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Weigang

    Nucleic Acids Proteins Molecular Biology Tools Molecular Biology and Genomics Weigang Qiu Weigang Qiu Molecular Biology and Genomics #12;Nucleic Acids Proteins Molecular Biology Tools Outline 1 Nucleic Acids 2 Proteins 3 Molecular Biology Tools Weigang Qiu Molecular Biology and Genomics #12;Nucleic

  12. CHARACTERISTICS Picric acid is a

    E-print Network

    Wilcock, William

    CHARACTERISTICS · Picric acid is a trinitroaromatic compound that is a flammable solid when purchased wet with 30% water, by mass. · Picric acid is a high-powered explosive when allowed to dehydrate. As an explosive, picric acid is not shock sensitive, but when in contact with metals can form shock sensitive

  13. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

    1995-05-02

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

  14. A ACID RAIN Audrey Gibson

    E-print Network

    Toohey, Darin W.

    A ACID RAIN Audrey Gibson ATOC 3500 Thursday, April 29, 2010 #12;CAUSES Natural sources - volcanoes Thursday, April 29, 2010 #12;ON WILDLIFE Acid rain causes acidification of lakes and streams and contributes to damage of trees at high elevations. Acid rain primarily affects sensitive bodies of water

  15. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  16. Do We Need Gastric Acid?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Pohl; M. Fox; M. Fried; B. Göke; C. Prinz; H. Mönnikes; G. Rogler; M. Dauer; J. Keller; F. Lippl; I. Schiefke; U. Seidler; H. D. Allescher

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from comparative anatomy and physiology studies indicates that gastric acid secretion developed during the evolution of vertebrates approximately 350 million years ago. The cellular mechanisms that produce gastric acid have been conserved over the millennia and therefore proton pump inhibitors have pharmacological effects in almost all relevant species. These observations suggest that gastric acid provides an important selective advantage;

  17. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  18. BACTERIAL OXIDATION OF DIPICOLINIC ACID

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yasuo; Arima, Kei

    1962-01-01

    Kobayashi, Yasuo (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan) and Kei Arima. Bacterial oxidation of dipicolinic acid. II. Identification of ?-ketoglutaric acid and 3-hydroxydipicolinic acid and some properties of cell-free extracts. J. Bacteriol. 84:765–771. 1962—When a dipicolinic acid (DPA)-decomposing bacterium, Achromobacter strain 1–2, was incubated at 30 C with shaking in a DPA solution containing 10?3m arsenite, a keto acid was accumulated. The 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone of this acid was synthesized and identified as ?-ketoglutaric acid by paper chromatography, visible absorption spectrum, infrared analysis, elemental analysis, and mixed melting point. During this incubation, oxalic acid equivalent to the consumed dipicolinic acid was produced. A fluorescent material was also isolated from culture fluid and identified as 3-hydroxydipicolinic acid by paper chromatography and the ultraviolet absorption spectrum. Further, cell-free extracts were prepared by sonic oscillation. Ferrous ion and a reduced di- or triphosphopyridine nucleotide-generating system were proven to be required for enzymic oxidation of DPA. And 3-hydroxydipicolinic acid was also oxidized by this preparation. From the results obtained, a possible metabolic pathway of dipicolinic acid was proposed. PMID:14033954

  19. Weak Acid Equilibrium

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    michael stapleton

    Students are asked to calculate the pH of a weak acid aqueous solution. The problems involve a series of generic acids with assigned equilibrium constants (Ka) and total concentrations (Ct). Initially, students are required to hand calculate all problems by algebraic manipulation of the mathematical relationships of the system. The solution is a cubic equation. Through a series of assumptions, the solution is simplified. The assumptions are based on the chemistry of the system given the Ka and Ct for the problem. The problems are then graphically solved. Ultimately, the students develop an Excel worksheet to solve the problems and a Bjerrum plot to display the speciation as a function of pH.

  20. Nucleic Acid Detection Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cassandra L. Smith; Ron Yaar; Przemyslaw Szafranski; Charles R. Cantor

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and\\/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be

  1. Nucleic acid detection methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Smith; R. Yaar; P. Szafranski; C. R. Cantor

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and\\/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3âČ-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be

  2. Acid Rain Effects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-06-30

    Learners conduct a simple experiment to model and explore the harmful effects of acid rain (vinegar) on living (green leaf and eggshell) and non-living (paper clip) objects. Learners observe the effects over a period of days. This activity has links to other activities which can be combined to make a larger lesson. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

  3. Acid rain in Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neeloo Bhatti; David G. Streets; Wesley K. Foell

    1992-01-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to\\u000a the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging\\u000a perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in

  4. Fatty Acid Carcass Mapping

    E-print Network

    Turk, Stacey N.

    2010-01-14

    ) composition among different depots throughout a beef carcass. To test this, 50 carcasses from a variety of breed types and backgrounds were sampled. External fat samples were collected from eight different carcass locations: round, sirloin, loin, rib... was the lowest. Due to the significant differences amongst fat depots within bovine carcasses in their fatty acid composition we conclude that substantial differences exist across fat depots. v DEDICATION...

  5. Cannabinoid acids analysis.

    PubMed

    Lercker, G; Bocci, F; Frega, N; Bortolomeazzi, R

    1992-03-01

    The cannabinoid pattern of vegetable preparations from Cannabis sativa (hashish, marijuana) allows to recognize the phenotype of the plants, to be used as drug or for fiber. Cannabinoid determination by analytical point of view has represented some problems caused by the complex composition of the hexane extract. Capillary gas chromatography of the hexane extracts of vegetable samples, shows the presence of rather polar constituents that eluted, with noticeable interactions, only on polar phase. The compounds can be methylated by diazomethane and silanized (TMS) by silylating reagents. The methyl and methyl-TMS derivatives are analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identification of the compounds shows their nature of cannabinoid acids, which the main by quantitative point of view results the cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). It is known that the cannabinoid acids are thermally unstable and are transformed in the corresponding cannabinoids by decarboxilation. This is of interest in forensic analysis with the aim to establish the total amount of THC in the Cannabis preparations, as the active component. PMID:1503600

  6. Development of HPLC method by UV-VIS detection for the quantification of phenolic acids in different Ocimum sanctum Linn. extracts.

    PubMed

    Shafqatullah; Khan, Rasool; Hassan, Waseem; Hussain, Arshad; Asadullah; Rehman, Khaliqur; Ali, Javid

    2014-09-01

    A simple and rapid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of five phenolic acids including Gallic acid, Chloroganic acid, Syringic acid, Benzoic acid and Vanillic acid by HPLC with UV-VIS detector. These Phenolic acids were separated by analytical column Intersil ODS-3 C18, a gradient elution system of ACN and acidified water solution with 1ml/min flow rate and quantified in a total run of 30 minutes at 210nm wavelength. In the quantitative analysis of these compounds showed good regression (0.995-0.999). The limit of detection [LOD] and limit of quantification [LOQ] of these compounds were in the range of 0.15-0.46 and 0.42-2.47 ?g/mL. The average recoveries were between 95.8-103.1% and their RSD values were less than 3.34%. By the proposed method Gallic acid, Chloroganic acid and Syringic acid were found and quantified in Methanolic, Ethanolic and Acetonic extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves. While the two other phenolic acids benzoic acid and vanillic acid was not found in the extracts of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves. PMID:25176382

  7. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  8. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  9. Molecular Structure of Adipic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-11-09

    Adipic acid is odorless and colorless white crystals or powder with a sour taste. Adipic acid is used primarily in the manufacture of nylon-6,6 polyamide and polyester polyols for polyurethane systems. It is also used for raw materials in pharmaceuticals, perfume fixatives, acidulants, leavening and buffering agents in non-alcoholic beverages, gelatins and puddings. In addition, adipic acid is used in manufacturing plasticizers and lubricants components. It is slightly soluble in water and soluble in alcohol and acetone. Adipic acid can be prepared from acetylene and acetic acid in the presence of tert-butyl peroxide. It has been manufactured from either cyclohexane or phenol.

  10. The politics of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcher, M.E. (Pennsylvania State Univ., New Kensington, PA (US))

    1989-01-01

    This work examines and compares the acid rain policies through the different political systems of Canada, Great Britain and the United States. Because the flow of acid rain can transcend national boundaries, acid rain has become a crucial international problem. According to the author, because of differences in governmental institutions and structure, the extent of governmental intervention in the industrial economy, the degree of reliance on coal for power generation, and the extent of acid rain damage, national responses to the acid rain problem have varied.

  11. Acid Rain Experiments: Soil Buffering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This experiment will help students understand that soil sometimes contains substances, like limestone, that buffer acids or bases, and that some salts in soil may also act as buffers. They will collect soil samples from their lawn, garden, or school and look for buffering effects by observing the pH change of an acid mixture poured through the samples. If the water collected from the sample is less acidic than the original mixture, then the soil is buffering some of the acid. If it does not change, then the soil may not be capable of buffering acids.

  12. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

  16. Effect of diets rich in oleic acid, stearic acid and linoleic acid on postprandial haemostatic factors in young healthy men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsty A. Hunter; Lynn C. Crosbie; Graham W. Horgan; George J. Miller; Asim K. Dutta-Roy

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of stearic acid-, oleic acid- and linoleic acid-rich meals on postprandial haemostasis in young healthy volunteers whose background diets had been controlled for 14 d in a residential study. Six healthy male volunteers were assigned randomly to consume diets rich in stearic acid, oleic acid or linoleic acid for

  17. Molecular Structure of Picric acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-09-23

    Picric Acid was first discovered in 1771 by a British Chemist named Peter Woulfe by treatment of indigo with nitric acid. It is most commonly seen in its yellow, water-soluble, crystalline form. For this reason, picric acid first saw use as a dyeing agent in textiles. However, around 1849 it was discovered (for obvious reasons) that picric acid is a shock, heat, and friction-sensitive explosive. Its first use as an explosive material came in military weaponry: torpedoes in particular due to its shock-sensitive nature not requiring a detonator to explode on contact with a target. However, picric acid was found to be highly corrosive to metals, making the weapons very difficult to handle and the acid itself difficult to store. Today, picric acid is used more widely as an ingredient in the manufacture of inert dyes and stable explosives such as dynamite.

  18. Molecular Structure of Sorbic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-11-11

    Sorbic acid is a colorless or white crystalline powder, with a weak characteristic odor and slightly acidic taste. It may be obtained from berries of the mountain ash or prepared synthetically by condensing crotonaldehyde and malonic acid in pyridine solution. Sorbic acid is a polyunsaturated fat used to inhibit molds and yeast, is a fungistatic agent for foods (especially cheeses, wine and baked goods). The main use of sorbic acid is as a preservative in foods, animal feeds, tobacco, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, as well in packing materials for these substances and in other products that come in contact with human or animal skin in some way. Sorbic acid is also used as an intermediate for plasticizers and lubricants. Sorbic acid reacts with potassium to make potassium sorbate and with calcium to make calcium sorbate.

  19. Esterification by the Plasma Acidic Water: Novel Application of Plasma Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ling

    2014-03-01

    This work explores the possibility of plasma acid as acid catalyst in organic reactions. Plasma acidic water was prepared by dielectric barrier discharge and used to catalyze esterification of n-heptanioc acid with ethanol. It is found that the plasma acidic water has a stable and better performance than sulfuric acid, meaning that it is an excellent acid catalyst. The plasma acidic water would be a promising alternative for classic mineral acid as a more environment friendly acid.

  20. Lipid metabolism in the perfused chicken liver. The uptake and metabolism of oleic acid, elaidic acid, cis-vaccenic acid, trans-vaccenic acid and stearic acid

    PubMed Central

    Bickerstaffe, R.; Annison, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    Comparative studies were made of the uptake and metabolism of cis- and trans-octadecenoic acids by the perfused chicken liver. No differences were observed in the rates of uptake of the isomers. There was considerable incorporation of radioactivity into triglycerides and phospholipids, and some release of labelled lipid into the perfusate was observed. The cis-fatty acids were more readily incorporated into triglycerides than phospholipids, the reverse being true of the trans-fatty acids. Examination of the intramolecular distribution of fatty acids in triglycerides showed that the trans-fatty acid and stearate mainly occupied the 1- and 3-positions, and cis-fatty acids the 2-position. In the phospholipids phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine the trans-fatty acids again behaved like stearic acid and favoured the 1-position. No evidence was obtained of atypical patterns of uptake or metabolism of the trans-fatty acids. PMID:5472169

  1. Practical synthesis of a chromene analog for use as a retinoic acid receptor alpha antagonist lead compound

    PubMed Central

    Jetson, Rachael; Malik, Neha; Luniwal, Amarjit; Chari, Venkatesh; Ratnam, Manohar; Erhardt, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR?) selective compounds may guide the design of drugs that can be used in conjunction with hormonal adjuvant therapy in the treatment of breast cancer. Herein we report a modified synthesis of a known RAR? antagonist, 2-fluoro-4-[[[8-bromo-2,2-dimethyl-4-(4-methylphenyl)chroman-6-yl]carbonyl]amino]benzoic acid and a synthesis of its unknown, desfluoro analog, 4-[[[8-bromo-2,2-dimethyl-4-(4-methylphenyl)chroman-6-yl]carbonyl]amino]benzoic acid. The modified route allows for facile reaction workups, increased yields, lower cost and incorporates a green alternative step. Structure–activity relationship studies determined through functional cell-based assays, demonstrated antagonism to RAR? for both compounds. Molecular modeling within the RAR? binding pocket was used to compare binding interactions of the desfluoro analog to a known RAR antagonist. PMID:23474897

  2. Vibrational structure of the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid studied by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Johannes; Noack, Kristina; Bartelmess, Juergen; Walter, Christian; Dörnenburg, Heike; Leipertz, Alfred

    2010-02-01

    The spectroscopic discrimination of the two structurally similar polyunsaturated C 20 fatty acids (PUFAs) 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) is shown. For this purpose their vibrational structures are studied by means of attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The fingerprint regions of the recorded spectra are found to be almost identical, while the C-H stretching mode regions around 3000 cm -1 show such significant differences as results of electronic and molecular structure alterations based on the different degree of saturation that both fatty acids can be clearly distinguished from each other.

  3. Metabolism of 14 C-labelled oleic acid, erucic acid and nervonic acid in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Carroll

    1966-01-01

    1-14C-Oleic acid, 2-14C-erucic acid and 2-14C-nervonic acid were administered to rats by tail-vein and the distribution of radioactivity in liver lipids was determined\\u000a at intervals from 15 min to 6 hr after injection. High levels of activity were found after short time intervals which were\\u000a mainly associated with triglycerides in the case of oleic acid and with free fatty acids

  4. Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-01-01

    Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 x 10(exp -4) Torr H2O and 1-2.5 x 10(exp -6) Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

  5. Bile Acid Metabolism and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, John Y. L.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are important physiological agents for intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary secretion of lipids, toxic metabolites, and xenobiotics. Bile acids also are signaling molecules and metabolic regulators that activate nuclear receptors and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling to regulate hepatic lipid, glucose, and energy homeostasis and maintain metabolic homeostasis. Conversion of cholesterol to bile acids is critical for maintaining cholesterol homeostasis and preventing accumulation of cholesterol, triglycerides, and toxic metabolites, and injury in the liver and other organs. Enterohepatic circulation of bile acids from the liver to intestine and back to the liver plays a central role in nutrient absorption and distribution, and metabolic regulation and homeostasis. This physiological process is regulated by a complex membrane transport system in the liver and intestine regulated by nuclear receptors. Toxic bile acids may cause inflammation, apoptosis, and cell death. On the other hand, bile acid-activated nuclear and GPCR signaling protects against inflammation in liver, intestine, and macrophages. Disorders in bile acid metabolism cause cholestatic liver diseases, dyslipidemia, fatty liver diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Bile acids, bile acid derivatives, and bile acid sequestrants are therapeutic agents for treating chronic liver diseases, obesity, and diabetes in humans. PMID:23897684

  6. Biophysical Properties of Phenyl Succinic Acid Derivatised Hyaluronic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Teresa Neves-Petersen; Sűren Klitgaard; Esben Skovsen; Steffen B. Petersen; Kristoffer Tűmmeraas; Khadija Schwach-Abdellaoui

    2010-01-01

    Modification of hyaluronic acid (HA) with aryl succinic anhydrides results in new biomedical properties of HA as compared\\u000a to non-modified HA, such as more efficient skin penetration, stronger binding to the skin, and the ability to blend with hydrophobic\\u000a materials. In the present study, hyaluronic acid has been derivatised with the anhydride form of phenyl succinic acid (PheSA).\\u000a The fluorescence

  7. Boswellic acid inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yao Zhang; Rui-Dong Duan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Boswellic acid is a type of triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Sphingomyelin metabolism generates multiple lipid signals affecting cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Upregulation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase) has been found in several inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. METHODS: The present study is to examine the effect of 3-acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acids (AKBA), a potent

  8. Modification of hyaluronic acid with aromatic amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Yu. Ponedel’kina; V. N. Odinokov; E. S. Vakhrusheva; M. T. Golikova; L. M. Khalilov; U. M. Dzhemilev

    2005-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid was modified with aromatic amino acids (5-aminosalicylic, 4-aminosalicylic, anthranilic, and p-aminobenzoic) in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide. The modified glycans contained 9–43% of arylamide groups and 10–33% of isoureidocarbonyl groups depending on the nature of the amino acid. Reduction with sodium borohydride allowed the conversion of isoureidocarbonyl groups into hydroxymethyl groups.

  9. The Reaction of Piperazine2,5-dione with 2-Formylbenzoic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret L. Baron; Ian D. Rae; Peta M. Simmonds

    Reaction of piperazine-2,5-dione with 2-formylbenzoic acid in the presence of triethylamine gives three products: 1-(3'-oxo-1',3'-dihydroisobenzofuran-l'-yl)piperazine-2,5-dione, its 1,4-bis analogue which had previously been identified as the 3,6-compound, and 2,2'-(3,6-dioxopiperazine-2,5-diylidene- bis(methylidyne))bis(benzoic acid). The latter compound is shown by 'H and 13C n.m.r, spectroscopy to be the Z,Z isomer. From the reaction of piperazine-2,5-dione with 2-formylbenzoic we have isolated three products. The first

  10. Selenium Catalyzed Oxidation of Aldehydes: Green Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids and Esters.

    PubMed

    Sancineto, Luca; Tidei, Caterina; Bagnoli, Luana; Marini, Francesca; Lenardăo, Eder J; Santi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The stoichiometric use of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a selenium-containing catalyst in water is here reported as a new ecofriendly protocol for the synthesis of variously functionalized carboxylic acids and esters. The method affords the desired products in good to excellent yields under very mild conditions starting directly from commercially available aldehydes. Using benzaldehyde as a prototype the gram scale synthesis of benzoic acid is described, in which the aqueous medium and the catalyst could be recycled at last five times while achieving an 87% overall yield. PMID:26060915

  11. Molecular Structure of Phosphoric acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-09-10

    Phosphoric acid was first made in 1774 by K.W. Scheele and J.G. Gahn from bone ash. Phosphoric acid is made by treating calcium phosphate rock with sulfuric acid, followed by filtration. It is by this process that almost 10 tons of phosphoric acid are produced in the United States each year. The compound is primarily used to manufacture some pharmaceutical products, fertilizers and as a flavoring agent in coca-cola. The steel industry uses it to clean and rust-proof their steel. Phosphoric acid is also used in the process of soil stabilization, and as a catalyst in the production of propylene and butene polymers, ethylbenzene, and cumene. In recent years though the industry has moved away from using phosphoric acid as a ingredient in detergents because of the harmful effect that Phosphates have on lakes a process called lake eutrophication.

  12. Molecular Structure of Butyric acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-10-11

    n-Butyric acid is a substance that was isolated from butter in 1869. Butyric acid means, in Latin, the acid of butter as it was first discovered in rancid butter. It is found most commonly in butter, but can also be present in some fruits. Butyric acid is also produced synthetically, through fermentation of various carbohydrates, to be used as a flavoring agent in various food products. Applications of butyric acid are as an additive to food, flavorings, varnishes, perfumes, pharmaceuticals and disinfectants. It is also used for the production of plastics, plasticizers, surfactants and textile auxiliaries. Butyric acid and its derivatives are also being seriously considered around the world as potential anticancer agents.

  13. Butyric acid in functional constipation

    PubMed Central

    Pituch, Aleksandra; Walkowiak, Jaros?aw

    2013-01-01

    Butyric acid, a short-chain fatty acid, is a major energy source for colonocytes. It occurs in small quantities in some foods, and in the human body, it is produced in the large intestine by intestinalkacteria. This production can be reduced in some cases, for which butyric acid supplementation may be useful. So far, the use of butyric acid in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders has been limited because of its specific characteristics such as its rancid smell and rapid absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract. In the Polish market, sodium butyrate has been recently made available, produced by the modern technology of microencapsulation, which allows the active substance to reach the small and large intestines, where butyrate easily dissociates into butyric acid. This article presents the potential beneficial mechanisms of action of butyric acid in defecation disorders, which are primarily associated with reductions in pain during defecation and inflammation in the gut, among others. PMID:24868272

  14. Aqueous solubility and acidity constants of cholic, deoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic, and u rsodeoxyc ho I ic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshikiyo Moroi; Hideaki Itoh

    Cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and ursodeoxycholic acid were purified by a foam frac- tionation method. Using thermogravimetric analysis, the at- tached water molecule was found to be completely removed from solids of the latter three at 100°C, while cholic acid still had one water molecule of crystallization per two cholic acid molecules at that temperature. The acidity constants

  15. Zirconium in sulfuric acid applications

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, R.T.; Yau, T.L.

    1986-02-01

    Zirconium is one of the few metals that resists attack by sulfuric acid at concentrations up to 75% and temperatures to boiling and above. This capability makes zirconium a good structural metal for use in 40 to 65% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ up to boiling temperatures and for weak acid concentrations at elevated temperatures. Zirconium's corrosion properties in sulfuric acid solutions are compared with nickel base alloys. Examples of applications and limitations in the use of zirconium are presented.

  16. Intestinal metabolism of fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Enser, M.

    1965-01-01

    1. The effect of concentration on the oxidation and incorporation into lipids of lauric acid and linoleic acid by rings of rat small intestine has been studied in vitro. 2. In the absence of glucose, the oxidation of lauric acid in the range 0·01–5·0mm showed a maximum at 0·1mm. In the presence of glucose the maximum was at 0·5mm. The oxidation of linoleic acid in the presence of glucose increased throughout the concentration range 0·01–5·0mm. 3. The incorporation of lauric acid into lipids was maximal at 0·5–0·6mm in the presence of glucose, but at 10mm in the absence of glucose. At 0·8mm-lauric acid, in the presence of glucose, over 75% of the incorporated lauric acid was in triglycerides, but at 10mm they only contained 30%. The incorporation of glucose carbon into glycerides paralleled the incorporation of lauric acid. 4. In the range 0·01–2·5mm-linoleic acid the quantity incorporated into lipids increased. In the range 0·01–0·4mm linoleic acid was incorporated predominantly into triglycerides, but between 0·4 and 1·0mm most was in diglycerides, and between 2·5 and 5·0mm most was in monoglycerides. 5. The relationship of fatty acid concentration to the mechanism of absorption is discussed, together with the correlation between the distribution of the absorbed fatty acids within the tissue lipids and the lipase activity of intestinal mucosa. PMID:5837779

  17. Piezoelectricity in protein amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemanov, V. V.; Popov, S. N.; Pankova, G. A.

    2011-06-01

    The piezoelectric activity of protein amino acids and their compounds has been measured using the pulse method at a frequency of 10 MHz. It has been established that, at room temperature, the piezoelectric effect is not observed in ?-glycine (achiral amino acid) and protein amino acids of the L modification, namely, methionine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan. An assumption has been made that this phenomenon is associated with the enhanced damping of elastic vibrations excited in samples due to the piezoelectric effect.

  18. Acid site promotion of mordenite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Kiovsky; J. R. Goyette; T. M. Notermann

    1978-01-01

    Ammonia adsorption isotherms for H-mordenite (10:1 silica-alumina) and partially dealuminated H-mordenite (13:1 silica-alumina) showed that dealumination generated new strong acid sites, in contrast to dealumination of Y-zeolite, which decreases first the weak and then the stronger acid sites. An IR spectroscopic study of 13:1 and 16:1 silica-alumina mordenites showed that the number of both Lewis and Broensted strong acid sites

  19. Alkali-isomerized linoleic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Terry; D. H. Wheeler

    1946-01-01

    Summary  Alkali-isomerized linoleic acid and its methyl ester have been found to have boiling points higher than the corresponding\\u000a normal C18 acids and esters.\\u000a \\u000a By careful fractional distillation of methyl esters of alkali-isomerized C18 cottonseed acids, methyl linoleate of 95% or more purity is obtained consisting of 75% conjugated methyl linoleate and some\\u000a 20% of methyl ester of an altered linoleic

  20. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol A. Roa Engel; Adrie J. J. Straathof; Tiemen W. Zijlmans; Walter M. van Gulik; Luuk A. M. van der Wielen

    2008-01-01

    The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric\\u000a acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical\\u000a process yields 112% w\\/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w\\/w from glucose, the latter raw

  1. Quantitative analysis of the modes of growth inhibition by weak organic acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Azmat; Orij, Rick; Brul, Stanley; Smits, Gertien J

    2012-12-01

    Weak organic acids are naturally occurring compounds that are commercially used as preservatives in the food and beverage industries. They extend the shelf life of food products by inhibiting microbial growth. There are a number of theories that explain the antifungal properties of these weak acids, but the exact mechanism is still unknown. We set out to quantitatively determine the contributions of various mechanisms of antifungal activity of these weak acids, as well as the mechanisms that yeast uses to counteract their effects. We analyzed the effects of four weak organic acids differing in lipophilicity (sorbic, benzoic, propionic, and acetic acids) on growth and intracellular pH (pH(i)) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although lipophilicity of the acids correlated with the rate of acidification of the cytosol, our data confirmed that not initial acidification, but rather the cell's ability to restore pH(i), was a determinant for growth inhibition. This pH(i) recovery in turn depended on the nature of the organic anion. We identified long-term acidification as the major cause of growth inhibition under acetic acid stress. Restoration of pH(i), and consequently growth rate, in the presence of this weak acid required the full activity of the plasma membrane ATPase Pma1p. Surprisingly, the proposed anion export pump Pdr12p was shown to play an important role in the ability of yeast cells to restore the pH(i) upon lipophilic (sorbic and benzoic) acid stress, probably through a charge interaction of anion and proton transport. PMID:23001666

  2. Molecular Structure of Propionic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-10-11

    Propanoic acid was named after the Greek word "Pro" for first and "pion" for fat, because it is the first fatty acid. It is a liquid and has a slightly pungent odor that can be characterized as rancid. Sweat, milk, and fermentation products all contain small amounts of this chemical. It can be synthesized from ethanol or ethylene and carbon monoxide. The calcium salt of propanoic acid is used as an antimolding agent and is an additive in breads. Esters of this carboxylic acid have a pleasant smell and taste and are used in the manufacture of fruit flavors and perfume bases. This compound is also found in a herbicide, called Silverado.

  3. Intermediates of Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis in Tobacco1

    PubMed Central

    Ribnicky, David M.; Shulaev, Vladimir; Raskin, Ilya

    1998-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important component of systemic-acquired resistance in plants. It is synthesized from benzoic acid (BA) as part of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Benzaldehyde (BD), a potential intermediate of this pathway, was found in healthy and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-inoculated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc) leaf tissue at 100 ng/g fresh weight concentrations as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BD was also emitted as a volatile organic compound from tobacco tissues. Application of gaseous BD to plants enclosed in jars caused a 13-fold increase in SA concentration, induced the accumulation of the pathogenesis-related transcript PR-1, and increased the resistance of tobacco to TMV inoculation. [13C6]BD and [2H5]benzyl alcohol were converted to BA and SA. Labeling experiments using [13C1]Phe in temperature-shifted plants inoculated with the TMV showed high enrichment of cinnamic acids (72%), BA (34%), and SA (55%). The endogenous BD, however, contained nondetectable enrichment, suggesting that BD was not the intermediate between cinnamic acid and BA. These results show that BD and benzyl alcohol promote SA accumulation and expression of defense responses in tobacco, and provide insight into the early steps of SA biosynthesis. PMID:9765542

  4. Structurally modified fatty acids - clinical potential as tracers of metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Dudczak, R.; Schmoliner, R.; Angelberger, P.; Knapp, F.F.; Goodman, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Recently 15-p-iodophenyl-betamethyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMPPA) was proposed for myocardial scintigraphy, as possible probe of metabolic processes other than ..beta..-oxidation. In 19 patients myocardial scintigraphy was done after i.v. BMPPA (2 to 4 mCi). Data were collected (LAO 45/sup 0//14; anterior/5) for 100 minutes in the fasted patients. From heart (H) and liver (L) organ to background (BG) ratios were calculated, and the elimination (E) behavior was analyzed from BG (V. cava region) corrected time activity curves. In 10 patients plasma and urine were examined. By CHCl/sub 3//MeOH extraction of plasma samples (90 min. pi) both in water and in organic medium soluble catabolites were found. TLC fractionation showed that those were co-migrating, compared to standards, with benzoic acid, BMPPA and triglycerides. In urine (0 to 2h pi: 4.1% dose) hippuric acid was found. It is concluded that BMPPA is a useful agent for myocardial scintigraphy. Its longer retention in the heart compared to unbranched radioiodinated fatty acids may facilitate SPECT studies. Rate of elimination and plasma analysis indicate the metabolic breakdown of BMPPA. Yet, the complexity of the supposed mechanism may impede curve interpretation in terms of specific metabolic pathways. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. Acid pulses from snowmelt at acidic cone pond, New Hampshire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Fay Baird; Donald C. Buso; James W. Hornbeck

    1987-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine whether ‘acid pulses’ from snowmelt created permanent changes in a pond's chemistry. Water samples were collected from clearwater acidic Cone Pond in the White Mountain National Forest, New Hampshire. The pond, inlet, and outlet were intensively sampled throughout winter and early spring 1983–84. Thaws brought more H+ into upper waters of the pond, but

  6. Naphthenic acids and surrogate naphthenic acids in methanogenic microcosms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fervone M Holowenko; Michael D MacKinnon; Phillip M Fedorak

    2001-01-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a complex mixture of naturally occurring acyclic and cyclic aliphatic carboxylic acids in petroleum. In the Athabasca oil sands, NAs have been identified as the largest component of dissolved organic matter in the tailings waters from oils sands extraction processes. They are the major contributor to the acute toxicity of the fine tailings wastewaters at the

  7. Acid zeta function and ajoint acid zeta function

    E-print Network

    Jining Gao

    2010-03-16

    In this paper we set up the theory of acid zeta function and ajoint acid zeta function, based on the theory, we point out a reason to doubt the truth of the Riemann hypothesis and also as a consequence, we give out some new RH equivalences.

  8. No Potassium, No Acid: K+ Channels and Gastric Acid Secretion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-10-01

    The gastric H+-K+-ATPase pumps H+ into the lumen and takes up K+ in parallel. In the acid-producing parietal cells, luminal KCNE2/KCNQ1 K+ channels play a pivotal role in replenishing K+ in the luminal fluid. Inactivation of KCNE2/KCNQ1 channels abrogates gastric acid secretion and dramatically modifies the architecture of gastric mucosa.

  9. Acid rain on acid soil: a new perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. Krug; C. R. Frink

    1983-01-01

    Acid rain is widely believed to be responsible for acidifying soil and water in areas of North America and northern Europe. However, factors commonly considered to make landscapes susceptible to acidification by acid rain are the same factors long known to strongly acidify soils through the natural processes of soil formation. Recovery from extreme and widespread careless land use has

  10. 40 CFR 721.10679 - Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester (generic). 721...Substances § 721.10679 Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene...

  11. A Simpler Nucleic Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orgel, Leslie

    2000-01-01

    It has been supposed that for a nucleic acid analog to pair with RNA it must, like RNA, have a backbone with at least a sixatom repeat; a shorter backbone presumably would not stretch far enough to bind RNA properly. The Eschenmoser group has shown, however, that this first impression is incorrect.As they report in their new paper, Eschenmoser and co-workers ( I ) have now synthesized a substantial number of these polymers, which are called (L)-a-threofuranosyl oligonucleotides or TNAs. They are composed of bases linked to a threose sugar-phosphate backbone, with phosphodiester bonds connecting the nucleotides. The investigators discovered that pairs of complementary TNAs do indeed form stable Watson-Crick double helices and, perhaps more importantly, that TNAs form stable double helices with complementary RNAs and DNAs.

  12. Acid rain on acid soil: a new perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, E.C.; Frink, C.R.

    1983-08-05

    Acid rain is widely believed to be responsible for acidifying soil and water in areas of North America and Northern Europe. However, factors commonly considered to make landscapes susceptible to acidification by acid rain are the same factors long known to strongly acidify soils through the natural processes of soil formation. Recovery from extreme and widespread careless land use has also occurred in regions undergoing acidification. There is evidence that acidification by acid rain is superimposed on long-term acidification induced by changes in land use and consequent vegetative succession. Thus, the interactions of acid rain, acid soil, and vegetation need to be carefully examined on a watershed basis in assessing benefits expected from proposed reductions in emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen.

  13. Microbial desulfonation of substituted naphthalenesulfonic acids and benzenesulfonic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Zürrer, D; Cook, A M; Leisinger, T

    1987-01-01

    Sulfur-limited batch enrichment cultures containing one of nine multisubstituted naphthalenesulfonates and an inoculum from sewage yielded several taxa of bacteria which could quantitatively utilize 19 sulfonated aromatic compounds as the sole sulfur source for growth. Growth yields were about 4 kg of protein per mol of sulfur. Specific degradation rates were about 4 to 14 mu kat/kg of protein. A Pseudomonas sp., an Arthrobacter sp., and an unidentified bacterium were examined. Each desulfonated at least 16 aromatic compounds, none of which served as a carbon source. Pseudomonas sp. strain S-313 converted 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 5-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid to 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, 5-amino-1-naphthol, phenol, and 3-aminophenol, respectively. Experiments with 18O2 showed that the hydroxyl group was derived from molecular oxygen. PMID:3662502

  14. Octadecylsulfuric acid. Properties of the acid, amine salts, and salts of amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. W. Maurer; A. J. Stirton; J. K. Weil

    1960-01-01

    Summary  Octadecanol, hexadecanol, tetradecanol, and dodecanol were sulfated with chlorosulfonic acid, and the corresponding alkylsulfuric\\u000a acids were isolated in a pure state as white crystalline solids with definite melting points.\\u000a \\u000a Octadecylsulfuric acid resembles sodium octadecyl sulfate in detergent and surface-active properties and in stability to hydrolysis\\u000a at equal concentrations of hydrogen ion. It is more soluble in water than sodium octadecyl

  15. Determination of relative acid strength and acid amount of solid acids by Ar adsorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromi Matsuhashi; Ayumi Futamura

    2006-01-01

    Relative acid strength and acid amount of solid acids (alumina, silica-alumina, sulfated zirconia, mordenite, ZSM-5, beta, Y, and reduced MoO3) are determined by argon adsorption technique. To obtain the heat of Ar adsorption and saturated adsorption amount, the adsorption isotherm is analyzed using the theory reported by Cremer and Flügge. The obtained heats of Ar adsorption and saturated adsorption amounts

  16. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

  17. Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor university

    2003-06-01

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. (6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high ({approx}50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

  18. Highly powerful and practical acylation of alcohols with acid anhydride catalyzed by Bi(OTf)(3).

    PubMed

    Orita, A; Tanahashi, C; Kakuda, A; Otera, J

    2001-12-28

    Bi(OTf)(3)-catalyzed acylation of alcohols with acid anhydride was evaluated in comparison with other acylation methods. The Bi(OTf)(3)/acid anhydride protocol was so powerful that sterically demanding or tertiary alcohols could be acylated smoothly. Less reactive acylation reagents such as benzoic and pivalic anhydride are also activated by this catalysis. In these cases, a new technology was developed in order to overcome difficulty in separation of the acylated product from the remaining acylating reagent: methanolysis of the unreacted anhydride into easily separable methyl ester realized quite easy separation of the desired acylation product. The Bi(OTf)(3)/acid anhydride protocol was applicable to a wide spectrum of alcohols bearing various functionalities. Acid-labile THP- or TBS-protected alcohol, furfuryl alcohol, and geraniol could be acylated as well as base-labile alcohols. Even acylation of functionalized tertiary alcohols was effected at room temperature. PMID:11749624

  19. Individual Particle Morphology and Acidity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther Coz; Begońa Artíńano; Allen L. Robinson; Gary S. Casuccio; Traci L. Lersch; Spyros N. Pandis

    2008-01-01

    The morphological characterization of particles during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) suggests that particle shape and physical state depends on their acidity. The aerosol shape parameters measured by Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) are statistically different in periods when atmospheric particles are neutral and when they are acidic. High concentrations of particles smaller than 500 nm with high sulfur

  20. Molecular Structure of Formic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-05-08

    Formic Acid, also known as methanoic acid and hydrogencarboxylic acid, is the simplest organic acid. It is a colorless, toxic, corrosive liquid with a pungent, penetrating odor. In nature, it is found in the stings and bites of many insects of the order hymenoptera, including bees and ants. The principal use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. The largest single use of formic acid is as a silage additive in Europe, but this market hardly exists in the United States. When sprayed on fresh hay or other silage, it arrests certain decay processes and causes the feed to retain its nutritive value longer. In the poultry industry, it is sometimes added to silage to kill salmonella bacteria. It is also used in textile dyeing, leather tanning, as a solvent, in electroplating processes, in the manufacturing of lacquers, glass, vinyl resin plasticizers, and formate esters (for flavor and fragrance) and in the manufacture of fumigants. Formic acid is a strong reducing agent, and may act both as an acid and as an aldehyde because the carboxyl is bound to a hydrogen rather than an alkyl group.