Sample records for acid benzoic acid

  1. Molecular Structure of Benzoic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-05-08

    Benzoic acid is a medium-strong acid found in human foods such as berries, and is used as a plasticizer, insecticide, fungicide, an antifungal agent and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. It is more hydrophobic, water fearing, in comparison with other carboxylic acids and therefore can be extracted easily from all types of solvents. This acid is slightly soluble in water and has a melting point of 122 degrees Celsius. Benzoic acid is industrially manufactured from toluene, benzotrichloride and phthalic anhydride. It is purified by the process of sublimation, and the extremely pure form is used as a titrimetric and calorimetric standard in analytical chemistry.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and Drugs...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7 H6...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and Drugs...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7 H6...

  4. Microwave spectrum of benzoic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masao Onda; Motoo Asai; Katsuyuki Takise; Koichi Kuwae; Koji Hayami; Akihiko Kuroe; Masayoshi Mori; Hideya Miyazaki; Naoki Suzuki; Ichiro Yamaguchi

    1999-01-01

    The microwave spectrum of benzoic acid was observed in the frequency range 30?40GHz by using a Stark modulation spectrometer and 6–10GHz by a molecular beam Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer (MB-FTMW). The rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of the normal and carboxylic deuterated species were obtained for the ground and C1–COOH torsional state. For the normal species in the ground state the

  5. Photodissociation dynamics of benzoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Dyakov, Yuri A.; Bagchi, Arnab; Lee, Yuan T.; Ni, Chi-Kung [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-166, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2010-01-07

    The photodissociation of benzoic acid at 193 and 248 nm was investigated using multimass ion imaging techniques. Three dissociation channels were observed at 193 nm: (1) C{sub 6}H{sub 5}COOH{yields}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}+COOH, (2) C{sub 6}H{sub 5}COOH{yields}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CO+OH, and (3) C{sub 6}H{sub 5}COOH{yields}C{sub 6}H{sub 6}+CO{sub 2}. Only channels, (2) and (3), were observed at 248 nm. Comparisons of the ion intensities and photofragment translational energy distributions with the potential energies obtained from ab initio calculations and the branching ratios obtained from the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory suggest that the dissociation occurs on many electronic states.

  6. Relative reactivities of solid benzoic acids

    E-print Network

    Warwas, Edwin James

    1967-01-01

    RELATIVE REACTIVITIES OF SOLID BENZOIC ACIDS A Thesis By EDWIN J, WARWAS Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A8rM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1967' Major... Subject: Chemistry RELATIVE REACTIVITIES OF SOLID BENZOIC ACIDS A Thesis By EDWIN J. WARWAS Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ASSAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MAST ER OF S CIENCE January...

  7. DETERMINATION OF BENZOIC ACID AND SALICYLIC ACID IN COMMERCIAL BENZOIC AND SALICYLIC ACIDS OINTMENTS BY SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IQBAL AHMAD; FAIYAZ HM VAID

    Commercial benzoic acid and salicylic acid ointments have been analyzed for benzoic acid and salicylic acid content by using a spectrophotometric method. Since benzoic acid and salicylic acid exhibit overlapping spectra, absorbance measurements are made at two wavelengths, i.e. 271 nm and 303 nm in ethanol (96%v\\/v) for simultaneous determination of the two compounds. The method is direct and involves

  8. Benzoic acid degradation of polyacrylonitrile fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, D. S.; Needles, H. L.; Cagliostro, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    The reactions of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers in the presence of benzoic acid have been studied. Polyacrylonitrile fibers oxidize more readily in the presence of benzoic acid than in air at temperatures in the range of 170 C. The product decreased in solubility with extent of reaction. Gel permeation chromatography of the soluble fraction showed change in polydispersity. The insoluble product exhibited differences in weight loss as a function of decomposition temperature compared to PAN fibers. Infrared analyses of the fiber product showed absorption peaks similar to air-oxidized PAN. High-energy photoelectron spectral analysis showed a carbon-rich surface which contained oxygen and nitrogen. An air oxidized sample of fiber contained more oxygen at the surface than a fiber treated first with benzoic acid and then air oxidized.

  9. 40 CFR 721.1705 - Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with 6-amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with...Substances § 721.1705 Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with...generically identified as benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1705 - Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with 6-amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with...Substances § 721.1705 Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with...generically identified as benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1705 - Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with 6-amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with...Substances § 721.1705 Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with...generically identified as benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled...

  12. 40 CFR 721.1705 - Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with 6-amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with...Substances § 721.1705 Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with...generically identified as benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1705 - Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with 6-amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with...Substances § 721.1705 Benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled with...generically identified as benzoic acid, 3-amino-, diazotized, coupled...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721...Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject to...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721...Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject to...

  16. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester...721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester...identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester...721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester...identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10380 - Benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto-. 721.10380...Substances § 721.10380 Benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto-. (a) Chemical...substance identified as benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto- (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester...721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester...identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10380 - Benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto-. 721.10380...Substances § 721.10380 Benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto-. (a) Chemical...substance identified as benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto- (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10380 - Benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto-. 721.10380...Substances § 721.10380 Benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto-. (a) Chemical...substance identified as benzoic acid, 3-amino-2-mercapto- (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester...721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester...identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester...721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester...identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl...

  4. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  5. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10109 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10109 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with...

  7. Antiparasitic activity of prenylated benzoic acid derivatives from Piper species.

    PubMed

    Flores, Ninoska; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Giménez, Alberto; Ruiz, Grace; Gutiérrez, David; Bourdy, Genevieve; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2009-03-01

    Fractionation of dichloromethane extracts from the leaves of Piper heterophyllum and P. aduncum afforded three prenylated hydroxybenzoic acids, 3-[(2E,6E,10E)-11-carboxy-3,7,15-trimethyl-2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenyl)-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3-[(2E,6E,10E)-11-carboxy-13-hydroxy-3,7,15-trimethyl-2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenyl]-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3-[(2E,6E,10E)-11-carboxy-14-hydroxy-3,7,15-trimethyl-2,6,10,15-hexadecatetraenyl]-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, along with the known compounds, 4,5-dihydroxy-3-(E,E,E-11-formyl-3,7,15-trimethyl-hexadeca-2,6,10,14-tetraenyl)benzoic acid (arieianal), 3,4-dihydroxy-5-(E,E,E-3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-hexadeca-2,6,10,14-tetraenyl)benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-(E,E,E-3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-hexadeca-2,6,10,14-tetraenyl)benzoic acid, 3-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-4-methoxy-benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)benzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-1-oxo-2-butenyl)-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzoic acid. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, including homo- and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and comparison with data reported in the literature. Riguera ester reactions and optical rotation measurements established the compounds as racemates. The antiparasitic activity of the compounds were tested against three strains of Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi and Plasmodium falciparum. The results showed that 3-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-4-methoxy-benzoic acid exhibited potent and selective activity against L. braziliensis (IC(50) 6.5 microg/ml), higher that pentamidine used as control. Moreover, 3-[(2E,6E,10E)-11-carboxy-3,7,15-trimethyl- 2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenyl)-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-1-oxo-2-butenyl)-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzoic acid showed moderate antiplasmodial (IC(50) 3.2 microg/ml) and trypanocidal (16.5 microg/ml) activities, respectively. PMID:19361822

  8. Effect of formic acid and benzoic acid esters on grass preservation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    alternatives for benzoic acid and propionic acid was the high prices of these components. The esters of benzoic five times. The silages were analyzed by titration method (1989, Moisio and Heikonen, Anim Feed Sci was significantly lower in all test silages compared to AIV 2 and NO silages. The results suggest that in making

  9. DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000111 A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated

    E-print Network

    DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000111 A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-based substances hazardous to human health and the environment. Benzoic acid is prepared industrially by liquid-phase oxida- tion of toluene in the presence of cobalt catalysts (Dow, Snia Viscosa).[2] Benzoic acid is used

  10. Uptake of benzoic acid and chloro-substituted benzoic acids by alcaligenes denitrificans BRI 3010 and BRI 6011

    SciTech Connect

    Miguez, C.B.; Ingram, J.M.; MacLeod, R.A. [McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    The mechanism of uptake of benzoic and 2,4-dichlorobenzoic acid (2,4-DCBA) by Alcaligenes denitrificans BRI 3010 and BRI 6011 and Pseudomonas sp. strain B13, three organisms capable of degrading isomers of chlorinated benzoic acids, was investigated. In all three organisms, uptake of benzoic acid was inducible. For benzoic acid uptake into BRI 3010, monophasic saturation kinetics with apparent K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of 1.4 {mu}M and 3.2 nmol/min/mg of cell dry weight, respectively, were obtained. For BRI 6011, biphasic saturation kinetics were observed, suggesting presence of two uptake systems for benzoic acid with distinct K{sub m} (0.72 and 5.3 {mu}M) and V{sub max} (3.3 and 4.6 nmol/min/mg of cell dry weight) values. BRI 3010 and BRI 6011 accumulated benzoic acid against a concentration gradient by a factor of 8 and 10, respectively. A wide range of structural analogs, at 50-fold excess concentrations, inhibited benzoic acid uptake by BRI 3010 and BRI 6011, whereas with B13, only 3-chlorobenzoic acid was an effective inhibitor. For BRI 3010 and BRI 6011, the inhibition by the structural analogs was not of a competitive nature. Uptake of benzoic acid by BRI 3010 and BRI 6011 was inhibited by KCN, by the protonophore 3,5,3`, 4`-tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS), and, for BRI 6011, by anaerobiosis unless nitrate was present, thus indicating that energy was required for the uptake process. Uptake of 2,4-DCBA by BRI 6011 was constitutive and saturation uptake kinetics were not observed. Uptake of 2,4-DCBA by BRI 6011 was inhibited by KCN, TCS, and anaerobiosis even if nitrate was present, but the compound was not accumulated intracellularly against a concentration gradient. Uptake of 2,4-DCBA by BRI 6011 appears to occur by passive diffusion into the cell down its concentration gradient, which is maintained by the intracellular metabolism of the compound. This process could play an important role in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds by microorganisms.

  11. Direct ortho-arylation of ortho-substituted benzoic acids: overriding Pd-catalyzed protodecarboxylation.

    PubMed

    Arroniz, Carlos; Ironmonger, Alan; Rassias, Gerry; Larrosa, Igor

    2013-02-15

    ortho-Arylation of ortho-substituted benzoic acids is a challenging process due to the tendency of the reaction products toward Pd-catalyzed protodecarboxylation. A simple method for preventing decarboxylation in sterically hindered benzoic acids is reported. The method described represents a reliable and broadly applicable entry to 2-aryl-6-substituted benzoic acids. PMID:23373630

  12. Silver-catalysed protodecarboxylation of ortho-substituted benzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Cornella, Josep; Sanchez, Carolina; Banawa, David; Larrosa, Igor

    2009-12-14

    Catalytic amounts of Ag(I) salts in DMSO have been found to promote the protodecarboxylation of a wide variety of ortho-substituted benzoic acids under mild conditions and in excellent yields, highlighting a possible role for silver in decarboxylative cross-couplings. PMID:19921021

  13. Study on QSTR of Benzoic Acid Compounds with MCI

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zuojing; Sun, Yezhi; Yan, Xinli; Meng, Fanhao

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) plays an important role in toxicity prediction. With the modified method, the quantum chemistry parameters of 57 benzoic acid compounds were calculated with modified molecular connectivity index (MCI) using Visual Basic Program Software, and the QSTR of benzoic acid compounds in mice via oral LD50 (acute toxicity) was studied. A model was built to more accurately predict the toxicity of benzoic acid compounds in mice via oral LD50: 39 benzoic acid compounds were used as a training dataset for building the regression model and 18 others as a forecasting dataset to test the prediction ability of the model using SAS 9.0 Program Software. The model is LogLD50 = 1.2399 × 0JA +2.6911 × 1JA – 0.4445 × JB (R2 = 0.9860), where 0JA is zero order connectivity index, 1JA is the first order connectivity index and JB = 0JA × 1JA is the cross factor. The model was shown to have a good forecasting ability. PMID:20480017

  14. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...benzotrichloride, or by the oxidation of toluene with nitric acid or sodium bichromate or with air in the presence of a transition metal salt catalyst. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 3d...

  15. Experimental and theoretical study on benzoic acid derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?wis?ocka, R.; Regulska, E.; Samsonowicz, M.; Lewandowski, W.

    2013-07-01

    Benzoic (BA), p-hydroxybenzoic (HBA), m-methoxybenzoic (MBA), vanillic (VA) and syringic (SGA) acids were studied using both experimental and theoretical tools. The vibrational (FT-IR, FT-Raman) and 1H and 13C NMR spectra of benzoic acid derivatives were recorded. Characteristic shifts and changes in intensities of bands along the studied series were observed. The changes of chemical shifts of protons (1H NMR) and carbons (13C NMR) in the series of studied compounds were observed too. Optimized geometrical structures of studied compounds were obtained by B3LYP method using 6-31++G**, 6-311+G** and 6-311++G** basis sets. Aromaticity indices, atomic charges, dipole moments and energies were calculated. The theoretical chemical shifts in 1H and 13C NMR spectra and theoretical wavenumbers and intensities of IR and Raman spectra were determined. The calculated parameters were compared to experimental characteristic of studied compounds.

  16. In Vitro Skin Absorption and Metabolism of Benzoic Acid, p -Aminobenzoic Acid, and Benzocaine in the Hairless Guinea Pig

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Nathan; Adel Sakr; J. Leon Lichtin; Robert L. Bronaugh

    1990-01-01

    The percutaneous absorption and metabolism of three structurally related compounds, benzoic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and ethyl aminobenzoate (benzocaine), were determined in vitro through hairless guinea pig skin. Benzocaine was also studied in human skin. Absorption of benzocaine was rapid and similar through both viable and nonviable skin. The absorption of the two acidic compounds, benzoic acid and PABA, was

  17. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 99. Solubility of Benzoic Acid and Substituted Benzoic Acids in Both Neat Organic Solvents and Organic Solvent Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acree, William E.

    2013-09-01

    Solubility data are compiled and reviewed for benzoic acid and 63 substituted benzoic acids dissolved in neat organic solvents and well-defined binary and ternary organic solvent mixtures. The compiled solubility data were retrieved from the published chemical and pharmaceutical literature covering the period from 1900 to the beginning of 2013.

  18. Gas phase measurements of mono-fluoro-benzoic acids and the dimer of 3-fluoro-benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Daly, Adam M; Carey, Spencer J; Pejlovas, Aaron M; Li, Kexin; Kang, Lu; Kukolich, Stephen G

    2015-04-14

    The microwave spectrum of the mono-fluoro-benzoic acids, 2-fluoro-, 3-fluoro-, and 4-fluoro-benzoic acid have been measured in the frequency range of 4-14 GHz using a pulsed beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. Measured rotational transition lines were assigned and fit using a rigid rotor Hamiltonian. Assignments were made for 3 conformers of 2-fluorobenzoic acid, 2 conformers of 3-fluorobenzoic acid, and 1 conformer of 4-fluorobenzoic acid. Additionally, the gas phase homodimer of 3-fluorobenzoic acid was detected, and the spectra showed evidence of proton tunneling. Experimental rotational constants are A(0(+)) = 1151.8(5), B(0(+)) = 100.3(5), C(0(+)) = 87.64(3) MHz and A(0(-)) = 1152.2(5), B(0(-)) = 100.7(5), C(0(-)) = 88.85(3) MHz for the two ground vibrational states split by the proton tunneling motion. The tunneling splitting (?E) is approximately 560 MHz. This homodimer appears to be the largest carboxylic acid dimer observed with F-T microwave spectroscopy. PMID:25877574

  19. Isoniazid cocrystals with anti-oxidant hydroxy benzoic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashhadi, Syed Muddassir Ali; Yunus, Uzma; Bhatti, Moazzam Hussain; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

    2014-11-01

    Isoniazid is the primary constituent of “triple therapy” used to effectively treat tuberculosis. In tuberculosis and other diseases, tissue inflammation and free radical burst from macrophages results in oxidative stress. These free radicals cause pulmonary inflammation if not countered by anti-oxidants. Therefore, in the present study cocrystals of isoniazid with four anti-oxidant hydroxy benzoic acids have been reported. Gallic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid resulted in the formation of cocrystals when reacted with isoniazid. Cocrystal structure analysis confirmed the existence of pyridine-carboxylic acid synthon in the cocrystals of isoniazid with Gallic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid. While cocrystal of 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid formed the pyridine-hydroxy group synthon. Other synthons of different graph sets are formed between hydrazide group of isoniazid and coformers involving Nsbnd H⋯O and Osbnd H⋯N bonds. All the cocrystals were in 1:1 stoichiometric ratio.

  20. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10111 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10110 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10111 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10110 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  4. Antiherbivore prenylated benzoic acid derivatives from Piper kelleyi.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Christopher S; Leonard, Michael D; Glassmire, Andrea E; Dodson, Craig D; Richards, Lora A; Kato, Massuo J; Dyer, Lee A

    2014-01-24

    The known prenylated benzoic acid derivative 3-geranyl-4-hydroxy-5-(3?,3?-dimethylallyl)benzoic acid (1) and two new chromane natural products were isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Piper kelleyi Tepe (Piperaceae), a midcanopy tropical shrub that grows in lower montane rain forests in Ecuador and Peru. Structure determination using 1D and 2D NMR analysis led to the structure of the chromene 2 and to the reassignment of the structure of cumanensic acid as 4, an isomeric chromene previously isolated from Piper gaudichaudianum. The structure and relative configuration of new chromane 3 was determined using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and was found to be racemic by ECD spectropolarimetry. The biological activity of 1-3 was evaluated against a lab colony of the generalist caterpillar Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae), and low concentrations of 2 and 3 were found to significantly reduce fitness. Further consideration of the biosynthetic relationship of the three compounds led to the proposal that 1 is converted to 2 via an oxidative process, whereas 3 is produced through hetero-[4+2] dimerization of a quinone methide derived from the chromene 2. PMID:24422717

  5. Salicylic Acid sans Aspirin in Animals and Man: Persistence in Fasting and Biosynthesis from Benzoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), which is central to defense mechanisms in plants and the principal metabolite of aspirin, occurs naturally in man with higher levels of SA and its urinary metabolite salicyluric acid (SU) in vegetarians overlapping with levels in patients on low-dose aspirin regimens. SA is widely distributed in animal blood. Fasting for major colorectal surgery did not cause disappearance of SA from plasma, even in patients following total proctocolectomy. A 13C6 benzoic acid load ingested by six volunteers led, between 8 and 16 h, to a median 33.9% labeling of urinary salicyluric acid. The overall contribution of benzoic acid (and its salts) to the turnover of circulating SA thus requires further assessment. However, that SA appears to be, at least partially, an endogenous compound should lead to reassessment of its role in human (and animal) pathophysiology. PMID:19053387

  6. Infrared Spectroscopy of Hydrogen Bonds in Benzoic Acid Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Bel?kov, M. V.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Bazyl, O. K.; Artyukhov, V. Ya.; Mayer, G. V.; Shadyro, O. I.; Kuzovkov, P. V.; Brinkevich, S. D.; Samovich, S. N.

    2014-03-01

    We have measured the Fourier transform IR spectra of CCl4 solutions of benzoic acid and its biologically active derivatives. We investigated the proton-acceptor properties of the studied molecules theoretically by the molecular electrostatic potential method. The calculations are compared with experimental results. Based on an estimate of the proton-acceptor properties, we give an interpretation of the specific features of the IR spectra of benzoic acid and its derivatives in the region of the O-H and C = O vibrations. The mechanisms for interactions of the molecules are determined by the nature of substituents which are added to the benzene ring in positions para and meta to the carboxyl group. We identify the conditions for appearance of intermolecular hydrogen bonds of O-H · · · O = C, O-H · · · O-H types with formation of cyclic and linear dimers. We show that intramolecular hydrogen bonds of the type O-H · · · O-CH3 prevent the hydroxyl groups from participating in intermolecular interactions.

  7. Mechanism of Benzoic Acid Uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Macris, Basil J.

    1975-01-01

    A fast uptake of the preservative benzoic acid was observed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, reaching saturation in about two min and then remaining constant at this level. The strong dependence of benzoic acid uptake on pH was due to the relative distribution of molecular and ionic forms in solution and not to the pH itself. The molecular form was the only one taken up by the cells. The specificity of the uptake mechanism was evidenced by the pattern of irreversible heat inactivation of the uptake system resembling protein denaturation by heat. Furthermore, the effect of temperature on the uptake was similar to that observed in enzymic reactions, whereas the kinetic data of uptake conformed to the Michaelis-Menten curve of saturation with a Km of 1.54 × 10-2 M and Vmax of 3 × 10-3 M/10s. The evidence presented in this paper indicates that compounds of protein nature are involved in the uptake of this preservative. PMID:242253

  8. Solid-State 17O NMR Study of Benzoic Acid Adsorption On Metal Oxide Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W [ORNL; Chen, Banghao [ORNL; Jiao, Jian [ORNL; Parsons, Williams [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state 17O NMR spectra of 17O-labeled benzoic and anisic acids are reported and benzoic acid is used to probe the surface of metal oxides. Complexes formed when benzoic acid is dry-mixed with mesoporous silica, and nonporous titania and alumina are characterized. Chemical reactions with silica are not observed. The nature of benzoic acid on silica is a function of the water content of the oxide. The acid disperses in the pores of the silica if the silica is in equilibrium with ambient laboratory humidity. The acid displays high mobility as evidenced by a liquid-like, Lorentzian resonance. Excess benzoic acid remains as the crystalline hydrogen-bonded dimer. Benzoic acid reacts with titania and alumina surfaces in equilibrium with laboratory air to form the corresponding titanium and aluminum benzoates. In both materials the oxygen of the 17O-labeled acid is bound to the metal, showing the reaction proceeds by bond formation between oxygen deficient metal sites and the oxygen of the carboxylic acid. 27Al MAS NMR confirms this mechanism for the reaction on alumina. Dry mixing of benzoic acid with alumina rapidly quenches pentacoordinate aluminum sites, excellent evidence that these sites are confined to the surface of the alumina particles.

  9. An Optical Test Strip for the Detection of Benzoic Acid in Food

    PubMed Central

    Hamzah, Hairul Hisham; Yusof, Nor Azah; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Bakar, Fatimah Abu

    2011-01-01

    Fabrication of a test strip for detection of benzoic acid was successfully implemented by immobilizing tyrosinase, phenol and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) onto filter paper using polystyrene as polymeric support. The sensing scheme was based on the decreasing intensity of the maroon colour of the test strip when introduced into benzoic acid solution. The test strip was characterized using optical fiber reflectance and has maximum reflectance at 375 nm. It has shown a highly reproducible measurement of benzoic acid with a calculated RSD of 0.47% (n = 10). The detection was optimized at pH 7. A linear response of the biosensor was obtained in 100 to 700 ppm of benzoic acid with a detection limit (LOD) of 73.6 ppm. At 1:1 ratio of benzoic acid to interfering substances, the main interfering substance is boric acid. The kinetic analyses show that, the inhibition of benzoic is competitive inhibitor and the inhibition constant (Ki) is 52.9 ppm. The activity of immobilized tyrosinase, phenol, and MBTH in the test strip was fairly sustained during 20 days when stored at 3 °C. The developed test strip was used for detection of benzoic acid in food samples and was observed to have comparable results to the HPLC method, hence the developed test strip can be used as an alternative to HPLC in detecting benzoic acid in food products. PMID:22164018

  10. Quantitative relationships between structure and solubility for some m- and p-substituted benzoic acids

    E-print Network

    Idoux, John Paul

    1965-01-01

    Benzoic Acids in Tetra- hydrofuran and in g-Dtoxane at 30 C. 22 Mole Ratio and Mole Fraction Solubilities of Benzoic Acids in ~-Dioxane and in Tetrahydrofuran . VI. Comparison cf the Evaporation and Titration Techniques for Determining the Solubility... species in solution. Tetrahydropyran, 16 which is approximately equal in basicity to tetrahydrofuran, would probably have been a more desirable solvent than E-dioxane since its interaction with acid molecules would be similar to that shown for tetra...

  11. Effects of solvent polarity on the acid dissociation constants of benzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Rubino, J T; Berryhill, W S

    1986-02-01

    The pKa values of benzoic acid, p-methylbenzoic, and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) were determined by potentiometric titration in mixtures of 0-0.5 volume fractions of various cosolvents and water. The differences between the aqueous and semiaqueous pKa values were similar for the three solutes at a particular cosolvent-water mixture for most of the cosolvents studied. The largest differences occurred in the dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO)-water system, where the pKa changes were larger for PABA than the other two solutes. The data are analyzed by a consideration of both electrostatic and nonelectrostatic medium effects. The electrostatic medium effect was calculated from the Born Equation while any residual pKa change was attributed to nonelectrostatic medium effects. The residual effects were found to correlate well with indexes of solvent hydrogen bond acceptor ability such as HBA and beta-values. These results provide a rationale for the use of two solvent polarity indexes for more accurate estimates of pKa values of weak electrolytes in semiaqueous solvent systems. Analysis of solubility data of the salt and acid forms of PABA and benzoic acid in ethanol-water and Me2SO-water mixtures suggests that the higher activity of the anionic form of PABA in Me2SO-water mixtures is primarily responsible for the large pKa changes observed for that solute. PMID:3958930

  12. Benzoic acid derivatives from Piper species and their antiparasitic activity.

    PubMed

    Flores, Ninoska; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Giménez, Alberto; Ruiz, Grace; Gutiérrez, David; Bourdy, Genevieve; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2008-09-01

    Piper glabratum and P. acutifolium were analyzed for their content of main secondary constituents, affording nine new benzoic acid derivatives (1, 2, 4, 5, 7, and 10-13), in addition to four known compounds (3, 6, 8, and 9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Riguera ester reactions and optical rotation measurements established the new compounds as racemates. In the search for antiparasitic agents, the compounds were evaluated in vitro against the promastigote forms of Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi, and Plasmodium falciparum. Among the evaluated compounds, methyl 3,4-dihydroxy-5-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)benzoate (7) exhibited leishmanicidal effect (IC50 13.8-18.5 microg/mL) against the three Leishmania strains used, and methyl 3,4-dihydroxy-5-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbutenyl)benzoate (1), methyl 4-hydroxy-3-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-3-butenyl)benzoate (3), and methyl 3,4-dihydroxy-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl) benzoate (7) showed significant trypanocidal activity, with IC50 values of 16.4, 15.6, and 18.5 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:18712933

  13. Energy transfer from benzoic acid to lanthanide ions in benzoic acid-functionalized lanthanide-doped CaF 2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianshe; Wang, Zongwu; Li, Xia; Wang, Si; Mao, Huadan; Li, Zhongjun

    2011-06-01

    The preparation of benzoic acid-functionalized CaF 2:Ln 3+ (Ln = Eu or Tb) nanoparticles and their sensitized luminescence are described in this report. First, to achieve sufficient proof for energy transfer from benzoic acid (BA) to lanthanide ions doped in nanoparticles, we employ Eu 3+ as the microscopic probe and investigate the luminescent spectra of benzoic acid-functionalized CaF 2:Eu 3+ (BA-CaF 2:Eu 3+) nanoparticles. Next, to further reveal the difference between sensitized luminescence and common luminescence for Eu 3+ doped in CaF 2 nanoparticles, we study the emission spectra of BA-CaF 2:Eu 3+ nanoparticles excited at 286 nm and 397 nm, respectively. Finally, we analyze and compare the luminescent spectra of BA-CaF 2:Tb 3+ and CaF 2:Ce 3+, Tb 3+ nanoparticles in detail. Our results indicate that both Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ doped in CaF 2 nanoparticles can be efficiently sensitized through benzoic acid.

  14. Pressure-imposed changes of benzoic acid crystals.

    PubMed

    Cysewski, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    Structural and energetic properties of benzoic acid crystals at pressure elevated from ambient condition up to 2.21 GPa were characterized. The directly observed variations of cell parameters and consequently cell volume are associated with many other changes including energetic, geometric, and electronic characteristics. First of all the non-monotonous change of lattice energy are noticed with the rise of pressure since the increase of stabilization up to 1GPa is followed by systematic decrease of lattice energies after extending the hydrostatic compression. There is also an observed increase of C 2 (2) (8) synthon stabilization interaction with increase of pressure. The lattice response rather than interaction within synthons are source of observed pressure-related trend of lattice energy changes. The energy decomposition analysis revealed that the total steric interactions determine the overall trend of lattice energy change with the rise of pressure. Besides geometric aromaticity index was used as a measure of geometric changes. Serious discrepancies were noticed between HOMA values computed with the use of experimental and optimized geometries of the ring. Even inclusion of uncertainties of experimental geometries related to limited precision of X-ray diffraction measurements does not cancel mentioned discrepancies. Although HOMA exhibit similar trends at modest pressures the diversity became surprisingly high at more extreme conditions. This might suggest limitations of periodic DFT computations at elevated pressures and the experimentally observed breaking of molecules at very high pressures will probably not be accounted properly in this approach. Also limitation of direct use of experimental geometries were highlighted. PMID:25764324

  15. The thermochemical characteristics of solution of phenol and benzoic acid in water-dimethylsulfoxide and water-acetonitrile mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Zakharov; M. I. Voronova; D. V. Batov; K. V. Smirnova

    2011-01-01

    The solution of phenol and benzoic acid in water-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and water-acetonitrile (AN) mixtures was studied.\\u000a As distinct from benzoic acid, the thermodynamic characteristics of solution of phenol sharply change at concentrations corresponding\\u000a to a change in the character of cluster formation in water-DMSO and water-AN mixtures. Differences in the solvation of phenol\\u000a and benzoic acid are explained by different

  16. In Situ Spectrodensitometric Determination of Methyl and Propyl Parabens, Benzoic and Sorbic Acids in Bulk Powder, Foods, and Pharmaceutical Formulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. El-Bayoumi; M. S. Tawakkol; J. M. Diab

    1997-01-01

    ATLC spectrodensitometric procedure was developed for the determination of methyl paraben, propyl paraben, sorbic acid and benzoic acid as bulk powders or in pharmaceutical dosage forms and foods. The procedure was used for the determination of the two parabens singly or together and also was used for the determination of benzoic and sorbic acids singly because they were found singly

  17. Dietary exposure estimates for the food preservatives benzoic Acid and sorbic Acid in the total diet in taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ling, Min-Pei; Lien, Keng-Wen; Wu, Chiu-Hua; Ni, Shih-Pei; Huang, Hui-Ying; Hsieh, Dennis P H

    2015-02-25

    The purpose was to assess the health risk to general consumers in Taiwan associated with dietary intake of benzoic acid and sorbic acid by conducting a total diet study (TDS). The hazard index (HI) in percent acceptable daily intake (%ADI) of benzoic acid and sorbic acid for eight exposure groups classified by age were calculated. In high-intake consumers, the highest HI of benzoic acid was 54.1%ADI for males aged 1-2 years old at the 95th percentile, whereas for females, the HI was 61.7%ADI for aged over 66 years old. The highest HI of sorbic acid for male and female consumers aged 3-6 years old at the 95th percentile were 14.0%ADI and 12.2%ADI, respectively. These results indicate that the use of benzoic acid and sorbic acid as preservatives at the current level of use in the Taiwanese diet does not constitute a public health and safety concern. PMID:25633072

  18. ??????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ??? ?????????????? Determination of Benzoic Acid and Sorbic Acid in Bael Fruit, Rossella Drink and Flavor Concentrate Syrups by Steam Distillation. ????? ????????????* ?????? ??????????? 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ladda Wattanasiritham; Kulvadee Trongpanich

    ????????: ??????????????????????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????? ????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ?????????? Platinum EPS C18 ??????????????? 0.01 ?????? pH 4.5 ??? ????????????????????????? ??????????? 1.0 ???????????????? ??????????????????????????????? 240???????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???? ??????????????????? 50-1000 ???????????????? ????????????? ??? 90-107% ??? 87-118% ????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????? ??????????? Abstract: Benzoic acid and sorbic acid in bael fruit, rossella drink and flavor concentrate syrups were extracted by steam distillation

  19. A More Challenging Interpretative Nitration Experiment Employing Substituted Benzoic Acids and Acetanilides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell, Edward M.; Lin, Tung-Yin

    2008-01-01

    An experiment is described involving the nitration of ortho or meta monosubstituted benzoic acids (XC[subscript 6]H[subscript 4]CO[subscript 2]H, X = Halogen, Me, OH, or OMe) and monochlorinated acetanilides with nitric acid to determine the regioselectivity of addition by [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling. Students were…

  20. Self-enhanced ozonation of benzoic acid at acidic pHs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xianfeng; Li, Xuchun; Pan, Bingcai; Li, Hongchao; Zhang, Yanyang; Xie, Bihuang

    2015-04-15

    Ozonation of recalcitrant contaminants under acidic conditions is inefficient due to the lack of initiator (e.g., OH(-)) for ozone to produce hydroxyl radicals (HO). In this study, we reported that benzoic acid (BA), which is inert to ozone attack, underwent efficient degradation by ozone at acidic pH (2.3). The kinetics of BA degradation and ozone decomposition were both enhanced by increasing BA concentrations. Essentially, it is a HO-mediated reaction. Based on the exclusion of possible contributions of H2O2 and phenol-like intermediates for HO production, the reaction mechanism involved the formation of ozone ion ( [Formula: see text] ), which is an effective precursor of HO, was thus proposed. The hydroxycyclohexadienyl-type radicals generated during the attack of BA by HO may lead to the formation of [Formula: see text] . Meanwhile, [Formula: see text] could also be possibly formed from the reaction between ozone and organic (e.g., ROO?) or inorganic peroxyl radicals (e.g., HO2). In addition, the hydroxylated products like phenol-like intermediates also played a positive role in HO production. Consequently, HO was produced efficiently under acidic conditions, resulting in rapid degradation of BA. This study provides a new approach for ozone activation even at acidic pHs, and broadens the knowledge of ozonation in removal of micropollutants from water. PMID:25635752

  1. Mathematical models of antisickling activities of benzoic acid derivatives on red blood cells of sicklers.

    PubMed

    Fasanmade, A A; Olaniyi, A A; Ab-Yisak, W

    1994-12-01

    A classical drug design technique based on the quantitative structure--activity relationship is applied to a series of synthetic benzoic acid derivatives. Some of the active derivatives tested include; p-toluic acid, p-dimethyl-amino benzoic acid, p-fluorobenzoic acid, p-chlorobenzoic acid, m-chlorobenzoic acid, p-bromobenzoic acid, p-nitrobenzoic acid, and p-iodobenzoic acid. The Hansch lipophilicity, pi, and the Hammett electronic parameters; sigma, were found to predict activities of the agents on the reversal of sickle-shaped deoxygenated sickle red blood cell to normal morphology. A series of equations correlating the biological activities with the structure of the tested compounds were analysed using multiple regression techniques. The most applicable of the equations was found to be; Log BR = -A sigma + B pi--C pi 2 + K Interpretation of this equation in terms of the biological action of the drugs on red blood cells was attempted. In designing a potent antisickling agent, the benzoic acid should have strong electron donating group(s) attached to the benzene ring and should be made averagely lipophilic to satisfy the relationship derived in this study. PMID:7653405

  2. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and ascorbic acid using a net analyte signal-based method.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Abdolhossein; Ghorbani-Kalhor, Ebrahim; Vallipour, Javad; Jafari, Samira; Shahverdizadeh, Gholam Hossein; Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim

    2009-01-01

    The net analyte preprocessing/classical least-squares (NAP/CLS) method is a simple chemometric method that has been used for the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and ascorbic acid. The obtained results indicated that the performances of the NAP/CLS and partial least-squares methods were almost identical. The net analyte signal (NAS) concept was also used to calculate multivariate analytical figures of merit, such as LOD, selectivity, and sensitivity. Wavelength selection was applied based on the concept of NAS regression, and improved the method performance in samples containing nonmodeled interferences. The method afforded recoveries in the range of 98-105%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of the analytes in an Iranian soft drink. PMID:20166599

  3. Augmenting the activity of antifungal agents against aspergilli using structural analogues of benzoic acid as chemosensitizing agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several benzoic acid analogs showed antifungal activity against strains of Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus and A. terreus, causative agents of human aspergillosis. Structure-activity analysis revealed that antifungal activities of benzoic and gallic acids increased by addition of a methyl, methoxyl...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10020 - Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2...Substances § 721.10020 Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2...substance identified as benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10020 - Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2...Substances § 721.10020 Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2...substance identified as benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-,...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10020 - Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2...Substances § 721.10020 Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2...substance identified as benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-,...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10020 - Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2...Substances § 721.10020 Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2...substance identified as benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-,...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10020 - Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2...Substances § 721.10020 Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2...substance identified as benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-,...

  9. The effect of benzoic acid or its ethyl ester on rumen fermentation parameters

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The effect of benzoic acid or its ethyl ester on rumen fermentation parameters J Nousiainen Valio be used as mould and yeast inhibitors in silage additives to improve the aerobic stability of silage response of BA or its ethyl ester (EB) on the rumen fermentation parameters in the continuous culture

  10. Progress in Organic Coatings 56 (2006) 135145 Incorporation of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate into

    E-print Network

    Al-Juhani, Abdulhadi A.

    as compared to currently used biocides in marine biofouling protection, were incorporated into silicone attachment was achieved. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Antifoulant; Benzoic acid; Sodium benzoate; Silicone coatings; Antifoulant leaching; Bulk entrapment 1. Introduction Marine

  11. Intermolecular decarboxylative direct C-3 arylation of indoles with benzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Cornella, Josep; Lu, Pengfei; Larrosa, Igor

    2009-12-01

    A palladium catalyzed C-H activation of indoles and a silver catalyzed decarboxylative C-C activation of ortho substituted benzoic acids are synergistically combined to synthesize indoles arylated exclusively in the C-3 position. This novel decarboxylative C-H arylation methodology is compatible with electron-donating and -withdrawing substituents in both coupling partners. PMID:19877661

  12. Correlation between chemical structure and rodent repellency of benzoic acid derivatives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fearn, J.E.; DeWitt, J.B.

    1965-01-01

    Sixty-five benzoic acid derivatives were either prepared or obtained from commercial concerns, tested for rat repellency, and their indices of repellency computed. The data from these tests were considered analytically for any correlation between chemical structure and rat repellency. The results suggest a qualitative relationship which is useful in deciding probability of repellency in other compounds.

  13. Optimisation of extraction procedures for analysis of benzoic and sorbic acids in foodstuffs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando J. M Mota; Isabel M. P. L. V. O Ferreira; Sara C Cunha; M Beatriz; P. P Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Benzoic and sorbic acids are the most commonly used preservatives in foodstuffs. They are usually analysed by RP-HPLC. However, in view of the complexity and diversity of foodstuffs composition, appropriate sample preparation procedures are required for reliable extraction of these preservatives from the matrices. Specific extraction procedures for analysis of jams, table olives, spreadable fats, sauces, fruit juices and wines

  14. Preparation, characterization and catalytic properties of MCM-48 supported tungstophosphoric acid mesoporous materials for green synthesis of benzoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Chen, Xi; Chen, Ya; Zheng, Xiu-Cheng, E-mail: zhxch@zzu.edu.cn

    2014-03-15

    MCM-48 and tungstophosphoric acid (HPW) were prepared and applied for the synthesis of HPW/MCM-48 mesoporous materials. The characterization results showed that HPW/MCM-48 obtained retained the typical mesopore structure of MCM-48, and the textural parameters decreased with the increase loading of HPW. The catalytic oxidation results of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde with 30% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} indicated that HPW/MCM-48 was an efficient catalyst for the green synthesis of benzoic acid. Furthermore, 35 wt% HPW/MCM-48 sample showed the highest activity under the reaction conditions. Highlights: • 5–45 wt% HPW/MCM-48 mesoporous catalysts were prepared and characterized. • Their catalytic activities for the green synthesis of benzoic acid were investigated. • HPW/MCM-48 was approved to be an efficient catalyst. • 5 wt% HPW/MCM-48 exhibited the highest catalytic activity.

  15. Regularities of retention of benzoic acids on microdispersed detonation nanodiamonds in water-methanol mobile phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedyanina, O. N.; Nesterenko, P. N.

    2011-10-01

    The dependences of the retention of benzoic acids on microdispersed sintered detonation nanodiamond (MSDN) on the concentration of the organic solvent in the eluent and the temperature of the chromatographic column under conditions of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are investigated. It is found that in the investigated range of methanol concentrations, the acids are retained by different mechanisms: at methanol contents of the eluent lower than 85%, retention decreases with increasing methanol concentration and increases at higher concentrations of the organic solvent. It is shown that retention of benzoic acids on MSDN under these conditions depends on the dissociation constant of the investigated substances. A comparison is made between the properties of MSDN and analogous properties of porous graphitic carbon.

  16. The ortho-substituent effect on the Ag-catalysed decarboxylation of benzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Rachel; Cornella, Josep; Blakemore, David C; Larrosa, Igor; Campanera, Josep M

    2014-12-01

    A combined experimental and computational investigation on the Ag-catalysed decarboxylation of benzoic acids is reported herein. The present study demonstrates that a substituent at the ortho position exerts dual effects in the decarboxylation event. On one hand, ortho-substituted benzoic acids are inherently destabilised starting materials compared to their meta- and para-substituted counterparts. On the other hand, the presence of an ortho-electron-withdrawing group results in an additional stabilisation of the transition state. The combination of both effects results in an overall reduction of the activation energy barrier associated with the decarboxylation event. Furthermore, the Fujita-Nishioka linear free energy relationship model indicates that steric bulk of the substituent can also exert a negative effect by destabilising the transition state of decarboxylation. PMID:25336158

  17. Dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, ?-dicarbonyls, fatty acids, and benzoic acid in urban aerosols collected during the 2006 Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing (CAREBeijing-2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, K. F.; Lee, S. C.; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Tachibana, Eri; Cheng, Y.; Zhu, Tong

    2010-10-01

    Ground-based studies of PM2.5 were conducted for determination of 30 water-soluble organic species, including dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and dicarbonyls, nine fatty acids, and benzoic acid, during the Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing 2006 (CAREBeijing-2006; 21 August to 4 September 2006) at urban (Peking University, PKU) and suburban (Yufa) sites of Beijing. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids demonstrated that oxalic acid (C2) was the most abundant species, followed by phthalic acid (Ph) and succinic acid (C4) at both sites. The sum of three dicarboxylic acids accounted for 71% and 74% of total quantified water-soluble organics (327-1552 and 329-1124 ng m-3) in PKU and Yufa, respectively. Positive correlation was found between total quantified water-soluble species and water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC). On a carbon basis, total quantified dicarboxylic acids and ketocarboxylic acids and dicarbonyls account for up to 14.2% and 30.4% of the WSOC in PKU and Yufa, respectively, suggesting that they are the major WSOC fractions in Beijing. The distributions of fatty acids are characterized by a strong even carbon number predominance with maximum at hexadecanoic acid (C16:0). The ratio of octadecanoic acid (C18:0) to hexadecanoic acid (C16:0) (0.39-0.85, with an average of 0.36) suggests that in addition to vehicular emissions, an input from cooking emissions is important, as is biogenic emission. Benzoic acid that has been proposed as a primary pollutant from vehicular exhaust and a secondary product from photochemical reactions was found to be abundant: 72.2 ± 58.1 ng m-3 in PKU and 78.0 ± 47.3 ng m-3 in Yufa. According to the 72 hour back trajectory analysis, when the air mass passed over the southern or southeastern part of Beijing (24-25 August and 1-2 September), the highest concentrations of organic compounds were observed. On the contrary, when the clean air masses came straight from the north during 3-4 September, the lowest levels of organic compounds were recorded. This study demonstrates that pollution episodes in Beijing were strongly controlled by wind direction; that is, air quality in Beijing is good when air masses originate from the north and northwest, whereas it deteriorates when the air mass originates from the south and southeast.

  18. Crystal structure of 4-acetamido-benzoic acid monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wen-Juan; Chi, Shao-Ming; Kou, Jun-Feng; Liu, Feng-Yi

    2014-11-01

    In the title compound, C9H9NO3·H2O, the plane of the acetamide group is oriented at 20.52?(8)° with respect to the benzene ring, whereas the plane of the carb-oxy-lic acid group is essentially coplanar with the benzene ring [maximum deviation = 0.033?(1)?Å]. In the crystal, classical O-H?O and N-H?O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H?O hydrogen bonds link the organic mol-ecules and water mol-ecules of crystallization into a three-dimensional supra-molecular architecture. PMID:25484798

  19. Crystal structure of 4-acetamido­benzoic acid monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wen-Juan; Chi, Shao-Ming; Kou, Jun-Feng; Liu, Feng-Yi

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C9H9NO3·H2O, the plane of the acetamide group is oriented at 20.52?(8)° with respect to the benzene ring, whereas the plane of the carb­oxy­lic acid group is essentially coplanar with the benzene ring [maximum deviation = 0.033?(1)?Å]. In the crystal, classical O—H?O and N—H?O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H?O hydrogen bonds link the organic mol­ecules and water mol­ecules of crystallization into a three-dimensional supra­molecular architecture. PMID:25484798

  20. 2-(Acet­oxy­meth­yl)benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Gainsford, Graeme J.; Schwörer, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C10H10O4, crystallizes with the well-known carb­oxy­lic acid dimer-forming R 2 2(8) hydrogen-bond motif. Chains approximately parallel to (-1-12) are then built through C(methyl­ene,phen­yl)–H?O(carbon­yl) inter­actions [C(6) and C(8) motifs] with one (meth­yl)C—H?? inter­action providing inter­planar binding. The weakness of the latter inter­action is consistent with the difficulty experienced in obtaining suitable single crystals. PMID:23424536

  1. Direct C?H Amidation of Benzoic Acids to Introduce meta- and para-Amino Groups by Tandem Decarboxylation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donggun; Chang, Sukbok

    2015-03-27

    The Ir-catalyzed mild C?H amidation of benzoic acids with sulfonyl azides was developed to give reactions with high efficiency and functional-group compatibility. Subsequent protodecarboxylation of ortho-amidated benzoic acid products afforded meta- or para-substituted (N-sulfonyl)aniline derivatives, the latter being inaccessible by other C?H functionalization approaches. The decarboxylation step was compatible with the amidation conditions, enabling a convenient one-pot, two-step process. PMID:25688935

  2. Exposure assessment of food preservatives (sulphites, benzoic and sorbic acid) in Austria.

    PubMed

    Mischek, Daniela; Krapfenbauer-Cermak, Christine

    2012-01-01

    An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the potential intake of preservatives in the Austrian population. Food consumption data of different population groups, such as preschool children aged 3-6 years, female and male adults aged 19-65 years were used for calculation. Levels of the preservatives in food were derived from analyses conducted from January 2007 to August 2010. Dietary intakes of the preservatives were estimated and compared to the respective acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). In the average-intake scenario, assuming that consumers randomly consume food products that do or do not contain food additives, estimated dietary intakes of all studied preservatives are well below the ADI for all population groups. Sulphite exposure accounted for 34%, 84% and 89% of the ADI in preschool children, females and males, respectively. The mean estimated daily intake of benzoic acid was 32% (preschool children), 31% (males) and 36% (females) of the ADI. Sorbic acid intakes correspond to 7% of the ADI in preschool children and 6% of the ADI in adults. In the high-intake scenario assuming that consumers always consume food products that contain additives and considering a kind of brand loyalty of consumers, the ADI is exceeded for sulphites among adults (119 and 124%, respectively). Major contributors to the total intake of sulphites were wine and dried fruits for adults. Mean estimated dietary intakes of benzoic acid exceeded the ADI in all population groups, 135% in preschool children, 124% in females and 118% of the ADI in males, respectively. Dietary intakes of sorbic acid are well below the ADI, accounting for a maximum of 30% of the ADI in preschool children. The highest contributors to benzoic and sorbic acid exposure were fish and fish products mainly caused by high consumption data of this large food group, including also mayonnaise-containing fish salads. Other important sources of sorbic acid were bread, buns and toast bread and fruit and vegetable juices. PMID:22264192

  3. Dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, ?-dicarbonyls, fatty acids and benzoic acid in PM2.5 aerosol collected during CAREBeijing-2007: an effect of traffic restriction on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, K. F.; Huang, R.-J.; Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, S. C.; Ho, S. S. H.; Zhu, T.; Tian, L.

    2015-03-01

    Thirty water-soluble organic species, including dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, ?-dicarbonyls, fatty acids and benzoic acid were determined as well as organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in PM2.5 samples collected during the Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing 2007 (CAREBeijing-2007) in the urban and suburban areas of Beijing. The objective of this study is to identify the influence of traffic emissions and regional transport to the atmosphere in Beijing during summer. PM2.5 samples collected with or without traffic restriction in Beijing are selected to evaluate the effectiveness of local traffic restriction measures on air pollution reduction. The average concentrations of the total quantified bifunctional organic compounds (TQBOCs), total fatty acids and benzoic acid during the entire sampling period were 1184±241, 597±159 and 1496±511 ng m-3 in Peking University (PKU), and 1050±303, 475±114 and 1278±372 ng m-3 in Yufa, Beijing. Oxalic acid (C2) was found as the most abundant dicarboxylic acid at PKU and Yufa followed by phthalic acid (Ph). A strong even carbon number predominance with the highest level at stearic acid (C18:0), followed by palmitic acid (C16:0) was found for fatty acids. According to the back trajectories modeling results, the air masses were found to originate mainly from the northeast, passing over the southeast or south of Beijing (heavily populated, urbanized and industrialized areas), during heavier pollution events, whereas they are mainly from the north or northwest sector (mountain areas without serious anthropogenic pollution sources) during less pollution events. The data with wind only from the same sector (minimizing the difference from regional contribution) but with and without traffic restriction in Beijing were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of local traffic restriction measures on the reduction of local air pollution in Beijing. The results suggested that the traffic restriction measures can reduce the air pollutants, but the decrease of pollutants is generally smaller in Yufa compared to that in PKU. Moreover, an enhancement of EC value indicates more elevated primary emissions in Yufa during restriction periods than in non-restriction periods. This study demonstrates that even when primary exhaust was controlled by traffic restriction, the contribution of secondary organic species formed from photochemical processes was critical with long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants.

  4. Inhibition of Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin release by derivatives of benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Chipley, J R; Uraih, N

    1980-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of o-nitrobenzoate, p-aminobenzoate, benzocaine (ethyl aminobenzoate), ethyl benzoate, methyl benzoate, salicylic acid (o-hydroxybenzoate), trans-cinnamic acid (beta-phenylacrylic acid), trans-cinnamaldehyde (3-phenylpropenal), ferulic acid (p-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid), aspirin (o-acetoxy benzoic acid), and anthranilic acid (o-aminobenzoic acid) upon growth and aflatoxin release in Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3145 and A. parasiticus NRRL 3240. A chemically defined medium was supplemented with various concentrations of these compounds and inoculated with spores, and the developing cultures were incubated for 4, 6, and 8 days at 27 degree C in a mechanical shaker. At the beginning of day 8 of incubation, aflatoxins were extracted from cell-free filtrates, separated by thin-layer chromatography, and quantitated by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The structure of these aromatic compounds appeared to be critically related to their effects on mycelial growth and aflatoxin release. At concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0 mg per 25 ml of medium, methyl benzoate and ethyl benzoate were the most effective in reducing both mycelial growth and aflatoxin release by A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Inhibition of mycelial growth and aflatoxin release by various concentrations of the above-named aromatic compounds may indicate the possibility of their use as fungicides. PMID:6781406

  5. Molecular structures of benzoic acid and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, obtained by gas-phase electron diffraction and theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Aarset, Kirsten; Page, Elizabeth M; Rice, David A

    2006-07-20

    The structures of benzoic acid (C6H5COOH) and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (C6H4OHCOOH) have been determined in the gas phase by electron diffraction using results from quantum chemical calculations to inform restraints used on the structural parameters. Theoretical methods (HF and MP2/6-311+G(d,p)) predict two conformers for benzoic acid, one which is 25.0 kJ mol(-1) (MP2) lower in energy than the other. In the low-energy form, the carboxyl group is coplanar with the phenyl ring and the O-H group eclipses the C=O bond. Theoretical calculations (HF and MP2/6-311+G(d,p)) carried out for 2-hydroxybenzoic acid gave evidence for seven stable conformers but one low-energy form (11.7 kJ mol(-1) lower in energy (MP2)) which again has the carboxyl group coplanar with the phenyl ring, the O-H of the carboxyl group eclipsing the C=O bond and the C=O of the carboxyl group oriented toward the O-H group of the phenyl ring. The effects of internal hydrogen bonding in 2-hydroxybenzoic acid can be clearly observed by comparison of pertinent structural parameters between the two compounds. These differences for 2-hydroxybenzoic acid include a shorter exocyclic C-C bond, a lengthening of the ring C-C bond between the substituents, and a shortening of the carboxylic single C-O bond. PMID:16836466

  6. Simultaneous determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in milk products using an optimised microextraction technique followed by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Abdol-Samad; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Azadniya, Ebrahim; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad; Khaksar, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and reliable method for direct determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in milk products was developed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID). A response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design (CCD) was applied for optimisation of the main variables, such as volume of extraction and dispersive solvents, pH and salt effect. The primary extraction of sorbic and benzoic acids were performed in 8 mL NaOH (0.1 M) in a closed-vessel system. Carrez solutions (potassium hexaferrocyanide and zinc acetate) were used for protein sedimentation. The best simultaneous extraction efficiency was identified using acetone and 1-octanal as dispersive and extraction solvents, respectively. For DLLME, central composite design resulted in the optimised values of microextraction parameters as follows: 475 µL of dispersive and 60 µL of extraction solvents, 2 g NaCl at pH 2.5. Under optimum conditions, the calibration curve was linear over the range 0.1-50 ?g mL(-1) and the square of correlation coefficient (R(2)) was 0.9992 for sorbic acid and 0.9994 for benzoic acid. Relative standard deviation (RSD %) was 6.1% and 3.1% (n = 5) for sorbic and benzoic acids, respectively. Limits of detection were 150 ng g(-1) for sorbic acid and 140 ng g(-1) for benzoic acid and recoveries were 88% and 103.7% respectively. Good reproducibility (RSD %), short extraction time and no matrix interference were advantages of the proposed method which was successfully applied to the determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in milk products. PMID:24397823

  7. Ultrafast formation of the benzoic acid triplet upon ultraviolet photolysis and its sequential photodissociation in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Chunfan; Su Hongmei [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Sun Xuezhong; George, Michael W. [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-28

    Time-resolved infrared (TR-IR) absorption spectroscopy in both the femtosecond and nanosecond time domain has been applied to examine the photolysis of benzoic acid in acetonitrile solution following either 267 nm or 193 nm excitation. By combining the ultrafast and nanosecond TR-IR measurements, both the excited states and the photofragments have been detected and key mechanistic insights were obtained. We show that the solvent interaction modifies the excited state relaxation pathways and thus the population dynamics, leading to different photolysis behavior in solution from that observed in the gas phase. Vibrational energy transfer to solvents dissipates excitation energy efficiently, suppressing the photodissociation and depopulating the excited S{sub 2} or S{sub 3} state molecules to the lowest T{sub 1} state with a rate of {approx}2.5 ps after a delayed onset of {approx}3.7 ps. Photolysis of benzoic acid using 267 nm excitation is dominated by the formation of the T{sub 1} excited state and no photofragments could be detected. The results from TR-IR experiments using higher energy of 193 nm indicate that photodissociation proceeds more rapidly than the vibrational energy transfer to solvents and C-C bond fission becomes the dominant relaxation pathway in these experiments as featured by the prominent observation of the COOH photofragments and negligible yield of the T{sub 1} excited state. The measured ultrafast formation of T{sub 1} excited state supports the existence of the surface intersections of S{sub 2}/S{sub 1}, S{sub 2}/T{sub 2}, and S{sub 1}/T{sub 1}/T{sub 2}, and the large T{sub 1} quantum yield of {approx}0.65 indicates the importance of the excited state depopulation to triplet manifold as the key factor affecting the photophysical and photochemical behavior of the monomeric benzoic acid.

  8. Induction of benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase in virus-inoculated tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, J.; Yalpani, N.; Raskin, I.; Lawton, M.A. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States))

    1993-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in the induction of plant resistance to pathogens. An accompanying article shows that SA is synthesized via the decarboxylation of cinnamic acid to benzoic acid (BA), which is, in turn, hydroxylated to SA. Leaf extracts of tobacco catalyze the 2-hydroxylation of Ba to SA. The monooxygenase catalyzing this reaction, benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H), required NAD(P)H or reduced methyl viologen as an electron donor. BA2H activity was detected in healthy tobacco leaf extracts (1-2 nmol h[sup [minus]1] g[sup [minus]1] fresh weight) and was significantly increased upon inoculation with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). This increase paralleled the levels of free SA in the leaves. Induction of BA2H activity was restricted to tissue expressing a hypersensitive response at 24[degrees]C. TMV induction of BA2H activity and Sa accumulation were inhibited when inoculated tobacco plants were incubated for 4 d at 32[degrees]C and then transferred to 24[degrees]C, they showed a 15-fold increase in BA2H activity and a 65-fold increase in free SA content compared with healthy plants incubated at 24[degrees]C. Treatment of leaf tissue with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide blocked the induction of BA2H activity by TMV. The effect of TMV inoculation on BA2H could be duplicated by infiltrating leaf discs of healthy plants with BA. This response was observed even when applied levels of BA were much lower than the levels observed in vivo after virus inoculation. Feeding tobacco leaves with phenylalanine, cinnamic acid, or o-coumaric acid (putative precursors of SA) failed to trigger the induction of BA2H activity. BA2H appears to be a pathogen-inducible protein with an important regulatory role in SA accumulation during the development of induced resistance to TMV in tobacco. 33 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. 3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of benzoic acid and salicylic acid but benzaldehyde is not.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, A P; Schaaf, O; Oldham, N J

    2000-12-01

    Stable-isotope-labelled (2H6, 18O) 3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid, a putative intermediate in the biosynthesis of benzoic acid (BA) and salicylic acid (SA) from cinnamic acid, has been synthesized and administered to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and Nicotiana attenuata (Torrey). Analysis of the products by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed incorporation of labelling into BA and SA, but not into benzaldehyde. In a separate experiment, 3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid was found to be a metabolite of phenylalanine, itself the primary metabolic precursor of BA and SA. These data suggest that cinnamic acid chain shortening is probably achieved by beta-oxidation, and that the proposed "non-oxidative" pathway of side-chain degradation does not function in the biosynthesis of BA and SA, in cucumber and N. attenuata. PMID:11219576

  10. Emissions of sulfur-containing odorants, ammonia, and methane from pig slurry: effects of dietary methionine and benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Nørgaard, Jan V; Poulsen, Hanne D; Jensen, Bent Borg; Petersen, Søren O

    2010-01-01

    Supplementation of benzoic acid to pig diets reduces the pH of urine and may thereby affect emissions of ammonia and other gases from slurry, including sulfur-containing compounds that are expected to play a role in odor emission. Over a period of 112 d, we investigated hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), methanethiol (MT), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), as well as ammonia and methane emissions from stored pig slurry. The slurry was derived from a feeding experiment with four pig diets in a factorial design with 2% (w/w) benzoic acid and 1% (w/w) methionine supplementation as treatments. Benzoic acid reduced slurry pH by 1 to 1.5 units and ammonia emissions by 60 to 70% for up to 2 mo of storage, and a considerable, but transitory reduction of methane emissions was also observed after 4 to 5 wk. All five volatile sulfur (S) compounds were identified in gas emitted from the slurry of the control treatment, which came from pigs fed according to Danish recommendations for amino acids and minerals. The emission patterns of volatile S compounds suggested an intense cycling between pools of organic S in the slurries, with urinary sulfate as the main source. Diet supplementation with methionine significantly increased all S emissions. Diet supplementation with benzoic acid reduced emissions of H(2)S and DMTS compared with the control slurry and moderately increased the concentrations of MT. Sulfur gas emissions were influenced by a strong interaction between methionine and benzoic acid treatments, which caused a significant increase in emissions of especially MT, but also of DMDS. In conclusion, addition of 2% benzoic acid to pig diets effectively reduced ammonia volatilization, but interactions with dietary S may increase odor problems. PMID:20400605

  11. Standard and absolute pKa scales of substituted benzoic acids in room temperature ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Deng, Hui; Li, Xin; Ji, Pengju; Cheng, Jin-Pei

    2013-12-20

    Equilibrium acidity (pKa) scales of 15 substituted benzoic acids in four room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), BmimOTf, BmimNTf2, BmpyNTf2, and Bm2imNTf2, were established under standard conditions using a modified indicator overlapping method. The effect of homo hydrogen bonding on equilibrium acidity was calibrated, and the derived pKa values were evidenced to be free from ion-paring complication. Regression analyses demonstrated that all of the pKa scales obtained in four RTILs are linearly correlated to each other with an R value better than 0.996. These scales are also correlated well with the pKa values in DMSO and with the corresponding gas-phase acidities with regression coefficients of 0.993 and 0.992, respectively. In addition, both the cation and anion of the ionic liquids were found to play a role in affecting the acidity of carboxylic acid. PMID:24303780

  12. Cyclodextrin-benzoic acid binding in salt solutions: effects of biologically relevant anions.

    PubMed

    Terekhova, I V; Chibunova, E S; Kumeev, R S; Alper, G A

    2014-09-22

    Inclusion complex formation of benzoic acid with ?-, ?- and ?-cyclodextrins in water and in 0.2 M solutions of inorganic salts (KCl, KBr, KH2PO4 and K2SO4) has been studied by means of 1H NMR at 298.15 K. Binding constants have been determined and role of biologically active inorganic anions in the inclusion complex formation has been revealed. It has been shown that effects of the anions are determined not only by changing the ionic strength. More pronounced influence of Br- and H2PO4- compared with Cl- and SO4(2-) is caused by specific ion-molecular interactions, occurrence of which depends on the physical-chemical properties of the anions as well as on the binding mode of cyclodextrins with benzoic acid. Competing interactions of cyclodextrin-anion were observed in the presence of KBr, while the ternary complex formation was detected upon addition of KH2PO4. PMID:24906781

  13. 40 CFR 721.1550 - Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1). 721.1550...Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1). (a)...

  14. Using a Simulated Industrial Setting for the Development of an Improved Solvent System for the Recrystallization of Benzoic Acid: A Student-Centered Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hightower, Timothy R.; Heeren, Jay D.

    2006-01-01

    Recrystallization of benzoic acid is an excellent way to remove insoluble impurities. In a traditional organic laboratory experiment, insoluble impurities are removed through the recrystallization of benzoic acid utilizing water as the recrystallization solvent. It was our goal to develop a peer-led, problem-solving organic laboratory exercise…

  15. An environment-friendly procedure for the high performance liquid chromatography determination of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in soy sauce.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mingzhen; Peng, Jing; Ma, Shaoling; Zhang, Yuchao

    2015-09-15

    A rapid, accurate and environment-friendly procedure has been developed for the HPLC-based determination of benzoic acid and sorbic acid contents in soy sauce. A C18 column served as the stationary phase, methanol-ammonium acetate buffer (0.02M) (30:70, v/v) was used as the mobile phase, the flow rate was 1mL/min, the UV detector was set at 225nm and cinnamic acid was selected as an internal standard. Under such optimized conditions, benzoic acid, sorbic acid and the internal standard were separated within 8.1min. This newly developed procedure also showed excellent recurrence, with a relative standard deviation of less than 3% and recoveries were 96.1-104.3%. PMID:25863605

  16. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF PHENOLIC BENZALDEHYDES AND BENZOIC ACIDS AGAINST CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI, ESCHERICHIA COLI, LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES, AND SALMONELLA ENTERICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the bactericidal activities of 70 benzaldehydes and benzoic acids substituted in the benzene ring with zero, one, two, or three hydroxy (OH) and/or methoxy (OCH3) groups in a pH 7 buffer against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, and Listeria monocytog...

  17. Influence of bleaching on flavor of 34% whey protein concentrate and residual benzoic acid concentration in dried whey proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. D. Listiyani; R. E. Campbell; R. E. Miracle; L. O. Dean; M. A. Drake

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations in dried whey products. No legal limit exists in the United States for BP use in whey,

  18. Influence of Bleaching on Flavor of 34% Whey Protein Concentrate and Residual Benzoic Acid Concentration in Dried Whey Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  19. Influence of bleaching on flavor of 34% whey protein concentrate and residual benzoic acid concentration in dried whey products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  20. Augmenting the activity of antifungal agents against aspergilli using structural analogues of benzoic acid as chemosensitizing agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Structure-activity analysis revealed that antifungal activities of benzoic and gallic acids were increased against strains of Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus and A. terreus, causative agents of human aspergillosis, by addition of a methyl, methoxyl or a chloro group at position 4 of the aromatic ri...

  1. A platinum(II) complex bearing deprotonated 2-(diphenylphosphino)benzoic acid for superior phosphorescence of monomers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Lina; Liu, Chunmei; Zhu, Yanyan; Tang, Mingsheng; Du, Chenxia; Song, Maoping

    2014-06-01

    The (ppy)-based Pt(II) complex (Pt-1) with deprotonated 2-(diphenylphosphino)benzoic acid as an anionic ligand displays phosphorescence of monomers with a remarkably higher quantum yield than that of the corresponding iridium complex (Ir-1). A prototype OLED using Pt-1 exhibits high performance with an external quantum efficiency of 4.93%. PMID:24718420

  2. Low temperature Raman study of a liquid crystalline system 4-Decyloxy benzoic acid (4DBA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikram, K.; Nandi, Rajib; Singh, Ranjan K.

    2013-08-01

    The Raman spectra of a liquid crystalline system, 4-Decyloxy benzoic acid (4DBA) have been recorded at different temperatures within the interval 300-78 K in order to identify the structural changes in crystalline state of a nematogen and to understand the molecular alignment therein. The earlier predicted dimer structure of 4DBA was optimized with DFT method and the theoretical Raman spectra of dimer as well as monomer have been calculated for comparison with the experimental spectra. The mode specific quartic coupling coefficient; Ai,? and phonon frequency; ?i have been calculated using temperature dependent anharmonic perturbation theory. The precise band shape analysis of Raman bands at ˜807, ˜881, ˜1255, ˜1282, ˜1436, ˜1576, ˜1604, ˜2881 and ˜3081 cm-1 gives signature of temperature induced slow crystal modification. The structural changes leading to crystal modification have been discussed.

  3. Low temperature Raman study of a liquid crystalline system 4-decyloxy benzoic acid (4DBA).

    PubMed

    Vikram, K; Nandi, Rajib; Singh, Ranjan K

    2013-08-01

    The Raman spectra of a liquid crystalline system, 4-Decyloxy benzoic acid (4DBA) have been recorded at different temperatures within the interval 300-78 K in order to identify the structural changes in crystalline state of a nematogen and to understand the molecular alignment therein. The earlier predicted dimer structure of 4DBA was optimized with DFT method and the theoretical Raman spectra of dimer as well as monomer have been calculated for comparison with the experimental spectra. The mode specific quartic coupling coefficient; A(i,?) and phonon frequency; ?i have been calculated using temperature dependent anharmonic perturbation theory. The precise band shape analysis of Raman bands at ~807, ~881, ~1255, ~1282, ~1436, ~1576, ~1604, ~2881 and ~3081cm(-1) gives signature of temperature induced slow crystal modification. The structural changes leading to crystal modification have been discussed. PMID:23686092

  4. Oxidation of benzaldehydes to benzoic acid derivatives by three Desulfovibrio strains.

    PubMed Central

    Zellner, G; Kneifel, H; Winter, J

    1990-01-01

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Marburg, "Desulfovibrio simplex" XVI, and Desulfovibrio sp. strain MP47 used benzaldehydes such as vanillin, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde, protocatechualdehyde, syringaldehyde, p-anisaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and 2-methoxybenzaldehyde as electron donors for sulfate reduction and carbon dioxide and/or components of yeast extract as carbon sources for cell synthesis. The aldehydes were oxidized to their corresponding benzoic acids. The three sulfate reducers oxidized up to 7 mM vanillin and up to 4 mM p-anisaldehyde. Higher concentrations of vanillin or p-anisaldehyde were toxic. In addition, pyridoxal hydrochloride and o-vanillin served as electron donors for sulfate reduction. Salicylaldehyde, pyridine-2-aldehyde, pyridine-4-aldehyde, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylalcohol were not oxidized. No molecular hydrogen was detected in the gas phase. The oxidized aldehydes were not further degraded. PMID:2389937

  5. Synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation and QSAR studies of p-hydroxy benzoic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sapra, A; Kumar, P; Kakkar, S; Narasimhan, B

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a series of p-hydroxy benzoic acid derivatives (1-29) was synthesized and tested for its antimicrobial potential. Results of antimicrobial studies indicated that in general, Schiff bases were found to be more active as compared to esters and compound 14 was found to be most potent antimicrobial agent (pMICam=1.50?µM/ml). QSAR study was performed in order to understand the relationship between antimicrobial activity and changes in the molecular structures which indicated that antimicrobial activity of the synthesized compounds was governed by valence first order molecular connectivity index (1?v), Kier's alpha first order shape index (??1), Kier's first order shape index (?1) and Balaban topological index (J). PMID:23950102

  6. Effects of toluene and benzoic acid on the kinetics of ferrous oxidation on Pt and nafion-coated Pt electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, J.H.; Fedkiw, P.S. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-06-01

    The electrochemical kinetics of Fe[sup 2+] oxidation to Fe[sup 3+] have been investigated by cyclic and ring disk electrode voltammetry in the absence and presence of the contaminants toluene (7 mM, saturated solution) or benzoic acid (16 mM) in 1M H[sub 2]SO[sub 4] electrolyte on (1) smooth Pt electrodes, (2) Nafion-coated smooth Pt electrodes, and (3) Pt electrodes electrodeposited within a Nafion film coated onto a glassy carbon (GC) substrate. On uncoated Pt, the kinetics are adversely affected by these two organics: both the anodic transfer coefficient and the apparent standard rate constant are decreased. A 3.7 [mu]m Nafion coating, however, effectively buffers the smooth Pt electrode from toluene, but, nevertheless, benzoic acid still affects the reaction rate. In contrast, the transfer coefficient and rate constant for Fe[sup 2+] oxidation on the Pt/Nafion/GC electrode are essentially unaffected by either toluene or benzoic acid. Qualitative features of the voltammograms also indicate that the Nafion film protects the Pt from contamination by these aromatics: two current plateaus are observed using an uncoated Pt electrode in the presence of toluene or benzoic acid with a ratio which increased with rotation rate; with the Nafion coating on a smooth Pt electrode and in the presence of toluene, however, there is only one current plateau; in the presence of benzoic acid, two current plateaus remain, but the ratio is nearer unity and less sensitive to rotation rate. In contrast, only a single plateau current is observed using the Pt/Nafion/GC electrode. The Nafion coating is apparently an effective buffer layer against these two aromatics, but concurrently affects a decrease in the mass-transfer limited current due to the diffusional resistance of the film.

  7. Synthesis of 5-nitro-2-(N-3-(4-azidophenyl)-propylamino)-benzoic acid: Photoaffinity labeling of human red blood cell ghosts with a 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid analog

    SciTech Connect

    Branchini, B.R.; Murtiashaw, M.H.; Egan, L.A. (Connecticut Coll., New London (USA))

    1991-04-15

    A photoaffinity analog of the potent epithelial chloride channel blocker 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid has been synthesized and characterized. In the dark, this reagent, 5-nitro-2-(N-3-(4-azidophenyl)-propylamino)-benzoic acid, and the parent compound reversibly inhibited chloride efflux in human red blood cell ghosts. Irradiation of ghost membranes with 350 microM arylazide analog reduced the rate of chloride efflux to 33% of the control value. The photoinactivation process was not reversed by exhaustive washing of ghost membranes. Covalent incorporation of the photoaffinity reagent was supported by difference ultraviolet spectroscopy, which indicated the attachment of the substituted 2-amino-5-nitrobenzoic acid chromophore to ghost membranes. The novel photolabeling agent described here should be a useful structural probe for chloride channels in erythrocyte membranes and epithelial cells.

  8. Dietary Supplementation of Benzoic Acid and Essential Oil Compounds Affects Buffering Capacity of the Feeds, Performance of Turkey Poults and Their Antioxidant Status, pH in the Digestive Tract, Intestinal Microbiota and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Giannenas, I.; Papaneophytou, C. P.; Tsalie, E.; Pappas, I.; Triantafillou, E.; Tontis, D.; Kontopidis, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a basal diet with benzoic acid or thymol or a mixture of essential oil blends (MEO) or a combination of benzoic acid with MEO (BMEO) on growth performance of turkey poults. Control groups were fed a basal diet. In trial 1, benzoic acid was supplied at levels of 300 and 1,000 mg/kg. In trial 2, thymol or the MEO were supplied at levels of 30 mg/kg. In trial 3, the combination of benzoic acid with MEO was evaluated. Benzoic acid, MEO and BMEO improved performance, increased lactic acid bacteria populations and decreased coliform bacteria in the caeca. Thymol, MEO and BMEO improved antioxidant status of turkeys. Benzoic acid and BMEO reduced the buffering capacity compared to control feed and the pH values of the caecal content. Benzoic acid and EOs may be suggested as an effective alternative to AGP in turkeys. PMID:25049947

  9. In vitro effects of quercetin on oxidative stress mediated in human erythrocytes by benzoic acid and citric acid.

    PubMed

    Ba?, Hatice; Kalender, Suna; Pandir, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) and citric acid (CA) are food additives commonly used in many food products. Food additives play an important role in food supply but they can cause various harmful effects. The in vitro adverse effects of BA and CA and the protective effect of quercetin on human erythrocytes were investigated by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Erythrocytes were incubated with BA and CA, at three doses of 50, 100 and 200 microg/ml, and quercetin, at a concentration of 10 microM. After BA and CA application, a dose-dependent increase in MDA level and decreases in SOD, CAT, GST and GPx activities were found in erythrocytes. Among the two food additives, BA exerted a more harmful influence on human erythrocytes than CA. The protective effects of quercetin against oxidative stress--induction in the human erythrocytes by CA and BA, were found when these two food additives were applied at each of three doses of 50, 100 and 200 microg/ml. However, complete protection of quercetin against CA toxicity was only observed when this agent was applied at a lower dose of 50 microg/ml. Quercetin did not completely protect erythrocytes even at the lowest concentration of BA. PMID:24745150

  10. A limited LCA of bio-adipic acid: manufacturing the nylon-6,6 precursor adipic acid using the benzoic acid degradation pathway from different feedstocks.

    PubMed

    van Duuren, J B J H; Brehmer, B; Mars, A E; Eggink, G; Dos Santos, V A P Martins; Sanders, J P M

    2011-06-01

    A limited life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed on a combined biological and chemical process for the production of adipic acid, which was compared to the traditional petrochemical process. The LCA comprises the biological conversion of the aromatic feedstocks benzoic acid, impure aromatics, toluene, or phenol from lignin to cis, cis-muconic acid, which is subsequently converted to adipic acid through hydrogenation. Apart from the impact of usage of petrochemical and biomass-based feedstocks, the environmental impact of the final concentration of cis, cis-muconic acid in the fermentation broth was studied using 1.85% and 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid. The LCA focused on the cumulative energy demand (CED), cumulative exergy demand (CExD), and the CO(2) equivalent (CO(2) eq) emission, with CO(2) and N(2) O measured separately. The highest calculated reduction potential of CED and CExD were achieved using phenol, which reduced the CED by 29% and 57% with 1.85% and 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid, respectively. A decrease in the CO(2) eq emission was especially achieved when the N(2) O emission in the combined biological and chemical process was restricted. At 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid, the different carbon backbone feedstocks contributed to an optimized reduction of CO(2) eq emissions ranging from 14.0 to 17.4 ton CO(2) eq/ton adipic acid. The bulk of the bioprocessing energy intensity is attributed to the hydrogenation reactor, which has a high environmental impact and a direct relationship with the product concentration in the broth. PMID:21328320

  11. The Combined Effects of pH and Percent Methanol on the HPLC Separation of Benzoic Acid and Phenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Seema M.; Palasota, John A.

    2001-10-01

    The effect of varying mobile-phase pH and percent methanol on the reversed-phase HPLC separation of benzoic acid and phenol is investigated. Both analytes are of interest owing to their classification as moderate environmental and health hazards. Baseline separation of the analytes is observed in five of the nine mobile-phase compositions studied. At low levels of methanol, as pH increases, the elution order of the benzoic acid and phenol peaks reverses. A similar trend is observed at intermediate levels of methanol. At high levels of methanol, as pH increases, the two-component sample begins to resolve, but baseline resolution is never achieved. In general, as percent methanol increases, the retention time of both analytes decreases. This is independent of mobile-phase pH.

  12. Pressure dependence of the dissociation of acetic, benzoic, mandelic and succinic acids at 298.15 K

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Dissociation constants for acetic, benzoic, mandelic and succinic acids have been measured at 298.15K as a function of pressure up to 138.8MPa. The spectrophotometric technique using Bromocresol Green as the optical indicator was employed up to ionic strength of 0.03molkg?1 in aqueous solution. Thermodynamic dissociation constants were calculated with the Davies activity coefficient equation. The pressure dependences of the ionization

  13. The guinea-pig: an animal model for human skin absorption of hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid?

    PubMed

    Andersen, K E; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D

    1980-04-01

    14C ring-labelled hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid dissolved in acetone were applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (4 microgram/cm2). Percutaneous absorption was quantified by following the excretion of tracer in urine and faeces for 5 days. Absorption of hydrocortisone and benzoic acid was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the skin absorption of testosterone, while the absorption velocity was unaltered. Two analytical methods were compared, direct counting versus wet ashing; results were in the same range for the three compounds. Two methods of quantifying skin absorption were compared; urine recovery corrected for incomplete urinary excretion after parenteral administration versus the addition of urine and faecal recovery. For benzoic acid, excreted mainly in the urine (88.1%), the two methods gave similar results; for testosterone, excreted in the urine to a lesser extent (46.8%), the method of addition of urine and faecal recovery appeared to be more correct. PMID:7387887

  14. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of benzoic acid using Au doped TiO2 thin films.

    PubMed

    Mohite, V S; Mahadik, M A; Kumbhar, S S; Hunge, Y M; Kim, J H; Moholkar, A V; Rajpure, K Y; Bhosale, C H

    2015-01-01

    Highly transparent pure and Au doped TiO2 thin films are successfully deposited by using simple chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The effect of Au doping onto the structural and physicochemical properties has been investigated. The PEC study shows that, both short circuit current (Isc) and open circuit voltage (Voc) are (Isc=1.81mA and Voc=890mV) relatively higher at 3at.% Au doping percentage. XRD study shows that the films are nanocrystalline in nature with tetragonal crystal structure. FESEM images show that the film surface covered with a smooth, uniform, compact and rice shaped nanoparticles. The Au doped thin films exhibit indirect band gap, decreases from 3.23 to 3.09eV with increase in Au doping. The chemical composition and valence states of pure and Au doped TiO2 films are studied by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic degradation effect is 49% higher in case 3at.% Au doped TiO2 than the pure TiO2 thin film photoelectrodes in the degradation of benzoic acid. It is revealed that Au doped TiO2 can be reused for five cycles of experiments without a requirement of post-treatment while the degradation efficiency was retained. PMID:25550120

  15. Unusual behavior of benzoic acid at low temperature: Raman spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Kolesov, Boris A

    2015-05-01

    The Raman spectra of benzoic acid single crystals have been measured in the temperature range of 5-300K. At T<60K the spectra show at least two anomalous features, one of which is of direct relevance to intensity changes of the lattice modes in the low-wavenumber region. The intensity of modes at ?86 and ?146cm(-1) tends to zero at T?0K. It is associated with appearance of two H-bonds of different length in the same l-tautomer, and with the loss of the inversion center in the dimer. The modes at ?86 and ?146cm(-1) are assigned to symmetric stretching intra-dimer vibrations of the OH?O hydrogen bonds of the first and second order, respectively. The assignment is based on the measurements of spectral parameters as function of temperature. The other anomaly is that the series of weak and narrow bands arises in the high-wavenumber region of 2500-3700cm(-1). The bands are assigned to combination tones of O-H hydrogen bonded stretching vibration and intramolecular modes. This effect results from a low-temperature transition of a conventional two wells potential of short H-bond in the l-tautomer to asymmetrical single well potential, and is due to a strong coupling of intramolecular vibrations to O-H stretching. PMID:25706602

  16. Adsorption of benzoic acid, phthalic acid on gold substrates studied by surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiao; Hu, Yongjun; Li, Shaoxin; Zhang, Yanjiao; Chen, Xue

    2013-03-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) and phthalic acid (PTA) are the simplest aromatic carboxylic acids, and they can be regarded as typical model compounds in investigating the interaction of aromatic carboxylic acids with metal surfaces by use of SERS spectroscopy. In this work, we have investigated the structure and adsorption behavior of benzoic acid and phthalic acid on the gold surface with combination of SERS and DFT calculation methods. The experimental results show that both BA and PTA may be adsorbed on the Au surface with a bidentate bridging structure, namely, the carboxylate group(s) being bound to gold via two oxygen atoms in the carboxylate group(s). Comparison of the observed SERS and predicted spectra of the complexes of these two substances with Au atoms indicates that BA is favorable to adsorb on the gold surface with a vertical orientation rather than a flat one, and PTA could "stand up" on the Au surface as a slight tilt with a two-legged geometry, i.e. all four oxygen atoms in two carboxylate groups interact on the metal surface. Apart from that, we compare the discrepancy of SERS spectra between those two molecules, which could be taken as a potential analysis technique in food safety field. PMID:23261703

  17. Comparison of salicylic acid, benzoic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid for their ability to induce flowering in Lemna Gibba G3

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, F.C.; Kang, B.G.; Khurana, J.P.

    1986-04-01

    The long-day plant Lemna gibba G3 fails to flower under continuous light on NH/sub 4//sup +/-free 0.5 H medium. This inhibition is completely reversed by 10 ..mu..M salicyclic acid (SA) or 32 ..mu..M benzoic acid (BA). By contrast, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-OH-BA) has virtually no effect on flowering at levels as high as 320 ..mu..M. Uptake rates for the three compounds are comparable. Competition studies using /sup 14/C-SA indicate that, compared to SA, BA is about 10-fold less effective and p-OH-BA is nearly 100-fold less effective in competing against /sup 14/C-SA uptake. Both the effectiveness of SA for inducing flowering and the uptake of /sup 14/C-SA are substantially increased as the pH of the medium is lowered from 8 to 4.5. Under a nitrogen atmosphere the uptake of /sup 14/C-SA is partially inhibited above pH 5. Phosphate metabolism may be important for flowering since increasing the phosphate level in the medium 10-15 fold results in substantial flowering, and suboptimal levels of Sa and phosphate interact synergistically to stimulate flowering. The interaction of phosphate with BA and p-OH-BA will be presented.

  18. A comparative density functional theory study of electronic structure and optical properties of ?-aminobutyric acid and its cocrystals with oxalic and benzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Filho, J. G.; Freire, V. N.; Caetano, E. W. S.; Ladeira, L. O.; Fulco, U. L.; Albuquerque, E. L.

    2013-11-01

    In this letter, we study the electronic structure and optical properties of the active medicinal component ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its cocrystals with oxalic (OXA) and benzoic (BZA) acid by means of the density functional theory formalism. It is shown that the cocrystallization strongly weakens the zwitterionic character of the GABA molecule leading to striking differences among the electronic band structures and optical absorption spectra of the GABA crystal and GABA:OXA, GABA:BZA cocrystals, originating from distinct sets of hydrogen bonds. Calculated band widths and ?-sol band gap estimates indicate that both GABA and GABA:OXA, GABA:BZA cocrystals are indirect gap insulators.

  19. Benzoic and sorbic acid in soft drink, milk, ketchup sauce and bread by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with HPLC.

    PubMed

    Javanmardi, Fardin; Nemati, Mahboob; Ansarin, Masood; Arefhosseini, Seyyed Rafie

    2015-03-01

    Benzoic acid and sorbic acid are widely used for food preservation. These preservatives are generally recognised as safe. The aim of this study was to determine the level of benzoic and sorbic acid in food samples that are usually consumed in Iran. Therefore, 54 samples, including 15 soft drinks, 15 ultra-high-temperature milk, 15 ketchup sauces and 9 bread samples, were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Benzoic acid was detected in 50 (92.5%) of the samples ranging from 3.5 to 1520 µg mL(-1), while sorbic acid was detected in 29 (50.3%) samples in a range of 0.8 and 2305 µg mL(-1). Limits of detection and limits of quantification for benzoate were found to be 0.1 and 0.5 µg mL(-1), respectively, and for sorbate 0.08 and 0.3 µg mL(-1), respectively. The results showed that benzoic acid and sorbic acid widely occur in food products in Iran. PMID:25135626

  20. Preparation and Identification of Benzoic Acids and Benzamides: An Organic "Unknown" Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taber, Douglass F.; Nelson, Jade D.; Northrop, John P.

    1999-06-01

    The reaction of an unknown substituted benzene derivative (illustrated by toluene) with oxalyl chloride and aluminum chloride gives the acid chloride. Hydrolysis of the acid chloride gives the acid, and reaction of the acid with concentrated aqueous ammonia gives the benzamide.

    The equivalent weight of the acid can be determined by titration with standardized aqueous sodium hydroxide. Given this information and the melting points of the acid and the benzamide, it is possible to deduce the structure of the initial unknown.

  1. In situ N2O emissions are not mitigated by hippuric and benzoic acids under denitrifying conditions.

    PubMed

    Krol, D J; Forrestal, P J; Lanigan, G J; Richards, K G

    2015-04-01

    Ruminant urine patches deposited onto pasture are a significant source of greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) from livestock agriculture. Increasing food demand is predicted to lead to a rise in ruminant numbers globally, which, in turn will result in elevated levels of urine-derived N2O. Therefore mitigation strategies are urgently needed. Urine contains hippuric acid and together with one of its breakdown products, benzoic acid, has previously been linked to mitigating N2O emissions from urine patches in laboratory studies. However, the sole field study to date found no effect of hippuric and benzoic acid concentration on N2O emissions. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the in situ effect of these urine constituents on N2O emissions under conditions conducive to denitrification losses. Unadulterated bovine urine (0mM of hippuric acid, U) was applied, as well as urine amended with either benzoic acid (96mM, U+BA) or varying rates of hippuric acid (8 and 82mM, U+HA1, U+HA2). Soil inorganic nitrogen (N) and N2O fluxes were monitored over a 66day period. Urine application resulted in elevated N2O flux for 44days. The largest N2O fluxes accounting for between 13% (U) and 26% (U+HA1) of total loss were observed on the day of urine application. Between 0.9 and 1.3% of urine-N was lost as N2O. Cumulative N2O loss from the control was 0.3kgN2O-Nha(-1) compared with 11, 9, 12, and 10kgN2O-Nha(-1) for the U, U+HA1, U+HA2, and U+BA treatments, respectively. Incremental increases in urine HA or increase in BA concentrations had no effect on N2O emissions. Although simulation of dietary manipulation to reduce N2O emissions through altering individual urine constituents appears to have no effect, there may be other manipulations such as reducing N content or inclusion of synthetic inhibitory products that warrant further investigation. PMID:25553550

  2. Encapsulation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzoic acid with native and modified cyclodextrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendiran, N.; Jude Jenita, M.

    2015-02-01

    Inclusion complex formation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid (HMBA) and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid (HDMBA) with ?-CD, ?-CD, HP-?-CD and HP-?-CD were studied by absorption, steady state fluorescence, time resolved fluorescence, FT-IR, 1H NMR and molecular modeling methods. The effect of the CDs with HMBA and HDMBA were studied in pH ? 1, pH ? 7 and pH ? 10 buffer solutions. The study revealed that both hydroxybenzoic acids formed 1:1 complex with the four CDs. The theoretical values suggest that both guests are partially encapsulated into the CDs cavity. The hydroxy group is present in the interior part of the CD cavity and carboxyl group is present in the hydrophilic part of the CD cavity. Molecular modeling studies proved that (i) the negative Gibbs energy and enthalpy changes for the inclusion complexes indicated that the formation of these complexes were spontaneous and exothermic, (ii) hydrogen bonding interactions played a major role in the inclusion process, (iii) the dipole moment values for guests increased when they entered into the CDs cavities which is an indication of the increase of the polarity and the formation of complex and (iv) differences in binding energy and enthalpy change suggest that the ?-CD formed more stable complex than ?-CD.

  3. Encapsulation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzoic acid with native and modified cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Rajendiran, N; Jude Jenita, M

    2014-10-18

    Inclusion complex formation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid (HMBA) and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid (HDMBA) with ?-CD, ?-CD, HP-?-CD and HP-?-CD were studied by absorption, steady state fluorescence, time resolved fluorescence, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and molecular modeling methods. The effect of the CDs with HMBA and HDMBA were studied in pH?1, pH?7 and pH?10 buffer solutions. The study revealed that both hydroxybenzoic acids formed 1:1 complex with the four CDs. The theoretical values suggest that both guests are partially encapsulated into the CDs cavity. The hydroxy group is present in the interior part of the CD cavity and carboxyl group is present in the hydrophilic part of the CD cavity. Molecular modeling studies proved that (i) the negative Gibbs energy and enthalpy changes for the inclusion complexes indicated that the formation of these complexes were spontaneous and exothermic, (ii) hydrogen bonding interactions played a major role in the inclusion process, (iii) the dipole moment values for guests increased when they entered into the CDs cavities which is an indication of the increase of the polarity and the formation of complex and (iv) differences in binding energy and enthalpy change suggest that the ?-CD formed more stable complex than ?-CD. PMID:25459693

  4. Benzoic acid fermentation from starch and cellulose via a plant-like ?-oxidation pathway in Streptomyces maritimus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Benzoic acid is one of the most useful aromatic compounds. Despite its versatility and simple structure, benzoic acid production using microbes has not been reported previously. Streptomyces are aerobic, Gram-positive, mycelia-forming soil bacteria, and are known to produce various kinds of antibiotics composed of many aromatic residues. S. maritimus possess a complex amino acid modification pathway and can serve as a new platform microbe to produce aromatic building-block compounds. In this study, we carried out benzoate fermentation using S. maritimus. In order to enhance benzoate productivity using cellulose as the carbon source, we constructed endo-glucanase secreting S. maritimus. Results After 4?days of cultivation using glucose, cellobiose, or starch as a carbon source, the maximal level of benzoate reached 257, 337, and 460?mg/l, respectively. S. maritimus expressed ?-glucosidase and high amylase-retaining activity compared to those of S. lividans and S. coelicolor. In addition, for effective benzoate production from cellulosic materials, we constructed endo-glucanase-secreting S. maritimus. This transformant efficiently degraded the phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC) and then produced 125?mg/l benzoate. Conclusions Wild-type S. maritimus produce benzoate via a plant-like ?-oxidation pathway and can assimilate various carbon sources for benzoate production. In order to encourage cellulose degradation and improve benzoate productivity from cellulose, we constructed endo-glucanase-secreting S. maritimus. Using this transformant, we also demonstrated the direct fermentation of benzoate from cellulose. To achieve further benzoate productivity, the L-phenylalanine availability needs to be improved in future. PMID:22545774

  5. Alteration of the phospho- or neutral lipid content and fatty acid composition in Listeria monocytogenes due to acid adaptation mechanisms for hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids at pH 5.5 or benzoic acid at neutral pH

    PubMed Central

    Berberi, Anita; Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Petrova, Evanthia; Kiaki, Irene; Baltzi, Triantafillia; Xenikakis, Polydoros

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a first approach to observe the effects on Listeria monocytogenes of cellular exposure to acid stress at low or neutral pH, notably how phospho- or neutral lipids are involved in this mechanism, besides the fatty acid profile alteration. A thorough investigation of the composition of polar and neutral lipids from L. monocytogenes grown at pH 5.5 in presence of hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids, or at neutral pH 7.3 in presence of benzoic acid, is described relative to cells grown in acid-free medium. The results showed that only low pH values enhance the antimicrobial activity of an acid. We suggest that, irrespective of pH, the acid adaptation response will lead to a similar alteration in fatty acid composition [decreasing the ratio of branched chain/saturated straight fatty acids of total lipids], mainly originating from the neutral lipid class of adapted cultures. Acid adaptation in L. monocytogenes was correlated with a decrease in total lipid phosphorus and, with the exception of cells adapted to benzoic acid, this change in the amount of phosphorus reflected a higher content of the neutral lipid class. Upon acetic or benzoic acid stress the lipid phosphorus proportion was analysed in the main phospholipids present: cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid and phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly only benzoic acid had a dramatic effect on the relative quantities of these four phospholipids. PMID:20379849

  6. Excitonic splitting and coherent electronic energy transfer in the gas-phase benzoic acid dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Ottiger, Philipp; Leutwyler, Samuel [Departement fuer Chemie und Biochemie, Universitaet Bern, Freiestrasse 3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2012-11-28

    The benzoic acid dimer, (BZA){sub 2}, is a paradigmatic symmetric hydrogen bonded dimer with two strong antiparallel hydrogen bonds. The excitonic S{sub 1}/S{sub 2} state splitting and coherent electronic energy transfer within supersonically cooled (BZA){sub 2} and its {sup 13}C-, d{sub 1}-, d{sub 2}-, and {sup 13}C/d{sub 1}- isotopomers have been investigated by mass-resolved two-color resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy. The (BZA){sub 2}-(h-h) and (BZA){sub 2}-(d-d) dimers are C{sub 2h} symmetric, hence only the S{sub 2} Leftwards-Arrow S{sub 0} transition can be observed, the S{sub 1} Leftwards-Arrow S{sub 0} transition being strictly electric-dipole forbidden. A single {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C or H/D isotopic substitution reduces the symmetry of the dimer to C{sub s}, so that the isotopic heterodimers (BZA){sub 2}-{sup 13}C, (BZA){sub 2}-(h-d), (BZA){sub 2}-(h{sup 13}C-d), and (BZA){sub 2}-(h-d{sup 13}C) show both S{sub 1} Leftwards-Arrow S{sub 0} and S{sub 2} Leftwards-Arrow S{sub 0} bands. The S{sub 1}/S{sub 2} exciton splitting inferred is {Delta}{sub exc}= 0.94 {+-} 0.1 cm{sup -1}. This is the smallest splitting observed so far for any H-bonded gas-phase dimer. Additional isotope-dependent contributions to the splittings, {Delta}{sub iso}, arise from the change of the zero-point vibrational energy upon electronic excitation and range from {Delta}{sub iso}= 3.3 cm{sup -1} upon {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C substitution to 14.8 cm{sup -1} for carboxy H/D substitution. The degree of excitonic localization/delocalization can be sensitively measured via the relative intensities of the S{sub 1} Leftwards-Arrow S{sub 0} and S{sub 2} Leftwards-Arrow S{sub 0} origin bands; near-complete localization is observed even for a single {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C substitution. The S{sub 1}/ S{sub 2} energy gap of (BZA){sub 2} is {Delta}{sub calc}{sup exc}=11 cm{sup -1} when calculated by the approximate second-order perturbation theory (CC2) method. Upon correction for vibronic quenching, this decreases to {Delta}{sub vibron}{sup exc}=2.1 cm{sup -1} [P. Ottiger et al., J. Chem. Phys. 136, 174308 (2012)], in good agreement with the observed {Delta}{sub exc}= 0.94 cm{sup -1}. The observed excitonic splittings can be converted to exciton hopping times {tau}{sub exc}. For the (BZA){sub 2}-(h-h) homodimer {tau}{sub exc}= 18 ps, which is nearly 40 times shorter than the double proton transfer time of (BZA){sub 2} in its excited state [Kalkman et al., ChemPhysChem 9, 1788 (2008)]. Thus, the electronic energy transfer is much faster than the proton-transfer in (BZA){sub 2}{sup *}.

  7. Simultaneous determination of sorbic acid, benzoic acid and parabens in foods: a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique adopted in a survey on Italian foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    de Luca, C; Passi, S; Quattrucci, E

    1995-01-01

    A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric technique is described for the simultaneous determination of sorbates, benzoates and other lipophilic preservatives in foods and beverages. The selected ions monitoring (SIM) technique allowed unambiguous identification of the compounds under study. This methodology eliminated all kinds of interferences from the complex food matrices which affect most routinely-used techniques, HPLC included. A very simple and time-saving extraction procedure was therefore employed, since subsequent purification steps were unnecessary, even for detection of trace levels of preservatives. The detection limits fell within the range of 100-200 pg. With this analytical technique, we have conducted a survey on sorbic acid, benzoic acid, methyl, ethyl, and propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate levels in 249 samples of foods and beverages on sale in markets in the Rome area. Samples were chosen from among those currently preserved by these additives. All compounds were also determined by a routinely-used HPLC technique for method comparison. PMID:7758623

  8. Tailoring band gaps of insulators by adsorption at surface defects: Benzoic acids on NaCl surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Tegenkamp, Christoph; Pfnür, Herbert; Bredow, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    The adsorption of benzoic acid and its OH-substituted derivatives, namely, salicylic acid (SA) and parasalicylic acid on various NaCl surfaces has been investigated by density-functional theory with hybrid exchange-correlation functional. The ideal NaCl(100) surface is chemically inert as evidenced by the low binding energies. The molecular adsorption can be enhanced by both an anion vacancy and a surface step site. The bonding between the surface Na and the carboxylic O atom is of covalent character for all adsorption geometries. Our calculations show that the adsorption of SA has the largest binding energy of all three acids due to the additional interaction between Na and the phenolic O atom. Charge transfer between the molecule and the surface is generally very small, except in the presence of an anion vacancy where the unpaired electron is mostly transferred to the adsorbate. Surface defects generally have a strong influence on the electronic structure of the adsorbed molecules. Specifically, the adsorption of SA at [011]-oriented steps can significantly reduce the effective band gap to 1.6 eV due to the up shift of the Cl3p levels at the undercoordinated step edge. Implications of these results to the contact charging effect between wide-band-gap insulators will be discussed.

  9. Influence of bleaching on flavor of 34% whey protein concentrate and residual benzoic acid concentration in dried whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Listiyani, M A D; Campbell, R E; Miracle, R E; Dean, L O; Drake, M A

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations in dried whey products. No legal limit exists in the United States for BP use in whey, but international concerns exist. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide (HP) or BP bleaching on the flavor of 34% WPC (WPC34) and to evaluate residual BA in commercial and experimental WPC bleached with and without BP. Cheddar whey was manufactured in duplicate. Pasteurized fat-separated whey was subjected to hot bleaching with either HP at 500 mg/kg, BP at 50 or 100 mg/kg, or no bleach. Whey was ultrafiltered and spray dried into WPC34. Color [L*(lightness), a* (red-green), and b* (yellow-blue)] measurements and norbixin extractions were conducted to compare bleaching efficacy. Descriptive sensory and instrumental volatile analyses were used to evaluate bleaching effects on flavor. Benzoic acid was extracted from experimental and commercial WPC34 and 80% WPC (WPC80) and quantified by HPLC. The b* value and norbixin concentration of BP-bleached WPC34 were lower than HP-bleached and control WPC34. Hydrogen peroxide-bleached WPC34 displayed higher cardboard flavor and had higher volatile lipid oxidation products than BP-bleached or control WPC34. Benzoyl peroxide-bleached WPC34 had higher BA concentrations than unbleached and HP-bleached WPC34 and BA concentrations were also higher in BP-bleached WPC80 compared with unbleached and HP-bleached WPC80, with smaller differences than those observed in WPC34. Benzoic acid extraction from permeate showed that WPC80 permeate contained more BA than did WPC34 permeate. Benzoyl peroxide is more effective in color removal of whey and results in fewer flavor side effects compared with HP and residual BA is decreased by ultrafiltration and diafiltration. PMID:21854907

  10. Energies of the gas-phase deprotonation of nitro-substituted benzenesulfonic and benzoic acids: The role of the conformation isomerism of sulfonic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, S. N.; Giricheva, N. I.; Nurkevich, T. V.; Fedorov, M. S.

    2014-04-01

    The Gibbs energies of deprotonation ?r G {298/?} of gaseous benzoic acid (BA), benzenesulfonic acid (BSA) and their six mono-, di-, and trinitro-substituted derivatives are calculated by means of B3LYP/cc-pVTZ and MP2/6-311++G**. The dependences of ?r G {298/?} on the number and the position of nitro groups in an aromatic ring are revealed, as is the possibility of intramolecular hydrogen bond (IHB) formation in ortho-substituted acids. It is found that the deprotonation of conformers of ortho-nitro-substituted BSA without IHBs requires less energy (by 4-5 kcal/mol) than for conformers with IHBs. It is shown that the ?r G {298/?} values for substituted BA are ˜22 kcal/mol higher than the corresponding values for substituted BSA. A trend of diminishing ?r G {298/?} for nitro-substituted acids is observed when the number of nitro groups is increased, and di- and trinitro-substituted BSA may therefore be considered superstrong acids.

  11. Synthesis, spectral characterization and thermal studies of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes with 2-amino benzoic acid- and 2-hydroxy benzoic acid thiophen-2-ylmethylene hydrazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vinod P.; Singh, Pooja

    2013-03-01

    A series of metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with 2-amino benzoic acid thiophen-2-ylmethylene hydrazide (Habth) and 2-hydroxy benzoic acid thiophen-2-ylmethylene hydrazide (Hhbth) have been synthesized. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, electronic, IR, NMR, ESR spectra and thermal studies (TGA and DTA). Molecular structure of the Habth ligand was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Habth acts as a monobasic bidentate ligand in all its complexes bonding through a deprotonated Csbnd O- and lbond2 Cdbnd Nsbnd groups whereas, Hhbth acts as a monobasic bidentate in its Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes, bonding through a deprotonated Csbnd O- and lbond2 Cdbnd Nsbnd groups and as monobasic tridentate in Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes bonding through lbond2 Cdbnd O, lbond2 Cdbnd Nsbnd and deprotonated (Csbnd O)- groups with the metal ion. Electronic spectra suggest a square planar geometry for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of Habth and Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes of Hhbth. However, the Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of Hhbth have octahedral geometry. The ESR spectra of Cu(II) complex of Hhbth in the solid state and in DMSO frozen solution show axial signals and suggest the presence of unpaired electron in d orbital of Cu(II). The Cu(II) complex of Habth in solid state shows isotropic signal, whereas, axial signal in DMSO frozen solution in the range of tetragonally distorted octahedral geometry due to interactions of DMSO molecules at axial positions. Thermal studies of some of the metal complexes show a multi-step decomposition pattern of bonded ligands in the complex.

  12. Phase diagram of the eutectic benzoic acid-naphthalene system in the temperature range of 300-400 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postnikov, V. A.

    2014-08-01

    Liquid-solid phase equilibria are studied in the eutectic benzoic acid-naphthalene system by means of thermic analysis (DTA, CTA), on the basis of which the liquidus line and eutectic point ( x e ? 50 mol %, T e ± 340 K) are determined and the phase diagram is constructed. Average precrystallization supercooling temperatures ? T {L/-} of the liquid phase relative to liquidus temperature T L are determined, allowing us to locate the region of solution metastability on the phase diagram. Excessive functions of the components in the liquid phase are found via thermodynamic modeling using the Margules equation and experimental data. The boundaries of the region of liquid solution metastability are estimated from the thermodynamic conditions of solution stability.

  13. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of para-substituted benzoic acids chemisorbed to aluminum oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kreil, Justin; Ellingsworth, Edward; Szulczewski, Greg [Department of Chemistry, The University of Alabama, Shelby Hall, 250 Hackberry Lane, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, The University of Alabama, Shelby Hall, 250 Hackberry Lane, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    A series of para-substituted, halogenated (F, Cl, Br, and I) benzoic acid monolayers were prepared on the native oxide of aluminum surfaces by solution self-assembly and spin-coating techniques. The monolayers were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angles. Several general trends are apparent. First, the polarity of the solvent is critical to monolayer formation. Protic polar solvents produced low coverage monolayers; in contrast, nonpolar solvents produced higher coverage monolayers. Second, solution deposition yields a higher surface coverage than spin coating. Third, the thickness of the monolayers determined from XPS suggests the plane of the aromatic ring is perpendicular to the surface with the carboxylate functional group most likely binding in a bidentate chelating geometry. Fourth, the saturation coverage (?2.7 × 10{sup 14} molecules cm{sup ?2}) is independent of the para-substituent.

  14. Catalytic synthesis of benzoic esters with carbon-based solid acid from coal tar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haie Hao; Baojun Ma; Jinxin Ma; Sun Yuan; Wanyi Liu

    2011-01-01

    A new carbon-based solid acid catalyst (C- SO3H) was prepared by simultaneous cross- linking coal tar with benzaldehyde,hoist temperature -curing ,sulphonation in sulfuric acid and was characterized by FT-IR,TG-DTG,XRD and neutralization potentiometric titration, and SEM techniques. The results indicated that there is the high density of SO3H groups in forming amorphous coke consisting of polycyclic aromatic carbon sheets, and the

  15. Crystal structure of 4-amino­benzoic acid–4-methyl­pyridine (1/1)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M. Krishna; Pandi, P.; Sudhahar, S.; Chakkaravarthi, G.; Kumar, R. Mohan

    2015-01-01

    In the title 1:1 adduct, C6H7N·C7H7NO2, the carb­oxy­lic acid group is twisted at an angle of 4.32?(18)° with respect to the attached benzene ring. In the crystal, the carb­oxy­lic acid group is linked to the pyridine ring by an O—H?N hydrogen bond, forming a dimer. The dimers are linked by N—H?O hydrogen bonds, generating (010) sheets.

  16. Crystal structure of 3-[(2-acetyl­phen­oxy)carbon­yl]benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Shoaib, Mohammad; Shah, Ismail; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Ullah, Shafi; Ayaz, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C16H12O5, synthesized from isopthaloyl chloride and 2?-hy­droxy­aceto­phenone, the dihedral angle between the planes of the aromatic rings is 71.37?(9)°. In the crystal, carb­oxy­lic acid inversion dimers generate R 2 2(8) loops. The dimers are linked by C—H?O inter­actions, generating (101) sheets. PMID:25484797

  17. Degradation of chloro- and methyl-substituted benzoic acids by a genetically modified microorganism

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, R.; Deckwer, W.D.; Hecht, V. [Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1996-09-05

    Degradation of 3-chlorobenzoic acid (3CB), 4-chlorobenzoic acid (4CB), and 4-methylbenzoic acid (4MB) as single substrates (carbon sources) and as a substrate mixture were studied in batch and continuous culture using the genetically modified microorganism Pseudomonas sp. B13 FR1 SN45P. The strain was able to mineralize the single compounds as well as the substrate mixture completely. Conversion of the three compounds in the substrate mixture proceeded simultaneously. Maximum specific substrate conversion rates were calculated to be 0.9 g g{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1} for 3 CB and 4CB and 1.1 g g{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1} for 4MB. Mass balances indicated the transient accumulation of pathway intermediates during batch cultivations. Hence, the rate limiting step in the degradative pathway is not the initial microbial attack of the original substrate or its transport through the cell membrane. Degradation rates on 3CB were comparable to those of the parent strain Pseudomonas sp. B13. The stability of the degradation pathways of strain Pseudomonas sp. B13 FR1 SN45P could be demonstrated in a continuous cultivation over 3.5 months (734 generation times) on 3CB, 4MB, and 4CB, which were used a single carbon sources one after the other.

  18. Tetra­kis(?-4-ethyl­benzoato-?2 O:O?)­bis­[(4-ethyl­benzoic acid-?O)copper(II)

    PubMed Central

    Sunil, Abraham C.; Bezuidenhoudt, Barend C. B.; Janse van Rensburg, J. Marthinus

    2008-01-01

    The molecule of the title compound, [Cu2(C9H9O2)4(C9H10O2)2], lies on a center of inversion. It consists of four bridging ethyl­benzoate ligands, forming a cage around two Cu atoms in a syn–syn configuration, and two monodentate ethyl­benzoic acid ligands bonded apically to the square-planar Cu atoms. The Cu?Cu distance is 2.6047?(5)?Å. PMID:21202792

  19. Conformational stability, vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) spectra and computational analysis of m-trifluoromethyl benzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, V.; Karpagam, V.; Santhi, G.; Revathi, B.; Ilango, G.; Kavimani, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the vibrational characteristics of m-trifluoromethyl benzoic acid have been investigated and both the experimental and theoretical vibrational data indicate the presence of functional groups in the title molecule. The density functional theoretical (DFT) computations were performed at the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p), LSDA/6-31G (d, p), MP2/6-31G (d, p) levels to derive the optimized geometry, vibrational wavenumbers. Furthermore, the molecular orbital calculations such as natural bond orbitals (NBO), HOMO-LUMO energy gap and Mapped molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surfaces, The Mulliken charges, the first-order hyperpolarizability were also performed with the same level of DFT. The thermal flexibility of molecule in associated with vibrational temperature was also illustrated on the basis of correlation graphs. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out with the aid of potential energy distribution (PED) results obtained from MOLVIB program. The delocalization of electron density of various constituents of the molecule has been discussed with the aid of NBO and HOMO-LUMO energy gap analysis.

  20. Ligand sensitized luminescence of uranyl by benzoic acid in acetonitrile medium: A new luminescent uranyl benzoate specie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Satendra; Maji, S.; Joseph, M.; Sankaran, K.

    2015-03-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) is shown to sensitize and enhance the luminescence of uranyl ion in acetonitrile medium. Luminescence spectra and especially UV-Vis spectroscopy studies reveal the formation of tri benzoate complex of uranyl i.e. [UO2(C6H5COO)3]- which is highly luminescent. In particular, three sharp bands at 431, 443, 461 nm of absorption spectra provides evidence for tri benzoate specie of uranyl in acetonitrile medium. The luminescence lifetime of uranyl in this complex is 68 ?s which is much more compared to the lifetime of uncomplexed uranyl (20 ?s) in acetonitrile medium. In contrary to aqueous medium where uranyl benzoate forms 1:1 and 1:2 species, spectroscopic data reveal formation of 1:3 complex in acetonitrile medium. Addition of water to acetonitrile results in decrease of luminescence intensity of this specie and the luminescence features implode at 20% (v/v) of water content. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the existence of [UO2(C6H5COO)3]- specie in acetonitrile is reported. Mechanism of luminescence enhancement is discussed.

  1. Crystal structure of complexes of bivalent Co, Ni, and Cd with anions of benzoic and 2-(acetylamino)-5-nitrobenzoic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Rzaeva, M. F. [Azerbaijan State Agricultural University (Azerbaijan); Askerov, R. K. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan); Movsumov, E. M. [Azerbaijan State Agricultural University (Azerbaijan); Sergienko, V. S.; Ilyukhin, A. B. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-15

    The structure of three complexes of bivalent metals (cobalt, nickel, and cadmium) with anions of benzoic (HL{sup 1}) and 2-(acetylamino)-5-nitrobenzoic (HL{sup 2}) acids, namely, [Co{sub 2}{sup 1} (H{sub 2}O){sub 2}({mu}-C{sub 4}H{sub 4}N{sub 2})]{sub n} (I), [NiL{sup 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}]L{sup 2} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O (II), and [Cd({mu}-L{sup 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} {center_dot} 2nH{sub 2}O (III), is determined. In chainlike structure I, cobalt atoms are connected by bridging pyrazine molecules; structure II contains isolated complexes. In structure III, centrosymmetric (CdOCO){sub 2} cycles and polymeric ribbons are formed due to the coordination of the carboxylate group of the L{sup 2} ligand to two cadmium atoms.

  2. Ligand sensitized luminescence of uranyl by benzoic acid in acetonitrile medium: a new luminescent uranyl benzoate specie.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satendra; Maji, S; Joseph, M; Sankaran, K

    2015-03-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) is shown to sensitize and enhance the luminescence of uranyl ion in acetonitrile medium. Luminescence spectra and especially UV-Vis spectroscopy studies reveal the formation of tri benzoate complex of uranyl i.e. [UO2(C6H5COO)3](-) which is highly luminescent. In particular, three sharp bands at 431, 443, 461nm of absorption spectra provides evidence for tri benzoate specie of uranyl in acetonitrile medium. The luminescence lifetime of uranyl in this complex is 68?s which is much more compared to the lifetime of uncomplexed uranyl (20?s) in acetonitrile medium. In contrary to aqueous medium where uranyl benzoate forms 1:1 and 1:2 species, spectroscopic data reveal formation of 1:3 complex in acetonitrile medium. Addition of water to acetonitrile results in decrease of luminescence intensity of this specie and the luminescence features implode at 20% (v/v) of water content. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the existence of [UO2(C6H5COO)3](-) specie in acetonitrile is reported. Mechanism of luminescence enhancement is discussed. PMID:25528510

  3. Conformational stability, vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) spectra and computational analysis of m-trifluoromethyl benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, V; Karpagam, V; Santhi, G; Revathi, B; Ilango, G; Kavimani, M

    2015-02-25

    In this work, the vibrational characteristics of m-trifluoromethyl benzoic acid have been investigated and both the experimental and theoretical vibrational data indicate the presence of functional groups in the title molecule. The density functional theoretical (DFT) computations were performed at the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p), LSDA/6-31G (d, p), MP2/6-31G (d, p) levels to derive the optimized geometry, vibrational wavenumbers. Furthermore, the molecular orbital calculations such as natural bond orbitals (NBO), HOMO-LUMO energy gap and Mapped molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surfaces, The Mulliken charges, the first-order hyperpolarizability were also performed with the same level of DFT. The thermal flexibility of molecule in associated with vibrational temperature was also illustrated on the basis of correlation graphs. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out with the aid of potential energy distribution (PED) results obtained from MOLVIB program. The delocalization of electron density of various constituents of the molecule has been discussed with the aid of NBO and HOMO-LUMO energy gap analysis. PMID:25218226

  4. The isolated perfused porcine skin flap. III. Percutaneous absorption pharmacokinetics of organophosphates, steroids, benzoic acid, and caffeine.

    PubMed

    Carver, M P; Williams, P L; Riviere, J E

    1989-02-01

    The isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF) has been developed as an alternative in vitro tool for examining the pharmacokinetics and mechanisms of percutaneous absorption. In this study, dosing solutions of seven 14C-radiolabeled compounds representing three chemical classes--organic acid/base [benzoic acid (B), caffeine (C)], organophosphate (OP) pesticides (diisopropylfluorophosphidate, malathion, parathion), and steroid hormones (progesterone, testosterone)--were prepared in ethanol and applied topically at a surface concentration of 40 micrograms cm-2 to the IPPSF. A three-compartment pharmacokinetic model used to stimulate mass transfer from the surface (C1), diffusion through epidermis and dermis (C2), and transfer into the capillary perfusate (C3), was developed based on flux through the IPPSF from 0 to 8 hr. This basic model accurately stimulated measured IPPSF fluxes for five of seven compounds, including the OPs and steroids. The model was modified to simulate the shunting of drug to fast and slow release pathways, which occurred for B 3-4 hr postapplication, and to account for flow-dependent flux increases seen for C at 6 hr postapplication. The latter may be due to a direct pharmacologic effect, since C is a known vasodilator. Extrapolated (to 6 days) areas under the curve from the model simulations were compared with in vivo percutaneous absorption estimates, obtained from 6-day excretion studies in pigs. The in vivo-in vitro correlation, based on simple linear regression across compounds, was excellent (R2 = 0.88, R = 0.94, p less than 0.002). These results suggest that xenobiotic penetration in the 8-hr IPPSF experiments is highly predictive of in vivo absorption totals (6-day studies). In addition, since pig and human skin are similar physiologically and pharmacologically, the IPPSF may eventually have applications in formulating human dermal risk assessment models. PMID:2922763

  5. A study of rates of reaction of some substituted benzoic acids and diphenyldiazomethane

    E-print Network

    Westmoreland, John Sherman

    1957-01-01

    . /mole min. 1 1. /mole min. Determination of the Reacti. on Rate of m-Bromobenzoic Acid (0o0600 8 ) and Diphenyldiazomethane Run 1 Time (mtn, ) ODX100 20. 4 16. 3 12. 7 9. 9 7o6 5. 8 4. 3 Run 2 Time (min. ) ODX100 20. 3 16. 3 12, 8 9. 8... 13. 6 10. 6 8, 1 6. 2 Run 8 Time (min. ) ODX100 28. 5 22. 0 17. 0 13. 4 10, 4 7 c 7 5. 9 Ran 9 Ti. me (min, ) ODX100 28. 0 21, 4 16. 8 13. 0 10. 0 7o7 6. 0 k-8. 38 -. /mole min k-8. 61 1, /mole min. k-8 57 1, /mole min Run 10...

  6. XAS studies on Cu(II) complexes with derivatives of phenoxyacetic and benzoic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepka, Marcin T.; Drzewiecka, Aleksandra; Wolska, Anna; Ferenc, Wieslawa

    2012-11-01

    The geometry of metal-ligand interaction of three Cu(II) complexes with carboxylic acids has been determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Around Cu(II) cation in a complex with 4-methoxy-3-nitrobenzoate anion a square geometry is formed by the carboxylate groups from two monodentate ligands and two water molecules. The tetragonal pyramid around Cu(II) composed by two carboxylate groups from two monodentate ligands and three water molecules is observed for 2-methoxyphenoxyacetate complex. The 4-chlorophenoxyacetate complex with Cu(II) exhibits tetragonal-bipyramidal geometry, with two carboxylate and two ether oxygen atoms from bidentate ligands and two water molecules in the coordination sphere.

  7. Evidence of quantum correlations in the H/D-transfer dynamics in the hydrogen bonds in partially deuterated benzoic acid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Sadamu; Tsuzumitani, Akihiko; Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, C. A.

    1992-10-01

    A precise investigation of spin—lattice relaxation rates for protons and deuterons of partially deuterated benzoic acid crystals showed a remarkable quenching of the transfer rate of an HD pair in hydrogen-bonded dimeric units of carboxyl groups with increasing concentration of D in the surrounding hydrogen bonds. A similar effect was also observed for partially deuterated crystals of acetylenedicarboxylic acid. This finding supports recent theoretical predictions of thermally activated protonic quantum correlation in condensed matter and proposes a new mechanism for the proton transfer in hydrogen bonds in condensed matter.

  8. Direct carbocyclizations of benzoic acids: catalyst-controlled synthesis of cyclic ketones and the development of tandem aHH (acyl Heck-Heck) reactions.

    PubMed

    Miles, Kelsey C; Le, Chi Chip; Stambuli, James P

    2014-09-01

    The formation of exo-methylene indanones and indenones from simple ortho-allyl benzoic acid derivatives has been developed. Selective formation of the indanone or indenone products in these reactions is controlled by choice of ancillary ligand. This new process has a low environmental footprint as the products are formed in high yields using low catalyst loadings, while the only stoichiometric chemical waste generated from the reactants in the transformation is acetic acid. The conversion of the active cyclization catalyst into the Hermman-Beller palladacycle was exploited in a one-pot tandem acyl Heck-Heck (aHH) reaction, and utilized in the synthesis of donepezil. PMID:25047136

  9. Silver(I) compounds of the anti-inflammatory agents salicylic acid and p-hydroxyl-benzoic acid which modulate cell function.

    PubMed

    Banti, C N; Giannoulis, A D; Kourkoumelis, N; Owczarzak, A M; Kubicki, M; Hadjikakou, S K

    2014-10-27

    Silver nitrate reacts with salicylic acid (salH2) or p-hydroxy-benzoic acid (p-HbzaH2) and equimolar amount of NaOH to yield a white precipitations which are then treated with tri(p-tolyl)phosphine (tptp) or tri(m-tolyl)phosphine (tmtp) to yield the complexes [Ag(tptp)2(salH)] (1), [Ag(tptp)2(p-Hbza)] (2) and [Ag(tmtp)2(salH)] (3). Complexes 1 and 3 are also obtained when aspirin (aspH) is used. The acetic ester of salicylic acid is hydrolyzed to form the complexes 1 and 3. However, when aspirin and tptp are used, a mixture of products was obtained which contains both 1 and an ionic complex of formula {[Ag(tptp)4](+)[(salH)(-)]?[(CH3)2NCHO)]?(H2O)} (1a). The complexes were characterized by m.p., e.a., mid-FT-IR, (1)H-,(31)P-NMR, HRMS, UV-vis spectroscopic techniques and X-ray crystallography. Two phosphorus and one carboxylic oxygen atoms form a trigonal planar geometry around Ag(I) ions in complexes 1-3. Complex 1a consists of a [Ag(tptp)4](+) cation and a deprotonated salH(-) counter anion. The influence of 1-3 on the viability of MCF-7 (breast) and HeLa (cervix) adenocarcinoma cells, is evaluated. DNA binding tests indicate the ability of 1-3 to modify the activity of cells. The binding constants of 1-3 towards calf-thymus DNA, reveal stronger interaction of 2. Changes in fluorescent emission light of ethidium bromide (EB) in the presence of DNA suggest intercalation or electrostatic interactions into DNA for 1 and 3. Docking studies on DNA-complex interactions confirm the binding of 1-3 in the minor groove of B-DNA. Moreover, the influence of 1-3 on the peroxidation of linoleic acid to hydroperoxylinoleic acid by the enzyme lipoxygenase (LOX) was kinetically and theoretically studied. PMID:25450028

  10. Crystal structure of 2-bromo­benzoic acid at 120?K: a redetermination

    PubMed Central

    Kowalska, Kornelia; Trzybi?ski, Damian; Sikorski, Artur

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, C7H5BrO2, was originally studied using photographic data at room temperature with Cu K? radiation [Ferguson & Sim (1962 ?). Acta Cryst. 15, 346–350]. The present study was undertaken at 120?K with a CCD diffractometer using Cu K? radiation, and resulted in improved geometrical parameters. In the mol­ecule, the carb­oxy group is inclined to the benzene ring by 18.7?(2)° and there is a close intra­molecular Br?O contact of 3.009?(3)?Å. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by pairs of O—H?O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with the classical R 2 2(8) ring motif for carb­oxy­lic acids. Neighbouring dimers are linked by weak C—H?O hydrogen bonds, forming tapes propagating in [1-10]. Adjacent tapes inter­act by slipped parallel ?–? inter­actions [inter-centroid distance = 3.991?(2), inter­planar distance = 3.509?(2)?Å, slippage = 1.900?Å] to form columns approximately along the b-axis direction. Neighbouring columns inter­act dispersively, forming a three-dimensional framework structure. PMID:25484717

  11. Characterization of inhibitory effects of the potential therapeutic inhibitors, benzoic acid and pyridine derivatives, on the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of tyrosinase

    PubMed Central

    Gheibi, Nematollah; Taherkhani, Negar; Ahmadi, Abolfazl; Haghbeen, Kamahldin; Ilghari, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Involvement of tyrosinase in the synthesis of melanin and cell signaling pathway has made it an attractive target in the search for therapeutic inhibitors for treatment of different skin hyperpigmentation disorders and melanoma cancers. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we conducted a comprehensive kinetic analysis to understand the mechanisms of inhibition imposed by 2-amino benzoic acid, 4-amino benzoic acid, nicotinic acid, and picolinic acid on the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of the mushroom tyrosinase, and then MTT assay was exploited to evaluate their toxicity on the melanoma cells. Results: Kinetic analysis revealed that nicotinic acid and picolinic acid competitively restricted the monophenolase activity with inhibition constants (Ki) of 1.21 mM and 1.97 mM and the diphenolase activity with Kis of 2.4 mM and 2.93 mM, respectively. 2-aminobenzoic acid and 4-aminobenzoic acid inhibited the monophenolase activity in a non-competitive fashion with Kis of 5.15 µM and 3.8 µM and the diphenolase activity with Kis of 4.72 µM and 20 µM, respectively. Conclusion: Our cell-based data revealed that only the pyridine derivatives imposed cytotoxicity in melanoma cells. Importantly, the concentrations of the inhibitors leading to 50% decrease in the cell density (IC50) were comparable to those causing 50% drop in the enzyme activity, implying that the observed cytotoxicity is highly likely due to the tyrosinase inhibition. Moreover, our cell-based data exhibited that the pyridine derivatives acted as anti-proliferative agents, perhaps inducing cytotoxicity in the melanoma cells through inhibition of the tyrosinase activities. PMID:25810885

  12. Mn (III) Tetrakis (4-Benzoic Acid) Porphyrin Protects Against Neuronal and Glial Oxidative Stress and Death after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Valluru, Lokanatha; Diao, Yao; Hachmeister, Jorge E.; Liu, Danxia

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the ability of a catalytic antioxidant, Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP), to protect against neuronal and glial oxidative stress and death after spinal cord injury (SCI). Nine different doses of MnTBAP were administered into the intrathecal space of the rat spinal cord immediately following moderate SCI to establish dose - response curves for prevention of lipid peroxidation and neuron death. An optimal dose was determined by comparing the effectiveness of MnTBAP protection among doses. The optimal dose was then administered and the cords were removed 24 h post-administration and processed for staining. The cells in the cord sections at different distances from the epicenter were counted to obtain the spatial profiles of MnTBAP protection. Comparison of the counts between MnTBAP- and vehicle-treated groups in the sections double immuno-fluorescence-stained with oxidative and cellular markers demonstrated that MnTBAP significantly reduced numbers of nitrotyrosine- and DNP-positive (stained with an antibody against 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH)-labeled protein carbonyls) neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Comparison of the counts between the two treatments in the sections immuno-stained with cellular markers revealed that MnTBAP significantly increased numbers of neurons, motoneurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. MnTBAP more effectively reduced neuronal than glial cell death. Post-injury treatment with the optimal dose of MnTBAP at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h post-SCI demonstrated that the effective time window for reducing protein nitration and neuron death was at least 12 h. Our results demonstrated that MnTBAP combats oxidative stress, thereby attenuating all types of cell death after SCI. PMID:22483303

  13. Benzoic and aliphatic carboxylic acid monomolecular layers on oxidized GaAs surface as a tool for two-dimensional photonic crystal infiltration.

    PubMed

    Martz, Julien; Zuppiroli, Libero; Nüesch, Frank

    2004-12-21

    The possibility of using surface-adsorbed monolayers on oxidized GaAs single crystals is investigated to explore liquid crystal (LC) wettability and alignment. A technological process is developed to chemically activate the GaAs surface with a view to perform the infiltration of tunable two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystals with LC materials. We demonstrate a vapor growth method to fabricate self-organized monolayers of carboxylated derivatives on plasma-activated surfaces. Our monolayers strongly increase the wettability of liquid crystal surfaces and may be helpful in achieving the infiltration of 2-D GaAs photonic crystals. Two types of molecular families were studied in this work: benzoic acids and fatty acids. Para-substituted benzoic acids with a wide range of electrical dipoles allow adsorption to be followed by measuring the surface potential of the grafted substrates using the Kelvin probe technique. These model compounds yield important information on the grafting conditions and the stability of the layers. Surface-adsorbed fatty acids are well-known to produce hydrophobic surfaces. The water contact angles measured on modified GaAs surfaces are equivalent to the ones measured on classical alkanethiol layers on gold. PMID:15595766

  14. 3,5-Dimethyl-1H-pyrazole–2-hy­droxy-5-(phenyl­diazen­yl)benzoic acid (1/1)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yichao; Jin, Shouwen; Zhu, Jianlong; Liu, Ying-Jia; Shi, Chuan-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    There are two independent 3,5-dimethyl­pyrazole and two independent 2-hy­droxy-5-(phenyl­diazen­yl)benzoic acid mol­ecules [in which intra­molecular O—H?O bonds form S(6) graph-set motifs] in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C5H8N2·C13H10N2O3. In the crystal, the components are linked by inter­molecular O—H?O, O—H?N and N—H?O hydrogen bonds, forming four-component clusters. Further stabilization is provided by weak C—H?? inter­actions. PMID:22059063

  15. Comparison of the antitumor activity of DTIC and 1- p -(3,3-dimethyl-1-triazeno) benzoic acid potassium salt on murine transplantable tumors and their hematological toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tina Colombo; Maurizio D'Incalci

    1984-01-01

    This study describes a comparison of 1-p-(3,3-dimethyl-1-triazeno)benzoic acid potassium salt (DM-COOK) and imidazole-4-carboxamide,5-(3,3-dimethyl-1-triazeno) (DTIC) with reference to antitumor activity on different murine tumors and hematological toxicity. DM-COOK appeared comparably or slightly more effective in L1210, P388, and M5 tumors in the mouse. However, when the treatment of mice bearing M5 with DM-COOK was combined with surgical removal of the primary

  16. [Study on synthesis and matching degree of energy level of terbium complexes using o-fluoro-benzoic acid as ligand].

    PubMed

    Tao, Dong-Liang; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Hong; Cui, Yu-Min; Xu, Yi-Zhuang; Liu, Yu-Hai

    2014-04-01

    Tb(2-FBA)3 x 2H2O and Tb(2-FBA)3 phen were synthesized using o-fluoro-benzoic acid (2-FBA) as the first ligand, and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) as the second ligand. Elemental analysis and IR spectra were employed to characterize the molecular composition of the two kinds of lanthanide complexes. The UV absorption spectra with same concentration show that the second ligand phen of Tb(2-FBA)3 phen absorbs the portion of the UV light instead of the first ligand 2-FBA. Liquid fluorescence spectra with same concentration show that the fluorescence intensity of Tb(2-FBA)3 x 2H2O is higher than that of Tb (2-FBA)3 phen. The analytical results show that the energy level of 2-FBA matches the lowest excited state energy level of Tb3+ (5D4) better than that of phen. The O-H oscillation of the crystal water in Tb(2-FBA)3 x 2H2O will greatly consume the absorbed energy by ligands, and cause the fluorescence intensity of Tb(2-FBA)3 x 2H2O significantly decline. The energy level of triplet state of the first ligand 2-FBA corresponding to the absorption peak 273 nm has poor matching degree with the 5D4 energy level of Tb3+. In this case, the emission intensity of Tb(2-FBA)3 x 2H2O is still stronger than that of Tb(2-FBA)3 phen. It illustrates that the energy level of the triplet state of the first ligand 2-FBA corresponding to 252 nm has much better matching degree with the lowest excited state of 5D4 energy level of Tb3+ than that of phen. It is the only way to compensate for energy loss by thermal vibration of water molecules and low energy transfer efficiency for poor matching degree between the energy level of corresponding to 273 nm of the first ligand 2-FBA and 5D4 energy level of Tb3+. By combining UV absorption spectra with fluorescence spectra of lanthanide complexes to qualitatively analyze energy level of ligands, the contribution of different types of ligands to the fluorescence properties can be preliminarily understood. PMID:25007616

  17. Cellular and Subcellular Localization of S-Adenosyl-l-Methionine:Benzoic Acid Carboxyl Methyltransferase, the Enzyme Responsible for Biosynthesis of the Volatile Ester Methylbenzoate in Snapdragon Flowers1

    PubMed Central

    Kolosova, Natalia; Sherman, Debra; Karlson, Dale; Dudareva, Natalia

    2001-01-01

    The benzenoid ester, methylbenzoate is one of the most abundant scent compounds detected in the majority of snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) varieties. It is produced in upper and lower lobes of petals by enzymatic methylation of benzoic acid in the reaction catalyzed by S-adenosyl-l-methionine:benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (BAMT). To identify the location of methylbenzoate biosynthesis, we conducted an extensive immunolocalization study by light and electron microscopy at cellular and subcellular levels using antibodies against BAMT protein. BAMT was immunolocalized predominantly in the conical cells of the inner epidermal layer and, to a much lesser extent, in the cells of the outer epidermis of snapdragon flower petal lobes. It was also located in the inner epidermis of the corolla tube with little BAMT protein detected in the outer epidermis and in the yellow hairs within the tube on the bee's way to the nectar. These results strongly suggest that scent biosynthetic genes are expressed almost exclusively in the epidermal cells of floral organs. Immunogold labeling studies reveal that BAMT is a cytosolic enzyme, suggesting cytosolic location of methylbenzoate biosynthesis. The concentration of scent production on flower surfaces that face the pollinators during landing may increase pollination efficiency and also help to minimize the biosynthetic cost of advertising for pollinators. PMID:11457946

  18. D77, one benzoic acid derivative, functions as a novel anti-HIV-1 inhibitor targeting the interaction between integrase and cellular LEDGF/p75

    SciTech Connect

    Du Li [Drug Discovery and Design Center, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Zhao Yaxue [School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Chen, Jing [Drug Discovery and Design Center, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Yang Liumeng; Zheng Yongtang [Laboratory of Molecular Immunopharmacology, Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China); Tang Yun [School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)], E-mail: ytang234@ecust.edu.cn; Shen Xu [Drug Discovery and Design Center, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)], E-mail: xshen@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Jiang Hualiang [Drug Discovery and Design Center, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2008-10-10

    Integration of viral-DNA into host chromosome mediated by the viral protein HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an essential step in the HIV-1 life cycle. In this process, Lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is discovered to function as a cellular co-factor for integration. Since LEDGF/p75 plays an important role in HIV integration, disruption of the LEDGF/p75 interaction with IN has provided a special interest for anti-HIV agent discovery. In this work, we reported that a benzoic acid derivative, 4-[(5-bromo-4-{l_brace}[2,4-dioxo-3-(2-oxo-2-phenylethyl) -1,3-thiazolidin-5-ylidene]methyl{r_brace}-2-ethoxyphenoxy)methyl]benzoic acid (D77) could potently inhibit the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction and affect the HIV-1 IN nuclear distribution thus exhibiting antiretroviral activity. Molecular docking with site-directed mutagenesis analysis and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assays has clarified possible binding mode of D77 against HIV-1 integrase. As the firstly discovered small molecular compound targeting HIV-1 integrase interaction with LEDGF/p75, D77 might supply useful structural information for further anti-HIV agent discovery.

  19. Crystal structure of 4-(3-carb­oxy­pro­pan­amido)-2-hy­droxy­benzoic acid mono­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Ahmed, Muhammad Naeem; Butt, Arshad Farooq; Shad, Hazoor Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    In the title hydrate, C11H11NO6·H2O, the organic mol­ecule is approximately planar (r.m.s. deviation for the non-H atoms = 0.129?Å) and an intra­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bond closes an S(6) ring. In the crystal, the benzoic acid group participates in an O—H?O hydrogen bond to the water mol­ecule and accepts a similar bond from another water mol­ecule. The other –CO2H group forms a carb­oxy­lic acid inversion dimer, thereby forming an R 2 2(8) loop. These bonds, along with N—H?O and C—H?O inter­actions, generate a three-dimensional network. PMID:25553029

  20. Probe depth matters in dermal microdialysis sampling of benzoic acid after topical application: an ex vivo study in human skin.

    PubMed

    Holmgaard, R; Benfeldt, E; Bangsgaard, N; Sorensen, J A; Brosen, K; Nielsen, F; Nielsen, J B

    2012-01-01

    Microdialysis (MD) in the skin - dermal microdialysis (DMD) - is a unique technique for sampling of topically as well as systemically administered drugs at the site of action, e.g. sampling of dermatological drug concentrations in the dermis. Debate has concerned the existence of a correlation between the depth of the sampling device - the probe - in the dermis and the amount of drug sampled following topical drug administration. This study evaluates the relation between probe depth and drug sampling using dermal DMD sampling ex vivo in human skin. We used superficial (<1 mm), intermediate (1-2 mm) and deep (>2 mm) positioning of the linear MD probe in the dermis of human abdominal skin, followed by topical application of 4 mg/ml of benzoic acid (BA) in skin chambers overlying the probes. Dialysate was sampled every hour for 12 h and analysed for BA content by high-performance liquid chromatography. Probe depth was measured by 20-MHz ultrasound scanning. The area under the time-versus-concentration curve (AUC) describes the drug exposure in the tissue during the experiment and is a relevant parameter to compare for the 3 dermal probe depths investigated. The AUC(0-12) were: superficial probes: 3,335 ± 1,094 ?g·h/ml (mean ± SD); intermediate probes: 2,178 ± 1,068 ?g·h/ml, and deep probes: 1,159 ± 306 ?g·h/ml. AUC(0-12) sampled by the superficial probes was significantly higher than that of samples from the intermediate and deeply positioned probes (p value <0.05). There was a significant inverse correlation between probe depth and AUC(0-12) sampled by the same probe (p value <0.001, r(2) value = 0.5). The mean extrapolated lag-times (±SD) for the superficial probes were 0.8 ± 0.1 h, for the intermediate probes 1.7 ± 0.5 h, and for the deep probes 2.7 ± 0.5 h, which were all significantly different from each other (p value <0.05). In conclusion, this paper demonstrates that there is an inverse relationship between the depth of the probe in the dermis and the amount of drug sampled following topical penetration ex vivo. The result is of relevance to the in vivo situation, and it can be predicted that the differences in sampling at different probe depths will have a more significant impact in the beginning of a study or in studies of short duration. Based on this study it can be recommended that studies of topical drug penetration using DMD sampling should include measurements of probe depth and that efforts should be made to minimize probe depth variability. PMID:21849814

  1. 2-[(1H-Benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-amino]-benzoic acid methyl ester: Crystal structure, DFT calculations and biological activity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghani, Nour T. Abdel; Mansour, Ahmed M.

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, structural properties of 2-[(1H-benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-amino]-benzoic acid methyl ester have been studied extensively by spectral methods and X-ray crystallography. Quantum mechanical calculations of energies, geometries, vibrational wavenumbers, NMR and electronic transitions were carried out by DFT using B3LYP functional combined with 6-31G(d) basis set. Natural bond orbitals (NBO) analysis and frontier molecular orbitals were performed at the same level of theory. DFT calculations showed good agreement between the theoretical and experimental values of optimized and X-ray structure as well as between the vibrational and NMR spectroscopy. The title compound was screened for its antibacterial activity referring to Tetracycline as standard antibacterial agent.

  2. 2-[(1H-benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-amino]-benzoic acid methyl ester: crystal structure, DFT calculations and biological activity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Abdel Ghani, Nour T; Mansour, Ahmed M

    2011-10-15

    In the present study, structural properties of 2-[(1H-benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-amino]-benzoic acid methyl ester have been studied extensively by spectral methods and X-ray crystallography. Quantum mechanical calculations of energies, geometries, vibrational wavenumbers, NMR and electronic transitions were carried out by DFT using B3LYP functional combined with 6-31G(d) basis set. Natural bond orbitals (NBO) analysis and frontier molecular orbitals were performed at the same level of theory. DFT calculations showed good agreement between the theoretical and experimental values of optimized and X-ray structure as well as between the vibrational and NMR spectroscopy. The title compound was screened for its antibacterial activity referring to Tetracycline as standard antibacterial agent. PMID:21795112

  3. Development and validation of an HPLC-DAD method for simultaneous determination of cocaine, benzoic acid, benzoylecgonine and the main adulterants found in products based on cocaine.

    PubMed

    Floriani, Gisele; Gasparetto, João Cleverson; Pontarolo, Roberto; Gonçalves, Alan Guilherme

    2014-02-01

    Here, an HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of cocaine, two cocaine degradation products (benzoylecgonine and benzoic acid), and the main adulterants found in products based on cocaine (caffeine, lidocaine, phenacetin, benzocaine and diltiazem). The new method was developed and validated using an XBridge C18 4.6mm×250mm, 5?m particle size column maintained at 60°C. The mobile phase consisted of a gradient of acetonitrile and ammonium formate 0.05M - pH 3.1, eluted at 1.0mL/min. The volume of injection was 10?L and the DAD detector was set at 274nm. Method validation assays demonstrated suitable sensitivity, selectivity, linearity, precision and accuracy. For selectivity assay, a MS detection system could be directly adapted to the method without the need of any change in the chromatographic conditions. The robustness study indicated that the flow rate, temperature and pH of the mobile phase are critical parameters and should not be changed considering the conditions herein determined. The new method was then successfully applied for determining cocaine, benzoylecgonine, benzoic acid, caffeine, lidocaine, phenacetin, benzocaine and diltiazem in 115 samples, seized in Brazil (2007-2012), which consisted of cocaine paste, cocaine base and salt cocaine samples. This study revealed cocaine contents that ranged from undetectable to 97.2%, with 97 samples presenting at least one of the degradation products or adulterants here evaluated. All of the studied degradation products and adulterants were observed among the seized samples, justifying the application of the method, which can be used as a screening and quantification tool in forensic analysis. PMID:24447449

  4. Quantitation of flavanols, proanthocyanidins, isoflavones, flavanones, dihydrochalcones, stilbenes, and benzoic Acid derivatives after identification by LC-MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A general method was developed for the systematic quantitation of catechins, proanthocyanidins, isoflavones, flavanones, dihydrochalcones, stilbenes, and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives (mainly hydrolyzable tannins) using the UV relative mole response factors (MRRF) of the reference standard from ea...

  5. Design, synthesis, and testing of potential antisickling agents. 5. Disubstituted benzoic acids designed for the donor site and proline salicylates designed for the acceptor site.

    PubMed

    Abraham, D J; Gazze, D M; Kennedy, P E; Mokotoff, M

    1984-12-01

    This paper reports the discovery of a new class of potent antigelling agents. The new compounds, disubstituted benzoic acid derivatives, were designed by using molecular modeling experiments. These molecules contain functional groups positioned to interact with several polar amino acid residues near the Val-6 beta mutation site (donor site) in HbS. The compounds also contain a hydrophobic group designed to occupy a nonpolar ara on the surface of the protein created by several hydrophobic amino acids. The synthesis and testing of these new molecules using a standard solubility assay is reported. A structural comparison is made between one of the most active antigelling agents, compound 13, which has little effect on the oxygen affinity of Hb in solution, and bezafibrate, a known antilipidemic drug that is progelling and has a very potent effect on decreasing Hb oxygen affinity (Perutz, M. F.; Poyart, C. Lancet 1983, 2, 881-882). We also report the synthesis and testing of a series of proline-salicylate molecules designed to react covalently at the mutation acceptor area. This class of molecules did not show significant activity. PMID:6094807

  6. Establishing the ellipsoidal geometry of a benzoic acid-based amphiphile via dimer switching: insights from intramolecular rotation and facial H-bond torsion.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Nivarthi; Sarangi, Nirod Kumar; Patnaik, Archita

    2013-05-01

    Soft molecular ellipsoids conceived from 3,4-di(dodecyloxy)benzoic acid (DDBA) amphiphile draw attention to monomer structure design, intramolecular -COOH headgroup twist (?°) and cyclic-acyclic dimer switching through facial H-bond torsion (?°). Generically, precipitation in hydrogen bonded systems has been the prime phenomenon once the critical aggregation concentrations were reached in the bulk solution. DDBA was no exception to this generalization. It formed precipitates in chloroform and methanol with no specific geometry but with cyclic dimer motifs in them. On the contrary, surface pressure modulated interfacial aggregation with ellipsoidal geometry followed acyclic dimerization (catemer motif) with various levels of headgroup torsion, established through real-time polarization modulated infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, that estimated the energy costs for these unexplored pathways. The reaction coordinates ?° and ?° in consonance with 2D surface pressure modulation thus directed the shape anisotropy during the dynamic self-assembly of DDBA. Changes in subphase pH and metal ionic environment had a derogatory effect on the ellipsoid formation, the structural requirement for which strictly followed a stringent need for twin alkyl chains in an asymmetric unit cell, as 4-dodecyloxybenzoic acid (MABA) with a single alkyl chain formed exclusively spherical assemblies with no dimer modulation. The investigation thus reports unexplored energy pathways toward ellipsoidal geometry of the amphiphile in the course of its interfacial aggregation. PMID:23534676

  7. Bis(1H-imidazole-?N)bis-(2-methyl-benzoato-?O)bis-(2-methyl-benzoic acid-?O)copper(II).

    PubMed

    Ni, Sheng-Liang; Zhao, Ming-Xing; Ge, Hai-Xia

    2011-08-01

    The structure of the title compound, [Cu(C(8)H(7)O(2))(2)(C(3)H(4)N(2))(2)(C(8)H(8)O(2))(2)], consists of centrosymmetric monomeric units, in which the Cu(II) atom has a tetra-gonally distorted octa-hedral coordination involving two imidazole N atoms and two carboxyl-ate O atoms in the square plane [Cu-N = 1.964?(3) and Cu-O = 1.960?(2)?Å] and 2-methyl-benzoic acid O atoms in axial sites [Cu-O = 2.753?(3)?Å]. Within the complex, the carb-oxy-lic acid forms intra-molecular O-H?O hydrogen bonds, while the mol-ecules are assembled through N-H?O(carbox-yl) hydrogen bonds into chains extending along the a-axis direction. These chains are further linked by weak ?-? inter-actions [centroid-centroid separation = 3.930?(2)?Å]. PMID:22090889

  8. Crystal structure of di-?-benzato-?4 O:O?-bis­[aqua­(benzato-?O)(benzato-?2 O,O?)(2,2?:6?,2??-terpyridine-?3 N,N?,N??)europium(III)]–benzoic acid (1/2)

    PubMed Central

    White, Frankie; Sykora, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, [Eu2(C7H5O2)6(C15H11N3)2(H2O)2]·2C7H6O2, is a co-crystalline compound containing a dinuclear EuIII coordination complex with inversion symmetry co-crystallized with benzoic acid in a 1:2 ratio. The Eu3+ ions within the dimer are nine-coordinate, containing one tridentate terpyridine, one water, and four benzoate ions, two of which bridge the Eu3+ ions. Of the four benzoate ligands coordinating to each Eu3+ position, three distinct coordination modes [monodentate, bidentate–chelating, and bidentate–bridging (twice)] are observed. Within the crystal, there are two additional uncoordinating benzoic acid mol­ecules per dinuclear complex. Within the dimer, the water bound to each Eu3+ ion participates in intra­molecular hydrogen bonding with a coordinating benzoate. Additionally, the carb­oxy­lic acid group on the benzoic acid participates in inter­molecular hydrogen bonding with a benzoate ligand bound to the dimer complex. PMID:25309184

  9. Crystal structure of (E)-4-{2-[4-(all­yloxy)phen­yl]diazen­yl}benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Mohd. Yusoff, Mashitah; Ismail, Jamil; Kwong, Huey Chong; Quah, Ching Kheng

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C16H14N2O3, has an E conformation about the azo­benzene [—N=N– = 1.2481?(16)?Å] linkage. The benzene rings are almost coplanar [dihedral angle = 1.36?(7)°]. The O atoms of the carb­oxy­lic acid group are disordered over two sets of sites and were refined with an occupancy ratio of 0.5:0.5. The two disordered components of the carb­oxy­lic acid group make dihedral angles of 1.5?(14) and 3.8?(12)° with the benzene ring to which they are attached. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via pairs of O—H?O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers. The dimers are connected via C—H?O hydrogen bonds, forming ribbons lying parallel to [120]. These ribbons are linked via C—H?? inter­actions, forming slabs parallel to (001). PMID:25552976

  10. A quantitative relationship between structure and reactivity for the reactions between diphenyldiazomethanes and benzoic acids in toluene at 25° C

    E-print Network

    Westmoreland, John Sherman

    1958-01-01

    the experimental value is -^ f.013. The k values are _5 -5 7.1 x 10 and 9*7 x 10 , respectively. This difference is not 17F. J. Stubbs and C. N. Hinshelwood, J. Chem. Soc., 19^9> S71. -j Q E. G. Williams and C. N. Hinshelwood, ibid., 193^ -? 1079* l i b r a r.../or ?- substitutedr determine rate constants* EX PE R IM EN TA L lo g 27 CALCULATED log k 2 FIGURE 2 Relationship between Experimental log Values and log Values Calculated from Equation (18) for Forty-six Reactions of Diphenyldiazomethanes with Benzoic...

  11. Fischer indolisation of N-(?-ketoacyl)anthranilic acids into 2-(indol-2-carboxamido)benzoic acids and 2-indolyl-3,1-benzoxazin-4-ones and their NMR study.

    PubMed

    Proisl, Karel; Kafka, Stanislav; Urankar, Damijana; Gazvoda, Martin; Kimmel, Roman; Košmrlj, Janez

    2014-12-21

    N-(?-ketoacyl)anthranilic acids reacted with phenylhydrazinium chloride in boiling acetic acid to afford 2-(indol-2-carboxamido)benzoic acids in good to excellent yields and 2-indolyl-3,1-benzoxazin-4-ones as by-products. The formation of the latter products could easily be suppressed by a hydrolytic workup. Alternatively, by increasing the reaction temperature and/or time, 2-indolyl-3,1-benzoxazin-4-ones can be obtained exclusively. Optimisations of the reaction conditions as well as the scope and the course of the transformations were investigated. The products were characterized by (1)H, (13)C and (15)N NMR spectroscopy. The corresponding resonances were assigned on the basis of the standard 1D and gradient selected 2D NMR experiments ((1)H-(1)H gs-COSY, (1)H-(13)C gs-HSQC, (1)H-(13)C gs-HMBC) with (1)H-(15)N gs-HMBC as a practical tool to determine (15)N NMR chemical shifts at the natural abundance level of (15)N isotope. PMID:25347568

  12. Cometabolic degradation of mono-chloro benzoic acids by Rhodococcus sp. R04 grown on organic carbon sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoqing Zhang; Xiuqing Yang; Fuhong Xie; Yapeng Chao; Shijun Qian

    2009-01-01

    The aerobic cometabolism of chlorobenzoic acids (CBAs) by Rhodococcus sp. R04 was accomplished by augmenting the medium with organic carbon sources. In mineral medium supplemented with glucose\\u000a (MMG), 0.5 mM 2-CBA was incompletely metabolized after the 5-day incubation, while the near-complete disappearance of 0.5 mM\\u000a 4-CBA was monitored. Over the 5-day incubation period, the concentration of chloride increased to 0.17 mM in bottles

  13. Application of ChemDraw NMR Tool: Correlation of Program-Generated (Super 13)C Chemical Shifts and pK[subscript a] Values of Para-Substituted Benzoic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongyi Wang

    2005-01-01

    A study uses the ChemDraw nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) tool to process 15 para-substituted benzoic acids and generate (super 13)C NMR chemical shifts of C1 through C5. The data were plotted against their pK[subscript a] value and a fairly good linear fit was found for pK[subscript a] versus delta[subscript c1].

  14. Block of ATP-binding cassette B19 ion channel activity by 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid impairs polar auxin transport and root gravitropism.

    PubMed

    Cho, Misuk; Henry, Elizabeth M; Lewis, Daniel R; Wu, Guosheng; Muday, Gloria K; Spalding, Edgar P

    2014-12-01

    Polar transport of the hormone auxin through tissues and organs depends on membrane proteins, including some B-subgroup members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. The messenger RNA level of at least one B-subgroup ABCB gene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), ABCB19, increases upon treatment with the anion channel blocker 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB), possibly to compensate for an inhibitory effect of the drug on ABCB19 activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, NPPB blocked ion channel activity associated with ABCB19 expressed in human embryonic kidney cells as measured by patch-clamp electrophysiology. NPPB inhibited polar auxin transport through Arabidopsis seedling roots similarly to abcb19 mutations. NPPB also inhibited shootward auxin transport, which depends on the related ABCB4 protein. NPPB substantially decreased ABCB4 and ABCB19 protein levels when cycloheximide concomitantly inhibited new protein synthesis, indicating that blockage by NPPB enhances the degradation of ABCB transporters. Impairing the principal auxin transport streams in roots with NPPB caused aberrant patterns of auxin signaling reporters in root apices. Formation of the auxin-signaling gradient across the tips of gravity-stimulated roots, and its developmental consequence (gravitropism), were inhibited by micromolar concentrations of NPPB that did not affect growth rate. These results identify ion channel activity of ABCB19 that is blocked by NPPB, a compound that can now be considered an inhibitor of polar auxin transport with a defined molecular target. PMID:25324509

  15. Modulation of Cyclins, p53 and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Signaling in Breast Cancer Cell Lines by 4-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenoxy)benzoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuan-Han; Ho, Wen-Yueh; Wu, Shu-Jing; Omar, Hany A.; Huang, Po-Jui; Wang, Clay C. C.; Hung, Jui-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    Despite the advances in cancer therapy and early detection, breast cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among females worldwide. The aim of the current study was to investigate the antitumor activity of a novel compound, 4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenoxy)benzoic acid (TMPBA) and its mechanism of action, in breast cancer. Results indicated the relatively high sensitivity of human breast cancer cell-7 and MDA-468 cells towards TMPBA with IC50 values of 5.9 and 7.9 ?M, respectively compared to hepatocarcinoma cell line Huh-7, hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2, and cervical cancer cell line Hela cells. Mechanistically, TMPBA induced apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 cells as indicated by 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) nuclear staining, cell cycle analysis and the activation of caspase-3. Western blot analysis revealed the ability of TMPBA to target pathways mediated by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, 5? adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and p53, of which the concerted action underlined its antitumor efficacy. In addition, TMPBA induced alteration of cyclin proteins’ expression and consequently modulated the cell cycle. Taken together, the current study underscores evidence that TMPBA induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells via the modulation of cyclins and p53 expression as well as the modulation of AMPK and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling. These findings support TMPBA’s clinical promise as a potential candidate for breast cancer therapy. PMID:24406729

  16. Simultaneous determination of triflusal and its major active metabolite, 2-hydroxy-4-trifluoromethyl benzoic acid, in rat and human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hea-Young; Jeong, Tae-Jin; Lee, Yong-Bok

    2003-12-25

    A rapid, selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of triflusal and its major active metabolite, 2-hydroxy-4-trifluoromethyl benzoic acid (HTB), in rat and human plasma. HPLC analysis was carried out using a 5-microm particle size, C18-bonded silica column and acetonitrile-methanol-water (25:10:65, v/v/v) as the mobile phase and UV detection at 234 nm. Furosemide was used as the internal standard. The method involved extraction with an acetonitrile-chloroform mixture (60:40, v/v) and evaporation to dryness with nitrogen stream. The chromatograms showed good resolution and sensitivity and no interferences by plasma constituents. The mean absolute recovery for human plasma was 93.5 +/- 4.2% for triflusal and 98.5 +/- 3.1% for HTB. The lower limits of quantification of triflusal and HTB in human plasma were 20 and 100 ng/ml, respectively. The calibration curves in human plasma were linear over the concentration range 0.02-5.0 microg/ml for triflusal and 0.1-200.0 microg/ml for HTB with correlation coefficients greater than 0.999 and with inter- or intra-day coefficients of variation (CV) not exceeding 10.0%. This assay procedure was applied to the study of metabolite pharmacokinetics of triflusal and HTB in rat and human. PMID:14643505

  17. Temperature-dependent Raman study of the smectic to nematic phase transition and vibrational analysis using density functional theory of the liquid crystalline system 4-decyloxy benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Vikram, K; Tarcea, Nicolae; Popp, J; Singh, Ranjan K

    2010-02-01

    Room-temperature Raman spectra of the thermotropic liquid crystalline system, 4-decyloxy benzoic acid (4DBA) have been recorded and the experimentally observed bands are assigned by density functional theory (DFT) for the first time. The C-O and C-C stretching and C-H in-plane bending modes of the phenyl ring and C=O stretching modes of the -COOH group are the marker bands for the smectic (S) --> nematic (N) and nematic (N) --> isotropic (I) transitions for this system. The temperature-dependent Raman spectra for these bands in the heating cycle clearly characterize the S-->N and the N-->I transition over a range <1 degree C, which is much better than the earlier range of 23 degrees C for S-->N and 26 degrees C for the N-->I transition. The approximately 773, approximately 807, approximately 881, and approximately 1146 cm(-1) bands disappear, whereas a band at approximately 830 cm(-1) appears at the S-->N transition. The relative intensity of the approximately 1257 and approximately 1280 cm(-1) bands distinguishes the three phases, namely smectic, nematic, and isotropic, in 4DBA. The variation of line width and peak wavenumber of the approximately 1128 and approximately 1168 cm(-1) bands also clearly shows the two transitions. The molecular reorientation at the transition and the effect of local fields present in the liquid crystalline mesophases are also briefly discussed on the basis of changes in intensity, linewidth and peak wavenumber with temperature. PMID:20149280

  18. 40 CFR 721.1550 - Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic...Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic...benzenediazonium, 4-(dimethylamino)-, salt with...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1550 - Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic...Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic...benzenediazonium, 4-(dimethylamino)-, salt with...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1550 - Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic...Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic...benzenediazonium, 4-(dimethylamino)-, salt with...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1550 - Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic acid (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic...Benzenediazonium, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-, salt with 2-hy-droxy-5-sul-fo-benzoic...benzenediazonium, 4-(dimethylamino)-, salt with...

  2. Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin scavenges reactive species, reduces oxidative stress, and improves functional recovery after experimental spinal cord injury in rats: comparison with methylprednisolone

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Substantial experimental evidence supports that reactive species mediate secondary damage after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) by inducing oxidative stress. Removal of reactive species may reduce secondary damage following SCI. This study explored the effectiveness of a catalytic antioxidant - Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP) - in removing reactive oxygen species (ROS), reducing oxidative stress, and improving functional recovery in vivo in a rat impact SCI model. The efficiency of MnTBAP was also compared with that of methylprednisolone – the only drug used clinically in treating acute SCI. Results In vivo measurements of time courses of ROS production by microdialysis and microcannula sampling in MnTBAP, methylprednisolone, and saline (as vehicle control)-treated SCI rats showed that both agents significantly reduced the production of hydrogen peroxide, but only MnTBAP significantly reduced superoxide elevation after SCI. In vitro experiments further demonstrated that MnTBAP scavenged both of the preceding ROS, whereas methylprednisolone had no effect on either. By counting the immuno-positive neurons in the spinal cord sections immunohistochemically stained with anti-nitrotyrosine and anti-4-hydroxy-nonenal antibodies as the markers of protein nitration and membrane lipid peroxidation, we demonstrated that MnTBAP significantly reduced the numbers of 4-hydroxy-nonenal-positive and nitrotyrosine-positive neurons in the sections at 1.55 to 2.55 mm and 1.1 to 3.1 mm, respectively, rostral to the injury epicenter compared to the vehicle-treated animals. By behavioral tests (open field and inclined plane tests), we demonstrated that at 4 hours post-SCI treatment with MnTBAP and the standard methylprednisolone regimen both significantly increased test scores compared to those produced by vehicle treatment. However, the outcomes for MnTBAP-treated rats were significantly better than those for methylprednisolone-treated animals. Conclusions This study demonstrated for the first time in vivo and in vitro that MnTBAP significantly reduced the levels of SCI-elevated ROS and that MnTBAP is superior to methylprednisolone in removing ROS. Removal of ROS by MnTBAP significantly reduced protein nitration and membrane lipid peroxidation in neurons. MnTBAP more effectively reduced neurological deficits than did methylprednisolone after SCI - the first most important criterion for assessing SCI treatments. These results support the therapeutic potential of MnTBAP in treating SCI. PMID:23452429

  3. Fluorescence enhancement of europium(III) perchlorate by benzoic acid on bis(benzylsulfinyl)methane complex and its binding characteristics with the bovine serum albumin (BSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Wen-Xian; Ao, Bo-Yang; Feng, Shu-Yan; Xin, Xiao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    A novel ligand with double sulfinyl groups, bis(benzylsulfinyl)methane L, was synthesized by a new method. Its novel ternary complex, EuL2.5?L?·(ClO4)2?5H2O, has been synthesized [using L as the first ligand, and benzoic acid L? as the second ligand], and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, coordination titration analysis, FTIR, TG-DSC, 1H NMR and UV-vis. In order to study the effect of the second ligand on the fluorescence properties of rare-earth sulfoxide complex, a novel binary complex EuL2.5·(ClO4)3·3H2O has been synthesized. Photoluminescent measurement showed that the first ligand L could efficiently transfer the energy to Eu3+ ions in the complex. Furthermore, the detailed luminescence analyses on the rare earth complexes indicated that the ternary Eu (III) complex manifested stronger fluorescence intensities, longer lifetimes, and higher fluorescence quantum efficiencies than the binary Eu (III) materials. After introducing the second ligand L?, the fluorescence emission intensities and fluorescence lifetimes of the ternary complex enhanced more obviously than the binary complex. This illustrated that the presence of both the first ligand L and the second ligand L? could sensitize fluorescence intensities of Eu (III) ions. The fluorescence spectra, fluorescence lifetime and phosphorescence spectra were also discussed. To explore the potential biological value of Eu (III) complexes, the binding interaction among Eu (III) complexes and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by fluorescence spectrum. The result indicated that the reaction between Eu (III) complexes and BSA was a static quenching procedure. The binding site number, n, of 0.60 and 0.78, and binding constant, Ka, of 0.499 and 4.46 were calculated according to the double logarithm regression equation, respectively for EuL2.5?L??(ClO4)2?5H2O and EuL2.5?(ClO4)3?3H2O systems.

  4. Structural diversity and magnetic properties of six metal-organic polymers based on semirigid tricarboxylate ligand of 3,5-bi(4-carboxyphenoxy)benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liming; Fan, Weiliu; Song, Weikuo; Sun, Liming; Zhao, Xian; Zhang, Xiutang

    2014-11-14

    Solvothermal reactions of the semirigid 3,5-bi(4-carboxyphenoxy)benzoic acid (H3BCP) and transitional metal cations with the help of three ancillary bridging imidazole linkers afforded six coordination polymers, namely, [Co(HBCP)(1,4-bib)0.5]n (), {[Mn1.5(BCP)(1,4-bib)0.5(?2-H2O)(H2O)2]·(1,4-bib)0.5}n (), {[Mn0.5(1,4-bib)(H2O)]·(H2BCP)}n (), {[Fe(BCP)0.5(HCOO)0.5(4,4'-bibp)0.5]·2H2O}n (), [Ni2.5(HBCP)(BCP)(4,4'-bibp)2(?2-H2O)(H2O)2]n (), and [Ni(HBCP)(1,4-bidb)1.5(H2O)2]n (), (1,4-bib = 1,4-bis(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene, 1,4-bidb = 1,4-bis(1-imidazol-yl)-2,5-dimethyl benzene, 4,4'-bibp = 4,4'-bis(imidazol-1-yl)biphenyl). Their structures and properties were determined by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analyses, IR spectra, elemental analyses, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Complex displays unusual 2D + 2D?2D parallel entangled networks consisting of (3,4)-connected 3,4L83 sheets. Complex exhibits an interesting 2-fold interpenetrated framework with a trinodal (4,4,6)-connected (3·4·5·6(2)·7)2(3·6·7(4))2(3(2)·4(2)·5(2)·6(2)·7(6)·9) topology. The host network of complex is a 2D 4-connected (4(4)·6(2))-sql sheet. Complex affords unprecedented 3D (4,6,6)-coordinated framework with point symbol of (4(5)·6)(4(8)·6(7))(4(9)·6(3)·8(3))2, in which the 1D helix water chains occupy the void channels. Complex can be regarded as a novel self-penetrating (4,4,4,5)-coordinated framework with point symbol of (4·5(4)·6)2(4·6(5)·7·8(3))2(5·6·7·8(3))2(5(2)·8(3)·9(2)), which contains two interpenetrated (3,4,4,5)-coordinated (4·5(4)·6)2(4·6(5)·7·8(3))2(5·6·7)2(5(2)·8(3)·9(2)) subnets linked by ?2-H2O. Complex shows a 1D ladder chain, which are further assembled into a 3D supramolecular structure via O-HO and ?? interactions. Moreover, magnetic studies indicate that both complex and show antiferromagnetic properties. PMID:25233393

  5. Synthesis, structural characterization and Hirshfeld analysis studies of three novel co-crystals of trans-4-[(2-amino-3,5-dibrobenzyl) amino] cyclohexanol with hydroxyl benzoic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yu-heng; Lou, Ming; Sun, Qing-yang; Ge, Shu-wang; Sun, Bai-wang

    2015-03-01

    Combination of active pharmaceutical ingredients, trans-4-[(2-amino-3,5-dibrobenzyl) amino] cyclohexanol (AMB) and some organic acids, e.g., p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), m-hydroxybenzoic acid (MHBA), and 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid (DHBA), yield three novel co-crystals characterized by X-ray single-crystal, Fluorescence spectroscopy and thermal analysis (DSC and TGA), which included co-crystal 1 with 2:2: 1 stoichiometry of AMB, PHBA and H2O, co-crystal 2 with 1:1 stoichiometry of AMB and MHBA, and co-crystal 3 with 1:1:1 stoichiometry of AMB, DHBA and CH3OH. Constituents of the co-crystalline phase were also investigated in terms of Hirshfeld surfaces. In the crystal lattice, a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network is observed, including formation of a two-dimensional molecular scaffolding motif. Hirshfeld surfaces and fingerprint plots of three co-crystals show that structures are stabilized by H⋯H, N-H⋯O, H⋯Br and C⋯H intermolecular interactions. Besides, the studies of the solubility showed that this co-crystal strategy could promote the solubility of AMB and follow the order: co-crystal 1 < co-crystal 2 < co-crystal 3.

  6. Effect of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides and some substituted benzoic acids on glucose-6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases in Hbss red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Osoba, O A; Adesanya, S A; Durosimi, M A

    1989-11-01

    The ether fraction of the aqueous extract of the roots of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (antisickling fraction), vanillic acid, parahydroxybenzoic acid and paraflurobenzoic acid possess antisickling inhibitory activity at low concentrations. Paraflurobenzoic acid was the most active. When the activities of NADP+-linked glucose-6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases in washed Hbss blood specimens treated with these agents (6 mg/ml for antisickling fraction and 6 micrograms/ml for the acids) were compared with controls in vitro, there were no significant differences in either normal or sickled states. The media were devoid of enzyme activity. These agents neither affect the activities of these enzymes while exhibiting antisickling activity nor disrupt the cell membrane to the extent of causing leakage to the media. PMID:2615418

  7. DFT calculations, spectroscopic, thermal analysis and biological activity of Sm(III) and Tb(III) complexes with 2-aminobenzoic and 2-amino-5-chloro-benzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Essawy, Amr A; Afifi, Manal A; Moustafa, H; El-Medani, S M

    2014-10-15

    The complexes of Sm(III) and Tb(III) with 2-aminobenzoic acid (anthranilic acid, AA) and 2-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid (5-chloroanthranilic acid, AACl) were synthesized and characterized based on elemental analysis, IR and mass spectroscopy. The data are in accordance with 1:3 [Metal]:[Ligand] ratio. On the basis of the IR analysis, it was found that the metals were coordinated to bidentate anthranilic acid via the ionised oxygen of the carboxylate group and to the nitrogen of amino group. While in 5-chloroanthranilic acid, the metals were coordinated oxidatively to the bidentate carboxylate group without bonding to amino group; accordingly, a chlorine-affected coordination and reactivity-diversity was emphasized. Thermal analyses (TGA) and biological activity of the complexes were also investigated. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p)_ level of theory have been carried out to investigate the equilibrium geometry of the ligand. The optimized geometry parameters of the complexes were evaluated using SDDALL basis set. Moreover, total energy, energy of HOMO and LUMO and Mullikan atomic charges were calculated. In addition, dipole moment and orientation have been performed and discussed. PMID:24835942

  8. 4-[Bis(4-fluoro­phen­yl)meth­yl]piperazin-1-ium 2-hy­droxy­benzoate 2-hy­droxy­benzoic acid monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Dayananda, A. S.; Yathirajan, H. S.; Flörke, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C17H19F2N2 +·C7H5O3 ?·C7H6O3, is a co-crystal from 4-[bis­(4-fluoro­phen­yl)meth­yl]piperazin-1-ium, salicylate anion and salicylic acid in a 1:1:1 ratio. In addition to an intra­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bond, the crystal packing shows hydrogen bonds between the piperazinium cation and salicylate anion (N—H?O), as well as between the salicylic acid mol­ecule and anion (O—H?O), giving rise to a three-dimensional network. PMID:22606121

  9. Synthesis, spectroscopic, crystal structure and DNA binding of Ru(II) complexes with 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid [1-(4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyran-3-yl)-ethylidene]-hydrazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitrapriya, Nataraj; Sathiya Kamatchi, Thangavel; Zeller, Matthias; Lee, Hyosun; Natarajan, Karuppannan

    2011-10-01

    Reactions of 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid [1-(4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyran-3-yl)-ethylidene]-hydrazide (H 2L) with [RuHCl(CO)(EPh 3) 3] (E = P or As) were carried out and the new complexes obtained were characterized by elemental analysis, electronic, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Complex ( 1) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/ c with unit cell dimensions a = 18.6236(17) Å, b = 12.8627(12) Å, c = 21.683(2) Å, ? = 90.00, ? = 114.626(2), ? = 90.00 V = 4721.8(8) Å, Z = 4. The crystal structure of the complex shows Ru(II) atom is six-coordinated, forming a slightly distorted octahedral geometry with two P atoms in axial positions, and three chelating donor atoms of the tridentate Schiff base ligand and one carbonyl group located in the equatorial plane. The molecular structure is stabilized by intramolecular O—H···N interactions. No intermolecular hydrogen bond was observed. The intramolecular hydrogen bond exists between the oxygen atom from salicylic acid moiety and nitrogen from the same moiety. A variety of solution studies were carried out for the determination of DNA binding mode of the complexes. The results suggest that both complexes bind to Herring sperm DNA via non intercalative mode.

  10. Modeling, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Potential Retinoid-X-Receptor (RXR) Selective Agonists: Novel Halogenated Analogs of 4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-Pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethynyl]benzoic Acid (Bexarotene)

    PubMed Central

    Furmick, Julie K.; Kaneko, Ichiro; Walsh, Angela N.; Yang, Joanna; Bhogal, Jaskaran S.; Gray, Geoffrey M.; Baso, Juan C.; Browder, Drew O.; Prentice, Jessica L.S.; Montano, Luis A.; Huynh, Chanh C.; Marcus, Lisa M.; Tsosie, Dorian G.; Kwon, Jungeun S.; Quezada, Alexis; Reyes, Nicole M.; Lemming, Brittney; Saini, Puneet; van der Vaart, Arjan; Groy, Thomas L.; Marshall, Pamela A.; Jurutka, Peter W.; Wagner, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of halogenated analogs of 4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethynyl]benzoic acid (1), known commonly as bexarotene, and their evaluation for retinoid-X-receptor (RXR)-specific agonist performance is described. Compound 1 is FDA approved to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL); however, bexarotene treatment can induce hypothyroidism and elevated triglyceride levels, presumably by disrupting RXR heterodimer pathways for other nuclear receptors. The novel halogenated analogs in this study were modeled and assessed for their ability to bind to RXR and stimulate RXR homodimerization in an RXRE-mediated transcriptional assay as well as an RXR mammalian-2-hybrid assay. In an array of 8 novel compounds, 4 analogs were discovered to promote RXR-mediated transcription with comparable EC50 values as 1 and are selective RXR agonists. Our approach also uncovered a periodic trend of increased binding and homodimerization of RXR when substituting a halogen atom for a proton ortho to the carboxylic acid on 1. PMID:22927238

  11. 3-(3,4-Dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-ylsulfonyl)benzoic Acids: highly potent and selective inhibitors of the type 5 17-?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase AKR1C3.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Stephen M F; Brooke, Darby G; Heinrich, Daniel; Atwell, Graham J; Silva, Shevan; Hamilton, Emma J; Turnbull, Andrew P; Rigoreau, Laurent J M; Trivier, Elisabeth; Soudy, Christelle; Samlal, Sharon S; Owen, Paul J; Schroeder, Ewald; Raynham, Tony; Flanagan, Jack U; Denny, William A

    2012-09-13

    A high-throughput screen identified 3-(3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-ylsulfonyl)benzoic acid as a novel, highly potent (low nM), and isoform-selective (1500-fold) inhibitor of aldo-keto reductase AKR1C3: a target of interest in both breast and prostate cancer. Crystal structure studies showed that the carboxylate group occupies the oxyanion hole in the enzyme, while the sulfonamide provides the correct twist to allow the dihydroisoquinoline to bind in an adjacent hydrophobic pocket. SAR studies around this lead showed that the positioning of the carboxylate was critical, although it could be substituted by acid isosteres and amides. Small substituents on the dihydroisoquinoline gave improvements in potency. A set of "reverse sulfonamides" showed a 12-fold preference for the R stereoisomer. The compounds showed good cellular potency, as measured by inhibition of AKR1C3 metabolism of a known dinitrobenzamide substrate, with a broad rank order between enzymic and cellular activity, but amide analogues were more effective than predicted by the cellular assay. PMID:22877157

  12. Molecular structure, vibrational spectra, first order hyper polarizability, NBO and HOMO-LUMO analysis of 2-amino-5-bromo-benzoic acid methyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balamurugan, N.; Charanya, C.; SampathKrishnan, S.; Muthu, S.

    2015-02-01

    An organic crystal of 2-amino-5-bromobenzoic acid methyl ester [abbreviated at 2A5BrBAMe], single crystal, belongs to the amino acid group, were grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. The grown crystal had been subjected to single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique and cell parameters of the crystal were determined. The quantitative analysis on the crystal had been carried out using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectral measurements. The molecular structures, vibrational wave numbers were calculated using DFT (B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The formation of the hydrogen bond was investigated using NBO calculations. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occur within the molecule. The dipole moment (?) and polarizability (?0), anisotropy polarizability (??) and first order hyperpolarizability (?0) of the molecule have been reported.

  13. Quantitation of Flavanols, Proanthocyanidins, Isoflavones, Flavanones, Dihydrochalcones, Stilbenes, Benzoic Acid Derivatives Using Ultraviolet Absorbance after Identification by Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M.

    2013-01-01

    A general method was developed for the systematic quantitation of flavanols, proanthocyanidins, isoflavones, flavanones, dihydrochalcones, stilbenes, and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives (mainly hydrolyzable tannins) based on UV band II absorbance arising from the benzoyl structure. The compound structures and the wavelength maximum were well correlated and were divided into four groups: the flavanols and proanthocyanidins at 278 nm, hydrolyzable tannins at 274 nm, flavanones at 288 nm, and isoflavones at 260 nm. Within each group, molar relative response factors (MRRFs) were computed for each compound based on the absorbance ratio of the compound and the group reference standard. Response factors were computed for the compounds as purchased (MRRF), after drying (MRRFD), and as the best predicted value (MRRFP). Concentrations for each compound were computed based on calibration with the group reference standard and the MRRFP. The quantitation of catechins, proanthocyanidins, and gallic acid derivatives in white tea was used as an example. PMID:22577798

  14. Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group-Determination of Dissolved Isoxaflutole and Its Sequential Degradation Products, Diketonitrile and Benzoic Acid, in Water Using Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Michael T.; Lee, Edward A.; Scribner, Elisabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of isoxaflutole and its sequential degradation products, diketonitrile and a benzoic acid analogue, in filtered water with varying matrices was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group in Lawrence, Kansas. Four different water-sample matrices fortified at 0.02 and 0.10 ug/L (micrograms per liter) are extracted by vacuum manifold solid-phase extraction and analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization in negative-ion mode with multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM). Analytical conditions for mass spectrometry detection are optimized, and quantitation is carried out using the following MRM molecular-hydrogen (precursor) ion and product (p) ion transition pairs: 357.9 (precursor), 78.9 (p), and 277.6 (p) for isoxaflutole and diketonitrile, and 267.0 (precursor), 159.0 (p), and 223.1 (p) for benzoic acid. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-d3 is used as the internal standard, and alachlor ethanesulfonic acid-d5 is used as the surrogate standard. Compound detection limits and reporting levels are calculated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency procedures. The mean solid-phase extraction recovery values ranged from 104 to 108 percent with relative standard deviation percentages ranging from 4.0 to 10.6 percent. The combined mean percentage concentration normalized to the theoretical spiked concentration of four water matrices analyzed eight times at 0.02 and 0.10 ug/L (seven times for the reagent-water matrix at 0.02 ug/L) ranged from approximately 75 to 101 percent with relative standard deviation percentages ranging from approximately 3 to 26 percent for isoxaflutole, diketonitrile, and benzoic acid. The method detection limit (MDL) for isoxaflutole and diketonitrile is 0.003 ug/L and 0.004 ug/L for benzoic acid. Method reporting levels (MRLs) are 0.011, 0.010, and 0.012 ug/L for isoxaflutole, diketonitrile, and benzoic acid, respectively. On the basis of the calculated MRLs and MDLs and evaluation of the signal-to-noise ratios for each compound, the MRLs and MDLs are set at 0.010 and 0.003 ug/L, respectively, for all three compounds.

  15. Tetra-?-benzoato-?4 O:O?;?3 O:O,O?;?3 O,O?:O?-bis­[(benzoato-?2 O,O?)(1,10-phenanthroline-?2 N,N?)europium(III)] benzoic acid disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Ping Howe; Teoh, Siang Guan; Yeap, Chin Sing; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title complex, [Eu2(C7H5O2)6(C12H8N2)2]·2C6H5COOH, contains one-half of the complex mol­ecule, the complete mol­ecule being generated by inversion symmetry, and one benzoic acid solvent mol­ecule. The two EuIII ions are linked by four bridging benzoate ions, with an Eu?Eu distance of 3.96041?(12)?Å. Each EuIII ion is coordinated by one phenanthroline heterocycle and a bidentate benzoate ion. The irregular nine-coordinated geometry of the metal ion is composed of seven O and two N atoms. The mol­ecular structure is stabilized by intra­molecular C—H?O hydrogen bonds. In the crystal structure, mol­ecules are linked into chains by inter­molecular C—H?O hydrogen bonds along the a axis. The crystal structure is further stabilized by inter­molecular C—H?O and C—H?? inter­actions. Weak ?–? inter­actions are also observed [centroid–centroid distances = 3.6962?(10)–3.6963?(10)?Å]. PMID:21579069

  16. Block of ATP-Binding Cassette B19 Ion Channel Activity by 5-Nitro-2-(3-Phenylpropylamino)-Benzoic Acid Impairs Polar Auxin Transport and Root Gravitropism1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Misuk; Henry, Elizabeth M.; Lewis, Daniel R.; Wu, Guosheng; Muday, Gloria K.

    2014-01-01

    Polar transport of the hormone auxin through tissues and organs depends on membrane proteins, including some B-subgroup members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. The messenger RNA level of at least one B-subgroup ABCB gene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), ABCB19, increases upon treatment with the anion channel blocker 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB), possibly to compensate for an inhibitory effect of the drug on ABCB19 activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, NPPB blocked ion channel activity associated with ABCB19 expressed in human embryonic kidney cells as measured by patch-clamp electrophysiology. NPPB inhibited polar auxin transport through Arabidopsis seedling roots similarly to abcb19 mutations. NPPB also inhibited shootward auxin transport, which depends on the related ABCB4 protein. NPPB substantially decreased ABCB4 and ABCB19 protein levels when cycloheximide concomitantly inhibited new protein synthesis, indicating that blockage by NPPB enhances the degradation of ABCB transporters. Impairing the principal auxin transport streams in roots with NPPB caused aberrant patterns of auxin signaling reporters in root apices. Formation of the auxin-signaling gradient across the tips of gravity-stimulated roots, and its developmental consequence (gravitropism), were inhibited by micromolar concentrations of NPPB that did not affect growth rate. These results identify ion channel activity of ABCB19 that is blocked by NPPB, a compound that can now be considered an inhibitor of polar auxin transport with a defined molecular target. PMID:25324509

  17. 4-(6,7-Dihydro-5,8-dioxothiazolo[4,5-g]phthalazin-2-yl)benzoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester as a highly sensitive chemiluminescence derivatization reagent for amines in liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, H; Nakao, R; Matsuo, T; Nohta, H; Yamaguchi, M

    2001-01-12

    4-(6,7-Dihydro-5,8-dioxothiazolo[4,5-g]phthalazin-2-yl)benzoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester was synthesized as a highly sensitive and selective chemiluminescence derivatization reagent for primary and secondary amines in liquid chromatography. Methyl-n-octylamine, n-nonylamine and n-decylamine were used as model compounds to optimize the derivatization, separation and chemiluminescence reaction conditions. This reagent reacts selectively with amines in the presence of triethylamine to give the highly chemiluminescent derivatives, which produce chemiluminescence by reaction with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) in an alkaline medium. The chemiluminescent derivatives of the three amines can be separated within 20 min by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with isocratic elution, followed by chemiluminescence detection. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio=3) for primary and secondary amines are at sub-fmol levels for a 20-microl injection. Furthermore, this method was applicable to the determination of amantadine in human plasma. PMID:11217046

  18. Metal-organic frameworks built from achiral 3-(5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)benzoic acid: syntheses and structures of metal(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yun; Zhang, Miao Miao; Hua, Wei; Sun, Jun Liang; Shi, Hui Fang; Jiang, Peng Gang; Liao, Fu Hui; Lin, Jian Hua

    2014-01-01

    Using a novel flexible achiral ligand, 3-(5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)benzoic acid (HL), four metal(II)-complexes formulated as ZnL2·2H2O (1), CdL2(H2O)2·8H2O (2) and ML2(H2O)·H2O (M = Co 3 and Ni 4) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complexes 1, 3 and 4 all feature a uninodal 2D layer with a 4(4)-sql topology, and two such (4,4) nets interpenetrate in a parallel manner. Complex 2 exhibits a similar 4(4)-sql topology, but no interpenetration is observed in complex 2. Among the four complexes, only complex 1 is a homochiral network, which is evidenced by the CD spectrum. In complex 1, packing of the 2D layers generates a 41 screw axis along the c direction, and two-fold axes along the a and b directions, respectively. In complex 2, the Zn(II) center lies about an inversion center, giving rise to the centrosymmetric structure of complex 2. In complexes 3 and 4, packing of the 2D units generates a 21 screw axis along the c direction in the two complexes, and an inversion center is found between two neighboring 2-fold interpenetrated layers. The work indicates that the chirality of the space group for the homochiral complex 1 comes from the supramolecular packing of the 2D layers. PMID:24096305

  19. Amino acids

    MedlinePLUS

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  20. Kinetics of esterification of aromatic carboxylic acids over zeolites H? and HZSM5 using dimethyl carbonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharath R. Kirumakki; N. Nagaraju; Komandur V. R. Chary; Sankarasubbier Narayanan

    2003-01-01

    Esterification of benzoic acid and substituted benzoic acids has been carried out efficiently over zeolite H? and HZSM5 in an autoclave using dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as the methylating agent. The wide applicability of this esterification method to esterify a wide range of aromatic carboxylic acids has been demonstrated. This method is a viable and safe alternative to other esterification processes,

  1. 2-(o-Tol­yloxy)benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jia-Ying; Cheng, Wei-Hua; Zhu, Xun; Gu, Dong-ya

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C14H12O3, mol­ecules are linked via inter­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bonds, resulting in dimer formation. The dihedral angle between the two phenyl rings is 76.2?(2)°. PMID:21754781

  2. 21 CFR 573.210 - Benzoic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...conditions: (a) The additive is used or intended for use as a feed acidifying agent, to lower the pH, in complete swine feeds at levels not to exceed 0.5 percent of the complete feed. (b) The additive consists of not less than...

  3. Folic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  4. Folic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  5. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... don't get this amino acid from the food we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources ...

  6. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  7. Acidity in bile acid systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adamo Fini; Giorgio Feroci; Aldo Roda

    2002-01-01

    The acidity parameter in bile acid systems was re-examined in an attempt to unify the many contrasting results reported in the literature. Discrepancies originate not only through differences in experimental approaches but mainly through the peculiar behaviour of bile acids and their salts, which can be present in aqueous solution as monomers, or simple and\\/or mixed aggregates. The acidity (and

  8. Modeling, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Potential Retinoid-X-Receptor (RXR) Selective Agonists: Novel Analogs of 4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-Pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethynyl]benzoic Acid (Bexarotene) and (E)-3-(3-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,1,4,4,6-pentamethylnaphthalen-7-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylic acid (CD3254)

    PubMed Central

    Jurutka, Peter W.; Kaneko, Ichiro; Yang, Joanna; Bhogal, Jaskaran S.; Swierski, Johnathon C.; Tabacaru, Christa R.; Montano, Luis A.; Huynh, Chanh C.; Jama, Rabia A.; Mahelona, Ryan D.; Sarnowski, Joseph T.; Marcus, Lisa M.; Quezada, Alexis; Lemming, Brittney; Tedesco, Maria A.; Fischer, Audra J.; Mohamed, Said A.; Ziller, Joseph W.; Ma, Ning; Gray, Geoffrey M.; van der Vaart, Arjan; Marshall, Pamela A.; Wagner, Carl E.

    2014-01-01

    Three unreported analogs of 4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5-6-7-8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethynyl]benzoic acid (1), otherwise known as bexarotene, as well as four novel analogs of (E)-3-(3-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,1,4,4,6-pentamethylnaphthalen-7-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylic acid (CD3254) are described, and evaluated for their retinoid-X-receptor (RXR)-selective agonism. Compound 1 has FDA approval as a treatment for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL); though, treatment with 1 can elicit side-effects by disrupting other RXR-heterodimer receptor pathways. Of the 7 modeled novel compounds, all analogs stimulate RXR-regulated transcription in mammalian-2-hybrid and RXRE-mediated assays, possess comparable or elevated biological activity based on EC50 profiles, and retain similar or improved apoptotic activity in CTCL assays compared to 1. All novel compounds demonstrate selectivity for RXR and minimal crossover onto the retinoic-acid-receptor (RAR) compared to all-trans-retinoic acid, with select analogs also reducing inhibition of other RXR-dependent pathways (e.g., VDR-RXR). Our results demonstrate that further improvements in biological potency and selectivity of bexarotene can be achieved through rational drug design. PMID:24180745

  9. Ascorbic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  10. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  11. Folic acid

    MedlinePLUS

    Folic acid is a water-soluble B vitamin. Since 1998, it has been added to cold cereals, flour, breads, ... law. Foods that are naturally high in folic acid include leafy vegetables (such as spinach, broccoli, and ...

  12. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

  13. Aristolochic Acids

    Cancer.gov

    Aristolochic acids are a group of acids found naturally in many types of plants known as Aristolochia (birthworts or pipevines) and some types of plants known as Asarum (wild ginger), which grow worldwide.

  14. Aristolochic Acids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sciences NIH-HHS www.niehs.nih.gov Aristolochic Acids Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Known to be human carcinogens Aristolochia Clematitis Aristolochic Acids n Known human carcinogens n Found in certain ...

  15. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  16. Folic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... acid. Talk to your doctor about how much folic acid you need if you: Are taking medicines used to treat: Epilepsy Type 2 diabetes Rheumatoid arthritis , lupus , psoriasis , asthma , and inflammatory bowel disease Have kidney disease ...

  17. Valproic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    Valproic acid is used alone or with other medications to treat certain types of seizures. Valproic acid is also used to treat mania (episodes of ... to relieve headaches that have already begun. Valproic acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. ...

  18. Shikimic Acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The molecule for this month comes from the article Isolation of Shikimic Acid from Star Aniseed by Richard Payne and Michael Edmonds. Shikimic acid plays a key role in the biosynthesis of many important natural products including aromatic amino acids, alkaloids, phenolics, and phenylpropanoids. It plays such an important role that one of the key biosynthetic pathways is referred to as the shikimate pathway.

  19. [Structure and luminescence properties of Eu3+ complexes with benzoic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline incorporated in SiO2, SiO2-B2O3 and SiO2-B2O3-Na2O matrices].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi-Gui; Wu, Hong-Ying; Zhao, Si-Qin; Weng, Shi-Fu; Wu, Jin-Guang

    2006-05-01

    Eu3+ Complexes with benzoic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline incorporated in SiO2, SiO2-B2O3 and SiO2-B2O3-Na2O matrices were prepared via the sol-gel method. Eu-doped SiO2, SiO2-B2O3 and SiO2-B2O3-Na2O luminescence materials were synthesized. The luminescence of Eu3+ was studied with excitation spectra and emission spectra. Different forms of dopants could influence the luminescence properties. The structure of Eu-doped glass was studied by comparing IR, TEM and XRD. The results showed that after the materials were annealed at 1 000 degrees C the structure was very stable because ingredient was already removed totally. The emission spectrum showed that the typical optical spectrum of Eu3+ is 5D0 --> 7Fj (j = 1, 2) at 588 nm and 614 nm. Comparing EuCl3 with Eu3+ complexes with benzoic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline as dopant, the latter has strong luminescence property though it has small mass fraction. The luminescence intensity of Eu(3+)-doped SiO2-B2O3 glass material was weaker than that of Eu(3+)-doped SiO2 glass material, and the former's spectrum showed that there were Si-O-B bonds. The luminescence intensity of Eu3+ was quenched by this kind of structure. The luminescence intensity of Eu(3+)-doped SiO2-B2O3-Na2O glass material was greatly increased, and the infrared spectrum illustrated that there was not vibration absorption of Si-O-B bonds. Probably Na replaced B, and Si-O-Na bonds formed. This kind of structure could enhance luminescence intensity of Eu3+ to some extend. PMID:16883841

  20. Studies of the acidic components of the Colorado Green River formation oil shale-Mass spectrometric identification of the methyl esters of extractable acids.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haug, P.; Schnoes, H. K.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Study of solvent extractable acidic constituents of oil shale from the Colorado Green River Formation. Identification of individual components is based on gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric data obtained for their respective methyl esters. Normal acids, isoprenoidal acids, alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids, mono-alpha-methyl dicarboxylic acids and methyl ketoacids were identified. In addition, the presence of monocyclic, benzoic, phenylalkanoic and naphthyl-carboxylic acids, as well as cycloaromatic acids, is demonstrated by partial identification.

  1. Basically Acids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students learn the basics of acid/base chemistry in a fun, interactive way by studying instances of acid/base chemistry found in popular films such as Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and National Treasure. Students learn what acids, bases and indicators are and how they can be used, including invisible ink. They also learn how engineers use acids and bases every day to better our quality of life. Students' interest is piqued by the use of popular culture in the classroom.

  2. Pyrolysis Mechanisms of Aromatic Carboxylic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, P.F.; Eskay, T.P.; Buchanan, A.C. III

    1997-12-31

    Although decarboxylation of carboxylic acids is widely used in organic synthesis, there is limited mechanistic information on the uncatalyzed reaction pathways of aromatic carboxylic acids at 300-400 {degrees} C. The pyrolysis mechanisms of 1,2-(3,3-dicarboxyphenyl)ethane, 1,2-(4,4-dicarboxylphenyl)ethane, 1-(3-carboxyphenyl)-2-(4- biphenyl)ethane, and substituted benzoic acids have been investigated at 325-425 {degrees} C neat and diluted in an inert solvent. Decarboxylation is the dominant pyrolysis path. Arrhenius parameters, substituent effects, and deuterium isotope effects are consistent with decarboxylation by an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. Pyrolysis of benzoic acid in naphthalene, as a solvent, produces significant amounts of 1- and 2-phenylnaphthalenes. The mechanistic pathways for decarboxylation and arylation with be presented.

  3. Acid Rain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gene E. Likens; Richard F. Wright; James N. Galloway; Thomas J. Butler

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the acidity of rain and snow reveal that in parts of the eastern U.S. and of western Europe precipitation has changed from a nearly neutral solution 200 years ago to a dilute solution of sulfuric and nitric acids today. The trend is a result of the emission of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere accompanying the rise

  4. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (US))

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  5. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  6. Domoic Acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bailey, Christina

    This online student report discusses the chemistry of domoic acid, a biotoxin that is produced by the diatom Psuedo-nitzschia and associated with Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). In addition to a descriptive summary and images, the report links to other areas of interest related to domoic acid poisoning including signs and symptoms, modes of action, and treatment.

  7. Acids (GCMP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". We will observe the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with three acid solutions. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

  8. Stable molecular configuration in crystalline carboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Soichi; Umemura, Junzo; Nakamura, Ryoko

    1980-12-01

    The stable (lower enthalpy) molecular configurations of propionic, butyric, Jeric and lauric acids in the crystalline state have been examined via their atom-atom potentials. It was found that the cis configuration is more stable than the trans configuration for propionic, butyric and valeric acids, and that the trans configuration is more stable than the cis configuration for lauric acid, in accord with a previous IR spectral analysis. The potential energy of benzoic acid was recalculated using the positions of atoms given by Speakman, and indicates that the A form is more stable than the B form, in agreement with the results of previous work.

  9. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Chili Bo, a Malaysian Food Ingredient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JØRGEN J. LEISNER; BRUNO POT; HENRIK CHRISTENSEN; GULAM RUSUL; JOHN E. OLSEN; BEE WAH WEE; KHARIDAH MUHAMAD; HASANAH M. GHAZALI

    1999-01-01

    Ninety-two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from a Malaysian food ingredient, chili bo, stored for up to 25 days at 28°C with no benzoic acid (product A) or with 7,000 mg of benzoic acid kg21 (product B). The strains were divided into eight groups by traditional phenotypic tests. A total of 43 strains were selected for comparison

  10. Acid Precipitation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tyser, Jim

    Acid precipitation will be defined. At different points in the lesson students will write balanced reactions for the formation acid precipitation from atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen oxides and the neutralization of acids by limestone. Students will determine which states are most at risk from acid precipitation and assess how that risk has changed from 1996 to 2006. Sources of atmospheric sulfur (burning of high-sulfur coal) and nitrogen oxides (automobile exhaust) will be listed. The buffering effect of limestone soils and its mitigating effect on acid precipitation will be discussed. Students will correlate these areas with sulfur and nitrogen oxide production, population, composition of coal fields, and soil composition. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student worksheets.

  11. The effects of pH on the enzymatic formation of ?-glucuronides of various retinoids by induced and noninduced microsomal UDPGA-glucuronosyltransferases of several rat tissues in vitro 1 1 Abbreviations used: acitretin, 9-(2?,3?,6? trimethyl, 4?methoxybenzyl1?) 3,7 dimethyl, nona-2,4,6,8 tetraenoic acid; acitretin-G, acitretin-glucuronide; BHT, butylated hydroxytoluene; CD367, tetramethyl, tetrahydro-anthracenyl-benzoic acid; CD367-G, CD367 glucuronide; HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography; 3MC, 3-methylcholanthrene; MES, 2-[N-morpholino]ethanesulfonic acid; NEM, N-ethylmaleimide; 4-oxo-RA, 4-oxoretinoic acid; 4-oxo-RAG, 4-oxoretinoyl ?-glucuronide; RA, retinoic acid; RAG, retinoyl ?-glucuronide; RAR, retinoic acid receptor; ROL, retinol; RXR, retinoid X receptor; Tris, tris [hydroxymethyl] aminomethane; TTNPB, tetramethyl, tetrahydronaphthenyl-propenyl-benzoic acid; TTNPB-G, TTNPB glucuronide; UDPGA, UDP-glucuronic acid; UGT, UDPGA-glucuronosyl transferase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Genchi; Arun B Barua; Wei Wang; Wayne R Bidlack; James A Olson

    1998-01-01

    All-trans retinoyl-?-glucuronide, a prominent water-soluble metabolite of all-trans retinoic acid (RA) in animals, is formed by the enzymic transfer of the glucuronyl moiety of uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid to RA. Uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs) of microsomal preparations catalyze this reaction. In noninduced rat liver microsomes, maximal activity was observed in the physiologic range (pH 6.9–7.5) for all-trans-RA, 9-cis-RA, all-trans-4-oxo-RA,

  12. Acid Rain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chris Fox

    Due to the presence of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide, rainfall is naturally acidic. The release of other gases and chemicals such as sulfur dioxide during the combustion of coal and oil can cause rainfall to become even more acidic, sometimes to the point of toxicity. In this activity, students will measure the pH of local rainfall to see what effect these gases have in their region. They will also check an online resource to see how the releases of acid rain-causing chemicals have varied over the past 20 years, and answer questions about the information they uncover.

  13. Effects of microbial utilization of phenolic acids and their phenolic acid breakdown products on allelopathic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, U. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Botany] [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Botany

    1998-04-01

    Reversible sorption of phenolic acids by soils may provide some protection to phenolic acids from microbial degradation. In the absence of microbes, reversible sorption 35 days after addition of 0.5--3 {micro}mol/g of ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid was 8--14% in Cecil A{sub p} horizon and 31--38% in Cecil B{sub t} horizon soil materials. The reversibly sorbed/solution ratios (r/s) for ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid ranged from 0.12 to 0.25 in A{sub p} and 0.65 to 0.85 in B{sub t} horizon soil materials. When microbes were introduced, the r/s ratio for both the A{sub p} and B{sub t} horizon soil materials increased over time up to 5 and 2, respectively, thereby indicating a more rapid utilization of solution phenolic acids over reversibly sorbed phenolic acids. The increase in r/s ratio and the overall microbial utilization of ferulic acid and/or p-coumaric acid were much more rapid in A{sub p} than in B{sub t} horizon soil materials. Reversible sorption, however, provided protection of phenolic acids from microbial utilization for only very short periods of time. Differential soil fixation, microbial production of benzoic acids (e.g., vanillic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid) from cinnamic acids (e.g., ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, respectively), and the subsequent differential utilization of cinnamic and benzoic acids by soil microbes indicated that these processes can substantially influence the magnitude and duration of the phytotoxicity of individual phenolic acids.

  14. ACID RAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

  15. Acid Reflux

    MedlinePLUS

    ... time. This stomach juice consists of acid, digestive enzymes, and other injurious materials. The prolonged contact of ... role in absorption of vitamins (Vitamin B12), the digestion of proteins, and initiation of peristalsis which causes the food ...

  16. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  17. Acidizing wells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1966-01-01

    A method of increasing the permeability of a rock formation by acidizing is applicable to silicate-bearing formations containing alkaline-earth-metal ions and alkali- metal ions which would have a reducing effect on the permeability of the formation. A carbonate solution is injected into the formation to convert any calcium sulfate to calcium carbonate. This is followed by injecting hydrochloric acid to

  18. Uric acid - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    The urine uric acid test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood ... to choose the best medicine to lower uric acid level in the blood. Uric acid is a ...

  19. Microporous metal organic framework [M2(hfipbb)2(ted)] (M=Zn, Co; H2hfipbb=4,4-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)-bis(benzoic acid); ted=triethylenediamine): Synthesis, structure analysis, pore characterization, small gas adsorption and CO2/N2 separation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, William W.; Pramanik, Sanhita; Zhang, Zhijuan; Emge, Thomas J.; Li, Jing

    2013-04-01

    Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that is a major contributor to global warming. Developing methods that can effectively capture CO2 is the key to reduce its emission to the atmosphere. Recent research shows that microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are emerging as a promising family of adsorbents that may be promising for use in adsorption based capture and separation of CO2 from power plant waste gases. In this work we report the synthesis, crystal structure analysis and pore characterization of two microporous MOF structures, [M2(hfipbb)2(ted)] (M=Zn (1), Co (2); H2hfipbb=4,4-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)-bis(benzoic acid); ted=triethylenediamine). The CO2 and N2 adsorption experiments and IAST calculations are carried out on [Zn2(hfipbb)2(ted)] under conditions that mimic post-combustion flue gas mixtures emitted from power plants. The results show that the framework interacts with CO2 strongly, giving rise to relatively high isosteric heats of adsorption (up to 28 kJ/mol), and high adsorption selectivity for CO2 over N2, making it promising for capturing and separating CO2 from CO2/N2 mixtures.

  20. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  1. Acid Stomach

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2003-08-07

    This Science NetLinks lesson is intended for a high-school, introductory chemistry class or health class. The lesson begins with an article on the history of the development of aspirin. Students will then complete a lab that compares the reaction of regular aspirin, buffered aspirin, and enteric aspirin in neutral, acidic, and basic solutions. They will then analyze the results of the experiment to gain insight into how this information was used by researchers to solve some of the problems associated with aspirin. To complete the lesson, students must understand acids and bases.

  2. Biodegradation of chloro- and bromobenzoic acids: Effect of milieu conditions and microbial community analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaza, Sarah; Felgner, Annika; Otto, Johannes; Kushmaro, Ariel; Ben-Dov, Eitan; Tiehm, Andreas

    2015-04-28

    Monohalogenated benzoic acids often appear in industrial wastewaters where biodegradation can be hampered by complex mixtures of pollutants and prevailing extreme milieu conditions. In this study, the biodegradation of chlorinated and brominated benzoic acids was conducted at a pH range of 5.0-9.0, at elevated salt concentrations and with pollutant mixtures including fluorinated and iodinated compounds. In mixtures of the isomers, the degradation order was primarily 4-substituted followed by 3-substituted and then 2-substituted halogenated benzoic acids. If the pH and salt concentration were altered simultaneously, long adaptation periods were required. Community analyses were conducted in liquid batch cultures and after immobilization on sand columns. The Alphaproteobacteria represented an important fraction in all of the enrichment cultures. On the genus level, Afipia sp. was detected most frequently. In particular, Bacteroidetes were detected in high numbers with chlorinated benzoic acids. PMID:25625627

  3. A meso-one-dimensional coordination polymer based on racemic 2-(1-oxo-1 H-2,3-dihydroisoindol-2-yl)benzoic acid: Synthesis, structure and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Chen, Yun; Ying, Shao-Ming; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Hui

    2009-11-01

    A novel polymeric complex NaCo( o-pba) 3(H 2O) 3 ( o-Hpba = 2-(1-oxo-1 H-2,3-dihydroisoindol-2-yl)benzonic acid) based on racemic N-arylphthalimidine ligand has been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic and X-ray crystallography methods. In the compound, each Co(II) cation is coordinated by six O atoms from three carboxyl groups of o-pba - and three water molecules in fac-MA 3B 3 model forming a chiral tripodal Co( o-pba) 3(H 2O) 3- anion-complex, enantiomeric pairs of which are alternately arranged in head-to-head and tail-to-tail orientations giving rise to a meso-one-dimensional chain-like structure. The compound exhibits high stability and unusual triple-peak luminescence in DMSO solution at room temperature.

  4. Acid Rain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online examination into acid rain and sulfur dioxide emissions. Students research which states have succeeded in reducing sulfur dioxide emissions between 1980 and 1999, and which states emissions have increased. This activity is accompanied by a page of websites for further information.

  5. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    An overview is presented of acid rain and the problems it causes to the environment worldwide. The acidification of lakes and streams is having a dramatic effect on aquatic life. Aluminum, present in virtually all forest soils, leaches out readily under acid conditions and interferes with the gills of all fish, some more seriously than others. There is evidence of major damage to forests in European countries. In the US, the most severe forest damage appears to be in New England, New York's Adirondacks, and the central Appalachians. This small region is part of a larger area of the Northeast and Canada that appears to have more acid rainfall than the rest of the country. It is downwind from major coal burning states, which produce about one quarter of US SO/sub 2/ emissions and one sixth of nitrogen oxide emissions. Uncertainties exist over the causes of forest damage and more research is needed before advocating expensive programs to reduce rain acidity. The President's current budget seeks an expansion of research funds from the current $30 million per year to $120 million.

  6. Amino Acids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Featured Molecules this month are the 20 standard ?-amino acids found in proteins and serve as background to the paper by Barone and Schmidt on the Nonfood Applications of Proteinaceous Renewable Materials. The molecules are presented in two formats, the neutral form and the ionized form found in solution at physiologic pH.

  7. Acid Attack

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    In this activity, students explore the effect of chemical erosion on statues and monuments. They use chalk to see what happens when limestone is placed in liquids with different pH values. They also learn several things that engineers are doing to reduce the effects of acid rain.

  8. Pharmacology of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Liu

    1995-01-01

    Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are triterpenoid compounds that exist widely in food, medicinal herbs and other plants. This review summarizes the pharmacological studies on these two triterpenoids. Both oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are effective in protecting against chemically induced liver injury in laboratory animals. Oleanolic acid has been marketed in China as an oral drug for human liver

  9. Isolation of benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives from the grains of Sorghum bicolor and their inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phi-Hung; Zhao, Bing Tian; Lee, Jeong Hyung; Kim, Young Ho; Min, Byung Sun; Woo, Mi Hee

    2015-02-01

    Two new caffeoylglycerols, (hwanggeumchal A-B, 9-10), together with eight known derivatives (1-8) were isolated from the grains of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench var. hwanggeumchal. Their chemical structures were established mainly by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and MS data analysis. Amongst those, methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (2), 3,4,5-trihydroxycinnamate (3), methyl 3,4-dihydroxycinnamate (5), caffeoylglycolic acid methyl ester (7) and 1-O-caffeoylglycerol (8) displayed potential inhibitory effects against LPS-induced NO production in macrophage RAW264.7 cells with IC50 values of 11.9, 2.9, 27.1, 29.0 and 18.5?M, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds dose-dependently reduced the LPS-induced iNOS expression. In addition, pre-incubation of cells with compounds 2, 3 and 5 significantly suppressed LPS-induced COX-2 protein expression. SAR investigation revealed that compounds with a methyl ester (COOCH3) group possessed stronger activity. Our obtained data suggest that S. bicolor and its caffeoylglyceride-enrich extracts may be applied as supplemental and/or functional foods having a beneficial effect against inflammation. PMID:25172742

  10. Theoretical modeling of the OH stretch infrared spectrum of carboxylic acid dimers based on first-principles anharmonic couplings

    E-print Network

    Zwier, Timothy S.

    Theoretical modeling of the OH stretch infrared spectrum of carboxylic acid dimers based on first, Wisconsin 53706-1396 Received 20 September 2002; accepted 28 October 2002 Carboxylic acid dimers serve, and OH bend internal coordinates for the formic acid and benzoic acid dimers. These are then projected

  11. Domoic Acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    INCHEM

    This highly detailed chemical information page features domoic acid, a toxin associated with Amnesic shellfish poisoning and naturally produced by the red algae Chondria armata and diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Created by the International Programme on Chemical Safety, this web page organizes information under the following sections: Name, Summary, Physio-Chemical Properties, Uses, Routes of Entry, Kinetics, Toxicology, Toxicological and Biomedical Investigations, Clinical Effects, Management, Illustrative Cases, Additional Information, References, and Authors.

  12. Behavior of carboxylic acids upon complexation with beryllium compounds.

    PubMed

    Mykolayivna-Lemishko, Kateryna; Montero-Campillo, M Merced; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel

    2014-07-31

    A significant acidity enhancement and changes on aromaticity were previously observed in squaric acid and its derivatives when beryllium bonds are present in those systems. In order to know if these changes on the chemical properties could be considered a general behavior of carboxylic acids upon complexation with beryllium compounds, complexes between a set of representative carboxylic acids RCOOH (formic acid, acetic acid, propanoic acid, benzoic acid, and oxalic acid) and beryllium compounds BeX2 (X = H, F, Cl) were studied by means of density functional theory calculations. Complexes that contain a dihydrogen bond or a OH···X interaction are the most stable in comparison with other possible BeX2 complexation patterns in which no other weak interactions are involved apart from the beryllium bond. Formic, acetic, propanoic, benzoic, and oxalic acid complexes with BeX2 are much stronger acids than their related free forms. The analysis of the topology of the electron density helps to clarify the reasons behind this acidity enhancement. Importantly, when the halogen atom is replaced by hydrogen in the beryllium compound, the dihydrogen bond complex spontaneously generates a new neutral complex [RCOO:BeH] in which a hydrogen molecule is lost. This seems to be a trend for carboxylic acids on complexing BeX2 compounds. PMID:25010490

  13. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... acid is a substance produced when proteins (called amino acids) in the body break down. A test can ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

  14. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePLUS

    Folic acid is a type of B vitamin. This article discusses the test to measure the amount of folic acid in the blood. ... that may interfere with test results, including folic acid supplements. Drugs that can decrease folic acid measurements ...

  15. Microporous metal organic framework [M{sub 2}(hfipbb){sub 2}(ted)] (M=Zn, Co; H{sub 2}hfipbb=4,4-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)-bis(benzoic acid); ted=triethylenediamine): Synthesis, structure analysis, pore characterization, small gas adsorption and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation properties

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, William W. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 0854 (United States); Princeton High School, 151 Moore Street, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Pramanik, Sanhita [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 0854 (United States); Zhang, Zhijuan [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 0854 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Emge, Thomas J. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 0854 (United States); Li, Jing, E-mail: jingli@rutgers.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 0854 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that is a major contributor to global warming. Developing methods that can effectively capture CO{sub 2} is the key to reduce its emission to the atmosphere. Recent research shows that microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are emerging as a promising family of adsorbents that may be promising for use in adsorption based capture and separation of CO{sub 2} from power plant waste gases. In this work we report the synthesis, crystal structure analysis and pore characterization of two microporous MOF structures, [M{sub 2}(hfipbb){sub 2}(ted)] (M=Zn (1), Co (2); H{sub 2}hfipbb=4,4-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)-bis(benzoic acid); ted=triethylenediamine). The CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} adsorption experiments and IAST calculations are carried out on [Zn{sub 2}(hfipbb){sub 2}(ted)] under conditions that mimic post-combustion flue gas mixtures emitted from power plants. The results show that the framework interacts with CO{sub 2} strongly, giving rise to relatively high isosteric heats of adsorption (up to 28 kJ/mol), and high adsorption selectivity for CO{sub 2} over N{sub 2}, making it promising for capturing and separating CO{sub 2} from CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures. - Graphical abstract: Microporous [Zn{sub 2}(hfipbb){sub 2}(ted)] demonstrates high adsorption selectivity for CO{sub 2} over N{sub 2} under conditions that mimic flue gas mixtures. Highlights: ? Two new porous MOFs were synthesized and characterized by rational design. ? The small pore size leads to greatly enhanced CO{sub 2}–MOF interaction. ? High adsorption selectivity of the Zn–MOF for CO{sub 2} over N{sub 2} is achieved.

  16. Acid Ocean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The I2I-Acid Ocean virtual lab is an e-learning activity where students become virtual scientists studying the impact of ocean acidification on sea urchin larval growth. Students recreate a real, up-to-date climate change experiment. They also learn important general scientific principles, such as the importance of sample size and numbers of replicates, and discuss what this research into a specific impact of climate change may mean for the future of our oceans. There is a French translation available.

  17. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  18. Brnsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid**

    E-print Network

    Reed, Christopher A.

    -Chan Kim, and Christopher A. Reed* Acids based on carborane anions as conjugate bases (Figure 1) are a newBrønsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid** Mark Juhasz, Stephan Hoffmann, Evgenii Stoyanov, Kee class of Brønsted (protic) acids, notable for their "strong yet gentle" qualities.[1] For example

  19. Synthesis and HPLC evaluation of carboxylic acid phases on a hydride surface.

    PubMed

    Pesek, Joseph J; Matyska, Maria T; Gangakhedkar, Surekha; Siddiq, Rukhsana

    2006-04-01

    Three organic moieties containing carboxylic acid functional groups are attached to a particulate silica surface through silanization/hydrosilation. Two compounds (undecylenic acid and 10-undecynoic acid) have 11 carbon chains and the other is a five-carbon acid (pentenoic acid). Bonding is confirmed through carbon elemental analysis, diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform spectroscopy, and carbon-13 and silicon-29 CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy. The bonded phases are tested by HPLC using PTH amino acids, nucleic acids, theophylline-related compounds, anilines, benzoic acid compounds, choline, and tobramycin. The latter two compounds are used to investigate the aqueous normal phase properties of the three bonded materials. PMID:16830499

  20. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, R.H.; Boyle, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acid rain, says Boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of North America and Europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time. Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon; the effects on man, wildlife, water, and our cultural heritage. He probes the delays of politicians and the frequent self-serving arguments advanced by industry in the face of what scientists have proved. The solutions he offers are to strengthen the Clean Air Act and require emission reductions that can be accomplished by establishing emission standards on a regional or bubble basis, burn low-sulfur coal, install scrubbers at critical plants, and invest in alternative energy sources. 73 references, 1 figure.

  1. Acanthoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Suwancharoen, Sunisa; Tommeurd, Wantanee; Phurat, Chuttree; Muangsin, Nongnuj; Pornpakakul, Surachai

    2010-01-01

    The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aR,7S,8aS,10aS)-1,4a,7-trimethyl-7-vinyl-1,2,3,4,4a,6,7,8,8a,9,10,10a-dodeca­hydro­phenanthrene-1-carb­oxy­lic acid], C20H30O2, is a pimarane-type diterpene extracted from Croton oblongifolius. There are two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. In both of these, the six-membered rings A, B and C adopt chair, boat and half-chair conformations, respectively. Rings A and B are trans-fused. The two mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit form O—H?O hydrogen-bonded R 2 2(8) dimers. The absolute configuration was assigned on the basis of the published literature on analogous structures. PMID:21587780

  2. Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated fatty acids are useful as specialty chemicals, plasticizers, and biomedicals. Microbial enzymes convert fatty acids to mono-, di-, and trihydroxy fatty acid products. Among them, Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. Linoleic acid was ...

  3. Ionic equilibria in aqueous organic solvent mixtures the dissociation constants of acids and salts in tetrahydrofuran\\/water mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Urmas Muinasmaa; Clara Ràfols; Elisabeth Bosch; Martí Rosés

    1997-01-01

    The dissociation constants of several acids (perchloric, hydrochloric, phosphoric, acetic and benzoic acids) and of some sodium salts (chloride, acetate and benzoate) have been conductometrically determined in tetrahydrofuran\\/water mixtures up to a 90% of tetrahydrofuran in volume. The results demonstrate that conductometry can be successfully applied to determine the dissociation constants of salts and moderately weak and strong acids in

  4. Plasma amino acids

    MedlinePLUS

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acids levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  5. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  6. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePLUS

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid, a hormone called gastrin may be injected into ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour in ...

  7. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Flu Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > Parents > Pregnancy & Newborn Center > Your ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  8. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  9. Azelaic Acid Topical

    MedlinePLUS

    Azelaic acid gel is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin disease that ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat acne. Azelaic acid ...

  10. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, Wolman’s Disease Table of Contents (click to jump ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease occurs when the ...

  11. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... visit us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . Valproic acid and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts ... from your health care professional. What is valproic acid? Valproic acid is a medication commonly used to ...

  12. COMBINING STEAM WITH ORGANIC ACID TREATMENT TO ELIMINATE LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES GROWTH ON REFRIGERATED FRANKFURTERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, an organic acid solution, including acetic (2%), lactic (1%), propionic (0.1%), and benzoic acid (0.1%), were combined with steam surface pasteurization to treat frankfurters during vacuum packaging to eliminate potentially post-cook contaminated L. monocytogenes. The thermal lethalit...

  13. A redetermination of 2-nitro­benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Portalone, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, C7H5NO4, was first reported by Kurahashi, Fukuyo & Shimada [(1967). Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn, 40, 1296]. It has been re-examined, improving the precision of the derived geometric parameters. The asymmetric unit comprises a non-planar independent mol­ecule, as the nitro and the carb­oxy substituents force each other to be twisted away from the plane of the aromatic ring by 54.9?(2) and 24.0?(2)°, respectively. The mol­ecules form a conventional dimeric unit via centrosymmetric inter­molecular hydrogen bonds. PMID:21583997

  14. 2-(4-Bromo­benzene­sulfonamido)benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Muhammad Nadeem; Khan, Islam Ullah; Akkurt, Mehmet; Shafiq, Muhammad; Mustafa, Ghulam

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, C13H10BrNO4S, the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 82.75?(15)°. An intra­molecular N—H?O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal structure, two mol­ecules form an R 2 2(8) centrosymmetric dimer through a pair of O—H?O hydrogen bonds. Intra- and inter­molecular C—H?O hydrogen bonds are also observed. PMID:21582883

  15. 4-Butyl­amino-3-nitro­benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Narendra Babu, Shivanagere Nagojappa; Abdul Rahim, Aisyah Saad; Osman, Hasnah; Jebas, Samuel Robinson; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C11H14N2O4, comprises four crystallographically independent mol­ecules (A, B, C and D) with similar geometries. In each mol­ecule, the butyl­amino side chain is in an extended conformation, and the carboxyl and butyl­amino groups are almost coplanar with the attached benzene ring; the nitro group is slightly twisted away from the benzene ring. In the asymmetric unit, the benzene rings of mol­ecules A, B and C are stacked parallel to one another, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.6197?(11) or 3.6569?(11)?Å, indicating ?–? inter­actions. An intra­molecular N—H?O hydrogen bond is observed in each independent mol­ecule. In addition to the ?–? inter­actions, the crystal packing is consolidated by inter­molecular O—H?O and C—H?O hydrogen bonds and C—H?? inter­actions. The crystal studied was a non-merohedral twin. The minor twin component refined to a value of 0.290?(1). PMID:21583933

  16. Method of acidizing wells using gelled acids

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, C.W.

    1984-01-17

    The permeability of siliceous or calcareous subterranean formations adjacent a wellbore is increased by contacting the formation with a gelled aqueous acid capable of dissolving mineral constituents in the formation. The gelled aqueous acid compositions comprise (a) aqueous hydrochloric acid, and (b) a readily soluble gelling agent. Component (b) contains a sufficient amount of a polyoxyethylene glycol to gel the acid and enough ammonium-, alkali-, or alkaline earth metal bicarbonate or carbonate to cause rapid dissolution and dispersion of the polyoxyethylene glycol in the aqueous hydrochloric acid.

  17. Communication: The ionization spectroscopy of mixed carboxylic acid dimers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhijun; Gu, Quanli; Trindle, Carl O; Knee, J L

    2013-10-21

    We report mass analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy of supersonically cooled gas phase carboxylic complexes with 9-hydroxy-9-fluorenecarboxylic acid (9HFCA), an analog of glycolic acid. The vibrationally resolved cation spectrum for the 9HFCA complex with formic acid allows accurate determination of its ionization potential (IP), 64,374 ± 8 cm(-1). This is 545 cm(-1) smaller than the IP of 9HFCA monomer. The IPs of 9HFCA complexes with acetic acid and benzoic acid shift by -1133 cm(-1) and -1438 cm(-1), respectively. Density functional calculations confirm that Cs symmetry is maintained upon ionization of the 9HFCA monomer and its acid complexes, in contrast to the drastic geometric rearrangement attending ionization in complexes of 9-fluorene carboxylic acid. We suggest that the marginal geometry changes and small IP shifts are primarily due to the collective interactions among one intramolecular and two intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the dimer. PMID:24160490

  18. Acidic organic compounds in beverage, food, and feed production.

    PubMed

    Quitmann, Hendrich; Fan, Rong; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Organic acids and their derivatives are frequently used in beverage, food, and feed production. Acidic additives may act as buffers to regulate acidity, antioxidants, preservatives, flavor enhancers, and sequestrants. Beneficial effects on animal health and growth performance have been observed when using acidic substances as feed additives. Organic acids could be classified in groups according to their chemical structure. Each group of organic acids has its own specific properties and is used for different applications. Organic acids with low molecular weight (e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid), which are part of the primary metabolism, are often produced by fermentation. Others are produced more economically by chemical synthesis based on petrochemical raw materials on an industrial scale (e.g. formic acid, propionic and benzoic acid). Biotechnology-based production is of interest due to legislation, consumer demand for natural ingredients, and increasing environmental awareness. In the United States, for example, biocatalytically produced esters for food applications can be labeled as "natural," whereas identical conventional acid catalyst-based molecules cannot. Natural esters command a price several times that of non-natural esters. Biotechnological routes need to be optimized regarding raw materials and yield, microorganisms, and recovery methods. New bioprocesses are being developed for organic acids, which are at this time commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Moreover, new organic acids that could be produced with biotechnological methods are under investigation for food applications. PMID:24275825

  19. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid

  20. Acid-Base Equilibria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David W. Sherman

    This 9-page PDF document is part of an environmental geochemistry course taught by Dr. David Sherman at the University of Bristol. Topics include acid-base theories, aqueous systems, strong and weak acids and bases, acid-base properties of minerals, the pH of weak acid and buffered systems, and the calculation of titration curves.

  1. The Biosynthesis of Salicylic Acid in Potato Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Coquoz, Jean-Luc; Buchala, Antony; Métraux, Jean-Pierre

    1998-01-01

    Spraying potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaves with arachidonic acid (AA) at 1500 ?g mL?1 led to a rapid local synthesis of salicylic acid (SA) and accumulation of a SA conjugate, which was shown to be 2-O-?-glucopyranosylsalicylic acid. Radiolabeling studies with untreated leaves showed that SA was synthesized from phenylalanine and that both cinnamic and benzoic acid were intermediates in the biosynthesis pathway. Using radiolabeled phenylalanine as a precursor, the specific activity of SA was found to be lower when leaves were treated with AA than in control leaves. Similar results were obtained when leaves were fed with the labeled putative intermediates cinnamic acid and benzoic acid. Application of 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid at 40 ?m, an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, prior to treatment with AA inhibited the local accumulation of SA. When the putative intermediates were applied to leaves in the presence of 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid, about 40% of the expected accumulation of free SA was recovered, but the amount of the conjugate remained constant. PMID:9662552

  2. Uptake of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) from the apical membrane of Caco-2 cells by the monocarboxylic acid transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Osamu; Tsukagoshi, Kensuke [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Endo, Tetsuya [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan)], E-mail: endotty@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp

    2008-03-15

    The cellular uptake mechanism of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), a phenoxyacetic acid derivative, was investigated using Caco-2 epithelial cells. The cells were incubated with 50 {mu}M MCPA at pH 6.0 and 37 deg. C, and the uptake of MCPA from the apical membranes was measured. The uptake of MCPA was significantly decreased by incubation at low temperature (4 {sup o}C) and markedly increased by lowering the extracellular pH. Pretreatment with a protonophore, carbonylcyanide-p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (25 {mu}M), or metabolic inhibitors, 2,4-dinitrophenol (1 mM) and sodium azide (10 mM), significantly decreased the uptake of MCPA by 53%, 45% and 48%, respectively. Coincubation of MCPA with 10 mM L-lactic acid or {alpha}-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate, which is a substrate or an inhibitor of the monocarboxylic acid transporters (MCTs), significantly decreased the uptake of MCPA by 31% and 20%, respectively, and coincubation with benzoic acid profoundly decreased the uptake by 68%. In contrast, coincubation with succinic acid (a dicarboxylic acid) did not affect the uptake. Kinetic analysis of initial MCPA uptake suggested that MCPA is taken up via a carrier-mediated process [K{sub m} = 1.37 {+-} 0.15 mM, V{sub max} = 115 {+-} 6 nmol (mg protein){sup -1} (3 min){sup -1}]. Lineweaver-Burk plots show that benzoic acid competitively inhibits the uptake of MCPA with a K{sub i} value of 4.68 {+-} 1.76 mM. A trans-stimulation effect on MCPA uptake was found in cells preloaded with benzoic acid. These results suggest that the uptake of MCPA from the apical membrane of Caco-2 cells is mainly mediated by common MCTs along with benzoic acid but also in part by L-lactic acid.

  3. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  4. Acetylenic acids from mosses.

    PubMed

    Anderson, W H; Gellerman, J L; Schlenk, H

    1975-08-01

    Two new acetylenic fatty acids, 9, 12-octadecadien-6-ynoic and 11, 14-eicosadien-8-ynoic, were identified from lipids of the moss, Fontinalis antipyretica. They resemble the previously identified 9,12,15-octadecatrien-6-ynoic acid by having a methylene interrupted unsaturated system. The C20 acetylenic acid shows that the capability of mosses to synthesize polyolefinic acids of this chain length applies, in certain species, also to olefinic-acetylenic acids. PMID:1160525

  5. Acids and Bases (Netorials)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Acids and Bases: this is a resource in the collection "Netorials". In this module there is an introduction to the chemical properties of acids and bases. Afterwards, the sections include topics such as Molecular Structures of Acids and Bases, Ionization constants, properties of salts, buffers and Lewis theory of Acids and Bases. The Netorials cover selected topics in first-year chemistry including: Chemical Reactions, Stoichiometry, Thermodynamics, Intermolecular Forces, Acids & Bases, Biomolecules, and Electrochemistry.

  6. Noncovalent-bonded 1D-3D supramolecular architectures from 2-methylquinoline/quinoline with monocarboxylic acid and dicarboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xingjun; Jin, Shouwen; Jin, Li; Ye, XiangHang; Zheng, Lu; Li, JingWen; Jin, BinPeng; Wang, Daqi

    2014-10-01

    Studies concentrating on noncovalent weak interactions between the organic base of 2-methylquinoline/quinoline, and carboxylic acid derivatives have led to an increased understanding of the role 2-methylquinoline/quinoline have in binding with carboxylic acids. Here anhydrous multicomponent organic acid-base adducts of 2-methylquinoline/quinoline have been prepared with carboxylic acids that ranged from monocarboxylic acid to dicarboxylic acid such as p-nitrobenzoic acid, (4-chloro-phenoxy)-acetic acid, 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid, 5-bromosalicylic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, ?-ketoglutaric acid, and 4-nitrophthalic acid. The seven crystalline complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, m.p., and elemental analysis. These structures adopted the hetero supramolecular synthons. Analysis of the crystal packing of 1-7 suggests that there are Nsbnd H⋯O, Osbnd H⋯N, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) between the acid and quinoline moieties in the studied compounds. Except the classical hydrogen bonding interactions, the secondary propagating interactions also play important roles in structure extension. These weak interactions combined, these compounds displayed 1D-3D framework structure.

  7. Separation of aromatic carboxylic acids using quaternary ammonium salts on reversed-phase HPLC. 1. Separation behavior of aromatic carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, K.; Okuwaki, A.; Verheyen, T.; Perry, G.J. [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan). Graduate School of Environmental Studies

    2006-02-15

    In order to develop separation processes and analytical methods for aromatic carboxylic acids for the coal oxidation products, the separation behavior of aromatic carboxylic acids on a reversed-phase HPLC using eluent containing quaternary ammonium salt has been investigated. The retention mechanism of aromatic carboxylic acids was discussed on the basis of both ion-pair partition model and ion-exchange model. The retention behavior of aromatic carboxylic acids possessing one (or two) carboxylic acid group(s) followed the ion-pair partition model, where linear free energy relationship was observed between the capacity factor and the extraction equilibrium constants of benzoic acid and naphthalene carboxylic acid. Besides, the retention behavior followed ion-exchange model with increasing the number of carboxylic acids, where the capacity factor of benzene polycarboxylic acids is proportional to the association constants between aromatic acids and quaternary ammonium ions calculated on the basis of an electrostatic interaction model.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Bacilli Degrading Cinnamic, 4-Coumaric, and Ferulic Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xue Peng; Norihiko Misawa; Shigeaki Harayama

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-four thermophilic Bacillus sp. strains were isolated from decayed wood bark and a hot spring water sample based on their ability to degrade vanillic acid under thermophilic conditions. It was found that these bacteria were able to degrade a wide range of aromatic acids such as cinnamic, 4-coumaric, 3-phenylpropionic, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic, ferulic, benzoic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids. The metabolic pathways for the

  9. Arsenopyrite mineral based electrochemical sensor for acid–base titrations in ? -butyrolactone and propylene carbonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zorka Stani?; Jelena Stepanovi?; Zoran Simi?

    \\u000a Abstract  A novel acid–base sensor based on the natural mineral arsenopyrite for titrations in ?-butyrolactone and propylene carbonate is validated and studied. This sensor, which requires only small sample volumes, was\\u000a employed for the titrations of some important organic acids (benzoic, anthranilic, and salicylic acid) with potassium hydroxide.\\u000a A stable stationary potential was attained at the arsenopyrite electrode in ?-butyrolactone and

  10. New bioactive fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ching T

    2008-01-01

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) through 10-hydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid, and racinoleic acid to 7,10,12-trihydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid. DOD showed antibacterial activity including against food-borne pathogens. Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. For example: linoleic acid was converted to12,13-epoxy-9-octadecenoic acid and then to 12,13-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (12,13-DHOA). From here, there are two bioconversion pathways. The major pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,17-trihydroxy-9(S)-octadecenoic acid (THOA) --> 12,17;13,17-diepoxy-16-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (DEOA) --> 7-hydroxy-DEOA. The minor pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,16-THOA --> 12-hydroxy-13,16-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid. 12,13,17-THOA has anti-plant pathogenic fungal activity. The tetrahydrofuranyl moiety is known in anti cancer drugs. Strain ALA2 also converts other n-3 and n-6 PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) to many new oxygenated unsaturated fatty acid products. All of these new products have high potential for antimicrobial agents or biomedical applications. We also screened 12 Mortierella fungal strains from the ARS Culture Collection for the production of bioactive fatty acids such as dihomo-gama-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid. All of the strains tested produced AA and DGLA from glucose or glycerol. The top five AA producers (mg AA/g CDW) were in the following order: M. alpina > M. zychae > M. hygrophila > M. minutissima > M. parvispora. Both AA and DGLA are important natural precursors of a large family of prostaglandin and thromboxane groups. PMID:18296335

  11. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  12. Purification of oleic acid and linoleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Arudi, R.L.; Sutherland, M.W.; Bielski, B.H.J.

    1983-01-01

    To permit kinetic studies of the reactivity of unsaturated fatty acids towards oxygen radicals, it is essential to remove traces of hydroperoxides and other conjugated lipid impurities commonly present in commercial samples. Removal of these impurities has been satisfactorily achieved for oleic and linoleic acids by anaerobic low temperature recrystallization from acetonitrile. The uv spectra of commercial and purified samples are compared.

  13. Purification of oleic acid and linoleic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Arudi; M. W. Sutherland; B. H. J. Bielski

    1983-01-01

    To permit kinetic studies of the reactivity of unsaturated fatty acids towards oxygen radicals, it is essential to remove traces of hydroperoxides and other conjugated lipid impurities commonly present in commercial samples. Removal of these impurities has been satisfactorily achieved for oleic and linoleic acids by anaerobic low temperature recrystallization from acetonitrile. The uv spectra of commercial and purified samples

  14. Preparation of ( S)-mandelic acids by enantioselective degradation of racemates with a new isolate Pseudomonas putida ECU1009

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han-Rong Huang; Jian-He Xu; Yi Xu; Jiang Pan; Xiang Liu

    2005-01-01

    An enantioselective (R)-mandelate degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas putida ECU1009, was newly isolated from soil. The degradation activity of the bacterial cells was significantly enhanced by supplementing an optimal amount of racemic mandelic acid (0.4%), benzoylformic acid (0.4%), or benzoic acid (0.2%) to the culture medium as the enzyme inducer. Using the resting cells as a biocatalyst, three kinds of (S)-mandelic acids

  15. Sulfuric acid poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

  16. Uric acid - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Purines are found in some ... dried beans and peas, and beer. Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys. ...

  17. Folic Acid Quiz

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Global Activities Information For... Media Policy Makers Folic Acid Quiz Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... button beside the question. Good Luck! 1. Folic acid is: A a B vitamin B a form ...

  18. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  19. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  20. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Hydrocholoric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

  1. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePLUS

    The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body ... dye. The slide is then washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria ...

  2. Alpha Hydroxy Acids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page Home Cosmetics Products & Ingredients Ingredients Alpha Hydroxy Acids See also: Guidance for Industry: Labeling for Cosmetics Containing Alpha Hydroxy Acids The following information is intended to answer questions ...

  3. Methylmalonic Acid Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this website will be limited. Search Help? Methylmalonic Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: MMA Formal name: Methylmalonic Acid Related tests: Vitamin B12 and Folate , Homocysteine , Intrinsic ...

  4. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePLUS

    Aminolevulinic acid is used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty ... skin cancer) of the face or scalp. Aminolevulinic acid is in a class of medications called photosensitizing ...

  5. Carbolic acid poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... Phenol ... and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2008. Toxicological profile for Phenol. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human ...

  6. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePLUS

    Lactate test ... test. Exercise can cause a temporary increase in lactic acid levels. ... not getting enough oxygen. Conditions that can increase lactic acid levels include: Heart failure Liver disease Lung disease ...

  7. Acid (and Base) Rainbows

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-06-27

    Learners use red cabbage juice and pH indicator paper to test the acidity and basicity of household materials. The activity links this concept of acids and bases to acid rain and other pollutants. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

  8. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  9. Neutralizing Acids and Bases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-04-08

    Learners use their knowledge of color changes with red cabbage indicator to neutralize an acidic solution with a base and then neutralize a basic solution with an acid. Use this as a follow-up activity to the related activity, "Color Changes with Acids and Bases."

  10. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  11. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  12. New 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid Schiff base compounds and their complexes: Synthesis, characterization and thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Khosro; Niad, Mahmood; Jafari, Tahereh

    2014-03-01

    Some new tetradentate Schiff base ligands (H3L) were prepared via condensation of 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid with 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde derivatives, such as 3,4-bis((E)-2,4-dihydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L1), 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L2) and 3,4-bis((E)-5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L4). Additionally, a tetradentate Schiff base ligand 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L3) and its complexes were synthesized. Their metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) were prepared in good yields from the reaction of the ligands with the corresponding metal acetate. They were characterized based on IR, 1H NMR, Mass spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Also, the formation constants of the complexes were measured by UV-Vis spectroscopic titration at constant ionic strength 0.1 M (NaClO4), at 25 °C in dimethylformamide (DMF) as a solvent.

  13. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  14. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Waunakee, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow; Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  15. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  16. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  17. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  18. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  19. Acetylenic acids from mosses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Anderson; J. L. Gellerman

    1975-01-01

    Two new acetylenic fatty acids, 9, 12-octadecadien-6-ynoic and 11,14-eicosadien-8-ynoic, were identified from lipids of the\\u000a moss,Fontinalis antipyretica. They resemble the previously identified 9,12,15-octadecatrien-6-ynoic acid by having a methylene interrupted unsaturated\\u000a system. The C20 acetylenic acid shows that the capability of mosses to synthesize polyolefinic acids of this chain length applies, in certain\\u000a species, also to olefinic-acetylenic acids.

  20. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  1. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  2. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  3. [Biosynthesis of adipic acid].

    PubMed

    Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-10-01

    Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production. PMID:24432653

  4. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ...AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0057; FRL-9381-2] Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION:...

  5. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  6. 4, 29012944, 2007 Acid deposition,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    short-term re- ductions in stream acidity, particularly base cation dilution and organic acid increasesHESSD 4, 2901­2944, 2007 Acid deposition, climate change and acid extremes C. D. Evans et al. Title System Sciences Effects of decreasing acid deposition and climate change on acid extremes in an upland

  7. THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

  8. Acid Rain Learning Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    These suggestions for activities allow students to learn about acid deposition in new and interactive ways, both in and out of the classroom. The suggestions are for individuals and small groups, the class as a whole, or for field trips. Students may contact local experts about acid rain issues, investigate the energy sources used to generate electricity by their local power companies, collect cartoons about acid rain and air pollution, or play the roles of scientists or interested parties involved in investigations of acid rain issues. Field trip ideas include visiting a local museum or science center to see exhibits or resources on acid rain, and visiting a local cemetary to examine the effects of acid rain on the headstones.

  9. Production of methanol from aromatic acids by Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, M I; Dagley, S

    1980-01-01

    When grown at the expense of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid, a strain of Pseudomonas putida oxidized this compound and also 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic (syringic) and 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzoic (3-O-methylgallic) acids; but other hydroxy- or methoxy-benzoic acids were oxidized slowly or not at all. Radioactivity appeared exclusively in carbon dioxide when cells were incubated with [4-methoxyl-14C]trimethoxybenzoic acid, but was found mainly in methanol when[methoxyl-14C]3-O-methylgallic acid was metabolized. The identity of methanol was proved by analyzing the product from [methoxyl-13C]3-O-methylgallic acid by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and by isolating the labeled 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid methyl ester, which was examined by mass spectrometry. These results, together with measurements of oxygen consumed in demethylations catalyzed by cell extracts, showed that two methoxyl groups of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate and one of syringate were oxidized to give carbon dioxide and 3-O-methylgallate. This was then metabolized to pyruvate; the other product was presumed to be the 4-methyl ester of oxalacetic acid, for which cell extracts contained an inducible, specific esterase. P. putida did not metabolize the methanol released from this compound by hydrolysis. Support for the proposed reaction sequence was obtained by isolating mutants which, although able to convert 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid into 3-O-methylgallic acid, were unable to use either compound for growth. PMID:7380811

  10. Selective deuteration of (hetero)aromatic compounds via deutero-decarboxylation of carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Rachel; Nikmal, Arif; Cornella, Josep; Larrosa, Igor

    2012-04-28

    A practical, mild and highly selective protocol for the monodeuteration of a variety of arenes and heteroarenes is presented. Catalytic amounts of Ag(I) salts in DMSO/D(2)O are shown to facilitate the deutero-decarboxylation of ortho-substituted benzoic and heteroaromatic ?-carboxylic acids in high yields with excellent levels of deuterium incorporation. PMID:22418863

  11. Acid rain on Bermuda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Jickells; Anthony Knap; Thomas Church; James Galloway; John Miller

    1982-01-01

    Increased acidity of precipitation due to combustion of fossil fuels has been well documented for both the eastern USA1 and Canada2. The SO2 and NOxemitted by the burning of coal, natural gas, fuel oil and petrol are oxidized in the atmosphere to sulphuric and nitric acids which subsequently give rise to acid precipitation1. However, the SO2 and NOx emitted, and

  12. Excretion of ascorbic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Deeny; E. T. Murdock; J. J. Rogan

    1944-01-01

    Summary  The literature concerning the excretion of ascorbic acid is reviewed and discussed.\\u000a \\u000a Experiments have been carried out and results are given, to show the extent of the marked hourly variations which occur in\\u000a the excretion of ascorbic acid by the kidneys. This variation is present at all physiological ascorbic acid blood levels and\\u000a is not related to the urine pH

  13. Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This on-line exercise is focused on lactic acid bacteria, a group of related bacteria that produce lactic acid as a result of carbohydrate fermentation. It includes a protocol for the enrichment of lactic acid bacteria from enriched samples (like yogurt, sauerkraut, decaying plant matter, and tooth plaque). Three parameters are measured: growth, culture diversity, and pH. The exercise also includes instructions for the isolation of some of these bacteria by using the streak-plate method.

  14. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  15. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  16. Acid Rain Students' Site

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The EPA developed this colorful website to teach students all about acid rain. First, through clear descriptions and helpful figures users can learn the characteristics of acid rain, its dangers, and how to control it. The website offers an interactive connect-the-dots, word searches, crossword puzzles, and other games. A short movie provides an overview of how the use of coal contributes to acid rain and acid rain's impacts on ecosystems and human health. The website also offers an introduction to the pH scale and tools to measure the pH.

  17. Molecular Structure of Fumaric acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-11-05

    Fumaric acid is odorless and colorless or white crystalline powder with a fruit acid taste. Fumaric acid is used as a substitute of tartaric acid in beverages and baking powders and as a replacement for citric acid in fruits drinks. It is also used as antioxidant to prevent rancidity in butter, cheese, powdered milk, and other foodstuff. In addition, fumaric acid is a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, synthetic resins and plastics. Fumaric acid can be prepared by catalytic oxidation of benzene or by bacterial action on glucose and it is involved in the production of energy from food. Fumaric acid (known as trans-butanedioic acid) is the trans isomer of maleic acid (also called cis-butanedioic acid). Fumaric acid is more stable than maleic acid and can be prepared by heating maleic acid.

  18. Improved taxol yield by aromatic carboxylic acid and amino acid feeding to cell cultures of taxus cuspidata.

    PubMed

    Fett-Neto, A G; Melanson, S J; Nicholson, S A; Pennington, J J; Dicosmo, F

    1994-10-01

    Cell culture of Taxus cuspidata represents an alternative to whole plant extraction as a source of taxol and related taxanes. Feeding phenylalanine to callus cultures was previously shown to result in increased taxol yields, probably due to the involvement of this amino acid as a precursor for the N-benzoylphenylisoserine side chain of taxol. Inthis study, we have examined the effect of various concentrations of phenylalanine, benzoic acid, N-benzoylglycine, serine, glycine, alanine, and 3-amino-3-phenyl-propionic acid on taxol accumulation in 2-year-old cell suspensions of Taxus cuspidata, cell line FCL1F, and in developing callus cultures of T. cuspidata. All compounds tested were included in media at stationary phase (suspensions) or after the period of fastest growth (calli). Alanine and 3-amino-3-phenyl-propionicacid were tested only in callus cultures and did not affect taxol accumulation. Significant increases or trends toward increases in taxol accumulationin callus and suspensions were observed in the presence of phenylalanine, benzoic acid, N-benzoylglycine, serine, and glycine. The greatest increases in taxol accumulation were observed in the presence of various concentrations of phenylalanine (1 mM for callus; 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mM for suspensions) and benzoic acid (0.2 and 1 mM for callus and 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mM for suspensions). Increases in taxol yields of cell suspensions in the presence of the most effective precursors brought taxol amounts at stationary phase from 2 mug . g(-1) to approximately 10 mug . g(-1) of the extracted dry weight. The results are discussed in termsof possible implications to taxol biosynthesis and in terms of practical applications to large-scale cell culture systems for the production ofthis drug. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18618915

  19. Hydroxybenzoic acids from Boreava orientalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akiyo Sakushima; Maksut Co?kun; Takashi Maoka

    1995-01-01

    A new guaiacylglycerol ether, threo-guaiacylglycerol-8?-vanillic acid ether, pyrocatechuic acid, pyrocatechuic acid 3-O-?-d-glucoside, gentisic acid, gentisic acid 5-O-?-d-glucoside, vanillic acid and vanillic acid 4-O-?-d-glucoside were identified from fruits of Boreava orientalis. Structural elucidation was carried out on the basis of UV, mass, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data, including 2D shift-correlation and selective INEPT experiments.

  20. Analysis of (?)-Shikimic Acid in Chinese Star Anise by GC–MS with Selected Ion Monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongcheng Liu; Qiwan Li; Yin Zhang; Yanhong Zhou

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive, specific, accurate, and reproducible GC–MS method with selected ion monitoring for quantitative determination\\u000a of (?)-shikimic acid (SA) in Chinese star anise, using benzoic acid as internal standard, has been developed and validated.\\u000a The homogeneity of the sample was evaluated by one way analysis of variance. The extraction efficiency of ultrasound-assisted\\u000a and Soxhlet extraction was compared. Results showed that

  1. Growth Stimulation and Inhibition Effects of 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid and Some Related Compounds on the Freshwater Green Alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kamaya; S. Tsuboi; T. Takada; K. Suzuki

    2006-01-01

    4-Hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) exhibited low algal toxicity with the 72-h median inhibition concentration (IC50) of 9.9 mmol\\/L in the standard growth inhibition test using the freshwater green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. In contrast, it stimulated the algal growth at lower concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mmol\\/L. Comparative studies\\u000a with benzoic acid and 2- and 3-hydroxybenzoic acids (2-HBA and 3-HBA) indicated

  2. Acid in water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laszlo Ilyes (None; )

    2007-05-16

    Plants and animals that live in water create some amount of acid in the water. The carbon dioxide that plants and animals release into the water makes the water acidic and unsafe for living organisms. This is why the water of captive aquatic animals and plants must be changed often.

  3. EXPOSURES TO ACIDIC AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient monitoring of acid aerosol in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. easurements made in Kingston, TN, and Stuebenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m3 more than 10 ti...

  4. Controlling acid rain

    E-print Network

    Fay, James A.

    1983-01-01

    High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn the northeastern USA are caused by the large scale combustion of fossil fuels within this region. Average precipitation acidity is pH 4.2, but spatial and temporal ...

  5. EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reviews of available data indicate that precipitation in a large region of North America is highly acidic when its pH is compared with the expected pH value of 5.65 for pure rain water in equilibrium with CO2. A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsib...

  6. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  7. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

  8. Acids in Proteins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-19

    This lesson describes how amino acids build proteins in a person's body. Amino acids are the chemical building blocks for the structure of an organism. A link to a quiz is provided at the end of the lesson to check comprehension.

  9. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  10. Urobilinogen AscorbicAcid

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Carlos

    Date Lot # Bilirubin Urobilinogen Ketone AscorbicAcid Glucose Protein Blood pH Nitrite Leukocytes Specific Gravity hCG: Method Lot # Acetest® (Ketone): Lot # Clinitest® (Glucose): Lot # Ictotest®(Bilirubin AND DATA ENTRY FORMS #12;Date Lot # Bilirubin Urobilinogen Ketone AscorbicAcid Glucose Protein Blood p

  11. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePLUS

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  12. Fats and fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  13. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  14. What Causes Acid Rain?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The phenomenon is the formation of acid rain. The resource explains the chemical reaction that begins when compounds like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the air, mix and react with water and other chemicals to form more acidic pollutants that dissolve very easily in water and can be carried long distances where they become part of rain, sleet, snow, and fog.

  15. Acid (and Base) Rainbows

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students are introduced to the differences between acids and bases and how to use indicators, such as pH paper and red cabbage juice, to distinguish between them. They learn why it is important for engineers to understand acids and bases.

  16. ACID AEROSOLS ISSUE PAPER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates scientific information on direct health effects associated with exposure to acid aerosols. The present report is not intended as a complete and detailed review of all literature pertaining to acid aerosols. Rather, an attempt has been made to focus on the eva...

  17. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OST?-OST?. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  18. Strong Acids (GCMP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Strong Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore the properties of common strong acids. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

  19. Acids and Salts (GCMP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Acids and Salts: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore a few properties of common acids and their salts. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

  20. Halogenated fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Sundin

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also, chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in

  1. Acid Rain Revisited

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sanders, Hilary C.

    2001-01-01

    The results of a long term study of the effects of acidic deposition in the Northeast were published in Bioscience this week, and they suggest that forests, lakes, and streams of the Northeastern US are not recovering from the toxic effects of acid rain despite significant cuts in the power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide -- two major contributors to the problem. "Acid rain," more accurately called acidic deposition, causes toxic forms of aluminum to concentrate in soil and water, vital calcium and magnesium to be leached from trees, and surface waters to become inhospitable to aquatic biota. The study showed that, after 30 years of federally mandated air emission reductions, sulfur dioxide emissions have decreased while nitrogen oxide emissions have remained the same and that acidic deposition-related problems continue to plague New York and New England.

  2. Optical properties in the UV and visible spectral region of organic acids relevant to tropospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund Myhre, C. E.; Nielsen, C. J.

    2004-09-01

    Refractive and absorption indices in the UV and visible region of selected aqueous organic acids relevant to tropospheric aerosols are reported. The acids investigated are the aliphatic dicarboxylic acids oxalic, malonic, tartronic, succinic and glutaric acid. In addition we report data for pyruvic, pinonic, benzoic and phthalic acid. To cover a wide range of conditions we have investigated the aqueous organic acids at different concentrations spanning from highly diluted samples to concentrations close to saturation. The density of the investigated samples is reported and a parameterisation of the absorption and refractive index that allows the calculation of the optical constants of mixed aqueous organic acids at different concentrations is presented. The single scattering albedo is calculated for two size distributions using measured and a synthetic set of optical constants. The results show that tropospheric aerosols consisting of only these organic acids and water have a pure scattering effect.

  3. Metabolic fate of oleic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid in cultured hamster hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, J S; Salter, A M

    1996-01-01

    Unlike other saturated fatty acids, dietary stearic acid does not appear to raise plasma cholesterol. The reason for this remains to be established, although it appears that it must be related to inherent differences in the metabolism of the fatty acid. In the present study, we have looked at the metabolism of palmitic acid and stearic acid, in comparison with oleic acid, by cultured hamster hepatocytes. Stearic acid was taken up more slowly and was poorly incorporated into both cellular and secreted triacylglycerol. Despite this, stearic acid stimulated the synthesis and secretion of triacylglycerol to the same extent as the other fatty acids. Incorporation into cellular phospholipid was lower for oleic acid than for palmitic acid and stearic acid. Desaturation of stearic acid, to monounsaturated fatty acid, was found to be greater than that of palmitic acid. Oleic acid produced from stearic acid was incorporated into both triacylglycerol and phospholipid, representing 13% and 6% respectively of the total after a 4 h incubation. Significant proportions of all of the fatty acids were oxidized, primarily to form ketone bodies, but by 8 h more oleic acid had been oxidized compared with palmitic acid and stearic acid. PMID:8670161

  4. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  5. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  6. Folic Acid: Data and Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pregnancy. [ Read article ] Use of Supplements Containing Folic Acid Among Women of Childbearing Age -- United States 2007 ... women of childbearing age: 40% reported taking folic acid daily. 81% reported awareness of folic acid. 12% ...

  7. [Effects of UV radiation on the aggregation performance of small molecular organic acids].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Dong; Wang, Ya-Bo; Fan, Qing-Hai; Ding, Zhen-Zhen; Wang, Wen; Song, Shan; Zhang, Yin-Ting

    2014-10-01

    This study systematically investigated the effects of UV radiation on the aggregation of small molecular aliphatic carboxylic acids and phenolic acids by jar test. Experimental results show that solution pH has little effect on the coagulation of small molecular aliphatic carboxylic acids including citric acid, oxalic acid, tartaric acid, and succinic acid. For the solutions pretreated with UV light, the removal rates of the selected aliphatic carboxylic acids in coagulation are higher than that without UV radiation. Further study shows that photochemical reactions occur during UV radiation which decreases the negative charge in aliphatic carboxylic acids, and thereby increases their aggregation properties. Different from aliphatic carboxylic acids, phenol, salicylic acid, and benzoic acid have poor coagulation properties, and UV radiation does not have notable effects on their aggregation in the coagulation process. The coagulation performance of tannic acid is better than the other phenolic acids. At pH = 6, its removal rate is above 90%, which may be contributed to the aliphatic carboxylic acid structure in its molecular. Meanwhile, the large molecular of tannic acid is also easier to be adsorbed by the hydrolysis products of PAC1. PMID:25693384

  8. Dog bites man or man bites dog? The enigma of the amino acid conjugations

    PubMed Central

    Beyo?lu, Diren; Smith, Robert L.; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The proposition posed is that the value of amino acid conjugation to the organism is not, as in the traditional view, to use amino acids for the detoxication of aromatic acids. Rather, the converse is more likely, to use aromatic acids that originate from the diet and gut microbiota to assist in the regulation of body stores of amino acids, such as glycine, glutamate, and, in certain invertebrates, arginine, that are key neurotransmitters in the CNS. As such, the amino acid conjugations are not so much detoxication reactions, rather they are homeostatic and neuroregulatory processes. Experimental data have been culled in support of this hypothesis from a broad range of scientific and clinical literature. Such data include the low detoxication value of amino acid conjugations and the Janus nature of certain amino acids that are both neurotransmitters and apparent conjugating agents. Amino acid scavenging mechanisms in blood deplete brain amino acids. Amino acids glutamate and glycine when trafficked from brain are metabolized to conjugates of aromatic acids in hepatic mitochondria and then irreversibly excreted into urine. This process is used clinically to deplete excess nitrogen in cases of urea cycle enzymopathies through excretion of glycine or glutamine as their aromatic acid conjugates. Untoward effects of high-dose phenylacetic acid surround CNS toxicity. There appears to be a relationship between extent of glycine scavenging by benzoic acid and psychomotor function. Glycine and glutamine scavenging by conjugation with aromatic acids may have important psychosomatic consequences that link diet to health, wellbeing, and disease. PMID:22227274

  9. Fatty Acid Carcass Mapping

    E-print Network

    Turk, Stacey N.

    2010-01-14

    positively correlated with the MUFA:SFA ratio. Also, the perception of beef can be influenced by the oleic acid concentration. Because fatty acids have very different melting points, variation in their composition has an important effect on firmness... or softness of the fat in meat, especially the s.c. and i.m. fats (Wood et al., 2003). This can also alter shelf-life depending on the double bonds of the unsaturated fatty acids, whether or not they will oxidize rapidly and become rancid and discolored...

  10. Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

  11. Laccase-induced cross-coupling of 4-aminobenzoic acid with para-dihydroxylated compounds 2,5-dihydroxy- N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-benzamide and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrin Manda; Elke Hammer; Annett Mikolasch; Timo Niedermeyer; Jerzy Dec; A. Daniel Jones; Alan J. Benesi; Frieder Schauer; Jean-Marc Bollag

    2005-01-01

    A fungal laccase from Trametes villosa (EC 1.10.3.2 p-phenoloxidase) was used to mediate the oxidation and cross-coupling of two para-dihydroxylated benzoic acid derivatives with 4-aminobenzoic acid. The incubation of 2,5-dihydroxy-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-benzamide and 4-aminobenzoic acid with laccase under oxygen conditions resulted in the formation of 2-(4?-carboxy-anilino)-N-(2?-hydroxyethyl)-3,6-dioxo-1,4-cyclohexadien-1-carboxamide as the main product (yield>85%). When 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester was a co-substrate of 4-aminobenzoic acid,

  12. Molecular Structure of Gallic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-05-08

    Gallic acid is found in its free state and combined with the tannin molecule, from which it can be extracted by the hydrolysis of tannic acid with sulfuric acid. Since one molecule of gallic acid has a carboxylic acid group and hydroxyl groups, it can react with another molecule of gallic acid to form an ester, digallic acid. When heated above 200 degrees C, gallic acid loses carbon dioxide to form pyrogallol (1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene, C6H3(OH)3), which is used in the production of azo dyes, photographic developers, and in laboratories for absorbing oxygen.

  13. Acid-Base Tutorial

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    MD Alan W. Grogono (Tulane University School of Medicine Dept. of Anesthesiology)

    2002-06-01

    Website for anyone wanting to become more familiar with the physiology of acid-base balance in clinical medicine. Several pages are interactive. Numerical results are accompanied by text interpretations to facilitate recognition and understanding.

  14. (Acid rain workshop)

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.S.

    1990-12-05

    The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

  15. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  16. ACID RAIN CONTROL OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE) both develo...

  17. Acid Violence in Pakistan

    E-print Network

    Zia, Taiba

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan by the Asian Human Rights Commission. 97 Anwary, Acid Violence and Medical Care; Sexual assaults and rapespakistan-urban-women-get-beaten- by-their-husbands_1663675 Abid, Zehra. “Journalistic ethics: How the media traumatises rape

  18. Polymers for acid thickening

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.W.

    1980-09-30

    Acids, thickened with branched emulsion or suspension polymers of diallyldimethylammonium chloride are useful as oil well drilling and fracturing fluids for stimulating well production and in other applications, such as thickeners for cosmetics, paints, adhesives, textiles and printing inks.

  19. Amino Acids and Chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  20. Boric Acid Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Wong, L. C.; Heimbach, M. D.; Truscott, D. R.; Duncan, B. D.

    1964-01-01

    Boric acid poisoning in 11 infants, occurring in the newborn nursery as a result of the accidental and inadvertent use of 2.5% boric acid in the preparation of the formulae, is reported. Five of the infants died. All except two exhibited the classical symptomatology of acute boric acid poisoning, namely, diarrhea, vomiting, erythema, exfoliation, desquamation of the skin, and marked central nervous system irritation. Early manifestations of poisoning were nonspecific, and one patient died before skin manifestations were noted. Peritoneal dialysis, instituted in nine cases, was found to be the most effective method of treatment. It is recommended that boric acid, which is of doubtful therapeutic value, should be completely removed from hospitals, dispensaries and pharmacopoeias. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:14166459

  1. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria, including infections of the ears, lungs, sinus, skin, ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Clavulanic acid is in a class of medications ...

  2. Acid-base chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).

  3. Acid Rain Lesson Plan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Five articulated lessons focus on air quality using classroom and field data collection activities. Case study in Great Smoky Mountains has broader application. Background and data for lessons on: the pH scale, understanding acid vs. base, collecting data, mapping relationship of weather events to acid rain. Links to NPS data on air quality, current values, atlas and reports, packaged datasets on ozone, meteorological conditions and other parameters. Also available: teacher resources; educator workshops.

  4. Domoic Acid Fact Sheet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary

    This online fact sheet illustrates the transfer of domoic acid through the food web. Domoic acid is a nerve toxin produced by a naturally occurring Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) usually (but not always) of the genus Pseudonitzchia. The sheet explains what to do if you find a sick or dead animal and includes contact information for injured/sick/entangled animal rescue networks in California.

  5. Omega3 Fatty Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gita Cherian

    The research conducted in avians with emphasis on omega (?)-3 fatty acid enrichment of edible meat portions and the use of\\u000a fertilized eggs as a unique model for nutrition research is addressed. In a typical Western diet, over 70% of dietary fat\\u000a is supplied through animal products. Considering the health benefits of ?-3 fatty acids, feeding strategies have been adopted

  6. Managing bile acid diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Walters, Julian R F; Pattni, Sanjeev S

    2010-11-01

    Bowel symptoms including diarrhoea can be produced when excess bile acids (BA) are present in the colon. This condition, known as bile acid or bile salt malabsorption, has been under recognized, as the best diagnostic method, the (75)Se-homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) test, is not available in many countries and is not fully utilized in others. Reduced SeHCAT retention establishes that this is a complication of many other gastrointestinal diseases. Repeated studies show SeHCAT tests are abnormal in about 30% of patients otherwise diagnosed as diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome or functional diarrhoea, with an estimated population prevalence of around 1%. Recent work suggests that the condition previously called idiopathic bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is not in fact due to a defect in absorption, but results from an overproduction of BA because of defective feedback inhibition of hepatic bile acid synthesis, a function of the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19). The approach to treatment currently depends on binding excess BA, to reduce their secretory actions, using colestyramine, colestipol and, most recently, colesevelam. Colesevelam has a number of potential advantages that merit further investigation in trials directed at patients with bile acid diarrhoea. PMID:21180614

  7. Managing bile acid diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Julian R. F.; Pattni, Sanjeev S.

    2010-01-01

    Bowel symptoms including diarrhoea can be produced when excess bile acids (BA) are present in the colon. This condition, known as bile acid or bile salt malabsorption, has been under recognized, as the best diagnostic method, the 75Se-homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) test, is not available in many countries and is not fully utilized in others. Reduced SeHCAT retention establishes that this is a complication of many other gastrointestinal diseases. Repeated studies show SeHCAT tests are abnormal in about 30% of patients otherwise diagnosed as diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome or functional diarrhoea, with an estimated population prevalence of around 1%. Recent work suggests that the condition previously called idiopathic bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is not in fact due to a defect in absorption, but results from an overproduction of BA because of defective feedback inhibition of hepatic bile acid synthesis, a function of the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19). The approach to treatment currently depends on binding excess BA, to reduce their secretory actions, using colestyramine, colestipol and, most recently, colesevelam. Colesevelam has a number of potential advantages that merit further investigation in trials directed at patients with bile acid diarrhoea. PMID:21180614

  8. Dextran Carrier Macromolecules for Colon-specific Delivery of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, P K; Shrivastava, A; Sinha, S K; Shrivastava, S K

    2013-05-01

    Present manuscript describes the sustained and targeted delivery of 5-aminosalicylic acid to the distal ileum and proximal colon, using dextran (40 kDa) as a carrier for targeting 5-aminosalicylic acid at the colonic site by attaching p-aminobenzoic acid and benzoic acid as linkers. Prepared conjugate were characterized by UV, HPLC, FT-IR, and (1)H NMR. The degree of substitution was estimated by complete hydrolysis of conjugates in borate buffer and in vitro hydrolysis study of conjugates was performed in different biological media. It was observed that 5-aminosalicylic acid alone have produced high incidence of gastric ulcer with high ulcer index whereas lower ulcer index was found for the dextran conjugates of 5-aminosalicylic acid. The release pattern of conjugates in 3% w/v rat caecal content was confirmed the colon specificity of 5-aminosalicylic acid conjugates. PMID:24082343

  9. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  10. Original article Acid stress susceptibility and acid adaptation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    microor- ganisms. Fermentation of lactose by lactic acid bacteria in dairy products, in particular, leads to the accumulation of the end-product lactic acid. Furthermore, bacteria provided in fermented food are exposedOriginal article Acid stress susceptibility and acid adaptation of Propionibacterium freudenreichii

  11. CONVERSION OF OLEIC ACID TO BRANCHED-CHAIN FATTY ACIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid and linoleic acid are the most abundant fatty acids of cottonseed oil. As part of a project to develop new value-added industrial applications for cottonseed oil (such as biodiesel, fuel additives, and lubricants), studies were conducted in the synthetic conversion of oleic acid to branc...

  12. What is Acid Rain? Explore the Acid Lake

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Earth Day Canada

    2010-01-01

    Acid rain is a type of air pollution that occurs when certain chemicals mix with water in the air. Most chemicals that cause acid rain come from the emissions from factories and cars. Acid rain looks just like 'normal' rain but when it falls, it can hurt plants and animals. For example, when acid rain falls into a lake or river, it makes that body of water more acidic. Many plants and animals cannot live in acidic water. Play this game, from Earth Day Canada's EcoKids program, to learn more about acid rain and its impact on the environment.

  13. DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID AND ARACHIDONIC ACID PREVENT ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID DEFICIENCY AND HEPATIC STEATOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hau D.; Meisel, Jonathan A.; de Meijer, Vincent E.; Fallon, Erica M.; Gura, Kathleen M.; Nose, Vania; Bistrian, Bruce R.; Puder, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Essential fatty acids are important for growth, development, and physiologic function. Alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid are the precursors of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid, respectively, and have traditionally been considered the essential fatty acids. However, we hypothesized that docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid can function as the essential fatty acids. Methods Using a murine model of essential fatty acid deficiency and consequent hepatic steatosis, we provided mice with varying amounts of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids to determine whether exclusive supplementation of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids could prevent essential fatty acid deficiency and inhibit or attenuate hepatic steatosis. Results Mice supplemented with docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids at 2.1% or 4.2% of their calories for 19 days had normal liver histology and no biochemical evidence of essential fatty acid deficiency, which persisted when observed after 9 weeks. Conclusion Supplementation of sufficient amounts of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids alone without alpha-linolenic and linoleic acids meets essential fatty acid requirements and prevents hepatic steatosis in a murine model. PMID:22038210

  14. Atmospheric Dust and Acid Rain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars O. Hedin; Gene E. Likens

    1996-01-01

    Why is acid rain still an environmental problem in Europe and North America despite antipollution reforms? The answer really is blowing in the wind: atmospheric dust. These airborne particles can help neutralize the acids falling on forests, but dust levels are unusually low these days. In the air dust particles can neutralize acid rain. What can we do about acid

  15. Malvalic Acid and its Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Macfarlane; F. S. Shenstone; J. R. Vickery

    1957-01-01

    SOME of the properties of a biologically active C18 fatty acid isolated from Malva verticillata and M. parviflora have been reported1. The name `malvalic' acid is now proposed for this acid, which was previously referred to as ``Halphen acid'' because it gave rise to the Halphen colour test.

  16. Molecular Structure of Malonic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-10-10

    Propanedioic acid is a dibasic carboxylic acid that was first synthesized by oxidizing malic acid in 1858 by a scientist named Dessaigne. Naturally, propandioic acid is found in apples. This chemical is relatively unstable and has few uses, but its ester derivative, diethyl malonate, is used to synthesize useful compounds such as barbiturates, flavors, fragrances, and vitamins (B1 and B6).

  17. Pelargonic acid weed control parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers and researchers are interested in pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid) as a broad-spectrum post-emergence or burn-down herbicide. Pelargonic acid is a fatty acid naturally occurring in many plants and animals, and present in many foods we consume. The objective of this research was to determine...

  18. Ursodeoxycholic acid, 7-ketolithocholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid are primary bile acids of the nutria (Myocastor coypus).

    PubMed

    Tint, G S; Bullock, J; Batta, A K; Shefer, S; Salen, G

    1986-03-01

    Because ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids are interconverted in humans via 7-ketolithocholic acid, bile acid metabolism was studied in the nutria (Myocastor coypus), the bile of which is known to contain these three bile acids. Relative concentrations of ursodeoxycholic (37% +/- 20%), 7-ketolithocholic (33% +/- 17%), and chenodeoxycholic (17% +/- 9%) acids in gallbladder bile were unchanged by 5-20 h of complete biliary diversion (n = 7). Injection of either [14C]cholesterol, [14C]ursodeoxycholic, [14C]7-ketolithocholic acid, or a mixture of [7 beta-3H]chenodeoxycholic acid and [14C]chenodeoxycholic acid into bile fistula nutria demonstrated that all three bile acids can be synthesized hepatically from cholesterol, that they are interconverted sparingly (2%-5%) by the liver, but that 7-ketolithocholic acid is an intermediate in the hepatic transformation of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid. An animal that had been fed antibiotics showed an unusually elevated concentration of ursodeoxycholic acid in gallbladder and hepatic bile, suggesting that bacterial transformation of ursodeoxycholic acid in the intestine may be a source of some biliary chenodeoxycholic acid and 7-ketolithocholic acid. PMID:3943698

  19. Molecular Structure of Succinic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-11-11

    Succinic acid is an odorless and colorless crystal, triclinic or monoclinic prism with a very acid taste. Succinic acid is one of the natural acids found in broccoli, rhubarb, beets, asparagus, fresh meat extracts, sauerkraut and cheese. It is also a constituent of almost all plant and animal tissues and plays an important role in intermediary metabolism. Succinic acid is produced commercially by catalytic hydrogenation of maleic or fumaric acid or by acid hydrolysis of succinonitrile. Succinic acid is used in flavoring for food and beverages, and in the manufacture of lacquers, dyes, esters for perfumes, succinates, in photography and in foods as a sequestrant, buffer and neutralizing agent. Succinic acid has uses in certain drug compounds and in agricultural production. An interesting fact, succcinic acid has also been found in meteorites.

  20. Domoic acid epileptic disease.

    PubMed

    Ramsdell, John S; Gulland, Frances M

    2014-03-01

    Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

  1. Analysis of Bile Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjövall, Jan; Griffiths, William J.; Setchell, Kenneth D. R.; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi

    Bile acids constitute a large family of steroids in vertebrates, normally formed from cholesterol and carrying a carboxyl group in a side-chain of variable length. Bile alcohols, also formed from cholesterol, have similar structures as bile acids, except for the absence of a carboxyl group in the steroid skeleton. The conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and/or bile alcohols is of major importance for maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis, both from quantitative and regulatory points of view (Chiang, 2004; Kalaany and Mangelsdorf, 2006; Moore, Kato, Xie, et al., 2006; Scotti, Gilardi, Godio, et al., 2007). Appropriately conjugated bile acids and bile alcohols (also referred to as bile salts) are secreted in bile and serve vital functions in the absorption of lipids and lipid-soluble compounds (Hofmann, 2007). Reliable analytical methods are required for studies of the functions and pathophysiological importance of the variety of bile acids and bile alcohols present in living organisms. When combined with genetic and proteomic studies, analysis of these small molecules (in today's terminology: metabolomics, steroidomics, sterolomics, cholanoidomics, etc.) will lead to a deeper understanding of the integrated metabolic processes in lipid metabolism.

  2. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Nekimken, Howard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carey, W. Patrick (Lynnwood, WA); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

  3. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1997-07-22

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

  4. Science Shorts: Understanding Acid Rain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kathleen Damonte

    2004-11-01

    You may have heard acid rain mentioned as an environmental problem. It doesn't mean that a strong chemical is raining from the sky. The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. However, a small change in how acidic precipitation is can have a profound effect. This month's activity will help students understand the effect of acid rain on buildings and statues.

  5. Acid rain degradation of nylon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyllo

    1984-01-01

    Acid rain, precipitation with a pH less than 5.6, is known to damage lakes, vegetation and buildings. Degradation of outdoor textiles by acid rain is strongly suspected but not well documented. This study reports the effects of sunlight, aqueous acid, heat and humidity (acid rain conditions) on spun delustered nylon 6,6 fabric. Untreated nylon and nylon treated with sulfuric acid

  6. Molecular Structure of Citric Acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-13

    Citric Acid was first isolated in 1734 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Citric acid is found in many fruits, in particular lemons, grapefruit, and oranges. Several types of bacteria and fungi are also known to produce citric acid. In fact, the fungus Aspergillus niger produces the vast majority of citric acid, which is used in almost all carbonated sodas. Additionally, citric acid is also used to clean stainless steel.

  7. Carrier-mediated transport of monocarboxylic acids in BeWo cell monolayers as a model of the human trophoblast

    E-print Network

    Utoguchi, Naoki; Magnusson, Malin; Audus, Kenneth L.

    1999-01-01

    carrier-mediated transport. The uptake of benzoic acid by BeWo cells was saturable (Kt = 0.6 ± 0.3 mM) at higher concentrations and significantly inhibited by typical metabolic inhibitors, sodium azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol. A selection of different...

  8. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities...greater concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as...

  9. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities...greater concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as...

  10. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities...greater concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as...

  11. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities...greater concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as...

  12. Acid neutralizing capacity, alkalinity, and acid-base status of natural waters containing organic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold F. Hemond

    1990-01-01

    The terms acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and alkalinity (Alk) are extensively employed in the characterization of natural waters, including soft circumneutral or acidic waters. However, in the presence of organic acids, ANC measurements are inconsistent with many conceptual definitions of ANC or Alk and do not provide an adequate characterization of the acid-base chemistry of water. Knowledge of Gran ANC

  13. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  14. Sequential injection redox or acid–base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narong Lenghor; Jaroon Jakmunee; Michael Vilen; Rolf Sara; Gary D Christian; Kate Grudpan

    2002-01-01

    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to

  15. Synthesis, spectral, thermal and thermodynamic studies of oxovanadium(IV) complexes of Schiff bases derived from 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid with salicylaldehyde derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Khosro; Niad, Mahmood; Irandoost, Amene

    2013-04-01

    Synthesis and evaluation of three new oxovanadium(IV) complexes, formed by the interaction of vanadyl acetylacetonate and the Schiff bases: 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (L1), 3,4-bis-((E)-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (L2) and 3,4-bis((E)-2,4-dihydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (L3) in methanol. The complexes have been characterized and studied by IR spectra, UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetry in order to evaluate their thermal stability and thermal decomposition. According to the results discussed from TG curves, the order of thermal stability for the complexes is VOL3 > VOL1 > VOL2. Their formation constants (Kf) were obtained by UV-Vis spectroscopic titration at 15, 25, 35 and 45 °C in methanol by SQUAD software. The trend of formation constants of the complexes as follows: VOL3 > VOL2 > VOL1.

  16. Acid rain in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

    1992-07-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

  17. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject...

  19. Enantiomeric separation of amino acids and nonprotein amino acids using a particle-loaded

    E-print Network

    Zare, Richard N.

    Enantiomeric separation of amino acids and nonprotein amino acids using a particle acids and three nonprotein amino acids are derivatized with the fluorogenic reagent 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2 liquid chromatography (HPLC). Keywords: Amino acid / Nonprotein amino acid / Capillary

  20. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination. PMID:20649031

  1. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented. PMID:24966721

  2. Acid Deposition Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity students will design an apparatus and carry out tests of fossil fuels to determine their impact on acid deposition by placing a small amount of a fossil fuel on a cotton puff and burning it to measure if acidic compounds are given off. Students will provide a diagram of their collection device and describe how it should function. Students will then draw a map showing the location of their precipitation collector and develop a graph or chart based on the results they have collected.

  3. Early membrane events induced by salicylic acid in motor cells of the Mimosa pudica pulvinus.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Saed; Rocher, Françoise; Bonmort, Janine; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Roblin, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Salicylic acid (o-hydroxy benzoic acid) (SA) induced a rapid dose-dependent membrane hyperpolarization (within seconds) and a modification of the proton secretion (within minutes) of Mimosa pudica pulvinar cells at concentrations higher than 0.1mM. Observations on plasma membrane vesicles isolated from pulvinar tissues showed that SA acted directly at the membrane level through a protonophore action as suggested by the inhibition of the proton gradient and the lack of effect on H(+)-ATPase catalytic activity. Comparative data obtained with protonophores (carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone and 2,4-dinitrophenol) and inhibitors of ATPases (vanadate, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and diethylstilbestrol) corroborated this conclusion. Consequently, the collapse of the proton motive force led to an impairment in membrane functioning. This impairment is illustrated by the inhibition of the ion-driven turgor-mediated seismonastic reaction of the pulvinus following SA treatment. SA acted in a specific manner as its biosynthetic precursor benzoic acid induced much milder effects and the m- and p-OH benzoic acid derivatives did not trigger similar characteristic effects. Therefore, SA may be considered both a membrane signal molecule and a metabolic effector following its uptake in the cells. PMID:23487303

  4. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-11-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  5. Lactic acid bacterial cell factories for gamma-aminobutyric acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haixing Li; Yusheng Cao

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid that is widely present in organisms. Several important physiological functions\\u000a of gamma-aminobutyric acid have been characterized, such as neurotransmission, induction of hypotension, diuretic effects,\\u000a and tranquilizer effects. Many microorganisms can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid including bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Among\\u000a them, gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria have been a focus of research in recent

  6. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  7. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  8. Molecular Structure of Aspartic Acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-20

    Aspartate was first isolated in 1868 from legumin in plant seeds. Aspartic acid forms colorless crystals that are soluble in water and insoluble in alcohols and ethers. This is a naturally occurring nonessential amino acid that is produced in the liver from oxaloacetic acid, but is plentiful in meats and sprouting seeds. The amino acid is important in the Krebs cycle as well as the urea cycle, where it is vital in the elimination of dietary waste products. Aspartic acid is required for stamina, brain and neural health. This acid has been found to be important in the functioning of ribonucleic acid (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and in the production of immunoglobin and antibody synthesis. A deficiency of aspartate will lead to fatigue and depression. Aspartic acid has many uses that include biological and clinical studies, preparation of culture media, and it also functions as a detergent, fungicide, germicide, and metal complexation.

  9. NMR studies of solid state—solvent and H\\/D isotope effects on hydrogen bond geometries of 1:1 complexes of collidine with carboxylic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Tolstoy; Sergei N. Smirnov; Ilya G. Shenderovich; Nikolai S. Golubev; Gleb S. Denisov; Hans-Heinrich Limbach

    2004-01-01

    1H and 15N NMR spectra of 10 complexes exhibiting strong OHN hydrogen bonds formed by 15N-labeled collidine and different proton donors, partially deuterated in mobile proton sites, have been observed by low-temperature NMR spectroscopy using a low-freezing CDF3\\/CDF2Cl mixture as polar aprotic solvent. The following proton donors have been used: HCl, formic acid, acetic acid, various substituted benzoic acids and

  10. Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J.; Forman, Barry M.; Stahl, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. In summary, the data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease. PMID:22531947

  11. Acid Mine Drainage Remediation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-12-10

    In this video, an environmental technologist visits an abandoned coal mine in Kentucky to talk about how a remediation system (a series of settling ponds and treatment cells) is neutralizing the acid drainage flowing from the mine and keeping it from damaging a creek downstream.

  12. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for…

  13. Federal Acid Rain Games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur J. Caplan; Emilson C. D. Silva

    1999-01-01

    Federal environmental policy, designed to control acid rain, is shaped after the hierarchy of the system, and is controlled simultaneously by regional and central governments. Each governmental level controls one of two policy instruments: pollution abatement production and pollution tax. In a two-stage game where regional governments are Stackelberg leaders and control pollution taxes, the subgame perfect equilibrium is socially

  14. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  15. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  16. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  17. Acid Rain Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  18. Acid rain bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, C.S.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography identifies 900 citations on various aspects of Acid Rain, covering published bibliographies, books, reports, conference and symposium proceedings, audio visual materials, pamphlets and newsletters. It includes five sections: citations index (complete record of author, title, source, order number); KWIC index; title index; author index; and source index. 900 references.

  19. Effects of Acid Rain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This portal provides links to information on the potential damage caused to the environment by acid rain. An introductory paragraph briefly describes the damage to lakes and streams, building materials, and monuments. Each link access additional information on these topics: surface waters and aquatic animals, forests, automotive coatings, soluble building materials such as marble or limestone, atmospheric haze, and human health effects.

  20. Basically Acidic Ink

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students hypothesize whether vinegar and ammonia-based glass cleaner are acids or bases. They create designs on index cards using these substances as invisible inks. After the index cards have dried, they apply red cabbage juice as an indicator to reveal the designs.

  1. Acid rain abatement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method of obtaining acid rain abatement from a flue gas containing nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulfur oxides (SOX). It comprises the steps of treating the flue gas with a reducing agent to remove the remaining oxygen and produce an effluent, the reducing agent being selected from group consisting of natural gas, methane, a mixture of CO

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid and lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important component of membrane phospholipids in the retina, and brain, and accumulates rapidly in these tissues during early infancy. DHA is present in human milk, but the amount varies considerably and is largely dependent on maternal diet. This article reviews dat...

  3. ACID AEROSOL MEASUREMENT WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the discussion and results of the U.S. EPA Acid Aerosol Measurement Workshop, conducted February 1-3, 1989, in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. t was held in response to recommendations by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) regarding ...

  4. Brain amino acid sensing.

    PubMed

    Tsurugizawa, T; Uneyama, H; Torii, K

    2014-09-01

    The 20 different amino acids, in blood as well as in the brain, are strictly maintained at the same levels throughout the day, regardless of food intake. Gastric vagal afferents only respond to free glutamate and sugars, providing recognition of food intake and initiating digestion. Metabolic control of amino acid homeostasis and diet-induced thermogenesis is triggered by this glutamate signalling in the stomach through the gut-brain axis. Rats chronically fed high-sugar and high-fat diets do not develop obesity when a 1% (w/v) monosodium glutamate (MSG) solution is available in a choice paradigm. Deficiency of the essential amino acid lysine (Lys) induced a plasticity in rats in response to Lys. This result shows how the body is able to identify deficient nutrients to maintain homeostasis. This plastic effect is induced by activin A activity in the brain, particularly in certain neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) which is the centre for amino acid homeostasis and appetite. These neurons respond to glutamate signalling in the oral cavity by which umami taste is perceived. They play a quantitative role in regulating ingestion of deficient nutrients, thereby leading to a healthier life. After recovery from malnutrition, rats prefer MSG solutions, which serve as biomarkers for protein nutrition. PMID:25200295

  5. Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given sin...

  6. Synthesis of (+)-Coronafacic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Douglass F.; Sheth, Ritesh B.; Tian, Weiwei

    2009-01-01

    An enantioselective synthesis of (+)-coronafacic acid has been achieved. Rhodium catalyzed cyclization of an ?-diazoester provided the intermediate cyclopentanone in high enantiomeric purity. Subsequent Fe-mediated cyclocarbonylation of a derived alkenyl cyclopropane gave a bicyclic enone, that then was hydrogenated and carried on to the natural product. PMID:19231870

  7. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

    2000-02-22

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related to the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  8. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  9. Dihydroxybenzoic Acid Isomers Differentially Dissociate Soluble Biotinyl-A?(1–42) Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    LeVine, Harry; Lampe, Levi; Abdelmoti, Lina; Augelli-Szafran, Corinne E.

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds including a number of natural products such as resveratrol, curcumin, catechin derivatives, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid have effects on the assembly of A? fibrils and oligomers as well as on fibril morphology. Based on a lead structure obtained from a screen of a small molecule diversity library, simple benzoic acid derivatives distinguished by the number and position of hydroxyls on the aromatic ring displayed different abilities to dissociate pre-formed biotinyl-A?(1–42) oligomers. The 2, 3-, 2, 5-, and 3, 4- dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) isomers were active oligomer dissociators. The remaining DHBA isomers and the monohydroxy and unsubstituted benzoic acids were inactive and did not compete with the active compounds to block oligomer dissociation. None of the compounds blocked oligomer assembly, indicating that they do not interact with monomeric A? to shift the oligomer-monomer equilibrium. Dissociating activity was not associated with quinone redox cycling capacity of the compounds. Gallic acid (3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) stabilized biotinyl-A?(1–42) oligomers against intrinsic dissociation and blocked the effects of the active dissociators, independent of the concentration of dissociator. A model for the mechanism of action of the DHBA dissociators proposes that these compounds destabilize oligomer structure promoting progressive monomer dissociation rather than fissioning oligomers into smaller, but still macromolecular species. Gallic acid blocks dissociation by stabilizing oligomers against this process. PMID:22129351

  10. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  11. Acidizing of Sandstone Reservoirs Using HF and Organic Acids

    E-print Network

    Yang, Fei

    2012-10-19

    Mud acid, which is composed of HCl and HF, is commonly used to remove the formation damage in sandstone reservoirs. However, many problems are associated with HCl, especially at high temperatures. Formic-HF acids have served as an alternative...

  12. Sonochemical Esterification of Carboxylic Acids in Presence of Sulphuric Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jitender M. Khurana; Prabhat K. Sahoo; Golak C. Maikap

    1990-01-01

    A mild and convenient method for the sonochemical esterif ication of aliphatic, aroma tic, ?,?-unsaturated, mono-and di-carboxylic acids in presence of catalytic amounts of sulphuric acid has been reported.

  13. Recovery of Carboxylic Acids from Fermentation Broth via Acid Springing

    E-print Network

    Dong, Jipeng

    2010-01-14

    RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM FERMENTATION BROTH VIA ACID SPRINGING A Thesis by JIPENG DONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2008 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM FERMENTATION BROTH VIA ACID SPRINGING A Thesis by JIPENG DONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

  14. Fatty acid selectivity of lipases: ?-linolenic acid from borage oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A. Foglia; Philip E. Sonnet

    1995-01-01

    The ?-linolenic acid (Z,Z,Z-6,9,12-octadecatrienoic acid, GLA) present in borage oil free fatty acids was concentrated in esterification reactions that\\u000a were catalyzed by several preparations of the acyl-specific lipase ofGeotrichum candidum. In this manner, a 95% recovery of the GLA originally present in borage oil (25% GLA) was obtained as a highly enriched fatty\\u000a acid fraction with a GLA content of

  15. Boswellic acid inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Boswellic acid is a type of triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Sphingomyelin metabolism generates multiple lipid signals affecting cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Upregulation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase) has been found in several inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Methods The present study is to examine the effect of 3-acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acids (AKBA), a potent boswellic acid, on acid SMase activity and expression in intestinal cells. Both transformed Caco-2 cells and non-transformed Int407 cells were incubated with AKBA. After incubation, the change of acid SMase activity was assayed biochemically, the enzyme protein was examined by Western blot, and acid SMase mRNA was quantified by qPCR. Results We found that AKBA decreased acid SMase activity in both intestinal cell lines in dose and time dependent manners without affecting the secretion of the enzyme to the cell culture medium. The effect of AKBA was more effective in the fetal bovine serum-free culture medium. Among different types of boswellic acid, AKBA was the most potent one. The inhibitory effect on acid SMase activity occurred only in the intact cells but not in cell-free extract in the test tubes. At low concentration, AKBA only decreased the acid SMase activity but not the quantity of the enzyme protein. However, at high concentration, AKBA decreased both the mass of acid SMase protein and the mRNA levels of acid SMase in the cells, as demonstrated by Western blot and qPCR, respectively. Under the concentrations decreasing acid SMase activity, AKBA significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Conclusion We identified a novel inhibitory effect of boswellic acids on acid SMase expression, which may have implications in human diseases and health. PMID:19951413

  16. Bile acids. LXVII. The major bile acids of Varanus monitor.

    PubMed

    Ali, S S; Stephenson, E; Elliott, W H

    1982-09-01

    The major bile acids of gall bladder bile of Varanus monitor have been separated by thin-layer chromatography and shown to be derivatives of taurine. After alkaline hydrolysis, the free acids were separated by thin-layer and partition chromatography. Identification or characterization of the free acids was facilitated by gas-liquid chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectometry of the methyl esters or methyl ester-trimethylsilyl ethers. About 13% of the total bile acids was represented by the C24 acids cholic, deoxycholic, allocholic, chenodeoxycholic, and 12-oxo-3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acids, of which cholic acid constituted about 50%. The remainder of the bile acids consisted of eight C27 acids of which varanic acid was the major constituent; an isomer of varanic acid and 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid were also identified. By chromatographic behavior and mass spectral fragmentation, the structures of four C27 acids with unsaturated side chains were elucidated as follows: 3 alpha, 7 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholest-23-enoic, 3 alpha, 7 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholest-24-enoic, 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholest-23-enoic, and 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholest-24-enoic acids. Similarly, the structure of the 12-deoxy analog of varanic acid, 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 24 xi-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid, was suggested for the component that constituted 7% of the total. PMID:7142816

  17. Transformation of some hydroxy amino acids to other amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. U. Choughuley; A. S. Subbaraman; Z. A. Kazi; M. S. Chadha

    1975-01-01

    It has been observed that ß-hydroxy-a-amino acids are transformed into other amino acids, when heated in dilute solutions with phosphorous acid, phosphoric acid or their ammonium salts. It has been shown that as in the case of previously reported glycine-aldehyde reactions, glycine also reacts with acetone to give ß-hydroxyvaline under prebiologically feasible conditions. It is suggested, therefore, that the formation

  18. Transformation of some hydroxy amino acids to other amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. U. Choughuley; A. S. Subbaraman; Z. A. Kazi; M. S. Chadha

    1975-01-01

    It has been observed that beta-hydroxy-alpha-amino acids are transformed into other amino acids, when heated in dilute solutions with phosphorous acid, phosphoric acid or their ammonium salts. It has been shown that as in the case of previously reported glycine-aldehyde reactions, glycine also reacts with acetone to give beta-hydroxyvaline under prebiologically feasible conditions. It is suggested, therefore, that the formation

  19. Thiobarbituric Acid Spray Reagent for Deoxy Sugars and Sialic Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard Warren

    1960-01-01

    RECENTLY, new sensitive assays have been reported for deoxy sugars1, 2-keto,3-deoxy sugar acids2-4, and sialic acids5,6. In these assays, the products of periodate oxidation, malonaldehyde from deoxy sugars and beta-formylpyruvic acid from the latter two groups of compounds, are coupled with 2-thiobarbituric acid to produce a bright red chromophore. I wish to report an adaptation of these methods for spraying

  20. Boric/sulfuric acid anodize - Alternative to chromic acid anodize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koop, Rodney; Moji, Yukimori

    1992-04-01

    The suitability of boric acid/sulfuric acid anodizing (BSAA) solution as a more environmentally acceptable replacement of the chromic acid anodizing (CAA) solution was investigated. Results include data on the BSAA process optimization, the corrosion protection performance, and the compatibility with aircraft finishing. It is shown that the BSSA implementation as a substitude for CAA was successful.

  1. Circulating folic acid in plasma: relation to folic acid fortification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The implementation of folic acid fortification in the United States has resulted in unprecedented amounts of this synthetic form of folate in the American diet. Folic acid in circulation may be a useful measure of physiologic exposure to synthetic folic acid, and there is a potential for elevated co...

  2. Acid placement and coverage in the acid jetting process

    E-print Network

    Mikhailov, Miroslav I.

    2009-05-15

    Many open-hole acid treatments are being conducted by pumping acid through jetting ports placed at the end of coiled tubing or drill pipe. The filter-cake on the bore-hole is broken by the jet; the acid-soluble material is dissolved, creating...

  3. Acid Placement in Acid Jetting Treatments in Long Horizontal Wells

    E-print Network

    Sasongko, Hari

    2012-07-16

    In the Middle East, extended reach horizontal wells (on the order of 25,000 feet of horizontal displacement) are commonly acid stimulated by jetting acid out of drill pipe. The acid is jetted onto the face of the openhole wellbore as the drill pipe...

  4. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  5. Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John

    Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

  6. Rapid, sensitive and specific derivatization methods with 9-(hydroxymethyl)anthracene for the fluorimetric detection of carboxylic acids prior to reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lingeman; A. Hulshoff; W. J. M. Underberg; F. B. J. M. Offermann

    1984-01-01

    Three derivatization procedures are described for the pre-column fluorescence labelling of carboxylic acids. The methods are based on esterification with 9-(hydroxymethyl)anthracene. The carboxylic acid function is activated with 2-bromo-l-methylpyridinium iodide, N,N?-carbonyldiimidazole or N-ethyl-N?-(3-dimethylanopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride, respectively. Benzoic acid was completely converted into the corresponding ester with all three methods. About 100 fmol of the acid could be detected after high-performance liquid

  7. Molecular Structure of Maleic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-11-10

    Maleic acid is colorless to white crystals with a faint acidulous odor and a characteristic repulsive, astringent taste. Maleic acid is used in making polyesters, surface coatings, lubricant additives, agricultural chemicals and paint vehicles. It is used in organic synthesis of fumaric acid, succinic, aspartic, tartaric, propionic, lactic, malonic, acrylic and hydrocarylic acids. Maleic acid and its anhydride are prepared industrially by the catalytic oxidation of benzene. Maleic acid may be released into waste water during its production and used in the manufacture of polymer products. Dust of maleic acid is irritating to the eyes, nose and throat. The general population is exposed to maleic acid in areas with heavy traffic since it is found in aerosols from auto exhaust.

  8. Molecular Structure of Glutaric acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-11-10

    Glutaric acid is a colorless liquid and white crystals as a solid occurring in plants and animal tissues. It is used in organic synthesis and as an intermediate for the manufacture of polymers such as polyamides and polyesters, ester plasticizers and corrosion inhibitors. It is also useful in the application of decreasing polymer elasticity and in a variety of industrial applications. In addition glutaric acid plays an important role as an intermediary in the Krebs cycle and is used in medication against a large number of viruses and in animal diabetes. Glutaric acid can be prepared from cyclopentanone by oxidative ring fission with nitric acid and in the presence of a catalyst. Glutaric acid has the lowest melting point among dicarboxylic acids (98 C); it is very soluble in water and the solution in water is a medium strong acid. Short-term exposure to glutaric acid may cause irritation to the eyes, skin and the respiratory tract.

  9. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    MedlinePLUS

    Pantothenic acid is a vitamin, also known as vitamin B5. It is widely found in both plants and animals ... Vitamin B5 is commercially available as D-pantothenic acid, as well as dexpanthenol and calcium pantothenate, which ...

  10. Molecular Structure of Sulfuric Acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-15

    H2SO4 was discovered by alchemists and made from heating a compound of iron sulfate. In 1740, sulfuric acid was produced for commercial sale. Sulfuric acid is a very strong acid which is used in car batteries. The acid disassociates in water to give two protons and sulfate. This acid can destroy flesh and cause blindness. It was discovered in the 19th century that adding sulfuric acid to soil produces phosphorus, which is beneficial to plants; hence, sulfuric acid is used as a fertilizer in the form of super phosphate and ammonium sulfate. Sulfuric acid is also used to refine petroleum and process metals, and is found in paints and car batteries.

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  12. Acid rain: Reign of controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Kahan, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Acid Rain is a primer on the science and politics of acid rain. Several introductory chapters describe in simple terms the relevant principles of water chemistry, soil chemistry, and plant physiology and discuss the demonstrated or postulated effects of acid rain on fresh waters and forests as well as on statuary and other exposed objects. There follow discussions on the economic and social implications of acid rain (for example, possible health effects) and on the sources, transport, and distribution of air pollutants.

  13. Molecular Structure of Octanoic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-10-11

    Caprylic acid is a colorless oil manufactured from 1-heptene or 1-octanol. Octanoic acid has an unpleasant rancid taste. When converted from the carboxlic acid to an ester, it has a pleasant taste. In addition, esters of caprylic acid are used in the preparation of dyes, perfumes, and food preservatives. This compound has also been found to have antifungal activity and is used to treat yeast infections.

  14. Molecular Structure of Trimesic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-05-08

    Trimesic Acid is made up of a benzene ring with three carboxylic groups at the 1, 3, and 5 positions, and it can be synthesized from the oxidation of 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene. The acid is an important building block in crystal engineering which is used to form honeycomb structures, but it has the ability to form diverse supramolecular structures. Also, trimesic acid salt and the free trimesic acid are useful as a plasticizer.

  15. Molecular Structure of Acetic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-06-02

    Acetic Acid commonly associated with vinegar; it is the most commercially important organic acid and is used to manufacture a wide range of chemical products, such as plastics and insecticides. Acetic acid is produced naturally by Aceto bacteria but, except for making vinegar, is usually made through synthetic processes. Ethanoic acid is used as herbicide, as a micro-biocide, as a fungicide and for pH adjustment.

  16. Enviropedia: Introduction to Acid Rain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource provides information about acid rain, a widespread term used to describe all forms of acid precipitation. The sources, nature, and chemistry of acid rain are discussed, along with its impact on buildings, soils, freshwater lakes, trees, and wildlife. Other topics include measuring, modeling, and monitoring acid rain; and vehicle and industrial emission controls. The problem of airborne pollutants migrating across international borders is also discussed.

  17. Acid rain abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Stiles, A.B.

    1991-06-11

    This patent describes a method of obtaining acid rain abatement from a flue gas containing nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulfur oxides (SOX). It comprises the steps of treating the flue gas with a reducing agent to remove the remaining oxygen and produce an effluent, the reducing agent being selected from group consisting of natural gas, methane, a mixture of CO and hydrogen derived from steam, hydrocarbon, and hydrogen, passing effluent over a catalyst to simultaneously reduce the NOX to water and elemental nitrogen and the SOX to H{sub 2}S or elemental sulfur, the catalyst being selected from the group consisting of heteropoly acids and their salts, the reduction of the NOX and SOX taking place in a temperature range of 200{degrees} - 900{degrees} C., and removing the sulfur or sulfur compounds from the reduced flue gas to thereby remove essentially all of the NOX and SOX.

  18. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, H.

    1980-12-01

    One of the alternatives to increase world production of etha nol is by the hydrolysis of cellulose content of agricultural residues. Studies have been made on the types of hydrolysis: enzimatic and acid. Data obtained from the sulphuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose showed that this process proceed in two steps, with a yield of approximately 95% glucose. Because of increases in cost of alternatives resources, the high demand of the product and the more economic production of ethanol from cellulose materials, it is certain that this technology will be implemented in the future. At the same time further studies on the disposal and reuse of the by-products of this production must be undertaken.

  19. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    PubMed

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent. PMID:3758667

  20. A ACID RAIN Audrey Gibson

    E-print Network

    Toohey, Darin W.

    A ACID RAIN Audrey Gibson ATOC 3500 Thursday, April 29, 2010 #12;CAUSES Natural sources - volcanoes Thursday, April 29, 2010 #12;ON WILDLIFE Acid rain causes acidification of lakes and streams and contributes to damage of trees at high elevations. Acid rain primarily affects sensitive bodies of water

  1. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  2. Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid (Aspirin)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamie Yeadon; Leah Monroe

    The purpose of this experiment was to synthesize acetylsalicylic acid via an esterification reaction between salicylic acid and acetic anhydride. The product was recrystallized using 95% ethanol. This percent yield of this synthesized product was 68.4%. Using ethanol again as a recrystallizing solvent, acetylsalicylic acid was also extracted from commercial aspirin tablets. This commercial product did not have a percent

  3. Do We Need Gastric Acid?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Pohl; M. Fox; M. Fried; B. Göke; C. Prinz; H. Mönnikes; G. Rogler; M. Dauer; J. Keller; F. Lippl; I. Schiefke; U. Seidler; H. D. Allescher

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from comparative anatomy and physiology studies indicates that gastric acid secretion developed during the evolution of vertebrates approximately 350 million years ago. The cellular mechanisms that produce gastric acid have been conserved over the millennia and therefore proton pump inhibitors have pharmacological effects in almost all relevant species. These observations suggest that gastric acid provides an important selective advantage;

  4. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  5. New politics of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Trisko, E.M.

    1983-07-01

    The acid rain problem is not nationwide across the USA but the politicians want to spread the cost of emission reductions. An overview of acid rain and its environmental impacts is given, and a cost-benefit analysis of acid rain control is outlined. USA policies are discussed. 6 references.

  6. Molecular Structure of Carbonic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-09-10

    The hypothetical acid formed with carbon dioxide and water; it is only in the H2CO3 form when in solution. This acid is found in everyday products, the most prominent of which include carbonated beverages. The conversion of carbonic acid into water and carbon dioxide in sodas is the reason the beverage looses the bubbling.

  7. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

    1995-05-02

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

  8. Biotechnological production of pyruvic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Li; J. Chen; S.-Y. Lun

    2001-01-01

    Pyruvic acid is an important organic acid widely used in the chemical and drug, as well as agrochemical, industries. Compared with the chemical method, biotechnological production of pyruvic acid is an alternative approach because of the low cost. An overview of biotechnological production of pyruvate, including direct fermentative production employing eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms, production by a resting cell method

  9. Nucleic Acids Molecular Biology Tools

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Weigang

    Nucleic Acids Proteins Molecular Biology Tools Molecular Biology and Genomics Weigang Qiu Weigang Qiu Molecular Biology and Genomics #12;Nucleic Acids Proteins Molecular Biology Tools Outline 1 Nucleic Acids 2 Proteins 3 Molecular Biology Tools Weigang Qiu Molecular Biology and Genomics #12;Nucleic

  10. Acid rain in Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neeloo Bhatti; David G. Streets; Wesley K. Foell

    1992-01-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to\\u000a the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging\\u000a perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in

  11. Acid Rain Effects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Amy Kolenbrander

    2004-01-01

    Learners conduct a simple experiment to model and explore the harmful effects of acid rain (vinegar) on living (green leaf and eggshell) and non-living (paper clip) objects. Learners observe the effects over a period of days. This activity has links to other activities which can be combined to make a larger lesson. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

  12. Iron amino acid chelates.

    PubMed

    Hertrampf, Eva; Olivares, Manuel

    2004-11-01

    Iron amino acid chelates, such as iron glycinate chelates, have been developed to be used as food fortificants and therapeutic agents in the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Ferrous bis-glycine chelate (FeBC), ferric tris-glycine chelate, ferric glycinate, and ferrous bis-glycinate hydrochloride are available commercially. FeBC is the most studied and used form. Iron absorption from FeBC is affected by enhancers and inhibitors of iron absorption, but to a lesser extent than ferrous sulfate. Its absorption is regulated by iron stores. FeBC is better absorbed from milk, wheat, whole maize flour, and precooked corn flour than is ferrous sulfate. Supplementation trials have demonstrated that FeBC is efficacious in treating iron deficiency anemia. Consumption of FeBC-fortified liquid milk, dairy products, wheat rolls, and multi-nutrient beverages is associated with an improvement of iron status. The main limitations to the widespread use of FeBC in national fortification programs are the cost and the potential for promoting organoleptic changes in some food matrices. Additional research is required to establish the bioavailability of FeBC in different food matrices. Other amino acid chelates should also be evaluated. Finally there is an urgent need for more rigorous efficacy trials designed to define the relative merits of amino acid chelates when compared with bioavailable iron salts such as ferrous sulfate and ferrous fumarate and to determine appropriate fortification levels PMID:15743019

  13. Exposures to acidic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Spengler, J.D.; Keeler, G.J.; Koutrakis, P.; Ryan, P.B.; Raizenne, M.; Franklin, C.A.

    1989-02-01

    Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m/sup 3/ more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H+ determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr H+ concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/m/sup 3/ (approximately 27 micrograms/m/sup 3/ H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/m/sup 3/ for H+ ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H+ ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ exceeded 50 micrograms/m/sup 3/.

  14. Exposures to acidic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Spengler, J.D.; Keeler, G.J.; Koutrakis, P.; Ryan, P.B.; Raizenne, M.

    1989-01-01

    Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H(+) ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/cu m more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H(+) determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr (H+) concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/cu m (approximately 27 microgram/cu m H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/cu m for H(+) ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H(+) ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} exceeded 50 microgram/cu m.

  15. Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hücherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration. PMID:19560175

  16. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas (Ithaca, NY); Webb, Watt W. (Ithaca, NY); Levene, Michael (Ithaca, NY); Turner, Stephen (Ithaca, NY); Craighead, Harold G. (Ithaca, NY); Foquet, Mathieu (Ithaca, NY)

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  17. Probing acid-amide intermolecular hydrogen bonding by NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Sachin Rama; Suryaprakash, N.

    2012-05-01

    Benzene carboxylic acids and benzamide act as their self-complement in molecular recognition to form inter-molecular hydrogen bonded dimers between amide and carboxylic acid groups, which have been investigated by 1H, 13C and 15N NMR spectroscopy. Extensive NMR studies using diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY), variable temperature 1D, 2D NMR, established the formation of heterodimers of benzamide with benzoic acid, salicylic acid and phenyl acetic acid in deuterated chloroform solution. Association constants for the complex formation in the solution state have been determined. The results are ascertained by X-ray diffraction in the solid state. Intermolecular interactions in solution and in solid state were found to be similar. The structural parameters obtained by X-ray diffraction studies are compared with those obtained by DFT calculations.

  18. Dicarboxylic acids with limited numbers of hydrocarbons stabilize cell membrane and increase osmotic resistance in rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Mineo, Hitoshi; Amita, Nozomi; Kawawake, Megumi; Higuchi, Ayaka

    2013-11-01

    We examined the effect of dicarboxylic acids having 0 to 6 hydrocarbons and their corresponding monocarboxylic or tricarboxylic acids in changing the osmotic fragility (OF) in rat red blood cells (RBCs). Malonic, succinic, glutaric and adipic acids, which are dicarboxylic acids with 1, 2, 3 and 4 straight hydrocarbons located between two carboxylic groups, decreased the OF in a concentration-dependent manner. Other long-chain dicarboxylic acids did not change the OF in rat RBCs. The benzoic acid derivatives, isophthalic and terephthalic acids, but not phthalic acid, decreased the OF in a concentration-dependent manner. Benzene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, but not benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid, also decreased the OF in rat RBCs. On the other hand, monocarboxylic acids possessing 2 to 7 straight hydrocarbons and benzoic acid increased the OF in rat RBCs. In short-chain dicarboxylic acids, a limited number of hydrocarbons between the two carboxylic groups are thought to form a V- or U-shaped structure and interact with phospholipids in the RBC membrane. In benzene dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids, a part of benzene nucleus between the two carboxylic groups is thought to enter the plasma membrane and act on acyl-chain in phospholipids in the RBC membrane. For dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids, limited numbers of hydrocarbons in molecules are speculated to enter the RBC membrane with the hydrophilic carboxylic groups remaining outside, stabilizing the structure of the cell membrane and resulting in an increase in osmotic resistance in rat RBCs. PMID:23770357

  19. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  20. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.