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Sample records for acid calcium salt

  1. 40 CFR 721.10382 - Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10382 Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and... salt (1:1) (PMN P-10-313; CAS No. 14866-19-4) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10382 - Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10382 Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and... salt (1:1) (PMN P-10-313; CAS No. 14866-19-4) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10382 - Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10382 Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and... salt (1:1) (PMN P-10-313; CAS No. 14866-19-4) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  8. Palmitoleic acid calcium salt: a lubricant and bactericidal powder from natural lipids.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Kawamura, Yuki; Yamazaki, Yuki; Kijima, Tatsuro; Morikawa, Toshiya; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoleic acid is a promising bactericidal agent for cleansing products with alternative bactericidal abilities. In this study, we focus on the physical and biological activity of palmitoleic acid calcium salt (C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt) because it forms via an ion-exchange reaction between palmitoleic acid and Ca ions in tap water, and remains on the skin surface during the cleansing process. Here, we prepared C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt to investigate its crystal structure and physical and bactericidal properties. The Ca salt was a plate-shaped lamellar crystalline powder with a particle diameter of several micrometers to several tens of micrometers; it exhibited significant lubricity and alternative bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). We also examined other fatty acid Ca salts prepared from lauric acid (C12:0 fatty acid), palmitic acid (C16:0 fatty acid), and oleic acid (C18:1 fatty acid). The bactericidal activities and lubricity of the fatty acid Ca salts changed with the alkyl chain length and the degree of unsaturation. The C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt exhibited the strongest selective bactericidal ability among the four investigated fatty acid Ca salts. These findings suggest that C16:1 fatty acid and its Ca salt have potential applications in cleansing and cosmetic products. PMID:25757432

  9. Effects of calcium salts of acidic monomers on mineral induction of phosphoprotein immobilized to agarose beads.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shuichi; Iijima, Masahiro; Motai, Fumiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru; Saito, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the mineralizing potential of acidic monomers and their calcium salts for mineralization, using an in vitro mineral induction model. Phosvitin (PV) was used as a model phosphoprotein in this study. PV was immobilized on agarose beads with divinyl sulfone. Five aliquots of agarose-immobilized PV, acidic monomers, and their calcium salts were incubated in mineralizing solution at various concentrations. The PV beads and acidic monomers were incubated at 37°C. Samples were taken at several time points during the incubation. Then, the agarose beads were analyzed for bound calcium by atomic absorption spectrometry. The mineral formed on the agarose beads was identified as an apatite by microarea X-ray diffraction. Additionally, the specimens were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mineral induction time decreased with increasing solution saturation. 4-METCa salt [calcium salt of 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate (CMET)] significantly reduced the mineral induction time. Using these data, the interfacial tension for mineral induction of PV and CMET was determined to be 90.1 and 92.7 ergs/cm(2), respectively. The mineral induced in each specimen after incubation for 24 h was identified by its X-ray diffraction pattern as apatite. SEM observation showed that lath-shaped crystals were formed on the surfaces of the CMET. We conclude that CMET could play a role in dentin remineralization. PMID:22623052

  10. Buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi: lowering acidity, elevating lactic acid bacterial population and dextransucrase activity.

    PubMed

    Chae, Seo Eun; Moon, Jin Seok; Jung, Jee Yun; Kim, Ji-Sun; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Kim, So-Young; Yoon, Hyang Sik; Han, Nam Soo

    2009-12-01

    This study investigates the buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi on total acidity, microbial population, and dextransucrase activity. Calcium chloride or calcium carbonate was added in dongchimi-kimchi, a watery-radish kimchi, and their effects on various biochemical attributes were analyzed. The addition of 0.1% calcium chloride produced a milder decrease in the pH after 24 days of incubation, which allowed the lactic acid bacteria to survive longer than in the control. In particular, the heterofermentative Leuconostoc genus population was 10-fold higher than that in the control. When sucrose and maltose were also added along with the calcium salts, the dextransucrase activity in the kimchi was elevated and a higher concentration of isomaltooligosaccharides was synthesized when compared with the control. Calcium chloride was determined as a better activator compound of dextransucrase than calcium carbonate, probably because of its higher solubility. Therefore, the results of this study confirm the ability of the proposed approach to modulate the kimchi fermentation process and possibly enhance the quality of kimchi based on the addition of dietary calcium salts. PMID:20075632

  11. Preparation of volatile fatty acid (VFA) calcium salts by anaerobic digestion of glucose.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofen; Swan, Janis E; Nair, Giridhar R; Langdon, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Many potentially useful intermediates such as hydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are formed during the complex anaerobic digestion processes that produce methane from biomass. This study recovers VFAs from an anaerobic digester by a combination of gas stripping and absorption with calcium carbonate slurry. Glucose was used as the model substrate because it is readily available, inexpensive, and easily digested. Sludge from a meatworks anaerobic digester produced methane and carbon dioxide (and sometimes a small amount of hydrogen) when batch-fed with glucose. Conditioning the neutral anaerobic sludge to an acidic pH (below 4.8) was achieved using repeated 1 g L(-1) doses of glucose. After conditioning, mainly VFAs and hydrogen were produced. The intermediate VFAs could be stripped using headspace gas. In subsequent fed-batch digestion/stripping cycles, the pH decreased when glucose was added and then increased when the VFA was gas stripped. The predominant acids formed at low pH values were lactic, butyric, and acetic acids. Lactic acid was converted to VFAs during stripping. The VFA calcium salts recovered were 80% butyrate and 20% acetate with minor quantities of propionate and valerate. PMID:25274086

  12. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices §...

  13. Modification of fatty acid profile of cow milk by calcium salts of fatty acids and its use in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Inayat, Saima

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on fatty acid profile of milk of "Sahiwal" cows and suitability of milk with modified fatty acids in the formulation of ice cream. Fatty acid profile of cow milk was modified by feeding CSFA to eighteen randomly stratified "Sahiwal" cows of first and early lactation divided into three groups. CSFA were offered at two different levels i.e. T1 (150 g per cow per day) T2 (300 g per cow per day) both treatments were compared with a control (T0) without any addition of calcium salts of fatty acids. Iso caloric and iso nitrogenous feeds were given to both experimental groups and control. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids in T0, T1 and T2 were 9.85 ± 0.48a, 8.8 ± 0.24b and 7.1 ± 0.37c %, respectively and the concentrations of C18:1 and C18:2 increased (P < 0.05) from 27.6 ± 1.32b % to 31.7 ± 1.68a % and 2.15 ± 0.09b % to 2.79 ± 0.05a %, respectively, at T2 level. Incorporation of milk fat of T1 and T2 (modified fatty acids profile) in ice cream did not have any adverse effect on pH, acidity and compositional attributes of ice cream. Viscosity of T1 was 67.94 ± 3.77a as compared to (T0) control 68.75 ± 2.46a (CP). Firmness of experimental samples and control were almost similar (P > 0.05) overall acceptability score of T2 was 7.1 ± 0.28b out of 9 (total score) which was more than 78 ± 2.92 %. It was concluded that CSFA may be successfully incorporated up to T2 level (300 g per cow per day) into the feed of "Sahiwal" cows to produce milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and it may be used in the formulation of ice cream with acceptable sensory characteristics and increased health benefits. PMID:25694719

  14. Efficacy of a novel calcium/potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid in weight control.

    PubMed

    Preuss, H G; Garis, R I; Bramble, J D; Bagchi, D; Bagchi, M; Rao, C V S; Satyanarayana, S

    2005-01-01

    The weight-loss efficacy of a novel, water-soluble, calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) was re-examined in 90 obese subjects (BMI: 30-50.8 kg/m2). We combined data from two previously reported randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies in order to achieve a better statistical evaluation based on a larger population. This re-examination of data also allowed us to reflect more intensely on various aspects of weight loss studies. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups: group A received a daily dose of HCA-SX 4, 667 mg (providing 2,800 mg HCA per day); group B was given a daily dose of a combination of HCA-SX 4,667 mg, niacin-bound chromium (NBC) 4 mg (providing 400 microg elemental chromium), and Gymnema sylvestre extract (GSE) 400 mg (providing 100 mg gymnemic acid); and group C received a placebo in three equally divided doses 30-60 min before each meal. All subjects were provided a 2,000 kcal diet/day and participated in a supervised walking program for 30 min/day, 5 days/week. Eighty-two subjects completed the study. At the end of 8 weeks, in group A, both body weight and BMI decreased by 5.4%, low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides levels were reduced by 12.9% and 6.9%, respectively, while high-density lipoprotein levels increased by 8.9%, serum leptin levels decreased by 38%, serotonin levels increased by 44.5% and urinary excretion of fat metabolites increased by 32-109%. Group B demonstrated similar beneficial changes, but generally to a greater extent. No significant adverse effects were observed. The combined results confirm that HCA-SX and, to a greater degree, the combination of HCA-SX plus NBC and GSE reduce body weight and BMI, suppress appetite, improve blood lipid profiles, increase serum leptin and serotonin levels and increase fat oxidation more than placebo. We conclude that dosage levels, timing of administration, subject compliance and bioavailability of HCA-SX significantly affect results and

  15. Lead and calcium binding to fulvic acids: Salt effect and competition

    SciTech Connect

    Pinheiro, J.P.; Mota, A.M.; Benedetti, M.F.

    1999-10-01

    Knowledge of the speciation of Pb in natural aquatic systems is important if the authors want to understand the bioavailability and mobility of Pb in polluted and natural environments. The results given in this paper were obtained under conditions as close as possible to natural conditions. These new data show that Pb strongly binds to fulvic acids. The authors also show that the competitive effect of Pb on Ca binding to the same fulvic acid is smaller than the salt effect on Ca binding to fulvic acids as pH varies from 4 to 8. All the data were analyzed with the NICCA-Donnan model developed to describe metal ion binding to natural organic matter. The model predictions of competitive and salt effects are excellent. Comparison of their results with previously published data suggests that metal ion binding strength is similar for fulvic acids from different origins. Thus, all data sets could be interpreted within the framework of a unified modeling approach.

  16. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  17. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  18. The effect of calcium salts, ascorbic acid and peptic pH on calcium, zinc and iron bioavailabilities from fortified human milk using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Etcheverry, Paz; Wallingford, John Charles; Miller, Dennis Dean; Glahn, Raymond Philip

    2005-05-01

    The calcium, zinc, and iron bioavailabilities of human milk with commercial and noncommercial human milk fortifiers (HMFs) were evaluated under a variety of conditions: peptic digestion at pH 2 and pH 4, supplementation of ascorbic acid, and addition of three calcium salts. The noncommercial HMFs consisted of casein phosphopeptides (CPPs), alpha-lactalbumin, colostrum, and hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate (WPC). They were mixed with human milk (HM) and calcium, zinc, and iron were added. Ascorbic acid (AA) was added in certain studies. The commercial HMFs were Nestlé FM-85, Similac HMF (SHMF), and Enfamil HMF (EHMF). All HMFs were compared to S-26/SMA HMF. Results showed that the peptic pH (2 vs. 4) had no effect on mineral bioavailability. Addition of different calcium salts had no effect on calcium cell uptake and cell ferritin levels (an indicator of iron uptake), however, the addition of calcium glycerophosphate/gluconate increased zinc uptake by Caco-2 cells. Addition of AA significantly increased ferritin levels, with no effect on calcium or zinc uptake. Among the commercial HMFs, FM-85 was significantly lower in zinc uptake than S-26/SMA, and HM+EHMF was significantly higher than HM+S-26/SMA. Cell ferritin levels were significantly higher for HM+S-26/SMA than for all other commercial fortifiers. None of the commercial HMFs were different from HM+S-26/SMA in calcium uptake. PMID:16028632

  19. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  20. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely used... anhydrous basis. (2) The calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts contain a minimum of 99 percent...

  1. Effect of supplementation with calcium salts of fish oil on n-3 fatty acids in milk fat.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Gutiérrez, E; de Veth, M J; Lock, A L; Dwyer, D A; Murphy, K D; Bauman, D E

    2007-09-01

    Enrichment of milk fat with n-3 fatty acids, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may be advantageous because of their beneficial effects on human health. In addition, these fatty acids play an important role in reproductive processes in dairy cows. Our objective was to evaluate the protection of EPA and DHA against rumen biohydrogenation provided by Ca salts of fish oil. Four Holstein cows were assigned in a Latin square design to the following treatments: 1) ruminal infusion of Ca salts of fish oil and palm fatty acid distillate low dose (CaFO-1), 2) ruminal infusion of Ca salts of fish oil and palm fatty acid distillate high dose (CaFO-2), 3) ruminal infusion of fish oil high dose (RFO), and 4) abomasal infusion of fish oil high dose (AFO). The high dose of fish oil provided approximately 16 and approximately 21 g/d of EPA and DHA, respectively, whereas the low dose (CaFO-1) provided 50% of these amounts. A 10-d pretreatment period was used as a baseline, followed by 9-d treatment periods with interceding intervals of 10 d. Supplements were infused every 6 h, milk samples were taken the last 3 d, and plasma samples were collected the last day of baseline and treatment periods. Milk fat content of EPA and DHA were 5 to 6 times greater with AFO, but did not differ among other treatments. Milk and milk protein yield were unaffected by treatment, but milk fat yield and DM intake were reduced by 20 and 15%, respectively, by RFO. Overall, results indicate rumen biohydrogenation of long chain n-3 fatty acids was extensive, averaging >85% for EPA and >75% for DHA for the Ca salts and unprotected fish oil supplements. Thus, Ca salts of fish oil offered no protection against the biohydrogenation of EPA and DHA beyond that observed with unprotected fish oil; however, the Ca salts did provide rumen inertness by preventing the negative effects on DM intake and milk fat yield observed with unprotected fish oil. PMID:17699033

  2. Effects of flaxseed, raw soybeans and calcium salts of fatty acids on apparent total tract digestibility, energy balance and milk fatty acid profile of transition cows.

    PubMed

    Gandra, J R; Mingoti, R D; Barletta, R V; Takiya, C S; Verdurico, L C; Freitas, J E; Paiva, P G; Jesus, E F; Calomeni, G D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Oilseeds offer some protection to the access of ruminal microorganisms and may be an alternative to calcium salts of fatty acids (FA), which are not fully inert in the ruminal environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sources of FA supplementation on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and energy balance (EB) of cows during the transition period and early lactation. We compared diets rich in C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive one of the four diets: control (n=11); whole flaxseed (WF, n=10), 60 and 80 g/kg (diet dry matter (DM) basis) of WF during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; whole raw soybeans (WS, n=10), 120 and 160 g/kg (diet DM basis) of WS during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; and calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CSFA, n=11), 24 and 32 g/kg (diet DM basis) of CSFA during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively. Dry cows fed WF had higher DM and net energy of lactation (NEL) intake than those fed WS or CSFA. The FA supplementation did not alter DM and NDF apparent total tract digestibility, dry cows fed WF exhibited greater NDF total tract digestion than cows fed WS or CSFA. Feeding WS instead of CSFA did not alter NEL intake and total tract digestion of nutrients, but increased milk fat yield and concentration. Calculated efficiency of milk yield was not altered by diets. FA supplementation increased EB during the postpartum period. Experimental diets increased long-chain FA (saturated and unsaturated FA) in milk. In addition, cows fed WS and CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 FA and C18:2 cis, and lower C18:3 FA in milk than those fed WF. Furthermore, cows fed CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 and cis-9, trans-11 FA than cows fed WS. Although supplemental C18:2 and C18:3 FA did not influence the milk yield of cows, they positively affected EB and increased unsaturated long-chain FA in milk fat. PMID

  3. Influence of calcium and phosphorus, lactose, and salt-to-moisture ratio on Cheddar cheese quality: changes in residual sugars and water-soluble organic acids during ripening.

    PubMed

    Upreti, P; McKay, L L; Metzger, L E

    2006-02-01

    Cheddar cheese ripening involves the conversion of lactose to glucose and galactose or galactose-6-phosphate by starter and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria. Under ideal conditions (i.e., where bacteria grow under no stress of pH, water activity, and salt), these sugars are mainly converted to lactic acid. However, during ripening of cheese, survival and growth of bacteria occurs under the stressed condition of low pH, low water activity, and high salt content. This forces bacteria to use alternate biochemical pathways resulting in production of other organic acids. The objective of this study was to determine if the level and type of organic acids produced during ripening was influenced by calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), residual lactose, and salt-to-moisture ratio (S/M) of cheese. Eight cheeses with 2 levels of Ca and P (0.67 and 0.47% vs. 0.53 and 0.39%, respectively), lactose at pressing (2.4 vs. 0.78%), and S/M (6.4 vs. 4.8%) were manufactured. The cheeses were analyzed for organic acids (citric, orotic, pyruvic, lactic, formic, uric, acetic, propanoic, and butyric acids) and residual sugars (lactose, galactose) during 48 wk of ripening using an HPLC-based method. Different factors influenced changes in concentration of residual sugars and organic acids during ripening and are discussed in detail. Our results indicated that the largest decrease in lactose and the largest increase in lactic acid occurred between salting and d 1 of ripening. It was interesting to observe that although the lactose content in cheese was influenced by several factors (Ca and P, residual lactose, and S/M), the concentration of lactic acid was influenced only by S/M. More lactic acid was produced in low S/M treatments compared with high S/M treatments. Although surprising for Cheddar cheese, a substantial amount (0.2 to 0.4%) of galactose was observed throughout ripening in all treatments. Minor changes in the levels of citric, uric, butyric, and propanoic acids were observed during

  4. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate...

  5. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate...

  6. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate...

  7. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate...

  8. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may be safely used in foods for...

  9. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely...

  10. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely...

  11. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely...

  12. Effects of whole flaxseed, raw soybeans, and calcium salts of fatty acids on measures of cellular immune function of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gandra, J R; Barletta, R V; Mingoti, R D; Verdurico, L C; Freitas, J E; Oliveira, L J; Takiya, C S; Kfoury, J R; Wiltbank, M C; Renno, F P

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of supplemental n-3 and n-6 fatty acid (FA) sources on cellular immune function of transition dairy cows. Animals were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 diets: control (n=11); whole flaxseed (n-3 FA source; n=11), 60 and 80g/kg of whole flaxseed [diet dry matter (DM) basis] during pre- and postpartum, respectively; whole raw soybeans (n-6 FA source; n=10), 120 and 160g/kg of whole raw soybeans (diet DM basis) during pre- and postpartum, respectively; and calcium salts of unsaturated FA (Megalac-E, n-6 FA source; n=10), 24 and 32g/kg of calcium salts of unsaturated FA (diet DM basis) during pre- and postpartum, respectively. Supplemental FA did not alter DM intake and milk yield but increased energy balance during the postpartum period. Diets containing n-3 and n-6 FA sources increased phagocytosis capacity of leukocytes and monocytes and phagocytosis activity of monocytes. Furthermore, n-3 FA source increased phagocytic capacity of leukocytes and neutrophils and increased phagocytic activity in monocytes and neutrophils when compared with n-6 FA sources. Supplemental FA effects on adaptive immune system included increased percentage of T-helper cells, T-cytotoxic cells, cells that expressed IL-2 receptors, and CD62 adhesion molecules. The results of this study suggest that unsaturated FA can modulate innate and adaptive cellular immunity and trigger a proinflammatory response. The n-3 FA seems to have a greater effect on phagocytic capacity and activity of leukocytes when compared with n-6 FA. PMID:27060809

  13. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely... conditions: (a) The additive consists of one or any mixture of two or more of the aluminum, calcium... derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming with § 172.862. (b) The food additive is used or intended...

  14. Effect of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium salt cations on pH, proteolysis, organic acids, and microbial populations during storage of full-fat Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    McMahon, D J; Oberg, C J; Drake, M A; Farkye, N; Moyes, L V; Arnold, M R; Ganesan, B; Steele, J; Broadbent, J R

    2014-01-01

    Sodium reduction in cheese can assist in reducing overall dietary Na intake, yet saltiness is an important aspect of cheese flavor. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of partial substitution of Na with K on survival of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and nonstarter LAB (NSLAB), pH, organic acid production, and extent of proteolysis as water-soluble nitrogen (WSN) and protein profiles using urea-PAGE, in Cheddar cheese during 9mo of storage. Seven Cheddar cheeses with molar salt contents equivalent to 1.7% salt but with different ratios of Na, K, Ca, and Mg cations were manufactured as well as a low-salt cheese with 0.7% salt. The 1.7% salt cheeses had a mean composition of 352g of moisture/kg, 259g of protein/kg and 50% fat-on-dry-basis, and 17.5g of salt/kg (measured as Cl(-)). After salting, a faster initial decrease in cheese pH occurred with low salt or K substitution and it remained lower throughout storage. No difference in intact casein levels or percentage WSN levels between the various cheeses was observed, with the percentage WSN increasing from 5% at d 1 to 25% at 9mo. A greater decrease in intact αs1-casein than β-casein was detected, and the ratio of αs1-casein (f121-199) to αs1-casein could be used as an index of ripening. Typical changes in bacteria microflora occurred during storage, with lactococci decreasing gradually and NSLAB increasing. Lowering the Na content, even with K replacement, extended the crossover time when NSLAB became dominant. The crossover time was 4.5mo for the control cheese and was delayed to 5.2, 6.0, 6.1, and 6.2mo for cheeses with 10, 25, 50, and 75% K substitution. Including 10% Mg or Ca, along with 40% K, further increased crossover time, whereas the longest crossover time (7.3mo) was for low-salt cheese. By 9mo, NSLAB levels in all cheeses had increased from initial levels of ≤10(2) to approximately 10(6)cfu/g. Lactococci remained at 10(6) cfu/g in the low-salt cheese even after 9mo of storage. The propionic acid

  15. Oxalic acid decreases calcium absorption in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, C.M.; Martin, B.R.; Ebner, J.S.; Krueger, C.A.

    1987-11-01

    Calcium absorption from salts and foods intrinsically labeled with /sup 45/Ca was determined in the rat model. Calcium bioavailability was nearly 10 times greater for low oxalate kale, CaCO/sub 3/ and CaCl/sub 2/ than from CaC/sub 2/O/sub 4/ (calcium oxalate) and spinach (high in oxalates). Extrinsic and intrinsic labeling techniques gave a similar assessment of calcium bioavailability from kale but not from spinach.

  16. An evaluation of the bioconversion of woody biomass to calcium acetate deicing salt

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, D.L.; Augenstein, D. )

    1988-01-01

    A competitive process is described using local woody biomass residues, which may also include associated pulp and paper wastes, or municipal solid waste, as potential feedstocks for bioconversion to calcium acetate, an alternative deicing salt. The process first involves suppressed methane fermentation of these woody biomass residues in a packed bed fermentor for the production of acetic acid. In earlier experimental work, operation of conventional anaerobic digestion systems in this suppressed methane mode has yielded a product of over 85% acetic acid, the remainder primarily being other organic acids such as propionic and butyric acids; operation at thermophilic conditions (60{degree}C) yielded essentially all acetic acid. In the process described, recovery of the dilute organic acids (=3.5% acetic acid) will be by liquid ion exchange extraction. Production calcium acetate is formed by back extraction of liquid ion exchange with calcium hydroxide. After spray drying, this calcium acetate is ready for use as an organic deicing salt. Pretreatment of woody biomass may be by steam explosion or by mild alkali treatment to breakdown the lignin fraction for fermentation to acetic acid; however, if cellulosic wastes are used, no pretreatment step will be needed. Essentially, only technology transfer is involved in commercialization of this process, rather than the development of new technology. Their cost analysis, the objective of this present work, projects calcium acetate costs of 0.258 $US/kg ($0.117/lb) for a full-scale plant of 454 metric tons/day (500 US tons/day).

  17. A comparison of the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures versus calcium salts of fatty acids on performance and milk fatty acid composition of mid-lactation Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Rafiee-Yarandi, H; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Drackley, J K

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures on milk yield and milk fatty acid composition, 8 (4 multiparous and 4 primiparous) mid-lactation Holstein cows (42.9±3 kg/d of milk) were assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. The control diet (CON) contained lignosulfonate-treated soybean meal (as a source of rumen-undegradable protein) and calcium salts of fatty acids (Ca-FA, as a source of energy). Diets 2, 3, and 4 contained ground soybeans roasted at 115, 130, or 145°C, respectively (as the source of protein and energy). Dry matter intake (DMI) tended to be greater for CON compared with the roasted soybean diets (24.6 vs. 23.3 kg/d). Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein were not different among the treatments. Actual and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Milk fat was higher for soybeans roasted at 130°C than for those roasted at either 115 or 145°C. No differences were observed between the CON and the roasted soybean diets, or among roasting temperatures, on feed efficiency and nitrogen concentrations in rumen, milk, and plasma. Milk from cows fed roasted soybeans had more long-chain fatty acids and fewer medium-chain fatty acids than milk from cows fed Ca-FA. Compared with milk from cows fed the CON diet, total milk fat contents of conjugated linoleic acid, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, cis-C18:2, cis-C18:3, and C22:0 were higher for cows fed the roasted soybean diets. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and total unsaturated fatty acids were greater in milk from cows fed roasted soybean diets than in milk from cows fed CON. Concentrations of C16:0 and saturated fatty acids in milk fat were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Cows fed roasted soybean diets had lower atherogenic and thrombogenic indices than cows fed CON. Milk fatty acid composition did not differ among different roasting temperatures. In

  18. 21 CFR 888.3045 - Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device... salt bone void filler device. (a) Identification. A resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device is... entitled “Class II Special Controls Guidance: Resorbable Calcium Salt Bone Void Filler Device; Guidance...

  19. 21 CFR 888.3045 - Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device... salt bone void filler device. (a) Identification. A resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device is... entitled “Class II Special Controls Guidance: Resorbable Calcium Salt Bone Void Filler Device; Guidance...

  20. 21 CFR 888.3045 - Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device... salt bone void filler device. (a) Identification. A resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device is... entitled “Class II Special Controls Guidance: Resorbable Calcium Salt Bone Void Filler Device; Guidance...

  1. Free acid gel form of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) improves HMB clearance from plasma in human subjects compared with the calcium HMB salt.

    PubMed

    Fuller, John C; Sharp, Rick L; Angus, Hector F; Baier, Shawn M; Rathmacher, John A

    2011-02-01

    The leucine metabolite, β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), is a nutritional supplement that increases lean muscle and strength with exercise and in disease states. HMB is presently available as the Ca salt (CaHMB). The present study was designed to examine whether HMB in free acid gel form will improve HMB availability to tissues. Two studies were conducted and in each study four males and four females were given three treatments in a randomised, cross-over design. Treatments were CaHMB (gelatin capsule, 1 g), equivalent HMB free acid gel swallowed (FASW) and free acid gel held sublingual for 15 s then swallowed (FASL). Plasma HMB was measured for 3 h following treatment in study 1 and 24 h with urine collection in study 2. In both the studies, the times to peak plasma HMB were 128 (sem 11), 38 (sem 4) and 38 (sem 1) min (P < 0·0001) for CaHMB, FASW and FASL, respectively. The peak concentrations were 131 (sem 6), 249 (sem 14) and 239 (sem 14) μmol/l (P < 0·0001) for CaHMB, FASW and FASL, respectively. The areas under the curve were almost double for FASW and FASL (P < 0·0001). Daily urinary HMB excretion was not significantly increased resulting in more HMB retained (P < 0·003) with FASW and FASL. Half-lives were 3·17 (sem 0·22), 2·50 (sem 0·13) and 2·51 (sem 0·14) h for CaHMB, FASW and FASL, respectively (P < 0·004). Free acid gel resulted in quicker and greater plasma concentrations (+185%) and improved clearance (+25%) of HMB from plasma. In conclusion, HMB free acid gel could improve HMB availability and efficacy to tissues in health and disease. PMID:21134325

  2. Effect of anions or foods on absolute bioavailability of calcium from calcium salts in mice by pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Yukari; Taira, Zenei

    2013-01-01

    We studied the absolute bioavailability of calcium from calcium L-lactate in mice using pharmacokinetics, and reviewed the absolute bioavailability of calcium from three other calcium salts in mice previously studied: calcium chloride, calcium acetate, and calcium ascorbate. The results showed that calcium metabolism is linear between intravenous administration of 15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg, and is not affected by anions. Results after oral calcium administration of 150 mg/kg showed that the intestinal absorption process was significantly different among the four calcium salts. The rank of absolute bioavailability of calcium was calcium ascorbate > calcium L-lactate ≥ calcium acetate > calcium chloride. The mean residence time (MRTab) of calcium from calcium ascorbate (32.2 minutes) in the intestinal tract was much longer than that from calcium L-lactate (9.5 minutes), calcium acetate (15.0 minutes) and calcium chloride (13.6 minutes). Furthermore, the foods di-D-fructo-furanose-1,2′:2,3′-dianhydride, sudachi (Citrus sudachi) juice, and moromi-su (a Japanese vinegar) increased the absolute bioavailability of calcium from calcium chloride by 2.46-fold, 2.86-fold, and 1.23-fold, respectively, and prolonged MRTab by 48.5 minutes, 43.1 minutes, and 44.9 minutes, respectively. In conclusion, the prolonged MRTab of calcium in the intestinal tract by anion or food might cause the increased absorbability of calcium.

  3. An evaluation of the importance of gastric acid secretion in the absorption of dietary calcium.

    PubMed Central

    Bo-Linn, G W; Davis, G R; Buddrus, D J; Morawski, S G; Santa Ana, C; Fordtran, J S

    1984-01-01

    Since calcium solubility is a prerequisite to calcium absorption, and since solubility of calcium is highly pH-dependent, it has been generally assumed that gastric acid secretion and gastric acidity play an important role in the intestinal absorption of calcium from ingested food or calcium salts such as CaCO3. To evaluate this hypothesis, we developed a method wherein net gastrointestinal absorption of calcium can be measured after ingestion of a single meal. A large dose of cimetidine, which markedly reduced gastric acid secretion, had no effect on calcium absorption in normal subjects, and an achlorhydric patient with pernicious anemia absorbed calcium normally. This was true regardless of the major source of dietary calcium (i.e., milk, insoluble calcium carbonate, or soluble calcium citrate). Moreover, calcium absorption after CaCO3 ingestion was the same when intragastric contents were maintained at pH 7.4 (by in vivo titration) as when intragastric pH was 3.0. On the basis of these results, we conclude that gastric acid secretion and gastric acidity do not normally play a role in the absorption of dietary calcium. Other possible mechanisms by which the gastrointestinal tract might solubilize ingested calcium complexes and salts are discussed. Images PMID:6707197

  4. 21 CFR 582.5477 - Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts... Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5477 Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (a) Product. Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5477 - Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts... Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5477 Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (a) Product. Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5477 - Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts... Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5477 Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (a) Product. Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5477 - Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts... Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5477 Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (a) Product. Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  8. Comparison of availability and plasma clearance rates of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate delivery in the free acid and calcium salt forms.

    PubMed

    Fuller, John C; Sharp, Rick L; Angus, Hector F; Khoo, Paul Y; Rathmacher, John A

    2015-11-14

    β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), a leucine metabolite, has long been supplemented as a Ca salt (Ca-HMB) to increase strength and performance gains with exercise and to reduce recovery time. Recently, the free acid form of HMB (HMB-FA) has become commercially available in capsule form (gelcap). The current study was conducted to compare the bioavailability of HMB using the two commercially available capsule forms of HMB-FA and Ca-HMB. We also compared the pharmacokinetics of each form when administered mixed in water. Ten human subjects (five male and five female) were studied in a randomised crossover design. There was no significant sex by treatment interaction for any of the pharmacokinetic parameters measured. HMB-FA administered in capsules was more efficient than Ca-HMB capsule at HMB delivery with a 37 % increase in plasma clearance rate (74·8 (sem 4·0) v. 54·5 (sem 3·2) ml/min, P<0·0001) and a 76 % increase in peak plasma HMB concentration (270·2 (sem 17·8) v. 153·9 (sem 17·9) μmol/l, P<0·006), which was reached in one-third the time (P<0·009). When HMB-FA and Ca-HMB were administered in water, the differences still favoured HMB-FA, albeit to a lesser degree. Plasma HMB with HMB-FA administered in water was greater during the early phase of absorption (up to 45 min postadministration, P<0·05); this resulted in increased AUC during the first 60 min after administration, when compared with Ca-HMB mixed in water (P<0·03). In conclusion, HMB-FA in capsule form improves clearance rate and availability of HMB compared with Ca-HMB in capsule form. PMID:26373270

  9. Biomass bioconversion to calcium magnesium acetate deicing salt. Final project report on Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Trantolo, D.J.

    1989-06-01

    The project experimentally investigated using biomass as feedstock for conversion to calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), an alternative road salt. This new organic road salt will prevent corrosion of bridge decks, underground cables, and rusting of cars and trucks. CMA from biomass will reduce costs, compared to petroleum and natural gas for making this material. Phase I work focused on bioconversion of sewage sludge residuals to CMA. The process is based on a packed bed fermenter to produce acetic acid from biomass, as well as liquid ion exchange to recover acetic acid from the fermenter broth prior to the final production step which occurs by passing the acetic acid over limestone. In Phase I: (1) percent bioconversion and kinetics of biomass to acetic acid have been confirmed in small batch fermenters; (2) equilibrium constants for acetic acid recovery via liquid ion exchange have been documented; and (3) rates of conversion to CMA have been determined.

  10. Methanol conversion over metal salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, H.; Moffat, J.B.

    1983-05-01

    The sodium, boron, calcium, magnesium, zinc, aluminum, and zirconium salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid have been prepared and characterized using x-ray diffraction, mercury porosimetry, the chemisorption of ammonia, and Hammett indicators. Methanol conversion at 350/sup 0/C and a variety of residence times produced hydrocarbons ranging from C/sub 1/ to C/sub 5/ in amounts which varied with the cation. The more strongly acidic salts produced the higher yields of hydrocarbons. The maximum yield of the major product C/sub 4/ was found with the aluminum salt. The activities were related to the partial change on the oxygen atoms in the various catalysts. 3 figures, 1 table.

  11. Sodium induces simultaneous changes in cytosolic calcium and pH in salt-tolerant quince protoplasts.

    PubMed

    D'Onofrio, Cladio; Lindberg, Sylvia

    2009-11-01

    Previous experiments with salt-resistant quince BA29 (Cydonia oblonga cv. Mill.) have shown that this cultivar takes up sodium transiently into the cytosol of shoot protoplasts only in the absence of calcium chloride, or at <1mM calcium chloride. Addition of NaCl > or =100mM to single protoplasts from in vitro-cultivated quince in the presence of 1.0mM calcium induced instant changes in the cytosolic concentrations of calcium and protons. These changes were investigated by use of tetra [acetoxymethyl] esters of the fluorescent stilbene chromophores Fura 2 and bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), respectively. The cytosolic Ca(2+) dynamics in the protoplasts were dependent on the concentration of NaCl added. The changes in calcium differed in amplitude and final concentration and were correlated in time mainly with changes in pH. Addition of 100-400mM NaCl to the protoplasts caused an oscillating increase in the cytosolic level of calcium, and then a decrease. Addition of mannitol, of equiosmolar concentration to NaCl, did not increase the cytosolic calcium concentration. Moreover, there was no increase in cytosolic calcium when NaCl was added in the presence of calcium binding ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid (EGTA), or lantan or verapamil, two inhibitors of plasma membrane calcium channels. Therefore, we conclude that, in salt-resistant quince, sodium induces an influx of calcium into the cytosol by plasma membrane calcium channels, and a simultaneous increase in cytosolic pH. Because these changes were obtained in the presence of 1mM calcium in the medium, they were not due to sodium uptake into the cytosol. PMID:19556023

  12. The role of dietary calcium concentration in the use of anionic salts to prevent parturient paresis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gelfert, Carl-Christian; Staufenbiel, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    The role of dietary calcium concentration during the feeding of anionic salts (AS) was reviewed. Hypocalcaemia is still the major cause of parturient paresis in dairy cows. Feeding AS is an established method for preventing severe hypocalcaemia by activating the calcium metabolism in the last two to three weeks before parturition by inducing a metabolic acidosis. In compensation for this acidosis, the organism increases the concentrations of ionised Ca [Ca2+] in the blood. This increase leads to an increasing excretion of calcium via the urine, which is ensued by an increased calcium absorption in the intestine. The ongoing metabolic acidosis changed the flux of Ca. The size of the Ca pool, however, remained unchanged. As the calcium metabolism is activated by AS, it seems necessary to increase the amount of calcium that is fed to the cows. Several studies examined the impact of different dietary calcium concentrations on the acid-base balance and the calcium metabolism in cows fed anionic salts. The study designs vary concerning the amounts of calcium fed and the use of pregnant or non-pregnant cows. Only one study combined the feeding of AS with a very low amount of calcium, which fell below the daily requirements of pregnant cows in the last three weeks before parturition. In this study, the calcium balance post partum was better in the cows that were administered AS and a high calcium diet. In the other studies, the amount of calcium in the different experimental groups and the difference between the amounts of calcium fed varied greatly. As far as it was monitored in the studies, the calcium concentration of the diet did not have a significant impact on the degree of acidosis induced by AS. In pregnant cows, no significant differences in the calcium concentration in serum or urine occurred before parturition. Some of the researchers found a lower incidence of parturient paresis when cows were fed a combination of AS and a higher amount of calcium, but some

  13. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets...

  14. Reaction of /alpha/,/beta/-unsaturated acyl isothiocyanates with salts of dithiocarbamic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Krus, K.; Masias, A.; Beletskaya, I.P.

    1989-01-10

    The reaction of unsaturated isothiocyanates with the sodium and calcium salts of N-alkyl- and N,N-dialkyldithiocarbamic acids was studied. Depending on the structure of the dithiocarbamate, the reaction products are thiazines or acyl dithiocarbamates. For the salts of methyldithiocarbamic acid the effect of the concentration and the nature of the metal on the relative yields of 6-phenyl-3-methylpropiorhodanine and 6-phenylpropiorhodanine was studied. A method is proposed for the synthesis of 3-substituted propiorhodanines.

  15. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... identified as D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... identified as D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium...

  17. Calcium Supplementation Improves Na+/K+ Ratio, Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems in Salt-Stressed Rice Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Anisur; Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the regulatory role of exogenous calcium (Ca) in developing salt stress tolerance in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 13-day-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan47) seedlings were exposed to 200 mM NaCl alone and combined with 2 mM CaCl2 and 2 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a Ca scavenger) for 3 days. The salt stress caused growth inhibition, chlorosis and water shortage in the rice seedlings. The salt-induced stress disrupted ion homeostasis through Na+ influx and K+ efflux, and decreased other mineral nutrient uptake. Salt stress caused oxidative stress in seedlings through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and methylglyoxal (MG) formation. The salt-stressed seedlings supplemented with exogenous Ca recovered from water loss, chlorosis and growth inhibition. Calcium supplementation in the salt-stressed rice seedlings improved ion homeostasis by inhibition of Na+ influx and K+ leakage. Exogenous Ca also improved ROS and MG detoxification by improving the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems, respectively. On the other hand, applying EGTA along with salt and Ca again negatively affected the seedlings as EGTA negated Ca activity. It confirms that, the positive responses in salt-stressed rice seedlings to exogenous Ca were for Ca mediated improvement of ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system. PMID:27242816

  18. Calcium Supplementation Improves Na(+)/K(+) Ratio, Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems in Salt-Stressed Rice Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Anisur; Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the regulatory role of exogenous calcium (Ca) in developing salt stress tolerance in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 13-day-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan47) seedlings were exposed to 200 mM NaCl alone and combined with 2 mM CaCl2 and 2 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a Ca scavenger) for 3 days. The salt stress caused growth inhibition, chlorosis and water shortage in the rice seedlings. The salt-induced stress disrupted ion homeostasis through Na(+) influx and K(+) efflux, and decreased other mineral nutrient uptake. Salt stress caused oxidative stress in seedlings through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and methylglyoxal (MG) formation. The salt-stressed seedlings supplemented with exogenous Ca recovered from water loss, chlorosis and growth inhibition. Calcium supplementation in the salt-stressed rice seedlings improved ion homeostasis by inhibition of Na(+) influx and K(+) leakage. Exogenous Ca also improved ROS and MG detoxification by improving the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems, respectively. On the other hand, applying EGTA along with salt and Ca again negatively affected the seedlings as EGTA negated Ca activity. It confirms that, the positive responses in salt-stressed rice seedlings to exogenous Ca were for Ca mediated improvement of ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system. PMID:27242816

  19. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  20. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7; CAS No.125005-87-0) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7; CAS No.125005-87-0) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7; CAS No.125005-87-0) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  4. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  5. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  6. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    DOEpatents

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  7. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  17. Collapse of sodium polyacrylate chains in calcium salt solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweins, R.; Huber, K.

    The sodium salt of polyacrylic acid (NaPA) precipitates in the presence of Ca^{2+}-ions. This phase behaviour can be represented by a phase diagram where the critical NaPA concentration is plotted versus the critical Ca^{2+} concentration resulting in a straight line as a phase boundary. The location of this phase boundary is influenced by the presence of an inert monovalent salt like NaCl. The present contribution focuses on the coil dimensions of NaPA chains in dilute aqueous solution corresponding to the one phase region of such a phase diagram. A variety of parameters with which the size and shape of the polyelectrolyte chains can be modulated are revealed. Approaching the phase boundary by decreasing the NaPA concentration at a constant Ca^{2+} content leads to a collapse of the NaPA chains. Combined static and dynamic light scattering suggests a compact spherical shape as the final state of this transition, both in 0.1 M NaCl and in 0.01 M NaCl. In the lower NaCl concentration, indication is presented for the existence of a cigar or pearl necklace like intermediate. Most strikingly, the collapsed chains can be reexpanded by increasing the concentration of inert NaCl at constant content of NaPA and Ca^{2+}. Clearly, excessive Na+-ions displace the Ca^{2+}-ions from the NaPA chains.

  18. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely used in food and in the... salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty...

  19. Calcium inhibits the damaging and compensatory proliferative effects of fatty acids on mouse colon epithelium.

    PubMed

    Wargovich, M J; Eng, V W; Newmark, H L

    1984-07-01

    Intrarectal instillations of the fatty acids (FA), lauric, linoleic or oleic acids induce inflammation and superficial lysis of the colon epithelium. This reaction is followed by increases in colonic mitotic activity and the number of cells engaged in DNA synthesis in compensatory regeneration for the cells that were lost. This explains, in part, the promotional effect of dietary fat in carcinogenesis. Concomitant oral administration of calcium salts, as CaCO3, largely reduced the mitogenic effects of fatty acids on colon epithelium, presumably by forming biologically inert calcium soaps. Calcium soap formation of dietary fatty acids may be one natural mechanism by which colon epithelium cells are protected hence reducing the impact of dietary fat on carcinogenesis for this organ. PMID:6744249

  20. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-92-1352) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  1. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  3. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  4. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  11. Assay of calcium borogluconate veterinary medicines for calcium gluconate, boric acid, phosphorus, and magnesium by using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, D.J.; Spann, K.P.

    1985-03-01

    An inductively coupled plasma spectrometric method is described for the determination of 4 elements (Ca, B, P, and Mg) in calcium borogluconate veterinary medicines. Samples are diluted, acidified, and sprayed directly into the plasma. Reproducibility relative confidence intervals for a single sample assay are +/- 1.4% (calcium), +/- 1.8% (boron), +/- 2.6% (phosphorus), and +/- 1.4% (magnesium). The total element concentrations for each of 4 elements compared favorably with concentrations determined by alternative methods. Formulation estimates of levels of calcium gluconate, boric acid, phosphorus, and magnesium salts can be made from the analytical data.

  12. Direct identification of the calcium-binding amino acid, gamma-carboxyglutamate, in mineralized tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Hauschka, P V; Lian, J B; Gallop, P M

    1975-01-01

    A direct approach has been developed for quantitative identification of the calcium-binding amino acid, gamma-carboxyglutamate, in proteins. This should be advantageous for the study of numerous systems where specific roles for the binding of calcium or other divalent cations are suspected. Investigation of mineralized tissue, where calcium-binding proteins are implicated in the mineralization process, revealed that gamma-carboxyglutamate was present in proteins solubilized from chicken bone with neutral aqueous ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. This was established by direct isolation of the amino acid from alkaline hydrolysates and its quantitative conversion to glutamic acid by decarboxylation in 0.05 M HCl at 100 degrees. The kinetics of decarboxylation and chromatographic behavior are identical to those of gamma-carboxyglutamate from human prothrombin. After resolution of the soluble bone proteins by phosphate gradient elution from hydroxyapatite, gamma-carboxyglutamate was found to be concentrated primarily in one BaSO4-adsorbable anionic protein species; bone collagen was devoid of the amino acid. In view of the recently discovered requirement of vitamin K for generation of calcium binding sites (gamma-carboxyglutamate) by gamma-carboxylation of specific glutamic acid residues in prothrombin, our findings may implicate vitamin K metabolism in normal bone development and suggest a role for the gamma-carboxyglutamate-rich protein in regulation of calcium salt deposition in mineralized tissues. PMID:1060074

  13. Calcium ion on membrane fouling reduction and bioflocculation promotion in membrane bioreactor at high salt shock.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haifeng; Fan, Xue; Wang, Bin; Song, Lianfa

    2016-01-01

    Fouling propensity of activated sludge in membrane bioreactor (MBR) is closely related to the disturbance of a salt shock. In this work, the characteristics of membrane fouling and bioflocculation were compared in two laboratory-scale MBRs (one with calcium addition, MBR-Ca, the other without, MBR-C) with a transient salt shock. Particle size distributions, zeta potential, relative hydrophobicity, modified fouling index, the content of polysaccharides, proteins and calcium ions in different layers of sludge were monitored prior to, during and after the salt shock. Comparison with MBR-C showed that the recovery time and fouling rate of MBR-Ca were reduced by 50% and 34%, respectively. Remarkable variations of sludge properties in terms of bioflocculation, such as larger particle sizes, higher relative hydrophobicity and zeta potential, lower polysaccharides in supernatant, higher proteins/polysaccharides ratio in slime and loose bound extracellular polymeric substances, were observed in MBR-Ca after the salt shock. PMID:26524252

  14. The effect of bile, bile acids and detergents on calcium absorption in the chick

    PubMed Central

    Webling, D. D'A.; Holdsworth, E. S.

    1965-01-01

    1. Bile from rachitic or normal chicks causes an immediate increase in the intestinal absorption of soluble calcium in rachitic and vitamin D3-treated chicks as tested in vivo by intestinal-loop and oral-dosing methods. 2. This effect is apparently solely due to the taurine-conjugated bile acids present in the bile and is independent of the action of vitamin D. 3. Chick bile and bile acids can increase the solubility and the absorption of calcium presented as sparingly soluble calcium hydrogen phosphate. 4. In addition, bile is necessary to some extent at least for the intestinal absorption of vitamin D3 in the chick and this would indirectly enhance the absorption of calcium. 5. Thus bile is capable of a threefold action in the absorption of calcium in the chick. It is suggested that the direct action on sparingly soluble forms of calcium is of considerable physiological importance since most of the calcium in the normal bird's diet would be in this form. 6. Bile acids enhance the absorption of calcium in all regions of the small intestine of the chick. 7. Of a range of bile acids and detergents tested for enhancement of calcium absorption, various taurine-conjugated bile acids and sodium lauryl sulphate, an anionic detergent, are effective. A non-ionic detergent (Tween 80) and a cationic detergent (Zephiran) are without effect. 8. The ability of a substance to increase directly the intestinal absorption of soluble calcium appears to depend to some extent on an anionic detergent action, i.e. the ability to form a salt or complex soluble to some extent in both aqueous and lipid phases. 9. In chicks the immediate deposition of calcium (45Ca) in the bones closely reflects any increase in plasma calcium radioactivity regardless of the cause of the increase and regardless of the vitamin D3 status. Although sodium lauryl sulphate can increase markedly the calcium absorption from the gut and the immediate deposition in the bones it has no significant effect on rickets

  15. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section...

  16. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5477 - Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methionine hydroxy analog and its calcium salts. 582.5477 Section 582.5477 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  7. [Adding calcium salts and sulphur dioxide for preserving firmness and colour of frozen cauliflower (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Polesello, A; Pizzocaro, F

    1975-01-01

    The results of trials aimed to keep colour and firmness of frozen cauliflower during storage, by pretreatments based on Calcium salts and SO2 impregnation are referred here. Among the different procedures tested, that of introducing under vacuum gaseous SO2 at low pressure, followed by soaking in CaCl2 0,1 N solution has shown the best efficaceousness. PMID:1243936

  8. 21 CFR 888.3045 - Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device. 888.3045 Section 888.3045 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Industry and FDA.” See § 888.1(e) of this chapter for the availability of this guidance....

  9. CBL1, a calcium sensor that differentially regulates salt, drought, and cold responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Yong Hwa; Kim, Kyung-Nam; Pandey, Girdhar K; Gupta, Rajeev; Grant, John J; Luan, Sheng

    2003-08-01

    Although calcium is a critical component in the signal transduction pathways that lead to stress gene expression in higher plants, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying calcium function. It is believed that cellular calcium changes are perceived by sensor molecules, including calcium binding proteins. The calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein family represents a unique group of calcium sensors in plants. A member of the family, CBL1, is highly inducible by multiple stress signals, implicating CBL1 in stress response pathways. When the CBL1 protein level was increased in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, it altered the stress response pathways in these plants. Although drought-induced gene expression was enhanced, gene induction by cold was inhibited. In addition, CBL1-overexpressing plants showed enhanced tolerance to salt and drought but reduced tolerance to freezing. By contrast, cbl1 null mutant plants showed enhanced cold induction and reduced drought induction of stress genes. The mutant plants displayed less tolerance to salt and drought but enhanced tolerance to freezing. These studies suggest that CBL1 functions as a positive regulator of salt and drought responses and a negative regulator of cold response in plants. PMID:12897256

  10. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a... coco acid triamine condensate, poly-car-box-ylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-446) is subject to...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a... coco acid triamine condensate, poly-car-box-ylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-446) is subject to...

  12. Prostaglandin-E2 Mediated Increase in Calcium and Phosphate Excretion in a Mouse Model of Distal Nephron Salt Wasting

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Manoocher; Barone, Sharon; Xu, Jie; Alshahrani, Saeed; Brooks, Marybeth; McCormack, Francis X.; Smith, Roger D.; Zahedi, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Contribution of salt wasting and volume depletion to the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia is poorly understood. Pendrin/NCC double KO (pendrin/NCC-dKO) mice display severe salt wasting under basal conditions and develop profound volume depletion, prerenal renal failure, and metabolic alkalosis and are growth retarded. Microscopic examination of the kidneys of pendrin/NCC-dKO mice revealed the presence of calcium phosphate deposits in the medullary collecting ducts, along with increased urinary calcium and phosphate excretion. Confirmatory studies revealed decreases in the expression levels of sodium phosphate transporter-2 isoforms a and c, increases in the expression of cytochrome p450 family 4a isotypes 12 a and b, as well as prostaglandin E synthase 1, and cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals also had a significant increase in urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) and renal content of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) levels. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals exhibit reduced expression levels of the sodium/potassium/2chloride co-transporter 2 (NKCC2) in their medullary thick ascending limb. Further assessment of the renal expression of NKCC2 isoforms by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) reveled that compared to WT mice, the expression of NKCC2 isotype F was significantly reduced in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. Provision of a high salt diet to rectify volume depletion or inhibition of PGE-2 synthesis by indomethacin, but not inhibition of 20-HETE generation by HET0016, significantly improved hypercalciuria and salt wasting in pendrin/NCC dKO mice. Both high salt diet and indomethacin treatment also corrected the alterations in NKCC2 isotype expression in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. We propose that severe salt wasting and volume depletion, irrespective of the primary originating nephron segment, can secondarily impair the reabsorption of salt and calcium in the thick ascending limb of Henle and/or proximal tubule, and reabsorption of sodium and

  13. Prostaglandin-E2 Mediated Increase in Calcium and Phosphate Excretion in a Mouse Model of Distal Nephron Salt Wasting.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Manoocher; Barone, Sharon; Xu, Jie; Alshahrani, Saeed; Brooks, Marybeth; McCormack, Francis X; Smith, Roger D; Zahedi, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Contribution of salt wasting and volume depletion to the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia is poorly understood. Pendrin/NCC double KO (pendrin/NCC-dKO) mice display severe salt wasting under basal conditions and develop profound volume depletion, prerenal renal failure, and metabolic alkalosis and are growth retarded. Microscopic examination of the kidneys of pendrin/NCC-dKO mice revealed the presence of calcium phosphate deposits in the medullary collecting ducts, along with increased urinary calcium and phosphate excretion. Confirmatory studies revealed decreases in the expression levels of sodium phosphate transporter-2 isoforms a and c, increases in the expression of cytochrome p450 family 4a isotypes 12 a and b, as well as prostaglandin E synthase 1, and cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals also had a significant increase in urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) and renal content of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) levels. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals exhibit reduced expression levels of the sodium/potassium/2chloride co-transporter 2 (NKCC2) in their medullary thick ascending limb. Further assessment of the renal expression of NKCC2 isoforms by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) reveled that compared to WT mice, the expression of NKCC2 isotype F was significantly reduced in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. Provision of a high salt diet to rectify volume depletion or inhibition of PGE-2 synthesis by indomethacin, but not inhibition of 20-HETE generation by HET0016, significantly improved hypercalciuria and salt wasting in pendrin/NCC dKO mice. Both high salt diet and indomethacin treatment also corrected the alterations in NKCC2 isotype expression in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. We propose that severe salt wasting and volume depletion, irrespective of the primary originating nephron segment, can secondarily impair the reabsorption of salt and calcium in the thick ascending limb of Henle and/or proximal tubule, and reabsorption of sodium and

  14. 21 CFR 184.1187 - Calcium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium alginate. 184.1187 Section 184.1187 Food... GRAS § 184.1187 Calcium alginate. (a) Calcium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-35-0) is the calcium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Calcium alginate is prepared...

  15. INHIBITION OF GERMINATION AND OUTGROWTH OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS SPORES BY LACTIC ACID SALTS DURING COOLING OF COOKED GROUND TURKEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth by lactic acid salts during exponential cooling of cooked ground turkey products was evaluated. Injected turkey containing either calcium lactate, potassium lactate, or sodium lactate (1.0, 2.0, 3.0 or 4.8% w/w) along with a cont...

  16. Critical supersaturations for aerosol particles of succinic acid and its salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenningsson, B.; Bilde, M.; Rosenørn, T.; Mønster, J.

    2003-04-01

    Dicarboxylic acids, like succinic acid, have been identified as important water soluble organic compounds in the atmosphere. Salts of carboxylic acids can be formed in the atmosphere in reactions between the acid and an inorganic salt. In this work we have studied the cloud droplet nucleating ability for succinic acid and some of its salts: disodium succinate, diammonium succinate and calcium succinate. A monodisperse aerosol was generated by atomizing a water solution of the compound of interest, drying the particles in diffusion driers and selecting a narrow size range using a differential mobility analyzer. The aerosol was then analyzed using a static thermal gradient cloud condensation nucleus spectrometer (CCNC-100B from the University of Wyoming). A CPC was used to count the number of particles as a reference. For a fixed particle diameter, the supersaturation was scanned to find a steep increase in the fraction of particles that were activated to cloud droplets. This critical supersaturation is compared with theoretical calculations using Köhler theory. Experimental critical supersaturations for succinic acid agree with Köhler theory with a van't Hoff factor of 1, i.e. it activates as if it does not dissociate. For the sodium salt, a van't Hoff factor of 2 fits laboratory data and theoretical calculations.

  17. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  18. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  19. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  20. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  1. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  2. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  3. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  4. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  5. Steel corrosion protection by means of alkyd paints pigmented with calcium acid phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Amo, B. del; Romagnoli, R.; Vetere, V.F.

    1999-06-01

    The use of classic anticorrosive pigments is becoming more and more restricted by increasing environmental concerns; they are gradually being replaced by zinc phosphate and related compounds. Other anticorrosive pigments such as surface-exchanged silicas were also proposed. The object of this research is to study the anticorrosive properties of calcium acid phosphate as an inhibitive pigment, introducing a careful selection of complementary pigments in order to achieve an efficient anticorrosive protection. Several alkyd paints were prepared and evaluated through accelerated and electrochemical tests. The nature of the passive film formed was also studied. Paint containing zinc oxide and calcium carbonate (50/50) as complementary pigments showed the best performance in the salt spray test. Zinc oxide and calcium carbonate decreased film permeability and improved steel passivation. The passive film was composed of ferric oxyhydroxide, the pores of which became plugged by ferric phosphate.

  6. 21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium lactobionate. 172.720 Section 172.720 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.720 Calcium lactobionate. The food additive calcium lactobionate... additive is the calcium salt of lactobionic acid (4-(β,D-galactosido)-D-gluconic acid) produced by...

  7. Ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium intake variations: effects on calcium, phosphorus and magnesium utilization by human adults

    SciTech Connect

    Kies, C.; Brennan, M.A.; Parks, S.K.; Stauffer, D.J.; Wang, H.Y.; Young, S.F.; Fox, H.M.

    1986-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding two levels of ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and ascorbic acid on the apparent utilization of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium by healthy, human adult subjects. During 4 randomly-arranged experimental periods of 7 days each, a laboratory-controlled diet alone or with supplements of ascorbic acid, dicalcium phosphate or magnesium oxide was fed to the 18 subjects. Results indicated that ascorbic acid supplementation tended to reduce urinary phosphorus loss and to slightly increase fecal phosphorus loss so that overall phosphorus balances became more positive. Conversely, under these conditions, urinary calcium losses were little affected but fecal calcium losses were increased resulting in an overall decrease in calcium balance with ascorbic acid supplementation. Ascorbic acid supplementation resulted in decreased urine and fecal losses of magnesium and more positive magnesium balances. Magnesium supplementation resulted in more positive calcium and phosphorus balances as did calcium phosphate supplementation on magnesium balance.

  8. Characterization and bioactivity of novel calcium antagonists - N-methoxy-benzyl haloperidol quaternary ammonium salt

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Cun; Zhu, Wei; Zhong, Shu-Ping; Zheng, Fu-Chun; Gao, Fen-Fei; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Xu, Han; Zheng, Yan-Shan; Shi, Gang-Gang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Calcium antagonists play an important role in clinical practice. However, most of them have serious side effects. We have synthesized a series of novel calcium antagonists, quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of haloperidol with N-p-methoxybenzyl (X1), N-m-methoxybenzyl (X2) and N-o-methoxybenzyl (X3) groups. The objective of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of these novel calcium antagonists, especially the vasodilation activity and cardiac side-effects. The possible working mechanisms of these haloperidol derivatives were also explored. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Novel calcium antagonists were synthesized by amination. Compounds were screened for their activity of vasodilation on isolated thoracic aortic ring of rats. Their cardiac side effects were explored. The patch-clamp, confocal laser microscopy and the computer-fitting molecular docking experiments were employed to investigate the possible working mechanisms of these calcium antagonists. RESULTS The novel calcium antagonists, X1, X2 and X3 showed stronger vasodilation effect and less cardiac side effect than that of classical calcium antagonists. They blocked L-type calcium channels with an potent effect order of X1 > X2 > X3. Consistently, X1, X2 and X3 interacted with different regions of Ca2+-CaM-CaV1.2 with an affinity order of X1 > X2 > X3. CONCLUSIONS The new halopedidol derivatives X1, X2 and X3 are novel calcium antagonists with stronger vasodilation effect and less cardiac side effect. They could have wide clinical application. PMID:26544729

  9. On the Existence of Hydrogen Salts of Monoprotic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojanovska, Marina I.; Petrusevski, Vladimir M.; Soptrajanov, Bojan T.

    2012-01-01

    The notion that acid salts exist only for diprotic and polyprotic acids is found in many high school and university textbooks, although the "only" condition is not always stated explicitly. A fairly simple experiment shows that there is a pronounced exothermic effect when pure acetic acid is added to potassium acetate. Experiments with similar…

  10. Direct esterification of ammonium salts of carboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Halpern, Yuval

    2003-06-24

    A non-catalytic process for producing esters, the process comprising reacting an ammonium salt of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol and removing ammonia from the reaction mixture. Selectivities for the desired ester product can exceed 95 percent.

  11. Orthopedic devices; classification for the resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2003-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the resorbable calcium salt bone void filler device intended to fill bony voids or gaps of the extremities, spine, and pelvis that are caused by trauma or surgery and are not intrinsic to the stability of the bony structure into class II (special controls). Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of a class II special controls guidance entitled "Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Resorbable Calcium Salt Bone Void Filler Device; Guidance for Industry and FDA." This action is being undertaken based on new information submitted in a classification proposal from Wright Medical Technology under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act as amended by the Medical Device Amendments of 1976, the Safe Medical Devices Act of 1990, and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997. PMID:12784825

  12. Bioactivity in silica/poly(γ-glutamic acid) sol-gel hybrids through calcium chelation.

    PubMed

    Valliant, Esther M; Romer, Frederik; Wang, Daming; McPhail, David S; Smith, Mark E; Hanna, John V; Jones, Julian R

    2013-08-01

    Bioactive glasses and inorganic/organic hybrids have great potential as biomedical implant materials. Sol-gel hybrids with interpenetrating networks of silica and biodegradable polymers can combine the bioactive properties of a glass with the toughness of a polymer. However, traditional calcium sources such as calcium nitrate and calcium chloride are unsuitable for hybrids. In this study calcium was incorporated by chelation to the polymer component. The calcium salt form of poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γCaPGA) was synthesized for use as both a calcium source and as the biodegradable toughening component of the hybrids. Hybrids of 40wt.% γCaPGA were successfully formed and had fine scale integration of Ca and Si ions, according to secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging, indicating a homogeneous distribution of organic and inorganic components. (29)Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance data demonstrated that the network connectivity was unaltered with changing polymer molecular weight, as there was no perturbation to the overall Si speciation and silica network formation. Upon immersion in simulated body fluid a hydroxycarbonate apatite surface layer formed on the hybrids within 1week. The polymer molecular weight (Mw 30-120kDa) affected the mechanical properties of the resulting hybrids, but all hybrids had large strains to failure, >26%, and compressive strengths, in excess of 300MPa. The large strain to failure values showed that γCaPGA hybrids exhibited non-brittle behaviour whilst also incorporating calcium. Thus calcium incorporation by chelation to the polymer component is justified as a novel approach in hybrids for biomedical materials. PMID:23632373

  13. Hollow silica nanospheres coated with insoluble calcium salts for pH-responsive sustained release of anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuming; Fang, Qilong; Li, Han; Shi, Weike; Zhang, Jie; Feng, Jing; Jia, Weili; Yang, Lin

    2016-08-23

    Hollow silica nanospheres coated with biocompatible and pH-sensitive inorganic insoluble calcium salts including calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite have been successfully prepared. The results indicate that the nanospheres can efficiently load doxorubicin and release it in a pH-responsive and sustained manner, and improve the treatment efficacy significantly. PMID:27501741

  14. Freezing points and small-scale deicing tests for salts of levulinic acid made from grain sorghum.

    PubMed

    Ganjyal, G; Fang, Q; Hanna, M A

    2007-11-01

    Deicers from renewable resources are needed to overcome the disadvantages of using traditional deicers. Salts made from levulinic acid produced using grain sorghum as raw material were tested as road deicing agents. Freezing points of these salts viz., sodium levulinate, magnesium levulinate and calcium levulinate along with rock salt (sodium chloride) were determined according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D 1177-94 standard at concentrations of 10, 20, 30 and 40 % w/w. There were significant differences among the freezing points of the salts. Freezing points for rock salt, sodium levulinate, calcium levulinate and magnesium levulinate, for different concentrations, were in the ranges of -6.6 to -20.5, -2.9 to -15.0, -2.1 to -7.8 and -1.5 to -6.5 degrees C, respectively. Deicing effectiveness of the salts of levulinic acid were investigated by conducting small-scale deicing tests with aqueous solutions of various salt concentrations (2%, 5% and 10%) in a laboratory freezer and by spraying the deicer on a graveled surface covered by ice and snow with the average temperature during the testing at -2.7 degrees C. Deicing capabilities of the three salts of levulinic acid differed. At -2.7 degrees C, all three salts caused melting of the ice. Among the different levulinates studied sodium levulinate was the most effective deicing agent. These salts of levulinates could be a viable replacement for traditional deicers and could help in reducing the disadvantages of traditional deicers. PMID:17416518

  15. Regulation of ion homeostasis by aminolevulinic acid in salt-stressed wheat seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türk, Hülya; Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    Salinity is regarded as a worldwide agricultural threat, as it seriously limits plant development and productivity. Salt stress reduces water uptake in plants by disrupting the osmotic balance of soil solution. In addition, it creates a damaged metabolic process by causing ion imbalance in cells. In this study, we aim to examine the negative effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (20 mg/l) on the ion balance in wheat seedling leaves exposed to salt stress (150 mM). Sodium is known to be highly toxic for plant cells at high concentrations, and is significantly increased by salt stress. However, it can be reduced by combined application of ALA and salt, compared to salt application alone. On the other hand, while the K+/Na+ ratio was reduced by salt stress, ALA application changed this ratio in favor of K+. Manganese, iron, and copper were also able to reduce stress. However, ALA pre-treatment resulted in mineral level increments. Conversely, the stress-induced rise in magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and molybdenum were further improved by ALA application. These data clearly show that ALA has an important regulatory effect of ion balance in wheat leaves.

  16. Radiation curing of polyester resin modified with acrylic acid and its salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalińska, H.; Pietrzak, M.; Janowska, G.

    Polyester resin containing acrylic acid or its salts was cured with γ 60Co radiation. The course of curing was examined, the gel content and polymerization shrinkage were measured and also thermographic and IR absorption analyses were carried out. It was found that manganese, iron and copper acrylates inhibited the curing of resin while the remaining additives showed a slightly stimulating action. All the additives decreased the polymerization shrinkage by a factor of 2-3 and iron acrylate by as much as 8 times (up to 1%). They also increased the activation energy of the thermal decomposition of resin, and calcium, barium and copper acrylates increased the thermal stability of resin by 20 K. IR absorption spectra showed that acrylic acid and its salts reacted mainly with the monomeric component of the resin (styrene) whereas iron and copper acrylates first attacked the unsaturated bonds of the oligoester.

  17. Radioluminescence of polyester resin modified with acrylic acid and its salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalińska, H.; Wypych, M.; Pietrzak, M.; Szadkowska-Nicze, M.

    Polimal-109 polyester resin and its compounds containing acrylic acid and its salts such as: sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, barium, iron, cobalt, copper and manganese acrylates were studied by the radioluminescence method, including isothermal luminescence (ITL) at a radiation temperature of 77 K, thermoluminescence (RTL) and spectral distributions of isothermal luminescence. Measurements of optical absorption at 77 K before and after irradiation of the investigated samples were also carried out. The results obtained have shown that metal ions play a significant part in the processes taking place in the polyester matrix under the influence of γ 60Co radiation.

  18. Retinoic acid affects calcium signaling in adult molluscan neurons.

    PubMed

    Vesprini, Nicholas D; Dawson, Taylor F; Yuan, Ye; Bruce, Doug; Spencer, Gaynor E

    2015-01-01

    Retinoic acid, the active metabolite of vitamin A, is important for nervous system development, regeneration, as well as cognitive functions of the adult central nervous system. These central nervous system functions are all highly dependent on neuronal activity. Retinoic acid has previously been shown to induce changes in the firing properties and action potential waveforms of adult molluscan neurons in a dose- and isomer-dependent manner. In this study, we aimed to determine the cellular pathways by which retinoic acid might exert such effects, by testing the involvement of pathways previously shown to be affected by retinoic acid. We demonstrated that the ability of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) to induce electrophysiological changes in cultured molluscan neurons was not prevented by inhibitors of protein synthesis, protein kinase A or phospholipase C. However, we showed that atRA was capable of rapidly reducing intracellular calcium levels in the same dose- and isomer-dependent manner as shown previously for changes in neuronal firing. Moreover, we also demonstrated that the transmembrane ion flux through voltage-gated calcium channels was rapidly modulated by retinoic acid. In particular, the peak current density was reduced and the inactivation rate was increased in the presence of atRA, over a similar time course as the changes in cell firing and reductions in intracellular calcium. These studies provide further evidence for the ability of atRA to induce rapid effects in mature neurons. PMID:25343782

  19. Acidic calcium stores open for business: expanding the potential for intracellular Ca2+ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sandip; Docampo, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Changes in cytosolic calcium concentration are crucial for a variety of cellular processes in all cells. It has long been appreciated that calcium is stored and released from intracellular calcium stores such as the endoplasmic reticulum. However, emerging evidence indicates that calcium is also dynamically regulated by a seemingly disparate collection of acidic organelles. Here, we review the defining features of these acidic calcium stores and highlight recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of uptake and release of calcium from these stores. We also examine the nature of calcium buffering within the stores and summarize the physiological and patho-physiological significance of these ubiquitous organelles in calcium signaling. PMID:20303271

  20. 21 CFR 184.1187 - Calcium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium alginate. 184.1187 Section 184.1187 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1187 Calcium alginate. (a) Calcium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-35-0) is the calcium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  1. Aqueous Cr (VI) removal by Friedel's salt adsorbent prepared from calcium aluminate-rich cementitious materials.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yonghai; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guangren; Hou, Hetian; Xi, Beidou; Xu, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    This research paper investigated a novel absorbent of calcium aluminate-rich cementitious materials (Friedel's salt adsorbent, FA) for aqueous hexavalent chromium (VI) removal. The adsorption kinetics showed that the maximum adsorption capacities of FA were 3.36, 14.66, and 26.17 mg/g when the initial Cr(VI) concentration was 10, 50, and 100 mg/L, respectively. The adsorption fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, suggesting the important roles of intercalation in the adsorption process with increasing Cr(VI) concentrations. This Friedel's salt adsorbent is suggested as an adaptive and effective adsorbent for Cr(VI) removal in contaminated groundwater. PMID:25798557

  2. Effect of excess dietary salt on calcium metabolism and bone mineral in a spaceflight rat model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navidi, Meena; Wolinsky, Ira; Fung, Paul; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1995-01-01

    High levels of salt promote urinary calcium (UCa) loss and have the potential to cause bone mineral deficits if intestinal Ca absorption does not compensate for these losses. To determine the effect of excess dietary salt on the osteopenia that follows skeletal unloading, we used a spaceflight model that unloads the hindlimbs of 200-g rats by tail suspension (S). Rats were studied for 2 wk on diets containing high salt (4 and 8%) and normal calcium (0.45%) and for 4 wk on diets containing 8% salt (HiNa) and 0.2% Ca (LoCa). Final body weights were 9-11% lower in S than in control rats (C) in both experiments, reflecting lower growth rates in S than in C during pair feeding. UCa represented 12% of dietary Ca on HiNA diets and was twofold higher in S than in C transiently during unloading. Net intestinal Ca absorption was consistently 11-18% lower in S than in C. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was unaffected by either LoCa or HiNa diets in S but was increased by LoCa and HiNa diets in C. Despite depressed intestinal Ca absoption in S and a sluggish response of the Ca endocrine system to HiNa diets, UCa loss did not appear to affect the osteopenia induced by unloading. Although any deficit in bone mineral content from HiNa diets may have been too small to detect or the duration of the study too short to manifest, there were clear differences in Ca metabolism from control levels in the response of the spaceflight model to HiNa diets, indicated by depression of intestinal Ca absorption and its regulatory hormone.

  3. Electrochemical investigation of lead-calcium alloys in sulphuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, K.; Ellis, S. R.; Johnson, M.; Hampson, N. A.

    The hydrogen evolution reaction from, and the cycle life (Pb /ar PbSO 4) of, a series of lead-calcium alloys (0 - 0.2 wt.% Ca) in sulphuric acid hav The exchange current density and Tafel slope for the H.R.E. increase with Ca content up to 0.05 wt.% then decrease to a value approaching that of pure The observed results are explained by: (i) preferential adsorption of calcium ions at the electrode surface; (ii) incorporation of Ca, to form a supersaturated solution, with alloys containing < 0.075 wt.% Ca; (iii) formation of an insoluble, non-conducting layer of calcium sulphate on the high content alloy.

  4. Preparation and characterization of ambazone salt with nicotinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacsó, I.; Muresan-Pop, M.; Borodi, Gh.; Bratu, I.

    2012-02-01

    Salt formation is a good method of increasing solubility, dissolution rate and consequently the bioavailability of poor soluble acidic or basic drugs. The aim of this study was to obtain and to investigate the structural properties of the compound that was obtained by solvent drop grinding method at room temperature starting from the 1:1 molar ratios of ambazone (AMB) and nicotinic acid (NA). The obtained compound (AMB•NA) was investigated by thermal analysis (DSC, TG-DTA), X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The difference between the patterns of AMB•NA and of the starting compounds evidenced the formation of a salt. Using X-ray powder diffraction data, the lattice parameters were determined. The thermal and FTIR measurements on the pure compounds and on the (1:1) grinding mixture of AMB with NA confirm the salt formation.

  5. Calcium Binding to Amino Acids and Small Glycine Peptides in Aqueous Solution: Toward Peptide Design for Better Calcium Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-06-01

    Deprotonation of amino acids as occurs during transfer from stomach to intestines during food digestion was found by comparison of complex formation constants as determined electrochemically for increasing pH to increase calcium binding (i) by a factor of around 6 for the neutral amino acids, (ii) by a factor of around 4 for anions of the acidic amino acids aspartic and glutamic acid, and (iii) by a factor of around 5.5 for basic amino acids. Optimized structures of the 1:1 complexes and ΔHbinding for calcium binding as calculated by density functional theory (DFT) confirmed in all complexes a stronger calcium binding and shorter calcium-oxygen bond length in the deprotonated form. In addition, the stronger calcium binding was also accompanied by a binding site shift from carboxylate binding to chelation by α-amino group and carboxylate oxygen for leucine, aspartate, glutamate, alanine, and asparagine. For binary amino acid mixtures, the calcium-binding constant was close to the predicted geometric mean of the individual amino acid binding constants indicating separate binding of calcium to two amino acids when present together in solution. At high pH, corresponding to conditions for calcium absorption, the binding affinity increased in the order Lys < Arg < Cys < Gln < Gly ∼ Ala < Asn < His < Leu < Glu< Asp. In a series of glycine peptides, calcium-binding affinity was found to increase in the order Gly-Leu ∼ Gly-Gly < Ala-Gly < Gly-His ∼ Gly-Lys-Gly < Glu-Cys-Gly < Gly-Glu, an ordering confirmed by DFT calculations for the dipeptides and which also accounted for large synergistic effects in calcium binding for up to 6 kJ/mol when compared to the corresponding amino acid mixtures. PMID:27159329

  6. Dilute acid/metal salt hydrolysis of lignocellulosics

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Quang A.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2002-01-01

    A modified dilute acid method of hydrolyzing the cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic material under conditions to obtain higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable using dilute acid alone, comprising: impregnating a lignocellulosic feedstock with a mixture of an amount of aqueous solution of a dilute acid catalyst and a metal salt catalyst sufficient to provide higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable when hydrolyzing with dilute acid alone; loading the impregnated lignocellulosic feedstock into a reactor and heating for a sufficient period of time to hydrolyze substantially all of the hemicellulose and greater than 45% of the cellulose to water soluble sugars; and recovering the water soluble sugars.

  7. 77 FR 21676 - Silicic Acid, Sodium Salt etc.; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ...This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products with chlorotrimethylsilane and iso-propyl alcohol, reaction with poly(oxypropylene)-poly(oxyethylene) glycol; when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide chemical formulation. Dow Corning Corporation submitted a petition to EPA under the Federal Food,......

  8. Oxalic acid, epsom salt and the poison bottle.

    PubMed

    Campbell, W A

    1982-03-01

    1 During the 19th century inadequate control of the sale of poisons, widespread illiteracy, and the English addiction to self-medication contributed to the high incidence of accidental poisoning by oxalic acid mistaken for Epsom salt. 2 Chemical methods for identifying oxalic acid failed when the product was adulterated. 3 Many mechanical devices were proposed to prevent careless dispensing; designs for poison bottles of distinctive shape, colour and texture appeared regularly for 40 years. PMID:6757103

  9. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may...

  10. Experimental Study of Fouling and Cleaning of Sintered Stainless Steel Membrane in Electro-Microfiltration of Calcium Salt Particles

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Frank G. F.; Mawson, John; Zeng, Xin An

    2011-01-01

    Sintered stainless steel (SSS) microfiltration membranes, which served as electrode directly, were used for the experiment of separating Alamin, a calcium salt and protein containing particles, found in dairy processing. Fouling and cleaning of the SSS membranes under the application of an external electric field were studied. The imposed electric field was found, diverging the pH of permeate and retentate. This in turn altered the solubility of the calcium salt and impacted the performance of electro microfiltration membrane. Using electric field as an enhanced cleaning-in-place (CIP) method in back flushing SSS membrane was also studied. PMID:24957615

  11. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric...

  16. Fermentation of calcium-fortified soymilk with Lactobacillus: effects on calcium solubility, isoflavone conversion, and production of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Tang, A L; Shah, N P; Wilcox, G; Walker, K Z; Stojanovska, L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance calcium solubility and bioavailability from calcium-fortified soymilk by fermentation with 7 strains of Lactobacillus, namely, L. acidophilus ATCC 4962, ATCC33200, ATCC 4356, ATCC 4461, L. casei ASCC 290, L. plantarum ASCC 276, and L. fermentum VRI-003. The parameters that were used are viability, pH, calcium solubility, organic acid, and biologically active isoflavone aglycone content. Calcium-fortified soymilk made from soy protein isolate was inoculated with these probiotic strains, incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C, then stored for 14 d at 4 degrees C. Soluble calcium was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AA). Organic acids and bioactive isoflavone aglycones, including diadzein, genistein, and glycetein, were measured using HPLC. Viability of the strains in the fermented calcium-fortified soymilk was > 8.5 log(10) CFU/g after 24 h fermentation and this was maintained for 14-d storage at 4 degrees C. After 24 h, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in soluble calcium. L. acidophilus ATCC 4962 and L. casei ASCC 290 demonstrated the highest increase with 89.3% and 87.0% soluble calcium after 24 h, respectively. The increase in calcium solubility observed was related to lowered pH associated with production of lactic and acetic acids. Fermentation significantly increased (P < 0.05) the level of conversion of isoflavones into biologically active aglycones, including diadzein, genistein, and glycetein. Our results show that fermenting calcium-fortified soymilk with the selected probiotics can potentially enhance the calcium bioavailability of calcium-fortified soymilk due to increased calcium solubility and bioactive isoflavone aglycone enrichment. PMID:18034738

  17. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Organic Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-03-25

    Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 when nitrogen oxide and nitric acid (HNO3) species react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here, we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory generated particles composed of water soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e. NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) investigated using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates releasing gaseous HNO3 during dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase due to its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that in turn may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling, which may further affect concentrations of gas- and aerosol-phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

  18. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10550 - Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10550 Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (PMN P-05-324) is subject to reporting under this section...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10550 - Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10550 Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (PMN P-05-324) is subject to reporting under this section...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  17. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. 172.725... Additives § 172.725 Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. The food additives gibberellic acid and its potassium salt may be used in the malting of barley in accordance with the following prescribed...

  18. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. 172.725... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.725 Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. The food additives gibberellic acid and its potassium salt may be used in the malting of barley...

  19. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. 172.725... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.725 Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. The food additives gibberellic acid and its potassium salt may be used in the malting of barley...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  2. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. 172.725... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.725 Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. The food additives gibberellic acid and its potassium salt may be used in the malting of barley...

  3. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. 172.725... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.725 Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. The food additives gibberellic acid and its potassium salt may be used in the malting of barley...

  4. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  10. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10568 - Diethanolamine salt of polymeric acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diethanolamine salt of polymeric acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10568 Diethanolamine salt of polymeric acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as diethanolamine salt of polymeric acid (PMN P-08-464) is subject to reporting under this...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10568 - Diethanolamine salt of polymeric acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diethanolamine salt of polymeric acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10568 Diethanolamine salt of polymeric acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as diethanolamine salt of polymeric acid (PMN P-08-464) is subject to reporting under this...

  17. [Inhibitory effects of organic acids and salts on selected micromycetes].

    PubMed

    Láníková, A; Toulová, M

    1992-12-01

    Inhibitory effects of two fungistatic preparations (A and B) and of propionic acid were tested in a complete feed mixture for broiler chickens (starter mixture). The water content of this mixture was 25.4%, environmental temperature was 24 degrees C and relative air humidity 90%. Propionic acid, which has a high fungistatic effect, served as a standard. The composition of the preparation A was as follows: propionic acid, acetic acid, sorbic acid, citric acid and calcium propionate. The preparation B contained: sorbic acid, citric acid and calcium propionate. Examinations were performed in a naturally contaminated and subsequently sterilized (25 kGy) feed mixture; it was then infected with Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. parasiticus and Penicillium purpurogenum from the Collection of Animal Pathogenic Microorganisms, Brno. A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. glaucus, Penicillium sp., Absidia corymbifera, Mucor sp., Rhizomucor pusillus were detected in the naturally contaminated feed mixture. The mycoflora which was found in the native substrate was resistant to both tested fungistatic preparations; and this resulted in mycelium growth from 7th day of incubation. The efficiency of the preparations A,B and of propionic acid in the feed mixture was identical at concentrations of 4 mg/kg, 7 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg, respectively, and their inhibitory effects were lowest at these concentrations (Fig. 2). A high water content in the nutrient substrate resulted in the rapid growth of fungi of the Mucorales species. The relative humidity of the environment (90%) and water content of tested samples affected markedly micromycetes growth in this experiment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1297244

  18. SANITARY DIPS WITH CALCIUM PROPIONATE, CALCIUM CHLORIDE, OR A CALCIUM AMINO ACID CHELATE MAINTAIN QUALITY AND SHELF STABILITY OF HONEYDEW CHUNKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freshly cut honeydew chunks were dipped for 30 seconds in a solution containing 100 uL/L sodium hypochlorite (ClO) without and with a 40 mM concentration of calcium (Ca) propionate, a Ca amino acid chelate formulation (Ca chelate), calcium chloride (CaCl2) or not treated. Respiration and ethylene p...

  19. Lactose behaviour in the presence of lactic acid and calcium.

    PubMed

    Wijayasinghe, Rangani; Vasiljevic, Todor; Chandrapala, Jayani

    2016-08-01

    Physical properties of lactose appeared influenced by presence of lactic acid in the system. Some other components such as Ca may further attenuate lactose behaviour and impact its phase transition. A model-based study was thus implemented with varying concentrations of Ca (0·12, 0·072 or 0·035% w/w) and lactic acid (0·05, 0·2, 0·4 or 1% w/w) in establishing the effects of these two main acid whey constituents on lactose phase behaviour. Concentrated solutions (50% w/w) containing lactose, lactic acid and Ca were analysed for thermal behaviour and structural changes by Differential Scanning Colorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. Presence of 1% (w/w) lactic acid and 0·12% (w/w) Ca in lactose solution significantly increased the evaporation enthalpy of water, delayed and increased the energy required for lactose crystallisation as compared to pure lactose. FTIR analysis indicated a strong hydration layer surrounding lactose molecules, restricting water mobility and/or inducing structural changes of lactose, hindering its crystallisation. The formation of calcium lactate, which restricts the diffusion of lactose molecules, is also partly responsible. It appears that Ca removal from acid whey may be a necessary step in improving the processability of acid whey. PMID:27600977

  20. Plant salt stress status is transmitted systemically via propagating calcium waves

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stephan, Aaron B.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-04-29

    The existence and relevance of rapid long distance signaling in plants is evident to any observer of the nastic movements of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) or the sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica). However, all plants require the transmission of sensory information from the site of perception to other tissues to adjust their physiological states according to their environment. It is becoming increasingly apparent that rapid long-distance signals exist throughout the plant kingdom and may be responsible for initiating a multitude of physiological responses: electrical “action potentials” have been shown to convey wounding and saltstress information from leaf-to-leaf (1, 2); amore » “hydraulic signal” transmitted by the direction of water movement within the xylem can mediate long-distance signaling of water stress experienced by the roots to the leaves in Arabidopsis (3); and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to propagate across a plant and carry stimulus-specific information to a variety of stresses (4). In PNAS, Choi et al. (5) use elegant approaches and present advances demonstrating that calcium can function as a long-distance signaling messenger, propagating in waves from roots and carrying salt-stress signals to induce expression of salt tolerance genes in leaves.« less

  1. Plant salt stress status is transmitted systemically via propagating calcium waves

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Aaron B.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-04-29

    The existence and relevance of rapid long distance signaling in plants is evident to any observer of the nastic movements of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) or the sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica). However, all plants require the transmission of sensory information from the site of perception to other tissues to adjust their physiological states according to their environment. It is becoming increasingly apparent that rapid long-distance signals exist throughout the plant kingdom and may be responsible for initiating a multitude of physiological responses: electrical “action potentials” have been shown to convey wounding and saltstress information from leaf-to-leaf (1, 2); a “hydraulic signal” transmitted by the direction of water movement within the xylem can mediate long-distance signaling of water stress experienced by the roots to the leaves in Arabidopsis (3); and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to propagate across a plant and carry stimulus-specific information to a variety of stresses (4). In PNAS, Choi et al. (5) use elegant approaches and present advances demonstrating that calcium can function as a long-distance signaling messenger, propagating in waves from roots and carrying salt-stress signals to induce expression of salt tolerance genes in leaves.

  2. Calcium ion binding to a soil fulvic acid using a donnan potential model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marinsky, J.A.; Mathuthu, A.; Ephraim, J.H.; Reddy, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium ion binding to a soil fulvic acid (Armadale Bh Horizon) was evaluated over a range of calcium ion concentrations, from pH 3.8 to 7.3, using potentiometric titrations and calcium ion electrode measurements. Fulvic acid concentration was constant (100 milligrams per liter) and calcium ion concentration varied up to 8 X 10-4 moles per liter. Experiments discussed here included: (1) titrations of fulvic acid-calcium ion containing solutions with sodium hydroxide; and (2) titrations of fully neutralized fulvic acid with calcium chloride solutions. Apparent binding constants (expressed as the logarithm of the value, log ??app) vary with solution pH, calcium ion concentration, degree of acid dissociation, and ionic strength (from log ??app = 2.5 to 3.9) and are similar to those reported by others. Fulvic acid charge, and the associated Donnan Potential, influences calcium ion-fulvic acid ion pair formation. A Donnan Potential corrrection term allowed calculation of intrinsic calcium ion-fulvic acid binding constants. Intrinsic binding constants vary from 1.2 to 2.5 (the average value is about log??= 1.6) and are similar to, but somewhat higher than, stability constants for calcium ion-carboxylic acid monodentate complexes. ?? by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Mu??nchen.

  3. Soil-calcium depletion linked to acid rain and forest growth in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Huntington, T.G.

    1999-01-01

    Since the discovery of acid rain in the 1970's, scientists have been concerned that deposition of acids could cause depletion of calcium in forest soils. Research in the 1980's showed that the amount of calcium in forest soils is controlled by several factors that are difficult to measure. Further research in the 1990's, including several studies by the U.S. Geological Survey, has shown that (1) calcium in forest soils has decreased at locations in the northeastern and southeastern U.S., and (2) acid rain and forest growth (uptake of calcium from the soil by roots) are both factors contributing to calcium depletion.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1221 - Calcium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Reg. No. 4075-81-4) is the calcium salt of propionic acid. It occurs as white crystals or a crystalline solid, possessing not more than a faint odor of propionic acid. It is prepared by neutralizing propionic acid with calcium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  5. Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, L.

    1999-05-25

    A process is disclosed for preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising. The process involves dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing the alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

  6. Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    1999-01-01

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising: dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures thereof to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing said alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

  7. Effect of potassium and calcium loading on healthy subjects under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Naexu, Konstantin A.; Federenko, Youri F.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the acute responses to the electrolyte challenges under hypokinesia and physical exercise (PE) of different intensities with fluid and salt supplementation (FSS). The studies were performed on 12 physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesia (decreased number of steps per day) with a set of PE with FSS. The volunteers were divided into two equal groups. The first group was subjected to a set of intensive PE and the second group was submitted to a set of moderate PE. Both groups of subjects consumed daily water and salt supplements that aimed to increase the body hydration level. For simulation of the hypokinetic effect all subjects were kept under an average of 3000 steps per day. Functional tests with a potassium chloride (KCl) and calcium lactate (Cal) load were performed during the hypokinetic period of 364 days and the 60-day prehypokinetic period that served as control, while both groups of subjects consumed daily calcium and potassium supplements. The concentration of electrolyte and hormone levels in the blood and their excretion rate in urine were determined. Renal excretion of calcium and potassium and the blood concentration thereof increased markedly in both groups of subjects. With the potassium chloride load tests the increased potassium excretion was accompanied by higher aldosterone and insulin blood levels, and with the calcium lactate load tests the increased calcium excretion was accompanied by a decreased parathyroid content in the blood. FSS and PE, regardless of intensity, failed to attenuate calcium and potassium losses. Additional intake of KCl and Cal also failed to normalize potassium and calcium abnormalities. It was concluded that during the KCl and Cal loading tests, the increased losses of potassium and calcium in the hypokinetic subjects were due to the inability of their bodies to retain these electrolytes, and that electrolyte abnormalities could

  8. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  9. Students' Understanding of Acid, Base and Salt Reactions in Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kim-Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Chia, Lian-Sai; Treagust, David F.

    2003-01-01

    Uses a two-tier, multiple-choice diagnostic instrument to determine (n=915) grade 10 students' understanding of the acid, base, and salt reactions involved in basic qualitative analysis. Reports that many students did not understand the formation of precipitates and the complex salts, acid/salt-base reactions, and thermal decomposition involved in…

  10. 40 CFR 721.10487 - Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salts (generic). 721.10487 Section 721.10487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10487 Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (PMNs P-04-599, P-04-600, P-04-605, and P-04-606)...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkylsulfate salt. 721.720 Section 721.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... salt (generic). 721.2098 Section 721.2098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkylsulfate salt. 721.720 Section 721.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkylsulfate salt. 721.720 Section 721.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkylsulfate salt. 721.720 Section 721.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkylsulfate salt. 721.720 Section 721.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  8. Effect of acid rain on calcium carbonate saturation in the Albemarle sound of North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, K.A.; Burgess, S.K.; Willey, J.D.; Kieber, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    The effects of acidic rainwater additions on calcium carbonate solubility and alkalinity in the poorly buffered, biologically active and commercially important waters of the Albemarle Sound, NC are reported. Samples collected monthly at four sites were analyzed for salinity, pK total alkalinity, and calcium concentrations. Five percent and 10% dilutions of sulfuric acid at pH 4, mimicking acid rain additions, were added and total alkalinity and calcium concentrations again determined. The addition of acid decreased the alkalinity in the Albemarle samples by as much as 15%, although the magnitude of the impact depended both on site and season. The effects of acid additions on dissolved calcium concentrations were more variable,. and also displayed a site and season dependency. Calcium concentrations, alkalinity, and pH values were also determined during controlled laboratory experiments, where 25 mg/L Callinectes sapidus shells were added to Albemarle Sound water. All three analytes increased significantly upon acid additions relative to controls.

  9. Self-assembly of fatty acid-alkylboladiamine salts.

    PubMed

    Douliez, Jean-Paul; Navailles, Laurence; Nallet, Frédéric

    2006-01-17

    Long-chain fatty acids are insoluble in aqueous solution and form crystal precipitates. It is then of particular importance to determine the physicochemical parameters allowing their dispersion in water to improve their bioavailability and their utilization as surfactants. Herein, we report a study on salt-free catanionic systems in aqueous solution made of mixtures between palmitic or stearic fatty acids and alkylboladiamines (Abd's) differing by their alkyl chain length. Phase contrast microscopy, solid-state NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and small-angle neutron scattering were used to characterize the phase behavior of these systems at molar ratio of fatty acid to Abd of 1 and 2. Whatever the Abd and the molar ratio, fatty acids were embedded at low temperature in a bilayer gel phase which crystallizes after a period of rest. At an equimolar ratio, the gel phases transited upon raising the temperature to an isotropic phase made of worm-like micelles except in the case of the ethylenediamine chain for which a lamellar fluid phase was observed. At a molar ratio of 2 and high temperature, fatty acids were embedded in a lamellar fluid phase which self-orients with its stacking axis perpendicular to the magnetic field. However, for a long alkylboladiamine such as spermine, worm-like micelles formed. The phase behavior at high temperature is discussed in terms of molecular volume. PMID:16401110

  10. Alleviation of salt stress in lemongrass by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Mohd; Naeem, M; Khan, M Nasir; Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the key factors adversely affecting the growth, yield, and quality of crops. A pot study was conducted to find out whether exogenous application of salicylic acid could ameliorate the adverse effect of salinity in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. Wats.). Two Cymbopogon varieties, Krishna and Neema, were used in the study. Three salinity levels, viz, 50, 100, and 150 mM of NaCl, were applied to 30-day-old plants. Salicylic acid (SA) was applied as foliar spray at 10(-5) M concentration. Totally, six SA-sprays were carried out at 10-day intervals, following the first spray at 30 days after sowing. The growth parameters were progressively reduced with the increase in salinity level; however, growth inhibition was significantly reduced by the foliar application of SA. With the increase in salt stress, a gradual decrease in the activities of carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase was observed in both the varieties. SA-treatment not only ameliorated the adverse effects of NaCl but also showed a significant improvement in the activities of these enzymes compared with the untreated stressed-plants. The plants supplemented with NaCl exhibited a significant increase in electrolyte leakage, proline content, and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase activity. Content and yield of essential oil was also significantly decreased in plants that received salinity levels; however, SA overcame the unfavorable effects of salinity stress to a considerable extent. Lemongrass variety Krishna was found to be more adapted to salt stress than Neema, as indicated by the overall performance of the two varieties under salt conditions. PMID:21882051

  11. Carboxylic Acid Ionophores as Probes of the Role of Calcium in Biological Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, P. W.

    1983-01-01

    The biological effects of calcium ionophores are described, focusing on arachidonic acid oxygenation, and the formation of a number of oxygenated metabolites of arachidonic acid. These metabolites are involved in a number of bodily functions, and their production may be regulated by calcium.

  12. Comparative effects of oral aromatic and branched-chain amino acids on urine calcium and excretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aromatic amino acids (AAAs) bind to the calcium sensor receptor (CaR) but branched-chain amino acids (B-CAAs) do not; by binding to this receptor, AAAs have an increased potential to affect calcium homeostasis. This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of AAAs and B-CAAs on calci...

  13. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... acid, salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamino methylene polyphosphonic acid,...

  14. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... acid, salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamino methylene polyphosphonic acid,...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10487 - Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10487 Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (PMNs P-04-599, P-04-600, P-04-605, and P-04-606)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10474 - Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10474 Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic). (a... generically as substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (PMN P-04-107) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10633 - Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10633 Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (PMN P-12-276) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10474 - Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10474 Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic). (a... generically as substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (PMN P-04-107) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10633 - Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10633 Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (PMN P-12-276) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... mineral acid (PMN P-91-838) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... mineral acid (PMN P-91-838) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... mineral acid (PMN P-91-838) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... mineral acid (PMN P-91-838) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... mineral acid (PMN P-91-838) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, tin...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, tin...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, tin...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, tin...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, tin...

  10. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... acid, salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamino methylene polyphosphonic acid,...

  11. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... acid, salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamino methylene polyphosphonic acid,...

  12. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... acid, salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamino methylene polyphosphonic acid,...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10370 - Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10370 Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt... substance identified as phosphinic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1) (PMN P-10-99; CAS No....

  14. 40 CFR 721.10370 - Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10370 Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt... substance identified as phosphinic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1) (PMN P-10-99; CAS No....

  15. 40 CFR 721.10370 - Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10370 Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt... substance identified as phosphinic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1) (PMN P-10-99; CAS No....

  16. Salicylic acid and calcium-induced protection of wheat against salinity.

    PubMed

    Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Siddiqui, Manzer H; Basalah, Mohammed O

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the important environmental factors that produce serious agricultural problems. The objective of the present study was to determine the interactive effect of salicylic acid (SA) and calcium (Ca) on plant growth, photosynthetic pigments, proline (Pro) concentration, carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity and activities of antioxidant enzymes of Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Samma) under salt stress. Application of 90 mM of NaCl reduced plant growth (plant height, fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW), chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, CA activity) and enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) and Pro concentration. However, the application of SA or Ca alone as well as in combination markedly improved plant growth, photosynthetic pigments, Pro concentration, CA activity and activities of antioxidant enzymes peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) under salt stress. It was, therefore, concluded that application of SA and Ca alone as well as in combination ameliorated the adverse effect of salinity, while combined application proved more effective to reduce the oxidative stress generated by NaCl through reduced MDA accumulation, Chl a/b ratio and Chls degradation and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:21979309

  17. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  2. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... of calcium dietary supplements are carbonate and citrate. Calcium carbonate is inexpensive, but is absorbed best when taken ... antacid products, such as Tums® and Rolaids®, contain calcium carbonate. Each pill or chew provides 200–400 mg ...

  3. Mechano-switchable, luminescent gels derived from salts of a long-chained, fatty-acid gelator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mohan; Weiss, Richard G

    2016-07-27

    Stimulus-responsive molecular gel systems, based on metal salts of a luminescent gelator, 9,10-dioxooctadecanoic acid (DODA), are reported. These salts are structurally the simplest metallo-gelators of which we are aware that exhibit controllable mechano-responsive and luminescent properties. Aggregation is more favored by the metal salts than for DODA itself. However, gelation ability differs dramatically depending on the metal ion: whereas the salts with zinc(ii) and calcium(ii) are inefficient gelators, those with nickel(ii) and copper(ii) can gelate various aromatic liquids, alkanes, and long-chained alcohols. Unlike the DODA gels, no aggregation-induced shift in the positions of the emission spectra of the metal salts could be observed as the sols were transformed to their gel phases. Gels of both nickel(ii) and copper(ii) salts in benzonitrile are among the few known examples with crystalline networks and exhibiting thixotropic behavior. However, there are significant differences in their abilities to recover the initial viscoelastic properties. Structural data for the solid and gel states lead us to conclude that differences among the gelating abilities can be attributed principally to the specific nature of interactions of the salts at their head groups. They appear to control the mechanical and emissive properties of the gels as well as whether the initial aggregation of the salts in the sol phases will support the growth of 1D objects that are capable of maintaining strong contacts, leading to 3D networks and gel formation. Overall, the results provide a facile strategy for the design of luminescent materials with controllable mechano-responsiveness by modifying the metal ions within fibrillar assemblies. PMID:27400800

  4. Antimicrobial Effect of Calcium Chloride Alone and Combined with Lactic Acid Injected into Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Alahakoon, Amali U.; Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Sun Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Chicken breast meat was injected with calcium chloride alone and in combination with lactic acid (0.01% and 0.002%, respectively). The inhibitory effects of the treatments on microbial growth were determined in the injected chicken breast meat stored at 4°C under aerobic packaging condition for 0, 3, and 7 d. Calcium chloride combined with 0.002% and 0.01% lactic acid reduced microbial counts by 0.14 and 1.08 Log CFU/g, respectively, however, calcium chloride alone was unable to inhibit microbial growth. Calcium chloride combined with 0.01% lactic acid was the most effective antimicrobial treatment and resulted in the highest initial redness value. Calcium chloride alone and combined with lactic acid suppressed changes in pH and the Hunter color values during storage. However, injection of calcium chloride and lactic acid had adverse effects on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics. The higher TBARS values were observed in samples treated with calcium chloride and lactic acid when compared to control over the storage period. Addition of calcium chloride and lactic acid resulted in lower sensory scores for parameters tested, except odor and color, compared to control samples. Therefore, the formulation should be improved in order to overcome such defects prior to industrial application. PMID:26760942

  5. Salts of phenylacetic acid and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid with Cinchona alkaloids: Crystal structures, thermal analysis and FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amombo Noa, Francoise M.; Jacobs, Ayesha

    2016-06-01

    Seven salts were formed with phenylacetic acid (PAA), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPAA) and the Cinchona alkaloids; cinchonidine (CIND), quinidine (QUID) and quinine (QUIN). For all the structures the proton was transferred from the carboxylic acid of the PAA/HPAA to the quinuclidine nitrogen of the respective Cinchona alkaloid. For six of the salts, water was included in the crystal structures with one of these also incorporating an isopropanol solvent molecule. However HPAA co-crystallised with quinine to form an anhydrous salt, (HPAA-)(QUIN+). The thermal stability of the salts were determined and differential scanning calorimetry revealed that the (HPAA-)(QUIN+) salt had the highest thermal stability compared to the other salt hydrates. The salts were also characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. (PAA-)(QUID+)·H2O and (PAA-)(QUIN+)·H2O are isostructural and Hirshfeld surface analysis was completed to compare the intermolecular interactions in these two structures.

  6. Calcium Free Asbestos for Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snitzer, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    Organic-acid salt removes unwanted calcium without weakening asbestos. Asbestos mixed with disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (disodium EDTA) in water and agitated for 2 hours. After disodium EDTA solution is drained away, asbestos contains only 0.02 to 0.1 percent calcium. Fiber structure of asbestos unaffected.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  11. Effect of calcium salts and surfactant concentration on the stability of water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions prepared with polyglycerol polyricinoleate.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Andrés L; Medrano, Alejandra; Panizzolo, Luis A; Wagner, Jorge R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions with polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) as emulsifier and to study the effect of the addition of calcium in the dispersed aqueous phase on the stability of these systems. Emulsions were formulated with 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0% w/w PGPR and 10% w/w water containing calcium chloride at varied concentrations or other salts (calcium lactate or carbonate; sodium, magnesium or potassium chloride). The stability of these systems was studied with a vertical scan analyzer during 15 days; coalescence and sedimentation were observed as simultaneous destabilization processes. The increase of PGPR concentration and/or calcium chloride content gave more stable emulsions. The stabilizing effect of calcium salt was attributed to the diminution of the water droplets size, the decrease of the attractive force between water droplets and the increase of the adsorption density of the emulsifier. The viscoelastic parameters of the interfacial film were decreased with increasing calcium and PGPR concentrations. Calcium chloride produced a higher increase of stability than calcium salts with lower dissociation degree. The presence of any assayed salt in the aqueous phase also allowed the stabilization of w/o emulsions with higher water contents. PMID:19822323

  12. Premixed acidic calcium phosphate cement: characterization of strength and microstructure.

    PubMed

    Aberg, J; Brisby, H; Henriksson, H B; Lindahl, A; Thomsen, P; Engqvist, H

    2010-05-01

    By using a premixed calcium phosphate cement (CPC), the handling properties of the cement are drastically improved, which is a challenge for traditional injectable CPCs. Previously premixed cements have been based on apatitic cements. In this article, acidic cement has been developed and evaluated. Monocalcium phosphate monohydrate and beta-tricalcium phosphate were mixed with glycerol to form a paste. As the paste does not contain water, no setting reaction starts and thus the working time is indefinite. Powder/liquid ratios (P/L) of 2.25, 3.5 and 4.75 were evaluated. Setting time (ST) and compressive strength (CS) were measured after 1 day, 1 week and 4 weeks in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution, and the corresponding microstructure was evaluated using electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The ST started when the cements were placed in PBS and ranged from 28 to 75 min, higher P/L gave a lower ST. Higher P/L also gave a higher CS, which ranged from 2 to 16 MPa. The microstructure mainly consisted of monetite, 1-5 microm in grain size. After 4 weeks in PBS, the strength increased. As acidic cements are resorbed faster in vivo, this cement should allow faster bone regeneration than apatitic cements. Premixed cements show a great handling benefit when compared with normal CPCs and can be formulated with similar ST and mechanical properties. PMID:20127991

  13. Effect of QMix, peracetic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on calcium loss and microhardness of root dentine

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Sonali; Kumari, Manju; Anand, Surbhi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this in vitro study was to assess the effect of different chelating agents on the calcium loss and its subsequent effect on the microhardness of the root dentin. Materials and Methods: Ten single rooted lower premolars were selected. The teeth were decoronated and thick transverse sections of 2 mm were obtained from the coronal third of the root. Each section was then divided into four quarters, each part constituting a sample specimen from the same tooth for each group. The treatment groups were: Group 1 (Control): 5% Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for 5 min + distilled water for 5 min; Group 2: 5% NaOCl for 5 min + 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) for 5 min; Group 3: 5% NaOCl for 5 min + 2.25% Peracetic acid (PAA) for 5 min and Group 4: 5% NaOCl for 5 min + QMix for 5 min respectively. The calcium loss of the samples was evaluated using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer followed by determination of their microhardness using Vickers Hardness Tester. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Post hoc Tukey test and Pearson correlation. Results: The maximum calcium loss and minimum microhardness was observed in Group 3 followed by Group 2, Group 4 and Group 1. There was a statistically significant difference between all the groups except between Groups 2 and 4. Conclusions: Irrigation with NaOCl + 2.25% PAA caused the maximum calcium loss from root dentin and reduced microhardness. A negative correlation existed between the calcium loss and reduction in the microhardness of root dentin. PMID:24778513

  14. Effects of calcium and magnesium salts on nickel subsulfide carcinogenicity in Fischer rats.

    PubMed

    Kasprzak, K S; Quander, R V; Poirier, L A

    1985-08-01

    The effects of calcium or magnesium salts administered by one of three different routes on the formation of muscle tumors by nickel subsulfide (Ni3S2) in Fischer F344 rats were determined. Eleven groups of 20 weanling male rats each received a single injection of 2.5 mg (31 mumol Ni) Ni3S2 into the thigh muscles of both hind limbs (i.m.). Then the rats were fed 3% calcium acetate (CaAcet)- or 3% magnesium acetate (MgAcet)-supplemented diets for 3 and 6 months, or were injected s.c. three times weekly, with 0.16 mmol doses of CaAcet/kg/injection, or with 2 mmol doses of MgAcet/kg/injection, for 1 or 4 months. Two other groups of 20 rats were injected i.m. with 2.5 mg (31 mumol Ni) of Ni3S2 mixed with 6.2 mg (62 mumol Ca) of calcium carbonate (CaCarb), or with 6.3 mg (62 mumol Mg) of magnesium basic carbonate (MgCarb). The control groups of rats received single i.m. injections of the 0.15 M saline vehicle, 6.2 mg CaCarb, and 6.3 mg MgCarb, or s.c. injections of 0.15 M saline, or 4 mmol sodium acetate, NaAcet/kg/injection, three times weekly for 4 months. After 18 months, injection site tumors were found: (i) in 70-90% of the rats injected i.m. with Ni3S2 and fed standard diet or the diets containing CaAcet or MgAcet, with no significant differences among the groups; (ii) in 95-100% of the rats given i.m. Ni3S2 and then treated with multiple s.c. injections of saline, NaAcet, CaAcet or MgAcet, with no significant differences among the groups; (iii) in 85% of rats injected i.m. with Ni3S2 + CaCarb, and (iv) in 25% of the rats injected i.m. with Ni3S2 + MgCarb. No tumors developed in the control rats. The admixtures of CaCarb or MgCarb to Ni3S2 did not affect the mobilization of nickel from the injection site. They did, however, influence the cellular responses to Ni3S2 in early stages, from 3 days to 22 weeks, after the injection. MgCarb, unlike CaCarb, strongly decreased the necrosis and increased macrophage proliferation at the Ni3S2 injection site. It also delayed

  15. 21 CFR 184.1221 - Calcium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium propionate. 184.1221 Section 184.1221 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1221 Calcium propionate. (a) Calcium propionate (C6H10CaO4, CAS Reg. No. 4075-81-4) is the calcium salt of propionic acid. It occurs as white crystals or...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1229 - Calcium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium stearate. 184.1229 Section 184.1229 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1229 Calcium stearate. (a) Calcium stearate (Ca(C17H35COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 1529-23-0) is the calcium salt of stearic acid derived from edible sources. It is prepared...

  17. Individual effects of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride salts on Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernandez, A

    2008-07-01

    A quantitative investigation on the individual effects of sodium (NaCl), potassium (KCl), calcium (CaCl2), and magnesium (MgCl2) chloride salts against Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two representative microorganisms of table olives and other fermented vegetables, was carried out. In order to assess their potential activities, both the kinetic growth parameters and dose-response profiles in synthetic media (deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth medium and yeast-malt-peptone-glucose broth medium, respectively) were obtained and analyzed. Microbial growth was monitored via optical density measurements as a function of contact time in the presence of progressive chloride salt concentrations. Relative maximum specific growth rate and lag-phase period were modeled as a function of the chloride salt concentrations. Moreover, for each salt and microorganism tested, the noninhibitory concentrations and the MICs were estimated and compared. All chloride salts exerted a significant antimicrobial effect on the growth cycle; particularly, CaCl2 showed a similar effect to NaCl, while KCl and MgCl2 were progressively less inhibitory. Microbial susceptibility and resistance were found to be nonlinearly dose related. PMID:18680941

  18. Effects of L/N-type calcium channel antagonist, cilnidipine on progressive renal injuries in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    PubMed

    Konda, Tomoyuki; Enomoto, Azusa; Takahara, Akira; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    The sympathetic nerve activity plays an important role on the renal function through the vasoactive system and the renin-angiotensin system. Although interest in the renal protective effects of anti-sympathetic agents has been increased, there are not enough data to clarify this efficiency. Therefore, we investigated the effects of L/N-type calcium channel antagonist, cilnidipine on progressive renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl S) rats. Male Dahl S rats (6 weeks of age) were fed a high salt (4% NaCl) diet. They were divided into groups with similar blood pressure at 12 weeks of age and they received vehicle (n=7) or cilnidipine (30 mg/kg/d as food admix, n=9) for 8 weeks. Cilnidipine treatment suppressed the increase in systolic blood pressure. Although urinary protein excretion was not influenced, cilnidipine inhibited the increase in blood urea nitrogen and decrease in creatinine clearance. Histological investigation revealed that progression of glomerular sclerosis was inhibited in cilnidipine treatment group. Of notes, cilnidipine reduced plasma norepinephrine level and plasma rennin activity compared with vehicle-treated Dahl S rats. These data indicated that cilnidipine has suppressive effects against progressive renal injury in Dahl S rats. This effect is not only explained by the L-type calcium channel blocking action that lowered blood pressure, but also partially explained by the N-type calcium channel blocking action that lead to suppression of the sympathetic nerve activity and renin-angiotensin system. PMID:16651722

  19. Effects of acid, salt and soaking time on the dielectric properties of acidified vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to design a continuous microwave process for pasteurization of acidified vegetables, equilibration phenomena in acid and salt solutions must be examined with regards to changes in dielectric properties. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of acid and salt concentration o...

  20. Starch-lipid complexes: Interesting material and applications from amylose-fatty acid salt inclusion complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous slurries of high amylose starch can be steam jet cooked and blended with aqueous solutions of fatty acid salts to generate materials that contain inclusion complexes between amylose and the fatty acid salt. These complexes are simply prepared on large scale using commercially available steam...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  6. 78 FR 34648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... Countervailing Duty Order, 74 FR 25705 (May 29, 2009), remains dispositive. A full description of the scope of... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing... review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and citrate salts from the People's...

  7. Bile acid salt binding with colesevelam HCl is not affected by suspension in common beverages.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Martin; Zhorov, Eugene

    2006-12-01

    It has been previously reported that anions in common beverages may bind to bile acid sequestrants (BAS), reducing their capacity for binding bile acid salts. This study examined the ability of the novel BAS colesevelam hydrochloride (HCl), in vitro, to bind bile acid sodium salts following suspension in common beverages. Equilibrium binding was evaluated under conditions of constant time and varying concentrations of bile acid salts in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). A stock solution of sodium salts of glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), and glycocholic acid (GC), was added to each prepared sample of colesevelam HCl. Bile acid salt binding was calculated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Kinetics experiments were conducted using constant initial bile acid salt concentrations and varying binding times. The affinity, capacity, and kinetics of colesevelam HCl binding for GCDC, TDC, and GC were not significantly altered after suspension in water, carbonated water, Coca-Cola, Sprite, grape juice, orange juice, tomato juice, or Gatorade. The amount of bile acid sodium salt bound as a function of time was unchanged by pretreatment with any beverage tested. The in vitro binding characteristics of colesevelam HCl are unchanged by suspension in common beverages. PMID:16937334

  8. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... body stores more than 99 percent of its calcium in the bones and teeth to help make and keep them ... in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with soft bones that you eat, such as canned sardines and ...

  9. Determination of molecular species of calcium salts of MDP produced through decalcification of enamel and dentin by MDP-based one-step adhesive.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Yoko; Nishiyama, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Enamel and dentin particles were added to an experimental 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP)-based one-step adhesive to react for 30 s. After enamel and dentin reactants were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P NMR) techniques, curve-fitting analysis was performed on the (31)P NMR spectra of enamel and dentin reactants. By varying the molar ratio of calcium chloride to MDP, a series of three types of MDP-Ca salts were synthesized. The molecular species of calcium salts of MDP (MDP-Ca salts) produced by decalcification of enamel or dentin were determined based on the XRD and (31)P NMR analysis results of these three types of synthesized MDP-Ca salts. Curve-fitting analysis showed that enamel and dentin developed several types of MDP-Ca salts and amorphous dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) during decalcification. The molecular species of MDP-Ca salts produced by enamel and dentin were mono-calcium salts of MDP monomer and MDP dimer. In addition, dentin produced a di-calcium of MDP dimer. PMID:25753080

  10. Direct Imaging of Hippocampal Epileptiform Calcium Motifs Following Kainic Acid Administration in Freely Behaving Mice

    PubMed Central

    Berdyyeva, Tamara K.; Frady, E. Paxon; Nassi, Jonathan J.; Aluisio, Leah; Cherkas, Yauheniya; Otte, Stephani; Wyatt, Ryan M.; Dugovic, Christine; Ghosh, Kunal K.; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Lovenberg, Timothy; Bonaventure, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to abnormally high calcium concentrations is thought to be a core mechanism underlying hippocampal damage in epileptic patients; however, no prior study has characterized calcium activity during seizures in the live, intact hippocampus. We have directly investigated this possibility by combining whole-brain electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements with microendoscopic calcium imaging of pyramidal cells in the CA1 hippocampal region of freely behaving mice treated with the pro-convulsant kainic acid (KA). We observed that KA administration led to systematic patterns of epileptiform calcium activity: a series of large-scale, intensifying flashes of increased calcium fluorescence concurrent with a cluster of low-amplitude EEG waveforms. This was accompanied by a steady increase in cellular calcium levels (>5 fold increase relative to the baseline), followed by an intense spreading calcium wave characterized by a 218% increase in global mean intensity of calcium fluorescence (n = 8, range [114–349%], p < 10−4; t-test). The wave had no consistent EEG phenotype and occurred before the onset of motor convulsions. Similar changes in calcium activity were also observed in animals treated with 2 different proconvulsant agents, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), suggesting the measured changes in calcium dynamics are a signature of seizure activity rather than a KA-specific pathology. Additionally, despite reducing the behavioral severity of KA-induced seizures, the anticonvulsant drug valproate (VA, 300 mg/kg) did not modify the observed abnormalities in calcium dynamics. These results confirm the presence of pathological calcium activity preceding convulsive motor seizures and support calcium as a candidate signaling molecule in a pathway connecting seizures to subsequent cellular damage. Integrating in vivo calcium imaging with traditional assessment of seizures could potentially increase translatability of pharmacological

  11. Acid diet (high meat protein) effects on calcium metabolism and bone health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose of review: Update recent advancements regarding the effect of high animal protein on calcium utilization and bone health. Recent findings: Increased potential renal acid load resulting from a high protein (meat) intake has been closely associated with increased urinary calcium excretion. How...

  12. The effect of sourdough and calcium propionate on the microbial shelf-life of salt reduced bread.

    PubMed

    Belz, Markus C E; Mairinger, Regina; Zannini, Emanuele; Ryan, Liam A M; Cashman, Kevin D; Arendt, Elke K

    2012-10-01

    The consumption of low-salt bread represents an efficient way to improve public health by decreasing cardiovascular health issues related to increased intakes of sodium chloride (NaCl). The reduction of NaCl influences the bread quality characteristics, in particular the shelf-life. Calcium propionate (CP) is commonly used in bread as an antifungal agent. Alternatively, sourdough can be used as a natural preservative. This work addresses the feasibility of NaCl reduction in wheat bread focussing on shelf-life and the compensation using sourdough as well as chemical preservatives. The impact of NaCl reduction and the addition of preservative agents in conjunction with different NaCl concentrations on the shelf-life of bread were tested under 'environmental' conditions in a bakery as well as using challenge tests against selected fungi. The challenge tests were performed using fungi commonly found in the bakery environment such as Penicillium expansum, Fusarium culmorum and Aspergillus niger. NaCl reduction decreased the shelf-life by 1-2 days. The addition of sourdough with antifungal activity prolonged the shelf-life to 12-14 days whereas the addition of 0.3 % calcium propionate prolonged the shelf-life to 10-12 days only. The fungal challenge tests revealed differences in the determined shelf-life between the different fungi based on their resistance. Similar antifungal performance was observed in sourdough breads and calcium propionate breads when tested against the different indicator moulds. The findings of this study indicate that addition of sourdough fermented using a specifically selected antifungal Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 19280 can replace the chemical preservative calcium propionate addition and compensate for the reduced level and, therefore, guarantee the product safety of low-salt bread. PMID:22569634

  13. Houttuyniae Herba Attenuates Kainic Acid-Induced Neurotoxicity via Calcium Response Modulation in the Mouse Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Geun; Jeong, Hyun Uk; Hong, Sung In; Oh, Myung Sook

    2015-12-01

    Epilepsy is a complex neurological disorder characterized by the repeated occurrence of electrical activity known as seizures. This activity induces increased intracellular calcium, which ultimately leads to neuronal damage. Houttuyniae Herba, the aerial part of Houttuynia cordata, has various pharmacological effects and is widely used as a traditional herb. In the present study, we evaluated the protective effects of Houttuyniae Herba water extract on kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity. Kainic acid directly acts on calcium release, resulting in seizure behavior, neuronal damage, and cognitive impairment. In a rat primary hippocampal culture system, Houttuyniae Herba water extract significantly protected neuronal cells from kainic acid toxicity. In a seizure model where mice received intracerebellar kainic acid injections, Houttuyniae Herba water extract treatment resulted in a lower seizure stage score, ameliorated cognitive impairment, protected neuronal cells against kainic acid-induced toxicity, and suppressed neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus. In addition, Houttuyniae Herba water extract regulated increases in the intracellular calcium level, its related downstream pathways (reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial dysfunction), and calcium/calmodulin complex kinase type II immunoreactivity in the mouse hippocampus, which resulted from calcium influx stimulation induced by kainic acid. These results demonstrate the neuroprotective effects of Houttuyniae Herba water extract through inhibition of calcium generation in a kainic acid-induced epileptic model. PMID:26366753

  14. Acidity and mineral composition of precipitation in Moscow: Influence of deicing salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremina, I. D.; Aloyan, A. E.; Arutyunyan, V. O.; Larin, I. K.; Chubarova, N. E.; Yermakov, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring data and analysis of the variation in acidity and mineral composition of atmospheric precipitation in Moscow in 2012 are presented. We have found that the chloride anions in the precipitation are largely caused by chlorides of deicing salts. Here, the chloride anions, along with metal chlorides (components of deicing salts), are partly caused by dissolved hydrogen chloride. The appearance of hydrogen chloride in the atmosphere of Moscow has been shown to result from heterophase chemical reactions involving deicing salts. We have obtained preliminary estimates for the scales of the effect of these salts on the mineral composition and acidity of precipitations in Moscow.

  15. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... milligrams) of calcium each day. Get it from: Dairy products. Low-fat milk, yogurt, cheese, and cottage ... lactase that helps digest the sugar (lactose) in dairy products, and may have gas, bloating, cramps, or ...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1068 - C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1068 C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. C12-C18 fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) potassium salts...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1068 - C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1068 C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. C12-C18 fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) potassium salts...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1068 - C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1068 C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. C12-C18 fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) potassium salts...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1068 - C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1068 C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. C12-C18 fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) potassium salts...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1068 - C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1068 C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. C12-C18 fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) potassium salts...

  6. Calcium Phosphate Mineralization in Cellulose Derivative/Poly(acrylic acid) Composites Having a Chiral Nematic Mesomorphic Structure.

    PubMed

    Ogiwara, Takuya; Katsumura, Ayaka; Sugimura, Kazuki; Teramoto, Yoshikuni; Nishio, Yoshiyuki

    2015-12-14

    Calcium phosphate mineralization was conducted by using polymer composites of liquid-crystalline (ethyl)cellulose (EC) or (hydroxypropyl)cellulose (HPC) with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a scaffolding medium for the inorganic deposition. The EC/PAA and HPC/PAA samples were prepared in colored film form from EC and HPC lyotropic liquid crystals of left-handed and right-handed chiral nematics, respectively, by polymerization and cross-linking of acrylic acid as the main solvent component. The mineralization was allowed to proceed in a batchwise operation by soaking the liquid-crystalline films in an aqueous salt solution containing the relevant ions, Ca(2+) and HPO4(2-). The calcium phosphate-deposited EC/PAA and HPC/PAA composites (weight gain, typically 15-25% and 6-11%, respectively) retained the chiral nematic organization of the respective original handedness but exhibited selective light-reflection of longer wavelengths relative to that of the corresponding nonmineralized samples. From X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements, it was deduced that the calcium and phosphorus were incorporated inside the polymer matrices in three forms: amorphous calcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, and a certain complex of PAA-Ca(2+). Dynamic mechanical analysis and thermogravimetry revealed that the inorganic hybridization remarkably enhanced the thermal and mechanical performance of the optically functionalized cellulosic/synthetic polymer composites; however, the effect was more drastic in the EC/PAA series rather than the HPC/PAA series, reflecting the difference in the deposited mineral amount between the two. PMID:26536381

  7. Synthesis, single crystal structure and energy optimization of a multicomponent salt of imidazole and tetrabromoterepthalic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Singha, S.; Kumar, S.; Dey, S. K.

    2015-06-24

    Single crystal of a multicomponent salt (IMTBTP) of imidazole with tetrabromoterepthalic acid has been synthesized by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The crystal structure of the salt has been determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction technique. The supramolecular structure analysis reveals that the multicomponent salt is formed by noncovalent hydrogen bonding interaction and Br···π interaction. The energy optimization and HOMO-LUMO energy gap calculation have been carried out by Density Functional Theory.

  8. The retention of calcium, barium, and strontium ions by a mollisol humic acid: Spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oufqir, Sofia; Bloom, Paul R.; Torner, Brandy M.

    2014-05-01

    Humic substances have a major role in controlling the mobility and bioavailability of metallic ions in soils and natural waters. The alkaline earth metals, calcium, barium, and strontium, are broadly abundant in the crust of the earth, and Ca2+ ions are known to be important in the formation of structural aggregates in soils. Yet, direct spectroscopic evidence of how Ca, Ba, and Sr ions interact with soil organic matter, is minimal. To develop a deeper understanding of the interaction of the alkaline earth cations in soil, we studied the complexation behavior of strontium, barium and calcium by humic acid (HA) using solid-state 13C CP-MAS NMR, FTIR and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. A HA sample was extracted from an agricultural mollisol (pH 6, 32.5% clay content, 3.7% organic carbon) located in southwestern Minnesota, USA, by the standard NaOH method. The HA sample was treated with chloride salts of Ca, Sr or Ba, then freeze-dried prior to spectroscopic measurements. The FTIR spectra, obtained using pressed KBr disks, and the 13C NMR spectra revealed spectral differences, stemming mainly from deprotonation reactions of the carboxylic and phenolic groups of the HA. The association of Ca, Ba, and Sr ions with the HA caused a marked FTIR shift of the carboxylate band, with the Ba shift being the most pronounced (HA 1604.7; HA-Ca 1595.1; HA-Sr 1597; HA-Ba 1579.6), which seems to imply that Ba is the strongest bound element. An NMR shift of the carbonyl peak at 171.8 ppm was also observed to 174.5 for Ca, 173.7 for Sr, and 174.4 for Ba confirming that these cations are behaving differently towards soil HA. The EXAFS spectra indicated back-scattering from oxygen atoms, in the first shell, for Ca, Sr, and Ba with varied coordination number. Our data prove that (1) the carboxylates and phenolates are the prevailing functional groups involved in the interactions between the extracted HA and alkali metal cations, (2) barium forms the

  9. Structure of seven organic salts assembled from 2,6-diaminopyridine with monocarboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids, and tetracarboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xingjun; Zhang, Huan; Wen, Xianhong; Liu, Bin; Jin, Shouwen; Wang, Daqi

    2015-08-01

    Studies concentrating on non-covalent interactions between the organic base of 2,6-diaminopyridine, and carboxylic acids have led to an increased understanding of the role 2,6-diaminopyridine in binding with carboxylic acid derivatives. Here anhydrous and hydrated multi-component organic acid-base salts of 2,6-diaminopyridine have been prepared with the carboxylic acids as nicotinic acid, o-chlorobenzoic acid, 1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, 4-nitro-phthalic acid, 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, and butane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic acid. The seven crystalline compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared (IR), melting point (mp), and elemental analysis. All structures adopted the hetero R22(8) supramolecular synthons. The supramolecular architectures bear extensive Nsbnd H⋯N, Osbnd H⋯N, Osbnd H⋯O, Nsbnd H⋯O, and CH⋯O associations as well as other nonbonding contacts as CHsbnd N, CH2sbnd O, π-π, C-π, O-π, Cl-π, Clsbnd O, and Osbnd O interactions. The role of weak and strong hydrogen bonding in the crystal packing is ascertained.

  10. Comparison of peak shape in hydrophilic interaction chromatography using acidic salt buffers and simple acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Heaton, James C; Russell, Joseph J; Underwood, Tim; Boughtflower, Robert; McCalley, David V

    2014-06-20

    The retention and peak shape of neutral, basic and acidic solutes was studied on hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) stationary phases that showed both strong and weak ionic retention characteristics, using aqueous-acetonitrile mobile phases containing either formic acid (FA), ammonium formate (AF) or phosphoric acid (PA). The effect of organic solvent concentration on the results was also studied. Peak shape was good for neutrals under most mobile phase conditions. However, peak shapes for ionised solutes, particularly for basic compounds, were considerably worse in FA than AF. Even neutral compounds showed deterioration in performance with FA when the mobile phase water concentration was reduced. The poor performance in FA cannot be entirely attributed to the negative impact of ionic retention on ionised silanols on the underlying silica base materials, as results using PA at lower pH (where their ionisation is suppressed) were inferior to those in AF. Besides the moderating influence of the salt cation on ionic retention, it is likely that salt buffers improve peak shape due to the increased ionic strength of the mobile phase and its impact on the formation of the water layer on the column surface. PMID:24813934

  11. Salicylic Acid Improved In Viro Meristem Regeneration and Salt Tolerance in Two Hibiscus Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been reported to induce abiotic stress, including salt tolerance in plants. The objective of this study was to determine whether application of various exogenous SA concentrations to in vitro grown meristem shoots could induce salt tolerance in two Hibiscus species. The effec...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a)...

  13. Effect of calcium salt content in the poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/silica nanocomposite on the nucleation and growth behavior of apatite layer.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2003-12-15

    The effect of calcium salt content in the poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL)/silica nanocomposite on the nucleation and growth behavior of apatite layer in simulated body fluid (SBF) was investigated. The specimens were prepared with low (L) and high (H) concentrations of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate through a sol-gel method. After soaking in the SBF at 36.5 degrees C for 1 week, a densely packed apatite layer that had a smooth surface and a Ca/P ratio similar to bone was formed on specimens containing a low concentration of calcium salt while a loosely packed apatite layer with a rugged surface and a higher Ca/P ratio than that of bone occurred on specimens containing a high concentration of calcium salt. The results are explained in terms of the degree of supersaturation of apatite in the SBF, as determined by the concentrations of constituent ions of apatite and pH. The practical implication of the results is that a dense and bone-like apatite layer on the PCL/silica nanocomposite in vitro, and perhaps in vivo, can be achieved by adopting an appropriate calcium salt content. PMID:14624498

  14. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... percent maximum. Ammonia 0.3 percent maximum. Arsenic 3 parts per million maximum. Heavy metals such as... 26 to 34 percent. Calcium hydroxide 3 percent maximum. Water 14 percent maximum. Arsenic 3 parts...

  15. Fabrication of calcium phosphate–calcium sulfate injectable bone substitute using hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose and citric acid

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Van Viet

    2010-01-01

    In this study, an injectable bone substitute (IBS) consisting of citric acid, chitosan, and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as the liquid phase and tetra calcium phosphate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and calcium sulfate dehydrate (CSD, CaSO4·2H2O) powders as the solid phase, were fabricated. Two groups were classified based on the percent of citric acid in the liquid phase (20, 40 wt%). In each groups, the HPMC percentage was 0, 2, and 4 wt%. An increase in compressive strength due to changes in morphology was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy images. A good conversion rate of HAp at 20% citric acid was observed in the XRD profiles. In addition, HPMC was not obviously affected by apatite formation. However, both HPMC and citric acid increased the compressive strength of IBS. The maximum compressive strength for IBS was with 40% citric acid and 4% HPMC after 14 days of incubation in 100% humidity at 37°C. PMID:20333539

  16. Fabrication of calcium phosphate-calcium sulfate injectable bone substitute using hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose and citric acid.

    PubMed

    Thai, Van Viet; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2010-06-01

    In this study, an injectable bone substitute (IBS) consisting of citric acid, chitosan, and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as the liquid phase and tetra calcium phosphate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and calcium sulfate dehydrate (CSD, CaSO4 x 2H2O) powders as the solid phase, were fabricated. Two groups were classified based on the percent of citric acid in the liquid phase (20, 40 wt%). In each groups, the HPMC percentage was 0, 2, and 4 wt%. An increase in compressive strength due to changes in morphology was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy images. A good conversion rate of HAp at 20% citric acid was observed in the XRD profiles. In addition, HPMC was not obviously affected by apatite formation. However, both HPMC and citric acid increased the compressive strength of IBS. The maximum compressive strength for IBS was with 40% citric acid and 4% HPMC after 14 days of incubation in 100% humidity at 37 degrees C. PMID:20333539

  17. Identity of the Perchlorate Parent Salt(s) at the Phoenix Mars Landing Site Based on Reanalysis of the Calcium Sensor Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounaves, S. P.; Folds, K. E.; Hansen, V. M.; Weber, A. W.; Carrier, B. L.; Chaniotakis, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    In 2008 the first comprehensive wet chemical analyses of the martian soil were performed by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) on board the Phoenix Mars lander [1-4]. In addition to being dominated by Ca2+ and Mg2+ carbonates, SO4=, and other minor soluble species, the soil contained about 0.6 %wt perchlorate (ClO4-). Its discovery on Mars has broad implications for that planet's water cycle, astrobiology, human habitability, and possible formation of liquid brines. One remaining important question raised by the WCL discovery of ClO4- on Mars is the identity of the parent perchlorate salt. New refined analysis of the Phoenix WCL sensor data and laboratory analyses and equilibrium modeling, indicate that the identity and ratios of the ClO4- parent salts are different than initially proposed. The analyses performed by the Phoenix WCL, along with previous mission results [5], indicated that K+, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, or Fe2/3+, either singly or as a mixture, were possible candidate counter cations that could be associated with the amount of ClO4- present in solution. If we assumed 100% association of the ClO4- in the soil, then Ca2+ or Mg2+ could account for 100% in each case, since there is in effect a more than sufficient supply of these two counter cations. For other cations, measured concentrations limit the ClO4- salt potentially present, with Na+ accounting for < 30%, K+ < 5%, and Fe2/3+ < 3%. Clearly, Mg(ClO4)2 or Ca(ClO4)2 could constitute as much as 100% of the perchlorate salt present in the soil, either alone or in combination. To definitively identify the parent salt of the ClO4- detected by WCL, we have; (1) reexamined the original Phoenix WCL data in terms of the perchlorate and calcium sensor response; (2) performed a set of laboratory analyses using a WCL testbed to better understand the behavior of the sensor responses on Mars; and (3) have modeled possible chemical equilibrium and the effect of the perchlorate parent salt on other minerals present. The new

  18. Salt and acid studies on canine lingual epithelium.

    PubMed

    Simon, S A; Garvin, J L

    1985-11-01

    A section of dog tongue just anterior to the circumvallate papillae was placed in an Ussing chamber and characterized with respect to monovalent cation transport pathways, response to HCl, and the interaction between salt and acid for the purposes of determining whether ion transport through the tongue is related to the transduction process. The primary findings of this work follow. The stimulation of the short-circuit current (Isc) with decreasing pH on the dorsal surface results from a net Cl- efflux through an amiloride- and ouabain-insensitive pathway that changed its selectivity from cationic at neutral pH to anionic at lower pH values. The stimulation is abolished at isotonic NaCl concentrations. This behavior would not be predicted from the proton-binding model to a "sour receptor" as suggested by Beidler (Handbook of Sensory Physiology; Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1971). In symmetrical solutions of Krebs-Henseleit buffer, Isc is inhibited 30% by 10(-4) M amiloride on the mucosal side and 100% by 10(-3) M ouabain on the serosal side. These results coupled with net Cl- and Na+ flux measurements show that Isc is due to a net Cl- efflux. With 1.0 M NaCl on the dorsal side, 10(-4) M amiloride inhibits Isc 84%. In contrast, when the mucosal surface is bathed in KCl (1.0 M), CsCl (1.0 M), or HCl (10(-3) M), Isc is insensitive to both 10(-4) M amiloride and/or 10(-3) M ouabain. These data suggest that K+, Cs+, and H+ traverse the tongue through different pathways from Na+ and are not energized by a Na+ gradient. PMID:4061627

  19. Self-consistent field theory investigation of the behavior of hyaluronic acid chains in aqueous salt solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogovitsin, E. A.; Budkov, Yu. A.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we continue to develop a field-theoretic methodology, which combines the technique of Gaussian equivalent representation for the calculation of functional integrals with the continuous Gaussian thread model of flexible polymers for solving statistical-mechanical problems of polyelectrolyte solutions. We present new analytic expressions for the osmotic pressure, the potential of mean force, and the monomer-monomer pair distribution function, and employ them to investigate the structural and thermodynamic quantities of the polyelectrolyte system. We demonstrate the applicability of the method for systems of polyelectrolyte chains in which the monomers interact via a Yukawa-type pair potential. As a specific example, the present work focuses on aqueous solutions of hyaluronic acid with added salts NaCl and CaCl2. Hyaluronic acid is a high molecular weight linear polysaccharide, which has a multitude of roles in biological tissues. We conclude that the effect of sodium chloride and calcium chloride on the osmotic properties of hyaluronic acid solutions can be accounted for by their contributions to the ionic strength. Nevertheless, the effects of coiling and self-association can be stimulated in solution by added salt.

  20. 40 CFR 721.10630 - Amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate, alkali salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amino acid, carboxyalkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10630 Amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate... chemical substances identified generically as amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate, alkali salts...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10630 - Amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate, alkali salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amino acid, carboxyalkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10630 Amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate... chemical substances identified generically as amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate, alkali salts...

  2. [Calcium--essential for everybody].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2014-06-01

    Calcium regulates majority of metabolic processes within human organism and its optimal intake decreases risk of metabolic illnesses conditioned by diet. Deficiency of calcium results in higher body max index, increase risk of insulin resistance, diabetes type 2 and osteoporosis. Diet delivering full calcium load diminished impendency of hypertension; calcium regulates tension of smooth muscles of blood vessels, limits neurotransmitters activity and also diminish hazardous activity of sodium chloride. Anticancerogenic activity of calcium results from formation insoluble bile acids and fat acids salts, and most of all, from inhibition of intestine mucosa cells hyper proliferation. Due to presence of vitamin D3, CLA, proteins and bioactive peptides emerging from them, milk is more efficient in prophylaxis of diet conditioned illnesses than calcium supplements. Efficiency of milk and dairy products in treatment of obesity, sclerosis and hypertension has been proved by DASH diet. PMID:25095643

  3. BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF CALCIUM SORBENTS FOR ACID GAS EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Calcium sorbents for acid gas emission control were evaluated for effectiveness in removing SO2/HCl and SO2/NO from simulated incinerator and boiler flue gases. All tests were conducted in a bench-scale reactor (fixed-bed) simulating fabric filter conditions in an acid gas remova...

  4. Structure of eight molecular salts assembled from noncovalent bonding between carboxylic acids, imidazole, and benzimidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Hui; Wen, Xianhong; Li, Minghui; Wang, Daqi

    2015-09-01

    Eight organic salts of imidazole/benzimidazole have been prepared with carboxylic acids as 2-methyl-2-phenoxypropanoic acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, 5-nitrosalicylic acid, isophthalic acid, 4-nitro-phthalic acid, and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid. The eight crystalline forms reported are proton-transfer compounds of which the crystals and compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. These structures adopted hetero supramolecular synthons, with the most common R22(7) motif observed at salts 2, 3, 5, 6 and 8. Analysis of the crystal packing of 1-8 suggests that there are extensive strong Nsbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) between acid and imidazolyl components in all of the salts. Except the classical hydrogen bonding interactions, the secondary propagating interactions also play important roles in structure extension. This variety, coupled with the varying geometries and number of acidic groups of the acids utilized, has led to the creation of eight supramolecular arrays with 1D-3D structure. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is analyzed. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the Nsbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds between acids and imidazole/benzimidazole are sufficient to bring about the formation of organic salts.

  5. Improved Proteome and Phosphoproteome Analysis on a Cation Exchanger by a Combined Acid and Salt Gradient.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Jun; Hashiguchi, Kazunari; Nagano, Maiko; Sato, Misako; Sato, Ayako; Fukamizu, Kazuna; Ishihama, Yasushi; Tomonaga, Takeshi

    2016-08-16

    Currently used elution methods for strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography are based on two principles: salt and pH gradient. In this paper, we report the first observation of peptide elution by acid gradient. The degree of peptide separation using C18-SCX StageTip was greatly improved by our acid and salt-based elution method compared with a salt-based elution method. This development enabled us to identify over 22 000 phosphopeptides from 2 mg of protein without labor-intensive sample preparation. Our method is simple, robust, scalable, and low-cost and can be easily implemented without any special equipment or techniques. PMID:27436111

  6. Templating route for mesostructured calcium phosphates with carboxylic acid- and amine-type surfactants.

    PubMed

    Ikawa, Nobuaki; Hori, Hideki; Kimura, Tatsuo; Oumi, Yasunori; Sano, Tsuneji

    2008-11-18

    Mesostructured calcium phosphates constructed by ionic frameworks were synthesized using carboxylic acid- and amine-type surfactants in mixed solvent systems of ethanol and water. A lamellar mesostructured calcium phosphate was prepared using palmitic acid as an anionic surfactant, as in the case using n-alkylamines. A wormhole-like mesostructured calcium phosphate can be obtained using dicarboxyl N-lauroyl- l-glutamic acid, whose headgroup is larger than that of palmitic acid. Similar mesostructured product was obtained using 4-dodecyldiethylenetriamine with a large headgroup containing two primary amine groups. Interactions of carboxyl and primary amino groups in the surfactant molecules with inorganic species are quite important for the formation of mesostructured calcium phosphates. The Ca/P molar ratio of mesostructured calcium phosphates was strongly affected by the molecular structure of surfactants containing carboxyl and primary amino groups. Ca-rich materials can be obtained using carboxylic acid-type surfactants (Ca/P approximately 1.7) rather than amine-type surfactants (Ca/P approximately 1.0). PMID:18947246

  7. Calcium mediates root K+/Na+ homeostasis in poplar species differing in salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Dai, Songxiang; Wang, Ruigang; Chen, Shaoliang; Li, Niya; Zhou, Xiaoyang; Lu, Cunfu; Shen, Xin; Zheng, Xiaojiang; Hu, Zanmin; Zhang, Zengkai; Song, Jin; Xu, Yue

    2009-09-01

    Using the non-invasively ion-selective microelectrode technique, flux profiles of K(+), Na(+) and H(+) in mature roots and apical regions, and the effects of Ca(2+) on ion fluxes were investigated in salt-tolerant poplar species, Populus euphratica Oliver and salt-sensitive Populus simonii x (P. pyramidalis + Salix matsudana) (Populus popularis 35-44, P. popularis). Compared to P. popularis, P. euphratica roots exhibited a greater capacity to retain K(+) after exposure to a salt shock (SS, 100 mM NaCl) and a long-term (LT) salinity (50 mM NaCl, 3 weeks). Salt shock-induced K(+) efflux in the two species was markedly restricted by K(+) channel blocker, tetraethylammonium chloride, but enhanced by sodium orthovanadate, the inhibitor of plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase, suggesting that the K(+) efflux is mediated by depolarization-activated (DA) channels, e.g., KORCs (outward rectifying K(+) channels) and NSCCs (non-selective cation channels). Populus euphratica roots were more effective to exclude Na(+) than P. popularis in an LT experiment, resulting from the Na(+)/H(+) antiport across the PM. Moreover, pharmacological evidence implies that the greater ability to control K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis in salinized P. euphratica roots is associated with the higher H(+)-pumping activity, which provides an electrochemical H(+) gradient for Na(+)/H(+) exchange and simultaneously decreases the NaCl-induced depolarization of PM, thus reducing Na(+) influx via NSCCs and K(+) efflux through DA-KORCs and DA-NSCCs. Ca(2+) application markedly limited salt-induced K(+) efflux but enhanced the apparent Na(+) efflux, thus enabling the two species, especially the salt-sensitive poplar, to retain K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis in roots exposed to prolonged NaCl treatment. PMID:19638360

  8. Enhanced skin permeation of 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid by salt formation.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Vijay; Kumar, H Yogish; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to prepare salts of 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA) to improve its physicochemical properties for percutaneous application. 6-MNA, an active metabolite of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug nabumetone has long half life and has the tendency to penetrate well into synovial fluid. The physicochemical properties of 6-MNA salts were investigated by solubility measurements, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared (IR). The DSC thermograms and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra indicated that 6-MNA formed salts with organic and alkali metal bases. Among the series, salts formed with amine bases (ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine and diethylamine) had lower melting points while alkali metal salt (sodium) had higher melting point than 6-MNA. The salts had higher solubilities than 6-MNA as determined in phosphate buffer at pH 5.0 and 7.4. There is no significant difference in partition coefficient (log P) values between salts and 6-MNA at pH 5.0 but, at pH 7.4, the log P values for the salts increased by 4-10 times as compared to 6-MNA. In vitro permeation studies showed that all the salts increased the flux in comparision to 6-MNA, and the ethanolamine salt (1b) was found to be having 7.7 and 9.4 times higher permeability as compared to 6-MNA at pH 5.0 and 7.4, respectively. PMID:24670100

  9. Calcineurin and Calcium Channel CchA Coordinate the Salt Stress Response by Regulating Cytoplasmic Ca2+ Homeostasis in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sha; Liu, Xiao; Qian, Hui; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2016-06-01

    The eukaryotic calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin is crucial for the environmental adaption of fungi. However, the mechanism of coordinate regulation of the response to salt stress by calcineurin and the high-affinity calcium channel CchA in fungi is not well understood. Here we show that the deletion of cchA suppresses the hyphal growth defects caused by the loss of calcineurin under salt stress in Aspergillus nidulans Additionally, the hypersensitivity of the ΔcnaA strain to extracellular calcium and cell-wall-damaging agents can be suppressed by cchA deletion. Using the calcium-sensitive photoprotein aequorin to monitor the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in living cells, we found that calcineurin negatively regulates CchA on calcium uptake in response to external calcium in normally cultured cells. However, in salt-stress-pretreated cells, loss of either cnaA or cchA significantly decreased the [Ca(2+)]c, but a deficiency in both cnaA and cchA switches the [Ca(2+)]c to the reference strain level, indicating that calcineurin and CchA synergistically coordinate calcium influx under salt stress. Moreover, real-time PCR results showed that the dysfunction of cchA in the ΔcnaA strain dramatically restored the expression of enaA (a major determinant for sodium detoxification), which was abolished in the ΔcnaA strain under salt stress. These results suggest that double deficiencies of cnaA and cchA could bypass the requirement of calcineurin to induce enaA expression under salt stress. Finally, YvcA, a member of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) protein family of vacuolar Ca(2+) channels, was proven to compensate for calcineurin-CchA in fungal salt stress adaption.IMPORTANCE The feedback inhibition relationship between calcineurin and the calcium channel Cch1/Mid1 has been well recognized from yeast. Interestingly, our previous study (S. Wang et al., PLoS One 7:e46564, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal

  10. Recovery of calcium carbonate from steelmaking slag and utilization for acid mine drainage pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Mulopo, J; Mashego, M; Zvimba, J N

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of steelmaking slag (a waste product of the steelmaking process) to calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) was tested using hydrochloric acid, ammonium hydroxide and carbon dioxide via a pH-swing process. Batch reactors were used to assess the technical feasibility of calcium carbonate recovery and its use for pre-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) from coal mines. The effects of key process parameters, such as the amount of acid (HCl/calcium molar ratio), the pH and the CO(2) flow rate were considered. It was observed that calcium extraction from steelmaking slag significantly increased with an increase in the amount of hydrochloric acid. The CO(2) flow rate also had a positive effect on the carbonation reaction rate but did not affect the morphology of the calcium carbonate produced for values less than 2 L/min. The CaCO(3) recovered from the bench scale batch reactor demonstrated effective neutralization ability during AMD pre-treatment compared with the commercial laboratory grade CaCO(3). PMID:22643421

  11. Mechanism of Calcium Lactate Facilitating Phytic Acid Degradation in Soybean during Germination.

    PubMed

    Hui, Qianru; Yang, Runqiang; Shen, Chang; Zhou, Yulin; Gu, Zhenxin

    2016-07-13

    Calcium lactate facilitates the growth and phytic acid degradation of soybean sprouts, but the mechanism is unclear. In this study, calcium lactate (Ca) and calcium lactate with lanthanum chloride (Ca+La) were used to treat soybean sprouts to reveal the relevant mechanism. Results showed that the phytic acid content decreased and the availability of phosphorus increased under Ca treatment. This must be due to the enhancement of enzyme activity related to phytic acid degradation. In addition, the energy metabolism was accelerated by Ca treatment. The energy status and energy metabolism-associated enzyme activity also increased. However, the transmembrane transport of calcium was inhibited by La(3+) and concentrated in intercellular space or between the cell wall and cell membrane; thus, Ca+La treatment showed reverse results compared with those of Ca treatment. Interestingly, gene expression did not vary in accordance with their enzyme activity. These results demonstrated that calcium lactate increased the rate of phytic acid degradation by enhancing growth, phosphorus metabolism, and energy metabolism. PMID:27324823

  12. Adsorption of Aerosol-OT at the calcite/water interface--comparison of the sodium and calcium salts.

    PubMed

    Stocker, Isabella N; Miller, Kathryn L; Welbourn, Rebecca J L; Clarke, Stuart M; Collins, Ian R; Kinane, Christian; Gutfreund, Philipp

    2014-03-15

    The adsorption of the surfactant Aerosol-OT (AOT) at the calcite-water interface has been investigated using batch adsorption isotherms and neutron reflection. The adsorption isotherms showed that NaAOT adsorption followed S-type adsorption behaviour with a maximum surface excess of 2.5 mg m(-2) but the method could not be used for the investigation of Ca(AOT)2 adsorption owing to the changes in the bulk phase behaviour of the solution. The surface excess, determined by neutron reflection at the critical micelle concentration (CMC), was 2.5 mg m(-2) for Ca(AOT)2 and 1.8 mg m(-2) for NaAOT. The time dependence of the NaAOT adsorption suggests a slow conversion from the sodium to the calcium salt of AOT at the calcite-water interface by binding calcium ions released from the slightly soluble calcite. The layer thickness in both cases was 35 Å which indicates adsorption as bilayers or distorted micelles. At higher concentrations of NaAOT (~10× CMC) adsorption of an AOT lamellar phase was evident from Bragg peaks in the specular reflection. To our knowledge, this is the first time that adsorption of a surfactant at the calcite-water interface has been investigated by neutron reflection. The technique provided significant new insight into the adsorption behaviour of AOT which would not have been accessible using traditional techniques. PMID:24461829

  13. Nitrooleic Acid Attenuates Lipid Metabolic Disorders and Liver Steatosis in DOCA-Salt Hypertensive Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Jia, Zhanjun; Yang, Tianxin; Xu, Liang; Zhao, Bing; Yu, Kezhou; Wang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Nitrooleic acid (OA-NO2) is endogenous ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. The present study was aimed at investigating the beneficial effects of OA-NO2 on the lipid metabolism and liver steatosis in deoxycorticosterone acetate- (DOCA-) salt induced hypertensive mice model. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided to receive DOCA-salt plus OA-NO2 or DOCA-salt plus vehicle and another group received neither DOCA-salt nor OA-NO2 (control group). After 3-week treatment with DOCA-salt plus 1% sodium chloride in drinking fluid, the hypertension was noted; however, OA-NO2 had no effect on the hypertension. In DOCA-salt treated mice, the plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were significantly increased compared to control mice, and pretreatment with OA-NO2 significantly reduced these parameters. Further, the histopathology of liver exhibited more lipid distribution together with more serious micro- and macrovesicular steatosis after DOCA-salt treatment and that was consistent with liver tissue triglyceride and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) content. The mice pretreated with OA-NO2 showed reduced liver damage accompanied with low liver lipid content. Moreover, the liver TBARS, together with the expressions of gp91phox and p47phox, were parallelly decreased. These findings indicated that OA-NO2 had the protective effect on liver injury against DOCA-salt administration and the beneficial effect could be attributed to its antihyperlipidemic activities. PMID:25861250

  14. Improvement of tear trough by monophasic hyaluronic Acid and calcium hydroxylapatite.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe

    2014-10-01

    Tear trough deformities are a sign of facial aging. The anatomical base is well understood. In many patients, minimal invasive surgical procedures are useful to improve appearance. Here, the authors describe the use of monophasic hyaluronic acid dermal filler and calcium hydroxylapatite injection for correction. Forty female patients with a mean age of 50 years have been treated. On average, an improvement of one class of Hidman's severity score could be achieved by single treatment. Mean duration of the effect was 10.1 months for hyaluronic acid and 12.8 months for calcium hydroxylapatite. Adverse effects were mild and temporary. Patients satisfaction was high (95%). PMID:25371770

  15. Closed cycle ion exchange method for regenerating acids, bases and salts

    DOEpatents

    Dreyfuss, Robert M.

    1976-01-01

    A method for conducting a chemical reaction in acidic, basic, or neutral solution as required and then regenerating the acid, base, or salt by means of ion exchange in a closed cycle reaction sequence which comprises contacting the spent acid, base, or salt with an ion exchanger, preferably a synthetic organic ion-exchange resin, so selected that the counter ions thereof are ions also produced as a by-product in the closed reaction cycle, and then regenerating the spent ion exchanger by contact with the by-product counter ions. The method is particularly applicable to closed cycle processes for the thermochemical production of hydrogen.

  16. General Synthesis of Amino Acid Salts from Amino Alcohols and Basic Water Liberating H2.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2016-05-18

    An atom-economical and environmentally friendly method to transform amino alcohols to amino acid salts using just basic water, without the need of pre-protection or added oxidant, catalyzed by a ruthenium pincer complex, is developed. Water is the solvent, the source of the oxygen atom of the carboxylic acid group, and the actual oxidant, with liberation of dihydrogen. Many important and useful natural and unnatural amino acid salts can be produced in excellent yields by applying this new method. PMID:27139983

  17. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid...

  18. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... method entitled “Determination of Molecular Weight Distribution of Poly(Maleic) Acid,” March 17, 1992... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Office of Food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt....

  19. 78 FR 34338 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ...: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703 (May 29, 2009) (Citric Acid Duty Orders). Methodology The Department has...: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). Cash Deposit Requirements The following deposit... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results...

  20. 78 FR 64914 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... China: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703 (May 29, 2009) (Citric Acid Duty Orders). Period of Review...-others rate made effective by the LTFV investigation. See Citric Acid Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703. These... Salts from Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011- 2012, 78...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3820 - L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3820 L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3820 - L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3820 L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  3. 76 FR 5782 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Part, and Final Determination to Not Revoke Order in Part: Canned Pineapple Fruit from Thailand, 68 FR... Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010). Also on June 30, 2010... Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from Canada, 74 FR 16843 (April 13, 2009) (Citric Acid LTFV)....

  4. Bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids towards bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids were determined using the agar diffusion assay. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid (FA) was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric aci...

  5. Five organic salts assembled from carboxylic acids and bis-imidazole derivatives through collective noncovalent interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Guo, Jianzhong; Liu, Li; Wang, Daqi

    2011-10-01

    Five multicomponent crystals of bis(imidazole) derivatives have been prepared with 5-nitrosalicylic acid, 5-sulfosalicylic acid, and phthalic acid. The five crystalline forms reported are organic salts of which the crystal structures have all been determined by X-ray diffraction. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the N sbnd H⋯O, O sbnd H⋯O, and N sbnd H⋯N hydrogen bonds (ionic or neutral) between carboxylic acids and ditopic imidazoles are sufficient to bring about the formation of binary organic salts. All supramolecular architectures of the organic salts 1- 5 involve extensive O sbnd H⋯O, and N sbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. These noncovalent interactions combined, all the complexes displayed 3D framework structure.

  6. The role of polycarboxylic acids in calcium phosphate mineralization.

    PubMed

    Tsortos, Achilles; Nancollas, George H

    2002-06-01

    The role of two polyelectrolytes, poly-L-glutamate and poly-L-aspartate, in the growth of calcium phosphate crystal phases, has been investigated at constant supersaturation. Both molecules are strong inhibitors of HAP growth when present in the solution phase but also act as hydroxyapatite and (octacalcium phosphate)-like crystal nucleators when adsorbed on germanium surfaces. The structure of the polymers in solution is presented and various adsorption models are analyzed. A "train-loop" structure of these long, flexible chain polymers on the crystal surface is consistent with all the adsorption (experimental and theoretical), inhibition, and electrophoretic mobility results. PMID:16290647

  7. Effect of zoledronic acid on serum calcium in Paget’s disease patients after educational strategies to improve calcium and vitamin D supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Bone, Henry G.; Su, Guoqin; Tan, Monique; Ozturk, Zafer E.; Aftring, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Bisphosphonates are the most effective therapeutic agents in patients with Paget’s disease of bone. As a result of their inhibition of osteoclastic activity, hypocalcemia of variable frequency and severity following intravenous bisphosphonate therapy has been reported. The present study assessed the effect of physician and patient education on adequate supplementation of calcium and vitamin D to reduce the potential risk of developing hypocalcemia following infusion of 5 mg zoledronic acid. Methods: This was an open-label, multicenter, controlled registry trial in which patients with Paget’s disease were treated with a single intravenous infusion of zoledronic acid. Physicians were provided with educational materials focusing on optimization of calcium and vitamin D supplementation following zoledronic infusion that they used to educate their patients. The primary safety variable was the percentage of patients with serum calcium level <2.07mmol/l 9–11 days after zoledronic acid infusion. Results: A total of 75 patients were evaluable in the post dose hypocalcemia safety analysis. Of these, only 1 patient had treatment-emergent hypocalcemia, with a serum calcium level of 1.92 mmol/l 4 days following therapy. Hypocalcemia-related symptoms were not reported in this patient and the serum calcium returned to normal range at 2.17 mmol/l within 1 week on oral calcium supplementation. Conclusions: These results suggest that, with optimization of calcium and vitamin D supplementation by physician and patient education, hypocalcemia is an infrequent occurrence following zoledronic acid infusion. PMID:26301065

  8. Adsorption and release of amino acids mixture onto apatitic calcium phosphates analogous to bone mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Rhilassi, A.; Mourabet, M.; El Boujaady, H.; Bennani-Ziatni, M.; Hamri, R. El; Taitai, A.

    2012-10-01

    Study focused on the interaction of adsorbate with poorly crystalline apatitic calcium phosphates analogous to bone mineral. Calcium phosphates prepared in water-ethanol medium at physiological temperature (37 °C) and neutral pH, their Ca/P ratio was between 1.33 and 1.67. Adsorbate used in this paper takes the mixture form of two essential amino acids L-lysine and DL-leucine which have respectively a character hydrophilic and hydrophobic. Adsorption and release are investigated experimentally; they are dependent on the phosphate type and on the nature of adsorbate L-lysine, DL-leucine and their mixture. Adsorption of mixture of amino acids on the apatitic calcium phosphates is influenced by the competition between the two amino acids: L-lysine and DL-leucine which exist in the medium reaction. The adsorption kinetics is very fast while the release kinetics is slow. The chemical composition of apatite has an influence on both adsorption and release. The interactions adsorbate-adsorbent are electrostatic type. Adsorption and release reactions of the amino acid mixture are explained by the existence of the hydrated surface layer of calcium phosphate apatite. The charged sbnd COOsbnd and sbnd NH3+ of adsorbates are the strongest groups that interact with the surface of apatites, the adsorption is mainly due to the electrostatic interaction between the groups sbnd COOsbnd of amino acids and calcium Ca2+ ions of the apatite. Comparative study of interactions between adsorbates (L-lysine, DL-leucine and their mixture) and apatitic calcium phosphates is carried out in vitro by using UV-vis and infrared spectroscopy IR techniques.

  9. Solubility of the Sodium and Ammonium Salts of Oxalic Acid in Water with Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Buttke, Lukas G; Schueller, Justin R; Pearson, Christian S; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-08-18

    The solubility of the sodium and ammonium salts of oxalic acid in water with ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium hydrogen oxalate were determined to be sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate under low ammonium sulfate conditions and ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate under high ammonium sulfate conditions. Crystals from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium oxalate were determined to be ammonium oxalate monohydrate under moderate to high ammonium sulfate concentrations and sodium oxalate under low ammonium sulfate concentrations. It was also found that ammonium sulfate enhances the solubility of the sodium oxalate salts (salting in effect) and decreases the solubility of the ammonium oxalate salts (salting out effect). In addition, a partial phase diagram for the ammonium hydrogen oxalate/water system was determined. PMID:27482644

  10. Amino acid receptors mediate calcium permeability in synaptosomes from rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Pastuszko, A.; Wilson, D.F.

    1986-05-01

    Selected acidic amino acids and amino acid analogues were shown to increase the Ca/sup 2 +/ permeability of the plasma membrane of synaptosomes isolated from rat brain. Increased synaptosomal Ca/sup 2 +/ content was measured by uptake of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/. Increased intrasynaptosomal free calcium was measured by the fluorescent calcium indicators indo 1 and quin 2. The increase in calcium permeability was maximal within 0.5 seconds (the limit of resolution of the methods used). The calcium permeability system(s) being modulated by the receptors appears to be Ca/sup 2 +/ channels but has properties different from the voltage dependent Ca/sup 2 +/ channels. Four different types of receptors have been observed; a kainate receptor antagonized by quisqualate, an L-cysteine sulfinate receptor, a 2-amino-2-phosphono-valerate receptor and an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Each type of receptor is highly specific in ligand binding and none were activated or antagonized by aspartate or glutamate at concentrations up to 10 mM. Currently available data indicate substantial differences in ligand specificity between these presynaptic receptors and the postsynaptic receptors which have been classified by electrophysiological and radio-ligand binding studies. The neurotoxicity of kainate, L-cysteine sulfinate and N-methyl-D-aspartate may be due in part to metabolic and electrophysiological disturbances resulting from increased calcium in neurons having these receptors.

  11. Production of citric and oxalic acids and solubilization of calcium phosphate by Penicillium bilaii.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, J E; Kuiack, C

    1992-01-01

    An isolate of Penicillium bilaii previously reported to solubilize mineral phosphates and enhance plant uptake of phosphate was studied. Using agar media with calcium phosphate and the pH indicator alizarin red S, the influence of the medium composition on phosphate solubility and medium acidification was recorded. The major acidic metabolites produced by P. bilaii in a sucrose nitrate liquid medium were found to be oxalic acid and citric acid. Citric acid production was promoted under nitrogen-limited conditions, while oxalic acid production was promoted under carbon-limited conditions. Citric acid was produced in both growth and stationary phases, but oxalic acid production occurred only in stationary phase. When submerged cultures which normally produce acid were induced to sporulate, the culture medium shifted toward alkaline rather than acid reaction with growth. PMID:1622211

  12. Molecular and physiological responses to abscisic acid and salts in roots of salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant Indica rice varieties.

    PubMed Central

    Moons, A; Bauw, G; Prinsen, E; Van Montagu, M; Van der Straeten, D

    1995-01-01

    The Indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties Pokkali and Nona Bokra are well-known salt tolerance donors in classical breeding. In an attempt to understand the molecular basis of their tolerance, physiological and gene expression studies were initiated. The effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on total proteins in roots from 12-d-old seedlings of Pokkali, Nona Bokra, and the salt-sensitive cultivar Taichung N1 were analyzed on two-dimensional gels. The abundance of ABA-induced proteins was highest in the most tolerant variety, Pokkali. Three ABA-responsive proteins, present at different levels in roots from tolerant and sensitive varieties, were further characterized by partial amino acid analysis. A novel histidine-rich protein and two types of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins were identified. Protein immunoblotting revealed that the levels of dehydrins and group 3 LEA proteins were significantly higher in roots from tolerant compared with sensitive varieties. Endogenous ABA levels showed a transient increase in roots exposed to osmotic shock (150 mM NaCl). Peak ABA concentrations were 30-fold higher for Nona Bokra and 6-fold higher for Pokkali compared with Taichung N1. Both the salt-induced endogenous ABA levels and a greater molecular response of root tissue to ABA were associated with the varietal differences in tolerance. PMID:7870812

  13. Maleic Acid – but Not Structurally Related Methylmalonic Acid – Interrupts Energy Metabolism by Impaired Calcium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bei-Tzu; Okun, Jürgen Günther; Kölker, Stefan; Morath, Marina Alexandra; Sauer, Sven Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Maleic acid (MA) has been shown to induce Fanconi syndrome via disturbance of renal energy homeostasis, though the underlying pathomechanism is still under debate. Our study aimed to examine the pathomechanism underlying maleic acid-induced nephrotoxicity. Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is structurally similar to MA and accumulates in patients affected with methymalonic aciduria, a defect in the degradation of branched-chain amino acids, odd-chain fatty acids and cholesterol, which is associated with the development of tubulointerstitial nephritis resulting in chronic renal failure. We therefore used MMA application as a control experiment in our study and stressed hPTECs with MA and MMA to further validate the specificity of our findings. MMA did not show any toxic effects on proximal tubule cells, whereas maleic acid induced concentration-dependent and time-dependent cell death shown by increased lactate dehydrogenase release as well as ethidium homodimer and calcein acetoxymethyl ester staining. The toxic effect of MA was blocked by administration of single amino acids, in particular L-alanine and L-glutamate. MA application further resulted in severe impairment of cellular energy homeostasis on the level of glycolysis, respiratory chain, and citric acid cycle resulting in ATP depletion. As underlying mechanism we could identify disturbance of calcium homeostasis. MA toxicity was critically dependent on calcium levels in culture medium and blocked by the extra- and intracellular calcium chelators EGTA and BAPTA-AM respectively. Moreover, MA-induced cell death was associated with activation of calcium-dependent calpain proteases. In summary, our study shows a comprehensive pathomechanistic concept for MA-induced dysfunction and damage of human proximal tubule cells. PMID:26086473

  14. Conformation of the umifenovir cation in the molecular and crystal structures of four carboxylic acid salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orola, Liana; Sarcevica, Inese; Kons, Artis; Actins, Andris; Veidis, Mikelis V.

    2014-01-01

    The umifenovir salts of maleic, salicylic, glutaric, and gentisic acid as well as the chloroform solvate of the salicylate were prepared. Single crystals of the five compounds were obtained and their molecular and crystal structures determined by X-ray diffraction. In each structure the conformation of phenyl ring with respect to the indole group of the umifenovir moiety is different. The water solubility and melting points of the studied umifenovir salts have been determined.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10202 - Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- [(substituted)azo]-, strontium salt (1:1) (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10202 Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt (1:1... identified generically as benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt (1:1) (PMN P-08-701) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10202 - Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- [(substituted)azo]-, strontium salt (1:1) (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10202 Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt (1:1... identified generically as benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt (1:1) (PMN P-08-701) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10202 - Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- [(substituted)azo]-, strontium salt (1:1) (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10202 Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt (1:1... identified generically as benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt (1:1) (PMN P-08-701) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10202 - Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- [(substituted)azo]-, strontium salt (1:1) (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10202 Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt (1:1... identified generically as benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt (1:1) (PMN P-08-701) is subject...

  19. 77 FR 1455 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ..., 76 FR 37781, 37785 (June 28, 2011). This review covers the period May 1, 2010, through April 30, 2011... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'')....

  20. 77 FR 9891 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Republic of China: Final Results of the First Administrative Review of the Antidumping Duty Order, 76 FR... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's...

  1. Synthesis and biological activity of arylspiroborate salts derived from caffeic Acid phenethyl ester.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Martin J G; Flewelling, Andrew J; Clark, Trevor N; Levesque, Natalie A; Jean-François, Jacques; Surette, Marc E; Gray, Christopher A; Vogels, Christopher M; Touaibia, Mohamed; Westcott, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Two novel boron compounds containing caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) derivatives have been prepared and characterized fully. These new compounds and CAPE have been investigated for potential antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and their ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and whether chelation to boron improves their biological activity. Sodium salt 4 was generally more active than ammonium salt 5 in the biological assays and surpassed the radical scavenging ability of CAPE. Compounds 4 and 5 were more active than CAPE and Zileuton in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results clearly show the effectiveness of the synthesized salts as transporter of CAPE. PMID:25834744

  2. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Arylspiroborate Salts Derived from Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, Martin J. G.; Flewelling, Andrew J.; Clark, Trevor N.; Jean-François, Jacques; Surette, Marc E.; Gray, Christopher A.; Vogels, Christopher M.; Touaibia, Mohamed; Westcott, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Two novel boron compounds containing caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) derivatives have been prepared and characterized fully. These new compounds and CAPE have been investigated for potential antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and their ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and whether chelation to boron improves their biological activity. Sodium salt 4 was generally more active than ammonium salt 5 in the biological assays and surpassed the radical scavenging ability of CAPE. Compounds 4 and 5 were more active than CAPE and Zileuton in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results clearly show the effectiveness of the synthesized salts as transporter of CAPE. PMID:25834744

  3. Intergranular fracture of lithium fluoride-22 percent calcium fluoride hypereutectic salt at 800 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Subramanium V.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Substantial strain-hardening was noted during the initial stages of deformation in constant-velocity compression tests conducted on as-cast samples of the LiF-22 mol pct CaF2 hypereutectic salt at 800 K. The deformed specimens exhibited extensive grain-boundary cracking and cavitation, suggesting that such cracking, in conjunction with interfacial sliding, is important for cavity nucleation at grain boundaries and at the LiF-CaF2 interfaces. Cavity growth and interlinkage occur through the preferential failure of the weaker LiF phase.

  4. Short term tolvaptan increases water intake and effectively decreases urinary calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid supersaturations

    PubMed Central

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Erickson, Stephen B.; Rule, Andrew D.; Enders, Felicity; Lieske, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many patients cannot effectively increase water intake and urine volume to prevent urinary stones. Tolvaptan, a V2 receptor antagonist, blocks water reabsorption in the collecting duct and should reduce urinary supersaturation (SS) of stone forming solutes, but this has never been proven. Materials and Methods We conducted a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 21 adult calcium urinary stone formers stratified as majority calcium oxalate(CaOx, n=10) or calcium phosphate(CaP, n=11). Patients received tolvaptan 45 mg/day or placebo for 1 week, followed by a washout week and crossover to tolvaptan or placebo for week 3. A 24h urines was collected at the end of weeks 1 and 3. Results Tolvaptan vs. placebo decreased urinary osmolality (204±96 vs 529±213 mOsm/kg, P<0.001) and increased urinary volume (4.8±2.9 vs 1.8±0.9 L, P<0.001). The majority of urinary solute excretion rates including sodium and calcium did not significantly change, although oxalate secretion slightly increased (23±8 to 15±8 mg/24h, P = 0.009). Urinary CaOx SS (−0.01±1.14 vs 0.95±0.87 DG, P<0.001), CaP SS (−1.66±1.17 vs −0.13±1.02 DG, P<0.001) and Uric Acid SS (−2.05±4.05 vs −5.24±3.12 DG, P=0.04) all dramatically decreased. Effects did not differ between CaOx and CaP groups (P>0.05 for all interactions). Conclusions Tolvaptan increases urine volume and decreases urinary SS in calcium stone formers. Further study is needed to determine if long term use of V2 receptor antagonists results in fewer stone events. PMID:26598423

  5. Alleviating aluminium toxicity on an acid sulphate soils in Peninsular Malaysia with application of calcium silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted to alleviate Al toxicity of an acid sulphate soils collected from paddy cultivation area in Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. For this purpose, the collected acid sulphate soils were treated with calcium silicate. The treated soils were incubated for 120 days in submerged condition in a glasshouse. Subsamples were collected every 30 days throughout the incubation period. Soil pH and exchangeable Al showed positive effect; soil pH increased from 2.9 to 3.5, meanwhile exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 to 0.82 cmolc kg-1, which was well below the critical Al toxicity level for rice growth of 2 cmolc kg-1. It was noted that the dissolution of calcium silicate (CaSiO3) supplied substantial amount of Ca2+ and H4SiO42- ions into the soil, noted with increment in Si (silicate) content from 21.21 to 40 mg kg-1 at day 30 and reduction of exchangeable Al at day 90 from 4.26 to below 2 cmolc kg-1. During the first 60 days of incubation, Si content was positively correlated with soil pH, while the exchangeable Al was negatively correlated with Si content. It is believed that the silicate anions released by calcium silicate were active in neutralizing H+ ions that governs the high acidity (pH 2.90) of the acid sulphate soils. This scenario shows positive effect of calcium silicate to reduce soil acidity, therefore creates a favourable soil condition for good rice growth during its vegetative phase (30 days). Thus, application of calcium silicate to alleviate Al toxicity of acid sulphate soils for rice cultivation is a good soil amendment.

  6. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2016-03-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to ameliorate soil acidity in rice-cropped soil. The secondary objective was to study the effects of calcium silicate amendment on soil acidity, exchangeable Al, exchangeable Ca, and Si content. The soil was treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 Mg ha-1 of calcium silicate under submerged conditions and the soil treatments were sampled every 30 days throughout an incubation period of 120 days. Application of calcium silicate induced a positive effect on soil pH and exchangeable Al; soil pH increased from 2.9 (initial) to 3.5, while exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 (initial) to 0.82 cmolc kg-1. Furthermore, the exchangeable Ca and Si contents increased from 1.68 (initial) to 4.94 cmolc kg-1 and from 21.21 (initial) to 81.71 mg kg-1, respectively. Therefore, it was noted that calcium silicate was effective at alleviating Al toxicity in acid sulfate, rice-cropped soil, yielding values below the critical level of 2 cmolc kg-1. In addition, application of calcium silicate showed an ameliorative effect as it increased soil pH and supplied substantial amounts of Ca and Si.

  7. Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  8. Process For The Preparation Of 3,4-Dihyd Roxybutanoic Acid And Salts Thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-06-07

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  9. Activiation of the calcium sensing receptor stimulates serum gastrin and gastric acid secretion in healthy subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastric acid secretion is a complex process regulated by neuronal and hormonal pathways. Ex vivo studies in human gastric tissues indicate that the calcium sensing receptor (CaR), expressed on the surface of G and parietal cells, may be involved in this regulation. We sought to determine whether cin...

  10. Activation of the calcium sensing receptor stimulates gastrin and gastric acid secretion in healthy participants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastric acid secretion is a complex process regulated by neuronal and hormonal pathways. Ex vivo studies in human gastric tissues indicate that the calcium sensing receptor (CaR), expressed on the surface of G and parietal cells, may be involved in this regulation. We sought to determine whether cin...

  11. Activation of the calcium sensing receptor stimulates serum gastrin and gastric acid secretion in healthy subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastric acid secretion is a complex process regulated by neuronal and hormonal pathways. Ex vivo studies in human gastric tissues indicate that the calcium sensing receptor (CaR), expressed on the surface of G and parietal cells, may be involved in this regulation. We sought to determine whether cin...

  12. OsCCD1, a novel small calcium-binding protein with one EF-hand motif, positively regulates osmotic and salt tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Jing, Pei; Zou, Juanzi; Kong, Lin; Hu, Shiqi; Wang, Biying; Yang, Jun; Xie, Guosheng

    2016-06-01

    Calcium-binding proteins play key roles in the signal transduction in the growth and stress response in eukaryotes. However, a subfamily of proteins with one EF-hand motif has not been fully studied in higher plants. Here, a novel small calcium-binding protein with a C-terminal centrin-like domain (CCD1) in rice, OsCCD1, was characterized to show high similarity with a TaCCD1 in wheat. As a result, OsCCD1 can bind Ca(2+) in the in vitro EMSA and the fluorescence staining calcium-binding assays. Transient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged OsCCD1 in rice protoplasts showed that OsCCD1 was localized in the nucleus and cytosol of rice cells. OsCCD1 transcript levels were transiently induced by osmotic stress and salt stress through the calcium-mediated ABA signal. The rice seedlings of T-DNA mutant lines showed significantly less tolerance to osmotic and salt stresses than wild type plants (p<0.01). Conversely, its overexpressors can significantly enhance the tolerance to osmotic and salt stresses than wild type plants (p<0.05). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that, OsDREB2B, OsAPX1 and OsP5CS genes are involved in the rice tolerance to osmotic and salt stresses. In sum, OsCCD1 gene probably affects the DREB2B and its downstream genes to positively regulate osmotic and salt tolerance in rice seedlings. PMID:27095404

  13. Second-harmonic generation in mixed stilbazium salt/arachidic acid Langmuir-Blodgett films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liying; Zheng, Jiabiao; Wang, Wencheng; Zhang, Zhiming; Tao, Fenggang; Xu, Linxiao; Hu, Jiacong

    1992-10-01

    A stilbazium salt was synthesized and its second-order molecular polarizability was deduced to be 1.2×10 -27 esu. Measurements of second-harmonic generation and small-angle X-ray diffraction on Langmuir-Blodgett films of the stilbazium salt/arachide acid mixtures showed that the mixed compounds with molar ratios of 1:2 and 1:5 could form multilayers with large second- order optical nonlinearity. Second harmonic generation study on the alternate multilayers of stilbazium salt/arachide acid and arachidic acid showed that the second-harmonic signals were increasing monotonously up to 80 bilayers, but the increment was lower than the value predicted theoretically by the quadratic law. Possible reasons are discussed.

  14. Meta-analysis of the effect of the acid-ash hypothesis of osteoporosis on calcium balance.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Tanis R; Lyon, Andrew W; Eliasziw, Michael; Tough, Suzanne C; Hanley, David A

    2009-11-01

    The acid-ash hypothesis posits that protein and grain foods, with a low potassium intake, produce a diet acid load, net acid excretion (NAE), increased urine calcium, and release of calcium from the skeleton, leading to osteoporosis. The objectives of this meta-analysis were to assess the effect of changes in NAE, by manipulation of healthy adult subjects' acid-base intakes, on urine calcium, calcium balance, and a marker of bone metabolism, N-telopeptides. This meta-analysis was limited to studies that used superior methodological quality for the study of calcium metabolism. We systematically searched the literature and included studies if subjects were randomized to the interventions and followed the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine's Panel on Calcium and Related Nutrients for calcium studies. Five of 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. The studies altered the amount and/or type of protein. Despite a significant linear relationship between an increase in NAE and urinary calcium (p < 0.0001), there was no relationship between a change of NAE and a change of calcium balance (p = 0.38; power = 94%). There was no relationship between a change of NAE and a change in the marker of bone metabolism, N-telopeptides (p = 0.95). In conclusion, this meta-analysis does not support the concept that the calciuria associated with higher NAE reflects a net loss of whole body calcium. There is no evidence from superior quality balance studies that increasing the diet acid load promotes skeletal bone mineral loss or osteoporosis. Changes of urine calcium do not accurately represent calcium balance. Promotion of the "alkaline diet" to prevent calcium loss is not justified. PMID:19419322

  15. Three-Dimensional Quantification of Calcium Salt-Composite Resorption (CSC) In Vitro by Micro-computed Tomography (Micro-CT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, T.; Dai, X. Y.; Mielke, G.; Vogt, S.; Buechner, H.; Schantz, J. T.; Harder, Y.; Machens, H. G.; Morlock, M. M.; Schilling, A. F.

    2014-04-01

    The commonly applied cell-based, two-dimensional (2D) in vitro resorption assays for biomaterials are limited in a variety of cases, including high initial roughness of material surface, uncontrollable solubilization (or resorption) of the entire material surface, or complex three-dimensional (3D) structure of the bioactive material itself. All these make the accurate assessment and successful selection of the optimal bone substitute material difficult. In vivo, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) has been widely applied for the analysis of bone physiology and pathology, as well as for the 3D analysis of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. In this study, we show that micro-CT can also be applied for the in vitro analysis of osteoclast-mediated resorption of biomaterials. For our experiments, we chose a calcium salt-composite (composite of calcium sulphate (CSC), calcium carbonate, glycerin-1,2,3-tripalmiate), which evades common 2D in vitro resorption analysis as a result of its high surface roughness and material composition. Human osteoclasts were differentiated from precursor cells on the surface of the material for 28 days. Cells were analyzed for expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b), multinuclearity, and size. Volumetric analysis of resorption was performed by micro-CT. Multinucleated osteoclasts developed on the surface of the material. TRAP5b expression of the cells on CSC was comparable with TRAP5b expression of cells cultivated on dentin for the first 3 weeks of culture. At day 28, TRAP5b expression, cell number, and size of the TRAP+ cells were reduced on the CSC when compared with cells on dentin. Volumetric anaylsis by micro-CT showed a strong cellular effect on resorption of CSC. We consider micro-CT to be a promising technique for 3D quantification of cell-based resorption that will allow the study of cellular resorption of materials in vitro, which were up to now confined to animal experimental analysis.

  16. Influence of maleic acid copolymers on calcium orthophosphates crystallization at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelin, Irina M.; Popescu, Irina; Suflet, Dana M.; Aflori, Magdalena; Bulacovschi, Victor

    2013-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the maleic acid copolymers role on calcium orthophosphates crystallization at low temperature. In this respect, two maleic acid copolymers with different structures [poly(sodium maleate-co-vinyl acetate) and poly(sodium maleate-co-methyl methacrylate)] were used. The syntheses of the calcium orthophosphates in the absence and in the presence of the copolymers were performed through the wet chemical method using calcium nitrate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and ammonium hydroxide as reactants. The syntheses were monitored in situ by potentiometric and conductometric measurements. To ensure the transformation of less thermodynamically stable calcium orthophosphates into more stable forms, the samples were aged 30 days in mother solutions, at room temperature. The presence of the copolymers in the final products was evidenced by FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy and laser light scattering measurements gave information about the composites morphology and the size of the formed structures. X-ray diffraction evidenced that, as a function of comonomer structure and of copolymer concentration, the products could contain hydroxyapatite with low crystallinity, calcium-deficient or carbonated hydroxyapatite. At high concentration of poly(sodium maleate-co-methyl methacrylate) the transformation of brushite into apatitic structures was inhibited.

  17. Intra-Arterial Calcium Gluconate Treatment After Hydrofluoric Acid Burn of the Hand

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D. Jaeger, U.; Sagoschen, I.; Lamberti, C.; Wilhelm, K.

    2009-01-15

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a colorless corrosive acid used in different industrial branches. Exposure to HF typically results from spills, and most often the hand or fingers are involved. Tissue damage through cutaneous HF exposure occurs through corrosive burns due to the free hydrogen ions and through skin penetration of the fluoride ions, causing a depletion of calcium in the deep tissue layers, ultimately leading to cell death and tissue necrosis. Treatment of HF burns consists of thoroughly flushing the exposed area with water and applying calcium gluconate gel to the skin. If topical treatment does not suffice, subcutaneous injections, as well as intravascular-both intravenous and intra-arterial-calcium gluconate therapy, have been advocated. We report for the first time a case of HF burn of the hand and digits associated with vasospasm. Pain and vasospasm were successfully treated by repeated intra-arterial calcium gluconate injection. We conclude that intra-arterial calcium gluconate injection is a successful and well-tolerated therapy for HF burn associated with Raynaud's syndrome. Intra-arterial injection allows for well-controlled delivery of therapy as well as assessment of the vascular status.

  18. A9C sensitive Cl− - accumulation in A. thaliana root cells during salt stress is controlled by internal and external calcium

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Livia; Plieth, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of chloride in salt stress symptoms and salt tolerance mechanisms in plants has been less investigated in the past. Therefore, we studied the salt-induced chloride influx in Arabidopsis expressing the GFP-based anion indicator Clomeleon. High salt concentrations induce two phases of chloride influx. The fast kinetic phase is likely caused by membrane depolarization, and is assumed to be mediated by channels. This is followed by a slower "saturation" phase, where chloride is accumulated in the cytoplasm. Both phases of chloride uptake are dependent on the presence of external calcium. In general: with high [Ca2+] less chloride is accumulated in the cytoplasm. Surprisingly, also the internal calcium availability has an impact on chloride transport. A complete block of the second phase of chloride influx is achieved by the anion channel blocker A9C and trivalent cations (La3+, Gd3+, and Al3+). Other channel blockers and diuretics were found to inhibit the process partially. The results suggest that several transporter species are involved here, including electroneutral cation-chloride-cotransporters, and a part of chloride possibly enters the cells through cation channels after salt application. PMID:23603974

  19. Impaired Compensation for Salt-Induced Urinary Calcium Loss in a Space Flight Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navidi, Meena; Harper, J. S.; Evans, J.; Fung, P.; Wolinsky, I.; Arnaud, S. B.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The loss of urinary calcium (UCa) induced by high sodium (HiNa) diets is compensated for by an increase in net intestinal Ca absorption (abs.). To determine the capacity of the intestine to absorb Ca in a space flight model in which the formation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-D) is suppressed, we induced Ca loss with HiNa diets (8%) and restricted dietary Ca (0.2%). In 200 g rats with hind limbs unloaded by tail suspension (S), we examined intestinal Ca abs. by direct measurement in the duodenum (everted gut sac or S/M), vitamin D receptors (VDR) and Ca balance. We also measured serum ionized calcium (ICa), pH, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25D. PTH was related to ICa (r = -0.44, p is less than 0.02), pH (r = -0.47, p is less than 0.02) and %Ca abs. (r = -0.40, p is less than 0.05). 1,25-D was related to %Ca abs. (r = 0.60, p is less than 0.001) but not VDR or S/M. Effects of the model were lower serum 1,25-D (110 +/- 59 vs. 199 +/- 80 pg/ml, p is less than 0.005), %Ca abs. (83 +/- 6.9 vs. 93 +/- 3.2, p is less than 0.03) and Ca balance (27 +/- 0.2 vs. 30 +/- 0.3 mg/d, p is less than 0.001) in S than controls (C). The HiNa diet increased UCa excretion from 2 to 13% of dietary Ca. Responses to HiNa diets, compared to normal Na, revealed no differences in 1,25-D, Ca abs. or VDR. Ca balances were lower in HiNa (27 +/- 0.3 vs. 30 +/- 0.4 mg/d, p is less than 0.001) in spite of higher Ca intakes. The failure of S rats fed HiNa diets to increase Ca abs. in response to Na-induced Ca loss appears to be related to suppressed 1,25-D in the space flight model, the cause of which remains obscure.

  20. Theoretical modeling of the urinary supersaturation of calcium salts in healthy individuals and kidney stone patients: Precursors, speciation and therapeutic protocols for decreasing its value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Allen L.; Allie-Hamdulay, Shameez; Jackson, Graham E.; Durbach, Ian

    2013-11-01

    BackgroundSupersaturation (SS) of urinary salts has been extensively invoked for assessing the risk of renal stone formation, but precursors have often been ignored. Our objectives were to establish by computer modeling, which urinary components are essential for calculating reliable SS values, to investigate whether unique equilibrium processes occur in the urine of stone formers (SF) which might account for their higher SS levels relative to healthy controls (N), to determine the relative efficacies of three different, widely-used protocols for lowering urinary SS of calcium salts and to examine the influence of precursors.

  1. Conjugated linoleic acid and calcium co-supplementation improves bone health in ovariectomised mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Yooheon; Kim, Jonggun; Scrimgeour, Angus G; Condlin, Michelle L; Kim, Daeyoung; Park, Yeonhwa

    2013-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant health concern for the elderly; conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to improve overall bone mass when calcium is included as a co-supplement. However, potential effects of CLA and calcium on bone mass during a period of bone loss have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary calcium modulates the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in preventing bone loss, using an ovariectomised mouse model. CLA supplementation significantly prevented ovariectomy-associated weight and fat mass gain, compared to non-supplemented controls. CLA significantly increased bone markers without major changes in bone mineral composition in the femur compared to respective controls. CLA treatment increased serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) significantly (p=0.0172), while serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentration was not changed by CLA. Meanwhile, CLA significantly reduced femur tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, suggesting potential reduction of osteoclastogenesis. The data suggest that CLA, along with dietary calcium, has great potential to be used to prevent bone loss and weight gain associated with menopause. PMID:23578644

  2. Effects of calcium channel blockers on gastric emptying and acid secretion of the rat in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Brage, R.; Cortijo, J.; Esplugues, J.; Esplugues, J. V.; Martí-Bonmatí, E.; Rodriguez, C.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of three calcium channel blockers (verapamil, diltiazem and cinnarizine) on gastric emptying and secretion in the rat. Pretreatment with the calcium blockers delayed gastric emptying of phenol red in a dose-dependent manner. Verapamil was the most effective of the agents tested. Verapamil and diltiazem inhibited gastric acid secretion in the pylorus-ligated rat without affecting pepsin output. Cinnarizine was ineffective in this model. When the perfused lumen of the anaesthetized rat was used, verapamil was found to inhibit responses to carbachol or histamine more than those to pentagastrin. Further, we found a greater sensitivity to verapamil for basal compared with vagal-stimulated (2-deoxy-D-glucose) acid secretion. Neither diltiazem nor cinnarizine modified gastric acid secretion in this experimental model. These findings are discussed in relation to the role of extracellular calcium in gastric motility and secretion, and the existence of a regional and functional selectivity for calcium blockers is proposed. PMID:3814903

  3. Characterization of modified calcium-silicate cements exposed to acidic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Camilleri, Josette

    2011-01-15

    Portland cement which is used as a binder in concrete in the construction industry has been developed into a biomaterial. It is marketed as mineral trioxide aggregate and is used in dentistry. This material has been reported to be very biocompatible and thus its use has diversified. The extended use of this material has led to developments of newer versions with improved physical properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acidic environments found in the oral cavity on fast setting calcium silicate cements with improved physical properties using a combination of techniques. Two fast setting calcium silicate cements (CSA and CFA) and two cement composites (CSAG and CFAG) were assessed by subjecting the materials to lactic acid/sodium lactate buffer gel for a period of 28 days. At weekly intervals the materials were viewed under the tandem scanning confocal microscope (TSM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The two prototype cements exhibited changes in their internal chemistry with no changes in surface characteristics. Since the changes observed were mostly sub-surface evaluation of surface characteristics of cement may not be sufficient in the determination of chemical changes occurring. - Research Highlights: {yields} An acidic environment affects modified fast setting calcium silicate-based cements. {yields} No surface changes are observed in acidic environment. {yields} An acidic environment causes sub-surface changes in the material chemistry which are only visible in fractured specimens. {yields} A combination of techniques is necessary in order to evaluate the chemical changes occurring.

  4. Thermodynamics of binding water and solute to powdered long-chain salts of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, P K; Chattoraj, D K

    1994-10-01

    Hydration of powdered fatty acids and their salts has been studied both in presence and absence of neutral salts, sucrose and urea using the isopiestic vapour pressure technique. Moles of water vapour adsorbed per mole or kg of soaps like sodium palmitate, sodium stearate, sodium myristate and sodium laurate have been measured in presence and absence of salts and compared with that of detergents (SDS, CTAB, DTAB and MTAB). For each case of positive excess adsorption of water vapour and negative excess adsorption of inorganic salts, urea and sucrose to different soaps, the standard free energy change (delta G degrees) per kg of substrate in bringing the bulk mole fraction from zero to unity have been calculated using an appropriate thermodynamic equation and the values so obtained have been compared critically. PMID:7851944

  5. Effects of acid deposition on calcium nutrition and health of Southern Appalachian spruce fir forests

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Wullschleger, S.; Stone, A.; Wimmer, R.; Joslin, J.D.

    1995-02-01

    The role of acid deposition in the health of spruce fir forests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains has been investigated by a wide variety of experimental approaches during the past 10 years. These studies have proceeded from initial dendroecological documentation of altered growth patterns of mature trees to increasingly more focused ecophysiological research on the causes and characteristics of changes in system function associated with increased acidic deposition. Field studies across gradients in deposition and soil chemistry have been located on four mountains spanning 85 km of latitude within the Southern Appalachians. The conclusion that calcium nutrition is an important component regulating health of red spruce in the Southern Appalachians and that acid deposition significantly reduces calcium availability in several ways has emerged as a consistent result from multiple lines or research. These have included analysis of trends in wood chemistry, soil solution chemistry, foliar nutrition, gas exchange physiology, root histochemistry, and controlled laboratory and field studies in which acid deposition and/or calcium nutrition has been manipulated and growth and nutritional status of saplings or mature red spruce trees measured. This earlier research has led us to investigate the broader implications and consequences of calcium deficiency for changing resistance of spruce-fir forests to natural stresses. Current research is exploring possible relationships between altered calcium nutrition and shifts in response of Fraser fir to insect attack by the balsam wooly adelgid. In addition, changes in wood ultrastructural properties in relation to altered wood chemistry is being examined to evaluate its possible role in canopy deterioration, under wind and ice stresses typical of high elevation forests.

  6. Erosive effects of different acids on bovine enamel: release of calcium and phosphate in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hannig, Christian; Hamkens, Arne; Becker, Klaus; Attin, Rengin; Attin, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    The present study intended to investigate minimal erosive effects of different acids on enamel during short time incubation via determination of calcium and phosphate dissolution. Bovine enamel specimens were eroded for 1-5 min with eight different acids of pH 2, 2.3 and 3 (citric (CA), maleic (MA), lactic (LA), tartaric (TA), phosphoric (PA), oxalic (OA), acetic (AA) and hydrochloric acid (HCl)). Calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) release were determined photometrically using arsenazo III (calcium) and malachite green (phosphate) as substrates. Each subgroup contained eight enamel specimens. Amount of titratable acid was determined for all acidic solutions. MA, LA, TA, AA and HCl caused linear release of Ca and P, PA of Ca, CA of P. For CA, MA, LA, TA, AA, PA and HCl mineral loss was shown to be pH-dependent. Ca dissolution varied between 28.6+/-4.4 (LA, pH 2) and 2.4+/-0.7 nmol mm(-2)min(-1) (HCl, pH 3), P dissolution ranged between 17.2+/-2.6 (LA, pH 2) and 1.4+/-0.4 nmol mm(-2)min(-1) (HCl, pH 3). LA was one of the most erosive acids. AA was very erosive at pH 3. HCl and MA were shown to have the lowest erosive effects. There was only a weak correlation (r=0.28) between P and Ca release and the amount of titratable acid. The method of the present study allows investigation of minimal erosive effects via direct determination of P and Ca dissolution. During short time exposition at constant pH level, erosive effects mainly depend on pH and type of acid but not on amount of titratable acid. PMID:15848147

  7. Filler modification for papermaking with starch/oleic acid complexes with the aid of calcium ions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiujie; Shen, Jing; Qian, Xueren

    2013-10-15

    To mitigate the negative effect of filler addition on paper strength and improve filler retention, filler modification with hydrogen bonding polymers (e.g., starch) or their composites is an interesting research topic. Differing from previous reports, the concept related to the deposition of starch/oleic acid complexes on precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) with the aid of calcium ions was demonstrated. The introduction of calcium ions resulted in effective starch deposition. As a result of filler modification, filler retention and the tensile strength of the filled paper were simultaneously improved essentially due to the aggregation of PCC particles in filler modification process as well as improved filler bondability. The concept demonstrated in this brief study may provide an alternative approach to filler bondability enhancement for improved papermaking performances. PMID:23987430

  8. Silica precipitation in acidic solutions: mechanism, pH effect, and salt effect.

    PubMed

    Gorrepati, Elizabeth A; Wongthahan, Pattanapong; Raha, Sasanka; Fogler, H Scott

    2010-07-01

    This study is the first to show that silica precipitation under very acidic conditions ([HCl] = 2-8 M) proceeds through two distinct steps. First, the monomeric form of silica is quickly depleted from solution as it polymerizes to form primary particles approximately 5 nm in diameter. Second, the primary particles formed then flocculate. A modified Smoluchowski equation that incorporates a geometric population balance accurately describes the exponential growth of silica flocs. Variation of the HCl concentration between 2 and 8 M further showed that polymerization to form primary particles and subsequent particle flocculation become exponentially faster with increasing acid concentration. The effect of salt was also studied by adding 1 M chloride salts to the solutions; it was found that salts accelerated both particle formation and growth rates in the order: AlCl(3) > CaCl(2) > MgCl(2) > NaCl > CsCl > no salt. It was also found that ionic strength, over cation identity, determines silica polymerization and particle flocculation rates. This research reveals that precipitation of silica products from acid dissolution of minerals can be studied apart from the mineral dissolution process. Thus, silica product precipitation from mineral acidization follows a two-step process--formation of 5 nm primary particles followed by particle flocculation--which becomes exponentially faster with increasing HCl concentration and with salts accelerating the process in the above order. This result has implications for any study of acid dissolution of aluminosilicate or silicate material. In particular, the findings are applicable to the process of acidizing oil-containing rock formations, a common practice of the petroleum industry where silica dissolution products encounter a low-pH, salty environment within the oil well. PMID:20536253

  9. Life at high salt concentrations, intracellular KCl concentrations, and acidic proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Aharon

    2013-01-01

    Extremely halophilic microorganisms that accumulate KCl for osmotic balance (the Halobacteriaceae, Salinibacter) have a large excess of acidic amino acids in their proteins. This minireview explores the occurrence of acidic proteomes in halophiles of different physiology and phylogenetic affiliation. For fermentative bacteria of the order Halanaerobiales, known to accumulate KCl, an acidic proteome was predicted. However, this is not confirmed by genome analysis. The reported excess of acidic amino acids is due to a high content of Gln and Asn, which yield Glu and Asp upon acid hydrolysis. The closely related Halorhodospira halophila and Halorhodospira halochloris use different strategies to cope with high salt. The first has an acidic proteome and accumulates high KCl concentrations at high salt concentrations; the second does not accumulate KCl and lacks an acidic proteome. Acidic proteomes can be predicted from the genomes of some moderately halophilic aerobes that accumulate organic osmotic solutes (Halomonas elongata, Chromohalobacter salexigens) and some marine bacteria. Based on the information on cultured species it is possible to understand the pI profiles predicted from metagenomic data from hypersaline environments. PMID:24204364

  10. Cooperative Catalysis: Calcium and Camphorsulfonic Acid Catalyzed Cycloisomerization of Diynols.

    PubMed

    Rauser, Marian; Schroeder, Sebastian; Niggemann, Meike

    2015-11-01

    The first transition metal-free cycloisomerization of easily accessible diynols is presented as a novel approach to bicyclic 2H-pyrans. As a one-step protocol, the reaction proceeds in a single reaction cascade by intertwining mechanistic fragments borrowed from transition metal-catalyzed Claisen rearrangment of vinyl ethers with our own work on allenyl/propargyl cation rearrangements and a 6π-oxo-electrocylization. It is enabled by a new cooperative catalytic system that combines a simple Ca(2+) catalyst with camphorsulfonic acid. PMID:26403228

  11. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal...

  12. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45 Section 173.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and...

  13. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45 Section 173.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and...

  14. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45 Section 173.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and...

  15. Esterification and transesterification of greases to fatty acid methyl esters with highly active diphanylammonium salts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have conducted an investigation designed to identify alternate catalysts for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to be used as biodiesel. Diphenylammonium sulfate (DPAS) and diphenylammonium chloride (DPA-HCl) salts were found to be highly active homogeneous catalysts for the simu...

  16. Esterification and Transesterification of greases to fatty acid methyl esters with highly active diphenylamine salts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diphenylamine sulfate (DPAS) and diphenylamine hydrochloride (DPACl) salts were found to be highly active catalysts for esterification and transesterification of inexpensive greases to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). In the presence of catalytic amounts of DPAS or DPACl and excess methanol, the fr...

  17. Triarylsulfonium hexafluorophosphate salts as photoactivated acidic catalysts for ring-opening polymerisation.

    PubMed

    Barker, Ian A; Dove, Andrew P

    2013-02-11

    Triarylsulfonium hexafluorophosphate salts were shown to be effective catalysts for the ring-opening polymerisation of various cyclic monomers under UV irradiation. A dual basic/acidic catalytic system demonstrated the potential for UV-triggered formation of poly(δ-valerolactone)-b-poly(L-lactide)-b-poly(δ-valerolactone) in a 'one-pot' reaction. PMID:23283246

  18. Interactions of calcium and fulvic acid at the goethite-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Li Ping; Koopal, Luuk K.; Hiemstra, Tjisse; Meeussen, Johannes C. L.; Van Riemsdijk, Willem H.

    2005-01-01

    Interactions of calcium and fulvic acid (Strichen ) with the surface of goethite were studied with batch and titration experiments. The mutual influence of the interactions on the adsorption of fulvic acid, calcium ions and protons were examined. Adsorption of the fulvic acid to goethite decreased with increase in pH (pH range 3-11). Addition of Ca (1.0 mM) at intermediate and high pH significantly enhanced the adsorption of fulvic acid. Compared to the adsorption to pure goethite, the presence of fulvic acid enhanced the adsorption of Ca significantly. In comparison to the simple linear sum of Ca bound to fulvic acid and goethite, the interactions between goethite and fulvic acid led to a reduced adsorption of Ca at low pH and an enhanced adsorption at high pH. With the adsorption of fulvic acid, protons were released at low pH and coadsorbed at high pH. When Ca was added, fewer protons were released at low pH and fewer coadsorbed at high pH. The experimental results can be adequately described using a surface complexation model, the Ligand and Charge Distribution (LCD) model, in which the CD-MUSIC model for ion adsorption to mineral oxides and the NICA model for ion binding to humics are integrated. In the model calculations, adequate descriptions of the ternary system data (Ca-fulvic acid-goethite) were obtained with parameters derived from three binary systems (fulvic acid-goethite, Ca-goethite and Ca-fulvic acid) without further adjustment. The model calculations suggest that the interactions between Ca and fulvic acid at the surface of goethite are mainly due to the electrostatic effects.

  19. Salt and mesophase formation in aqueous suspensions of lauric acid.

    PubMed

    Smith, S W; Anderson, B D

    1993-10-01

    The solubility and solution behavior of lauric acid (LA) and its 1:1 acid soap (potassium hydrogen dilaurate) were investigated at 32 degrees C over a pH range of 2.5-8.5 and at varying KCl concentrations to examine the self-association of this long-chain carboxylic acid under these conditions. LA's solubility in water exhibited the classical pH dependence of a monocarboxylic acid with no evidence of self-association. In 0.1 M KCl between pH 6.3 and pH 7.3, filtered samples were turbid, suggesting the presence of high molecular weight aggregates (mesophase), which could be removed by ultrafiltration. The apparent LA solubility vs pH profile in ultrafiltered samples was consistent with a solid phase consisting of either the free acid (pH < 6.5) or potassium hydrogen dilaurate (pH > 6.5), again with no evidence of self-association to form low molecular weight species (dimers, etc.). Quasi-elastic light scattering (QLS) studies and mannitol trapping experiments indicated that vesicles were present in samples containing mesophase. The mesophase composition was characterized and a mass-action law for mesophase formation was developed to describe the apparent LA solubility versus pH in the mesophase region in terms of three parameters. The index of cooperativity, theta, indicated that the mesophase consists of approximately 25 molecules of LA with an acid:anion ratio, rho, of 1.7. The standard free energy of mesophase formation per mole of monomer was determined to be -6.3 kcal/mol. The aggregate size determined thermodynamically is several orders of magnitude less than that of the mesophase particle size determined by QLS measurements, suggesting that the LA monomer concentration in equilibrium with mesophase may be governed by a small unit domain of the vesicle. These observations may have a bearing on the thermodynamics of self-assembly of lipid bilayer membranes. PMID:8272419

  20. Populus euphratica Displays Apoplastic Sodium Accumulation, Osmotic Adjustment by Decreases in Calcium and Soluble Carbohydrates, and Develops Leaf Succulence under Salt Stress1[W

    PubMed Central

    Ottow, Eric A.; Brinker, Monika; Teichmann, Thomas; Fritz, Eberhard; Kaiser, Werner; Brosché, Mikael; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Jiang, Xiangning; Polle, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Populus euphratica Olivier is known to exist in saline and arid environments. In this study we investigated the physiological mechanisms enabling this species to cope with stress caused by salinity. Acclimation to increasing Na+ concentrations required adjustments of the osmotic pressure of leaves, which were achieved by accumulation of Na+ and compensatory decreases in calcium and soluble carbohydrates. The counterbalance of Na+/Ca2+ was also observed in mature leaves from field-grown P. euphratica trees exposed to an environmental gradient of increasing salinity. X-ray microanalysis showed that a primary strategy to protect the cytosol against sodium toxicity was apoplastic but not vacuolar salt accumulation. The ability to cope with salinity also included maintenance of cytosolic potassium concentrations and development of leaf succulence due to an increase in cell number and cell volume leading to sodium dilution. Decreases in apoplastic and vacuolar Ca2+ combined with suppression of calcineurin B-like protein transcripts suggest that Na+ adaptation required suppression of calcium-related signaling pathways. Significant increases in galactinol synthase and alternative oxidase after salt shock and salt adaptation point to shifts in carbohydrate metabolism and suppression of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria under salt stress. PMID:16299175

  1. Effect alteration of methamphetamine by amino acids or their salts on ambulatory activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuribara, H; Tadokoro, S

    1983-02-01

    Effect alterations of methamphetamine by pretreatment of amino acids or their salts on ambulatory activity in mice were investigated to confirm a fact that certain amino acids, particularly monosodium L-glutamate, are added to methamphetamine by the street users, and that the amino acids augment the effect of methamphetamine. The ambulatory activity of mouse was measured by a tilting-type round activity cage of 25 cm in diameter. The amino acids or their salts tested were monosodium L-glutamate, monosodium L-aspartate, gamma-amino-butyric acid, L-alanine, L-lysine hydrochloride and L-arginine hydrochloride. A single administration of each chemical at doses of 1 and 2 g/kg i.p. did not induce a marked change in the ambulatory activity in mice. Methamphetamine 2 mg/kg s.c. induced an increase in the ambulatory activity with a peak at 40 min after the administration, and the increased ambulatory activity persisted for 3 hr. The ambulation-increasing effect of methamphetamine was augmented by the pretreatment of monosodium L-glutamate and monosodium L-aspartate at 30 min before the methamphetamine administration, while attenuated by the pretreatment of L-lysine hydrochloride and L-arginine hydrochloride in a dose-dependent manner. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and L-alanine did not affect the effect of methamphetamine. Similar augmentation and attenuation in the ambulation-increasing effect of methamphetamine were induced by the pretreatment of sodium bicarbonate 0.9 g/kg i.p. (urinary alkalizer) and ammonium chloride 0.07 g/kg i.p. (urinary acidifier), respectively. The urinary pH level was elevated by the administration of monosodium L-glutamate, monosodium L-aspartate and sodium bicarbonate, and decreased by L-lysine hydrochloride, L-arginine hydrochloride and ammonium chloride. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and L-alanine did not elicit a marked change in the urinary pH level. The present experiment confirms the fact in human that monosodium L-glutamate augments the effect of

  2. Aggregation of 12-Hydroxystearic Acid and Its Lithium Salt in Hexane: Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Ryan; Stober, Spencer T; Abrams, Cameron F

    2016-07-28

    12-Hydroxystearic acid (12HSA) is a well-known organogelator, and its metal salts and derivatives find roles in many important applications. The structures of aggregates of 12-hydroxysteric acid and its salts depend sensitively on cation type, but a fundamental understanding of this phenomenon is lacking. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations were conducted on the microsecond long time scales for (1) 12HSA and (2) its lithium salt, each at 12.5 wt % in explicit hexane solvent. Self-assembly was accelerated by using a modified potential to prohibit alkane chain dihedral gauche states (all-trans-12HSA) and then verified by continuation using standard force-field parameters. In three independent simulation, acceleration using "gauche-less" potentials resulted in self-assembled pseudocrystalline aggregates through formation of polarized five- and six-membered rings between inter-12-hydroxyl groups and head-to-head carboxylic acid dimerization. When subjected to the unmodified dihedral potential, two of the three structures remained stable after 1 μs of MD. Stable structures exhibited a "ring-of-rings" motif, composed of two six-membered acetic acid-dimerized ring bundles with six satellite rings, while the unstable structure did not. In strong contrast, the lithium salt produced a network of fibrils that spanned the volume of the sample. When lithium ions were substituted for carboxylic acid protons in the stable acid structures, they remained intact but lost their chiral nature. Both the acid and lithium structures displayed scattering peaks that agreed with experiment. Taken together, our results suggest that this ring-of-rings structure could be a primary feature of the self-assembly of 12HSA in organic solvents. PMID:27387154

  3. Kojic acid production from cocoa juice by Aspergillus flavus entrapped in calcium alginate.

    PubMed

    el-Sharkawy, S H

    1995-06-01

    Sixteen microorganisms of Aspergillus strains were screened for production of kojic acid using cocoa juice as carbon source. Only Aspergillus flavus ATCC 9179 was found to produce the acid in low yield (22 mg/ml). Calcium alginate immobilization of the cells was used under optimum conditions to maximize the yield of kojic acid (60 mg/ml). Cultures were incubated in the medium with 50% of cocoa juice added in pulses of 8 ml each every 96 hours, and 4% methanol, pH 3.5, 150 rpm, 26 degrees C for three weeks. The incubations were monitored by thin layer and high pressure liquid chromatography. Kojic acid was extracted from the culture broth by organic solvent, concentrated and crystallized. The chemical identity of kojic acid was determined by HPLC, MS, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:7546538

  4. Morphological modifications of electrodeposited calcium phosphate coatings under amino acids effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevet, R.; Lemelle, A.; Untereiner, V.; Manfait, M.; Sockalingum, G. D.; Benhayoune, H.

    2013-03-01

    Calcium phosphate coatings are synthesized on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates by pulsed electrodeposition. This work aims to observe the morphological modifications of the coating when an amino acid is added to the electrolytic solution used in the process. The effects of two amino acids (glutamic acid and aspartic acid) are studied at a low and a high concentration. The coating morphology is observed at a nanometer scale by field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM). The structural characterization of the coating is performed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Moreover, corrosion measurements of the prosthetic surfaces are carried out by potentiodynamic polarization experiments in a physiological solution named Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM). The results show that the addition of an amino acid to the electrolytic solution leads to the decrease of the size of the crystallites which compose the prosthetic calcium phosphate coating that becomes denser and less porous than the coatings obtained without amino acid. Consequently, the corrosion behavior of the prosthetic material immersed in DMEM is improved.

  5. Bile salt recognition by human liver fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Favretto, Filippo; Santambrogio, Carlo; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Molinari, Henriette; Grandori, Rita; Assfalg, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) act as intracellular carriers of lipid molecules, and play a role in global metabolism regulation. Liver FABP (L-FABP) is prominent among FABPs for its wide ligand repertoire, which includes long-chain fatty acids as well as bile acids (BAs). In this work, we performed a detailed molecular- and atomic-level analysis of the interactions established by human L-FABP with nine BAs to understand the binding specificity for this important class of cholesterol-derived metabolites. Protein-ligand complex formation was monitored using heteronuclear NMR, steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. BAs were found to interact with L-FABP with dissociation constants in the narrow range of 0.6-7 μm; however, the diverse substitution patterns of the sterol nucleus and the presence of side-chain conjugation resulted in complexes endowed with various degrees of conformational heterogeneity. Trihydroxylated BAs formed monomeric complexes in which single ligand molecules occupied similar internal binding sites, based on chemical-shift perturbation data. Analysis of NMR line shapes upon progressive addition of taurocholate indicated that the binding mechanism departed from a simple binary association equilibrium, and instead involved intermediates along the binding path. The co-linear chemical shift behavior observed for L-FABP complexes with cholate derivatives added insight into conformational dynamics in the presence of ligands. The observed spectroscopic features of L-FABP/BA complexes, discussed in relation to ligand chemistry, suggest possible molecular determinants of recognition, with implications regarding intracellular BA transport. Our findings suggest that human L-FABP is a poorly selective, universal BA binder. PMID:25639618

  6. Length Scale Dependence of the Dynamic Properties of Hyaluronic Acid Solutions in the Presence of Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Horkay, Ferenc; Falus, Peter; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik

    2010-12-07

    In solutions of the charged semirigid biopolymer hyaluronic acid in salt-free conditions, the diffusion coefficient D{sub NSE} measured at high transfer momentum q by neutron spin echo is more than an order of magnitude smaller than that determined by dynamic light scattering, D{sub DLS}. This behavior contrasts with neutral polymer solutions. With increasing salt content, D{sub DLS} approaches D{sub NSE}, which is independent of ionic strength. Contrary to theoretical expectation, the ion-polymer coupling, which dominates the low q dynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions, already breaks down at distance scales greater than the Debye-Hueckel length.

  7. Diffusion dialysis. Effect of membrane composition on acid/salt separation

    SciTech Connect

    Narebska, A.; Warszawski, A. )

    1992-05-01

    Diffusion dialysis is an energy-saving separation technique. In order to highlight the relationship between membrane composition and ability to separate acid/salt mixtures by diffusion dialysis, a few anion-exchange membranes were examined. Experiments on solubility/diffusivity phenomena were carried out in contact with hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solutions (single- and two-solute experiments). Computations using Glueckauf and Tye models have indicated high nonuniformity in the distribution of fixed charged within the membranes and different accessibilities of the internal membrane volumes for the acid and salt. The Neosepta AFN-7 membrane (Tokuymam Soda Co.) has proved effective in differentiating the permeants by sorption (k{sub HCl}/k{sub NaCl} {approx} 2) and diffusivity ({bar D}{sub HCl}/{bar D}{sub NaCl} up to 10). This membrane is also the only one which, when in contact with two-solutes solutions, absorbs the acid preferentially to the salt. For this membrane the preferential sorption and transport of the acid depends not only on the physical structure of the membrane but also on the chemical nature of the polymer which contains pyridine moieties.

  8. Lithium and cesium acidities of some terminal acethylenes and aggregation of their salts in tetrahydrofuran

    SciTech Connect

    Gareyev, R.; Streitwieser, A.

    1995-12-01

    Ion-pair acidity equilibria have been determined for 4-ethynylbiphenyl (1), 1-ethynyladamantane (2) and 3,3,3-triphenylpropyne (3) with lithium and cesium as counterions in tetrahydrofuran. The pK values increase, 1 < 3 < 2, with lithium as the counterion. With the cesium gegenion the pK of compound 2 is also higher than that of 3. The cesium salt of 1 is insoluble in tetrahydrofuran. Comparison of lithium and cesium acidities shows a difference of 6 pK units for both 2 and 3, the lithium pK being lower. In some cases, the measured equilibrium acidities depend on the concentration of the acetylene salt, which indicates aggregation of ion pairs into higher ionic clusters. The average aggregation numbers were determined from the equilibrium studies.

  9. CITRIC ACID AS A SET RETARDER FOR CALCIUM ALUMINATE PHOSPHATE CEMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA,T.; BROTHERS, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    Citric acid added as set retarder significantly contributed to enhancing the setting temperature and to extending the thickening time of a calcium aluminate phosphate (CaP) geothermal cement slurry consisting of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) as the base reactant and sodium polyphosphate (NaP) solution as the acid reactant. The set-retarding activity of citric acid was due to the uptake of Ca{sup 2+} ions from the CAC by carboxylic acid groups within the citric acid. This uptake led to the precipitation of a Ca-complexed carboxylate compound as a set-retarding barrier layer on the CAC grains' surfaces. However, this barrier layer was vulnerable to disintegration by the attack of free Ca{sup 2+} ions from CAC, and also to degradation at elevated temperature, thereby promoting the generation of exothermic energy from acid-base reactions between the CAC and NaP after the barrier was broken. The exothermic reaction energy that was promoted in this way minimized the loss in strength of the citric acid-retarded cement. The phase composition assembled in both retarded and non-retarded cements after autoclaving at 180 C encompassed three reaction products, hydroxyapatite (HOAp), hydrogrossular and boehmite, which are responsible for strengthening the autoclaved cement. The first two reaction products were susceptible to reactions with sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate to form crystalline bassanite scale as the corrosion product. The boehmite phase possessed a great resistance to acid and sulfate. Although the bassanite scales clinging to the cement's surfaces were the major factor governing the loss in weight, they served in protecting the cement from further acid- and sulfate-corrosion until their spallation eventually occurred. Nevertheless, the repetitive processes of HOAp and hydrogrossular {yields} bassanite {yields} spallation played an important role in extending the useful lifetime of CaP cement in a low pH environment at 180 C.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and cation adsorption of p-aminobenzoic acid intercalated on calcium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Camila F.N.; Lazarin, Angélica M.; Sernaglia, Rosana L.; Andreotti, Elza I.S.

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy photographs of calcium phosphate (a) and intercalated with p-aminobenzoic acid (b). Highlights: ► Calcium phosphate was intercalated with p-aminobenzoic acid. ► Guest molecule contains nitrogen and oxygen atoms from amine and carboxylic groups. ► These basic centers are potentially useful for cation coordination in ethanol solution. ► Crystal morphology of compounds is lamellar, it agrees with expected structural characteristics. -- Abstract: Crystalline lamellar calcium phosphate retained 4-aminobenzoic acid inside its cavity without leaching. The intense infrared bands in the 1033 and 1010 cm{sup −1} interval confirmed the presence of the phosphonate groups attached to the inorganic layer, with sharp and intense peaks in X-ray diffraction patterns, which gave basal distances of 712 and 1578 pm for the original and the intercalated compounds, respectively. Solid-state {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra presented only one peak for the phosphate groups attached to the main inorganic polymeric structure near −2.4 ppm. The adsorption isotherms from ethanol gave the maximum adsorption capacities of 6.44 and 3.34 mmol g{sup −1} for nickel and cobalt, respectively, which stability constant and distribution coefficient followed Co > Ni.

  11. Nicotinic acid modulates intracellular calcium concentration and disassembles the cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    LI, JIEJING; LI, YANXI; ZHANG, PENGHUI; NIU, HUA; SHI, YU

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA), a member of the vitamin B family, is well known for its functions in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis due to decreasing plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In recent years, the major side effect of NA, cutaneous flushing, has also attracted extensive attention. However, the effects of NA in other aspects of physiology or cell biology have remained elusive. The present study provided evidence that high concentrations of NA were able to first reduce and later elevate intracellular [Ca2+] in the NIH3T3 cell line. The reduction of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration was achieved within the initial 10 sec, and was preceded by a gradual elevation of intracellular [Ca2+]. Notably, marked accumulation of opaque materials in the perinuclear region was observed in NIH3T3 cells treated with 70 mM NA. Further analysis revealed that treatment with 70 mM NA for 1 h disassembled the microtubule and F-actin cytoskeleton systems and resulted in β-tubulin degradation in an ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent manner. These data indicated that high concentrations of NA disrupted cytoskeleton structures, which may have contributed to minus end (nucleus region) to plus end (cell membrane region)-directed transport processes and resulted in the deposition of material in the perinuclear region. Artificially increasing [Ca2+] adding CaCl2 to the culture media effected the disassembly of F-actin, while it had no apparent effect on microtubules. These results suggested that the disruption of the cytoskeleton systems was not entirely due to the NA-induced elevation of [Ca2+]. Finally, microinjection of NA into xenopus embryos blocked the transport of melanosomes to the peripheral cellular area. In conclusion, the present study indicated that NA disassembles F-actin and microtubule systems, thereby blocking cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular transport. PMID:25241762

  12. Nicotinic acid modulates intracellular calcium concentration and disassembles the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiejing; Li, Yanxi; Zhang, Penghui; Niu, Hua; Shi, Yu

    2014-12-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA), a member of the vitamin B family, is well known for its functions in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis due to decreasing plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In recent years, the major side effect of NA, cutaneous flushing, has also attracted extensive attention. However, the effects of NA in other aspects of physiology or cell biology have remained elusive. The present study provided evidence that high concentrations of NA were able to first reduce and later elevate intracellular [Ca2+] in the NIH3T3 cell line. The reduction of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration was achieved within the initial 10 sec, and was preceded by a gradual elevation of intracellular [Ca2+]. Notably, marked accumulation of opaque materials in the perinuclear region was observed in NIH3T3 cells treated with 70 mM NA. Further analysis revealed that treatment with 70 mM NA for 1 h disassembled the microtubule and F‑actin cytoskeleton systems and resulted in β‑tubulin degradation in an ubiquitin‑proteasome-dependent manner. These data indicated that high concentrations of NA disrupted cytoskeleton structures, which may have contributed to minus end (nucleus region) to plus end (cell membrane region)-directed transport processes and resulted in the deposition of material in the perinuclear region. Artificially increasing [Ca2+] adding CaCl2 to the culture media effected the disassembly of F‑actin, while it had no apparent effect on microtubules. These results suggested that the disruption of the cytoskeleton systems was not entirely due to the NA-induced elevation of [Ca2+]. Finally, microinjection of NA into xenopus embryos blocked the transport of melanosomes to the peripheral cellular area. In conclusion, the present study indicated that NA disassembles F‑actin and microtubule systems, thereby blocking cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular transport. PMID:25241762

  13. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  14. Synergism of α-linolenic acid, conjugated linoleic acid and calcium in decreasing adipocyte and increasing osteoblast cell growth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youjin; Kelly, Owen J; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2013-08-01

    Whole fat milk and dairy products (although providing more energy compared to low- or non-fat products), are good sources of α-linolenic acid (ALA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and calcium, which may be favorable in modulating bone and adipose tissue metabolism. We examined individual and/or synergistic effects of ALA, CLA and calcium (at levels similar to those in whole milk/dairy products) in regulating bone and adipose cell growth. ST2 stromal, MC3T3-L1 adipocyte-like and MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells were treated with: (a) linoleic acid (LNA):ALA ratios = 1-5:1; (b) individual/combined 80-90 % c9, t11 (9,11) and 5-10 % t10, c12 (10,12) CLA isomers; (c) 0.5-3.0 mM calcium; (d) combinations of (a), (b), (c); and (e) control. Local mediators, including eicosanoids and growth factors, were measured. (a) The optimal effect was found at the 4:1 LNA:ALA ratio where insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) production was the lowest in MC3T3-L1 cells. (b) All CLA isomer blends decreased MC3T3-L1 and increased MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation. (c) 1.5-2.5 mM calcium increased ST2 and MC3T3-E1, and decreased MC3T3-L1 cell proliferation. (d) Combination of 4:1 LNA:ALA + 90:10 % CLA + 2.0 mM calcium lowered MC3T3-L1 and increased MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation. Overall, the optimal LNA:ALA ratio to enhance osteoblastogenesis and inhibit adipogenesis was 4:1. This effect was enhanced by 90:10 % CLA + 2.0 mM calcium, indicating possible synergism of these dietary factors in promoting osteoblast and inhibiting adipocyte differentiation in cell cultures. PMID:23757205

  15. An ER-targeted calcium-binding peptide confers salt and drought tolerance mediated by CIPK6 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Pei-Lan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Allen, Nina Stromgren; Winter-Sederoff, Heike; Robertson, Dominique

    2012-03-01

    Different plant organelles have high internal stores of Ca(2+) compared to the cytoplasm and could play independent roles in stress responses or signal transduction. We used a GFP fusion with the C-domain of calreticulin, which shows low-affinity, high capacity Ca(2+) binding in the ER, as a calcium-binding peptide (CBP) to specifically increase stores in the ER and nucleus. Despite the presence of a signal sequence and KDEL retention sequence, our work and previous studies (Brandizzi et al. Plant Journal 34:269-281, 2003) demonstrated both ER and nuclear localization of GFP-CBP. Under normal conditions, GFP-CBP-expressing lines had ~25% more total Ca(2+) and higher levels of chlorophyll and seed yield than wild type and GFP controls. CBP-expressing plants also had better survival under intermittent drought or high salt treatments and increased root growth. One member of the CIPK (calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinase) gene family, CIPK6, was up-regulated in CBP-expressing plants, even under non-stress conditions. A null mutation in cipk6 abolished the increased stress tolerance of CBP-transgenic plants, as well as the CBP-mediated induction of two stress-associated genes, DREB1A and RD29A, under non-stress conditions. Although this suggested that it was the induction of CIPK6, rather than localized changes in Ca(2+), that resulted in increased survival under adverse conditions, CIPK6 induction still required Ca(2+). This work demonstrates that ER (or nuclear) Ca(2+) can directly participate in signal transduction to alter gene expression. The discovery of a method for increasing Ca(2+) levels without deleterious effects on plant growth may have practical applications. PMID:21971994

  16. Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-1inked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  17. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken by mouth or used as enemas. Indigestion. Aluminum phosphate and calcium phosphate are FDA-permitted ingredients ... Phosphate salts containing sodium, potassium, aluminum, or calcium are LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth short-term, when sodium phosphate is inserted into the ...

  18. Alleviation of salt-induced oxidative damage by 5-aminolevulinic acid in wheat seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate how 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), the precursor of chlorophyll compounds, affects the defence mechanisms of wheat seedlings induced by salt stress. To determine the possible stimulative effects of ALA against salinity, 11-day old wheat seedlings were sprayed with ALA at two different concentrations (10 and 20 mg.l-1) and then stressed by exposure to salt (150 mM NaCl). The salt stress led to significant changes in the antioxidant activity. While guaiacol peroxidase activity decreased, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase markedly increased under salt stress. Compared to the salt stress alone, the application of ALA beforehand further increased the activity of these enzymes. This study is the first time the effects of ALA have been monitored with regard to protein content and the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes. Although the salt stress reduced both the soluble protein content and protein band intensities, pre-treating with ALA significantly mitigated these stress-induced reductions. The data for the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes paralleled that of the ALA-induced increases in antioxidant activity. As a consequence of the high antioxidant activity in the seedlings pre-treated with ALA, the stress-induced elevations in the reactive oxygen species, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide contents and lipid peroxidation levels were markedly diminished. Taken together, this data demonstrated that pre-treating with ALA confers resistance to salt stress by modulating the protein synthesis and antioxidant activity in wheat seedlings.

  19. 40 CFR 721.2140 - Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. 721.2140 Section 721.2140 Protection of Environment...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-mino-al-kyl-car-bo-mon-o-cyc-lic ester, halogen acid salt (PMN P-88-1682) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2140 - Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. 721.2140 Section 721.2140 Protection of Environment...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-mino-al-kyl-car-bo-mon-o-cyc-lic ester, halogen acid salt (PMN P-88-1682) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2140 - Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. 721.2140 Section 721.2140 Protection of Environment...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-mino-al-kyl-car-bo-mon-o-cyc-lic ester, halogen acid salt (PMN P-88-1682) is subject to reporting...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2140 - Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. 721.2140 Section 721.2140 Protection of Environment...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-mino-al-kyl-car-bo-mon-o-cyc-lic ester, halogen acid salt (PMN P-88-1682) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2140 - Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. 721.2140 Section 721.2140 Protection of Environment...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-mino-al-kyl-car-bo-mon-o-cyc-lic ester, halogen acid salt (PMN P-88-1682) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1284 - Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids (C8-C18 saturated; C8-C12 unsaturated); exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids... Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids (C8-C18 saturated; C8-C12 unsaturated); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Ammonium salts of C8-C18 saturated and C8-C12 unsaturated higher fatty acids...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1284 - Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids (C8-C18 saturated; C8-C12 unsaturated); exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids... Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids (C8-C18 saturated; C8-C12 unsaturated); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Ammonium salts of C8-C18 saturated and C8-C12 unsaturated higher fatty acids...

  6. Laboratory studies of the low-temperature deliquescence of calcium chloride salts: Relevance to aqueous solutions on Mars and in the Antarctic Dry Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, R. V.; Chevrier, V.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    There is significant interest in the possible existence of liquid water on current Mars. This water would likely exist as a brine in order to be stable on Mars today. It has been proposed that soil salts could form aqueous solutions through either the melting of ice by low-eutectic salts, or by the deliquescence of hygroscopic salts present in the Martian soil. The focus thus far has largely been on perchlorate species, which can melt ice at temperatures as low as 206 K and can deliquesce at relative humidity values as low as 38% RH. A Mars-relevant salt that has been neglected thus far is calcium chloride (CaCl2). Calcium has been reported to be an abundant cation at the Phoenix landing site and Mars Science Laboratory instruments have recently identified calcium as well. Simulations suggest subsurface CaCl2 is an ideal candidate to produce brines with seasonality consistent with observed recurring slope lineae (RSL) (Chevrier et al., 2012). Finally, the only terrestrial site where RSL-like features have been observed (near Don Juan Pond in the Antarctic Dry Valleys) contains abundant CaCl2. These seasonal slope streaks are thought to form when CaCl2 in the soil deliquesces due to contact with atmospheric water vapor (Dickson et al., 2013). It is important to understand how this CaCl2 interacts with water vapor at low temperatures relevant to Mars and the Martian analog sites. Here we use a Raman microscope and environmental cell to monitor the low-temperature (223 - 273 K) deliquescence (solid to aqueous phase transition) and efflorescence (aqueous to solid phase transition) of three hydration states of CaCl2 (dihydrate, tetrahydrate, hexahydrate). We have found that the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) increases with increasing hydration state, which is an expected result. Average DRH values over the temperature range studied are 20.0 × 2.6% RH for the dihydrate, 31.8 × 6.3% RH for the tetrahydrate and 60.7 × 1.6% RH for the hexahydrate. Once the aqueous

  7. Stabilization of amorphous calcium carbonate by phosphate rich organic matrix proteins and by single phosphoamino acids.

    PubMed

    Bentov, Shmuel; Weil, Simy; Glazer, Lilah; Sagi, Amir; Berman, Amir

    2010-08-01

    Stable amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is a unique material produced naturally exclusively as a biomineral. It was demonstrated that proteins extracted from biogenic stable ACC induce and stabilize synthetic ACC in vitro. Polyphosphate molecules were similarly shown to induce amorphous calcium carbonate formation in vitro. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that biogenic ACC induction and stabilization is mediated by the phosphorylated residues of phosphoproteins. We show that extracellular organic matrix extracted from gastroliths of the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus induce stable ACC formation in vitro. The proteinaceous fraction of this organic matrix is highly phosphorylated and is incorporated into the ACC mineral phase during precipitation. We have identified the major phosphoproteins of the organic matrix and showed that they have high calcium binding capacity. Based on the above, in vitro precipitation experiments with single phosphoamino acids were performed, indicating that phosphoserine or phosphothreonine alone can induce the formation of highly stable ACC. The results indicate that phosphoproteins may play a major role in the control of ACC formation and stabilization and that their phosphoamino acid moieties are key components in this process. PMID:20416381

  8. Intestinal absorption of lithocholic acid sulfates in the rat: inhibitory effects of calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Kuipers, F.; Heslinga, H.; Havinga, R.; Vonk, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    Sulfation of lithocholic acid has been proposed as a mechanism for elimination of this hepatotoxic bile acid from the body by accelerating its fecal excretion. However, quantitative data on the absorption characteristics of sulfated lithocholic acid conjugates in vivo are scarce. We studied the intestinal absorption of /sup 14/C-labeled glycolithocholic acid (GLC), taurolithocholic acid (TLC), and their 3 alpha-sulfate esters, SGLC and STLC, respectively. Studies were performed in unanesthetized rats with a permanent biliary drainage. At an intestinal infusion rate of 125 nmol/min, which is comparable to 7% of the normal biliary bile acid output in the rat, the absorption of sulfated lithocholic acid conjugates was delayed when compared with their unsulfated precursors but quantitatively only slightly reduced over a 24-h period: SGLC 90.9 +/- 3.6%, GLC 94.4 +/- 1.1%, STLC 84.4 +/- 3.0%, and TLC 94.2 +/- 2.1%. Urinary excretion of sulfated and unsulfated bile acids was similar and never exceeded 2% of the dose. SGLC absorption was dose dependent, was not altered by coinfusion of rat bile, and was only slightly reduced by a sixfold overdose of taurocholic acid. SGLC and STLC were excreted into bile largely unchanged in form. In contrast, GLC and TLC were extensively metabolized to more polar bile acids, predominantly to beta-muricholic acid conjugates. Replacement of NaCl in the infusion fluid by CaCl2 reduced the absorption of SGLC and STLC by 63 and 52%, respectively. This calcium effect was less pronounced for the unsulfated bile acids: GLC -22%, and TL-19%. Absorption of taurocholic acid was unaffected by CaCL2.

  9. Milk and cheese from cows fed calcium salts of palm and fish oil alone or in combination with soybean products.

    PubMed

    Allred, S L; Dhiman, T R; Brennand, C P; Khanal, R C; McMahon, D J; Luchini, N D

    2006-01-01

    Twenty cows were used in a randomized block design experiment for 6 wk to determine the influence of feeding partial ruminally inert Ca salts of palm and fish oil (Ca-PFO), alone or in combination with extruded full-fat soybeans or soybean oil, on milk fatty acid (FA) methyl esters composition and consumer acceptability of milk and Cheddar cheese. Cows were fed either a diet containing 44% forage and 56% concentrate (control) or a diet supplemented with 2.7% Ca-PFO (FO), 5% extruded full-fat soybeans + 2.7% Ca-PFO (FOESM), or 0.75% soybean oil + 2.7% Ca-PFO (FOSO). Total dietary FA content in the control, FO, FOESM, and FOSO diets were 4.61, 6.28, 6.77, and 6.62 g/100 g, respectively. There was no difference in nutrient intake, milk yield, or milk composition among treatments. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) C(18:2) cis-9, trans-11 isomer, C(18:1) trans-11 (VA), and total n-3 FA in milk from cows on the control, FO, FOESM, and FOSO treatments were 0.56, 1.20, 1.36, and 1.74; 3.29, 4.66, 6.34, and 7.81; 0.62, 0.69, 0.69, and 0.67 g/100 g of FA, respectively. Concentrations of CLA, VA, and total n-3 FA in cheese were similar to milk. A trained sensory panel detected no difference in flavors of milk and cheese, except for acid flavor below a slightly perceptible level in cheese from all treatments. Results suggest that feeding Ca-PFO alone or in combination with extruded full-fat soybeans or soybean oil enhanced the CLA, VA, total unsaturated and n-3 FA in milk and cheese without negatively affecting cow performance and consumer acceptability characteristics of milk and cheese. PMID:16357287

  10. Habit modification of calcium carbonate in the presence of malic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Mao Zhaofeng; Huang Jianhua

    2007-02-15

    The ability of malic acid to control calcium carbonate morphology has been investigated by aging calcium chloride solution in the presence of urea in a 90 deg. C bath. Malic acid favors the formation of calcite. A transition from single block to aggregate with special morphology occurs upon increasing malic acid concentration. The morphological development of CaCO{sub 3} crystal obviously depends on the starting pH. CaCO{sub 3} crystal grows from spindle seed to dumbbell in the pH regime from 7 to 11; while it evolves from spindle seed, through peanut, to sphere at pH=11.5. Both dumbbell and sphere consist of rods that are elongated along c-axis and capped with three smooth, well-defined rhombic {l_brace}1 0 4{r_brace} faces. A tentative growth mechanism is proposed based on the fractal model suggested by R. Kniep and S. Busch [Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 35 (1996) 2624]. - Graphical abstract: Dumbbell-like CaCO{sub 3} particles obtained in the presence of malic acid.

  11. The study of modified calcium hydroxides with surfactants for acid gas removal during incineration.

    PubMed

    Tseng, H H; Wey, M Y; Lu, C Y

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of the present work is to use additives to extend the sulfation reaction of the calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) used to control SO2 emission from incineration processes. There are two reasons for adding surfactants (surface-active agent): (1) to provide an appropriate dispersion of the Ca(OH)2', thus preventing particle agglomeration due to humidity; (2) to alter the sulfation reaction environment by adsorbing heterogeneous materials on the surface of the Ca(OH)2 to extend the adsorption equilibrium. A dry scrubber integrated with a fabric filter was employed to study the effect of surfactants on the removal efficiency of acid gas in the flue gas with Ca(OH)2 as the sorbent. The operating parameters evaluated include: (1) the different surfactants (calcium lignosulfonate, sodium lignosulfonate, alkyl naphthalene sodium sulfonate and beta-naphthalene sodium sulfonate condensates) and (2) the composition of acid gas (i.e. sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NO) and hydrogen chloride (HCl)). The results show that modified Ca(OH)2 with surfactants could effectively decrease the emission of acid gas during incineration. Different additives had individual absorption efficiencies on different acid gases. On the whole, sodium lignosulfonate and beta-naphthalene sodium sulfonate condensates had better sorption capacity for SO2 and NO, but not for HCl. In addition, when SO2 coexisted with NO and HCl, the concentration of NO and HCl will result in decrease or increase of the removal efficiency of SO2. PMID:11924579

  12. Strong and Biostable Hyaluronic Acid-Calcium Phosphate Nanocomposite Hydrogel via in Situ Precipitation Process.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seol-Ha; Koh, Young-Hag; Kim, Suk-Wha; Park, Ji-Ung; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Song, Juha

    2016-03-14

    Hyaluronic acid (HAc) hydrogel exhibits excellent biocompatibility, but it has limited biomedical application due to its poor biomechanical properties as well as too-fast enzymatic degradation. In this study, we have developed an in situ precipitation process for the fabrication of a HAc-calcium phosphate nanocomposite hydrogel, after the formation of the glycidyl methacrylate-conjugated HAc (GMHA) hydrogels via photo-cross-linking, to improve the mechanical and biological properties under physiological conditions. In particular, our process facilitates the rapid incorporation of calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles of uniform size and with minimal agglomeration into a polymer matrix, homogeneously. Compared with pure HAc, the nanocomposite hydrogels exhibit improved mechanical behavior. Specifically, the shear modulus is improved by a factor of 4. The biostability of the nanocomposite hydrogel was also significantly improved compared with that of pure HAc hydrogels under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. PMID:26878437

  13. Calcium and ascorbic acid affect cellular structure and water mobility in apple tissue during osmotic dehydration in sucrose solutions.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Maria A; Dellarosa, Nicolò; Tylewicz, Urszula; Tappi, Silvia; Laghi, Luca; Rocculi, Pietro; Rosa, Marco Dalla

    2016-03-15

    The effects of the addition of calcium lactate and ascorbic acid to sucrose osmotic solutions on cell viability and microstructure of apple tissue were studied. In addition, water distribution and mobility modification of the different cellular compartments were observed. Fluorescence microscopy, light microscopy and time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) were respectively used to evaluate cell viability and microstructural changes during osmotic dehydration. Tissues treated in a sucrose-calcium lactate-ascorbic acid solution did not show viability. Calcium lactate had some effects on cell walls and membranes. Sucrose solution visibly preserved the protoplast viability and slightly influenced the water distribution within the apple tissue, as highlighted by TD-NMR, which showed higher proton intensity in the vacuoles and lower intensity in cytoplasm-free spaces compared to other treatments. The presence of ascorbic acid enhanced calcium impregnation, which was associated with permeability changes of the cellular wall and membranes. PMID:26575708

  14. [Psychotropic effect of phenibut salts and their compositions with organic acids].

    PubMed

    Tiurenkov, I N; Bagmetova, V V; Krivitskaia, A N; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2011-01-01

    The spectra of psychotropic action of some phenibut salts (succunate, maleate, nicotinate) and a composition of phenibut with glutamic acid were studied. It is established, that the substances studied show psychotropic activity spectrum generally similar to that of phenibut, but different in expressiveness of some particular effects. Compound RSPU-149 exhibited the most pronounced psychotropic action: its anxiolytic effect was below, the antidepressant effect was comparable with, and the nootrope action exceeded that of phenibut. PMID:21476277

  15. Amine salt of n-triazolyl-hydrocarbyl succinamic acid and lubricating oil composition containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Nebzydoski, J.W.; Patmore, E.L.

    1981-08-11

    An amine salt of n-triazolyl-hydrocarbyl succinamic acid represented by the formula: 3-(HOOC-R''''-CO-NH-)-1,2,4-triazole. R'''-NH-R''' in which R'''' is an alkylene radical having from 2 to 24 carbon atoms and R''' is hydrogen or a hydrocarbyl radical having from 1 to 24 carbon atoms at least one R''' being a hydrocarbyl radical and a lubricating oil composition containing same is provided.

  16. Supported phosphate and carbonate salts for heterogeneous catalysis of triglycerides to fatty acid methyl esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, Stephanie Lynne

    Fatty acid methyl esters made from vegetable oil, or biodiesel, have been identified as a substitute for diesel derived from crude oil. Biodiesel is currently made using a homogeneous base catalyst to perform the transesterification of triglycerides with methanol to generate fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The use of a homogeneous catalyst necessitates additional purification of the product and byproducts before sale, and the catalyst is consumed and discarded. The development of a heterogeneous basic catalyst for the production of FAME is desirable. Tribasic phosphate salts and dibasic carbonate salts are active for the production of FAME but generally operate as homogeneous catalysts. Supporting these phosphate and carbonate salts on mesoporous MCM-41, microporous silica gel, and nonporous a-alumina proved successful to greater or lesser degrees depending on the identity of the support and pretreatment of the support. Although these salts were supported and were active for the production of FAME from canola oil, they proved to be operating as homogeneous catalysts due to leaching of the active species off the surface of the support. Further investigation of the active species present in the tribasic phosphate catalysts identified the active support as orthophosphate, and NMR studies revealed the phosphorus to be present as orthophosphate and diphosphate in varying proportions in each catalyst. Evaluation of the acid-washing support pretreatment process revealed that the exposure of the support to acid plays a large role in the development of activity on the surface of the catalyst, but manipulation of these parameters did not prevent leaching of the active site off the surface of the catalyst. Alternate methods of support pretreatment were no more effective in preventing leaching. Tribasic phosphate supported on silica gel is not effective as a heterogeneous catalyst for FAME production from triglycerides because of the lack of stability of the phosphate on the

  17. 40 CFR 721.5252 - 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. 721.5252 Section 721.5252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-,...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5252 - 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. 721.5252 Section 721.5252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5252 - 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. 721.5252 Section 721.5252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5252 - 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. 721.5252 Section 721.5252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5252 - 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. 721.5252 Section 721.5252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-,...

  2. 77 FR 33399 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Administrative Review, 77 FR 1455 (January 10, 2012). \\10\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the... Certain Citrate Salts from Canada and the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703... Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781, 37785 (June 28, 2011) (``Initiation''). \\3\\ See Letter...

  3. Taxonomic homogeneity of a salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria isolated from shoyu mash.

    PubMed

    Hanagata, Hiroshi; Shida, Osamu; Takagi, Hiroaki

    2003-04-01

    Forty-seven salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria, which had been isolated from different places and grown in 15% NaCl, were examined to assess their taxonomic heterogeneity. Among the isolates, 42 were isolated from shoyu mash during the acid fermentation phase, 2 were from miso and 3 were from anchovy pickles. All isolates were identified as Tetragenococcus halophilus on the basis of DNA relatedness values. We further examined 102 phenotypic characteristics of them. The isolates exhibited differences in only 16, supporting the conclusion obtained from the DNA relatedness analysis. PMID:12833212

  4. Oleate salt formation and mesomorphic behavior in the propranolol/oleic acid binary system.

    PubMed

    Crowley, K J; Forbes, R T; York, P; Nyqvist, H; Camber, O

    1999-06-01

    Thermal analysis of propranolol/oleic acid mixtures prepared by solvent evaporation enabled construction of the binary system phase diagram. This allowed both physical and chemical interactions to be identified, including complex formation at the equimolar composition. An incongruent melting complex with a characteristic reaction point was identified in excess oleic acid compositions, a common property of fatty acid/fatty acid salt binary systems. The equimolar complex was confirmed to be propranolol oleate using infrared spectroscopy. Wide-angle X-ray powder diffractometry demonstrated that propranolol oleate possessed long-range positional order ( approximately 25 A d spacing) accompanied by a degree of disorder over shorter d spacings. Such a pattern suggested mesophase formation, explaining the unctuous nature of propranolol oleate at room temperature. Accurate measurement of the long-range d spacing was achieved using small-angle X-ray scattering, permitting differentiation of the three different phases identified (phase I: 25.4 A, phase II: 24.6 A, phase III: 25.4-25.5 A). The implications of drug fatty acid salt formation and also mesomorphism in pharmaceutical systems are discussed. PMID:10350493

  5. Second hyperpolarizability of the calcium-doped lithium salt of pyridazine Li-H3C4N2 ⋯ Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Suélio; Castro, Marcos A.; Leão, Salviano A.; Fonseca, Tertius L.

    2016-08-01

    In this work we report results of coupled cluster calculations for the second hyperpolarizability of the calcium-doped lithium salt of pyridazine (Li-H3C4N2 ⋯ Ca) molecule. In the static limit an unusual value of 4.34 ×106 au was obtained at the CCSD level of calculation. Results obtained for the dc-Kerr effect through SCF, CCS and CCSD methods show that γ (- ω; ω, 0, 0) is strongly dependent of the electron correlation treatment. Dynamic results obtained at the CCSD level are also reported for the IDRI, dc-SHG and THG nonlinear optical processes.

  6. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its... the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the pesticidal chemical boric acid...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its... the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the pesticidal chemical boric acid...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its... the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the pesticidal chemical boric acid...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its... the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the pesticidal chemical boric acid...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its... the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the pesticidal chemical boric acid...

  11. Catalytic actions of alkaline salts in reactions between 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid and cellulose: II. Esterification.

    PubMed

    Ji, Bolin; Tang, Peixin; Yan, Kelu; Sun, Gang

    2015-11-01

    1,2,3,4-Butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) reacts with cellulose in two steps with catalysis of alkaline salts such as sodium hypophosphite: anhydride formation and esterification of anhydride with cellulose. The alkali metal ions were found effective in catalyzing formation of BTCA anhydride in a previous report. In this work, catalytic functions of the alkaline salts in the esterification reaction between BTCA anhydride and cellulose were investigated. Results revealed that acid anions play an important role in the esterification reaction by assisting removal of protons on intermediates and completion of the esterification between cellulose and BTCA. Besides, alkaline salts with lower pKa1 values of the corresponding acids are more effective ones for the reaction since addition of these salts could lead to lower pH values and higher acid anion concentrations in finishing baths. The mechanism explains the results of FTIR and wrinkle recovery angles of the fabrics cured under different temperatures and times. PMID:26256345

  12. Biphasic dissolution method for quality control and assurance of drugs containing active substances in the form of weak acid salts.

    PubMed

    Franc, Aleš; Muselłk, Jan; Goněc, Roman; Vetchý, David

    2016-03-01

    Substances in the form of weak acid salts have been found to be problematic for dissolution testing. Their absorption can start only after they are turned into the form of an acid following the gastric passage although they were administered in the form of a salt. Due to poor solubility, they cannot be tested in acidic gastric environment for a biased dissolution profile. The biphasic dissolution method is promising for overcoming this obstacle. Tablets with warfarin clathrate sodium salt in two concentrations and two different particle size distributions were tested as a suitable model for finding the medium and process conditions of dissolution. The dissolution method based on the use of the upper organic layer (1-octanol) and the lower aqueous layer 0.1 mol L(-1) HCl) was found suitable and discriminatory for tablets containing active substances in the form of salts of weak acids. The method also reflects physical differences in the quality of used substances. PMID:26959550

  13. Abscisic Acid Stimulates a Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase in Grape Berry1[W

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiang-Chun; Li, Mei-Jun; Gao, Gui-Feng; Feng, Hai-Zhong; Geng, Xue-Qing; Peng, Chang-Cao; Zhu, Sai-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Shen, Yuan-Yue; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2006-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that calcium plays a central role in mediating abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, but many of the Ca2+-binding sensory proteins as the components of the ABA-signaling pathway remain to be elucidated. Here we identified, characterized, and purified a 58-kD ABA-stimulated calcium-dependent protein kinase from the mesocarp of grape berries (Vitis vinifera × Vitis labrusca), designated ACPK1 (for ABA-stimulated calcium-dependent protein kinase1). ABA stimulates ACPK1 in a dose-dependent manner, and the ACPK1 expression and enzyme activities alter accordantly with the endogenous ABA concentrations during fruit development. The ABA-induced ACPK1 stimulation appears to be transient with a rapid effect in 15 min but also with a slow and steady state of induction after 60 min. ABA acts on ACPK1 indirectly and dependently on in vivo state of the tissues. Two inactive ABA isomers, (−)-2-cis, 4-trans-ABA and 2-trans, 4-trans-(±)-ABA, are ineffective for inducing ACPK1 stimulation, revealing that the ABA-induced effect is stereo specific to physiological active (+)-2-cis, 4-trans-ABA. The other phytohormones such as auxin indoleacetic acid, gibberellic acid, synthetic cytokinin N-benzyl-6-aminopurine, and brassinolide are also ineffective in this ACPK1 stimulation. Based on sequencing of the two-dimensional electrophoresis-purified ACPK1, we cloned the ACPK1 gene. The ACPK1 is expressed specifically in grape berry covering a fleshy portion and seeds, and in a developmental stage-dependent manner. We further showed that ACPK1 is localized in both plasma membranes and chloroplasts/plastids and positively regulates plasma membrane H+-ATPase in vitro, suggesting that ACPK1 may be involved in the ABA-signaling pathway. PMID:16407437

  14. Crystal and molecular structures of twelve salts from isopropylamine and different organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xianhong; Zhang, Huan; Xu, Kai; Sun, JiaHui; Ye, Jiaying; Jin, Shouwen; Wang, Daqi

    2015-08-01

    Twelve isopropylamine derived supramolecular complexes isopropylamine: (m-toluic acid) [(Hipa)+ ṡ (mtua-), mtua- = m-toluate] (1), isopropylamine: (p-toluic acid) [(Hipa)+ ṡ (ptua-), ptua- = p-toluate] (2), isopropylamine: (p-methoxybenzoic acid) [(Hipa)+ ṡ (pmba-), pmba- = p-methoxybenzoate] (3), (isopropylamine): (3,4-methylenedioxybenzoic acid) [(Hipa)+ ṡ (mba)-, mba = 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoate] (4), (isopropylamine): (2-methyl-2-phenoxypropanoic acid) [(Hipa)+ ṡ (mpa-), mpa- = 2-methyl-2-phenoxypropionate] (5), (isopropylamine): (4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid) [(Hipa)+ ṡ (cpa-), cpa- = 4-chlorophenoxyacetate] (6), (isopropylamine): (3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid) [(Hipa)+ ṡ (dnba-), dnba- = 3,5-dinitrobenzoate] (7), (isopropylamine): (2-furoic acid) [(Hipa)+ ṡ (fura-), fura- = 2-furoate] (8), (isopropylamine): (1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid) [(Hipa)+ ṡ (hna), hna = 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate] (9), (isopropylamine): (4-nitrophthalic acid) [(Hipa)2+ ṡ (npa2-), npa2- = 4-nitrophthalate] (10), (isopropylamine)2: (2,5-bis-isopropylcarbamoyl-terephthalic acid): 2H2O [(Hipa)2+ ṡ (bta2-) ṡ 2H2O, bta2- = 2,5-bis-isopropylcarbamoyl-terephthalate] (11), and (isopropylamine)2: (1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid) [(Hipa)2+ ṡ (nds2-), nds2- = 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonate] (12) were synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. All supramolecular architectures of 1-12 involve extensive classical hydrogen bonds as well as other non-covalent interactions. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the Nsbnd H⋯O, Osbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯S hydrogen bonds between the acidic components and isopropylamine are sufficient to bring about the formation of binary organic salts. The role of weak and strong non-covalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. These weak interactions combined, the complexes 1-12 displayed 1D-3D framework structure.

  15. Steroid binding to Autotaxin links bile salts and lysophosphatidic acid signalling.

    PubMed

    Keune, Willem-Jan; Hausmann, Jens; Bolier, Ruth; Tolenaars, Dagmar; Kremer, Andreas; Heidebrecht, Tatjana; Joosten, Robbie P; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Matas-Rico, Elisa; Moolenaar, Wouter H; Oude Elferink, Ronald P; Perrakis, Anastassis

    2016-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) generates the lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX-LPA signalling is involved in multiple biological and pathophysiological processes, including vasculogenesis, fibrosis, cholestatic pruritus and tumour progression. ATX has a tripartite active site, combining a hydrophilic groove, a hydrophobic lipid-binding pocket and a tunnel of unclear function. We present crystal structures of rat ATX bound to 7α-hydroxycholesterol and the bile salt tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), showing how the tunnel selectively binds steroids. A structure of ATX simultaneously harbouring TUDCA in the tunnel and LPA in the pocket, together with kinetic analysis, reveals that bile salts act as partial non-competitive inhibitors of ATX, thereby attenuating LPA receptor activation. This unexpected interplay between ATX-LPA signalling and select steroids, notably natural bile salts, provides a molecular basis for the emerging association of ATX with disorders associated with increased circulating levels of bile salts. Furthermore, our findings suggest potential clinical implications in the use of steroid drugs. PMID:27075612

  16. Steroid binding to Autotaxin links bile salts and lysophosphatidic acid signalling

    PubMed Central

    Keune, Willem-Jan; Hausmann, Jens; Bolier, Ruth; Tolenaars, Dagmar; Kremer, Andreas; Heidebrecht, Tatjana; Joosten, Robbie P.; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J.; Matas-Rico, Elisa; Moolenaar, Wouter H.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P.; Perrakis, Anastassis

    2016-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) generates the lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX-LPA signalling is involved in multiple biological and pathophysiological processes, including vasculogenesis, fibrosis, cholestatic pruritus and tumour progression. ATX has a tripartite active site, combining a hydrophilic groove, a hydrophobic lipid-binding pocket and a tunnel of unclear function. We present crystal structures of rat ATX bound to 7α-hydroxycholesterol and the bile salt tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), showing how the tunnel selectively binds steroids. A structure of ATX simultaneously harbouring TUDCA in the tunnel and LPA in the pocket, together with kinetic analysis, reveals that bile salts act as partial non-competitive inhibitors of ATX, thereby attenuating LPA receptor activation. This unexpected interplay between ATX-LPA signalling and select steroids, notably natural bile salts, provides a molecular basis for the emerging association of ATX with disorders associated with increased circulating levels of bile salts. Furthermore, our findings suggest potential clinical implications in the use of steroid drugs. PMID:27075612

  17. Collagen Stimulators: Poly-L-Lactic Acid and Calcium Hydroxyl Apatite.

    PubMed

    Breithaupt, Andrew; Fitzgerald, Rebecca

    2015-11-01

    Over the last decade, many studies of the structural changes observed in the aging face (in bone, fat pads, facial ligaments, muscle, skin) have increased our understanding that facial rejuvenation is more complex and nuanced than simply filling lines and folds or cutting and lifting soft tissue and skin. This, in addition to the many new products introduced to the marketplace over the same period, has fueled the evolution of panfacial rejuvenation and restoration using fillers. This article discusses current techniques used with calcium hydroxylapatite and poly-l-lactic acid to safely and effectively address changes observed in the aging face. PMID:26505542

  18. In vitro biocompatibility of chitosan/hyaluronic acid-containing calcium phosphate bone cements.

    PubMed

    Hesaraki, Saeed; Nezafati, Nader

    2014-08-01

    The need for bone repair has increased as the population ages. In this research, calcium phosphate cements, with and without chitosan (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA), were synthesized. The composition and morphological properties of cements were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The acellular in vitro bioactivity revealed that different apatite morphologies were formed on the surfaces of cements after soaking in simulated body fluid. The in vitro osteoblastic cell biocompatibility of in situ forming cements was evaluated and compared with those of conventional calcium phosphate cements (CPCs). The viability and growth rate of the cells were similar for all CPCs, but better alkaline phosphatase activity was observed for CPC with CS and HA. Calcium phosphate cements supported attachment of osteoblastic cells on their surfaces. Spindle-shaped osteoblasts with developed cytoplasmic membrane were found on the surfaces of cement samples after 7 days of culture. These results reveal the potential of the CPC-CS/HA composites to be used in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24399509

  19. Salt Reduction in a Model High-Salt Akawi Cheese: Effects on Bacterial Activity, pH, Moisture, Potential Bioactive Peptides, Amino Acids, and Growth of Human Colon Cells.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of sodium chloride reduction and its substitution with potassium chloride on Akawi cheese during storage for 30 d at 4 °C. Survival of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Bifidobacterium longum) and starter bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus), angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory and antioxidant activities, and concentrations of standard amino acids as affected by storage in different brine solutions (10% NaCl, 7.5% NaCl, 7.5% NaCl+KCl [1:1], 5% NaCl, and 5% NaCl+KCl [1:1]) were investigated. Furthermore, viability of human colon cells and human colon cancer cells as affected by the extract showing improved peptide profiles, highest release of amino acids and antioxidant activity (that is, from cheese brined in 7.5% NaCl+KCl) was evaluated. Significant increase was observed in survival of probiotic bacteria in cheeses with low salt after 30 d. Calcium content decreased slightly during storage in all cheeses brined in various solutions. Further, no significant changes were observed in ACE-inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of cheeses during storage. Interestingly, concentrations of 4 essential amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan, valine, and leucine) increased significantly during storage in brine solutions containing 7.5% total salt. Low concentration of cheese extract (100 μg/mL) significantly improved the growth of normal human colon cells, and reduced the growth of human colon cancer cells. Overall, the study revealed that cheese extracts from reduced-NaCl brine improved the growth of human colon cells, and the release of essential amino acids, but did not affect the activities of potential bioactive peptides. PMID:26919457

  20. Optimizing facial rejuvenation outcomes by combining poly-L-lactic acid, hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, and neurotoxins: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Z Paul; Daro-Kaftan, Elizabeth

    2014-02-01

    Reversal of the visible signs of facial aging with the use of injectable products as an alternative to surgery has become more popular, with nearly 5 million procedures performed in the United States in 2012. Volume augmentation products, such as hyaluronic acid (HA), calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA), and poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), are often used in combination with one another and with neurotoxins for facial rejuvenation because of the complementary modes of action. This article presents 2 case reports involving patientspecific combinations of 2 different HA products, injectable PLLA, and CaHA with incobotulinumtoxinA or abobotulinumtoxinA. The combination of HA, CaHA, PLLA, and neurotoxins has resulted in outstanding outcomes for many patients, with no clinical evidence of increased adverse events secondary to combination therapy. PMID:24509971

  1. Application of acidic calcium sulfate and e-polylysine to pre-rigor beef rounds for reduction of pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illness continues to be a serious public health problem and is a major concern for the United States food industry. This study evaluated the effectiveness of warm solutions of acidic calcium sulfate (ACS), lactic acid (LA), episolon-polylysine (EPL), ACS plus EPL, and sterile distilled wa...

  2. Salt-mediated self-assembly of thioctic acid on gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Volkert, Anna A; Subramaniam, Varuni; Ivanov, Michael R; Goodman, Amanda M; Haes, Amanda J

    2011-06-28

    Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) modification is a widely used method to improve the functionality and stability of bulk and nanoscale materials. For instance, the chemical compatibility and utility of solution-phase nanoparticles are often improved using covalently bound SAMs. Herein, solution-phase gold nanoparticles are modified with thioctic acid SAMs in the presence and absence of salt. Molecular packing density on the nanoparticle surfaces is estimated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and increases by ∼20% when molecular self-assembly occurs in the presence versus the absence of salt. We hypothesize that as the ionic strength of the solution increases, pinhole and collapsed-site defects in the SAM are more easily accessible as the electrostatic interaction energy between adjacent molecules decreases, thereby facilitating the subsequent assembly of additional thioctic acid molecules. Significantly, increased SAM packing densities increase the stability of functionalized gold nanoparticles by a factor of 2 relative to nanoparticles functionalized in the absence of salt. These results are expected to improve the reproducible functionalization of solution-phase nanomaterials for various applications. PMID:21524135

  3. Marked intra-strain variation in response of Listeria monocytogenes dairy isolates to acid or salt stress and the effect of acid or salt adaptation on adherence to abiotic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Adrião, A; Vieira, M; Fernandes, I; Barbosa, M; Sol, M; Tenreiro, R P; Chambel, L; Barata, B; Zilhao, I; Shama, G; Perni, S; Jordan, S J; Andrew, P W; Faleiro, M L

    2008-03-31

    During food processing, and particularly in cheese manufacturing processes, Listeria monocytogenes may be exposed routinely to environments of low pH or high salt concentration. It has been suggested that these environmental conditions may contribute to bacterial adherence to abiotic surfaces and increased resistance to disinfection. In this study strains isolated from the environment of artisanal cheese-making dairies were used to investigate the behaviour of L. monocytogenes in response to acid and salt stress and clear differences between strains was observed. In planktonic culture, strains varied in resistance to low pH or high NaCl concentration and in the occurrence of an adaptive response to moderate acid or NaCl. There was dislocation in responses to salt and acid. Strains resistant, or adaptive, to acid were not resistant or adaptive to NaCl. The reverse also was observed. Exposure to moderate acid did not promote adherence to polystyrene but survival, at low pH or high NaCl concentration, of cells adherent to stainless steel was increased, even for strains that had no adaptive response planktonically, but the detail of these observations varied between strains. In contrast to acid adaptation, with some strains salt adaptation enhanced adherence of L. monocytogenes to polystyrene but this was not true for all strains. For some strains salt- or acid adaptation may enhance the survival of sessile cells exposed to hypochlorite disinfection. PMID:18258322

  4. DL-Homocysteic acid application disrupts calcium homeostasis and induces degeneration of spinal motor neurons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Adalbert, Róbert; Engelhardt, József I; Siklós, László

    2002-05-01

    Excitotoxicity, autoimmunity and free radicals have been postulated to play a role in the pathomechanism of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the most frequent motor neuron disease. Altered calcium homeostasis has already been demonstrated in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase transgenic animals, suggesting a role for free radicals in the pathogenesis of ALS, and in passive transfer experiments, modeling autoimmunity. These findings also suggested that yet-confined pathogenic insults, associated with ALS, could trigger the disruption of calcium homeostasis of motor neurons. To test the possibility that excitotoxic processes may also be able to increase calcium in motor neurons, we applied the glutamate analogue DL-homocysteic acid to the spinal cord of rats in vivo and analyzed the calcium distribution of the motor neurons over a 24-h survival period by electron microscopy. Initially, an elevated cytoplasmic calcium level, with no morphological sign of degeneration, was noticed. Later, increasing calcium accumulation was seen in different cellular compartments with characteristic features of alteration at different survival times. This calcium accumulation in organelles was paralleled by their progressive degeneration, which culminated in cell death by the end of the observation time. These findings confirm that increased calcium also plays a role in excitotoxic lesion of motor neurons, in line with previous studies documenting the involvement of calcium ions in motor neuronal injury in other models of the disease as well as elevated calcium in biopsy samples from ALS patients. We suggest that intracellular calcium might be responsible for the interplay between the different pathogenic processes resulting in a uniform clinicopathological picture of the disease. PMID:11935257

  5. Discovery of novel dihydrobenzofuran cyclopropane carboxylic acid based calcium sensing receptor antagonists for the treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Gui-Bai; Zhou, Changyou; Huo, Xianghong; Wang, Hank; Yang, Xuelin; Huang, Shaoqiang; Wang, Haisheng; Wilkinson, Hilary; Luo, Lusong; Tang, Wei; Sutton, David; Li, Hong; Zaller, Dennis; Meinke, Peter T

    2016-08-15

    In a search for novel small molecule calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) antagonists as oral bone anabolic agents, we discovered dihydrobenzofuran cyclopropane carboxylic acid derivatives, such as 12f (IC50=27.6nM), are highly potent calcium-sensing receptor antagonists. Studies in rats established that compound 12f stimulates parathyroid hormone (PTH) release in a fast-acting, pulsatile manner. PMID:27397499

  6. Iridium-Catalyzed ortho-Arylation of Benzoic Acids with Arenediazonium Salts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liangbin; Hackenberger, Dagmar; Gooßen, Lukas J

    2015-10-19

    In the presence of catalytic [{IrCp*Cl2 }2 ] and Ag2 CO3 , Li2 CO3 as the base, and acetone as the solvent, benzoic acids react with arenediazonium salts to give the corresponding diaryl-2-carboxylates under mild conditions. This C-H arylation process is generally applicable to diversely substituted substrates, ranging from extremely electron-rich to electron-poor derivatives. The carboxylate directing group is widely available and can be removed tracelessly or employed for further derivatization. Orthogonality to halide-based cross-couplings is achieved by the use of diazonium salts, which can be coupled even in the presence of iodo substituents. PMID:26465654

  7. Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid resistant mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with increased salt tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Lehle, F.R.; Murphy, M.A.; Khan, R.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Nineteen mutant Arabidopsis families resistant to the proline analog azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (ACA) were characterized in terms of NaCl tolerance and proline content. Mutants were selected from about 64,000 progeny of about 16,000 self-pollinated Columbia parents which had been mutated with ethyl methane sulfonate during seed imbibition. Selections were performed during seed germination on aseptic agar medium containing 0.2 to 0.25 mM ACA. Nineteen mutant families, 12 clearly independent, retained resistance to ACA in the M{sub 4} generation. Based on germination on 150 mM NaCl, 13 of the mutant families were more tolerant than the wild type. Two mutants of intermediate resistance to ACA were markedly more salt tolerant than the others. Four mutant families appeared to overproduce proline. Of these, only 3 showed slight increases in salt tolerance.

  8. 21 CFR 172.844 - Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN... proportions of other calcium salts of related acids, is manufactured by the reaction of stearic acid and... of the food additive and any intermediate premix prepared therefrom shall bear, in addition to...

  9. 21 CFR 172.844 - Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN... proportions of other calcium salts of related acids, is manufactured by the reaction of stearic acid and... of the food additive and any intermediate premix prepared therefrom shall bear, in addition to...

  10. 21 CFR 172.844 - Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN... proportions of other calcium salts of related acids, is manufactured by the reaction of stearic acid and... of the food additive and any intermediate premix prepared therefrom shall bear, in addition to...

  11. 21 CFR 172.844 - Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN... proportions of other calcium salts of related acids, is manufactured by the reaction of stearic acid and... of the food additive and any intermediate premix prepared therefrom shall bear, in addition to...

  12. Formation of calcium carbonate films on chitosan substrates in the presence of polyacrylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    He, Linghao; Xue, Rui; Song, Rui

    2009-05-15

    In this investigation, chitosan membranes with different surface average degrees of deacetylation (DA) are prepared and then are employed as the support matrix to culture calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}). In the presence of high concentration of polyacrylic acid (PAA), the CaCO{sub 3} films obtained on the surface of all chitosan films mainly consisted of vaterite, which suggests the presence of bulk PAA plays an overwhelming part in stabilizing the vaterite. As a comparison, the influences of active groups indicate that only in case of low concentration PAA the thin CaCO{sub 3} films grown on chitosan with 8% DA mainly consisted of vaterite owing to the strong nucleation ability of -NH{sub 2} group, whereas, for those grown on chitosan with 80% DA the CaCO{sub 3} films mainly consisted of aragonite. A more complex scenario revealed that in the case of intermediate concentration of PAA the formed polymorphs behave as mixtures of vaterite and aragonite. - Graphical abstract: Chitosan membranes with different degrees of deacetylation (DA) are employed as support to culture calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}). In high concentration of polyacrylic acid (PAA), the CaCO{sub 3} films obtained consisted of vaterite. However, the CaCO{sub 3} film grown on chitosan with 8% DA mainly consisted of vaterite as opposed to aragonite for chitosan with 8% DA. The schematic presentation of the formation of calcium carbonate on chitosan films with different degrees of acetylation in the presence of PAA with low-, mid- and high concentrations.

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis of β-aminobutyric acid-mediated alleviation of salt stress in barley.

    PubMed

    Mostek, Agnieszka; Börner, Andreas; Weidner, Stanisław

    2016-02-01

    The non-protein amino acid β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) is known to induce plant resistance to a broad spectrum of biotic and abiotic stresses. This is the first study describing the effect of BABA seed priming on physiological and proteomic changes under salt stress conditions in barley (Hordeum vulgare). The aim of our study was to investigate the changes of fresh weight, dry weight and relative water content (RWC) as well as root proteome changes of two barley lines contrasting in salt tolerance (DH14, DH 187) in response to salt stress after seed priming in water or in 800 μM BABA. Seed priming with BABA significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) RWC in both barley lines, which indicates considerably lower water loss in BABA-primed plants than in the non-primed control plants. Dry and fresh matter increased significantly in line DH 187, whereas no changes were detected in line DH14. BABA-primed plants of both lines showed different proteomic patterns than the non-primed control plants. The root proteins exhibiting significant abundance changes (1.75-fold change, p ≤ 0.05) were separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D- PAGE). Thirty-one spots, representing 24 proteins, were successfully identified by MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. The most prominent differences include the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), PR proteins (chitinase, endo-1,3-β-glucosidase), and chaperones (cyclophilin, HSC 70). Our results indicate that BABA induces defence and detoxification processes which may enable faster and more effective responses to salt stress, increasing the chances of survival under adverse environmental conditions. PMID:26760953

  14. Method of repressing the precipitation of calcium fluozirconate

    DOEpatents

    Newby, B.J.; Rhodes, D.W.

    1973-12-25

    Boric acid or a borate salt is added to aqueous solutions of fluoride containing radioactive wastes generated during the reprocessing of zirconium alloy nuclear fuels which are to be converted to solid form by calcining in a fluidized bed. The addition of calcium nitrate to the aqueous waste solutions to prevent fluoride volatility during calcination, causes the precipitation of calcium fluozirconate, which tends to form a gel at fluoride concentrations of 3.0 M or greater. The boron containing species introduced into the solution by the addition of the boric acid or borate salt retard the formation of the calcium fluozirconate precipitate and prevent formation of the gel. These boron containing species can be introduced into the solution by the addition of a borate salt but preferably are introduced by the addition of an aqueous solution of boric acid. (Official Gazette)

  15. Dissolution mechanism of calcium apatites in acids: A review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2012-01-01

    Eight dissolution models of calcium apatites (both fluorapatite and hydroxyapatite) in acids were drawn from the published literature, analyzed and discussed. Major limitations and drawbacks of the models were conversed in details. The models were shown to deal with different aspects of apatite dissolution phenomenon and none of them was able to describe the dissolution process in general. Therefore, an attempt to combine the findings obtained by different researchers was performed which resulted in creation of the general description of apatite dissolution in acids. For this purpose, eight dissolution models were assumed to complement each other and provide the correct description of the specific aspects of apatite dissolution. The general description considers all possible dissolution stages involved and points out to some missing and unclear phenomena to be experimentally studied and verified in future. This creates a new methodological approach to investigate reaction mechanisms based on sets of affine data, obtained by various research groups under dissimilar experimental conditions. PMID:25237611

  16. Preparation of poly(lactic acid) composite hollow spheres containing calcium carbonates.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hirotaka; Kasuga, Toshihiro

    2006-07-01

    Poly(lactic acid) composite hollow spheres containing calcium carbonate were prepared by oil-in-water emulsion evaporation to develop injectable bone substitutes incorporated with cells. The spheres were approximately 1.2mm in diameter and had a shell with a thickness in the range of 50-150microm. The hollow in the spheres was presumed to be formed by CO(2) gas generated by the decomposition of vaterite used as a starting material. An open channel approximately 800microm in diameter was formed in the spheres by chemical etching utilizing the rapid dissolution of poly(lactic acid) at the thin portion of the shell. Cells could migrate into the hollow spheres through the open channel and attach to the inner surface. PMID:16765880

  17. Biomediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate in a Slightly Acidic Hot Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.

    2015-12-01

    A slightly acidic hot spring named "Female Tower" (T=73.5 °C, pH=6.64) is located in the Jifei Geothermal Field, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The precipitates in the hot spring are composed of large amounts of calcite, aragonite, and sulfur. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses revealed that the microbial mats were formed of various coccoid, rod-shaped, and filamentous microbes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the intracellular sulfur granules were commonly associated with these microbes. A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the majority of the bacteria in the spring were sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In the spring water, H2S concentration was up to 60 ppm, while SO42- concentration was only about 10 ppm. We speculated that H2S might be utilized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in this hot spring water, leading to the intracellular formation of sulfur granules. In the meantime, this reaction increased the pH in the micron-scale microdomains, which fostered the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the microbial mats. The results of this study indicated that the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria could play an important role in calcium carbonate precipitation in slightly acidic hot spring environments.

  18. Biomediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate and Sulfur in a Faintly Acidic Hot Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.; Peng, X.; Qiao, H.

    2014-12-01

    A faintly acidic hot spring named "female Tower" (T=73.5 ℃, pH=6.64 ) is located in the Jifei Geothermal Field,Yunnan province, Southwest China. The precipitates in the hot spring are composed of large amounts of calcite and sulfur, as reveals by XRD analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis show the microbial mats are formed of various coccoid, rod and filamentous microbes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis show that intracellular sulfur granules are commonly associated with these microbes. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) analysis shows that the surface of microbes are mainly composed of Ca, C, O and S. A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrates the majority of bacteria in the spring are sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In the spring water, H2S concentration was up to 60 ppm, while SO42- concentration was only about 10 ppm. We suggest that H2S might be utilized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in this hot spring water, leading to the formation of sulfur granules intracellularly and extracellularly. In the meantime, this reaction increases the pH in ambient environments, which fosters the precipitation of calcium carbonate precipitation in the microbial mats. This study suggests that the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria could play an important role in calcium carbonate precipitation in faintly acidic hot spring environments.

  19. Structure of six anhydrous molecular salts assembled from noncovalent associations between carboxylic acids and bis-N-imidazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Guo, Ming; Wang, Daqi

    2012-08-01

    Six crystalline organic acid-base adducts derived from bis(N-imidazolyl) and carboxylic acids (3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, 5-nitrosalicylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, and phthalic acid) were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. The six compounds are all organic salts. In salts 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 the corresponding bis(imidazole) derivatives are diprotonated, while in 3, the corresponding bis(imidazole) derivative is only monoprotonated. All supramolecular architectures of the salts 1-6 involve extensive Nsbnd H⋯O, Osbnd H⋯O, CH⋯O, and CH2⋯O hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. All the salts displayed 3D framework structures under the cooperation of these weak interactions. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the N+sbnd H⋯O-, Osbnd H⋯O, and Nsbnd H⋯N hydrogen bonds between carboxylic acids and ditopic imidazoles are sufficient to bring about the formation of binary organic salts.

  20. [EXPERIENCE OF USE OF BLEMAREN® IN THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS IN URIC ACID AND CALCIUM OXALATE UROLITHIASIS].

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, O V; Yanenko, E K

    2015-01-01

    154 patients with urolithiasis were under outpatient observation for 2-8 years. Among them there were 76 women and 78 men aged 21-66 years, of which 46 patients with uric acid urolithiasis, and 88--with calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Treatment of patients was carried out systematically, depending on their condition. Indications for the application of Blemaren® included the presence of uric acid stones, uric acid and/or oxalate crystalluria. The duration of treatment was 6.1 months. The dosage of the drug varied from 6 to 18 g per day and was selected individually, depending on the purpose of the appointment of Blemaren®. Reduction of the urine pH to 6.2- 6.8-7.2 was the criterion for properly selected dose. To dissolve uric acid stones in the presence of hyperuricemia and/or hyperuricuria, Blemaren® was administered in combination with allopurinol at a dose of 0.1 g 3-4 times a day. Besides pharmacotherapy, treatment included diet therapy. It was found that the morning urine pH in urate urolithiasis is sustainable and has a range of 5.0-6.0, in 80.4% of cases--range of 5.0-5.5. In calcium oxalate urolithiasis this parameter is also stable and has a range of 5.0-6.7, in 82.9% of cases--range of 5.5-6.0. Optimal urine pH to eliminate uric acid and oxalate crystalluria in patients with uric acid and calcium oxalate urolithiasis is the interval of 6.2-6.4. It was shown that Blemaren® is a highly effective agent for treatment and prevention of uric acid and calcium oxalate crystalluria in calcium oxalate and uric acid urolithiasis. Further, its effectiveness in dissolving of uric acid stones in the absence of an infectious inflammatory process is 82.3%. PMID:26859932