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1

Comparison of Growth Performance and Whole-body Amino Acid Composition in Red Seabream (Pagrus major) Fed Free or Dipeptide Form of Phenylalanine  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the dipeptide form of phenylalanine as a new source of amino acid in terms of growth performance and whole-body amino acid composition in comparison to the free form for red seabream (Pagrus major). Fish (1.46±0.001 g) were fed four isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental diets containing 0.7 or 1.4% phenylalanine either in free or dipeptide form. A feeding trial was carried out in three replicates and the fish were fed to apparent satiation for six weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, feed intake of fish was influenced by both phenylalanine form and level and significantly higher values were obtained at an inclusion level of 0.7% and by the use of dipeptide form. However, the other growth parameters did not significantly differ among treatments. Whole-body amino acid compositions revealed no significant changes in concentrations of both essential and non-essential amino acids regardless of the increase in phenylalanine levels or the use of its different forms. The finding in this study indicates that juvenile red seabream can utilize dipeptide phenylalanine as efficiently as free form without any undesirable effects on growth performance or whole-body amino acid composition. PMID:25049673

Kim, Sung-Sam; Rahimnejad, Samad; Song, Jin-Woo; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

2012-01-01

2

Dipeptide Sequence Determination: Analyzing Phenylthiohydantoin Amino Acids by HPLC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acid composition and sequence determination, important techniques for characterizing peptides and proteins, are essential for predicting conformation and studying sequence alignment. This experiment presents improved, fundamental methods of sequence analysis for an upper-division biochemistry laboratory. Working in pairs, students use the Edman reagent to prepare phenylthiohydantoin derivatives of amino acids for determination of the sequence of an unknown dipeptide. With a single HPLC technique, students identify both the N-terminal amino acid and the composition of the dipeptide. This method yields good precision of retention times and allows use of a broad range of amino acids as components of the dipeptide. Students learn fundamental principles and techniques of sequence analysis and HPLC.

Barton, Janice S.; Tang, Chung-Fei; Reed, Steven S.

2000-02-01

3

ESLpred: SVM-based method for subcellular localization of eukaryotic proteins using dipeptide composition and PSI-BLAST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated prediction of subcellular localization of proteinsisanimportant stepinthefunctionalannota- tionofgenomes.Theexistingsubcellularlocalization prediction methods are based on either amino acid composition or N-terminal characteristics of the pro- teins.Inthispaper,supportvectormachine(SVM)has beenusedtopredictthesubcellularlocationofeukar- yotic proteins from their different features such as amino acid composition, dipeptide composition and physico-chemicalproperties.TheSVMmodulebased on dipeptide composition performed better than the SVM modules based on amino acid composition or physico-chemical properties. In addition,

Manoj Bhasin; G. P. S. Raghava

2004-01-01

4

Density functional theory calculations on dipeptide gallic acid interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to study the interaction of dipeptides with gallic acid, using Becke3 parameter Lee Yang Parr (B3LYP) method employing 3-21G*, 6-31G* and 6-31+G* basis sets. The interaction energies of the dipeptide-gallic acid complexes are in the range of -5 to -18 kcal/mol depending on the mode of intermolecular complexation. Calculated molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) for the various intermolecular complexes revealed the electrostatic nature of the interaction. Qualitative estimations based on chemical hardness and chemical potential demonstrated fractional electron transfer from dipeptide to gallic acid.

Madhan, B.; Parthasarathi, R.; Subramanian, V.; Raghava Rao, J.; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Ramasami, T.

2003-02-01

5

iHyd-PseAAC: predicting hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine in proteins by incorporating dipeptide position-specific propensity into pseudo amino acid composition.  

PubMed

Post-translational modifications (PTMs) play crucial roles in various cell functions and biological processes. Protein hydroxylation is one type of PTM that usually occurs at the sites of proline and lysine. Given an uncharacterized protein sequence, which site of its Pro (or Lys) can be hydroxylated and which site cannot? This is a challenging problem, not only for in-depth understanding of the hydroxylation mechanism, but also for drug development, because protein hydroxylation is closely relevant to major diseases, such as stomach and lung cancers. With the avalanche of protein sequences generated in the post-genomic age, it is highly desired to develop computational methods to address this problem. In view of this, a new predictor called "iHyd-PseAAC" (identify hydroxylation by pseudo amino acid composition) was proposed by incorporating the dipeptide position-specific propensity into the general form of pseudo amino acid composition. It was demonstrated by rigorous cross-validation tests on stringent benchmark datasets that the new predictor is quite promising and may become a useful high throughput tool in this area. A user-friendly web-server for iHyd-PseAAC is accessible at http://app.aporc.org/iHyd-PseAAC/. Furthermore, for the convenience of the majority of experimental scientists, a step-by-step guide on how to use the web-server is given. Users can easily obtain their desired results by following these steps without the need of understanding the complicated mathematical equations presented in this paper just for its integrity. PMID:24857907

Xu, Yan; Wen, Xin; Shao, Xiao-Jian; Deng, Nai-Yang; Chou, Kuo-Chen

2014-01-01

6

The Synthesis of a Dipeptide from its Component Amino Acids: Protecting Groups in the Elementary Organic Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple, three-step procedure for synthesizing a dipeptide from its component amino acids is described. The dipeptide synthesized uses inexpensive amino acids having hydrocarbon side-chains and can be observed in E/Z forms by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Each step in the synthesis produces white crystalline products using standard…

Young, Paul E.; Campbell, Andrew

1982-01-01

7

New synthetic siderophores and Their ?-Lactam conjugates based on diamino acids and dipeptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linking of siderophores to antibiotics improves the penetration and therefore increases the antibacterial activity of the antibiotics. We synthesized the acylated catecholates and hydroxamates as siderophore components for antibiotic conjugates to reduce side effects of unprotected catecholate and hydroxamate moieties. In this paper, we report on bis- and tris-catecholates and mixed catecholate hydroxamates based on diamino acids or dipeptides. These

S Wittmann; M Schnabelrauch; I Scherlitz-Hofmann; U Möllmann; D Ankel-Fuchs; L Heinisch

2002-01-01

8

Photochemical reaction of 2-(3-benzoylphenyl)propionic acid (ketoprofen) with basic amino acids and dipeptides.  

PubMed

Photoreaction of 2-(3-benzoylphenyl)propionic acid (ketoprofen, KP) with basic amino acids (histidine, lysine, and arginine) and dipeptides (carnosine and anserine) including a histidine moiety in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) has been investigated with transient absorption spectroscopy. With UV irradiation KP(-) gave rise to a carbanion through a decarboxylation reaction, and the carbanion easily abstracted a proton from the surrounding molecule to yield a 3-ethylbenzophenone ketyl biradical (EBPH). The dipeptides as well as the basic amino acids were found to accelerate the proton transfer reaction whereas alanine and glycine had no effect on the reaction, revealing that these amino acids having a protonated side chain act as a proton donor. The formation quantum yield of EBPH was estimated to be fairly large by means of an actinometrical method with benzophenone, and the bimolecular reaction rate constant for the proton transfer between the carbanion and the protonated basic amino acids or the protonated dipeptides was successfully determined. It has become apparent that the bimolecular reaction rate constant for the proton transfer depended on the acid dissociation constant for the side chain of the amino acids for the first time. This reaction mechanism was interpreted by difference of the heat of reaction for each basic amino acid based on the thermodynamical consideration. These results strongly suggest that the side chain of the basic amino acid residue in protein should play an important role for photochemistry of KP in vivo. PMID:23879666

Suzuki, Tadashi; Shinoda, Mio; Osanai, Yohei; Isozaki, Tasuku

2013-08-22

9

Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV and xanthine oxidase by amino acids and dipeptides.  

PubMed

Xanthine oxidase (XO) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibition by amino acids and dipeptides was studied. Trp and Trp-containing dipeptides (Arg-Trp, Trp-Val, Val-Trp, Lys-Trp and Ile-Trp) inhibited XO. Three amino acids (Met, Leu and Trp) and eight dipeptides (Phe-Leu, Trp-Val, His-Leu, Glu-Lys, Ala-Leu, Val-Ala, Ser-Leu and Gly-Leu) inhibited DPP-IV. Trp and Trp-Val were multifunctional inhibitors of XO and DPP-IV. Lineweaver and Burk analysis showed that Trp was a non-competitive inhibitor of XO and a competitive inhibitor of DPP-IV. Molecular docking with Autodock Vina was used to better understand the interaction of the peptides with the active site of the enzyme. Because of the non-competitive inhibition observed, docking of Trp-Val to the secondary binding sites of XO and DPP-IV is required. Trp-Val was predicted to be intestinally neutral (between 25% and 75% peptide remaining after 60 min simulated intestinal digestion). These results are of significance for the reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the increase of the half-life of incretins by food-derived peptides. PMID:23768405

Nongonierma, Alice B; Mooney, Catherine; Shields, Denis C; Fitzgerald, Richard J

2013-11-01

10

Energy/structure database of all proteinogenic amino acids and dipeptides without and with divalent cations  

E-print Network

We present a structural data set of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids and their amino-methylated and acetylated (capped) dipeptides. Different protonation states of the backbone (uncharged and zwitterionic) were considered for the amino acids as well as varied side chain protonation states. Furthermore, we studied amino acids and dipeptides in complex with divalent cations (Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, and Hg2+). The database covers the conformational hierarchies of 280 systems in a wide relative energy range of up to 4 eV (390 kJ/mol), summing up to an overall of 45,892 stationary points on the respective potential-energy surfaces. All systems were calculated on equal first-principles footing, applying density-functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation corrected for long-range van der Waals interactions. We show good agreement to available experimental data for gas-phase ion affinities. Our curated data can be utilized, for example, for a wide comparison across chemical space of the building...

Ropo, Matti; Blum, Volker

2015-01-01

11

Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Formate with Nickel Diphosphane Dipeptide Complexes: Effect of Ligands Modified with Amino Acids  

SciTech Connect

A series of nickel bis-diphosphine complexes with dipeptides appended to the ligands were investigated for the catalytic oxidation of formate. Typical rates of ~7 s-1 were found, similar to the parent complex (~8 s-1), with amino acid size and positioning contributing very little to rate or operating potential. Hydroxyl functionalities did result in lower rates, which were recovered by protecting the hydroxyl group. The results suggest that the overall dielectric introduced by the dipeptides does not play an important role in catalysis, but free hydroxyl groups do influence activity suggesting contributions from intra- or intermolecular interactions. These observations are important in developing a fundamental understanding of the affect that an enzyme-like outer coordination sphere can have upon molecular catalysts. This work was funded by the US DOE Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geoscience and Biosciences Division (BRG, AJ, AMA, WJS), the US DOE Basic Energy Sciences, Physical Bioscience program (MLR). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Galan, Brandon R.; Reback, Matthew L.; Jain, Avijita; Appel, Aaron M.; Shaw, Wendy J.

2013-10-28

12

Amino acid specificity of glycation and protein–AGE crosslinking reactivities determined with a dipeptide SPOT library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contribute to changes in protein conformation, loss of function, and irreversible crosslinking. Using a library of dipeptides on cellulose membranes (SPOT library), we have developed an approach to systematically assay the relative reactivities of amino acid side chains and the N-terminal amino group to sugars and protein–AGEs. The sugars react preferentially with cysteine or tryptophan

Dorothee Schicktanz; Andrea Behme; Manfred Gerlach; Peter Riederer; Dieter Palm; Reinhard Schinzel; Gerald Münch

1999-01-01

13

Soft structure formation and cancer cell transport mechanisms of a folic acid-dipeptide conjugate.  

PubMed

Folic acid (FA) is a low-molecular-weight micronutrient, which plays a critical role in the prevention of birth defects and cancers. It is also essential for biochemical pathways responsible for DNA synthesis and maintenance and for the generation of new red blood cells. Cellular trafficking of FA and folate is based on its high-affinity binding to cognate folate receptor, a protein commonly expressed in several human cancers. Thus, folate conjugates of drugs, plasmids, biosensors, contrast, and radiodiagnostic imaging agents have been used for assisted delivery in folate receptor-positive cancer cells, via endocytosis pathways. This report describes morphologies of soft structures from a fully characterized FA-dipeptide conjugate and detailed mechanistic studies of its cancer cell uptake, as tracked by the inherent fluorescence of the conjugate. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25645907

Kaur, Gagandeep; Shukla, Akansha; Sivakumar, Sri; Verma, Sandeep

2015-03-01

14

Interactions of a ?-dipeptide with monovalent metal cations: crystal structures of (anthranoyl)anthranilic acid and its lithium, sodium and thallium salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray crystal structure analyses have been performed on the ?-dipeptide (anthranoyl)anthranilic acid [HAnthAnthOH] and its lithium, sodium and thallium salts [HAnthAnthOM] to give a first set of data for this representative model ligand. Crystals of the ?-dipeptide are orthorhombic, space group Pca21. The unit cell contains two molecules of (anthranoyl)anthranilic acid which form a dimer via hydrogen bonds. The components

Frank Wiesbrock; Hubert Schmidbaur

2004-01-01

15

Synthesis of functional dipeptide carnosine from nonprotected amino acids using carnosinase-displaying yeast cells.  

PubMed

Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is one of the bioactive dipeptides and has antioxidant, antiglycation, and cytoplasmic buffering properties. In this study, to synthesize carnosine from nonprotected amino acids as substrates, we cloned the carnosinase (CN1) gene and constructed a whole-cell biocatalyst displaying CN1 on the yeast cell surface with alpha-agglutinin as the anchor protein. The display of CN1 was confirmed by immunofluorescent labeling, and CN1-displaying yeast cells showed hydrolytic activity for carnosine. When carnosine was synthesized by the reverse reaction of CN1, organic solvents were added to the reaction mixture to reduce the water content. The CN1-displaying yeast cells were lyophilized and examined for organic solvent tolerance. Results showed that the CN1-displaying yeast cells retained their original hydrolytic activity in hydrophobic organic solvents. In the hydrophobic organic solvents and hydrophobic ionic liquids, the CN1-displaying yeast cells catalyzed carnosine synthesis, and carnosine was synthesized from nonprotected amino acids in only one step. The results of this research suggest that the whole-cell biocatalyst displaying CN1 on the yeast cell surface can be used to synthesize carnosine with ease and convenience. PMID:20082075

Inaba, Chiaki; Higuchi, Shinsuke; Morisaka, Hironobu; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

2010-05-01

16

Trypsin-catalyzed synthesis of dipeptide containing alpha-aminoisobutyric acid using p- and m-(amidinomethyl)phenyl esters as acyl donor.  

PubMed

Two series of inverse substrates, p- and m-(amidinomethyl)phenyl esters derived from N-(tert-butyloxycarbonyl)amino acid, were prepared as acyl donor components for enzymatic peptide synthesis. They were found to be readily coupled with an acyl acceptor such as L-alanine p-nitroanilide to produce dipeptide. An alpha-aminoisobutyric acid containing dipeptide was especially obtained in satisfactory yield. Streptomyces griseus trypsin was a more efficient catalyst than the bovine trypsin. The optimum condition for the coupling reaction was studied by changing the organic solvent, pH, and acyl acceptor concentration. It was found that the enzymatic hydrolysis of the resulting product was negligible. PMID:18451559

Sekizaki, Haruo; Itoh, Kunihiko; Shibuya, Akiyoshi; Toyota, Eiko; Kojoma, Mareshige; Tanizawa, Kazutaka

2008-05-01

17

Intestinal drug transport via the proton-coupled amino acid transporter PAT1 (SLC36A1) is inhibited by Gly-X(aa) dipeptides.  

PubMed

The oral absorption of some drug substances is mediated by nutrient transporters. As a consequence, nutrients and drugs may compete for available transporters, and interactions at the level of intestinal absorption are possible. Recently, we have identified ?-aminolevulinic acid, Gly-Gly, and Gly-Sar as substrates of the amino acid transporter PAT1. The aim of the present study is to investigate if other Gly-containing dipeptides interact with PAT1, and whether they can inhibit PAT1 mediated drug absorption, in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro methods included two-electrode voltage clamp measurements on hPAT1 expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes, which were used to investigate the PAT1-mediated transport of 17 different Gly-containing dipeptides (Gly-X(aa) or X(aa)-Gly). Also, the transepithelial transport of the PAT1 substrate gaboxadol was investigated across Caco-2 cell monolayers in the presence of different dipeptides. The in vivo part consisted of a pharmacokinetic study in rats following oral administration of gaboxadol and preadministration of 200 mg/kg dipeptide. The results showed that in hPAT1 expressing oocytes Gly-Tyr, Gly-Pro, and Gly-Phe inhibited currents induced by drug substances. In Caco-2 cell monolayers, Gly-Gly, Gly-Sar, and Gly-Pro significantly inhibited the PAT1 mediated absorptive transepithelial transport of gaboxadol; however, when orally administered to rats, Gly-Gly, Gly-Sar, Gly-Pro, or Gly-Tyr did not alter the pharmacokinetic profile of gaboxadol. In conclusion, the present study identifies selected dipeptides as inhibitors of PAT1 mediated drug absorption in various in vitro models. PMID:22853447

Frølund, Sidsel; Langthaler, Louise; Kall, Morten A; Holm, René; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd

2012-09-01

18

Microscale Synthesis and Analysis of a Dipeptide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a microscale chemistry laboratory in which a dipeptide is synthesized from its component amino acids and analyzed using chiral-phase thin-layer chromatography. Experimental procedures, and materials are discussed. Twelve references are listed. (CW)

Blatchly, Richard A.; And Others

1989-01-01

19

The Synthesis of an Amino Acid Derivative and Spectroscopic Monitoring of Dipeptide Formation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are experiments to give students experience in the synthesis of peptides from amino acids and to use visible spectroscopy to measure a rate of reaction. The activities were designed for undergraduate courses. (RH)

Simmonds, Richard J.

1987-01-01

20

Effect of a dipeptide-enriched diet in an adult Drosophila melanogaster laboratory strain.  

PubMed

Here we present free amino acid profiles for Drosophila melanogaster adults. Imidazol dipeptides anserine and carnosine, which are abundant in mammalian muscle tissue, are not present in Drosophila. Dipeptide-enriched food altered the amino acid balance, suggesting that the free amino acid content is nutrition-dependent and probably mediated by dipeptides. PMID:23563531

Shiotani, Shigenobu; Yanai, Nobuya; Suzuki, Takanori; Tujioka, Shiho; Sakano, Yurie; Yamakawa-Kobayashi, Kimiko; Kayashima, Yasunari

2013-01-01

21

New synthetic catecholate-type siderophores based on amino acids and dipeptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

New analogs of bacterial siderophores with one, two or three catecholate moieties were synthesized using various mono- and diamino acid and dipetide scaffolds, respectively. In addition to 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl siderophore analogs and their acylated derivatives, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl derivatives were prepared. Furthermore, the synthesis of a new triscatecholate serving as an intimate model for enterobactin is reported. Most of the new compounds gave

Matthias Schnabelrauch; Steffen Wittmann; Kerstin Rahn; Ute Möllmann; Rolf Reissbrodt; Lothar Heinisch

2000-01-01

22

Micellular Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Separation and Identification of the Amino Acid Residues in an Unknown Dipeptide Using FMOC Derivatization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This manuscript describes our efforts to introduce biochemistry students to micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC), a mode of capillary electrophoresis that employs micelles in the operating buffer. Unlike free solution capillary electrophoresis, MEKC is capable of resolving both charged and uncharged analytes because the micellar pseudo stationary phase allows for the separation of uncharged species. The experiment described herein includes a comparison of MEKC, employing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the micelle-forming species, with reverse-phase HPLC. Both methods are used to determine the amino acid residues in an unknown dipeptide. Advanced undergraduate chemistry, biochemistry, and biology majors perform this experiment in the Biochemical Methods course at Bucknell University. The students cleave the peptide bond, derivatize the resultant amino acids with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC), and separate the FMOC-amino acid derivatives using HPLC and MEKC. This manuscript details the analytical procedures for the MEKC separation and presents typical student data obtained using this relatively new method.

Strein, Timothy G.; Poechmann, James L.; Prudenti, Mark

1999-06-01

23

Synthesis and antibacterial activity of thioglycolic amino acid derivatives and dipeptides containing the 2-methyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-4-one moiety.  

PubMed

3-(2'-Chloroethyl)-2-methyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-4-one (I) was reacted with sodio (sodium thioglycolate) in dry dioxane and yielded compound II. By using thionyl chloride, this compound was converted to the corresponding acid chloride (III). The prepared acyl chloride (III) was allowed to interact with different alpha-amino acids such as Gly, L-Ala, L-B-Phe, DL-Asp, L-Glu, L-Thr and L-Val to give new amino acid derivatives (IVa-g). A selected C-terminal derivative of glycine (IVa) was converted into acid chloride (V). The acid chloride formed was reacted with L-Ala, L-B-Phe, DL-Asp, L-Glu, L-Thr and L-Val and yielded the new dipeptides VIa-f. The structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by elemental analysis and IR spectra. The prepared peptides were tested for their antimicrobial activities by comparison with tetra-cycline as a reference compound. PMID:7765582

Atta, F M

1994-11-01

24

Peptide transporter isoforms are discriminated by the fluorophore-conjugated dipeptides ?-Ala- and d-Ala-Lys-N-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid.  

PubMed

Peptide transporters of the SLC15 family are classified by structure and function into PEPT1 (low-affinity/high-capacity) and PEPT2 (high-affinity/low-capacity) isoforms. Despite the differences in kinetics, both transporter isoforms are reckoned to transport essentially all possible di- and tripeptides. We here report that the fluorophore-conjugated dipeptide derivatives ?-Ala-Lys-N-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid (?-AK-AMCA) and d-Ala-Lys-N-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid (d-AK-AMCA) are transported by distinct PEPT isoforms in a species-specific manner. Transport of the fluorophore peptides was studied (1) in vitro after heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes of PEPT1 and PEPT2 isoforms from different vertebrate species and of PEPT1 and PEPT2 transporters from Caenorhabditis elegans by using electrophysiological and fluorescence methods and (2) in vivo in C. elegans by using fluorescence methods. Our results indicate that both substrates are transported by the vertebrate "renal-type" and the C. elegans "intestinal-type" peptide transporter only. A systematic analysis among species finds four predicted amino acid residues along the sequence that may account for the substrate uptake differences observed between the vertebrate PEPT1/nematode PEPT2 and the vertebrate PEPT2/nematode PEPT1 subtype. This selectivity on basis of isoforms and species may be helpful in better defining the structure-function determinants of the proteins of the SLC15 family. PMID:24744852

Kottra, Gabor; Spanier, Britta; Verri, Tiziano; Daniel, Hannelore

2013-12-01

25

Peptide transporter isoforms are discriminated by the fluorophore?conjugated dipeptides ??Ala? and d?Ala?Lys?N?7?amino?4?methylcoumarin?3?acetic acid  

PubMed Central

Abstract Peptide transporters of the SLC15 family are classified by structure and function into PEPT1 (low?affinity/high?capacity) and PEPT2 (high?affinity/low?capacity) isoforms. Despite the differences in kinetics, both transporter isoforms are reckoned to transport essentially all possible di? and tripeptides. We here report that the fluorophore?conjugated dipeptide derivatives ??Ala?Lys?N?7?amino?4?methylcoumarin?3?acetic acid (??AK?AMCA) and d?Ala?Lys?N?7?amino?4?methylcoumarin?3?acetic acid (d?AK?AMCA) are transported by distinct PEPT isoforms in a species?specific manner. Transport of the fluorophore peptides was studied (1) in vitro after heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes of PEPT1 and PEPT2 isoforms from different vertebrate species and of PEPT1 and PEPT2 transporters from Caenorhabditis elegans by using electrophysiological and fluorescence methods and (2) in vivo in C. elegans by using fluorescence methods. Our results indicate that both substrates are transported by the vertebrate “renal?type” and the C. elegans “intestinal?type” peptide transporter only. A systematic analysis among species finds four predicted amino acid residues along the sequence that may account for the substrate uptake differences observed between the vertebrate PEPT1/nematode PEPT2 and the vertebrate PEPT2/nematode PEPT1 subtype. This selectivity on basis of isoforms and species may be helpful in better defining the structure–function determinants of the proteins of the SLC15 family. PMID:24744852

Kottra, Gabor; Spanier, Britta; Verri, Tiziano; Daniel, Hannelore

2013-01-01

26

Novel dipeptide nanoparticles for effective curcumin delivery  

PubMed Central

Background: Curcumin, the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric, has a wide spectrum of pharmaceutical properties such as antitumor, antioxidant, antiamyloid, and anti-inflammatory activity. However, poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability of curcumin is a major challenge in its development as a useful drug. To enhance the aqueous solubility and bioavailability of curcumin, attempts have been made to encapsulate it in liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), lipid-based NPs, biodegradable microspheres, cyclodextrin, and hydrogels. Methods: In this work, we attempted to entrap curcumin in novel self-assembled dipeptide NPs containing a nonprotein amino acid, ?, ?-dehydrophenylalanine, and investigated the biological activity of dipeptide-curcumin NPs in cancer models both in vitro and in vivo. Results: Of the several dehydrodipeptides tested, methionine-dehydrophenylalanine was the most suitable one for loading and release of curcumin. Loading of curcumin in the dipeptide NPs increased its solubility, improved cellular availability, enhanced its toxicity towards different cancerous cell lines, and enhanced curcumin’s efficacy towards inhibiting tumor growth in Balb/c mice bearing a B6F10 melanoma tumor. Conclusion: These novel, highly biocompatible, and easy to construct dipeptide NPs with a capacity to load and release curcumin in a sustained manner significantly improved curcumin’s cellular uptake without altering its anticancer or other therapeutic properties. Curcumin-dipeptide NPs also showed improved in vitro and in vivo chemotherapeutic efficacy compared to curcumin alone. Such dipeptide-NPs may also improve the delivery of other potent hydrophobic drug molecules that show poor cellular uptake, bioavailability, and efficacy. PMID:22915849

Alam, Shadab; Panda, Jiban J; Chauhan, Virander S

2012-01-01

27

Nucleic acid detection compositions  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

2008-08-05

28

A Comparison of the Effects of Oral Glutamine Dipeptide, Glutamine, and Alanine on Blood Amino Acid Availability in Rats Submitted to Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia  

PubMed Central

We compared the effects of oral administration of high-dose or low-dose glutamine dipeptide (GDP), alanine (ALA), glutamine (GLN), and ALA + GLN on the blood availability of amino acids in rats submitted to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH). Insulin detemir (1 U/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to produce IIH; this was followed by oral administration of GDP, GLN + ALA, GLN, or ALA. We observed higher blood levels of GLN, 30 min after oral administration of high-dose GDP (1000 mg/kg) than after administration of ALA (381 mg/kg) + GLN (619 mg/kg), GLN (619 mg/kg), or ALA (381 mg/kg). However, we did not observe the same differences after oral administration of low-dose GDP (100 mg/kg) compared with ALA (38.1 mg/kg) + GLN (61.9 mg/kg), GLN (61.9 mg/kg), or ALA (38.1 mg/kg). We also observed less liver catabolism of GDP compared to ALA and GLN. In conclusion, high-dose GDP promoted higher blood levels of GLN than oral ALA + GLN, GLN, or ALA. Moreover, the lower levels of liver catabolism of GDP, compared to ALA or GLN, contributed to the superior performance of high-dose GDP in terms of blood availability of GLN. PMID:25338272

Minguetti-Câmara, Vania C.; Marques, Any de C. R.; Schiavon, Fabiana P. M.; Vilela, Vanessa R.; Brusch, Marcos L.; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa

2014-01-01

29

The use of dipeptide derivatives of 5-aminolaevulinic acid promotes their entry to tumor cells and improves tumor selectivity of photodynamic therapy.  

PubMed

The use of endogenous protoporphyrin IX generated after administration of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) has led to many applications in photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the bioavailability of ALA is limited by its hydrophilic properties and limited cell uptake. A promising approach to optimize the efficacy of ALA-PDT is to deliver ALA in the form of prodrugs to mask its hydrophilic nature. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of two ALA dipeptide derivatives, N-acetyl terminated leucinyl-ALA methyl ester (Ac-Leu-ALA-Me) and phenylalanyl-ALA methyl ester (Ac-Phe-ALA-Me), for their use in PDT of cancer, by investigating the generation of protoporphyrin IX in an oncogenic cell line (PAM212-Ras), and in a subcutaneous tumor model. In our in vitro studies, both derivatives were more effective than ALA in PDT treatment, at inducing the same protoporphyrin IX levels but at 50- to 100-fold lower concentrations, with the phenylalanyl derivative being the most effective. The efficient release of ALA from Ac-Phe-ALA-Me appears to be consistent with the reported substrate and inhibitor preferences of acylpeptide hydrolase. In vivo studies revealed that topical application of the peptide prodrug Ac-Phe-ALA-Me gave greater selectivity than with ALA itself, and induced tumor photodamage, whereas systemic administration improved ALA-induced porphyrin generation in terms of equivalent doses administered, without induction of toxic effects. Our data support the possibility of using particularly Ac-Phe-ALA-Me both for topical treatment of basal cell carcinomas and for systemic administration. Further chemical fine-tuning of this prodrug template should yield additional compounds for enhanced ALA-PDT with potential for translation to the clinic. PMID:25519699

Di Venosa, Gabriela; Vallecorsa, Pablo; Giuntini, Francesca; Mamone, Leandro; Batlle, Alcira; Vanzuli, Silvia; Juarranz, Angeles; MacRobert, Alexander J; Eggleston, Ian M; Casas, Adriana

2015-02-01

30

Biological functions of histidine-dipeptides and metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

The rapid increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which is associated with a state of elevated systemic oxidative stress and inflammation, is expected to cause future increases in the prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sugars produces reactive carbonyl species, which, due to their electrophilic nature, react with the nucleophilic sites of certain amino acids. This leads to formation of protein adducts such as advanced glycoxidation/lipoxidation end products (AGEs/ALEs), resulting in cellular dysfunction. Therefore, an effective reactive carbonyl species and AGEs/ALEs sequestering agent may be able to prevent such cellular dysfunction. There is accumulating evidence that histidine containing dipeptides such as carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) and anserine (?-alanyl-methyl-L-histidine) detoxify cytotoxic reactive carbonyls by forming unreactive adducts and are able to reverse glycated protein. In this review, 1) reaction mechanism of oxidative stress and certain chronic diseases, 2) interrelation between oxidative stress and inflammation, 3) effective reactive carbonyl species and AGEs/ALEs sequestering actions of histidine-dipeptides and their metabolism, 4) effects of carnosinase encoding gene on the effectiveness of histidine-dipeptides, and 5) protective effects of histidine-dipeptides against progression of metabolic syndrome are discussed. Overall, this review highlights the potential beneficial effects of histidine-dipeptides against metabolic syndrome. Randomized controlled human studies may provide essential information regarding whether histidine-dipeptides attenuate metabolic syndrome in humans. PMID:24611099

Song, Byeng Chun; Joo, Nam-Seok; Aldini, Giancarlo

2014-01-01

31

Biological functions of histidine-dipeptides and metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

The rapid increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which is associated with a state of elevated systemic oxidative stress and inflammation, is expected to cause future increases in the prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sugars produces reactive carbonyl species, which, due to their electrophilic nature, react with the nucleophilic sites of certain amino acids. This leads to formation of protein adducts such as advanced glycoxidation/lipoxidation end products (AGEs/ALEs), resulting in cellular dysfunction. Therefore, an effective reactive carbonyl species and AGEs/ALEs sequestering agent may be able to prevent such cellular dysfunction. There is accumulating evidence that histidine containing dipeptides such as carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) and anserine (?-alanyl-methyl-L-histidine) detoxify cytotoxic reactive carbonyls by forming unreactive adducts and are able to reverse glycated protein. In this review, 1) reaction mechanism of oxidative stress and certain chronic diseases, 2) interrelation between oxidative stress and inflammation, 3) effective reactive carbonyl species and AGEs/ALEs sequestering actions of histidine-dipeptides and their metabolism, 4) effects of carnosinase encoding gene on the effectiveness of histidine-dipeptides, and 5) protective effects of histidine-dipeptides against progression of metabolic syndrome are discussed. Overall, this review highlights the potential beneficial effects of histidine-dipeptides against metabolic syndrome. Randomized controlled human studies may provide essential information regarding whether histidine-dipeptides attenuate metabolic syndrome in humans. PMID:24611099

Song, Byeng Chun; Joo, Nam-Seok; Aldini, Giancarlo; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

2014-02-01

32

ON THE FORMATION OF DIPEPTIDES IN INTERSTELLAR MODEL ICES  

SciTech Connect

The hypothesis of an exogenous origin and delivery of biologically important molecules to early Earth presents an alternative route to their terrestrial in situ formation. Dipeptides like Gly-Gly detected in the Murchison meteorite are considered as key molecules in prebiotic chemistry because biofunctional dipeptides present the vital link in the evolutionary transition from prebiotic amino acids to early proteins. However, the processes that could lead to the exogenous abiotic synthesis of dipeptides are unknown. Here, we report the identification of two proteinogenic dipeptides-Gly-Gly and Leu-Ala-formed via electron-irradiation of interstellar model ices followed by annealing the irradiated samples to 300 K. Our results indicate that the radiation-induced, non-enzymatic formation of proteinogenic dipeptides in interstellar ice analogs is facile. Once synthesized and incorporated into the ''building material'' of solar systems, biomolecules at least as complex as dipeptides could have been delivered to habitable planets such as early Earth by meteorites and comets, thus seeding the beginning of life as we know it.

Kaiser, R. I.; Kim, Y. S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Stockton, A. M.; Jensen, E. C.; Mathies, R. A. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2013-03-10

33

On the Formation of Dipeptides in Interstellar Model Ices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypothesis of an exogenous origin and delivery of biologically important molecules to early Earth presents an alternative route to their terrestrial in situ formation. Dipeptides like Gly-Gly detected in the Murchison meteorite are considered as key molecules in prebiotic chemistry because biofunctional dipeptides present the vital link in the evolutionary transition from prebiotic amino acids to early proteins. However, the processes that could lead to the exogenous abiotic synthesis of dipeptides are unknown. Here, we report the identification of two proteinogenic dipeptides—Gly-Gly and Leu-Ala—formed via electron-irradiation of interstellar model ices followed by annealing the irradiated samples to 300 K. Our results indicate that the radiation-induced, non-enzymatic formation of proteinogenic dipeptides in interstellar ice analogs is facile. Once synthesized and incorporated into the ''building material'' of solar systems, biomolecules at least as complex as dipeptides could have been delivered to habitable planets such as early Earth by meteorites and comets, thus seeding the beginning of life as we know it.

Kaiser, R. I.; Stockton, A. M.; Kim, Y. S.; Jensen, E. C.; Mathies, R. A.

2013-03-01

34

Muramyl Dipeptide Synergizes with Staphylococcus aureus Lipoteichoic Acid To Recruit Neutrophils in the Mammary Gland and To Stimulate Mammary Epithelial Cells?  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus, a major pathogen for the mammary gland of dairy ruminants, elicits the recruitment of neutrophils into milk during mastitis, but the mechanisms are incompletely understood. We investigated the response of the bovine mammary gland to muramyl dipeptide (MDP), an elementary constituent of the bacterial peptidoglycan, alone or in combination with lipoteichoic acid (LTA), another staphylococcal microbial-associated molecular pattern (MAMP). MDP induced a prompt and marked influx of neutrophils in milk, and its combination with LTA elicited a more intense and prolonged influx than the responses to either stimulus alone. The concentrations of several chemoattractants for neutrophils (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL8, and C5a) increased in milk after challenge, and the highest increases followed challenge with the combination of MDP and LTA. MDP and LTA were also synergistic in inducing in vitro chemokine production by bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEpC). Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2), a major sensor of MDP, was expressed (mRNA) in bovine mammary tissue and by bMEpC in culture. The production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) following the stimulation of bMEpC by LTA and MDP was dependent on the activation of NF-?B. LTA-induced IL-8 production did not depend on platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR), as the PAFR antagonist WEB2086 was without effect. In contrast, bMEpC and mammary tissue are known to express Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and to respond to TLR2 agonists. Although the levels of expression of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and IL-1? were increased by LTA and MDP at the mRNA level, no protein could be detected in the bMEpC culture supernatant. The level of induction of IL-6 was low at both the mRNA and protein levels. These results indicate that MDP and LTA exert synergistic effects to induce neutrophilic inflammation in the mammary gland. These results also show that bMEpC could contribute to the inflammatory response by recognizing LTA and MDP and secreting chemokines but not proinflammatory cytokines. Overall, this study indicates that the TLR2 and NOD2 pathways could cooperate to trigger an innate immune response to S. aureus mastitis. PMID:20826612

Bougarn, Salim; Cunha, Patricia; Harmache, Abdallah; Fromageau, Angélina; Gilbert, Florence B.; Rainard, Pascal

2010-01-01

35

Gelled acidic well treating composition and process  

SciTech Connect

Gelled acidic compositions suitable for either matrix-acidizing or fracture-acidizing of subterranean formations comprising water , a water-dispersible polymer selected from cellulose ethers and polymers of acrylamides, an acid, an aldehyde, and a phenolic compound capable of causing gelation of an aqueous dispersion of the polymer, acid, aldehyde, and phenolic compound are provided. In another embodiment, guar gum, polyvinylpyrrolidone and biopolysaccharides can also be used as the polymeric component in said compositions.

Swanson, B.L.

1981-01-13

36

Composition for nucleic acid sequencing  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

Korlach, Jonas (Ithaca, NY); Webb, Watt W. (Ithaca, NY); Levene, Michael (Ithaca, NY); Turner, Stephen (Ithaca, NY); Craighead, Harold G. (Ithaca, NY); Foquet, Mathieu (Ithaca, NY)

2008-08-26

37

The fatty acid composition of human colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   We reviewed 15 studies reporting on the fatty acid composition of colostrum lipids from 16 geographic regions: 11 European\\u000a studies and one study each from Central America, the Caribbean, Australia and Asia. The contents of essential fatty acids,\\u000a saturates and polyunsaturates were similar in the southern European countries Spain, Slovenia and France. Colostrum of St.\\u000a Lucian women was high

Natasa Fidler; Berthold Koletzko

2000-01-01

38

Comparative fatty acid composition of four Sargassum species (Fucales, Phaeophyta)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fatty acid composition of four Sargassum species from Qingdao and Shidao, Shandong Province was investigated. 16:0 (palmitic acid) was the major saturated fatty acid. C18 and C20 were the main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid predominated among polyenoic acids in all the algal species examined, except for Sargassum sp. which had low concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid.

Wu, Xiang-Chun; Lu, Bao-Ren; Tseng, C. K.

1995-12-01

39

Relative stability of major types of beta-turns as a function of amino acid composition: a study based on Ab initio energetic and natural abundance data.  

PubMed

Folding properties of small globular proteins are determined by their amino acid sequence (primary structure). This holds both for local (secondary structure) and for global conformational features of linear polypeptides and proteins composed from natural amino acid derivatives. It thus provides the rational basis of structure prediction algorithms. The shortest secondary structure element, the beta-turn, most typically adopts either a type I or a type II form, depending on the amino acid composition. Herein we investigate the sequence-dependent folding stability of both major types of beta-turns using simple dipeptide models (-Xxx-Yyy-). Gas-phase ab initio properties of 16 carefully selected and suitably protected dipeptide models (for example Val-Ser, Ala-Gly, Ser-Ser) were studied. For each backbone fold most probable side-chain conformers were considered. Fully optimized 321G RHF molecular structures were employed in medium level [B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)//RHF/3-21G] energy calculations to estimate relative populations of the different backbone conformers. Our results show that the preference for beta-turn forms as calculated by quantum mechanics and observed in Xray determined proteins correlates significantly. PMID:12794897

Perczel, András; Jákli, Imre; McAllister, Michael A; Csizmadia, Imre G

2003-06-01

40

Arginine dipeptides affect insulin aggregation in a pH- and ionic strength-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Solutions containing arginine or mixtures of arginine and other amino acids are commonly used for protein liquid formulations to overcome problems such as high viscosities, aggregation, and phase separation. The aim of this work is to examine whether the stabilizing properties of arginine can be improved by incorporating the amino acid into a dipeptide. A series of arginine-containing dipeptides have been tested for their ability to suppress insulin aggregation over a range of pH and ionic strength. The aggregation is monitored at room temperature using a combination of turbidimetry and light scattering for solutions at pH 5.5 or 3.7, whereas thermal-induced aggregation is measured at pH 7.5. In addition, intrinsic fluorescence has been used to quantify additive binding to insulin. The dipeptide diArg is the most effective additive in solutions at pH 5.5 and 3.7, whereas the dipeptide Arg-Phe almost completely eliminates thermally-induced aggregation of insulin at pH 7.5 up to temperature of 90°C. Insulin has been chosen as a model system because the molecular forces controlling its aggregation are well known. From this understanding, we are able to provide a molecular basis for how the various dipeptides affect insulin aggregation. PMID:25611817

Nuhu, Mariam M; Curtis, Robin

2015-03-01

41

Prebiotically plausible mechanisms increase compositional diversity of nucleic acid sequences  

E-print Network

Prebiotically plausible mechanisms increase compositional diversity of nucleic acid sequences of life, the biological information of nucleic acid polymers must have increased to encode functional work suggests that prebiotically plausible chemical mechanisms of nucleic acid polymerization

Nowak, Martin A.

42

Dietary fat and the fatty acid composition of tissue lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some characteristics of the fatty acid composition of animal tissue lipids are described and the origins of tissue fatty acids\\u000a are discussed briefly. The effect of dietary fat on composition of tissue lipids is discussed. Types of dietary fatty acids\\u000a for which experimental work is described include polyunsaturated fatty acids, short-chain fatty acids, fatty acids with chain\\u000a length greater than

K. K. Carroll

1965-01-01

43

Designing nootropic dipeptides using an evolutionary-genetic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach to the search for the new groups of biologically active peptides is developed, which is based on the selection\\u000a of point mutants with respect to noncritical amino acid residues. Using a gene site encoding the arginine vasopressin AVP(4–5)\\u000a sequence, which corresponds to the pGlu-Asn-NH2 nootropic dipeptide, three point mutants with respect to Asn (pGlu-Ser-NH2, pGlu-Asp-NH2, and pGlu-His-NH2)

T. A. Gudasheva; S. S. Trofimov; A. A. Morozova; S. V. Nikitin; R. U. Ostrovskaya; T. A. Voronina; S. B. Seredenin

2006-01-01

44

Analyzing a dipeptide library to identify human dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor.  

PubMed

Human dipeptidyl peptidase IV (hDPPIV) inhibitors provide an effective strategy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Because certain peptides are known to act as hDPPIV inhibitors, a dataset of possible peptides with their inhibition intensities will facilitate the development of functional food for type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined a total of 337 dipeptides with respect to their hDPPIV inhibitory effects. Amino acid residues at N-termini dominated their inhibition intensities. Particularly highly inhibitory dipeptides discovered included the following novel dipeptides: Thr-His, Asn-His, Val-Leu, Met-Leu, and Met-Met. Using our dataset, prime candidates contributing to the hDPPIV inhibitory effect of soy protein hydrolyzates were successfully identified. Possible dietary proteins potentially able to produce particularly highly hDPPIV inhibitory peptides are also discussed on the basis of the dataset. PMID:25577052

Lan, Vu Thi Tuyet; Ito, Keisuke; Ohno, Masumi; Motoyama, Takayasu; Ito, Sohei; Kawarasaki, Yasuaki

2015-05-15

45

Profiling histidine dipeptides in plasma and urine after ingesting beef, chicken or chicken broth in humans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reactive carbonyl species (RCS), oxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids, protein & sugars, play a role in the etiology of certain chronic diseases. Our previous studies revealed that histidine-dipeptides such as carnosine and anserine detoxify cytotoxic carbonyls such as 4-hydroxy-trans-...

46

Fat deposition, fatty acid composition and meat quality: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the factors affecting the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and muscle in pigs, sheep and cattle and shows that a major factor is the total amount of fat. The effects of fatty acid composition on meat quality are also reviewed. Pigs have high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including the long chain (C20-22) PUFA in

J. D. Wood; M. Enser; A. V. Fisher; G. R. Nute; P. R. Sheard; R. I. Richardson; S. I. Hughes; F. M. Whittington

2008-01-01

47

Artificial rearing with docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid alters rat tissue fatty acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6; 22:5n-6) are components of enriched animal feed and oil derived from Schizochytrium species microalgae. A one generation, artificial rearing model from day 2 after birth onward (AR) and a dam-reared control group (DAM) were used to examine DPAn-6 feeding on the fatty acid composition of various rat tissues at 15 weeks

Ken D. Stark; Sun-Young Lim; Norman Salem

2007-01-01

48

gamma-Glutamyl dipeptides in Petiveria alliacea.  

PubMed

Three gamma-glutamyl dipeptides have been isolated from Petiveria alliacea L. roots. These dipeptides include (S(C2)R(C7))-gamma-glutamyl-S-benzylcysteine together with two diastereomeric sulfoxides, namely (S(C2)R(C7)R(S))- and (S(C2)R(C7)R(S))-gamma-glutamyl-S-benzylcysteine S-oxides (gamma-glutamyl-petiveriins A and B, respectively). Their structures and absolute configurations have been determined by NMR, MALDI-HRMS, IR and CD spectroscopy, and confirmed by comparison with authentic compounds obtained by synthesis. PMID:16146637

Kubec, Roman; Musah, Rabi A

2005-10-01

49

Muscle Histidine-Containing Dipeptides Are Elevated by Glucose Intolerance in Both Rodents and Men  

PubMed Central

Objective Muscle carnosine and its methylated form anserine are histidine-containing dipeptides. Both dipeptides have the ability to quench reactive carbonyl species and previous studies have shown that endogenous tissue levels are decreased in chronic diseases, such as diabetes. Design and Methods Rodent study: Skeletal muscles of rats and mice were collected from 4 different diet-intervention studies, aiming to induce various degrees of glucose intolerance: 45% high-fat feeding (male rats), 60% high-fat feeding (male rats), cafeteria feeding (male rats), 70% high-fat feeding (female mice). Body weight, glucose-tolerance and muscle histidine-containing dipeptides were assessed. Human study: Muscle biopsies were taken from m. vastus lateralis in 35 males (9 lean, 8 obese, 9 prediabetic and 9 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients) and muscle carnosine and gene expression of muscle fiber type markers were measured. Results Diet interventions in rodents (cafeteria and 70% high-fat feeding) induced increases in body weight, glucose intolerance and levels of histidine-containing dipeptides in muscle. In humans, obese, prediabetic and diabetic men had increased muscle carnosine content compared to the lean (+21% (p>0.1), +30% (p<0.05) and +39% (p<0.05), respectively). The gene expression of fast-oxidative type 2A myosin heavy chain was increased in the prediabetic (1.8-fold, p<0.05) and tended to increase in the diabetic men (1.6-fold, p = 0.07), compared to healthy lean subjects. Conclusion Muscle histidine-containing dipeptides increases with progressive glucose intolerance, in male individuals (cross-sectional). In addition, high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance was associated with increased muscle histidine-containing dipeptides in female mice (interventional). Increased muscle carnosine content might reflect fiber type composition and/or act as a compensatory mechanism aimed at preventing cell damage in states of impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:25803044

Stegen, Sanne; Everaert, Inge; Deldicque, Louise; Vallova, Silvia; de Courten, Barbora; Ukropcova, Barbara; Ukropec, Jozef; Derave, Wim

2015-01-01

50

Fatty Acid Composition and Trans Fatty Acids in Crisps and Cakes in Turkey's Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, trans fatty acid and fatty acid composition of 57 crisps and 50 cakes sold in the markets in Turkey were determined. C 18:1, oleic acid, was the major fatty acid in all crisps and cake samples. The percentages of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ranged between 27.98–46.57, 35.73–47.57, and

Yavuz S. Cakmak; Gokalp O. Guler; Sakir Yigit; Gokhan Caglav; Abdurrahman Aktumsek

2011-01-01

51

Original article Influence of milk fatty acid composition  

E-print Network

the fatty acid composition of milk fat in dairy products to improve the long-term health of consumers acid composition ­ ( 8% ) *Corresponding author (): Karen.smet@ilvo.vlaanderen.be Dairy at: www.dairy-journal.org Article published by EDP Sciences #12; / / / Résumé

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

52

Fatty acid composition of oils extracted from Canadian weed seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid composition of the diethyl ether extract from nine varieties of Canadian weed seeds is reported. Fatty acid\\u000a compositions forRumex pseudonatronatus L. Borbus,Setaria viridis L. Beauv., andChenopodium album L. have not been previously reported.

J. K. Daun; R. Tkachuk

1976-01-01

53

Adaptive amino acid composition in collagens of parasitic nematodes.  

PubMed

Amino acid composition was analyzed in the glycine-rich repeat region of 306 collagens belonging to three major families of collagens from both parasitic and free-living nematodes. The collagens of parasitic species showed a tendency toward decreased usage of the hydrophilic residues A, D, and Q and increased usage of the hydrophobic resides I, L, and M; and this trend was seen in parasitic species of both the order Rhabdita and the order Spirurida. The amino acid composition of collagens of parasitic Rhabdita thus tended to resemble those of Spirurida more than that of free-living Rhabdita, suggesting an association between amino acid composition and a parasitic lifestyle. Computer predictions suggested that the more hydrophobic amino acid composition was associated with a reduction of the propensity towards B-cell epitope formation, suggesting that evasion of host immune responses may be a major selective factor responsible for the parasite-specific trend in collagen amino acid composition. PMID:25681700

Hughes, Austin L

2015-04-01

54

Isotope composition of carbon in amino acids of solid bitumens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primary data are presented on the isotope composition of carbon in individual amino acids from solid bitumens and several biological objects. The amino acids of biological objects are characterized by wide variations of the isotope composition of carbon. This fact occurs owing to the difference in biochemical paths of metabolism resulting in the synthesis of individual amino acids. The ?13C values are somewhat decreased for individual amino acids in asphaltenes, varying from -7.7 to -31.7‰. The carbon of amino acids is weighted in kerits from Bad'el' compared to asphaltenes. All the natural bitumens retain the characteristic trend for natural substances: the isotopically heavy and light amino acids by carbon are glycine and leucine, respectively. The isotope composition of amino-acid carbon is lightened compared to natural bitumens in the samples formed under a pronounced thermal impact (asphalt-like crust and kirishite).

Shanina, S. N.; Bushnev, D. A.

2014-06-01

55

Soil amino acid composition across a boreal forest successional sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil amino acids are important sources of organic nitrogen for plant nutrition, yet few studies have examined which amino acids are most prevalent in the soil. In this study, we examined the composition, concentration, and seasonal patterns of soil amino acids across a primary successional sequence encompassing a natural gradient of plant productivity and soil physicochemical characteristics. Soil was collected

Nancy R. Werdin-Pfisterer; Knut Kielland; Richard D. Boone

2009-01-01

56

Relative Amino Acid Composition Signatures of Organisms and Environments  

PubMed Central

Background Identifying organism-environment interactions at the molecular level is crucial to understanding how organisms adapt to and change the chemical and molecular landscape of their habitats. In this work we investigated whether relative amino acid compositions could be used as a molecular signature of an environment and whether such a signature could also be observed at the level of the cellular amino acid composition of the microorganisms that inhabit that environment. Methodologies/Principal Findings To address these questions we collected and analyzed environmental amino acid determinations from the literature, and estimated from complete genomic sequences the global relative amino acid abundances of organisms that are cognate to the different types of environment. Environmental relative amino acid abundances clustered into broad groups (ocean waters, host-associated environments, grass land environments, sandy soils and sediments, and forest soils), indicating the presence of amino acid signatures specific for each environment. These signatures correlate to those found in organisms. Nevertheless, relative amino acid abundance of organisms was more influenced by GC content than habitat or phylogeny. Conclusions Our results suggest that relative amino acid composition can be used as a signature of an environment. In addition, we observed that the relative amino acid composition of organisms is not highly determined by environment, reinforcing previous studies that find GC content to be the major factor correlating to amino acid composition in living organisms. PMID:24204807

Moura, Alexandra; Savageau, Michael A.; Alves, Rui

2013-01-01

57

Fatty acid compositions of six wild edible mushroom species.  

PubMed

The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

2013-01-01

58

Fatty Acid Composition and Volatile Constituents of Protaetia brevitarsis Larvae  

PubMed Central

A total of 48 different volatile oils were identified form P. brevitarsis larvae by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acids (48.67%) were detected as the major group in P. brevitarsis larvae comprising the largest proportion of the volatile compounds, followed by esters (19.84%), hydrocarbons (18.90%), alcohols (8.37%), miscellaneous (1.71%), aldehydes (1.35%) and terpenes (1.16%). The major volatile constituents were 9-hexadecenoic acid (16.75%), 6-octadecenoic acid (14.88%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (11.06%). The composition of fatty acid was also determined by GC analysis and 16 fatty acids were identified. The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (C18:1, 64.24%) followed by palmitic acid (C16:0, 15.89%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 10.43%) and linoleic acid (C18:2, 4.69%) constituting more than 95% of total fatty acids. The distinguished characteristic of the fatty acid profile of P. brevitarsis larvae was the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (80.54% of total fatty acids) versus saturated fatty acids (19.46% of total fatty acids). Furthermore, small but significant amounts of linoleic, linolenic and ?-linolenic acids bestow P. brevitarsis larvae with considerable nutritional value. The novel findings of the present study provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of the insect as a nutritionally promising food source and a possibility for more effective utilization. PMID:24471125

Yeo, Hyelim; Youn, Kumju; Kim, Minji; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira

2013-01-01

59

Fatty acid composition of common dolphin blubber  

E-print Network

acids were greatest in the outer layer, while levels of saturated and polyunsaturated n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were greatest in the inner layer. In general, sexually mature animals showed a greater degree of fatty acid stratification than sexually...

Smith, Heather Rebecca

2002-01-01

60

Amino acid composition of proteins reduces deleterious impact of mutations  

PubMed Central

The evolutionary origin of amino acid occurrence frequencies in proteins (composition) is not yet fully understood. We suggest that protein composition works alongside the genetic code to minimize impact of mutations on protein structure. First, we propose a novel method for estimating thermodynamic stability of proteins whose sequence is constrained to a fixed composition. Second, we quantify the average deleterious impact of substituting one amino acid with another. Natural proteome compositions are special in at least two ways: 1) Natural compositions do not generate more stable proteins than the average random composition, however, they result in proteins that are less susceptible to damage from mutations. 2) Natural proteome compositions that result in more stable proteins (i.e. those of thermophiles) are also tuned to have a higher tolerance for mutations. This is consistent with the observation that environmental factors selecting for more stable proteins also enhance the deleterious impact of mutations. PMID:24108121

Hormoz, Sahand

2013-01-01

61

Biliary lipid composition in idiopathic bile acid malabsorption  

PubMed Central

Background—Chronic diarrhoea is the clinical hallmark of patients presenting with idiopathic bile acid malabsorption. Its pathogenesis is unknown; colonic water secretion can be induced by dihydroxy bile acids, but it is not known whether enrichment of the bile acid pool with these bile acids occurs in such patients. Furthermore, bile acid malabsorption is known to affect biliary lipid composition, but no information is available for the idiopathic type. ?Aims—To verify: (a) whether diarrhoea in patients with idiopathic bile acid malabsorption is associated with enrichment of the bile acid pool with dihydroxy bile acids; and (b) whether supersaturation with cholesterol of duodenal bile occurs in such patients as a result of chronic bile acid depletion. ?Patients—Thirteen patients with idiopathic bile acid malabsorption diagnosed according to abnormal 75SeHCAT test and absence of other organic diseases, and 23 control subjects. ?Methods—Bile rich duodenal fluid was collected during intravenous ceruletide infusion in the fasting state. Biliary lipids were analysed by enzymatic assays and bile acids by high performance liquid chromatography. ?Results—Patients with idiopathic bile acid malabsorption had a cholesterol saturation index similar to controls. Bile acid composition showed only a decrease in percentage cholic acid (29(2)% versus 36 (2)%; p<0.05); the dihydroxy:trihydroxy bile acid ratio was similar to controls. ?Conclusions—Patients with idiopathic bile acid malabsorption do not have an increased risk of forming cholesterol gallstones. The mechanism of diarrhoea does not seem to depend on an enrichment of the bile acid pool with dihydroxy bile acids. ?? Keywords: primary bile acid malabsorption; bile acids; diarrhoea; 75SeHCAT; biliary lipids; cholesterol saturation index PMID:9824609

Fracchia, M; Pellegrino, S; Secreto, P; Pera, A; Galatola, G

1998-01-01

62

Intramolecular condensation reactions in protonated dipeptides: Carbon monoxide, water, and ammonia losses in competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elimination of carbon monoxide and water from a series of protonated dipeptides, [XxxYyy + H]+, is investigated by tandem mass spectrometry experiments and density functional theory. The combined results show that CO\\u000a loss occurs on the a1-y1 pathway, which begins by rearrangement of the added proton to the amide N-atom and creates the proton-bound dimer of an amino\\u000a acid

Francesco Pingitore; Michael J. Polce; Ping Wang; Chrys Wesdemiotis; Béla Paizs

2004-01-01

63

Thermal properties of poly (lactic acid)/milkweed composites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (lactic Acid...

64

Wear performance of some phenolic composites with boric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of the research is to investigate wear performance of some phenolic composites with boric acid. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The brake lining which has new formulation has been produced by using various additive materials. Various techniques have been used in the production of brake lining. These phenolic composites were subjected to friction and wear tests under different loads,

I. Mutlu; C. Oner; I. Cevik; F. Findik

2007-01-01

65

Conjugated linoleic acid modulates hepatic lipid composition in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a chemoprotective fatty acid that inhibits mammary, colon, forestomach, and skin carcinogenesis\\u000a in experimental animals. We hypothesize that the ubiquitous chemoprotective actions of dietary CLA in extrahepatic tissues\\u000a are dependent upon its role in modulating fatty acid composition and metabolism in liver, the major organ for lipid metabolism.\\u000a This study begins to evaluate the role

Martha A. Belury; Anna Kempa-Steczko

1997-01-01

66

Aliphatic dipeptide tags for multi-2-plex protein quantification.  

PubMed

Mass-balanced (1)H/(2)H-isotope dipeptide tag (MBIT) is diversified as aliphatic tags for multiplexed protein quantification. Aliphatic MBITs are based on the N-acetyl-Xxx-Ala dipeptide, where Xxx is an artificial amino acid with a linear alkyl side chain from C(2)H(5) to C(8)H(17) (C(2)-C(8) tags). (1)H/(2)H isotopes are encoded in the methyl groups of N-acetyl and Ala to yield a pair of isobaric tags with 2-plex quantitation signals separated by 3 Da. C(2)-C(5) tags are prepared by solid-phase synthesis, while C(6)-C(8) tags are synthesized by olefin metathesis in solution. These aliphatic tags are made reactive toward the primary amines of peptides, and the relative abundances of quantitation signals are characterized using both matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. MBIT-linked peptides co-migrate in reverse-phase liquid chromatography (LC), and their tandem mass spectra exhibit 2-plex quantitation signals as well as sequence ions in similar abundances. As the length of alkyl side chain increases, C(2)-C(8) tags show a stepwise increase in both the LC retention time and the relative abundance of quantitation signals. In addition, the quantitation linearity is well-maintained in a 15-250 fmol range. The multiplexing capability of aliphatic MBITs is demonstrated by applying three different tags (C(6)-C(8) tags) to the quantification of yeast heat shock proteins expressed under four different physiological conditions. PMID:21369596

Suh, Min-Soo; Seo, Jongcheol; Thangadurai, T D; Rhee, Young Ho; Shin, Seung Koo; Yoon, Hye-Joo

2011-04-21

67

[Identification of a functionally important dipeptide in sequences of atypical opioid peptides].  

PubMed

The occurrence of individual amino acids and dipeptide fragments in the sequences of 60 known atypical opioid peptides was analyzed. An expressed predominance of Tyr-Pro fragment suggested a high probability of analgesic activity for this dipeptide, and it was experimentally studied. It was shown on somatic and visceral pain sensitivity models that, on the i.p. administration of Tyr-Pro at doses of 1.0-10 mg/kg of body mass, it exhibits an analgesic activity eliminated by naloxone and naloxone methiodide. However, in tests on ileum preparations of guinea pig and mouse vas deferens in vitro, Tyr-Pro was devoid of opioid activity, which proved its indirect influence on opioid receptors. PMID:19060934

Guzevatykh, L S

2008-01-01

68

Nucleic acids, compositions and uses thereof  

SciTech Connect

The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

Preston, III, James F. (Micanopy, FL); Chow, Virginia (Gainesville, FL); Nong, Guang (Gainesville, FL); Rice, John D. (Gainesville, FL); St. John, Franz J. (Baltimore, MD)

2012-02-21

69

Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins  

DOEpatents

The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

2014-09-02

70

Fatty acid composition and oxidation of lipids in Korean catfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the lipid content and FA composition of muscle and a mixture of muscle and viscera from Korean catfish\\u000a as well as lipid oxidation and hydrolysis. Lipid content and FA compositions in Korean catfish, which were purchased every\\u000a month or two during September 1999–July 2000, were analyzed. Lipid oxidation and hydrolysis were determined as PV, thiobarbituric\\u000a acid value,

K. T. Hwang; J. E. Kim; S. G. Kang; S. T. Jung; H. J. Park; C. L. Weller

2004-01-01

71

Oxidative stability of soybean oils with altered fatty acid compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidative stabilities of one canola oil and six soybean oils of various fatty acid compositions were compared in terms\\u000a of peroxide values, conjugated dienoic acid values and sensory evaluations. Two of the soybean oils (Hardin and BSR 101) were\\u000a from common commercial varieties. The other four soybean oils were from experimental lines developed in a mutation breeding\\u000a program at

Hui-Rong Liu; Pamela J. White

1992-01-01

72

Antioxidation status and histidine dipeptides content in broiler blood and muscles depending on protein sources in feed.  

PubMed

One-day-old chickens were fed mixtures containing different raw materials (fish by-products meal, porcine blood cells meal, blood meal, wheat gluten, fodder yeast), as a source of histidine and ?-alanine - components of carnosine. Control birds were administered a feed mixture, in which soy bean meal was the main protein source. The bodyweight, feed consumption and conversion, antioxidant characteristics and histidine dipeptides content in blood and muscles, and also amino acid composition of chicken meat on day?34 post-hatch were recorded. The best (p?acids content in feed mixtures and in meat were observed. PMID:22533382

Kope?, W; Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Biazik, E; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Pud?o, A; Orda, J

2013-06-01

73

Mass-balanced 1H/2H isotope dipeptide tag for simultaneous protein quantitation and identification.  

PubMed

Mass-balanced (1)H/(2)H isotope dipeptide tags (MBITs) are presented for simultaneous protein quantitation and identification. MBIT is derived from N-acetyl-Ala-Ala dipeptide and conjugated to primary amines of target peptides. (1)H/(2)H isotopes are encoded in the methyl groups of N-acetylated dipeptide: one tag deuterated on the N-acetyl group and another on the C-terminal alanine. MBIT-linked peptides comigrate in reversed-phase liquid chromatography without significant (1)H/(2)H isotope effects and provide 2-plex quantitation signals at 114 and 117 Th as well as peptide sequence information upon MS/MS analysis with MALDI TOF/TOF. MBIT shows good quantitation linearity in a concentration range of 20-250 fmol. The performance of MBIT on protein quantitation and identification is further tested with yeast heat-shock protein (Hsp82p) obtained from three different physiological states. MBIT using nanogram-scale samples produces the relative abundance ratios comparable to those obtained from optical imaging of microgram-scale samples visualized with SYPRO Ruby stain. The MBIT strategy is a simple and low-cost alternative for 2-plex quantitation of proteins and offers possibilities of tuning the 2-plex signal mass window by replacing the N-terminal alanine with other amino acid residues. PMID:18620426

Seo, Jongcheol; Suh, Min-Soo; Thangadurai, T Daniel; Kim, Jinhee; Rhee, Young Ho; Yoon, Hye-Joo; Shin, Seung Koo

2008-08-15

74

Fatty acid composition of danish margarines and shortenings, with special emphasis on trans fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trans fatty acids from hydrogenated vegetable and marine oils could be as hypercholesterolemic and atherogenic as saturated fatty\\u000a acids. Hence, it is important to know the fatty acid composition in major food contributors, e.g., margarines and shortenings.\\u000a In 1992 margarines were examined, and in 1995 brands covering the entire Danish market were examined. Significant amounts\\u000a oftrans-18?1 were found only in

Lars Ovesen; Torben Leth; Kirsten Hansen

1996-01-01

75

Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

Drmanac, Radoje

2006-07-04

76

Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

Drmanac, Radoje (850 E. Greenwich Pl., Palo Alto, CA 94303)

2002-01-01

77

Fatty acid composition of frequently consumed foods in Turkey with special emphasis on trans fatty acids.  

PubMed

Fatty acid compositions of frequently consumed foods in Turkey were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with particular emphasis on trans fatty acids. The survey was carried out on 134 samples that were categorized as meat products, chocolates, bakery products and others. The meat products except chicken-based foods have trans fatty acids, arising as a result of ruminant activity, with an average content of 1.45 g/100 g fatty acids. The conjugated linoleic acid content of meat and chicken doner kebabs were found higher than other meat products. Chocolate samples contained trans fatty acids less than 0.17 g/100 g fatty acids, with the exceptional national product of chocolate bars and hazelnut cocoa cream (2.03 and 3.68 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively). Bakery products have the highest trans fatty acid contents and ranged from 0.99 to 17.77 g/100 g fatty acids. The average trans fatty acid contents of infant formula and ice-cream, which are milk-based products, were 0.79 and 1.50 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively. Among the analyzed foods, it was found that coffee whitener and powdered whipped topping had the highest saturated fatty acid contents, with an average content of 98.71 g/100 g fatty acids. PMID:17852509

Karabulut, Ihsan

2007-12-01

78

Fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex of adolescent male and female suicide victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior epidemiological, prospective intervention, and peripheral and central fatty acid composition studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acid deficiency may be associated with the pathoaetiology of depression and suicide. In the present study, we determined the fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) of adolescent male and female suicide victims and age-matched controls. Fatty acid composition (wt% total fatty

Robert K. McNamara; Ronald Jandacek; Therese Rider; Patrick Tso; Yogesh Dwivedi; Rosalinda C. Roberts; Robert R. Conley; Ghanshyam N. Pandey

2009-01-01

79

Cholesterol content and fatty acid composition of rhea meat.  

PubMed

The influence of species and muscle on the intramuscular fat content, cholesterol content and fatty acid composition of Greater and Lesser Rhea meat were evaluated. Muscle has no influence (P>0.05) on any of these characteristics. Neither intramuscular fat (1.23%) nor cholesterol content (57 mg/100 g) differed (P>0.05) between species. Despite differences (P<0.05) in the percentage of individual fatty acids, total saturated fatty acids (33.1%) did not differ (P>0.05) between species, while total monounsaturated fatty acids (26.8 vs 32.2%) was lower (P<0.05) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (39.7 vs 33.6%) higher (P<0.05) for Greater than Lesser Rhea. PMID:22063084

Sales, J; Navarro, J L; Martella, M B; Lizurume, M E; Manero, A; Bellis, L; Garcia, P T

1999-10-01

80

THERMAL PROPERTIES OF POLY (LACTIC ACID) BASED BIO-COMPOSITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The degree of compatibility between polylactic acid (PLA) and different bio-fillers was examined using thermal methods. The biofillers were fibers extracted from cuphea and lesquerella seeds. Cuphea and lasquerella are non-commercial seed crops. Bio-composites with PLA:Fiber ratios of 85:15, 70:3...

81

SUGAR BEET PULP AND POLY (LACTIC ACID) GREEN COMPOSITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodegradable composite materials of sugar beet pulp (SBP) and poly (lactic acid)(PLA) were compounded using a twin-screw extruder, molded by injection molding and evaluated for structural, mechanical, and moisture resistant properties, as well as biodegradability. Microscopic analysis revealed tha...

82

Proteomic Signatures: Amino Acid and Oligopeptide Compositions Differentiate Among Phyla  

E-print Network

Proteomic Signatures: Amino Acid and Oligopeptide Compositions Differentiate Among Phyla Itsik Pe as in phylogenetic analysis. These analyses are usually based on a per-sequence comparison (e.g., see Gribaldo of the sequence alignment, which is hard to control automatically for large data sets. With available complete

Sussman, Joel L.

83

Corrosion of graphite composites in phosphoric acid fuel cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polymers, polymer-graphite composites and different carbon materials are being considered for many of the fuel cell stack components. Exposure to concentrated phosphoric acid in the fuel cell environment and to high anodic potential results in corrosion. Relative corrosion rates of these materials, failure modes, plausible mechanisms of corrosion and methods for improvement of these materials are investigated.

Christner, L. G.; Dhar, H. P.; Farooque, M.; Kush, A. K.

1986-01-01

84

An Index to Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Compositions of Bacterial Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper consists of a reference list of bacterial species for which deoxyribonucleic acid base compositions are known. Culture-collection strain numbers have been included wherever possible. The compilation may also provide a basis for the inclusion of these data into species descriptions. the authors are given in parenthesis. The only exceptions are: 'Diplococcus' is included in Streptococcus; ' Coxiella'

L. R. Hill

1966-01-01

85

Seed oil and fatty acid composition in Capsicum spp  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The oil content and fatty acid composition of seed of 233 genebank accessions (total) of nine Capsicum species, and a single accession of Tubocapsicum anomalum, were determined. The physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from seed of C. annuum and C. baccatum were also examined. Significan...

86

Fatty-acid composition of serum lipids predicts myocardial infarction.  

PubMed Central

During a follow-up of five to seven years 33 out of 1222 middle-aged men initially free of coronary heart disease sustained fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction or died suddenly. The fatty-acid composition of serum triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters had been measured at the start of the surveillance in these men and in a control group of 64 men matched for age, serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, blood pressure, obesity, smoking, and one-hour glucose tolerance. Palmitic and stearic acids of phospholipids were significantly higher and linoleic and most polyunsaturated fatty acids, including arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, of phospholipids were lower in the subjects who sustained coronary events compared with the controls. Linoleic acid tended to correlate negatively with blood pressure while other polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid, exhibited a negative correlation with blood pressure and relative body weight in the controls but not in the subjects who sustained coronary events. These findings suggest that the fatty-acid pattern of serum phospholipids is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. PMID:6812744

Miettinen, T A; Naukkarinen, V; Huttunen, J K; Mattila, S; Kumlin, T

1982-01-01

87

Synthesis of acid-functionalized composite via surface deposition of acid-containing amorphous carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A synthetic procedure, including two steps: a hydrothermal treatment using H2SO4 solution and a thermal treatment with concentrated H2SO4 in Teflon-lined stainless autoclaves was developed to synthesize acid-functionalized composite. In this process, the carbonization of glucose which contributed to the formation of carbon species with acid functional groups occurred on the silica surface. The resultant composite, investigated by powder XRD, low temperature N2 sorption and TEM, possessed well-defined mesostructure. And it was determined by XPS that amorphous carbon was deposited at the silica surface of SBA-15. The presence of multi-functional groups in the composite was confirmed by FT-IR results. Furthermore, carboxylic and sulfonic groups could be incorporated into the composite material via the covalent bond. The composite was employed as the catalyst for the acetalization of carbonyl compounds. It was suggested that acid sites were well dispersed, which was responsible for the good performance in the catalytic test. According to these facts, a synthesis route for mesostructured composite with acid functional groups has been proposed.

Du, Bin; Zhang, Xuan; Lou, Lan-Lan; Dong, Yanling; Liu, Gaixia; Liu, Shuangxi

2012-07-01

88

Fatty acid composition of fat depots in wintering Canada geese  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I determined the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, abdominal, visceral, and leg saddle depots in adult female Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) wintering in north-central Missouri during October 1984-March 1985. Mean levels of C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 generally were highest in the subcutaneous and abdominal depots. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fats was highest in the leg saddle depot and lowest in the abdominal depot. I also assessed the differences among sexes, seasons, and years in fatty acid composition of abdominal fat depots in adult geese collected during October-March, 1985-1987. Adult females had consistently higher levels of C14:0 in abdominal depots than males. Fatty acid composition of the abdominal depot differed among years but not by season. In the abdominal depot, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, and C18:1 were higher in 1986-1987 compared with the previous two years, whereas C18:3 was highest in 1984-1985. Differences among years reflected changes in winter diet. Fatty acids of wintering geese were similar to those previously found in breeding Canada Geese.

Austin, J.E.

1993-01-01

89

Inter-domain linker prediction using amino acid compositional index.  

PubMed

Protein chains are generally long and consist of multiple domains. Domains are distinct structural units of a protein that can evolve and function independently. The accurate and reliable prediction of protein domain linkers and boundaries is often considered to be the initial step of protein tertiary structure and function predictions. In this paper, we introduce CISA as a method for predicting inter-domain linker regions solely from the amino acid sequence information. The method first computes the amino acid compositional index from the protein sequence dataset of domain-linker segments and the amino acid composition. A preference profile is then generated by calculating the average compositional index values along the amino acid sequence using a sliding window. Finally, the protein sequence is segmented into intervals and a simulated annealing algorithm is employed to enhance the prediction by finding the optimal threshold value for each segment that separates domains from inter-domain linkers. The method was tested on two standard protein datasets and showed considerable improvement over the state-of-the-art domain linker prediction methods. PMID:25677918

Shatnawi, Maad; Zaki, Nazar

2015-04-01

90

Fatty acid composition of Swedish bakery products, with emphasis on trans-fatty acids.  

PubMed

Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. PMID:25577101

Trattner, Sofia; Becker, Wulf; Wretling, Sören; Öhrvik, Veronica; Mattisson, Irene

2015-05-15

91

The tRNA-Dependent Biosynthesis of Modified Cyclic Dipeptides  

PubMed Central

In recent years it has become apparent that aminoacyl-tRNAs are not only crucial components involved in protein biosynthesis, but are also used as substrates and amino acid donors in a variety of other important cellular processes, ranging from bacterial cell wall biosynthesis and lipid modification to protein turnover and secondary metabolite assembly. In this review, we focus on tRNA-dependent biosynthetic pathways that generate modified cyclic dipeptides (CDPs). The essential peptide bond-forming catalysts responsible for the initial generation of a CDP-scaffold are referred to as cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs) and use loaded tRNAs as their substrates. After initially discussing the phylogenetic distribution and organization of CDPS gene clusters, we will focus on structural and catalytic properties of CDPSs before turning to two recently characterized CDPS-dependent pathways that assemble modified CDPs. Finally, possible applications of CDPSs in the rational design of structural diversity using combinatorial biosynthesis will be discussed before concluding with a short outlook. PMID:25196600

Giessen, Tobias W.; Marahiel, Mohamed A.

2014-01-01

92

Maternal diet fatty acid composition affects neurodevelopment in rat pups.  

PubMed

The effect of pre- and postnatal maternal dietary fatty acid composition on neurodevelopment in rat pups was studied. Timed pregnant dams were fed, beginning on d 2 of gestation and throughout lactation, either nonpurified diet (reference) or a purified diet whose fat source (22% of energy) was either corn oil or menhaden fish oil. On postnatal d 3, pups were randomly cross-fostered among dams of the same diet group and culled to 10 pups per dam. Milk was removed from stomachs of culled pups for fatty acid analyses. From postnatal d 4 to 30, pups were assessed daily for the appearance of neurodevelopmental reflexes. Auditory brainstem conduction times were measured on postnatal d 23 and 29. Pups were killed on postnatal d 30, and cerebrums were removed for fatty acid analyses. The fatty acid composition of maternal milk and pup cerebrums reflected maternal diet with higher levels of (n-3) and (n-6) fatty acids in the fish oil and corn oil groups, respectively. The time of appearance of auditory startle was significantly delayed (P = 0.004), and auditory brainstem conduction times on postnatal d 23 and 29 were significantly longer in pups of the fish oil- than corn oil-fed dams (P

Saste, M D; Carver, J D; Stockard, J E; Benford, V J; Chen, L T; Phelps, C P

1998-04-01

93

Analysis of fatty acid composition of anaerobic rumen fungi.  

PubMed

The fatty acid (FA) composition of fresh mycelia of anaerobic rumen fungi was determined. The fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) of six strains belonging to four genera (Neocallimastix, Caecomyces, Orpinomyces, Anaeromyces) and one unknown strain were analyzed by gas chromatography. All studied fungi possess the same FAs but differences were found in their relative concentrations. The FA profile of anaerobic fungi comprises carbon chains of length ranging from 12 to 24; the most common fatty acids were stearic (C(18:0)), arachidic (C(20:0)), heneicosanoic (C(21:0)), behenic (C(22:0)), tricosanoic (C(23:0)) and lignoceric (C(24:0)) with relative amount representing >4% of total FA. Significant differences were determined for heptadecanoic, oleic, behenic and tricosanoic acids. Rumen anaerobic fungi can contain very long chain fatty acids; we found unsaturated fatty acids including cis-11-eicosenoic (C(20:1)), cis-11,14-eicosadienoic (C(20:2)), erucic (C(22:1n9)), cis-13,16-docosadienoic (C(22:2)) and nervonic (C(24:1)) acids in very small amounts but their presence seems to be unique for anaerobic fungi. PMID:18661295

Koppová, I; Novotná, Z; Strosová, L; Fliegerová, K

2008-01-01

94

Fatty acid composition of human brain phospholipids during normal development.  

PubMed

The fatty acid composition of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), ethanolamine plasmalogens (EPs), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and sphingomyelin was studied in 22 human forebrains, ranging in age from 26 prenatal weeks to 8 postnatal years. Phospholipids were separated by two-dimensional TLC, and the fatty acid methyl esters studied by capillary column GLC. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) increased with age in PE and PC, whereas arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) remained quite constant. In EP, 22:6n-3 increased less markedly than 20:4n-6, adrenic (22:4n-6) and oleic (18:1n-9) acids being the predominant fatty acids during postnatal age. In PS, 18:1n-9 increased dramatically throughout development, and 20:4n-6 and 22:4n-6 increased only until approximately 6 months of age. Although 22:6n-3 kept quite constant during development in PS, its percentage decreased due to the accretion of other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). As a characteristic myelin lipid, sphingomyelin was mainly constituted by very long chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Among them, nervonic acid (24:1n-9) was the major very long chain fatty acid in Sp, followed by 24:0, 26:1n-9, and 26:0, and its accretion after birth was dramatic. As myelination advanced, 18:1n-9 increased markedly in all four glycerophospholipids, predominating in EP, PS, and PC. In contrast, 22:6n-3 was the most important PUFA in PE in the mature forebrain. PMID:9832152

Martínez, M; Mougan, I

1998-12-01

95

What shapes amino acid and sugar composition in Mediterranean floral nectars?  

E-print Network

What shapes amino acid and sugar composition in Mediterranean floral nectars? Theodora Petanidou. 2006. What shapes amino acid and sugar composition in Mediterranean floral nectars? Á Oikos 115: 155Á169. We studied the amino acid (AA) composition of the floral nectars of 73 plant species occurring

Petanidou, Theodora

96

Thermophysical properties of starch and whey protein composite prepared in presence of organic acid and esters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previously, we prepared starch and protein composite by reactive mixing in presence of various organic acids and found that use of these acid esters resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, concentration (% w/w) of acid citrates in the starch-protein composites were var...

97

Microalgal fatty acid composition: implications for biodiesel quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuel properties of microalgal biodiesel are predicted using published microalgal fatty acid (FA) compositions and predictive\\u000a fuel models. Biodiesels produced from the microalgae investigated are predicted to have extremely poor oxidative stabilities\\u000a and the majority also have poor cold-flow properties. The cetane number in most cases is out of specification, but less so\\u000a than the oxidative stability and cold

Graham Robert Stansell; Vincent Myles Gray; Stuart David Sym

98

Dipeptide Synthesis by an Aminopeptidase from Streptomyces septatus TH-2 and Its Application to Synthesis of Biologically Active Peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dipeptide synthesis by aminopeptidase from Streptomyces septatus TH-2 (SSAP) was demonstrated using free amino acid as an acyl donor and aminoacyl methyl ester as an acyl acceptor in 98% methanol (MeOH). SSAP retained its activity after more than 100 h in 98% MeOH, and in the case of phenylalanyl-phenylalanine methyl ester synthesis, the enzyme reaction reached equilibrium when more than

Jiro Arima; Yoshiko Uesugi; Misugi Uraji; Masaki Iwabuchi; Tadashi Hatanaka

2006-01-01

99

Postnatal changes in fatty acids composition of brown adipose tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been demonstrated that thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is higher during the early postnatal period, decreasing towards a low adult level. The present study examined postnatal changes in the lipid composition of BAT. BAT from pre-weaning rats at 4 and 14 days old showed the following differences in lipid composition compared to that from adults of 12 weeks old. (i) Relative weight of interscapular BAT to body weight was markedly greater. (ii) BAT-triglyceride (TG) level was lower, while BAT-phospholipid (PL)level was higher. (iii) In TG fatty acids (FA) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PU; mol %), arachidonate index (AI), unsaturation index (UI) and PU/saturated FA (SA) were higher; rare FA such as eicosadienoate, bishomo- ?-linolenic acid and lignoceric acid in mol % were also higher. (iv) In PL-FA monounsaturated FA (MU) in mol % was lower; PU mol %, AI and UI were higher. These features in BAT of pre-weaning rats resembled those in the cold-acclimated adults, suggesting a close relationship of the PL-FA profile to high activity of BAT.

Ohno, T.; Ogawa, K.; Kuroshima, A.

1992-03-01

100

Compositional and source characterization of base progressively extracted humic acids using pyrolytic gas chromatography mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic base extraction is a commonly used method for the isolation of humic acids from soils and sediments. However, every extract may differ in chemical composition due to the complex nature of humic acids. To better understand the chemical composition of each extract, the heterogeneous property of humic acids and their speciation in environmental samples, eight fractions of humic acids

Li Li; Wanglu Jia; Ping’an Peng; Guoying Sheng; Jiamo Fu; Weilin Huang

2006-01-01

101

Effects of Feeding Camelina (Seeds or Meal) on Milk Fatty Acid Composition and Butter Spreadability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional and rheological properties of butter depend on the fatty acid composition of milk. There- fore, feeding oilseeds rich in unsaturated fatty acids is likely to affect butter properties. The aim of this trial was to examine to what extent feeding the linole- nic acid-rich cruciferous plant camelina can affect the fatty acid composition of dairy products and the

C. Hurtaud; J. L. Peyraud

2007-01-01

102

TRIACYLGLYCEROL AND PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID COMPOSITIONS OF THE SILVERLEAF WHITEFLY, BEMISIA ARGENTIFOLII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The identification and composition of the fatty acids associated with the major lipid classes (triacylglycerols, free fatty acids, phospholipids) within Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) nymphs were determined. Comparisons were made to the fatty acids from the interna...

103

Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Alters Hepatic Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Composition in Broiler Chickens1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of dietary conju- gated linoleic acid (CLA) on growth performance and liver composition in broiler chickens. Day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to receive a diet supple- mented with corn oil (5%; n = 48) or CLA (5%; n = 48) for 21 d. Broilers fed CLA weighed less and grew at slower rates than broilers

L. Badinga; K. T. Selberg; A. C. Dinges; C. W. Comer; R. D. Miles

104

Taxonomy of the Neisseriae: Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition, Interspecific Transformation, and Deoxyribonucleic Acid Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) base composition, intergenic transformation efficiency, and DNA hybridization were used to determine the relatedness of a variety of established or proposed species of Neisseria and Branhamella. These studies indicated that these bacteria form three genetic groupings. Group I, comprised of N. meningitidis, N. gonorrhoeae, N. subflava, N. flava, N. perflava, N. sicca, N. mucosa, N. cinerea, N.

CAROLYN HOKE; NEYLAN A. VEDROS

1982-01-01

105

Polylactic acid composites incorporating casein functionalized cellulose nanowhiskers  

PubMed Central

Background Polylactic acid (PLA) is considered to be a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based polymers for many applications. Using cellulose fiber to reinforce PLA is of great interest recently due to its complete biodegradability and potential improvement of the mechanical performance. However, the dispersion of hydrophilic cellulose fibers in the hydrophobic polymer matrix is usually poor without using hazardous surfactants. The goal of this study was to develop homogenously dispersed cellulose nanowhisker (CNW) reinforced PLA composites using whole milk casein protein, which is an environmentally compatible dispersant. Results In this study, whole milk casein was chosen as a dispersant in the PLA-CNW system because of its potential to interact with the PLA matrix and cellulose. The affinity of casein to PLA was studied by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging. CNWs were functionalized with casein and used as reinforcements to make PLA composites. Fluorescent staining of CNWs in the PLA matrix was implemented as a novel and simple way to analyze the dispersion of the reinforcements. The dispersion of CNWs in PLA was improved when casein was present. The mechanical properties of the composites were studied experimentally. Compared to pure PLA, the PLA composites had higher Young’s modulus. Casein (CS) functionalized CNW reinforced PLA (PLA-CS-CNW) at 2 wt% filler content maintained higher strain at break compared to normal CNW reinforced PLA (PLA-CNW). The Young’s modulus of PLA-CS-CNW composites was also higher than that of PLA-CNW composites at higher filler content. However, all composites exhibited lower strain at break and tensile strength at high filler content. Conclusions The presence of whole milk casein improved the dispersion of CNWs in the PLA matrix. The improved dispersion of CNWs provided higher modulus of the PLA composites at higher reinforcement loading and maintained the strain and stress at break of the composites at relatively low reinforcement loading. The affinity of the dispersant to PLA is important for the ultimate strength and stiffness of the composites. PMID:24341897

2013-01-01

106

Isolation and amino acid composition of human angiotensin I  

PubMed Central

1. Angiotensin, the most powerful pressor substance known, suspected to be a causal substance in renal hypertension and previously isolated from animal sources, has now been isolated from human sources and the amino acid composition was analysed. 2. The procedures followed in the successful isolation of human angiotensin include: (a) preparation of stable materials to obtain maximum formation of human angiotensin; (b) a relatively selective adsorption of the formed angiotensin on Dowex 50W (X2); (c) gel filtration through Sephadex G-25; (d) cation-exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose; (e) anion-exchange gel filtration on DEAE-Sephadex A-25; (f) molecular-sieve chromatography through Bio-Gel P-2. 3. The homogeneity of the human angiotensin isolated was confirmed by paper and thin-layer chromatography and paper electrophoresis. 4. The biological activity observed indicates the substance isolated to be human angiotensin I. 5. The amino acid analysis suggested the following proportional composition: Asp, 1; Pro, 1; Val, 1; Ile, 1; Leu, 1; Tyr, 1; Phe, 1; His, 2; Arg, 1. This composition is similar to that of horse angiotensin I, i.e. isoleucine5-angiotensin I. PMID:4292882

Arakawa, Kikuo; Nakatani, Misako; Minohara, Atsushi; Nakamura, Motoomi

1967-01-01

107

Evaluation of Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Compositions in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Grown in Different Geographical Locations  

PubMed Central

Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18–43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22–43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79–12.34%), stearic acid (6.36–7.73%), oleic acid (4.31–6.98%), arachidic acid (ND–3.48%), margaric acid (1.44–2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63–0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21–0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location. PMID:24171167

Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

2013-01-01

108

Evaluation of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) grown in different geographical locations.  

PubMed

Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18-43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22-43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79-12.34%), stearic acid (6.36-7.73%), oleic acid (4.31-6.98%), arachidic acid (ND-3.48%), margaric acid (1.44-2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63-0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21-0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location. PMID:24171167

Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

2013-01-01

109

Effect of growth temperature and media composition on the fatty acid composition of Bacillus stearothermophilus AN 002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of growth temperature, media composition and cell age on the chemical composition of Bacillus stearothermophilus strain AN 002 has been determined. The total cellular protein decreased and the free amino acid content increased with growth temperature, in both exponential and stationary growth phase. The protein and free amino acid contents of cells were higher in the stationary phase

R. L. Bezbaruah; K. R. Pillai; B. K. Gogoi; J. N. Baruah

1988-01-01

110

Regulation of membrane fatty acid composition by temperature in mutants of Arabidopsis with alterations in membrane lipid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A wide range of cellular responses occur when plants are exposed to elevated temperature, including adjustments in the unsaturation level of membrane fatty acids. Although membrane bound desaturase enzymes mediate these adjustments, it is unknown how they are regulated to achieve these specific membrane compositions. Furthermore, the precise roles that different membrane fatty acid compositions play in photosynthesis are

Deane L Falcone; Joseph P Ogas; Chris R Somerville

2004-01-01

111

Composition of Humic Acids of the Lake Baikal Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humic substances are the final stage of the biogeochemical transformation of organic matter in the biosphere. Its natural compounds are found not only in soil, peat, coal, and sediments of basins. Chemical composition and properties of humic substances are determined by the functioning of the ecosystem as a whole. Therefore the study of the unique Lake Baikal sediments can provide information about their genesis, as well as the processes of organic matter transformation. For this purpose, preparations of humic acids (HA) were isolated by alkaline extraction method. The composition of HA was investigated by the elemental analyzer CHNS/O PerkinElmer Series II. Various located sediments of the Lake Baikal were the objects of the study: 1 - Chivyrkuisky Bay, 2 - Kotovo Bay, 3 - Selenga river delta near Dubinino village, 4 - Selenga river delta near Murzino village. Data on the elemental composition of HA in terms of ash-free portion show that the carbon content (CC) is of 50-53% with a maximum value in a sample 3, and minimum - in a sample 2. Such values are characteristic also for the soils with low biochemical activity. The hydrogen content is of 4,2-5,3%, a maximum value is in a sample 1. Data recalculation to the atomic percentages identified following regularities. The CC of HA is of 35-39 at. %. Hydrogen content is of 37-43 at. %. According to the content of these elements investigated substances are clearly divided into two groups: HA of the sediments of the Lake Baikal and river Selenga delta. The magnitude of the atomic ratio H/C can be seen varying degrees of condensation of the molecules of humic acids. The high atomic ratio H/C in HA of the former group indicates the predominance of aliphatic structures in the molecules. Humic acids of the later group are characterized by a low value H/C (<1), suggesting a large proportion of aromatic components in HA composition. In sediments of the Selenga river delta there is an addition of organic matter of terrigenous origin, the remains of higher plants are the most source of it. In the bays of the Lake Baikal the remains of aquatic animal organisms, other than algae, are the source of organic matter, that explain the marked differences in the HA composition. The nitrogen content in the studied HA is of 3,5-4,0 % (2 at. %), that corresponds to the lower boundary values for the soil HA. No significant differences in nitrogen content between preparations were found. HA of sediments vary widely in sulfur content: 0,5-4,6 %. Maximum sulfur content is observed in the HA of Chivyrkuy Bay, which is higher than this element content in the soil HA. Likely sources of organic matter in the sample 1 are enriched in sulfur-containing amino acids such as cystine, cysteine, methionine, which is reflected in the composition of HA. Oxygen content is about 33,8-39,1% (17-22 at. %). Data analysis of the elemental composition of humic acids of studied sediments indicates that the HA formed in subaqueous conditions of bays are slightly condensed, contain less carbon and more hydrogen, compared with HA of delta part sediments, which are more carbonized and enriched in aromatic components. Thus the last group of sediments is of mixed subaqueous and terrigenous origin.

Vishnyakova, O.; Chimitdorzhieva, G.; Andreeva, D.

2012-04-01

112

Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes  

DOEpatents

A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm.sup.3 -atm).sup.1/2. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes.

Matson, Stephen L. (Harvard, MA); Lee, Eric K. L. (Acton, MA); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Kelly, Donald J. (Bend, OR)

1988-01-01

113

CHANGES IN LIPID COMPOSITION OF Phaseolus vulgaris LEAVES AFTER SIMULATING ACID RAIN TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. In the present study we have examined the influence of single spraying with simulated acid rain (pH 1.8) on the content of main lipid classes and their fatty acid composition in the thylakoid membranes of bean plants. Acid stress caused considerable changes in the investigated parameters. A decline in the content of linolenic acid, a highly unsatureted fatty acid

Violeta Velikova; Albena Ivanov; Ivan Yordanov

114

Erythrocyte Phospholipid and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition in Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) including docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid are suspected to play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. LCPUFAs are known to be preferentially concentrated in specific phospholipids termed as plasmalogens. This study was aimed to highlight potential changes in the metabolism of phospholipids, and particularly plasmalogens, and LCPUFAs at various stages of diabetic retinopathy in humans. Methodology and Principal Findings We performed lipidomic analyses on red blood cell membranes from controls and mainly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with or without retinopathy. The fatty acid composition of erythrocytes was determined by gas chromatography and the phospholipid structure was determined by liquid chromatography equipped with an electrospray ionisation source and coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS/MS). A significant decrease in levels of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in erythrocytes of diabetic patients with or without retinopathy was observed. The origin of this decrease was a loss of phosphatidyl-ethanolamine phospholipids esterified with these LCPUFAs. In diabetic patients without retinopathy, this change was balanced by an increase in the levels of several phosphatidyl-choline species. No influence of diabetes nor of diabetic retinopathy was observed on the concentrations of plasmalogen-type phospholipids. Conclusions and Significance Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy were associated with a reduction of erythrocyte LCPUFAs in phosphatidyl-ethanolamines. The increase of the amounts of phosphatidyl-choline species in erythrocytes of diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy might be a compensatory mechanism for the loss of LC-PUFA-rich phosphatidyl-ethanolamines. PMID:25188352

Berdeaux, Olivier; Isaïco, Rodica; Grégoire, Stéphane; Cabaret, Stéphanie; Bron, Alain M.; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine P.; Bretillon, Lionel; Acar, Niyazi

2014-01-01

115

Changes in fatty acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris by hypochlorous acid.  

PubMed

Hypochlorous acid treatment of a microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, was investigated to improve the quality of microalgal lipid and to obtain high biodiesel-conversion yield. Because chlorophyll deactivates the catalyst for biodiesel conversion, its removal in the lipid-extraction step enhances biodiesel productivity. When microalgae contacted the hypochlorous acid, chlorophyll was removed, and resultant changes in fatty acid composition of microalgal lipid were observed. The lipid-extraction yield after activated clay treatment was 32.7 mg lipid/g cell; after NaClO treatment at 0.8% available chlorine concentration, it was 95.2 mg lipid/g cell; and after NaCl electrolysis treatment at the 1 g/L cell concentration, it was 102.4 mg lipid/g cell. While the contents of all of the unsaturated fatty acids except oleic acid, in the microalgal lipid, decreased as the result of NaClO treatment, the contents of all of the unsaturated fatty acids including oleic acid decreased as the result of NaCl electrolysis treatment. PMID:24785789

Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Sun-A; Jeong, Min-Ji; Nam, Bora; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Jin-Suk

2014-06-01

116

Docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid supplementation alter rat skeletal muscle fatty acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6, DPAn-6) are highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, ? 20 carbons, ? 3 double bonds) that differ by a single carbon-carbon double bond at the ?19 position. Membrane 22:6n-3 may support skeletal muscle function through optimal ion pump activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum and electron transport in the mitochondria. Typically n-3 fatty

Ken D Stark; Sun-Young Lim; Norman Salem Jr

2007-01-01

117

Impact of Herbicides on Winter Canola (Brassica napus L.) Production and Fatty Acid Composition in South Texas  

E-print Network

by the herbicides evaluated. Fatty acid composition, specifically stearic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, and oleic to linolenic acid ratio, was affected by herbicide treatments. This research found that protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPG oxidase) inhibitor...

Cogdill, Todd Joseph

2013-01-16

118

Conjugated linoleic acids alter the fatty acid composition and physical properties of egg yolk and albumen.  

PubMed

Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the fatty acid composition of different egg compartments after storage were studied. Four dietary treatments [supplemented with safflower oil (SAFF, control group), DHA, CLAs plus DHA (CAD), and CLAs alone] were administered to Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) laying hens. Eggs from the different treatment groups were collected and stored for 10 weeks at 4 degrees C before analysis. Fatty acids from the yolk (yolk granules and plasma), egg albumen, and vitelline membrane were analyzed by gas chromatography. The yolk of eggs from hens given CLAs had significantly higher amounts of saturated fatty acids, typically 16:0 and 18:0, but lower amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) compared to eggs from the control group (SAFF). CLA content was highest in the yolk and present in both neutral and polar lipids, with the greatest concentrations in neutral lipids. DHA was incorporated mainly into yolk polar lipids. Lipids in yolk plasma and granules contained similar amounts of CLAs. The fatty acid compositions of vitelline membrane and egg albumen mirrored that of the egg yolk. CLA supplementation resulted in hard and rubbery yolks when compared to hard-cooked eggs from the control group. This study showed that feeding CLAs to hens led to accumulation of the isomers in polar and neutral lipids of the egg yolk and that these isomers migrated into egg albumen. Because the sensory properties of hard-cooked eggs were negatively affected by the enrichment of a mixture of CLA isomers in this study, further research should be conducted to evaluate how the different isomers alter the properties of egg yolk and albumen so that the quality of designed eggs containing CLAs and DHA can be improved. PMID:14582988

Watkins, Bruce A; Feng, Shulin; Strom, Anna K; DeVitt, Amy A; Yu, Liangli; Li, Yong

2003-11-01

119

Hydroxyapatite nanorod-reinforced biodegradable poly(L-lactic acid) composites for bone plate applications  

E-print Network

Hydroxyapatite nanorod-reinforced biodegradable poly(L-lactic acid) composites for bone plate composite fibers containing hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods with or without surface lactic acid grafting were/w) HAp nanorods, aligned parallel to fiber axis, were extruded. Lactic acid surface grafting of HAp

Hasýrcý, Vasýf

120

Copper Toxicity towardsSaccharomyces cerevisiae: Dependence on Plasma Membrane Fatty Acid Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

One major mechanism of copper toxicity towards microorganisms is disruption of plasma membrane integrity. In this study, the influence of plasma membrane fatty acid composition on the susceptibility of Saccharomyces cerevisiaeto Cu21toxicity was investigated. Microbial fatty acid composition is highly variable, depending on both intrinsic and environmental factors. Manipulation was achieved in this study by growth in fatty acid-supplemented medium.

SIMON V. AVERY; NIALL G. HOWLETT; ANDSTEFANIA RADICE

1996-01-01

121

Three-Year Tracking of Fatty Acid Composition of Plasma Phospholipids in Healthy Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids reflects the dietary fatty acid intake as well as endogenous turnover. We aimed at investigating the potential tracking of plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition in children that participated in a prospective cohort study. Methods: 26 healthy children participated in a longitudinal study on health risks and had been enrolled after birth. All

António Guerra; Hans Demmelmair; André Michael Toschke; Berthold Koletzko

2007-01-01

122

Effects of dietary glucogenic amino acid supplementation on growth performance, body composition  

E-print Network

Effects of dietary glucogenic amino acid supplementation on growth performance, body composition and plasma free amino acid levels in genetically lean and fat chickens P. A. GERAERT B. LECLERCQ, M. LARBIER/kg) and arginine (5 g/kg) on growth performance, body composition and free plasma amino acid levels in genetically

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

123

Fatty acid and sn-2 fatty acid composition in human milk from Granada (Spain) and in infant formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate differences in fatty acid and sn-2 fatty acid composition in colostrum, transitional and mature human milk, and in term infant formulas.Setting: Departament de Nutrició i Bromatologia, University of Barcelona, Spain and University Hospital of Granada, Spain.Subjects: One-hundred and twenty mothers and 11 available types of infant formulas for term infants.Design: We analysed the fatty acid composition of

A López-López; MC López-Sabater; C Campoy-Folgoso; M Rivero-Urgell; AI Castellote-Bargalló

2002-01-01

124

Polyvinyl alcohol–sulphanilic acid water soluble composite as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitive action of synthesised polyvinyl alcohol–sulphanilic acid (PVASA) composite on the corrosion of commercial mild steel in 1M HCl medium has been investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) methods. Characterization of PVASA composite has been carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Experimental results reveal that PVASA composite acts as an inhibitor in

M. Srimathi; R. Rajalakshmi; S. Subhashini

125

Modification of spleen phospholipid fatty acid composition by dietary fish oil and by n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters.  

PubMed

We have compared the effects of diets containing purified ethyl esters of either eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, or a mixture of both of these compounds, with diets containing either purified fish oil or beef tallow on spleen phospholipid fatty acid composition. Autoimmune mice, the (NZB x NZW)F1 strain, were fed with experimental diets for 14 weeks, after which spleen phospholipids were extracted and separated into classes by HPLC, and the alkenylacyl, alkylacyl, and diacyl subclasses of glycerylphosphatidylethanolamine and glycerylphosphatidylcholine were resolved as their benzoyl esters by HPLC. Fatty acids were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography of their methyl esters. Each of the marine lipid diets suppressed n-6 fatty acids and elevated n-3 fatty acids in all phospholipids. The eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester diets led to high levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-3), but little or no increase in docosahexaenoic acid. The docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester diets elevated docosahexaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in all phospholipids, indicating that extensive retroconversion of 22 carbon n-3 fatty acids had occurred. These results document changes in the fatty acid composition of mammalian phospholipids that are induced by dietary fish oil triglycerides and by dietary long chain n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters. PMID:8409773

Robinson, D R; Xu, L L; Knoell, C T; Tateno, S; Olesiak, W

1993-08-01

126

A sulfur amino acid deficiency changes the amino acid composition of body protein in piglets.  

PubMed

Experiments carried out to determine the amino acid requirement in growing animals are often based on the premise that the amino acid composition of body protein is constant. However, there are indications that this assumption may not be correct. The objective of this study was to test the effect of feeding piglets a diet deficient or not in total sulfur amino acids (TSAA; Met + Cys) on nitrogen retention and amino acid composition of proteins in different body compartments. Six blocks of three pigs each were used in a combined comparative slaughter and nitrogen balance study. One piglet in each block was slaughtered at 42 days of age, whereas the other piglets received a diet deficient or not in TSAA for 19 days and were slaughtered thereafter. Two diets were formulated to provide either 0.20% Met and 0.45% TSAA (on a standardized ileal digestible basis) or 0.46% Met and 0.70% TSAA. Diets were offered approximately 25% below ad libitum intake. At slaughter, the whole animal was divided into carcass, blood, intestines, liver, and the combined head, tail, feet and other organs (HFTO), which were analyzed for nitrogen and amino acid contents. Samples of the longissimus muscle (LM) were analyzed for myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and actin contents. Nitrogen retention was 20% lower in piglets receiving the TSAA-deficient diet (P < 0.01). In these piglets, the nitrogen content in tissue gain was lower in the empty body, carcass, LM and blood (P < 0.05) or tended to be lower in HFTO (P < 0.10), but was not different in the intestines and liver. The Met content in retained protein was lower in the empty body, LM and blood (P < 0.05), and tended to be lower in the carcass (P < 0.10). The Cys content was lower in LM, but higher in blood of piglets receiving the TSAA-deficient diet (P < 0.05). Skeletal muscle appeared to be affected most by the TSAA deficiency. In LM, the Met content in retained protein was reduced by 12% and total Met retention by more than 60%. The MyHC and actin contents in LM were not affected by the TSAA content of the diet. These results show that a deficient TSAA supply affects the amino acid composition of different body proteins. This questions the use of a constant ideal amino acid profile to express dietary amino acid requirements, but also illustrates the plasticity of the animal to cope with nutritional challenges. PMID:22444655

Conde-Aguilera, J A; Barea, R; Le Floc'h, N; Lefaucheur, L; van Milgen, J

2010-08-01

127

Effect of cyanocobalamin and p -toluic acid on the fatty acid composition of Schizochytrium limacinum (Thraustochytriaceae, Labyrinthulomycota)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the fatty acid composition of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-producing Schizochytrium limacinum SR21 were investigated. The addition of cyanocobalamin, which is an active component of vitamin B12, decreased the content of odd-chain fatty acids such as pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (C17:0). Cyanocobalamin\\u000a may upregulate the cobalamin-dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, which converts propionic acid to succinic acid, thereby decreasing\\u000a the

Norifumi Shirasaka; Yukari Hirai; Haruka Nakabayashi; Hajime Yoshizumi

2005-01-01

128

The Role of a Dipeptide Outer-Coordination Sphere on H2 -Production Catalysts: Influence on Catalytic Rates and Electron Transfer  

SciTech Connect

The outer-coordination sphere of enzymes acts to fine-tune the active site reactivity and control catalytic rates, suggesting that incorporation of analogous structural elements into molecular catalysts may be necessary to achieve rates comparable to those observed in enzyme systems at low overpotentials. In this work, we evaluate the effect of an amino acid and dipeptide outer-coordination sphere on [Ni(PPh2NPh-R2)2]2+ hydrogen production catalysts. A series of 12 new complexes containing non-natural amino acids or dipeptides were prepared to test the effects of positioning, size, polarity and aromaticity on catalytic activity. The non-natural amino acid was either 3-(meta- or para-aminophenyl)propionic acid terminated as an acid, an ester or an amide. Dipeptides consisted of one of the non-natural amino acids coupled to one of four amino acid esters: alanine, serine, phenylalanine or tyrosine. All of the catalysts are active for hydrogen production, with rates averaging ~1000 s-1, 40% faster than the unmodified catalyst. Structure and polarity of the aliphatic or aromatic side chains of the C-terminal peptide do not strongly influence rates. However, the presence of an amide bond increases rates, suggesting a role for the amide in assisting catalysis. Overpotentials were lower with substituents at the N-phenyl meta position. This is consistent with slower electron transfer in the less compact, para-substituted complexes, as shown in digital simulations of catalyst cyclic voltammograms and computational modeling of the complexes. Combining the current results with insights from previous results, we propose a mechanism for the role of the amino acid and dipeptide based outer-coordination sphere in molecular hydrogen production catalysts.

Reback, Matthew L.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Jain, Avijita; Squier, Thomas C.; Raugei, Simone; Roberts, John A.; Shaw, Wendy J.

2013-02-04

129

Fatty acid composition and regiodistribution in mare’s milk triacylglycerols at different lactation stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and regiodistribution of fatty acids influence the physical and the nutritional properties of milk fat. The\\u000a aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid composition and the triacylglycerols’ (TAGs) structure of mare’s milk collected\\u000a on days 20, 40, and 150 postpartum. Differences in the composition of fatty acids occurred between lactation times. A higher\\u000a proportion of saturated

Imen Haddad; Massimo Mozzon; Rosanna Strabbioli; Natale G. Frega

2011-01-01

130

Medium-dependent regulation of proteinase gene expression in Lactococcus lactis: control of transcription initiation by specific dipeptides.  

PubMed Central

Transcriptional gene fusions with the Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase gene (gusA) were used to study the medium- and growth-dependent expression of the divergently transcribed genes involved in proteinase production (prtP and prtM) of Lactococcus lactis SK11. The results show that both the prtP and prtM genes are controlled at the transcriptional level by the peptide content of the medium and, to a lesser extent, by the growth rate. A more than 10-fold regulation in beta-glucuronidase activity was observed for both prtP and prtM promoters in batch and continuous cultures. The level of expression of the prtP and prtM promoters was high in whey permeate medium with relatively low concentrations of peptides, whereas at increased concentrations the expression of the promoters was repressed. The lowest level of expression was observed in peptide- and amino acid-rich laboratory media, such as glucose-M17 and MRS. The addition of specific dipeptides, such as leucylproline and prolylleucine, to the growth medium negatively affected the expression of the prtP-gusA fusions. The repression by dipeptides was not observed in mutants defective in the uptake of di-tripeptides, indicating that the internal concentration of dipeptides or derivatives is important in the regulation of proteinase production. PMID:7768792

Marugg, J D; Meijer, W; van Kranenburg, R; Laverman, P; Bruinenberg, P G; de Vos, W M

1995-01-01

131

Analysing the substrate multispecificity of a proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter using a dipeptide library  

PubMed Central

Peptide uptake systems that involve members of the proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter (POT) family are conserved across all organisms. POT proteins have characteristic substrate multispecificity, with which one transporter can recognize as many as 8,400 types of di/tripeptides and certain peptide-like drugs. Here we characterize the substrate multispecificity of Ptr2p, a major peptide transporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using a dipeptide library. The affinities (Ki) of di/tripeptides toward Ptr2p show a wide distribution range from 48?mM to 0.020?mM. This substrate multispecificity indicates that POT family members have an important role in the preferential uptake of vital amino acids. In addition, we successfully establish high performance ligand affinity prediction models (97% accuracy) using our comprehensive dipeptide screening data in conjunction with simple property indices for describing ligand molecules. Our results provide an important clue to the development of highly absorbable peptides and their derivatives including peptide-like drugs. PMID:24060756

Ito, Keisuke; Hikida, Aya; Kawai, Shun; Lan, Vu Thi Tuyet; Motoyama, Takayasu; Kitagawa, Sayuri; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Kato, Ryuji; Kawarasaki, Yasuaki

2013-01-01

132

Analysing the substrate multispecificity of a proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter using a dipeptide library.  

PubMed

Peptide uptake systems that involve members of the proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter (POT) family are conserved across all organisms. POT proteins have characteristic substrate multispecificity, with which one transporter can recognize as many as 8,400 types of di/tripeptides and certain peptide-like drugs. Here we characterize the substrate multispecificity of Ptr2p, a major peptide transporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using a dipeptide library. The affinities (Ki) of di/tripeptides toward Ptr2p show a wide distribution range from 48?mM to 0.020?mM. This substrate multispecificity indicates that POT family members have an important role in the preferential uptake of vital amino acids. In addition, we successfully establish high performance ligand affinity prediction models (97% accuracy) using our comprehensive dipeptide screening data in conjunction with simple property indices for describing ligand molecules. Our results provide an important clue to the development of highly absorbable peptides and their derivatives including peptide-like drugs. PMID:24060756

Ito, Keisuke; Hikida, Aya; Kawai, Shun; Lan, Vu Thi Tuyet; Motoyama, Takayasu; Kitagawa, Sayuri; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Kato, Ryuji; Kawarasaki, Yasuaki

2013-01-01

133

Muramyl dipeptide and its derivatives: peptide adjuvant in immunological disorders and cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Muramyl dipeptide (MDP) is a synthetic immunoreactive peptide consisting of N-acetyl muramic acid attached to a short amino acid chain of L-Ala-D-isoGln. It was first identified in bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan as an active component in Freund’s complete adjuvant. In the cell, MDP is detected by NOD2, a cytoplasmic receptor belonging to the human innate immune system. NOD2 mutations are frequently observed in patients with Crohn’s disease, an autoimmune disorder, suggesting the significance of the MDP-NOD2 pathway in activating immunity. For this reason, structural modifications of MDP and its derivatives have been extensively studied in an attempt to increase adjuvant activity and boost the immune response effectively for clinical use in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This review summarizes the synthetic chemistry of MDP and its derivatives and discusses their pharmacological action and stereoselective synthesis. PMID:22180736

Ogawa, Chikako; Liu, Yuen-Joyce; Kobayashi, Koichi S.

2011-01-01

134

Nutritional factors affecting the fatty acid composition of bovine milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant fatty acids in milk are the long-chain fatty acids myristic, palmitic and stearic. These saturated fatty acids account for 75 % of the total fatty acids, with a further 21 % occurring as monounsaturated fatty acids of which the most prevalent is oleic acid. Only 4 g\\/lOO g of the milk fatty acids are polyunsaturated, occurring mainly as

R. J. Mansbridge; J. S. Blake

1997-01-01

135

Improving fatty acid composition in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) by SNP genotyping and traditional breeding.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fatty acid composition is an important seed quality trait in cultivated peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). Monounsaturated fats, such as oleic acid (C18:1), an omega-9 fatty acid, has been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. In addition, peanuts bred to produce high levels of oleic acid ...

136

Lipids in Arctic benthos: does the fatty acid and alcohol composition reflect feeding and trophic interactions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctic benthic organisms of various taxa (Anthozoa, Polychaeta, Pantopoda, Crustacea, Echinodermata) were collected on the\\u000a shelves off northeast Greenland, Spitsbergen and the western Barents Sea. Their fatty acid compositions were generally characterised\\u000a by the predominance of the polyunsaturated fatty acids 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3) together with the saturated fatty acid 16:0,\\u000a which reflect the dominance of phospholipids. The fatty acid compositions

M. Graeve; G. Kattner; D. Piepenburg

1997-01-01

137

Effect of diet on plasma acid-base composition in normal humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of diet on plasma acid-base composition in normal humans. Steady-state plasma and urine acid-base composition was assessed in 19 studies of 16 normal subjects who ingested constant amounts of one of three diets that resulted in different rates of endogenous noncarbonic acid production (EAP) within the normal range. Renal net acid excretion (NAE) was used to quantify EAP since

Ira Kurtz; Terry Maher; Henry N Hulter; Morris Schambelan; Anthony Sebastian

1983-01-01

138

Flax Fibers as Reinforcement in Poly (Lactic Acid) Biodegradable Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our research, poly (lactic acid) (PLA) film was used in combination with flax fibers as reinforcement to generate biodegradable composites by a film stacking technique and hot-press. The research of the relationship between the main process parameters and the performance of the board are done by the orthogonal experiments, then the various factors to influence the performance were analyzed and the optimal parameters were determined. The results showed that with the increasing of flax addition (30%~50%) and silane addition (1%~5%), the tensile strength and modulus increased, but the flexural strength and modulus increased then decreased with the increasing of flax addition (30%~50%). During the hot-press temperature (190°C~210°C) increasing, the tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus all increased. And the optimal parameters are determined by the flax addition 40%, silane addition 5%, hotpressing temperature 190°C, and hot-pressing time 3 min.

Yuan, Yuan; Guo, Minghui; Wang, Yong

139

Effects of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Growth Medium on Lipid Composition and on Physicochemical Surface Properties of Lactobacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most probiotic lactobacilli adhere to intestinal surfaces, a phenomenon influenced by free polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The present study investigated whether free linoleic acid, -linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, -linolenic acid, or docosahexaenoic acid in the growth medium alters the fatty acid composition of lactobacilli and their physical characteristics. The most abundant bacterial fatty acids identified were oleic, vaccenic, and dihydrosterculic

P. Kankaanpaa; B. Yang; H. Kallio; E. Isolauri; S. Salminen

2004-01-01

140

Citric Acid-based Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds Enhance Calvarial Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Citric acid-based polymer/hydroxyapatite composites (CABP-HAs) are a novel class of biomimetic composites that have recently attracted significant attention in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of using two different CABP-HAs, poly (1,8-octanediol citrate)-click-HA (POC-Click-HA) and crosslinked urethane-doped polyester-HA (CUPE-HA) as an alternative to autologous tissue grafts in the repair of skeletal defects. CABP-HA disc-shaped scaffolds (65 wt.-% HA with 70% porosity) were used as bare implants without the addition of growth factors or cells to renovate 4?mm diameter rat calvarial defects (n = 72, n = 18 per group). Defects were either left empty (negative control group), or treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds, POC-Click-HA scaffolds, or autologous bone grafts (AB group). Radiological and histological data showed a significant enhancement of osteogenesis in defects treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds when compared to POC-Click-HA scaffolds. Both, POC-Click-HA and CUPE-HA scaffolds, resulted in enhanced bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, and angiogenesis when compared to the control groups at 1, 3, and 6 months post-trauma. These results show the potential of CABP-HA bare implants as biocompatible, osteogenic, and off-shelf-available options in the repair of orthopedic defects. PMID:25372769

Sun, Dawei; Chen, Yuhui; Tran, Richard T.; Xu, Song; Xie, Denghui; Jia, Chunhong; Wang, Yuchen; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Zhongmin; Guo, Jinshan; Yang, Jian; Jin, Dadi; Bai, Xiaochun

2014-01-01

141

Essential fatty acid intake and serum fatty acid composition among adolescent girls in central Mozambique.  

PubMed

Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24 h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18 % of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20 : 3n-9):arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated. PMID:25772191

Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Vessby, Bengt; Tengblad, Siv; Vaara, Elina M; Hauta-Alus, Helena; Selvester, Kerry; Mutanen, Marja

2015-04-01

142

SCMHBP: prediction and analysis of heme binding proteins using propensity scores of dipeptides  

PubMed Central

Background Heme binding proteins (HBPs) are metalloproteins that contain a heme ligand (an iron-porphyrin complex) as the prosthetic group. Several computational methods have been proposed to predict heme binding residues and thereby to understand the interactions between heme and its host proteins. However, few in silico methods for identifying HBPs have been proposed. Results This work proposes a scoring card method (SCM) based method (named SCMHBP) for predicting and analyzing HBPs from sequences. A balanced dataset of 747 HBPs (selected using a Gene Ontology term GO:0020037) and 747 non-HBPs (selected from 91,414 putative non-HBPs) with an identity of 25% was firstly established. Consequently, a set of scores that quantified the propensity of amino acids and dipeptides to be HBPs is estimated using SCM to maximize the predictive accuracy of SCMHBP. Finally, the informative physicochemical properties of 20 amino acids are identified by utilizing the estimated propensity scores to be used to categorize HBPs. The training and mean test accuracies of SCMHBP applied to three independent test datasets are 85.90% and 71.57%, respectively. SCMHBP performs well relative to comparison with such methods as support vector machine (SVM), decision tree J48, and Bayes classifiers. The putative non-HBPs with high sequence propensity scores are potential HBPs, which can be further validated by experimental confirmation. The propensity scores of individual amino acids and dipeptides are examined to elucidate the interactions between heme and its host proteins. The following characteristics of HBPs are derived from the propensity scores: 1) aromatic side chains are important to the effectiveness of specific HBP functions; 2) a hydrophobic environment is important in the interaction between heme and binding sites; and 3) the whole HBP has low flexibility whereas the heme binding residues are relatively flexible. Conclusions SCMHBP yields knowledge that improves our understanding of HBPs rather than merely improves the prediction accuracy in predicting HBPs. PMID:25522279

2014-01-01

143

Fatty acid composition of six Centaurea species growing in Konya, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, fatty acid compositions of six Centaurea species growing in the Konya region were determined. The fatty acid composition of Centaurea balsamita, Centaurea calolepis, Centaurea carduiformis subsp. carduiformis, Centaurea cariensis subsp. maculiceps, C. cariensis subsp. microlepis and Centaurea iberica were analysed. Four species of these six Centaurea are endemic to Turkey. The endemic Centaurea species are C. calolepis,

Yener Tekeli; Mehmet Sezgin; Abdurrahman Aktumsek; Gokalp Ozmen Guler; Murad Aydin Sanda

2010-01-01

144

In vivo milk digestion in the calf abomasum. III. Amino acid compositions of the digesta leaving  

E-print Network

In vivo milk digestion in the calf abomasum. III. Amino acid compositions of the digesta leaving different test meals : whole milk, skim milk, 3 % whole casein solution, 3 % whole casein in simulated milk the first 10 min following the ingestion of whole or skim milk, the amino acid composition of the sediment

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

145

Fatty Acid Composition of Commercial Menhaden, Brevoortia spp., Oils, 1982 and 1983  

E-print Network

Fatty Acid Composition of Commercial Menhaden, Brevoortia spp., Oils, 1982 and 1983 JEANNE D. JOSEPH Introduction Menhaden, Brevoortia spp., oil, the commercial fish oil produced in great- est volume information on fatty acid composition of menhaden oils, Ackman et al. (1981) showed that oils of this fish

146

Composition of phenolic acids in sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of phenolic acids in several varieties of sea buckthorn berries was determined by GC and MS. In six cultivars\\u000a the total content of phenolic acids ranged from 3570282 to 4439405 mg per kg of berries, on a dry basis. Seventeen phenolic\\u000a acids were tentatively identified in the berries. Salicylic acid was the principal phenolic acid in sea buckthorn

R. Zadernowski; M. Naczk; S. Czaplicki; M. Rubinskiene; M. Sza?kiewicz

2005-01-01

147

Continuous microcellular foaming of polylactic acid/natural fiber composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a biodegradable thermoplastic derived from renewable resources, stands out as a substitute to petroleum-based plastics. In spite of its excellent properties, commercial applications are limited because PLA is more expensive and more brittle than traditional petroleum-based resins. PLA can be blended with cellulosic fibers to reduce material cost. However, the lowered cost comes at the expense of flexibility and impact strength, which can be enhanced through the production of microcellular structures in the composite. Microcellular foaming uses inert gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) as physical blowing agents to make cellular structures with bubble sizes of less than 10 microm and cell-population densities (number of bubbles per unit volume) greater than 109 cells/cm³. These unique characteristics result in a significant increase in toughness and elongation at break (ductility) compared with unfoamed parts because the presence of small bubbles can blunt the crack-tips increasing the energy needed to propagate the crack. Microcellular foams have been produced through a two step batch process. First, large amounts of gas are dissolved in the solid plastic under high pressure (sorption process) to form a single-phase solution. Second, a thermodynamic instability (sudden drop in solubility) triggers cell nucleation and growth as the gas diffuses out of the plastic. Batch production of microcellular PLA has addressed some of the drawbacks of PLA. Unfortunately, the batch foaming process is not likely to be implemented in the industrial production of foams because it is not cost-effective. This study investigated the continuous microcellular foaming process of PLA and PLA/wood-fiber composites. The effects of the processing temperature and material compositions on the melt viscosity, pressure drop rate, and cell-population density were examined in order to understand the nucleation mechanisms in neat and filled PLA foams. The results indicated that the processing temperature had a strong effect of the rheology of the melt and cell morphology. Processing at a lower temperature significantly increased the cell nucleation rate of neat PLA (amorphous and semi-crystalline) because of the fact that a high melt viscosity induced a high pressure drop rate in the polymer/gas solution. The presence of nanoclay did not affect the homogeneous nucleation but increased the heterogeneous nucleation, allowing both nucleation mechanisms to occur during the foaming process. The effect of wood-flour (0-30 wt.%) and rheology modifier contents on the melt viscosity and cell morphology of microcellular foamed composites was investigated. The viscosity of the melt increased with wood-flour content and decreased with rheology modifier content, affecting the processing conditions (i.e., pressure drop and pressure drop rate) and foamability of the composites. Matching the viscosity of the composites with that of neat PLA resulted in the best cell morphologies. Physico-mechanical characterization of microcellular foamed PLA as a function of cell morphology was performed to establish process-morphology-property relationships. The processing variables, i.e., amount of gas injected, flow rate, and processing temperature affected the development of the cellular structure and mechanical properties of the foams.

Diaz-Acosta, Carlos A.

148

Inhibition of polyphenol oxidases activity by various dipeptides.  

PubMed

In an effort to develop natural and nontoxic inhibitors on the activity of mushroom polyphenol oxidase (PPO) the effect of various glycyl-dipeptides (GlyAsp, GlyGly, GlyHis, GlyLeu, GlyLys, GlyPhe, GlyPro, GlyTyr) was investigated. The inhibition study with dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) as substrate is based on separation of the enzymatic reaction components by reversed phase HPLC and the UV detection of the dopachrome formed. The results have evidenced that several of tested dipeptides inhibited PPO activity in the range of 20-40% while GlyPro and GlyLeu had no effect. The study has also permitted the characterization of the following kinetic pattern: a linear-mixed-type mechanism for GlyAsp, GlyGly, GlyLys, and GlyPhe and a hyperbolic-mixed-type for GlyTyr. It was not possible to identify the inhibition mechanism for GlyHis, although it affects PPO activity. In addition the effects of GlyAsp, GlyLys and GlyHis were evaluated for lessening the browning of fresh Golden Delicious apple and Irish White Skinned potato. The effectiveness of such inhibitors was determined by the difference between the colors observed in the dipeptide-treated sample and the controls using the color space CIE-Lab system. The % browning inhibition on potato (20-50%) was greater than of apple (20-30%) by the all tested dipeptides. Only GlyLys presented the significant value of 50%. PMID:15137808

Girelli, Anna M; Mattei, Enrico; Messina, Antonella; Tarola, Anna M

2004-05-19

149

Effects of conjugated linoleic acid levels and feeding intervals on performance, carcass traits and fatty acid composition of finishing barrows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on performance, carcass traits, fatty acid composition and subcutaneous adipose tissue cellularity in finishing barrows. In Experiment 1, 54 crossbred barrows were allotted to one of three treatments, with six pens per treatment and three barrows in each pen. The pigs were fed a diet containing

Dongyan Sun; Xiaoping Zhu; Shiyan Qiao; Shijun Fan; Defa Li

2004-01-01

150

The changes of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in sea bream ( Sparus aurata) during irradiation process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqua cultured fish (sea bream) were irradiated by Cobalt-60 at commercial irradiation facility at dose of 2.5 and 5 kGy at 2-4 °C. The proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid composition changes of irradiated aqua cultured sea bream ( Sparus aurata) of Aegean Sea were investigated. Total saturated (28.01%) and total monounsaturated (28.42%) fatty acid contents of non-irradiated decreased content of 27.69-27.97% for 2.5 kGy irradiated groups and increased content of 28.33-28.56% for 5 kGy irradiated groups after irradiation process. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid content for irradiated samples was lower than that of non-irradiated samples. Aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, arginine, alanine, tyrosine, cystine, tryptophan, lysine and proline contents for 2.5 and 5 kGy irradiated sea bream are significantly different ( p<0.05).

Erkan, Nuray; Özden, Özkan

2007-10-01

151

Fatty acid composition of eleven algae from coastal zones of Qatar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid composition of eleven species of algae belonging to Rhodophyceae, collected from the coastal zones of Qatar, are reported. The major fatty acids identified were palmitic (16:0), myristic (14:0), oleic (18:1), eicosodienoic (20:2), linoleic (18:2), stearic (18:0) and hexadecaenoic acid (16:1).

H. I. Heiba

1989-01-01

152

Effect of Irrigation on the Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Some Sunflower Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of irrigation on the seed yield, oil yield, and oil composition of sunflower in populations of Ekiz1 and VNIIMK 8931, a mixture of N2, N3, and N4 lines, and a synthetic variety obtained from these lines has been studied. The major fatty acid was found to be oleic acid, in addition to linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Irrigation

N. Erdemoglu; S. Kusmenoglu; N. Yenice

2003-01-01

153

Composition of phospholipids and of phospholipid fatty acids and aldehydes in human red cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved methods for lipid analysis that have been developed recently were employed to reevaluate the phos- pholipid composition, the fatty acid and fatty aldehyde com- position of the total phospholipid, and the fatty acid composi- tion of the individual phospholipids of normal human red cells. Thirty-three fatty acids and five fatty aldehydes were esti- mated and tentatively identified in the

JAMES T. DODGE; GERALD B. PHILLIPS

154

Fatty acid composition of Drosophila photoreceptor light-sensitive microvilli.  

PubMed

Phototransduction, the mechanism underlying the electrical response to light in photoreceptor cells, has been thoroughly investigated in Drosophila melanogaster, an essential model in signal transduction research. These cells present a highly specialized photosensitive membrane consisting of thousands of microvilli forming a prominent structure termed a rhabdomere. These microvilli encompass the phototransduction proteins, most of which are transmembrane and exclusively rhabdomeric. Rhabdomere membrane lipids play a crucial role in the activation of the transient receptor potential ionic channels (TRP and TRPL) responsible for initiating the photoresponse. Despite its importance, rhabdomere lipid composition has not been established. We developed a novel preparation enriched in rhabdomere membranes to perform a thorough characterization of the lipidomics of Drosophila rhabdomeres. Isolated eyes (500) were homogenized and subjected to a differential centrifugation protocol that generates a fraction enriched in rhabdomere membrane. Lipids extracted from this preparation were identified and quantified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. We found an abundance of low sterol esters (C16:0, C18:0), highly abundant and diverse triglycerides, free fatty acids, a moderate variety of mono and diacyglycerols (C:16:0, 18:0, C18:1) and abundant phospholipids (principally C18:2). This preparation opens a new avenue for investigating essential aspects of phototransduction. PMID:24346077

Muñoz, Yorka; Fuenzalida, Karen; Bronfman, Miguel; Gatica, Arnaldo; Sepúlveda, Marcelo; Bacigalupo, Juan; Roth, Alejandro D; Delgado, Ricardo

2013-01-01

155

The major metabolite of dipeptide piracetam analogue GVS-111 in rat brain and its similarity to endogenous neuropeptide cyclo- l -prolylglycine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The metabolism of a new piracetam analogue, the dipeptide cognitive enhancer N-phenylacetyl-l-prolylglycine ethyl ester (GVS-111) was studied in vivo. GVS-111 itself was not found in rat brain 1 h after 5 mg\\/kg i.p.\\u000a administration up to limit of detection (LOD) under high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions. Three substances\\u000a corresponding to the three possible GVS-111 metabolites, namely phenylacetic acid, prolylglycine

T. A. Gudasheva; S. S. Boyko; R. U. Ostrovskaya; T. A. Voronina; V. K. Akparov; S. S. Trofimov; G. G. Rozantsev; A. P. Skoldinov; V. P. Zherdev; S. B. Seredenin

1997-01-01

156

Application of enzymatically stable dipeptides for enhancement of intestinal permeability. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of dipeptide-coupled compounds.  

PubMed

Transport across the intestinal barrier of compounds with low permeability may be facilitated by targeting the human oligopeptide transporter, hPepT1. A flexible synthetic pathway for attaching compounds to dipeptides through ester or amide bonds was developed. Furthermore, a synthetic approach to functionalize model drugs from one key intermediate was generated and applied to a glucose-6-phosphatase active model drug. The model drug was coupled to D-Glu-Ala through various linkers, and the G-6-Pase activity as well as the aqueous solubility and transport properties of these prodrugs, as compared to those of the parent drugs, were examined. None of the peptide-coupled compounds seemed to be transported by hPepT1, though one of the peptide-coupled compounds had affinity for hPepT1. Interestingly, in one case the parent drug was actively effluxed, while the corresponding peptide-coupled prodrug was not. The low aqueous solubility of the parent compounds was not increased after attachment to a dipeptide. This suggests that only compounds with a certain intrinsic aqueous solubility should be targeted to hPepT1 by attachment to a dipeptide. Important information about the design of peptide-coupled drugs targeted for hPepT1 is presented. PMID:11557350

Friedrichsen, G M; Jakobsen, P; Taub, M; Begtrup, M

2001-10-01

157

Fatty acid composition in farmed great sturgeon Huso huso  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, fatty acid profiles in farmed great sturgeon Huso huso were determined and results compared with those of other farmed sturgeon species. C18:1, C18:2, C16:0, C18:3, and C18:0 were\\u000a the main fatty acids found in great sturgeon flesh and represented approximately 88% of total fatty acids. Monounsaturated\\u000a fatty acids were the most dominant class of fatty acids, followed

Mohammad Reza Ghomi; Mehdi Nikoo; Zeinolabedin Babaei

158

Influence of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition of egg yolks and reproductive performance in the turkey  

E-print Network

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION SUMMARY LITERATURE CITED Page iii 12 31 46 LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1 - Composition of Synthetic Diets Table 2 - Composition of Practical Breeder Diet 34 35 Table 3 - Patty Acid Composition... of Soybean Oil and Neatsfoot Oil 36 Table 4 - Patty Acid Composition of Diets 37 Table 5 - Yolk Fatty Acids at One and Three Months of Dietary Treatment (Polar Praction) 38 Table 6 - Yolk Fatty Acids at One and Three Months of Dietary Treatment (Neutral...

Cornett, Bonita Manis

1966-01-01

159

Selective inhibition of human inducible nitric oxide synthase by S-alkyl-L-isothiocitrulline-containing dipeptides.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the structure-activity relationship of S-alkyl-L-isothiocitrulline-containing dipeptides towards three partially purified recombinant human nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isozymes, as well as the effects of these compounds on cytokine-induced NO production by human DLD-1 cells. In an in vitro assay, S-methyl-L-isothiocitrulline (L-MIT) was slightly selective for human neuronal NOS (nNOS) over the inducible (iNOS) or endothelial (eNOS) isozyme, but the combination of a hydrophobic L-amino acid (L-Phe, L-Leu or L-Trp) with L-MIT dramatically altered the inhibition pattern to give selective iNOS inhibitors. Introduction of a hydroxy, nitro, amino or methoxy group at the para position of the aromatic ring of L-MIT-L-Phe (MILF) decreased the selectivity and inhibitory potency. A longer or larger S-alkyl group also decreased the selectivity and potency. Dixon analysis showed that all of the dipeptides were competitive inhibitors of the three isoforms of human NOS. The enzymatic time course curves indicated that MILF was a slow binding inhibitor of human iNOS. These results suggest that the human NOS isozymes have different-sized cavities in the binding site near the position to which the C-terminal of L-arginine binds, and the cavity of iNOS is hydrophobic. Interestingly, L-MIT-D-Phe (MIDF) showed little inhibitory activity or selectivity, suggesting that the cavity of human iNOS is located in a well-defined direction from the alpha carbon atom. NO production in cytokine-stimulated human DLD-1 cells was measured with a fluorescent indicator, DAF-FM. MILF, L-MIT-L-Trp(-CHO) (MILW) and L-MIT-L-Tyr (MILY) showed more potent activity than L-MIT in this whole-cell assay. Thus, S-alkyl-L-isothiocitrulline-containing dipeptides are selective inhibitors of human iNOS, and work efficiently in cell-based assay. PMID:11309260

Park, J M; Higuchi, T; Kikuchi, K; Urano, Y; Hori, H; Nishino, T; Aoki, J; Inoue, K; Nagano, T

2001-04-01

160

Selective inhibition of human inducible nitric oxide synthase by S-alkyl-L-isothiocitrulline-containing dipeptides  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the structure-activity relationship of S-alkyl-L-isothiocitrulline-containing dipeptides towards three partially purified recombinant human nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isozymes, as well as the effects of these compounds on cytokine-induced NO production by human DLD-1 cells.In an in vitro assay, S-methyl-L-isothiocitrulline (L-MIT) was slightly selective for human neuronal NOS (nNOS) over the inducible (iNOS) or endothelial (eNOS) isozyme, but the combination of a hydrophobic L-amino acid (L-Phe, L-Leu or L-Trp) with L-MIT dramatically altered the inhibition pattern to give selective iNOS inhibitors. Introduction of a hydroxy, nitro, amino or methoxy group at the para position of the aromatic ring of L-MIT-L-Phe (MILF) decreased the selectivity and inhibitory potency. A longer or larger S-alkyl group also decreased the selectivity and potency. Dixon analysis showed that all of the dipeptides were competitive inhibitors of the three isoforms of human NOS. The enzymatic time course curves indicated that MILF was a slow binding inhibitor of human iNOS.These results suggest that the human NOS isozymes have different-sized cavities in the binding site near the position to which the C-terminal of L-arginine binds, and the cavity of iNOS is hydrophobic. Interestingly, L-MIT-D-Phe (MIDF) showed little inhibitory activity or selectivity, suggesting that the cavity of human iNOS is located in a well-defined direction from the ? carbon atom.NO production in cytokine-stimulated human DLD-1 cells was measured with a fluorescent indicator, DAF-FM. MILF, L-MIT-L-Trp(-CHO) (MILW) and L-MIT-L-Tyr (MILY) showed more potent activity than L-MIT in this whole-cell assay.Thus, S-alkyl-L-isothiocitrulline-containing dipeptides are selective inhibitors of human iNOS, and work efficiently in cell-based assay. PMID:11309260

Park, Jung-Min; Higuchi, Tsunehiko; Kikuchi, Kazuya; Urano, Yasuteru; Hori, Hiroyuki; Nishino, Takeshi; Aoki, Junken; Inoue, Keizo; Nagano, Tetsuo

2001-01-01

161

Protonated Dipeptide Losses from b 5 and b 4 Ions of Side Chain Hydroxyl Group Containing Pentapeptides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, C-terminal protonated dipeptide eliminations were reported for both b 5 and b 4 ions of side chain hydroxyl group (-OH) containing pentapeptides. The study utilized the model C-terminal amidated pentapeptides having sequences of XGGFL and AXVYI, where X represents serine (S), threonine (T), glutamic acid (E), aspartic acid (D), or tyrosine (Y) residue. Upon low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) of XGGFL (where X = S, T, E, D, and Y) model peptide series, the ions at m/z 279 and 223 were observed as common fragments in all b 5 and b 4 ion (except b 4 ion of YGGFL) mass spectra, respectively. By contrast, peptides, namely SMeGGFL-NH2 and EOMeGGFL-NH2, did not show either the ion at m/z 279 or the ion at m/z 223. It is shown that the side chain hydroxyl group is required for the possible mechanism to take place that furnishes the protonated dipeptide loss from b 5 and b 4 ions. In addition, the ions at m/z 295 and 281 were detected as common fragments in all b 5 and b 4 ion (except b 4 ion of AYVYI) mass spectra, respectively, for AXVYI model peptide series. The MS4 experiments exhibited that the fragment ions at m/z 279, 223, 295, and 281 entirely reflect the same fragmentation behavior of [M + H]+ ion generated from commercial dipeptides FL-OH, GF-OH, YI-OH, and VY-OH. These novel eliminations reported here for b 5 and b 4 ions can be useful in assigning the correct and reliable peptide sequences for high-throughput proteomic studies.

Atik, A. Emin; Yalcin, Talat

2013-10-01

162

Fatty acid composition of lipid classes in maternal and cord plasma at birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids, triglycerides, cholesterol esters and nonesterified fatty acids was determined\\u000a by high-resolution capillary gas-liquid chromatography in 41 pairs of mothers and their term infants at time of birth. The\\u000a total free fatty acid content in maternal and cord plasma was positively correlated, possibly reflecting a passive, gradient\\u000a dependent transplacental passage of nonesterified fatty acids.

T. M. Berghaus; H. Demmelmair; B. Koletzko

1998-01-01

163

Changes in the fatty acid composition of cerebrosides and sulfatides of human nervous tissue with age.  

PubMed

Sphingogalactolipids (galactocerebrosides and sulfatides) have been isolated in almost quantitative yields from normal human nervous tissue (mostly brain) at different ages and their fatty acid compositions have been determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The ratio of hydroxy acids to normal acids increased slightly during myelination and then remained rather constant; in adults the ratio for cerebrosides was about 2, and for sulfatides, 0.6-0.8. In adult nervous tissue the two predominant fatty acids of cerebrosides and sulfatides were the C(24) monounsaturated and 2-hydroxy saturated acids. The infant brain galactolipids had (compared with child and adult) a lower percentage of C(22)-C(26) fatty acids and a much lower percentage of monoenoic acids, both of normal and hydroxy acids. Low activities of fatty acid elongation and desaturation systems during myelination are inferred. Fatty acid changes with age were the same for cerebrosides and sulfatides but occurred later in the sulfatides, which supports the hypothesis that the cerebrosides are precursors of the sulfatides. The adult pattern of fatty acid composition with regard to degree of unsaturation and total percentage of C(22)-C(26) acids was reached as early as at 2 yr of age, but the percentage of odd-numbered (C(23) and C(25)) fatty acids continued to increase up to the age of 10-15 yr. The fatty acid composition of the galactolipids of peripheral nerves differed mainly in its lower percentages of C(25) and C(26) acids and higher percentages of C(22) and C(16) acids. This composition is thus intermediate between those of brain and of extraneural organs. PMID:5640502

Svennerholm, L; Ställberg-Stenhagen, S

1968-03-01

164

Total and "free" lipids in commercial infant formulas: fatty acid composition and their stability to oxidation.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to study the fatty acid composition of total and "free" lipids in powdered infant milks and to evaluate the fatty acid oxidation after package opening. In its first step the application of Principal Component Analysis and Design of Experiments has allowed to take a comprehensive picture of powdered infant formulas on sale in Italy on the basis of their labelled composition and to select a limited number of representative samples. Both total and "non encapsulated" or "free" lipids were considered and analysed and no significant differences were found between their fatty acids contents. The possible modification of the fatty acid composition in the "free" lipids caused by oxidation was also studied, simulating the domestic habits after opening. No significant changes were observed up to 30 days even when formulas had an high content of unsaturated fatty acids and valuable Long Chain Polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:25466030

Zunin, Paola; Boggia, Raffaella; Turrini, Federica; Leardi, Riccardo

2015-04-15

165

Impact of dietary fatty acids on muscle composition, liver lipids, milt composition and sperm performance in European eel.  

PubMed

In order for European eel aquaculture to be sustainable, the life cycle should be completed in captivity. Development of broodstock diets may improve the species' reproductive success in captivity, through the production of high-quality gametes. Here, our aim was to evaluate the influence of dietary regime on muscle composition, and liver lipids prior to induced maturation, and the resulting sperm composition and performance. To accomplish this fish were reared on three "enhanced" diets and one commercial diet, each with different levels of fatty acids, arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Neutral lipids from the muscle and liver incorporated the majority of the fatty acid profile, while phospholipids incorporated only certain fatty acids. Diet had an effect on the majority of sperm fatty acids, on the total volume of extractable milt, and on the percentage of motile sperm. Here, our results suggest that the total volume of extractable milt is a DHA-dependent process, as we found the diets with the highest DHA levels induced the most milt while the diet with the lowest DHA level induced the least amount of milt. The diet with the highest level of ARA induced medium milt volumes but had the highest sperm motility. EPA also seems important for sperm quality parameters since diets with higher EPA percentages had a higher volume of milt and higher sperm motility. In conclusion, dietary fatty acids had an influence on fatty acids in the tissues of male eel and this impacted sperm performance. PMID:25638567

Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest; Baeza, Rosa; Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Krüger-Johnsen, Maria; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Pérez, Luz; Asturiano, Juan F; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

2015-05-01

166

Mutagenesis and Cysteine Scanning of Transmembrane Domain 10 of the Human Dipeptide Transporter  

PubMed Central

Purpose The human dipeptide transporter (hPEPT1) facilitates transport of dipeptides and drugs from the intestine into the circulation. The role of transmembrane domain 10 (TMD10) of hPEPT1 in substrate translocation was investigated using cysteine-scanning mutagenesis with 2-Trimethylammonioethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSET). Methods Each amino acid in TMD10 was mutated individually to cysteine, and transport of [3H]Gly-Sar was evaluated with and without MTSET following transfection of each mutant in HEK293 cells. Similar localization and expression levels of wild type (WT) hPEPT1 and all mutants were confirmed by immunostaining and biotinylation followed by western blot analysis. Results E595C- and G594C-hPEPT1 showed negligible Gly-Sar uptake. E595D-hPEPT1 showed similar uptake to WT-hPEPT1, but E595K- and E595R-hPEPT1 did not transport Gly-Sar. Double mutations E595K/R282E and E595R/R282E did not restore uptake. G594A-hPEPT1 showed similar uptake to WT-hPEPT1, but G594V-hPEPT1 eliminated uptake. Y588C-hPEPT1 showed uptake of 20% that of WT-hPEPT1. MTSET modification supported a model of TMD10 with an amphipathic helix from I585 to V600 and increased solvent accessibility from T601 to F605. Conclusions Our results suggest that G594 and E595 in TMD10 of hPEPT1 have key roles in substrate transport and that Y588 may have an important secondary mechanistic role. PMID:19685173

Xu, Liya; Haworth, Ian S.; Kulkarni, Ashutosh A.; Bolger, Michael B.; Davies, Daryl L.

2010-01-01

167

Intramolecular condensation reactions in protonated dipeptides: carbon monoxide, water, and ammonia losses in competition.  

PubMed

The elimination of carbon monoxide and water from a series of protonated dipeptides, [XxxYyy + H](+), is investigated by tandem mass spectrometry experiments and density functional theory. The combined results show that CO loss occurs on the a(1)-y(1) pathway, which begins by rearrangement of the added proton to the amide N-atom and creates the proton-bound dimer of an amino acid (Yyy) and an imine (that from Xxx residue). The loss of H(2)O is initiated from a tautomer in which the added proton has migrated to the hydroxyl group of the C-terminus, thereby promoting the formation of an ion with protonated oxazolone structure (a nominal b(2) ion). The highest yields of [XxxYyy + H - CO](+) and [XxxYyy + H - H(2)O](+) are observed at threshold energies. As the internal energy of the protonated dipeptides increases, these primary products are depleted by consecutive dissociations yielding mostly backbone fragments. Specifically, [XxxYyy + H - CO](+) decomposes to y(1) (protonated Yyy) and a(1) (immonium ion of Xxx residue), while [XxxYyy + H - H(2)O](+) produces a(2) and the immonium ions of residues Xxx (a(1)) and Yyy ("internal" immonium ion). Water loss takes place more efficiently when the more basic residue is at the C-terminal position. Increasing the basicity of the N-terminal residue enhances the extent of CO versus H(2)O loss and introduces the competitive elimination of NH(3). The dissociations leading to eliminations of small neutrals (CO, H(2)O, etc.) generally proceed over transition states that lie higher in energy than the corresponding dissociation products. The excess energy is disposed of either in translational or rovibrational modes of the products, depending on the stability of the incipient noncovalent assemblies emerging during the cleavage of the small neutrals. PMID:15234362

Pingitore, Francesco; Polce, Michael J; Wang, Ping; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Paizs, Béla

2004-07-01

168

Sulfonated mesoporous silica-carbon composites and their use as solid acid catalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of highly functionalized porous silica-carbon composites made up of sulfonic groups attached to a carbon layer coating the pores of three types of mesostructured silica (i.e. SBA-15, KIT-6 and mesocellular silica) is presented. The synthesis procedure involves the following steps: (a) removal of the surfactant, (b) impregnation of the silica pores with a carbon precursor, (c) carbonization and (d) sulfonation. The resulting silica-carbon composites contain ˜30 wt % of carbonaceous matter with a high density of acidic groups attached to the deposited carbon (i.e.sbnd SO3H, sbnd COOH and sbnd OH). The structural characteristics of the parent silica are retained in the composite materials, which exhibit a high surface area, a large pore volume and a well-ordered porosity made up uniform mesopores. The high density of the sulfonic groups in combination with the mesoporous structure of the composites ensures that a large number of active sites are easily accessible to reactants. These sulfonated silica-carbon composites behave as eco-friendly, active, selective, water tolerant and recyclable solid acids. In this study we demonstrate the usefulness of these composites as solid acid catalysts for the esterification of maleic anhydride, succinic acid and oleic acid with ethanol. These composites exhibit a superior intrinsic catalytic activity to other commercial solid acids such as Amberlyst-15.

Valle-Vigón, Patricia; Sevilla, Marta; Fuertes, Antonio B.

2012-11-01

169

Structure–activity relationships for dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir: Implications for prodrug design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of water-soluble dipeptide ester prodrugs of the antiviral acyclovir (ACV) were evaluated for their chemical stability, cytotoxicity, and antiviral activity against several strains of Herpes Simplex-1 and -2, vaccinia, vesicular stomatitis, cytomegalovirus and varicella zoster viruses. ACV dipeptide esters were very active against herpetic viruses, independently of the rate at which they liberate the parent drug. Their minimum

Cledir R. Santos; Rita Capela; Cláudia S. G. P. Pereira; Emília Valente; Luís Gouveia; Christophe Pannecouque; Erik De Clercq; Rui Moreira; Paula Gomes

2009-01-01

170

Controllable self-assembled laminated nanoribbons from dipeptide-amphiphile bearing azobenzene moiety  

E-print Network

Controllable self-assembled laminated nanoribbons from dipeptide-amphiphile bearing azobenzene nanostructures and biomaterials. In this paper, a dipeptide- amphiphile incorporated with an azobenzene moiety, Stupp has reported pH-induced self-assembly of a peptide-amphiphile to make nanostructured fibrous

Huang, Jianbin

171

Oxidative stability of purified canola oil triacylglycerols with altered fatty acid compositions as affected by triacylglycerol composition and structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canola oil triacylglycerols from genetically modified canola lines (InterMountain Canola Co., Cinnaminson, NJ) have been evaluated\\u000a for their photooxidative and autoxidative stabilities, as influenced by their fatty acid compositions and their triacylglycerol\\u000a compositions and structures. Purified canola oil triacylglycerols were oxidized in duplicate in fluorescent light at 25°C\\u000a and in the dark at 60°C under oxygen, and their oxidative deterioration

W. E. Neff; T. L. Mounts; W. M. Rinsch; H. Konishi; M. A. El-Agaimy

1994-01-01

172

Fatty acid compositions of triglycerides and free fatty acids in sebum depend on amount of triglycerides, and do not differ in presence or absence of acne vulgaris.  

PubMed

To clarify the influence of the fatty acid composition of sebum in acne vulgaris, we investigated the amounts and fatty acid compositions of triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA), and the amounts of cutaneous superficial Propionibacterium acnes in acne patients and healthy subjects. The foreheads of 18 female patients, 10 male patients, 10 healthy females and 10 healthy males were studied in a Japanese population. There were significant differences in the amounts of sebum, TG and cutaneous superficial P. acnes, as well as the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA between acne patients and healthy subjects in females. Their fatty acid compositions were correlated with the amount of TG with or without acne. It was clarified that the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA depended on the amount of TG, and there were no differences in the fatty acid composition in the presence and absence of acne. PMID:25388081

Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Numata, Shigeki; Matsusue, Miyuki; Mashima, Yasuo; Miyawaki, Masaaki; Yamada, Shunji; Yagami, Akiko; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko

2014-12-01

173

Crystal structure of the dipeptide binding protein from Escherichia coli involved in active transport and chemotaxis.  

PubMed Central

The Escherichia coli periplasmic dipeptide binding protein functions in both peptide transport and taxis toward peptides. The structure of the dipeptide binding protein in complex with Gly-Leu (glycyl-L-leucine) has been determined at 3.2 A resolution. The binding site for dipeptides is designed to recognize the ligand's backbone while providing space to accommodate a variety of side chains. Some repositioning of protein side chains lining the binding site must occur when the dipeptide's second residue is larger than leucine. The protein's fold is very similar to that of the Salmonella typhimurium oligopeptide binding protein, and a comparison of the structures reveals the structural basis for the dipeptide binding protein's preference for shorter peptides. PMID:8563629

Dunten, P.; Mowbray, S. L.

1995-01-01

174

Biomaterials 27 (2006) 58455854 A citric acid-based hydroxyapatite composite for orthopedic implants  

E-print Network

Biomaterials 27 (2006) 5845­5854 A citric acid-based hydroxyapatite composite for orthopedic with hydroxyapatite (HA), a bioceramic that can be found in natural bone. Although HA is very brittle and hard

Yang, Jian

175

Characterization and Differentiation of Filamentous Fungi Based on Fatty Acid Composition  

PubMed Central

Cellular fatty acid composition of 100 different filamentous fungi, including oomycetes, zygomycetes, ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, and sterile mycelia, was analyzed to determine if they can be differentiated from one another on this basis and how minor variations in culture temperature and age affect this characteristic. Many fungi were found to possess the same fatty acids but produced different relative concentrations of each. Some fungi differed in both the fatty acids produced and in the relative concentrations of others. Multivariate discriminant analysis demonstrated that all of the species included in this study had significantly different (P < 0.001) fatty acid profiles. Each of the three phyla from which representative species were analyzed and the sterile forms had distinctive fatty acid profiles. Significant differences in fatty acid composition were also found at the intraspecific level. Both culture temperature and age affected fatty acid composition in the fungi examined, but when these factors were held constant, variance in fatty acid composition was not a problem and fungal fatty acid profiles could be differentiated statistically. PMID:16535442

Stahl, P. D.; Klug, M. J.

1996-01-01

176

Some applications of deoxyribonucleic acid base composition in bacterial taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “melting point”Tm, the mean molar (guanine+cytosine) composition and the compositional distribution of purified DNA from several strains ofXanthomonas, Chromobacterium and yellow-pigmented marine bacteria have been determined. These groups were selected because they had been analyzed adansonially. Ten strains ofXanthomonas had an average molar (guanine+cytosine) composition within the range 66.0–68.2%, which was very close to that ofPseudomonas (60–68%), as expected.

J. De Ley; J. Van Muylem

1963-01-01

177

Assessment of erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid composition as a biomarker for dietary MUFA, PUFA or saturated fatty acid intake in a controlled cross-over intervention trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Dietary intervention trials rely on self-reported measures of intake for assessment of energy and macronutrient composition. Dietary fat intake is of particular interest due to strong associations with pathophysiology. In epidemiological trials phospholipid fatty acid composition may reflect composition of habitual diet, although strong correlations have been identified only for essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Preliminary evidence shows that

Sally D Poppitt; Paul Kilmartin; Paul Butler; Geraldine F Keogh

2005-01-01

178

Structure-Guided, Single-Point Modifications in the Phosphinic Dipeptide Structure Yield Highly Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Neutral Aminopeptidases  

PubMed Central

Seven crystal structures of alanyl aminopeptidase from Neisseria meningitides (the etiological agent of meningitis, NmAPN) complexed with organophosphorus compounds were resolved to determine the optimal inhibitor–enzyme interactions. The enantiomeric phosphonic acid analogs of Leu and hPhe, which correspond to the P1 amino acid residues of well-processed substrates, were used to assess the impact of the absolute configuration and the stereospecific hydrogen bond network formed between the aminophosphonate polar head and the active site residues on the binding affinity. For the hPhe analog, an imperfect stereochemical complementarity could be overcome by incorporating an appropriate P1 side chain. The constitution of P1?-extended structures was rationally designed and the lead, phosphinic dipeptide hPheP?[CH2]Phe, was modified in a single position. Introducing a heteroatom/heteroatom-based fragment to either the P1 or P1? residue required new synthetic pathways. The compounds in the refined structure were low nanomolar and subnanomolar inhibitors of N. meningitides, porcine and human APNs, and the reference leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). The unnatural phosphinic dipeptide analogs exhibited a high affinity for monozinc APNs associated with a reasonable selectivity versus dizinc LAP. Another set of crystal structures containing the NmAPN dipeptide ligand were used to verify and to confirm the predicted binding modes; furthermore, novel contacts, which were promising for inhibitor development, were identified, including a ?–? stacking interaction between a pyridine ring and Tyr372. PMID:25192493

2014-01-01

179

Structure-guided, single-point modifications in the phosphinic dipeptide structure yield highly potent and selective inhibitors of neutral aminopeptidases.  

PubMed

Seven crystal structures of alanyl aminopeptidase from Neisseria meningitides (the etiological agent of meningitis, NmAPN) complexed with organophosphorus compounds were resolved to determine the optimal inhibitor-enzyme interactions. The enantiomeric phosphonic acid analogs of Leu and hPhe, which correspond to the P1 amino acid residues of well-processed substrates, were used to assess the impact of the absolute configuration and the stereospecific hydrogen bond network formed between the aminophosphonate polar head and the active site residues on the binding affinity. For the hPhe analog, an imperfect stereochemical complementarity could be overcome by incorporating an appropriate P1 side chain. The constitution of P1'-extended structures was rationally designed and the lead, phosphinic dipeptide hPheP?[CH2]Phe, was modified in a single position. Introducing a heteroatom/heteroatom-based fragment to either the P1 or P1' residue required new synthetic pathways. The compounds in the refined structure were low nanomolar and subnanomolar inhibitors of N. meningitides, porcine and human APNs, and the reference leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). The unnatural phosphinic dipeptide analogs exhibited a high affinity for monozinc APNs associated with a reasonable selectivity versus dizinc LAP. Another set of crystal structures containing the NmAPN dipeptide ligand were used to verify and to confirm the predicted binding modes; furthermore, novel contacts, which were promising for inhibitor development, were identified, including a ?-? stacking interaction between a pyridine ring and Tyr372. PMID:25192493

Vassiliou, Stamatia; W?glarz-Tomczak, Ewelina; Berlicki, ?ukasz; Pawe?czak, Ma?gorzata; Nocek, Bogus?aw; Mulligan, Rory; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Mucha, Artur

2014-10-01

180

Fatty acid composition of the blubber in white whales ( Delphinapterus leucas )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid (FA) composition of the blubber in free-ranging white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard's waters was determined and compared with the fatty acid composition of potential prey species in an attempt\\u000a to assess diet. This methodology is based on the common assumption that unique arrays of FAs found within groups of organisms\\u000a are transferred, largely unaltered, up marine food

Trine Merete Dahl; Christian Lydersen; Kit M. Kovacs; Stig Falk-Petersen; John Sargent; Ian Gjertz; Bjørn Gulliksen

2000-01-01

181

Dietary fatty acid composition changes mitochondrial phospholipids and oxidative capacities in rainbow trout red muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary conditioning of juvenile trout changed the acyl chain composition of mitochondrial phospholipids and the oxidative\\u000a capacities of muscle mitochondria. Trout were fed three diets differing only in fatty acid (FA) composition. The highly unsaturated\\u000a 22:6 n-3 (DHA) accounted for 0.4, 14, and 30% of fatty acids in Diets 1, 2 and 3. After 10 weeks of growth, the dietary groups

H. Guderley; E. Kraffe; W. Bureau; D. P. Bureau

2008-01-01

182

Hemodialysate composition and intradialytic metabolic, acid–base and potassium changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemodialysate composition and intradialytic metabolic, acid–base and potassium changes. We compared the effects of dialysate composition on changes in intermediary metabolites, acid–base balance, and potassium removal during hemodialysis. Patients were dialyzed against dialysates containing acetate or bicarbonate, each with or without glucose, in a four–way cross–over study. Dialysates containing acetate were associated with significant perturbations in intermediary metabolism, including increases

Richard A Ward; Ronald L Wathen; Terry E Williams; George B Harding

1987-01-01

183

Mapping QTL controlling fatty acid composition in a doubled haploid rapeseed population segregating for oil content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing oil content and improving the fatty acid composition in the seed oil are important breeding goals for rapeseed\\u000a (Brassica napus L.). The objective of the study was to investigate a possible relationship between fatty acid composition and oil content\\u000a in an oilseed rape doubled haploid (DH) population. The DH population was derived from a cross between the German cultivar

Jianyi Zhao; Zoran Dimov; Heiko C. Becker; Wolfgang Ecke; Christian Möllers

2008-01-01

184

Determination of fatty acid composition and total trans fatty acids of Turkish biscuits by capillary gas-liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, fatty acid composition and total trans fatty acid contents of six types of biscuit produced by four different Turkish companies were determined by capillary gas-liquid\\u000a chromatography. Total fat contents of the biscuit samples ranged between 8.5% and 26.0%. The highest fat content was determined\\u000a in sesame biscuits (average 24.4%) and the lowest in petit beurre biscuits (average

Orhan Daglioglu; Murat Tasan; Baris Tuncel

2000-01-01

185

Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids modify heart, kidney, and lung fatty acid composition in weanling rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid composition of heart, kidney, and lung was studied in weanling rats fed three diets differing in their polyunsaturated\\u000a fatty acid content for 0, 2, and 4 wk. The first group had a 10% w\\/w fat semipurified diet which consisted of a mixture of\\u000a olive oil (62.5%), soybean oil (11.1%), and refined coconut oil (26.4%) and provided 18:1n-9,

A. Suárez; M. J. Faus; A. Gil

1996-01-01

186

The fatty acid composition of seed oils from ten plant families with particular reference to cyclopropene and dihydrosterculic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil contents and fatty acid compositions of 40 seed oils of the plant families Elaecarpaceae, Thymelaeceae, Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae\\u000a (order Malvales); Anacardiaceae, Celestraceae, Sapindaceae (Sapindales); Ebenaceae, Sapotaceae (Ebenales) and Rhamnaceae (Rhamnales)\\u000a are presented. Cyclopropene fatty acids (CPFA) occur in two families in the order malvales not hitherto assayed. CPFA contents\\u000a of seed oils of 12 Australian and Pacific species of Malvaceae

J. R. Vickery

1980-01-01

187

Contribution of Diet and Genes to Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary recommendations for polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are based in part on results from epidemiologic studies to\\u000a determine the level of dietary PUFA required to maintain optimal health. There are many challenges to estimating consumption\\u000a of fatty acids through dietary surveys. PUFA measured in different biological samples have been used as biomarkers of fatty\\u000a acid consumption. In addition to diet,

Toshiko Tanaka

2011-01-01

188

THERMAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED-INJECTION MOLDED POLY (LACTIC ACID) AND MILKWEED COMPOSITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (Lactic Acid...

189

Sugar beet pulp and poly(lactic acid) composites using methylene diphenyl diisocyanate as coupling agent  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Composites from sugar beet pulp (SBP) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were extruded in the presence of polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI). SBP particles were evenly distributed within the PLA matrix phase as revealed by confocal fluorescence microscopic analysis. The resultant composites w...

190

GREEN COMPOSITES OF POLY(LACTIC ACID) AND SUGAR BEET PULP I. PREPARATION & PROPERTIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poly(lactic acid) and sugar beet pulp were compounded by twin-screw extrusion and injection molded into composite forms. Specific mechanical energy decreased with the addition of SBP during processing. PLA-SBP composites retained more tensile strength than expected based on the Nicolais-Narkis mod...

191

Starch/fiber/poly(lactic acid) foam and compressed foam composites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Composites of starch, fiber, and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were made using a foam substrate formed by dehydrating starch or starch/fiber gels. PLA was infiltrated into the dry foam to provide better moisture resistance. Foam composites were compressed into plastics using force ranging from 4-76MPa. Te...

192

EVALUATION OF POLY(LACTIC ACID) AND SUGAR BEET PULP GREEN COMPOSITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poly(lactic acid) and sugar beet pulp were compounded by twin-screw extrusion and injection molded into composite forms. Specific mechanical energy decreased with the addition of SBP during processing. PLA-SBP composites retained more tensile strength than expected based on the Nicolais-Narkis mod...

193

Poly(lactic acid) and Osage Orange Wood Fiber Composites for Agricultural Mulch Films  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Osage orange wood was combined with poly(lactic acid) to form a polymer composite intendedfor use as an agricultural mulch film. The mechanical properties were comparable to existing products and had the advantage of being completely biodegradable through a single growing season. PLA-OO composites...

194

Lipid and fatty acid composition of early stages of cephalopods: an approach to their lipid requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the main lipid classes and the fatty acid composition from the total lipids of hatchlings of three cephalopod species: Sepia officinalis, Loligo vulgaris and Octopus vulgaris, as well as the lipid composition of two selected crustaceans that have been used previously with success as food resource for rearing cephalopod hatchlings: zoeae of Pagurus prideaux and the mysidacean

Juan C Navarro; Roger Villanueva

2000-01-01

195

GRAIN COMPOSITION AND AMINO ACID CONTENT IN MAIZE HYBRIDS REPRESENTING 80 YEARS OF COMMERCIAL MAIZE VARIETIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to determine how development of modern hybrids has impacted grain composition and amino acid content, we characterized a set of cultivars that were widely grown in different eras from the 1920s through 2001. Grain composition exhibited clear trends with time, with protein decreasing and st...

196

Poly(vinyl chloride) polyacrylonitrile composite membranes for the dehydration of acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite membranes have been prepared consisting of a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) top layer on either a dense polyacrylonitrile (PAN) layer (bi-layer membrane) or a porous PAN support layer (normal composite membrane) and studied with respect to the dehydration of acetic acid. Especially, the influence of the surface porosity of the porous support layer on the selectivity and flux was studied

G. H. Koops; J. A. M. Nolten-Oude Hendrikman; M. H. V. Mulder; C. A. Smolders

1993-01-01

197

Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle, Liver, and Adipose Tissue of Freshwater Fish from Lake Victoria, Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish oils may differ in fatty acid (FA) composition depending on diet. Oils extracted from muscle, liver, and adipose tissue of Nile perch (Lates niloticus), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), silver fish (Rastrineobola argentea), lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus), Victoria squeaker (Synodontis victoriae), and two catfishes (Clarias gariepinus and Bagrus docmac) from Lake Victoria, a tropical freshwater lake, were evaluated for FA composition.

Justus Masa; Patrick Ogwok; John Herbert Muyonga; Justus Kwetegyeka; Vincent Makokha; Denis Ocen

2011-01-01

198

Fatty acid composition of larvae of the sand dollar Dendraster excentricus (Echinodermata) might reflect FA composition of the diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid (FA) requirements of echinoderm larvae were examined by a study of the FA composition, growth, and development of Dendraster excentricus larvae fed a microencapsulated diet, and two algal diets. Larvae were assigned to three treatments with three replicates per treatment, a microencapsulated diet, a single algal diet of Dunaliella tertiolecta and a mixed algal diet of Isochrysis galbana

Sophie B. George; Colleen Fox; Stuart Wakeham

2008-01-01

199

Sensitive Amino Acid Composition and Chirality Analysis with the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detection of life on Mars requires definition of a suitable biomarker and development of sensitive yet compact instrumentation capable of performing in situ analyses. Our studies are focused on amino acid analysis because amino acids are more resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino acid chirality is a well-defined biomarker. Amino acid composition and chirality analysis has been previously demonstrated in the lab using microfabricated capillary electrophoresis (CE) chips. To analyze amino acids in the field, we have developed the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA), a portable analysis system that consists of a compact instrument and a novel multi-layer CE microchip.

Skelley, Alison M.; Scherer, James R.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Grover, William H.; Ivester, Robin H. C.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Mathies, Richard A.

2005-01-01

200

Impact of potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozide) feeding on free amino acid composition in potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foliage feeding impacts of potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) on the free amino acids (FAAs) composition in potato leaf and tuber were determined under the greenhouse conditions. The free amino acids in plant extracts were separated by HPLC, and in both leaf and tuber samples, at least, 17 FAAs...

201

Characterization of enzymatic saccharification for acid-pretreated lignocellulosic materials with different lignin composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymatic saccharification of three different feedstocks, rice straw, bagasse and silvergrass, which had been pretreated with different dilute acid concentrations, was studied to verify how enzymatic saccharification was affected by the lignin composition of the raw materials. There was a quantitatively inverse correlation between lignin content and enzymatic digestibility after pretreatment with 1%, 2% and 4% sulfuric acid. The

Gia-Luen Guo; Deng-Chieh Hsu; Wen-Hua Chen; Wei-Hsi Chen; Wen-Song Hwang

2009-01-01

202

Effect of Deep-Fat Frying on Phytosterol Content in Oils with Differing Fatty Acid Composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to determine the fate of phytosterols in vegetable oils with varying fatty acid composition used for frying. High oleic sunflower (HOSun), corn (Corn), hydrogenated soybean (HSBO), expeller pressed soybean (ESBO), and expeller pressed low-linolenic acid soybean oil (...

203

Fatty acid composition of lipids from the vacuolar membranes of the roots of root vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid (FA) composition of vacuolar membrane lipids from the storage tissues of parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L.), parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.), and carrot (Daucus carota L.) was studied by gasliquid chromatography, and possible pathways of the biosynthesis of these acids are considered. A high\\u000a level of unsaturated FAs (up to 78% of the total FA amount) was characteristic of

S. P. Makarenko; T. A. Konenkina; S. V. Khotimchenko

2007-01-01

204

Feeding transition cows with oilseeds: Effects on fatty acid composition of adipose tissue, colostrum and milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was aimed to test whether ?-linolenic acid (ALA) concentrations in the adipose tissue can be increased by linseed feeding of dry cows and whether ALA is preferentially mobilized during the catabolic phase after parturition. The second objective was the determination of the influence of mobilization on fatty acid composition of colostrum and mature milk. For this purpose,

F. Leiber; R. Hochstrasser; H.-R. Wettstein; M. Kreuzer

2011-01-01

205

Fatty acids, protein contents and metal composition of some feed crops from Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of investigations of new sources of higher plant lipids, fatty acid and metal compositions of some feed crops -Vicia ervilia (bitter veitch), Lotus corniculatus, Onobrychis fallax, Trifolium aureum (golden clover), Trifolium repens (white clover) (Fabaceae)- from Turkey were investigated by using GC and ICP-OES system. All the legume crops showed the same pattern of fatty acids. The

Adil Bakoglu; Eyüp Bagci; Harun Ciftci

206

Proteins in the digesta of the pig : amino acid composition of endogenous,  

E-print Network

of piglet small intestine and colon, axenic piglet feces, bacteria isolated in the feces of pigs receivingProteins in the digesta of the pig : amino acid composition of endogenous, bacterial and fecal of proteins from different sources may be estimated by comparing their amino acid compo- sition with those

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

207

Predicting conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) composition in Brazilian dairy products by multiple regression  

E-print Network

nutraceutical effects on the health of consumers of dairy products. However, a comprehensive analysis of CLANOTE Predicting conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) composition in Brazilian dairy products by multiple-Verlag, France 2012 Abstract The analysis of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in dairy products is of concern

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

208

Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of poly(lactic acid)\\/nanosilica composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)\\/nanosilica composites were prepared by blending the PLA and nanosilica in chloroform and then evaporating the solvent to form the composite films in a dish. The Ozawa and Mo equations were used to characterize the non-isothermal cold crystallization kinetics of the PLA\\/nanosilica composites. The results indicated that the Ozawa equation was not successful while the Mo equation was

Yue Zhang; Bingyao Deng; Qingsheng Liu; Guo Chang

2012-01-01

209

Investigation of PEMFC operation above 100 °C employing perfluorosulfonic acid silicon oxide composite membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various perfluorosulfonic acid membranes (PFSAs) were studied as pure and silicon oxide composite membranes for operation in hydrogen\\/oxygen proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) from 80 to 140°C. The composite membranes were prepared either by impregnation of pre-formed PFSAs via sol–gel processing of a polymeric silicon oxide, recasting a film using solubilized PFSAs and a silicon oxide polymer\\/gel. All composite membranes

K. T Adjemian; S Srinivasan; J Benziger; A. B Bocarsly

2002-01-01

210

Silicotungstic Acid Nafion Composite membrane for proton-exchange membrane fuel cell operation at high temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of Nafion\\/Silicotungstic Acid (STA) composite membrane as solid electrolyte for PEMFCs application was shown. Composite Nafion\\/STA membranes were prepared from solvent evaporation of the mixtures of 5% Nafion solution containing different concentrations of STA and N, N'- dimethylformamide (DMF). From the SEM micrograph, uniform dispersed STA particles of 0.1-0.2µm size were observed within the Nafion\\/STA composite membranes. From

H. Tian; O. Savadogo

211

Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

2014-11-01

212

Amino acid and mineral compositions of the vegetative part of Chamerion angustifolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amino acid and mineral compositions of the above-ground part of narrow-leaved fireweed (Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub) collected in the Krasnoyarsk region have been studied. A total of 16 free amino acids was identified by HPLC,\\u000a and 24 elements were detected by atomic-emission spectrometry. This plant may be recommended as a valuable source of amino\\u000a acids and trace elements.

I. V. Polezhaeva; N. I. Polezhaeva; L. N. Menyailo

2007-01-01

213

Quantitative composition of the resin acids produced by the coniferous species of the USSR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  1. The chemical composition of mixtures of resin acids isolated from the balsams of native conifer species, Scotch, Crimean,\\u000a and Siberian pines andP. hamota andP. pityusa, Norway spruce, and Siberian larch, has been studied by the GLC method.\\u000a \\u000a 2. The following resin acids are present in the balsams: pimaric, sandaracopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, isopimaric, abietic,\\u000a dehydro- and dihydroabietic, neoabietic, four acids

I. I. Bardyshev; A. N. Bulgakov; A. L. Pertsovskii

1970-01-01

214

Effects of zinc deficiency and castration on fatty acid composition and desaturation in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of zinc deficiency and testosterone on fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and microsomes of liver, intestine\\u000a and testes were studied. The activities of fatty acid desaturase (?6 and ?5) in rat liver and testes were also measured. A\\u000a significant decrease in the level of arachidonic acid was observed in plasma of normal rats fed the zinc-deficient diet.

Sanda Clejan; Mariano Castro-Magana; Platon J. Collipp; Ernesto Jonas; Vaddanahally T. Maddaiah

1982-01-01

215

The fatty acid composition of brain phospholipids from chicken and duck embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of differences in the fatty acid composition of the lipids of egg yolk on the subsequent levels of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) in the total phospholipids and in the isolated phospholipid classes of the embryonic brain were investigated by a comparison of two domesticated avian species, the chicken and the duck. The yolk phospholipids of

Andre Maldjian; Claudia Cristofori; Raymond C. Noble; Brian K. Speake

1996-01-01

216

The preferred conformation of dipeptides in the context of biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Globular proteins are folded polypeptide structures comprising stretches of secondary structures (helical (?- or 310 helix type), polyproline helix or ?-strands) interspersed by regions of less well-ordered structure ("random coil"). Protein fold prediction is a very active field impacting inte alia on protein engineering and misfolding studies. Apart from the many studies of protein refolding from the denatured state, there has been considerable interest in studying the initial formation of peptides during biosynthesis, when there are at the outset only a few residues in the emerging polypeptide. Although there have been many studies employing quantum chemical methods of the conformation of dipeptides, these have mostly been carried out in the gas phase or simulated water. None of these conditions really apply in the interior confines of the ribosome. In the present work, we are concerned with the conformation of dipeptides in this low dielectric environment. Furthermore, only the residue types glycine and alanine have been studied by previous authors, but we extend this repertoire to include leucine and isoleucine, position isomers which have very different structural propensities. PMID:23942479

Bywater, Robert P; Veryazov, Valera

2013-09-01

217

The Amino Acid Composition of the Sutter's Mill Carbonaceous Chondrite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In contrast to the Murchison meteorite which had a complex distribution of amino acids with a total C2 to Cs amino acid abundance of approx.14,000 parts-per-billion (ppb) [2], the Sutters Mill meteorite was found to be highly depleted in amino acids. Much lower abundances (approx.30 to 180 ppb) of glycine, beta-alanine, L-alanine and L-serine were detected in SM2 above procedural blank levels indicating that this meteorite sample experienced only minimal terrestrial amino acid contamination after its fall to Earth. Carbon isotope measurements will be necessary to establish the origin of glycine and beta-alanine in SM2. Other non-protein amino acids that are rare on Earth, yet commonly found in other CM meteorites such as aaminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB) and isovaline, were not identified in SM2. However, traces of beta-AIB (approx.1 ppb) were detected in SM2 and could be" extraterrestrial in origin. The low abundances of amino acids in the Sutter's Mill meteorite is consistent with mineralogical evidence that at least some parts of the Sutter's Mill meteorite parent body experienced extensive aqueous and/or thermal alteration.

Glavin, D. P.; Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Yin, Q. Z.; Cooper, G.; Jenniskens, P.

2012-01-01

218

Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid or Oleic Acid Addition on Fatty Acid Composition Profiles of Poultry Meat  

E-print Network

Two different studies were conducted to reduce the overall amount of omega-6 fatty acids in broiler chickens. The first experiment was performed to determine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and omega-3 fatty acid combination...

Shin, Dae Keun

2011-08-08

219

Prebiotic syntheses of vitamin coenzymes: II. Pantoic acid, pantothenic acid, and the composition of coenzyme A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pantoic acid can by synthesized in good prebiotic yield from isobutyraldehyde or a-ketoisovaleric acid + H2CO + HCN. Isobutyraldehyde is the Strecker precursor to valine and a-ketoisovaleric acid is the valine transamination product. Mg2+ and Ca2+ as well as several transition metals are catalysts for the a-ketoisovaleric acid reaction. Pantothenic acid is produced from pantoyl lactone (easily formed from pantoic

Stanley L. Miller; Gordon Schlesinger

1993-01-01

220

Texture of butter from cows with different milk fatty acid compositions.  

PubMed

Milk fatty acid composition and textural properties of butter are known to be affected by the cows' diets. We examined the phenotypic variation in milk fatty acid composition among cows fed the same diet to see if the variation was sufficient to produce butter with different textural properties. Ten cows were selected that tested higher (n = 5) or lower (n = 5) in their proportion of milk unsaturated fatty acids. Milk samples were collected a week after testing, and butter was prepared from the individual samples. Milk and butter samples were again analyzed for fatty acid composition. Butter at 5 degrees C was evaluated by a sensory panel for spreadability and by a texture analyzer at both 5 and 23 degrees C for hardness and adhesiveness. Milk and butter samples from cows with a more unsaturated milk fatty acid composition had a lower atherogenic index, and the butter samples were more spreadable, softer, and less adhesive. Thus, phenotypic variation in milk fatty acid composition among cows fed the same diet is sufficient to produce butter with different textural properties. PMID:14594230

Bobe, G; Hammond, E G; Freeman, A E; Lindberg, G L; Beitz, D C

2003-10-01

221

Modification of the fatty acid composition of bovine tissues  

E-print Network

to determine if their activity rates can be influenced by dietary manipulations. Both objectives are important for the beef industry in that these areas of research can aid in the development of beef products with a modified fatty acid content... to feedings of olive oil and olive oil supplemented with medium chain triglycerides. The level of unsaturated fatty acids in these samples however did not differ significantly, and they suggest that these changes are related to the maintenance...

Chang, Joyce

1990-01-01

222

Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and body composition1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a group of positional and geomet- ric isomers of conjugated dienoic derivatives of linoleic acid. The major dietary source of CLA for humans is ruminant meats, such as beef and lamb, and dairy products, such as milk and cheese. The major isomer of CLA in natural food is cis-9,trans-11 (c9,t11). The commercial preparations contain approximately

Yanwen Wang; Peter JH Jones

223

Composition of Australian red meat 2002. 2. Fatty acid profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australian retail samples of nine beef, six lamb, four veal and two mutton cuts were purchased from 10 retail outlets (butchers and supermarkets) in different socio-economic areas of Sydney and Melbourne. The lean and fat components were analysed for contents of total and individual fatty acids. The content of total fatty acids was less than 5g\\/100g edible meat in the

V. Droulez; P. G. Williams; G. Levy; T. Stobaus; A. Sinclair

2006-01-01

224

Effect of [alpha ]-linolenic acid[ndash ]rich Camelina sativa oil on serum fatty acid composition and serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Camelina sativa[ndash ]derived oil (camelina oil) is a good source of [alpha ]-linolenic acid. The proportion of [alpha ]-linolenic acid in serum fatty acids is associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases. We studied the effects of camelina oil on serum lipids and on the fatty acid composition of total lipids in comparison to rapeseed and olive oils in a

Henna M. Karvonen; Antti Aro; Niina S. Tapola; Irma Salminen; Matti I. J. Uusitupa; Essi S. Sarkkinen

2002-01-01

225

Breast milk composition: fat content and fatty acid composition in vegetarians and  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk from vegetarians contained a lower proportion of fatty acids derived from animal fat and a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from dietary vegetable fat. No significant differences were observed between dietary groups in percent fat in the milk or in proportions of fatty acids synthesized de novo in the mammary gland. Among women consuming less than 35

Bo L; Louis E Grivetti

226

Insulin restores fatty acid composition earlier in liver microsomes than erythrocyte membranes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations of fatty acid composition have been observed in a number of tissues in both experimental and human diabetes. Suppression of ?6 desaturase in the liver, a key enzyme of fatty acid desaturation, has been reported to be responsible for these phenomena. We measured the fatty acid composition of the liver and the erythrocytes, and examined ?6 desaturase activities to

C. S. Shin; M. K. Lee; K. S. Park; S. Y. Kim; B. Y. Cho; H. K. Lee; C.-S. Koh; H. K. Min

1995-01-01

227

Rapid Procedure for the Approximate Determination of the Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition of Micrococci, Staphylococci, and Other Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and rapid procedure for the isolation of bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid is described. The deoxyribonucleic acid preparations are pure enough to determine the base composition by ultraviolet spectroscopy. Currently the most reliable test for the sepa- ration of staphylococci and micrococci is either an analysis of their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) base composition or the determination of their cell wall

SOLTI A. MEYER; KARL H. SCHLEIFER

228

Composition of antioxidants and amino acids in Stevia leaf infusions.  

PubMed

Stevia, a non-caloric natural sweetener with beneficial properties and considerable antioxidants and amino acids, is increasingly consumed as an infusion. This work evaluates the influence of the conditions (temperature: 50, 70 or 90 °C and time: 1, 5, 20 or 40 min) applied to obtain Stevia infusions, on antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) and amino acids. The total concentration of the eleven amino acids found was 11.70 mg/g in dried leaves and from 6.84 to 9.11 mg/g per gram of Stevia in infusions. However, infusions showed higher levels of certain amino acids (alanine, asparagine, leucine and proline), and greater values of the three antioxidant parameters in comparison with dry leaves. Temperature had more influence (minimum values at 50 °C and maximum at 90 °C) than time in the case of antioxidants. At 90 °C there were no important increases in the extraction of antioxidant compounds after 5 min; each gram of Stevia had 117 mg trolox (total antioxidant activity), 90 mg gallic acid (total phenols) and 56 mg catechin equivalents (flavonoids). Varying the temperature and time conditions no notable differences were observed in the concentrations of the majority of amino acids. However, the infusion treatment at 90 °C for 5 min was the best, as it gave the highest yield of 8 of the 11 amino acids. Therefore, with respect to the compounds analyzed in this study, the best way to obtain Stevia leaf infusions is the same as the domestic process, almost boiling water for a short time. PMID:24293005

Periche, Angela; Koutsidis, Georgios; Escriche, Isabel

2014-03-01

229

Evolutionary modifications of human milk composition: evidence from long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of anthropoid milks.  

PubMed

Brain growth in mammals is associated with increased accretion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in brain phospholipids. The period of maximum accumulation is during the brain growth spurt. Humans have a perinatal brain growth spurt, selectively accumulating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other LCPUFA from the third trimester through the second year of life. The emphasis on rapid postnatal brain growth and LCPUFA transfer during lactation has led to the suggestion that human milk LCPUFA composition may be unique. Our study tests this hypothesis by determining fatty acid composition for 11 species of captive anthropoids (n=53; Callithrix jacchus, Cebus apella, Gorilla gorilla, Hylobates lar, Leontopithecus rosalia, Macaca mulatta, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Pongo pygmaeus, Saimiri boliviensis, and Symphalangus syndactylus). Results are compared to previously published data on five species of wild anthropoids (n=28; Alouatta paliatta, Callithrix jacchus, Gorilla beringei, Leontopithecus rosalia, and Macaca sinica) and human milk fatty acid profiles. Milk LCPUFA profiles of captive anthropoids (consuming diets with a preformed source of DHA) are similar to milk from women on a Western diet, and those of wild anthropoids are similar to milk from vegan women. Collectively, the range of DHA percent composition values from nonhuman anthropoid milks (0.03-1.1) is nearly identical to that from a cross-cultural analysis of human milk (0.06-1.4). Humans do not appear to be unique in their ability to secrete LCPUFA in milk but may be unique in their access to dietary LCPUFA. PMID:18809203

Milligan, Lauren A; Bazinet, Richard P

2008-12-01

230

African Cucurbita pepo L.: properties of seed and variability in fatty acid composition of seed oil.  

PubMed

Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds are used locally in Eritrea to treat tapeworm. Seeds were found to be rich in oil (approximately 35%), protein (38%), alpha-tocoferols (3 mg/100 g) and carbohydrate content (approximately 37%). The physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of the seed oil were examined. The four dominant fatty acids found are: palmitic C16:0 (13.3%), stearic C18:0 (8.0%), oleic C18:1 (29.0%) and linoleic C18:2 (47.0%). The oil contains an appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids (78.0%) and found to be a rich source of linoleic acid (47.0%). Within the three localities of the study, variations exist in seed properties and the fatty acid composition of the oil. PMID:10846750

Younis, Y M; Ghirmay, S; al-Shihry, S S

2000-05-01

231

Carbon Isotope Compositions of Fatty Acids in Mussels from Newfoundland Estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the carbon isotopic compositions of free fatty acids of two species of mussels (i.e. Mytilus edulis and Modiolus modiolus) from two estuarine environments around Newfoundland. Gas chromatography and conventional isotope ratio mass spectrometry were employed to characterize bulk fatty acids and gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry was utilized to characterize the carbon isotope compositions of individual fatty acids. The bulk fatty acid distribution (dominance of 16:0, 20:5n3, 22:6n3 and 16:1) and carbon isotopic compositions (-27·3 to -25·8 per mil) indicate a dominant marine phytoplankton dietary source for the mussels. In contrast to the narrow range of bulk fatty acid ? 13C values, up to 7 per mil variation in ? 13C of individual fatty acids was observed. In general, saturated fatty acids are isotopically heavier than corresponding mono- and polyunsaturates, consistent with previously suggested kinetic isotope effect associated with de novo desaturation reactions. The depletion of 13 C in 18:4n3 compared with 22:6n3 and 20:5n3 indicates a distinct dietary source for 18:4n3. The present study shows the potential for detailed assessment of carbon flow in benthic ecosystems using fatty acids and other compound classes by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

Murphy, Dena E.; Abrajano, Teofilo A.

1994-09-01

232

Synthesis and swelling behavior of Protein-g-poly Methacrylic acid/kaolin superabsorbent hydrogel composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel superabsorbent hydrogel composite based on Collagen have been prepared via graft copolymerization of Methacrylic acid (MAA) in the presence of kaolin powder using methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent and ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator. The composite structure was confirmed using FTIR spectroscopy. A new absorption band at 1728 cm-1 in the composite spectrum confirmed kaolin-organic polymer linkage. The effect of kaolin amount and MBA concentration showed that with increasing of these parameters, the water absorbency of the superabsorbent composite was decreased. The swelling measurements of the hydrogels were conducted in aqueous salt solutions.

Sadeghi, Mohammad

2008-08-01

233

Electrophoretic deposition of hyaluronic acid and composite films for biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyaluronic acid (HYH) is a natural biopolymer, which has tremendous potential for various biomedical applications. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) methods have been developed for the fabrication of HYH films and composites. New methods for the immobilization of drugs and proteins have been utilized for the fabrication of organic composites. Electrophoretic deposition enabled the fabrication of organic-inorganic composites containing bioceramics and bioglass in the HYH matrix. It was shown that the deposition yield, microstructure, and composition of the films can be controlled. Potential applications of EPD for the surface modification of biomedical implants and fabrication of biosensors are highlighted.

Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

2010-06-01

234

Enhanced in vitro cell activity on silicon-doped vaterite/poly(lactic acid) composites.  

PubMed

A biodegradable composite with silicon-species releasability was prepared using poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and silicon-doped vaterite (SiV) particles. SiV with particle diameters of approximately 1 mum was prepared using aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as the silicon species by a carbonation process and then mixed with PLLA in methylene chloride according to a SiV to PLLA weight ratio of 1:2, resulting in the preparation of composite slurry. A composite film was prepared by dipping a cover glass in the slurry. The composite films were incubated in a culture medium for 7 days and the silicon concentration of the medium was measured to estimate the species releasability of the composites. A trace amount of silicon species was continuously released from the composites for 7 days, the amount depending on the content of APTES in SiV. On the composite releasing silicon species, mouse osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1 cells) were significantly stimulated to proliferate and differentiate in comparison with those on a composite containing no silicon species. The proliferation of the cells on the composites releasing larger amounts of silicon species (0.51mgl(-1)day(-1)) was higher than that on the composites releasing smaller amount of the species (0.21mgl(-1)day(-1)). The silicon species in the composites were effective in enhancing the cellular functions. The composites were expected to be useful as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. PMID:18786869

Obata, Akiko; Tokuda, Shingo; Kasuga, Toshihiro

2009-01-01

235

Fatty acid composition, extraction, fractionation, and stabilization of bullfrog ( Rana catesbeiana ) oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil extracted from the fat-storage organ (fat body) of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) was characterized for its fatty acid composition. The main fatty acids were palmitic (18.1%), stearic (4.1%), myristic (2.7%),\\u000a oleic (31.7%), and linoleic (12.9%) acids. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids were also present in significant amounts,\\u000a i.e., eicosapentaenoic (1.5%) and docosahexaenoic (4.7%), and were probably derived from the

Eduardo Méndez; Julio Sanhueza; Susana Nieto; Hernán Speisky; Alfonso Valenzuela

1998-01-01

236

Explaining longevity of different animals: is membrane fatty acid composition the missing link?  

PubMed Central

Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids are very resistant to peroxidative damage, while the more polyunsaturated a fatty acid, the more susceptible it is to peroxidation. Furthermore, the products of lipid peroxidation can oxidatively damage other important molecules. Membrane fatty acid composition is correlated with the maximum lifespans of mammals and birds. Exceptionally long-living mammal species and birds have a more peroxidation-resistant membrane composition compared to shorter-living similar-sized mammals. Within species, there are also situations in which extended longevity is associated with peroxidation-resistant membrane composition. For example, caloric restriction is associated more peroxidation-resistant membrane composition; long-living queens have more peroxidation-resistant membranes than shorter-living worker honeybees. In humans, the offspring of nonagenarians have peroxidation-resistant erythrocyte membrane composition compared to controls. Membrane fatty acid composition is a little appreciated but important correlate of the rate of aging of animals and the determination of their longevity. PMID:19424859

2008-01-01

237

3H-L-leucine transport by the promiscuous crustacean dipeptide-like cotransporter.  

PubMed

The crustacean intestine and hepatopancreas display a variety of solute transport mechanisms for transmembrane transfer of dietary contents from lumen to epithelial cytosol. An in vitro intestinal perfusion apparatus was used to characterize mucosal to serosoal (MS) and serosal to mucosal (SM) Zn(2+) -dependent (3)H-L-leucine transport by the intestine of the American lobster, Homarus americanus. Transmural 20?µM MS (3)H-L-leucine fluxes across lobster intestine were a hyperbolic function of luminal zinc concentration (1-50?µM) following Michaelis-Menten kinetics (K(m) = 2.67 ± 0.74?µM; J(max) = 19.56 ± 2.22?pmol/cm(2) ×min). Transmural 20?µM SM (3)H-L-leucine fluxes were not affected by serosal zinc, resulting in a highly significant stimulation of net amino acid transfer to the blood by luminal metal. MS fluxes of 20?µM (3)H-L-leucine were also hyperbolic functions of luminal [Cu(2+)], [Mn(2+)], [Na(+)], and [H(+)]. MS flux of (3)H-L-leucine was a sigmoidal function of luminal [L-leucine] and was stimulated by the addition of 20?µM luminal zinc at both pH 7.0 and 5.5. A greater enhanced amino acid transport occurred at the lower pH 5.5. MS flux of 20?µM (3)H-L-leucine in the presence of 20?µM zinc was significantly inhibited by addition of 100?µM luminal glycylsarcosine, and MS flux of 20?µM (3)H-glycylsarcosine was inhibited by 100?µM L-leucine in the presence of 20?µM zinc. Results suggest that (3)H-L-leucine and metals form a complex (e.g., Leu-Zn-Leu] that may functionally mimic dipeptides and use a dipeptide-like transporter during MS fluxes as suggested for fish and mammals. PMID:21732547

Obi, I; Wells, A L; Ortega, P; Patel, D; Farah, L; Zanotto, F P; Ahearn, G A

2011-10-01

238

Chemical composition of acid rains in the Venezuelan savannah region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of rain events has been determined at 6 sites in the Venezuelan savannah region. The results indicate that precipitations are little affected by anthropogenic emissions and that rain concentrations of anions and cations are similar to those observed at \\

E. Sanhueza; M. C. Arias; L. Donoso; N. Graterol; M. Hermoso; I. Martí; J. Romero; A. Rondón; M. Santana

1992-01-01

239

Fatty acid, amino acid, and mineral composition of four common vetch seeds on Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of four common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) seeds was investigated to determine their nutrition value. The result shows that the seeds are low in lipid (1.55-2.74% of dry weight), and high in the unsaturated fatty acid (74.51-77.36% of total fatty acid). The ratio of essential amino acid to non-essential amino acid (0.62-0.69) is even higher than the amount (0.38) recommended by World Health Organization. Besides, the seeds are also found rich in Mg, Mn and Cu, but with a low ratio of Ca to P (0.24-0.73), which may increase the risk of the mineral element toxicity. The results indicate that the four common vetch seeds could be taken as an alternative food source, but the possible toxic effect should be taken into consideration. PMID:25308636

Mao, Zhuxin; Fu, Hua; Nan, Zhibiao; Wan, Changgui

2015-03-15

240

Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

2009-01-01

241

FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND TOCOPHEROL CONTENT OF PUMPKIN SEED OIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) has high tocopherol content (TC) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) making it well-suited for improving human nutrition. PSO has been implicated in preventing prostate growth, retarding hypertension, mitigating hypercholesterolemia and arthritis, improved bladder compliance, a...

242

Nanofiber composite membranes with low equivalent weight perfluorosulfonic acid polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two low equivalent weight perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymers (825 EW and 733 EW) were successfully electrospun into nanofibers by adding as little as 0.3 wt% of high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) as a carrier polymer. The electrospun fiber morphology transitioned from cylindrical filaments to flat ribbons as the total concentration of PFSA + carrier in solution increased from 5 wt%

Jonghyun Choi; Kyung Min Lee; Ryszard Wycisk; Peter N. Pintauro; Patrick T. Mather

2010-01-01

243

Photoproducts of carminic acid formed by a composite from Manihot dulcis waste.  

PubMed

Carbon-TiO2 composites were obtained from carbonised Manihot dulcis waste and TiO2 using glycerol as an additive and thermally treating the composites at 800 °C. Furthermore, carbon was obtained from manihot to study the adsorption, desorption and photocatalysis of carminic acid on these materials. Carminic acid, a natural dye extracted from cochineal insects, is a pollutant produced by the food industry and handicrafts. Its photocatalysis was observed under different atmospheres, and kinetic curves were measured by both UV-Vis and HPLC for comparison, yielding interesting differences. The composite was capable of decomposing approximately 50% of the carminic acid under various conditions. The reaction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ESI-(Qq)-TOF-MS-DAD, enabling the identification of some intermediate species. The deleterious compound anthracene-9,10-dione was detected both in N2 and air atmospheres. PMID:25466082

Antonio-Cisneros, Cynthia M; Dávila-Jiménez, Martín M; Elizalde-González, María P; García-Díaz, Esmeralda

2015-04-15

244

Prebiotic syntheses of vitamin coenzymes: II. Pantoic acid, pantothenic acid, and the composition of coenzyme A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pantoic acid can by synthesized in good prebiotic yield from isobutyraldehyde or alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + H2CO + HCN. Isobutyraldehyde is the Strecker precursor to valine and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid is the valine transamination product. Mg2+ and Ca2+ as well as several transition metals are catalysts for the alpha-ketoisovaleric acid reaction. Pantothenic acid is produced from pantoyl lactone (easily formed from pantoic acid) and the relatively high concentrations of beta-alanine that would be formed on drying prebiotic amino acid mixtures. There is no selectivity for this reaction over glycine, alanine, or gamma-amino butyric acid. The components of coenzyme A are discussed in terms of ease of prebiotic formation and stability and are shown to be plausible choices, but many other compounds are possible. The gamma-OH of pantoic acid needs to be capped to prevent decomposition of pantothenic acid. These results suggest that coenzyme A function was important in the earliest metabolic pathways and that the coenzyme A precursor contained most of the components of the present coenzyme.

Miller, S. L.; Schlesinger, G.

1993-01-01

245

Deoxyribonucleic acid base composition and genome size of Prochloron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA base composition of the photosynthetic prokaryote Prochloron was determined (on samples collected from the natural environment) to be 40.8 mol% GC. The sharp differential melting curve indicated the absence of significant quantities of contaminating DNA from other organisms. The genome size, estimated from the renaturation kinetics of thermally denatured DNA, was 3.59×109 daltons mol. wt, similar to that

Michael Herdman

1981-01-01

246

The composition of coffee oil and its component fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A specimen of coffee oil has been examined with the objective of determining its composition in the light of possible uses\\u000a of the oil which is recoverable as a byproduct in the soluble coffee industry. The oil, as obtained by extraction of the coffee\\u000a grounds with solvent, contains over 5% of unique unsaponifiable material which, without preliminary removal, makes the

N. A. Khan; J. B. Brown

1953-01-01

247

Pressure-Activated Microsyringe Composite Scaffold of Poly(L-lactic acid) and Carbon Nanotubes for Bone Tissue Engineering  

E-print Network

Pressure-Activated Microsyringe Composite Scaffold of Poly(L-lactic acid) and Carbon Nanotubes biocompatibility. In this study, we microfabricated three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds by mixing poly(L-lactic acid

Daraio, Chiara

248

Dipeptides Inhibit Melanin Synthesis in Mel-Ab Cells through Down-Regulation of Tyrosinase.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of proline-serine (PS) and valine-serine (VS) dipeptides on melanogenesis in Mel-Ab cells. Proline-serine and VS significantly inhibited melanin synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner, though neither dipeptide directly inhibited tyrosinase activity in a cell-free system. Both PS and VS down-regulated the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase. In a follow-up study also described here, the effects of these dipeptides on melanogenesis-related signal transduction were quantified. Specifically, PS and VS induced ERK phosphorylation, though they had no effect on phosphorylation of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). These data suggest that PS and VS inhibit melanogenesis through ERK phosphorylation and subsequent down-regulation of MITF and tyrosinase. Properties of these dipeptides are compatible with application as skin-whitening agents. PMID:22915995

Lee, Hyun-E; Kim, Eun-Hyun; Choi, Hye-Ryung; Sohn, Uy Dong; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Park, Kyoung-Chan; Kim, Dong-Seok

2012-08-01

249

Liver and muscle fatty acid composition of mature and immature rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) fed two different diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid composition of liver and muscle tissues of immature and mature Oncorhynchus mykiss fed on two different diets were determined. Fatty acid analyses were carried out by gas chromatography. Palmitic acid (C16:0),\\u000a oleic acid (C18:1 n-9), linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3) were the major components in both liver\\u000a and muscle tissues of immature and mature

Salih Görgün; Mehmet Ali Akpinar

2007-01-01

250

Determination of fatty acid composition of ?-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

Gecgel, Umit; Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet

2011-04-01

251

Stable carbon isotopic compositions of organic acids in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual organic acids were determined in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou. The ? 13C values of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 20-C 28) varied from -34.1‰ to -32.4‰ and tended to be heavier in summer and lighter in winter. These ? 13C values indicate that high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids were derived mainly from emission by C 3 plants. Reduced biological synthesis of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids in winter may be the reason for the light carbon isotopic composition. The ? 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 10-C 18) changed from -31.7‰ to -30.3‰ and exhibited a reverse seasonal trend, i.e., heavier in winter and lighter in summer. Slightly heavier ? 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids than those of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids suggested that they may be emitted from blended sources, e.g., anthropogenic sources and vegetation waxes. Lighter ? 13C values in summer may be attributed to relatively low anthropogenic sources and high botanic sources in summer. Dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids have been proposed as secondary products from photochemical degradation. The average ? 13C values of dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids were heavier, and ranged from -25.2‰ to -22.9‰ and from -30.0‰ to -27.6‰, respectively. Both dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids displayed the same temporal variations in the ? 13C values, i.e., negative ? 13C in the summer samples and positive in the winter samples, which may be controlled by photochemical reactions; they are generally severe in winter in Guangzhou under the monsoon weather system. The heaviest ? 13C values were observed in dicarboxylic acids, indicating that dicarboxylic acids were formed by fast and more complete oxidation reactions. These results indicate that the stable carbon isotopic composition of organic acids may provide important information about sources and photochemical reactions of organic matter in the atmosphere.

Ma, Shexia; Peng, Ping'an; Song, Jianzhong; Zhao, Jinping; He, Lulu; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

2010-10-01

252

Copper toxicity towards Saccharomyces cerevisiae: dependence on plasma membrane fatty acid composition.  

PubMed Central

One major mechanism of copper toxicity towards microorganisms is disruption of plasma membrane integrity. In this study, the influence of plasma membrane fatty acid composition on the susceptibility of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Cu2+ toxicity was investigated. Microbial fatty acid composition is highly variable, depending on both intrinsic and environmental factors. Manipulation was achieved in this study by growth in fatty acid-supplemented medium. Whereas cells grown under standard conditions contained only saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, considerable incorporation of the diunsaturated fatty acid linoleate (18:2) (to more than 65% of the total fatty acids) was observed in both whole-cell homogenates and plasma membrane-enriched fractions from cells grown in linoleate-supplemented medium. Linoleate enrichment had no discernible effect on the growth of S. cerevisiae. However, linoleate-enriched cells were markedly more susceptible to copper-induced plasma membrane permeabilization. Thus, after addition of Cu(NO3)2, rates of cellular K+ release (loss of membrane integrity) were at least twofold higher from linoleate-supplemented cells than from unsupplemented cells; this difference increased with reductions in the Cu2+ concentration supplied. Levels of cellular Cu accumulation were also higher in linoleate-supplemented cells. These results were correlated with a very marked dependence of whole-cell Cu2+ toxicity on cellular fatty acid unsaturation. For example, within 10 min of exposure to 5 microM Cu2+, only 3% of linoleate-enriched cells remained viable (capable of colony formation). In contrast, 100% viability was maintained in cells previously grown in the absence of a fatty acid supplement. Cells displaying intermediate levels of linoleate incorporation showed intermediate Cu2+ sensitivity, while cells enriched with the triunsaturated fatty acid linolenate (18:3) were most sensitive to Cu2+. These results demonstrate for the first time that changes in cellular and plasma membrane fatty acid compositions can dramatically alter microbial sensitivity to copper. PMID:8899983

Avery, S V; Howlett, N G; Radice, S

1996-01-01

253

Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

SciTech Connect

Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ? Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ? Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ? Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile acids are observed in NASH. ? Hepatic bile acid synthesis shifts toward the alternative pathway in NASH.

Lake, April D. [University of Arizona, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Novak, Petr [Biology Centre ASCR, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Ceske Budejovice 37001 (Czech Republic); Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D. [Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Lu, Zhenqiang [The Arizona Statistical Consulting Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D. [Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Cherrington, Nathan J., E-mail: cherrington@pharmacy.arizona.edu [University of Arizona, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2013-04-15

254

Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and gastric mucosa: is there a relation with gastric ulceration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Both in vitro and epidemiological studies indicate that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may play a protective role against peptic ulcer in humans. Adipose tissue fatty acid composition is thought to reflect dietary fatty acid intake. The aim of the present study is to investigate adipose and gastric mucosa fatty acid levels in relation to gastric ulceration status. METHODS: Fifty

Vasileios A Pagkalos; Joanna Moschandreas; Michael Kiriakakis; Maria Roussomoustakaki; Anthony Kafatos; Elias Kouroumalis

2009-01-01

255

New endogenous dipeptide cycloprolyl-glycine is similar to piracetam by its mnemotropic selectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of endogenous dipeptide cycloprolyl-glycine on learning and memory in the model of postconvulsive retrograde amnesia\\u000a of passive avoidance response in rats depended on the administration schedule. The dipeptide prevented retrograde amnesia,\\u000a when injected prior to learning, had no effect after postlearning administration, and aggravated amnesia, when injected immediately\\u000a before retrieval. These data suggest that cycloprolyl-glycine is similar to

T. A. Gudasheva; R. U. Ostrovskaya; S. S. Trofimov; T. A. Voronina; A. P. Skoldinov; S. B. Seredenin

1999-01-01

256

Seasonal distribution and fatty acid composition of littoral microalgae in the Yenisei River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied fatty acid (FA) composition of littoral microalgae in the fast-flowing oligotrophic river, the Yenisei, Siberia,\\u000a monthly for 3 years. Seasonal dynamics of species composition had similar patterns in all the studied years. In springs, a\\u000a pronounced dominance of filamentous green algae occurred, in summer and autumn diatoms were abundant, and in late autumn and\\u000a winter epilithic biofilms consisted primarily

Nadezhda N. Sushchik; Michail I. Gladyshev; Elena A. Ivanova; Elena S. Kravchuk

2010-01-01

257

Increased osteoblast functions on nanophase titania dispersed in poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of nanophase titania\\/poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) composites offers an exciting approach to combine the advantages of a degradable polymer with nano-size ceramic grains to optimize physical and biological properties for bone regeneration. Importantly, nanophase titania mimics the size scale of constituent components of bone since it is a nanostructured composite composed of nanometre dimensioned hydroxyapatite well dispersed in a

Huinan Liu; Elliott B. Slamovich; Thomas J. Webster

2005-01-01

258

Biocompatibility of Electrospun Halloysite Nanotube-Doped Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid) Composite Nanofibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic\\/inorganic hybrid nanofiber systems have generated great interest in the area of tissue engineering and drug delivery. In this study, halloysite nanotube (HNT)-doped poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning and the influence of the incorporation of HNTs within PLGA nanofibers on their in vitro biocompatibility was investigated. The morphology, mechanical and thermal properties of the composite nanofibers

Ruiling Qi; Xueyan Cao; Mingwu Shen; Rui Guo; Jianyong Yu; Xiangyang Shi

2012-01-01

259

Dynamics of fatty-acid composition of neutral acylglycerols in maturing euonymus fruits.  

PubMed

The dynamics of the fatty-acid (FA) composition of neutral acylglycerols (NAGs) composed of 1,2,3-triacyl-sn-glycerols (TAGs) and 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols (acDAGs) was determined in the fruit seeds and arils of three Euonymus L. species at three stages of their maturity. The NAG composition comprised 29 FAs, linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and ?-linolenic acids being predominant. Noticeable amounts of other FAs, such as lauric, myristic, hexadec-9-enoic, stearic, (Z)-vaccenic, and arachidic acid, etc., could also be present. In the course of maturation, the qualitative composition of major FAs remained nearly unchanged, while the unsaturation index of FAs in seeds and in TAGs, as well as, but to a lesser extent, in arils and in acDAGs, respectively, always decreased. This decline was brought about by a sharp fall of the ?-linolenate level, a decrease of the linoleate content, and a corresponding rise in the oleate content. It is suggested that, in both seeds and arils, both classes of NAGs were formed at the expense of the same FA pool; the quantitative composition of this pool was characteristic of a given fruit part and strongly changed during maturation. The accumulation of TAGs in E. europaeus fruits was accompanied by a conversion of hexadec-9-enoic acid into (Z)-vaccenic acid via the C2 -elongation reaction. PMID:24706628

Sidorov, Roman A; Zhukov, Anatoly V; Pchelkin, Vasily P; Vereshchagin, Andrei G; Tsydendambaev, Vladimir D

2014-04-01

260

Different oilseed supplements alter fatty acid composition of different adipose tissues of adult ewes.  

PubMed

Twenty-five mature Small Tail Han ewes were used to investigate the effects of supplemental oilseeds in the diet (sunflower seed, safflower seed, rapeseed, and linseed) on fatty acid composition in different tissues (longissimus lumborum muscle, tail fat, subcutaneous back fat and kidney fat). Averaged over tissue, safflower and sunflower seed was most effective (P<0.05) in enhancing the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid compared to rapeseed, linseed, and control (1.35% and 1.15% vs. 0.80%, 0.80%, and 0.75%, respectively). Linseed supplemented ewes had lesser n-6/n-3 value (2.48, P<0.05) compared to sunflower and safflower supplemented ewes (6.12 and 3.90, respectively). Fatty acid composition for most major fatty acids differed among tissues (P<0.05) but tissue differences varied depending on oilseed supplement (P<0.05). Proportions of conjugated linoleic acid were greatest in tail fat (1.54% vs. 0.82%, 0.79% and 0.70% for kidney, back, and muscle fat, P<0.05) as were total unsaturated fatty acids (49.1% vs. 42.4%, 36.7% and 33.4% for muscle, back, and kidney fat, P<0.05) and tail fat was the most responsive tissue to improvement in fatty acid profile through supplementation. Beneficial fatty acid content of tissues can be increased by oilseed supplementation, but the magnitude of increase varies according to tissue. PMID:20416838

Peng, Y S; Brown, M A; Wu, J P; Liu, Z

2010-07-01

261

Amino Acid Compositions of 27 Food Fishes and Their Importance in Clinical Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Proteins and amino acids are important biomolecules which regulate key metabolic pathways and serve as precursors for synthesis of biologically important substances; moreover, amino acids are building blocks of proteins. Fish is an important dietary source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and play important role in human nutrition. In the present investigation, crude protein content and amino acid compositions of important food fishes from different habitats have been studied. Crude protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method and amino acid composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and information on 27 food fishes was generated. The analysis showed that the cold water species are rich in lysine and aspartic acid, marine fishes in leucine, small indigenous fishes in histidine, and the carps and catfishes in glutamic acid and glycine. The enriched nutrition knowledge base would enhance the utility of fish as a source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and aid in their inclusion in dietary counseling and patient guidance for specific nutritional needs. PMID:25379285

Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T. V.; Chakraborty, Kajal; Rangasamy, Anandan; Paul, Baidyanath; Sarma, Debajit; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, Kurukkan Kunnath; Behera, Bijay; Aftabuddin, Md.; Debnath, Dipesh; Vijayagopal, P.; Sridhar, N.; Akhtar, M. S.; Sahi, Neetu; Mitra, Tandrima; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Das, Debajeet; Das, Pushpita; Vijayan, K. K.; Laxmanan, P. T.; Sharma, A. P.

2014-01-01

262

Controlled release of gentamicin from calcium phosphate—poly(lactic acid- co-glycolic acid) composite bone cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modification of a self setting bone cement with biodegradable microspheres to achieve controlled local release of antibiotics without compromising mechanical properties was investigated. Different biodegradable microsphere batches were prepared from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) using a spray-drying technique to encapsulate gentamicin crobefate varying PLGA composition and drug loading. Microsphere properties such as surface morphology, particle size and antibiotic drug release profiles

Julia Schnieders; Uwe Gbureck; Roger Thull; Thomas Kissel

2006-01-01

263

Fatty acid composition of erythrocyte, platelet, and serum lipids in strict vegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid composition of erythrocytes, platelets, and serum lipids was compared between subjects who had been eating\\u000a a strict uncooked vegan diet (“living food”) for years and omnivore controls. The vegan diet contains equal amounts of fat\\u000a but more monounsaturated and polyunsaturated and less saturated fatty acids than the mixed diet of the control group. In vegans,\\u000a the proportion

Jyrki J. Ågren; Marja-Leena Törmälä; Mikko T. Nenonen; Osmo O. Hänninen

1995-01-01

264

Fatty acid composition of twelve algae from the coastal zones of Qatar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid compositions of twelve algal species from two different classes were determined. Three Chlorophyta species (Acetabularia\\u000a calyculus, Cladophora sericoides and Dictyosphaeria cavernosa) and nine Phaeophyta species (Colpomenia sinuosa, Cystoseria\\u000a trinodis, Dictyota cervicornis, Hormophysa triquetra, Padina gymnospora, Sargassum binderi, S. boveanum, S. denticulatum and\\u000a S. heteromorpha) were investigated. Thirty-four fatty acids were identified. Myristic, palmitic, oleic, linoleic, eicosodienic\\u000a and lignoceric

Helmi I. Heiba; Hala S. Al-Easa; Abdel-Fattah M. Rizk

1997-01-01

265

Nanocellulose reinforced PVA composite films: Effects of acid treatment and filler loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocellulose was prepared by acid hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) at different hydrobromic acid (HBr) concentrations.\\u000a Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite films were prepared by the reinforcement of nanocellulose into a PVA matrix at different\\u000a filler loading levels and subsequent film casting. Chemical characterization of nanocelluloses was performed for the analysis\\u000a of crystallinity (Xc), degree of polymerization (DP), and molecular weight

Sun-Young Lee; D. Jagan Mohan; In-Aeh Kang; Geum-Hyun Doh; Soo Lee; Seong Ok Han

2009-01-01

266

Seasonal dynamics of fatty acid composition in female northern pike ( Esox lucius L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal changes in the fatty acid composition of neutral and polar lipids were measured in the ovary, liver, white muscle, and adipopancreatic tissue of northern pike. The role of environmental and physiological factors underlying these changes was evaluated. From late summer (August–September) to winter (January–March), the weight percentage of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially 22:6n3) declined significantly in the neutral

K. Schwalme; W. C. Mackay; M. T. Clandinin

1993-01-01

267

Effects of dietary fatty acids on the composition and oxidizability of low-density lipoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the effects of dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on LDL composition and oxidizability.Design, setting and subjects: Sixty-nine healthy young volunteers, students at a nearby college, were included. Six subjects withdrew because of intercurrent illness and five withdrew because they were unable to comply with

M Kratz; P Cullen; F Kannenberg; A Kassner; M Fobker; G Assmann; U Wahrburg

2002-01-01

268

Breeding for modified fatty acid composition via experimental mutagenesis in Camelina sativa (L.) Crtz  

Microsoft Academic Search

Camelina sativa (L.) Crtz. is a potential oil crop for non-food industrial applications. Seeds of the German C. sativa cultivar Lindo were mutagenically treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in order to modify the fatty acid composition in the seed oil and to select mutants with either reduced or increased linolenic acid (C18:3) content, respectively. The M2-generation was evaluated for fatty

A Büchsenschütz-Nothdurft; A Schuster; W Friedt

1998-01-01

269

Comparison of the Fatty Acid Composition of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue from Mature Brahman and Hereford Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The fatty acid composition,of adipose tissue was,measured,in 37 mature,Brahman,and 32 mature,Hereford cows to determine,breed effect. Diet was held constant among all cows. When biopsied, cows,were,on,oats and,native,cool-season annual pastures of good quality. Real-time ultrasound,meas- urements,, fatty acids per 100 g of fresh adipose tissue than Brahman

B. Smith; H. R. Cross; J. W. Savell; D. K. Luntt; J. F. Baker; L. S. Pelton; S. B. Smith

270

Growth response and fatty acid composition of juvenile Penaeus vannamei fed different sources of dietary lipid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding various sources of dietary lipid on weight gain, feed conversion, survival and fatty acid composition of juvenile Penaeus vannamei. Seven semi-purified diets (35% protein and 3400 kcal of metabolizable energy kg?1) containing defatted, freeze-dried shrimp meal, 1.0% soybean lecithin and 0.5% cholesterol were supplemented with 6.5% of either stearic acid,

Chhorn Lim; Harry Ako; Christopher L. Brown; Kirk Hahn

1997-01-01

271

Amino acid composition and anti-anaemia action of hydrolyzed offal protein from Harengula Zunasi Bleeker  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrolyzed offal protein (HOP) from Harengula Zunasi offal was produced according to the poly-enzymatic method. Its amino acid composition and in vivo anti-anaemia action were investigated. Chemical analysis showed that the hydrolyzed offal protein contained 16.0% protein, 4.21% fat, 76.28% moisture and 3.39% ash. Compared with the amino acid profiles recommended by FAO\\/WHO, the protein quality of the hydrolyzed

Deng Shang-gui; Peng Zhi-ying; Chen Fang; Yang Ping; Wu Tie

2004-01-01

272

Similar Bacterial Community Composition in Acidic Mining Lakes with Different pH and Lake Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

As extreme environmental conditions strongly affect bacterial community composition (BCC), we examined whether differences\\u000a in pH—even at low pH—and in iron and sulfate concentrations lead to changes in BCC of acidic mining lakes. Thereby, we tested\\u000a the following hypotheses: (1) diversity of the bacterial community in acidic lakes decreases with reducing pH, (2) BCC differs\\u000a between epilimnion and hypolimnion, and

Heike Kampe; Claudia Dziallas; Hans-Peter Grossart; Norbert Kamjunke

2010-01-01

273

Docosahexaenoic acid changes lipid composition and interleukin-2 receptor signaling in membrane rafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docosa- hexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), modulate immune responses and exert beneficial immunosuppressive effects, but the molecular mechanisms inhibiting T-cell activation are not yet elucidated. Lipid rafts have been shown to play an im- portant role in the compartmentalization and modulation of cell signaling. We investigated the role of DHA in modu- lating the lipid composition in

Qiurong Li; Meng Wang; Li Tan; Chang Wang; Jian Ma; Ning Li; Yousheng Li; Guowang Xu; Jieshou Li

2005-01-01

274

Tables of critical values for examining compositional non-randomness in proteins and nucleic acids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A binomially distributed statistic is defined to show whether or not the proportion of a particular amino acid in a protein deviates from random expectation. An analogous statistic is derived for nucleotides in nucleic acids. These new statistics are simply related to the classical chi-squared test. They explicitly account for the compositional fluctuations imposed by the finite length of proteins, and they are more accurate than previous tables.

Laird, M.; Holmquist, R.

1975-01-01

275

Serum fatty acid composition as a marker of eating habits in normal and diabetic subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that the Japanese people have had healthy eating habits, which may explain their low incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In the present study, in order to examine dietary habits such as fish consumption, the serum fatty acids from 190 normal people in their 30s and 50s living in Tokyo were surveyed. Furthermore, the fatty acid composition

Takashi Hasegawa; Mieko Oshima

1999-01-01

276

Enzymatically cross-linked alginic-hyaluronic acid composite hydrogels as cell delivery vehicles.  

PubMed

An injectable composite gel was developed from alginic and hyaluronic acid. The enzymatically cross-linked injectable gels were prepared via the oxidative coupling of tyramine modified sodium algiante and sodium hyaluronate in the presence of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The composite gels were prepared by mixing equal parts of the two tyraminated polymer solutions in 10U HRP and treating with 1.0% H2O2. The properties of the alginate gels were significantly affected by the addition of hyaluronic acid. The percentage water absorption and storage modulus of the composite gels were found to be lower than the alginate gels. The alginate and composite gels showed lower protein release compared to hyaluronate gels in the absence of hyaluronidase. Even hyaluronate gels showed only approximately 10% protein release after 14 days incubation in phosphate buffer solution. ATDC-5 cells encapsulated in the injectable gels showed high cell viability. The composite gels showed the presence of enlarged spherical cells with significantly higher metabolic activity compared to cells in hyaluronic and alginic acid gels. The results suggest the potential of the composite approach to develop covalently cross-linked hydrogels with tuneable physical, mechanical, and biological properties. PMID:23357799

Ganesh, Nitya; Hanna, Craig; Nair, Shantikumar V; Nair, Lakshmi S

2013-04-01

277

Effect of the fatty acid composition of acclimated oenological Lactobacillus plantarum on the resistance to ethanol.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes due to acclimation to ethanol on the fatty acid composition of three oenological Lactobacillus plantarum strains and their effect on the resistance to ethanol and malic acid consumption (MAC). Lactobacillus plantarum UNQLp 133, UNQLp 65.3 and UNQLp 155 were acclimated in the presence of 6 or 10% v/v ethanol, for 48 h at 28°C. Lipids were extracted to obtain fatty acid methyl esters and analysed by gas chromatography interfaced with mass spectroscopy. The influence of change in fatty acid composition on the viability and MAC in synthetic wine was analysed by determining the Pearson correlation coefficient. Acclimated strains showed a significant change in the fatty composition with regard to the nonacclimated strains. Adaptation to ethanol led to a decrease in the unsaturated/saturated ratio, mainly resulting from an increase in the contribution of short-length fatty acid C12:0 and a decrease of C18:1. The content of C12:0 was related to a higher viability after inoculation of synthetic wine. The MAC increased at higher contents in saturated fatty acid, but its efficiency was strain dependent. PMID:25359087

Bravo-Ferrada, B M; Gómez-Zavaglia, A; Semorile, L; Tymczyszyn, E E

2015-02-01

278

Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition of Cultured Beluga (Huso huso) of Different Ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amino acids (AA) and fatty acids (FA) of Beluga (Huso huso) flesh at different ages were investigated as a source of AA and FA for human consumption. The analysis of Huso huso lipids (chloroform extracted) showed significant differences (p < .05) for specific FA with age. At all ages, the major saturated FA in Huso huso fillets was palmitic

Abdolmohammad Abedian Kenari; Joe M. Regenstein; Seyed Vali Hosseini; Masoud Rezaei; Reza Tahergorabi; Rajab Mohammad Nazari; Morteza Mogaddasi; Seyed Abdollah Kaboli

2009-01-01

279

General characteristics of Pinus spp. Seed fatty acid compositions, and importance of ?5-olefinic acids in the taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ?5-unsaturated polymethylene-interrupted fatty acid (?5-UPIFA) contents and profiles of gymnosperm seeds are useful chemometric\\u000a data for the taxonomy and phylogeny of that division, and these acids may also have some biomedical or nutritional applications.\\u000a We recapitulate here all data available on pine (Pinus; the largest genus in the family Pinaceae) seed fatty acid (SFA) compositions, including 28 unpublished compositions.

Robert L. Wolff; Frédérique Pédrono; Elodie Pasquier; Anne M. Marpeau

2000-01-01

280

Tetradecylthioacetic acid increases hepatic mitochondrial ?-oxidation and alters fatty acid composition in a mouse model of chronic inflammation.  

PubMed

The administration of tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA), a hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory modified bioactive fatty acid, has in several experiments based on high fat diets been shown to improve lipid transport and utilization. It was suggested that increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation in the liver of Wistar rats results in reduced plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) levels. Here we assessed the potential of TTA to prevent tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ?-induced lipid modifications in human TNF? (hTNF?) transgenic mice. These mice are characterized by reduced ?-oxidation and changed fatty acid composition in the liver. The effect of dietary treatment with TTA on persistent, low-grade hTNF? overexpression in mice showed a beneficial effect through decreasing TAG plasma concentrations and positively affecting saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid proportions in the liver, leading to an increased anti-inflammatory fatty acid index in this group. We also observed an increase of mitochondrial ?-oxidation in the livers of TTA treated mice. Concomitantly, there were enhanced plasma levels of carnitine, acetyl carnitine, propionyl carnitine, and octanoyl carnitine, no changed levels in trimethyllysine and palmitoyl carnitine, and a decreased level of the precursor for carnitine, called ?-butyrobetaine. Nevertheless, TTA administration led to increased hepatic TAG levels that warrant further investigations to ascertain that TTA may be a promising candidate for use in the amelioration of inflammatory disorders characterized by changed lipid metabolism due to raised TNF? levels. PMID:21479675

Burri, Lena; Bjørndal, Bodil; Wergedahl, Hege; Berge, Kjetil; Bohov, Pavol; Svardal, Asbjørn; Berge, Rolf K

2011-08-01

281

Beta-galactosidase and selective neutrality. [amino acid composition of proteins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three hypotheses to explain the amino acid composition of proteins are inconsistent (about 10 to the minus 9th) with the experimental data for beta-galactosidase from Escherichia coli. The exceptional length of this protein, 1021 residues, permits rigorous tests of these hypotheses without complication from statistical artifacts. Either this protein is not at compositional equilibrium, which is unlikely from knowledge about other proteins, or the evolution of this protein and its coding gene have not been selectively neutral. However, the composition of approximately 60% of the molecule is consistent with either a selectively neutral or nonneutral evolutionary process.

Holmquist, R.

1979-01-01

282

Ultrahigh dielectric constant composites based on the oleic acid modified ferroferric oxide nanoparticles and polyvinylidene fluoride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the dielectric properties of the percolative composites based on polyvinylidene fluoride and oleic acid modified ferroferric oxide nanoparticles. It demonstrates that surface modification not only can prevent the aggregation of the nanoparticles but also can greatly increase the dielectric constant of the composites. The space charge polarization at the interfaces between modified nanoparticles and polymers results in huge enhancement of dielectric constant. The maximum of dielectric constant is up to 24 105 at 100 Hz and the dielectric loss is still controlled in the range of 0-2.5. These composites can be used as the dielectric materials of super-capacitors.

Wang, Tingting; Li, Weiping; Luo, Laihui; Zhu, Yuejin

2013-03-01

283

Influence of oxidation on fulvic acids composition and biodegradability.  

PubMed

Oxidation is well-known process of transforming natural organic matter during the treatment of drinking water. Chlorine, ozone, and chlorine dioxide are common oxidants used in water treatment technologies for this purpose. We studied the influence of different doses of these oxidants on by-products formation and changes in biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) and molecular weight distribution (MWD) of fulvic acids (FA) with different BDOC content. Chlorination did not significantly change the MWD of FA and disinfection by-products formation. However, higher molecular weight compounds, than those in the initial FA, were formed. It could be a result of chlorine substitution into the FA structure. Chlorine dioxide oxidized FA stronger than chlorine. During ozonation of FA, we found the highest increase of BDOD due to the formation of a high amount of organic acids and aldehydes. FA molecules were transformed into a more biodegradable form. Ozonation is the most preferable process among those observed for pre-treatment of FA before biofiltration. PMID:23746389

Kozyatnyk, Ivan; ?wietlik, Joanna; Raczyk-Stanis?awiak, Ursula; D?browska, Agata; Klymenko, Nataliya; Nawrocki, Jacek

2013-08-01

284

A dipeptide transporter from the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis is upregulated in the intraradical phase  

PubMed Central

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which form an ancient and widespread mutualistic symbiosis with plants, are a crucial but still enigmatic component of the plant micro biome. Nutrient exchange has probably been at the heart of the success of this plant-fungus interaction since the earliest days of plants on land. To characterize genes from the fungal partner involved in nutrient exchange, and presumably important for the functioning of the AM symbiosis, genome-wide transcriptomic data obtained from the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis were exploited. A gene sequence, showing amino acid sequence and transmembrane domains profile similar to members of the PTR2 family of fungal oligopeptide transporters, was identified and called RiPTR2. The functional properties of RiPTR2 were investigated by means of heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants defective in either one or both of its di/tripeptide transporter genes PTR2 and DAL5. These assays showed that RiPTR2 can transport dipeptides such as Ala-Leu, Ala-Tyr or Tyr-Ala. From the gene expression analyses it seems that RiPTR2 responds to different environmental clues when the fungus grows inside the root and in the extraradical phase. PMID:25232358

Belmondo, Simone; Fiorilli, Valentina; Pérez-Tienda, Jacob; Ferrol, Nuria; Marmeisse, Roland; Lanfranco, Luisa

2014-01-01

285

Increased NOD2-mediated recognition of N-glycolyl muramyl dipeptide  

PubMed Central

Peptidoglycan-derived muramyl dipeptide (MDP) activates innate immunity via the host sensor NOD2. Although MDP is N-acetylated in most bacteria, mycobacteria and related Actinomycetes convert their MDP to an N-glycolylated form through the action of N-acetyl muramic acid hydroxylase (NamH). We used a combination of bacterial genetics and synthetic chemistry to investigate whether N-glycolylation of MDP alters NOD2-mediated immunity. Upon infecting macrophages with 12 bacteria, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ? secretion was NOD2 dependent only with mycobacteria and other Actinomycetes (Nocardia and Rhodococcus). Disruption of namH in Mycobacterium smegmatis obrogated NOD2-mediated TNF secretion, which could be restored upon gene complementation. In mouse macrophages, N-glycolyl MDP was more potent than N-acetyl MDP at activating RIP2, nuclear factor ?B, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and proinflammatory cytokine secretion. In mice challenged intraperitoneally with live or killed mycobacteria, NOD2-dependent immune responses depended on the presence of bacterial namH. Finally, N-glycolyl MDP was more efficacious than N-acetyl MDP at inducing ovalbumin-specific T cell immunity in a model of adjuvancy. Our findings indicate that N-glycolyl MDP has a greater NOD2-stimulating activity than N-acetyl MDP, consistent with the historical observation attributing exceptional immunogenic activity to the mycobacterial cell wall. PMID:19581406

Coulombe, François; Divangahi, Maziar; Veyrier, Frédéric; de Léséleuc, Louis; Gleason, James L.; Yang, Yibin; Kelliher, Michelle A.; Pandey, Amit K.; Sassetti, Christopher M.; Reed, Michael B.

2009-01-01

286

Composite scaffolds of nano calcium deficient hydroxyapatite/multi-(amino acid) copolymer for bone tissue regeneration.  

PubMed

In this study, nano calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (n-DA)/multi-(amino acid) copolymer composite scaffolds were prepared by injection molding foaming method using calcium sulphate dihydrate as a foaming agent. The composite scaffolds showed well interconnected macropores with the pore size of ranging from 100 to 600 ?m, porosity of 81 % and compressive strength of 12 MPa, and the compressive strength obviously affected by the porosity. The composite scaffolds could be slowly degraded in phosphate buffered solution (PBS), which lost its initial weight of 61 w % after immersion into PBS for 12 weeks, and the porosity significantly affected the degradability of the scaffolds. Moreover, it was found that the composite scaffolds could promote the MG-63 cells growth and proliferation, and enhance its alkaline phosphatase activity. The implantation of the scaffolds into the femoral bone of rabbits confirmed that the composite scaffolds were biocompatibitive, degradable, and osteoconductive in vivo. PMID:24488438

Li, Hong; Yang, Lili; Dong, Xieping; Gu, Yifei; Lv, Guoyu; Yan, Yonggang

2014-05-01

287

Discrimination of acidic and alkaline enzyme using Chou's pseudo amino acid composition in conjunction with probabilistic neural network model.  

PubMed

Enzyme catalysis is one of the most essential and striking processes among of all the complex processes that have evolved in living organisms. Enzymes are biological catalysts, which play a significant role in industrial applications as well as in medical areas, due to profound specificity, selectivity and catalytic efficiency. Refining catalytic efficiency of enzymes has become the most challenging job of enzyme engineering, into acidic and alkaline. Discrimination of acidic and alkaline enzymes through experimental approaches is difficult, sometimes impossible due to lack of established structures. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop a computational model for discriminating acidic and alkaline enzymes from primary sequences. In this study, we have developed a robust, accurate and high throughput computational model using two discrete sample representation methods Pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC) and split amino acid composition. Various classification algorithms including probabilistic neural network (PNN), K-nearest neighbor, decision tree, multi-layer perceptron and support vector machine are applied to predict acidic and alkaline with high accuracy. 10-fold cross validation test and several statistical measures namely, accuracy, F-measure, and area under ROC are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed model. The performance of the model is examined using two benchmark datasets to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The empirical results show that the performance of PNN in conjunction with PseAAC is quite promising compared to existing approaches in the literature so for. It has achieved 96.3% accuracy on dataset1 and 99.2% on dataset2. It is ascertained that the proposed model might be useful for basic research and drug related application areas. PMID:25452135

Khan, Zaheer Ullah; Hayat, Maqsood; Khan, Muazzam Ali

2015-01-21

288

Content and composition of fatty acids in marine oil omega-3 supplements.  

PubMed

Marine oil omega-3 supplements are among the most frequently consumed dietary supplements in the United States. However, few studies have evaluated the overall fatty acid composition of these products. We investigated the content and composition of fatty acids in 46 commercially available marine oil omega-3 supplements by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection using the 200 m SLB-IL111 ionic liquid column. Seventy-three fatty acid isomers were quantified, including n-6, n-4, n-3, and n-1 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans isomers of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3), the chromatographic separations of which we report for the first time on the 200 m SLB-IL111 column. Contents of EPA and DHA met their respective label declarations in more than 80% of the products examined. Eleven of the products (24%) carried the Food and Drug Administration's qualified health claim for EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:25003526

Srigley, Cynthia Tyburczy; Rader, Jeanne I

2014-07-23

289

Total lipid and fatty acid composition of eight strains of marine diatoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fatty acid composition and total lipid content of 8 strains of marine diatoms ( Nitzschia frustrula, Nitzschia closterium, Nitzschia incerta, Navicula pelliculosa, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Synedra fragilaroides) were examined. The microalgae were grown under defined conditions and harvested at the late exponential phase. The major fatty acids in most strains were 14?0 (1.0% 6.3%), 16?0 (13.5 26.4%), 16?1n-7 (21.1% 46.3%) and 20?5n-3 (6.5% 19.5%). The polyunsaturated fatty acids 16?2n-4, 16?3n-4, 16?4n-1 and 20?4n-6 also comprised a significant proportion of the total fatty acids in some strains. The characteristic fatty acid composition of diatoms is readily distinguishable from those of other microalgal groups. Significant concentration of the polyunsaturated fatty acid 20?5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) was present in each strain, with the highest proportion in B222 (19.5%).

Liang, Ying; Mai, Kang-Sen; Sun, Shi-Chun

2000-12-01

290

Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fatty acid composition in an interspecific cross of oil palm  

PubMed Central

Background Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) is well suited to a perennial crop like oil palm, in which the economic products are not produced until several years after planting. The use of DNA markers for selection in such crops can greatly reduce the number of breeding cycles needed. With the use of DNA markers, informed decisions can be made at the nursery stage, regarding which individuals should be retained as breeding stock, which are satisfactory for agricultural production, and which should be culled. The trait associated with oil quality, measured in terms of its fatty acid composition, is an important agronomic trait that can eventually be tracked using molecular markers. This will speed up the production of new and improved oil palm planting materials. Results A map was constructed using AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers for an interspecific cross involving a Colombian Elaeis oleifera (UP1026) and a Nigerian E. guinneensis (T128). A framework map was generated for the male parent, T128, using Joinmap ver. 4.0. In the paternal (E. guineensis) map, 252 markers (199 AFLP, 38 RFLP and 15 SSR) could be ordered in 21 linkage groups (1815 cM). Interval mapping and multiple-QTL model (MQM) mapping (also known as composite interval mapping, CIM) were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling oil quality (measured in terms of iodine value and fatty acid composition). At a 5% genome-wide significance threshold level, QTLs associated with iodine value (IV), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) content were detected. One genomic region on Group 1 appears to be influencing IV, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 content. Significant QTL for C14:0, C16:1, C18:0 and C18:1 content was detected around the same locus on Group 15, thus revealing another major locus influencing fatty acid composition in oil palm. Additional QTL for C18:0 was detected on Group 3. A minor QTL for C18:2 was detected on Group 2. Conclusion This study describes the first successful detection of QTLs for fatty acid composition in oil palm. These QTLs constitute useful tools for application in breeding programmes. PMID:19706196

Singh, Rajinder; Tan, Soon G; Panandam, Jothi M; Rahman, Rahimah Abdul; Ooi, Leslie CL; Low, Eng-Ti L; Sharma, Mukesh; Jansen, Johannes; Cheah, Suan-Choo

2009-01-01

291

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition and Homology Studies of Leptospira  

PubMed Central

Four distinct genetic groups of leptospiras were demonstrated among selected pathogenic and “biflexa” serological types. Pathogenic leptospiras could be divided into two groups on the basis of per cent guanine + cytosine (GC) in their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). One group had 36 ± 1%, the other 39 ± 1%. The biflexa strains had DNA of 39 ± 1% GC, but were further separated into two groups on the basis of DNA-annealing tests. Strains within groups had a high degree of specific duplex formation (75% binding or more with reference to the homologous DNA). There was little or no genetic relatedness between strains of the four groups (less than 10% DNA homology). The thermal elution midpoint of heterologous DNA duplexes was always lower than the homologous reaction. The serological relationships among strains were not meaningful in terms of relatedness determined by specific duplex formation. PMID:5784202

Haapala, Daniel K.; Rogul, Marvin; Evans, L. B.; Alexander, A. D.

1969-01-01

292

Structural characterization of hypoglycin B, a diastereomeric dipeptide from the ackee fruit (Blighia sapida Koenig) by NMR experiments.  

PubMed

The dipeptide hypoglycin B, one of two toxins of the ackee fruit (Blighia sapida Koenig), was characterized for the first time by NMR spectral data, which led to the discovery that it exists naturally as a pair of diastereomers. No distinction was observed in the (1)H NMR signals of the diastereomers; however, complete and distinct (13)C NMR assignments for the individual diastereomers were made. The (13)C NMR spectrum of hypoglycin B compared very well with that of the corresponding signals in the spectrum for hypoglycin A, which is one of its constituent amino acids. The (1)H and (13)C NMR assignments were further supported by DEPT, gCOSY, gHSQC and gHMBC experiments. PMID:19653254

Bowen-Forbes, Camille S; Minott, Donna A

2009-11-01

293

Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.  

PubMed

Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration. PMID:25829628

Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

2015-04-01

294

Composition en acides amins des aliments et des rsidus de fermentation in vitro  

E-print Network

Composition en acides aminés des aliments et des résidus de fermentation in vitro M. ANTONGIOVANNI in vitro fermentation with rumen inoculum, and of the faeces relative to an in vivo digestibility trial run fermentation in vitro comme l'ont fait Dennison et Philips (1983) et des fèces. Pour des raisons de place, nous

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

295

Gibberellic acid (GA3) effects on late season grapefruit peel oil composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gibberellic acid (GA3) is commonly applied to citrus fruit in the late summer/early autumn to delay peel maturation and extend late season quality. The effect of August/September GA3 application on oil gland composition of "Marsh" white grapefruit harvested in March 18 and April 16 from three groves...

296

Processing of soybean affects meat fatty acid composition and lipid peroxidation in beef cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of processing whole soybean on growth characteristics, fatty acid composition and lipid peroxidation activity of beef tissue were investigated with 40 crossbred steers. The basal diet consisted of grass and corn silage, barley grain, vitamins and minerals. The dietary treatments were: raw soybean, extruded soybean, roasted soybean and Megalac plus soybean meal to give equivalent lipid and protein contents.

M. A. McNiven; J. Duynisveld; E. Charmley; A. Mitchell

2004-01-01

297

Effect of Finishing System on Subcutaneous Fat Melting Point and Fatty Acid Composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Angus-cross steers (n = 69) were used to determine the effect of finishing system on subcutaneous fat melting point and fatty acid composition. Three finishing systems were evaluated: 1) mixed pasture for 134 d [MP], 2) mixed pasture for 93 d and alfalfa for 41 d [AL], or 3) concentrate finishing f...

298

Variation in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition in the US Castor Bean Germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Castor has potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition of castor bean seeds are therefore important factors determining the price and quality of castor bean biodiesel. Forty-eight castor bean and two soybean accessions were selected from the US germp...

299

Screening of the US peanut germplasm for oil content and fatty acid composition.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel can be produced by transesterification of plant oils. The oil contents and fatty acid compositions of fifty peanut accessions and two soybean accessions were analyzed and compared. In comparison of the oil content, peanut seeds contain a much higher amount of oil (51.94%) than soybean seed...

300

Antimicrobial activity of nisin incorporated in pectin and polylactic acid composite films against Listeria monocytogenes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Extruded composite films from 20% pectin and 80% polylactic acids (PLA) were developed and nisin was loaded into films by a diffusion post extrusion. Inhibitory activities of the films against Listeria monocytogenes were evaluated in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth, liquid egg white and orange juic...

301

Preparation of poly(lactic acid) and pectin composite films intended for application in antimicrobial packaging  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Composite films of pectin and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were compounded by extrusion. A model antimicrobial polypeptide, nisin, was loaded into the film by diffusion. The incorporation of pectin into PLA resulted in a heterogeneous biphasic structure as revealed by scanning electronic microscopy, co...

302

EFFECTS OF WINTER STOCKER GROWTH RATE AND FINISHING DIET ON BEEF LONGISSIMUS FATTY ACID COMPOSITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Longissimus muscle of Angus-cross steers (n=68, year 1; n=63, year 2; n=67, year 3) was assayed to determine the effects of winter stocker growth rate (LOW, MED, or HIGH) and finishing diet (corn silage-concentrate, CONC or pasture, PAST) on total lipid content and fatty acid composition of this tis...

303

Biogeochemistry of the compost bioreactor components of a composite acid mine drainage passive remediation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compost bioreactor (“anaerobic cell”) components of three composite passive remediation systems constructed to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) at the former Wheal Jane tin mine, Cornwall, UK were studied over a period of 16 months. While there was some amelioration of the preprocessed AMD in each of the three compost bioreactors, as evidenced by pH increase and decrease in

D. Barrie Johnson; Kevin B. Hallberg

2005-01-01

304

EVALUATION OF POLY(LACTIC ACID) AND AGRICULTURAL COPRODUCTS AS GREEN COMPOSITE MATERIALS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Green composite materials of poly(lactic acid)(PLA) and agricultural coproducts such as sugar beet pulp(SBP), cuphea, lesquerella, and milkweed were compounded using a twin-screw extruder, molded by injection molding and evaluated for structural and mechanical properties using acoustic emission and ...

305

Fatty acid composition of human milk in atopic Danish mothers1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Atopic dermatitis has been related to a disturbed metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Objective: We tested whether the PUFA composition of breast milk differs significantly between mothers with atopic dermatitis, moth- ers with other types of atopy, and nonatopic mothers. We also in- vestigated whether differences in diet can explain possible observed differences. Design: Mothers with current or

Lotte Lauritzen; Liselotte Brydensholt Halkjær; Tina B Mikkelsen; Sjurdur F Olsen; Kim F Michaelsen; Lotte Loland; Hans Bisgaard

306

Unexpected amino acid composition of modern Reptilia and its implications in molecular mechanisms of dinosaur extinction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dinosaur extinction is a great challenge to evolutionary biology. Although accumulating evidence suggests that an abrupt change of environment, such as a long period of low temperature induced by asteroid hit or other disasters, may be responsible for dinosaur extinction, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. By analyzing the amino acid compositions of 13 biological classes, we found

Guang-Zhong Wang; Bin-Guang Ma; Yan Yang; Hong-Yu Zhang

2005-01-01

307

Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in the U.S. peanut minicore  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The established U.S. peanut minicore encompassing 112 accessions is useful resources for peanut breeders, geneticists, and curators. Oil content and fatty acid composition are important seed quality traits which can significantly affect the peanut price, nutrition value and down-stream processing. W...

308

Role of Pantothenic Acid as a Modifier of Body Composition in Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigs were fed one of four dietary additions of pantothenic acid (PA, 0, 30, 60, and 120 ppm) to determine the effect of PA additions on growth, body composition, and meat quality of pigs fed from 10 to 115 kg of body weight (BW). Fifteen sets (7 barrows, 8 gilts) of four littermate pigs from a high lean strain were

Tim S. Stahly; T. R. Lutz

2001-01-01

309

Changes in acyl-coenzyme A pools in sunflower seeds with modified fatty acid composition.  

PubMed

Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the main reserve product accumulated by oilseeds and they are synthesized by the successive esterification of acyl-CoA derivatives to glycerol molecules through a series of reactions occurring in the endoplasmic reticulum. Acyl-CoA derivatives produced in developing seeds are derived from the de novo plastidial synthesis of fatty acids. This pool of metabolites is also implicated in the elongation of acyl chains due to the action of extraplastidial fatty acid elongases and the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into TAGs by reticular transacylase enzymes. Analyzing the composition of this pool of metabolites could help us better understand how plant lipid metabolism is regulated. In the present study, we analyzed the size and composition of the acyl-CoA pools in tissues from three sunflower mutants that accumulate oils with modified fatty acid composition. Acyl-CoAs were transformed into their corresponding acyl-etheno-CoA derivatives and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. We studied developing seeds, germinating cotyledons and leaf tissue to determine how mutations responsible for these traits alter the acyl-CoA pool and hence, the glycerolipid composition of the seeds. Likewise, we analyzed the metabolism of modified TAGs by cotyledons during germination. The metabolic responses of the plant and the effects of the modifications in lipid metabolism that occurred in these mutants are also discussed. PMID:23280039

Aznar-Moreno, Jose A; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Garcés, Rafael; Salas, Joaquín J

2013-03-01

310

Fatty acid composition of edible oils derived from certified organic and conventional agricultural methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to compare the fatty acid composition of commercially available edible oils derived from certified organic and conventional agricultural methods. A total of 59 certified organic and 53 conventional oils were purchased from retail markets in Sydney, Australia. Organic and conventional products were matched for comparison according to the description of production methods, labelled total

Samir Samman; Jessa W. Y. Chow; Meika J. Foster; Zia I. Ahmad; Jenny L. Phuyal; Peter Petocz

2008-01-01

311

Effects of Dietary Lipids on Growth and Fatty Acid Composition in Russian Sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) Juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) fed feeds including fish oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil were researched and the effects of the feeds on the growth performance and fatty acid composition of the fish were studied. In the Sapanca Inland Waters Research and Experiment Department of ‹stanbul University's Faculty of Fisheries, sturgeon juveniles having an approximate initial weight of 27.23

Mustafa YILDIZ

312

Protein kinase C activation in rat colonic mucosa after diets differing in their fatty acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of different types of dietary fats on fatty acid composition and activity of protein kinase C (PKC) in rat colonic mucosa. Activation of PKC, a key enzyme in signal transduction and growth regulation, provides a mechanism by which dietary components could be involved in colon carcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats (n = 12\\/group) were fed a semisynthetic

Anne-Maria Pajari; Maija-Liisa Rasilo; Marja Mutanen

1997-01-01

313

Site-specific fatty acid composition in adipose tissues of several northern aquatic and terrestrial mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Site-specific differences in fatty acid compositions (by gas-liquid chromatography) were compared in aquatic, semiaquatic and terrestrial mammals: the ringed seals (Phoca hispida hispida and P. h. botnica), otter (Lutra lutra), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), brown bear (Ursus arctos) and grey wolf (Canis lupus). In addition, we briefly discuss our earlier results for the Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and muskrat (Ondatra

Reijo Käkelä; Heikki Hyvärinen

1996-01-01

314

Influence of manganese on morphology and cell wall composition of Aspergillus niger during citric acid fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphology and cell wall composition of Aspergillus niger were studied under conditions of manganese sufficient or deficient cultivation in an otherwise citric acid producing medium. Omission of Mn2+ (less than 10-7 M) from the nutrient medium of Aspergillus niger results in abnormal morphological development which is characterized by increased spore swelling, and squat, bulbeous hyphae. Fractionation and analysis of manganese

Monika Kisser; C. P. Kubicek; M. Röhr

1980-01-01

315

Phenolic acids composition of fruit extracts of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L., var. Golo lemai)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana L. (ber) are consumed in fresh and dried/processed form in many countries across Asia including Pakistan. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of total phenolic acids (free, soluble-bound and insoluble-bound) from Golo lemai ber fruit extracts by applying a...

316

The amino acid and sugar composition of diatom cell-walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell walls of diatoms consist of a silica frustule encased in an organic coating. Biochemical characterization of this coating should allow insight into: (1) the mechanism of silicification; (2) taxonomy and evolution of diatoms; (3) preservation of fossil frustules. The amino acid and sugar composition of cell walls from 6 diatom species have been elucidated. When compared to cellular

R. E. Hecky; K. Mopper; P. Kilham; E. T. Degens

1973-01-01

317

DNA Asymmetric Strand Bias Affects the Amino Acid Composition of Mitochondrial Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in GC content between genomes have been extensively documented. Genomes with comparable GC con- tents can, however, still differ in the apportionment of the G and C nucleotides between the two DNA strands. This asymmetric strand bias is known as GC skew. Here, we have investigated the impact of differences in nucleotide skew on the amino acid composition of

Xiang JIA MIN; Donal A. HICKEY

2007-01-01

318

Effect of diet on fatty acid compositions in Sciaenops J. P. TURNER* AND J. R. ROOKER  

E-print Network

16 April 2004, Accepted 26 April 2005) The role of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs density and PUFA compositions for 40 days. Diets were characterized as containing: high lipid, high protein, high energy and low PUFA (fish-based), low lipid, low protein, low energy, moderate PUFA (shrimp

Rooker, Jay R.

319

Effects on milk yield and composition of infusions of volatile fatty acids and caseinate into  

E-print Network

Effects on milk yield and composition of infusions of volatile fatty acids and caseinate Laitière, Saint-Gilles, 35590 L'Hermitage, France Changes in milk secretion and composi- tion, particularly concentrate and 7.5% soya bean meal. Duodenal infusion of casein increased milk yield (+ 1.9 kg

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

320

Changes in the fatty acid composition of goat milk fat after a 48-hour fast  

E-print Network

Changes in the fatty acid composition of goat milk fat after a 48-hour fast Anne-Marie MASSART, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. Summary. Five lactating goats were milked twice daily. After a control period of 3 days, they were fasted for 48 hr. The milk was collected at each milking. At the end

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

321

Photoperiod affects daily torpor and tissue fatty acid composition in deer mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoperiod and dietary lipids both influence thermal physiology and the pattern of torpor of heterothermic mammals. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that photoperiod-induced physiological changes are linked to differences in tissue fatty acid composition of deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus (˜18-g body mass). Deer mice were acclimated for >8 weeks to one of three photoperiods (LD, light/dark): LD 8:16 (short photoperiod), LD 12:12 (equinox photoperiod), and LD 16:8 (long photoperiod). Deer mice under short and equinox photoperiods showed a greater occurrence of torpor than those under long photoperiods (71, 70, and 14%, respectively). The duration of torpor bouts was longest in deer mice under short photoperiod (9.3 ± 2.6 h), intermediate under equinox photoperiod (5.1 ± 0.3 h), and shortest under long photoperiod (3.7 ± 0.6 h). Physiological differences in torpor use were associated with significant alterations of fatty acid composition in ˜50% of the major fatty acids from leg muscle total lipids, whereas white adipose tissue fatty acid composition showed fewer changes. Our results provide the first evidence that physiological changes due to photoperiod exposure do result in changes in lipid composition in the muscle tissue of deer mice and suggest that these may play a role in survival of low body temperature and metabolic rate during torpor, thus, enhancing favourable energy balance over the course of the winter.

Geiser, Fritz; McAllan, B. M.; Kenagy, G. J.; Hiebert, Sara M.

2007-04-01

322

Fatty acid composition of goat muscles and fat depots: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to the fat content of muscle and adipose depots, the fatty acid composition of lipids affects meat quality. Furthermore, relevant reports are difficult to use for comparisons, in that samples were collected from muscles and fat depots at various anatomical locations and experiments entailed different objectives, designs, procedures and methodologies. Nonetheless, based on currently available publications, according to

V. Banskalieva; T. Sahlu; A. L. Goetsch

2000-01-01

323

Fatty Acid Composition of Mixed-Rumen Bacteria: Effect of Concentration and Type of Forage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of concentration and type of forage in the diet on lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of rumen bacteria were studied in 14 goats fitted with duodenal cannulas. The goats were fed a complete maintenance diet containing 40, 70, or 100% chopped forage (dry matter basis) in two equal meals. Forage was either corn stover or alfalfa

P. Bas; H. Archimède; A. Rouzeau; D. Sauvant

2003-01-01

324

COMPOSITION EN ACIDES AMINS DU LAIT DE TRUIE P.-H. DUE J. JUNG  

E-print Network

Josas RÉSUMÉ La composition en acides aminés des protéines du colostrum et du lait de 12 truies Lavge'azote, respectivement pour le colostrum et le lait, sont les suivantes : Par rapport au lait, le colostrum est plus lait : d'une part, au début de la lactation (qui correspond à la production de colostrum dont on sait

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

325

Effects of short-term oilseed supplementation on plasma fatty acid composition in lactating beef cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twenty-four three-year old Angus cows (512.2 ± 21.6 kg) and six ruminally cannulated beef heifers (523.1 ± 16.9 kg) were used to determine the impact of feeding oilseeds starting at the beginning of estrus synchronization until maternal recognition of pregnancy on plasma fatty acid composition. Star...

326

COMPOSITIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL FEATURES OF HUMIC ACIDS FROM ORGANIC AMENDMENTS AND AMENDED SOILS IN MINNESOTA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of organic amendments requires an adequate control of the chemical quality of their humic acid (HA)-like fractions and of the effects that these materials may have on the status, quality, chemistry and functions of native soil HAs. In this work, the compositional, functional and structural p...

327

Fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).  

PubMed

Little is known about the relationship between expression levels of fatty acid desaturase genes during seed development and fatty acid (FA) composition in flax. In the present study, we looked at promoter structural variations of six FA desaturase genes and their relative expression throughout seed development. Computational analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the sad1, sad2, fad2a, fad2b, fad3a and fad3b promoters showed several basic transcriptional elements including CAAT and TATA boxes, and several putative target-binding sites for transcription factors, which have been reported to be involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, the expression patterns throughout seed development of the six FA desaturase genes were measured in six flax genotypes that differed for FA composition but that carried the same desaturase isoforms. FA composition data were determined by phenotyping the field grown genotypes over four years in two environments. All six genes displayed a bell-shaped pattern of expression peaking at 20 or 24 days after anthesis. Sad2 was the most highly expressed. The expression of all six desaturase genes did not differ significantly between genotypes (P?=?0.1400), hence there were no correlations between FA desaturase gene expression and variations in FA composition in relatively low, intermediate and high linolenic acid genotypes expressing identical isoforms for all six desaturases. These results provide further clues towards understanding the genetic factors responsible for FA composition in flax. PMID:24871199

Thambugala, Dinushika; Cloutier, Sylvie

2014-11-01

328

The amino acid composition of the Sutter's Mill CM2 carbonaceous chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AbstractWe determined the abundances and enantiomeric <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> in Sutter's Mill fragment #2 (designated SM2) recovered prior to heavy rains that fell April 25-26, 2012, and two other meteorite fragments, SM12 and SM51, that were recovered postrain. We also determined the abundance, enantiomeric, and isotopic <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> in soil from the recovery site of fragment SM51. The three meteorite stones experienced terrestrial amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> contamination, as evidenced by the low D/L ratios of several proteinogenic amino <span class="hlt">acids</span>. The D/L ratios were higher in SM2 than in SM12 and SM51, consistent with rain introducing additional L-amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> contaminants to SM12 and SM51. Higher percentages of glycine, ?-alanine, and ?-amino-n-butyric <span class="hlt">acid</span> were observed in free form in SM2 and SM51 compared with the soil, suggesting that these free amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> may be indigenous. Trace levels of D+L-?-aminoisobutyric <span class="hlt">acid</span> (?-AIB) observed in all three meteorites are not easily explained as terrestrial contamination, as ?-AIB is rare on Earth and was not detected in the soil. Bulk carbon and nitrogen and isotopic ratios of the SM samples and the soil also indicate terrestrial contamination, as does compound-specific isotopic analysis of the amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> in the soil. The amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> abundances in SM2, the most pristine SM meteorite analyzed here, are approximately 20-fold lower than in the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite. This may be due to thermal metamorphism in the Sutter's Mill parent body at temperatures greater than observed for other aqueously altered CM2 meteorites.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Yin, Qing-Zhu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....9.8173L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of ocean acidification on the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of a natural plankton community</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of ocean acidification on the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of a natural plankton community in the Arctic was studied in a large-scale mesocosm experiment, carried out in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) at 79° N. Nine mesocosms of ~50 cbm each were exposed to different pCO2 levels (from natural background conditions to ~1420 ?atm), yielding pH values (on the total scale) from ~8.3 to 7.5. Inorganic nutrients were added on day 13. The phytoplankton development during this 30 days experiment passed three distinct phases: (1) prior to the addition of inorganic nutrients, (2) first bloom after nutrient addition, and (3) second bloom after nutrient addition. The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the natural plankton community was analysed and showed, in general, high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (PUFAs): 44-60% of total fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>. Positive correlations with pCO2 were found for most PUFAs during phases 2 and/or 3, with the exception of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, EPA), an important diatom marker. There are strong indications for these correlations being mediated indirectly through taxonomic changes and the natural development of the communities in the mesocosms exposed to different pCO2 levels. While diatoms increased during phase 3 mainly in the low and intermediate pCO2 treatments, dinoflagellates were favoured by high CO2 concentrations during the same time period. This is reflected in the development of group-specific fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> trophic markers. No indications were found for a generally detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the planktonic food quality in terms of essential fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>. The significant positive correlations between most PUFAs and pCO2 reflected treatment-dependent differences in the community <span class="hlt">composition</span> between the mesocosms rather than a direct positive effect of pCO2 on specific fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leu, E.; Daase, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21656813"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> and hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">composition</span> in tropical marine Shewanella amazonensis strain SB2B(T).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shewanella amazonensis strain SB2B(T) is an isolate from shallow-water marine sediments derived from the Amazon River delta. This bacterium contained a long-chain polyunsaturated hydrocarbon, all-cis -3,6,9,12,16,19,22,25,28 hentriacontanonaene (C31:9), constituting 1-2% of the total fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> methyl ester and hydrocarbon fraction, which was produced dependently of decreased growth temperature. Analysis of its cellular fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> demonstrated that isopentadecanoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> was the major fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> component and that all the main monounsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> had straight chains with a cis configuration. However, monoenoic cyclopropyl fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, which were previously reported to be present in this bacterium, were not detected by mass spectrometric analysis. The growth temperature affected the content of ?9-cis -hexadecenoic [16:1(?9c)], palmitic, and heptadecanoic <span class="hlt">acids</span>. These results suggest that C31:9, as well as 16:1(?9c) might be involved in adaptation to low temperature in S. amazonensis strain SB2B(T) . Our result suggests that polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> synthase protein complex may be involved in synthesis of C31:9 but not in production of eicosapentaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span>. PMID:21656813</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Motoigi, Taro; Okuyama, Hidetoshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.1317O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrical charging changes the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of sulfuric <span class="hlt">acid</span>-ammonia/dimethylamine clusters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sulfuric <span class="hlt">acid</span> clusters stabilized by base molecules are likely to have a significant role in atmospheric new particle formation. Recent advances in mass spectrometry techniques have permitted the detection of electrically charged clusters. However, direct measurement of electrically neutral clusters is not possible. Mass spectrometry instruments can be combined with a charger, but the possible effect of charging on the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of neutral clusters must be addressed before the measured data can be linked to properties of neutral clusters. In the present work we have used formation free energies from quantum chemical methods to calculate the evaporation rates of electrically charged (both positive and negative) sulfuric <span class="hlt">acid</span>-ammonia/dimethylamine clusters. To understand how charging will affect the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of these clusters, we have compared the evaporation rates of charged clusters with those of the corresponding neutral clusters. We found that the only cluster studied in this paper which will retain its <span class="hlt">composition</span> is H2SO4 · NH3 when charged positively; all other clusters will be altered by both positive and negative charging. In the case of charging clusters negatively, base molecules will completely evaporate from clusters with 1 to 3 sulfuric <span class="hlt">acid</span> molecules in the case of ammonia, and from clusters with 1 or 2 sulfuric <span class="hlt">acid</span> molecules in the case of dimethylamine. Larger clusters will maintain some base molecules, but the H2SO4 : base ratio will increase. In the case of positive charging, some of the <span class="hlt">acid</span> molecules will evaporate, decreasing the H2SO4 : base ratio.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ortega, I. K.; Olenius, T.; Kupiainen-Määttä, O.; Loukonen, V.; Kurtén, T.; Vehkamäki, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25304740"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polymorphisms in lipogenic genes and milk fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in Holstein dairy cattle.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changing bovine milk fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> (FA) <span class="hlt">composition</span> through selection can decrease saturated FA (SFA) consumption, improve human health and provide a means for manipulating processing properties of milk. Our study determined associations between milk FA <span class="hlt">composition</span> and genes from triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis pathway. The GC dinucleotide allele of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1:g.10433-10434AA >GC was associated with lower palmitic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (16:0) concentration but higher oleic (18:1 cis-9), linoleic (18:2 cis-9, cis-12) <span class="hlt">acid</span> concentrations, and elongation index. Accordingly, the GC dinucleotide allele was associated with lower milk fat percentage and SFA concentrations but higher monounsaturated FA and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) concentrations. The glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, mitochondrial haplotypes were associated with higher myristoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (14:1 cis-9) concentration and C14 desaturation index. The 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 haplotypes were associated with higher PUFA and linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> concentrations. The results of this study provide information for developing genetic tools to modify milk FA <span class="hlt">composition</span> in dairy cattle. PMID:25304740</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nafikov, Rafael A; Schoonmaker, Jon P; Korn, Kathleen T; Noack, Kristin; Garrick, Dorian J; Koehler, Kenneth J; Minick-Bormann, Jennifer; Reecy, James M; Spurlock, Diane E; Beitz, Donald C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40714409"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of dietary lipids on the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and lipid metabolism of the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of different dietary lipids (hydrogenated coconut oil, corn oil, linseed oil, and mixtures of corn oil, linseed oil, menhaden oil, and\\/or soy lecithin) on the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis were investigated. Dietary lipid <span class="hlt">compositions</span> were reflected in the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> profiles of sea urchin guts, gonads and shells. The shells had the highest</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Enrique González-Durán; John D. Castell; Shawn M. C. Robinson; Tammy J. Blair</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40711731"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variation of lipid class and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of Chaetoceros muelleri and Isochrysis sp. grown in a semicontinuous system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The lipid class and the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of microalgae are of primary importance in feeding filter-feeding animals properly and variations of those parameters have never been investigated in a cultivation system applied to hatcheries. The objective of this study was to document the lipid class and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the diatom Chaetoceros muelleri (CHGRA) and the flagellate Isochrysis</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fabrice Pernet; Réjean Tremblay; Eric Demers; Marcel Roussy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40713201"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative studies on fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the ovaries and hepatopancreas at different physiological stages of the Chinese mitten crab</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the ovary at different physiological stages (immature, mature, spawning, egg loss and abortion) of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis was investigated with capillary gas chromatograph. A total of 18 types of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> were found in the ovary of E. sinensis. Three of them were major fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>: oleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (C18:1) (31.96–37.31%), palmitic <span class="hlt">acid</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xue-Ping Ying; Wan-Xi Yang; Yong-Pu Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1476-511X-7-45.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The influence of feeding linoleic, gamma-linolenic and docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> rich oils on rat brain tumor fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> binding protein 7 mRNA expression</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: Experimental studies indicate that gamma linolenic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (GLA) and docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (DHA) may inhibit glioma cells growth but effects of oral consumption of these fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> on brain tumor fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> have not been determined in vivo. METHODS: GLA oil (GLAO; 72% GLA), DHA oil (DHAO; 73% DHA) were fed to adult wistar rats (1 mL\\/rat\\/day) starting one</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Javad Nasrollahzadeh; Fereydoun Siassi; Mahmood Doosti; Mohammad Reza Eshraghian; Fazel Shokri; Mohammad Hossein Modarressi; Javad Mohammadi-Asl; Khosro Abdi; Arash Nikmanesh; Seyed Morteza Karimian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20356129"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Acid</span>-functionalized polysilsesquioxane-nafion <span class="hlt">composite</span> membranes with high proton conductivity and enhanced selectivity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A series of new Nafion-based <span class="hlt">composite</span> membranes have been prepared via an in situ sol-gel reaction of 3-(trihydroxylsilyl)propane-1-sulfonic <span class="hlt">acid</span> and solution casting method. The morphological structure, ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability of the resulting <span class="hlt">composite</span> membranes have been extensively investigated as functions of the content of sulfopropylated polysilsesquioxane filler, temperature, and relative humidity. Unlike the conventional Nafion/silica <span class="hlt">composites</span>, the prepared membranes exhibit an increased water uptake and associated enhancement in proton conductivity compared to unmodified Nafion. In particular, considerably high proton conductivities at 80 and 120 degrees C under 30% relative humidity have been demonstrated in the <span class="hlt">composite</span> membranes, which are over 2 times greater than that of Nafion. In addition to a remarkable improvement in proton conductivity, the <span class="hlt">composite</span> membranes display lower methanol permeability and superior electrochemical selectivities in comparison to the pure Nafion membrane. These unique properties could be exclusively credited to the presence of pendant sulfonic <span class="hlt">acid</span> groups in the filler, which provides fairly continuous proton-conducting pathways between filler and matrix in the <span class="hlt">composite</span> membranes and thus facilitates the proton transport without the anticipated trade-off between conductivity and selectivity. This work opens new opportunities of tailoring the properties of Nafion-the benchmark fuel cell membrane-to obviate its limitations and enhance the conductive properties at high temperature/low humidity and in direct methanol fuel cells. PMID:20356129</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Kui; Chanthad, Chalatorn; Gadinski, Matthew R; Hickner, Michael A; Wang, Qing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/3452h43523308168.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonessential fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in formula fat blends influence essential fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> metabolism and <span class="hlt">composition</span> in plasma and organ lipid classes in piglets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The n-6 and n-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> status of developing organs is the cumulative result of the diet lipid <span class="hlt">composition</span> and many complex\\u000a events of lipid metabolism. Little information is available, however, on the potential effects of the saturated fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span>\\u000a chain length (8:0–16:0) or oleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (18:1) content of the diet on the subsequent metabolism of the essential fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Katharine M. Wall; Deborah Diersen-Schade; Sheila M. Innis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/89/66/28/PDF/hal-00896628.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">During the first trial, we examined the postprandial amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the contents collected during 12 consecutive hours. The samples collected during 3 hours were pooled together.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the first trial, we examined the postprandial amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the contents were then hydrolyzed by 6 N hydrochloric <span class="hlt">acid</span> for the amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> determination. Variations in the amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> during the day are low, especially as regards the extraction residues. The amino <span class="hlt">acid</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41179531"> <span id="translatedtitle">Morphology and thermal properties of electrospun fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>\\/polyethylene terephthalate <span class="hlt">composite</span> fibers as novel form-stable phase change materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ultrafine fibers based on the <span class="hlt">composites</span> of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and a series of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, lauric <span class="hlt">acid</span> (LA), myristic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (MA), palmitic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (PA), and stearic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (SA), were prepared successfully via electrospinning as form-stable phase change materials (PCMs). The morphology and thermal properties of the <span class="hlt">composite</span> fibers were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Changzhong Chen; Linge Wang; Yong Huang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span 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</span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22101873"> <span id="translatedtitle">Factors influencing fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) muscle.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is evidence that n-3 highly unsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (n-3 HUFA), especially eicosapentaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (EPA) and docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (DHA), are beneficial for human health, especially for the cardiovascular system. The sources of n-3 HUFA, including EPA and DHA, are scarce in diet consumed by the Czech population. Thus, it would be beneficial to generally increase fish consumption and also to increase the content of the beneficial fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (FA) in locally produced fish and other products. Therefore the overall aim of this paper was to review factors influencing lipid content and <span class="hlt">composition</span> in common carp, which is the major cultured fish in the Czech Republic, and to identify long term sustainable ways for increasing the beneficial fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in the carp flesh. We conclude that there are several ways to improve the FA <span class="hlt">composition</span> of common carp in the traditional pond production. High amount of natural food, good supplemental diet containing high level of alpha-linolenic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (ALA) and suitable processing and cooking were identified as the most important ones. PMID:22101873</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mráz, Jan; Pickova, Jana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGeo...10.1143L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of ocean acidification on the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of a natural plankton community</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of ocean acidification on the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of a natural plankton community in the Arctic was studied in a large-scale mesocosm experiment, carried out in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) at 79° N. Nine mesocosms of ~50 m3 each were exposed to 8 different pCO2 levels (from natural background conditions to ~1420 ?atm), yielding pH values (on the total scale) from ~8.3 to 7.5. Inorganic nutrients were added on day 13. The phytoplankton development during this 30-day experiment passed three distinct phases: (1) prior to the addition of inorganic nutrients, (2) first bloom after nutrient addition, and (3) second bloom after nutrient addition. The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the natural plankton community was analysed and showed, in general, high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (PUFAs): 44-60% of total fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>. Positive correlations with pCO2 were found for most PUFAs during phases 2 and/or 3, with the exception of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, EPA), an important diatom marker. These correlations are probably linked to changes in taxonomic <span class="hlt">composition</span> in response to pCO2. While diatoms (together with prasinophytes and haptophytes) increased during phase 3 mainly in the low and intermediate pCO2 treatments, dinoflagellates were favoured by high CO2 concentrations during the same time period. This is reflected in the development of group-specific fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> trophic markers. No indications were found for a generally detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the planktonic food quality in terms of essential fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leu, E.; Daase, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26544624"> <span id="translatedtitle">Capric–myristic <span class="hlt">acid</span>\\/vermiculite <span class="hlt">composite</span> as form-stable phase change material for thermal energy storage</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phase change materials (PCMs) can be incorporated with building materials to obtain novel form-stable <span class="hlt">composite</span> PCM which has effective energy storage performance in latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems. In this study, capric <span class="hlt">acid</span> (CA)–myristic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (MA) eutectic mixture\\/vermiculite (VMT) <span class="hlt">composite</span> was prepared as a novel form-stable PCM using vacuum impregnation method. The <span class="hlt">composite</span> PCM was characterized using scanning</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ali Karaipekli; Ahmet Sar?</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22801376"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in seeds of the South American glasswort Sarcocornia ambigua.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sarcocornia ambigua (Michx.) M.A. Alonso & M.B. Crespo is the most widely distributed species of the perennial genus of glasswort in South America, and it shows great biotechnological potential as a salt-water irrigated crop. Qualitative and quantitative <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> were determined in the seeds of S. ambigua that were cultivated in southern Brazil. Hexane extraction of the seed oil from S. ambigua yielded 13% of total lipids. The GC-FID (Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector) analysis of the hexane extracts showed five prominent peaks for the seed oil: 42.9 wt.% linoleic-?6 <span class="hlt">acid</span> (18:2), 20.4 wt.% palmitic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (16:0), 18.5 wt.% oleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (18:1), 4.5 wt.% stearic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (18:0) and 4.0 wt.% linolenic-?3 <span class="hlt">acid</span> (18:3). The sum of the saturated palmitic and stearic <span class="hlt">acids</span> (24.8%) in S. ambigua seed oil exceeded values cited for commercial oils use, as well as the seed oil from the cultivated annual glasswort Salicornia bigelovii. No undesirable fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> components were found in S. ambigua seed oil, and it could be recommended for animal consumption or biofuel production. PMID:22801376</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D'oca, Marcelo G M; Morón-Villarreyes, Joaquín A; Lemões, Juliana S; Costa, César S B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18942845"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative study on free amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of wild edible mushroom species.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A comparative study on the amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of 11 wild edible mushroom species (Suillus bellini, Suillus luteus, Suillus granulatus, Tricholomopsis rutilans, Hygrophorus agathosmus, Amanita rubescens, Russula cyanoxantha, Boletus edulis, Tricholoma equestre, Fistulina hepatica, and Cantharellus cibarius) was developed. To define the qualitative and quantitative profiles, a derivatization procedure with dabsyl chloride was performed, followed by HPLC-UV-vis analysis. Twenty free amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> (aspartic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, glutamic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, asparagine, glutamine, serine, threonine, glycine, alanine, valine, proline, arginine, isoleucine, leucine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, cysteine, ornithine, lysine, histidine, and tyrosine) were determined. B. edulis and T. equestre were revealed to be the most nutritional species, whereas F. hepatica was the poorest. The different species exhibited distinct free amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> profiles. The quantification of the identified compounds indicated that, in a general way, alanine was the major amino <span class="hlt">acid</span>. The results show that the analyzed mushroom species possess moderate amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> contents, which may be relevant from a nutritional point of view because these compounds are indispensable for human health. A combination of different mushroom species in the diet would offer good amounts of amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> and a great diversity of palatable sensations. PMID:18942845</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ribeiro, Bárbara; Andrade, Paula B; Silva, Branca M; Baptista, Paula; Seabra, Rosa M; Valentão, Patrícia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/870052"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modification of fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of rat heart lipids by feeding cod liver oil.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Modification of the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of cardiac phospholipids and neutral lipids was studied in rats fed a diet containing 10% cod liver oil. The results reflect the dynamic state of esterified fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in neutral lipids and phospholipids of heart muscle. In cardiac neutral lipids there was a moderate but significant increase in exogenous fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, 20:1(n--9), 22:1(n--11), 20:5(n--3) and 22:6(n--3), in animals fed cod liver oil, and a relative decrease in endogenous fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, 16:0, 18:2(n--6 and 20:4(n--6). Increased dietary availability of 22: 6(n--3) resulted in a major increase in the content of this fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> in phospholipids and replacement of 18:2(n--6) and 20:4(n--6). The 22:6(n--3) was able to replace one third of 18:2(n--6): further increase in 22: 6n--3) was accompanied by a decrease in 18:0. An inverse relationship between (n--6) and (n--3) polyene fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in cardiac phospholipids suggests a replacement of (n--6) <span class="hlt">acids</span> by (n--3) fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>. PMID:870052</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gudbjarnason, S; Oskarsdottir, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-04-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4043687"> <span id="translatedtitle">New insight into the SSC8 genetic determination of fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in pigs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Fat content and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in swine are becoming increasingly studied because of their effect on sensory and nutritional quality of meat. A QTL (quantitative trait locus) for fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in backfat was previously detected on porcine chromosome 8 (SSC8) in an Iberian x Landrace F2 intercross. More recently, a genome-wide association study detected the same genomic region for muscle fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in an Iberian x Landrace backcross population. ELOVL6, a strong positional candidate gene for this QTL, contains a polymorphism in its promoter region (ELOVL6:c.-533C?<?T), which is associated with percentage of palmitic and palmitoleic <span class="hlt">acids</span> in muscle and adipose tissues. Here, a combination of single-marker association and the haplotype-based approach was used to analyze backfat fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in 470 animals of an Iberian x Landrace F2 intercross genotyped with 144 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) distributed along SSC8. Results Two trait-associated SNP regions were identified at 93 Mb and 119 Mb on SSC8. The strongest statistical signals of both regions were observed for palmitoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (C16:1(n-7)) content and C18:0/C16:0 and C18:1(n-7)/C16:1(n-7) elongation ratios. MAML3 and SETD7 are positional candidate genes in the 93 Mb region and two novel microsatellites in MAML3 and nine SNPs in SETD7 were identified. No significant association for the MAML3 microsatellite genotypes was detected. The SETD7:c.700G?>?T SNP, although statistically significant, was not the strongest signal in this region. In addition, the expression of MAML3 and SETD7 in liver and adipose tissue varied among animals, but no association was detected with the polymorphisms in these genes. In the 119 Mb region, the ELOVL6:c.-533C?>?T polymorphism showed a strong association with percentage of palmitic and palmitoleic fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> and elongation ratios in backfat. Conclusions Our results suggest that the polymorphisms studied in MAML3 and SETD7 are not the causal mutations for the QTL in the 93 Mb region. However, the results for ELOVL6 support the hypothesis that the ELOVL6:c.-533C?>?T polymorphism has a pleiotropic effect on backfat and intramuscular fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and that it has a role in the determination of the QTL in the 119 Mb region. PMID:24758572</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/9n86w8423368h224.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the oil in intact-seed mustard by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to estimate the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the oil in intact-seed samples\\u000a of Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata Braun) within a mutation breeding program that produced seeds with variable fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span>. Five populations, from\\u000a 1992 to 1996 crops, were included in this study; and NIRS calibration equations for major fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (palmitic, stearic,\\u000a oleic,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Velasco; J. M. Fernández-Martínez; A. De Haro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1817799"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molecular interactions between <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span>, drugs and the human intestinal H+–oligopeptide cotransporter hPEPT1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The human intestinal proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter hPEPT1 has been implicated in the absorption of pharmacologically active compounds. We have investigated the interactions between a comprehensive selection of drugs, and wild-type and variant hPEPT1s expressed in Xenopus oocytes, using radiotracer uptake and electrophysiological methods. The ?-lactam antibiotics ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalexin and cefadroxil, the antineoplastics ?-aminolevulinic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (?-ALA) and bestatin, and the neuropeptide N-acetyl-Asp-Glu (NAAG), were transported, as judged by their ability to evoke inward currents. When the drugs were added in the presence of the typical substrate glycylsarcosine (Gly-Sar), the inward currents were equal or less than that induced by Gly-Sar alone. This suggests that the drugs are transported at a lower turnover rate than Gly-Sar, but may also point towards complex interactions between <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span>, drugs and the transporter. Gly-Sar and the drugs also modified the kinetics of hPEPT1 presteady-state charge movement, by causing a reduction in maximum charge (Qmax) and a shift of the midpoint voltage (V0.5) to more negative potentials. Our results indicate that the substrate selectivity of hPEPT1 is: Gly-Sar > NAAG, ?-ALA, bestatin > cefadroxil, cephalexin > ampicillin, amoxicillin. Based on steady-state and presteady-state analysis of Gly-Sar and cefadroxil transport, we proposed an extension of the 6-state kinetic model for hPEPT1 function that globally accounts for the observed presteady-state and steady-state kinetics of neutral <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> and drug transport. Our model suggests that, under saturating conditions, the rate-limiting step of the hPEPT1 transport cycle is the reorientation of the empty carrier within the membrane. Variations in rates of drug cotransport are predicted to be due to differences in affinity and turnover rate. Oral availability of drugs may be reduced in the presence of physiological concentrations of dietary <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> in the gut, suggesting that oral delivery drugs should be taken on an empty stomach. The common hPEPT1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms Ser117Asn and Gly419Ala retained the essential kinetic and drug recognition characteristics of the wild type, suggesting that neither variant is likely to have a major impact on oral absorption of drugs. PMID:16627568</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sala-Rabanal, Monica; Loo, Donald D F; Hirayama, Bruce A; Turk, Eric; Wright, Ernest M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3781709"> <span id="translatedtitle">Muramyl <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> protects decomplemented mice from surgically-induced infection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Muramyl <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> (MDP) is a natural product of bacterial cell-wall breakdown, which can now be produced synthetically; it is the smallest component of the mycobacterial cell wall capable of reproducing the adjuvant activities of Freund's complete adjuvant. We tested the well-documented, protective effect of MDP to increase survival in a murine model simulating surgically-induced bacteremia. The protocol involved the bacterial innoculation of control and decomplemented mice in the presence and the absence of pretreatment with MDP. Bacteremia in both the control and decomplemented groups pretreated with MDP was decreased statistically at 24 h (P less than 0.01) as compared to controls. Likewise, survival was increased significantly at 24 h (P less than 0.05), 48 h (P less than 0.001), and 72 h (P less than 0.001) using the same group comparisons. We conclude, therefore, that MDP maintains its protective effect in the absence of complement, supporting the view that the mechanism of action of MDP is complement independent. PMID:3781709</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cobb, J P; Brown, C M; Brown, G L; Polk, H C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/89/79/47/PDF/hal-00897947.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of dietary essential fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> level on fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in peripheral nerve and muscle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">(peanut oil and sunflower oil), the level of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (PUFA) of the (n-3) series decreased. This decrease was associated with an increase in the PUFA of the (n-6) series. Total PUFA (In-3) + (n-61) remained similar in the same group of rats, whatever the diet. On the contrary</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2840513"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modification of the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of rat heart sarcolemma with dietary cod liver oil, corn oil or butter.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of dietary cod liver oil, corn oil or butter upon the lipid <span class="hlt">composition</span> of cardiac sarcolemma and the activity of sarcolemmal Na+, K+ ATPase was examined in male Wistar rats. The cod liver oil diet caused significant changes in the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the major phospholipids of sarcolemma, phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. In both these phospholipids arachidonic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, 20:4 (n - 6) was reduced by about 50% compared to rats fed butter or corn oil and was replaced by the (n - 3) fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acids</span>. The corn oil diet caused a significant diminution in the oleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> content of phosphatidyl choline and elevation of linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> in phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The phospholipid class <span class="hlt">composition</span>, total phospholipid fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> content and cholesterol content of sarcolemma were not altered by the diets used. The activity of Na+, K+ ATPase in the cardiac sarcolemma was not significantly changed by the different diets. PMID:2840513</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benediktsdottir, V E; Gudbjarnason, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7962785"> <span id="translatedtitle">The degree of dietary fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> unsaturation affects torpor patterns and lipid <span class="hlt">composition</span> of a hibernator.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Diets rich in unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> have a positive effect on mammalian torpor, whereas diets rich in saturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> have a negative effect. To determine whether the number of double bonds in dietary fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> are responsible for these alterations in torpor patterns, we investigated the effect of adding to the normal diet 5% pure fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> of identical chain length (C18) but a different number of double bonds (0, 1, or 2) on the pattern of hibernation of the yellow-pine chipmunk, Eutamias amoenus. The response of torpor bouts to a lowering of air temperature and the mean duration of torpor bouts at an air temperature of 0.5 degree C (stearic <span class="hlt">acid</span> C18:0, 4.5 +/- 0.8 days, oleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> C18:1, 8.6 +/- 0.5 days; linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> C18:2, 8.5 +/- 0.7 days) differed among animals that were maintained on the three experimental diets. The mean minimum body temperatures (C18:0, +2.3 +/- 0.3 degrees C; C18:1, +0.3 +/- 0.2 degree C; C18:2, -0.2 +/- 0.2 degrees C), which torpid individuals defended by an increase in metabolic rate, and the metabolic rate of torpid animals also differed among diet groups. Moreover, diet-induced differences were observed in the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of total lipid fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> from depot fat and the phospholipid fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> of cardiac mitochondria. For depot fat 7 of 13 and for heart mitochondria 7 of 14 of the identified fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> differed significantly among the three diet groups. Significant differences among diet groups were also observed for the sum of saturated, unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7962785</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geiser, F; McAllan, B M; Kenagy, G J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22034947"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of sphingolipids from sunflower seeds with altered fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sphingolipids are a group of lipids that are derived from long-chain 1,3-dihydroxy-2-amino bases and that are involved in important processes in plants. Long-chain bases are usually found bound to long-chain fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> forming ceramides, the lipophilic moiety of the most common sphingolipid classes found in plant tissues: glucosyl-ceramides and glucosyl inositol phosphoryl-ceramides (GIPCs). The developing sunflower seed kernel is a tissue rich in sphingolipids, although, importantly, its glycerolipid <span class="hlt">composition</span> can vary if some steps of the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> synthesis are altered. Here, the sphingolipid <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the seed from different sunflower mutants with altered fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> was studied. The long-chain base <span class="hlt">composition</span> and content were analyzed, and it was found to be similar in all of the mutants studied. The sphingolipid species were also determined by mass spectrometry, and some differences were found in highly saturated sunflower mutants, which contained higher levels of GIPC, ceramides, and hydroxyl-ceramides. PMID:22034947</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Salas, Joaquín J; Markham, Jonathan E; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24315947"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preparation and characterization of dry method esterified starch/polylactic <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composite</span> materials.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Corn starch and maleic anhydride were synthesized from a maleic anhydride esterified starch by dry method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the qualitative analysis of the esterified starches. The reaction efficiency of dry method esterified starch reached 92.34%. The dry method esterified starch was blended with polylactic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (PLA), and the mixture was melted and extruded to produce the esterified starch/polylactic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (ES/PLA) <span class="hlt">composites</span>. The degree of crystallinity of the ES/PLA was lower than that of the NS/PLA, indicating that the relative dependence between these two components of starch and polylactic <span class="hlt">acid</span> was enhanced. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the dry method esterified starch increased the two-phase interface compatibility of the <span class="hlt">composites</span>, thereby improving the tensile strength, bending strength, and elongation at break of the ES/PLA <span class="hlt">composite</span>. The introduction of a hydrophobic ester bond and increase in interface compatibility led to an increase in ES/PLA water resistance. Melt index determination results showed that starch esterification modification had improved the melt flow properties of starch/PLA <span class="hlt">composite</span> material. Strain scanning also showed that the compatibility of ES/PLA was increased. While frequency scanning showed that the storage modulus and complex viscosity of ES/PLA was less than that of NS/PLA. PMID:24315947</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zuo, Yingfeng; Gu, Jiyou; Yang, Long; Qiao, Zhibang; Tan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanhua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22202345"> <span id="translatedtitle">Protein location prediction using atomic <span class="hlt">composition</span> and global features of the amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> sequence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Subcellular location of protein is constructive information in determining its function, screening for drug candidates, vaccine design, annotation of gene products and in selecting relevant proteins for further studies. Computational prediction of subcellular localization deals with predicting the location of a protein from its amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> sequence. For a computational localization prediction method to be more accurate, it should exploit all possible relevant biological features that contribute to the subcellular localization. In this work, we extracted the biological features from the full length protein sequence to incorporate more biological information. A new biological feature, distribution of atomic <span class="hlt">composition</span> is effectively used with, multiple physiochemical properties, amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>, three part amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>, and sequence similarity for predicting the subcellular location of the protein. Support Vector Machines are designed for four modules and prediction is made by a weighted voting system. Our system makes prediction with an accuracy of 100, 82.47, 88.81 for self-consistency test, jackknife test and independent data test respectively. Our results provide evidence that the prediction based on the biological features derived from the full length amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> sequence gives better accuracy than those derived from N-terminal alone. Considering the features as a distribution within the entire sequence will bring out underlying property distribution to a greater detail to enhance the prediction accuracy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cherian, Betsy Sheena, E-mail: betsy.skb@gmail.com [Centre for Bioinformatics, University of Kerala, Kariyavattom Campus, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); Nair, Achuthsankar S. [Centre for Bioinformatics, University of Kerala, Kariyavattom Campus, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India)] [Centre for Bioinformatics, University of Kerala, Kariyavattom Campus, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17720577"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of maternal fat reserves on the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) oocytes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We compared the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> (FA) <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the muscle and gonads of female Iberian sardines with hydrated oocytes collected during the 2002/03 spawning season off southern Portugal (November and February) and off western Portugal (February). Sardine condition and total FA concentration in the muscle decreased between the two sampling dates, while the gonadosomatic index was similar between samples. Total monounsaturated FA concentrations in sardine gonads were different for the three samples while saturated and polyunsaturated FA concentrations were similar. Significant linear relations were found between FA concentrations in female muscle and oocytes, including eicosapentaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (EPA; 20:5n-3) and arachidonic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (AA; 20:4n-6), both being essential for normal larval development. The concentration of docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (DHA; 22:6n-3) in oocytes was independent on muscle concentration, probably resulting from its selective transfer to the oocytes. The EPA/DHA ratio was highly conserved in sardine tissues, while DHA/AA and EPA/AA ratios varied significantly between samples. These results indicate that the FA content of eggs produced by sardines varies throughout the spawning season, egg FA concentrations decreasing as females lose condition, and FA <span class="hlt">composition</span> also shows spatial variability. Both types of variability may have a significant impact on egg quality, particularly on the amount of reserves available to larvae affecting their resistance to starvation, and the appropriate FA <span class="hlt">composition</span> required for normal growth. PMID:17720577</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garrido, Susana; Rosa, Rui; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Cunha, Maria Emilia; Chícharo, Maria Alexandra; van der Lingen, Carl D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22935111"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polyaniline–silver <span class="hlt">composites</span> prepared by the oxidation of aniline with silver nitrate in solutions of sulfonic <span class="hlt">acids</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aniline was oxidized with silver nitrate in aqueous solutions of sulfonic <span class="hlt">acids</span>: camphorsulfonic, methanesulfonic, sulfamic, or toluenesulfonic <span class="hlt">acids</span>. Polyaniline–silver <span class="hlt">composites</span> were produced slowly in 4 weeks in good yield, except for the reaction, which took place in sulfamic <span class="hlt">acid</span> solution, where the yield was low. Polyaniline in the emeraldine form was identified with UV–visible, FTIR, and Raman spectra. Thermogravimetric analysis</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patrycja Bober; Miroslava Trchová; Jan Prokeš; Martin Varga; Jaroslav Stejskal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nutritionsociety.org.uk/bjn/090/0709/0900709.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of including a ruminally protected lipid supplement in the diet on the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of beef muscle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Enhancing the polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> (PUFA) and decreasing the saturated fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> content of beef is an important target in terms of improving the nutritional value of this food for the consumer. The present study examined the effects of feeding a ruminally protected lipid supplement (PLS) rich in PUFA on the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of longissimus thoracis muscle and associated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nigel D. Scollan; Mike Enser; Suresh K. Gulati; Ian Richardson; Jeff D. Wood</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23195054"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fouling of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes by humic <span class="hlt">acid</span>—Effects of solution <span class="hlt">composition</span> and hydrodynamic conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fouling of reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes by humic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, a recalcitrant natural organic matter (NOM), was systematically investigated. The membrane flux performance depended on both hydrodynamic conditions (flux and cross-flow velocity) and solution <span class="hlt">composition</span> (humic <span class="hlt">acid</span> concentration, pH, ionic strength, and calcium concentration), and was largely independent of virgin membrane properties. While increasing humic <span class="hlt">acid</span> concentration and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chuyang Y. Tang; Young-Nam Kwon; James O. Leckie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41913834"> <span id="translatedtitle">A quantitative comparison between diet and body fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in wild northern pike ( Esox lucius L.)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of wild female northern pike (Esox lucius L.) and their principle prey species were compared to assess the extent to which pike modify the relative abundance of dietary fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> during assimilation and to indicate the optimum dietary content of essential fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (EFAs) for pike. Only minor differences existed between the estimated whole body fatty</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karl Schwalmel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35211507"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of the codon first letter in the relationship between genomic GC content and protein amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analysis of the statistical distribution of amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> within 22 protein families shows that a GC bias generally affects proteins with a variety of functions from the extreme thermophile Thermus. This results in evident enrichment in amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> of the group L, V, A, P, R and G and underrepresentation of amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> of the group I, M, F,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Valérie Wilquet; Mark Van de Casteele</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25341255"> <span id="translatedtitle">[The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of large pumpkin seed oil (Curucbitae maxima Dich) cultivated in Georgia].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of the study was to identify qualitatively and quantitatively fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of large pumpkin seed oil cultivated in Georgia (Cucurbitae maxima Duch) and evaluate its biological activities. Evaluation was conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography method. Fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> ranging from C12:0 to C22:0 were identified in the probe. The oil contained 0,2?±0,01mg% lauric, 0,3?±0,01 mg% miristic, 9,0?±0,7mg% palmitic, 5,5?±0,4 mg% stearic, 28,1?±1,0 mg% oleic, 40,2?±1,9 mg% linolic, 12,1?±1,0 mg% linolenic, 2,0?±0,2mg% arachinic and 1,2?±0,1 mg% begenic <span class="hlt">acids</span>. The investigation showed that large pumpkin seed oil contains a range of biologically significant fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, unique proportion of which attaches great value to the vegetative material. PMID:25341255</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20206710"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lipid and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of parasitic caligid copepods belonging to the genus Lepeophtheirus.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sea lice are copepod ectoparasites that constitute a major barrier to the sustainability and economic viability of marine finfish aquaculture operations worldwide. In particular, the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, poses a considerable problem for salmoniculture in the northern hemisphere. The free-swimming nauplii and infective copepodids of L. salmonis are lecithotrophic, subsisting principally on maternally-derived lipid reserves. However, the lipids and fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> of sea lice have been sparsely studied and therefore the present project aimed to investigate the lipid and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of sea lice of the genus Lepeophtheirus obtained from a variety of fish hosts. Total lipid was extracted from eggs and adult female L. salmonis obtained from both wild and farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) sampled at two time points, in the mid 1990s and in 2009. In addition, L. salmonis from wild sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) and L. hippoglossi from wild Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) were sampled and analyzed. The lipids of both females and egg strings of Lepeophtheirus were characterized by triacylglycerol (TAG) as the major neutral (storage) lipid with phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine as the major polar (membrane) lipids. The major fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> were 22:6n-3 (DHA), 18:1n-9 and 16:0, with lesser amounts of 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 18:0. L. salmonis sourced from farmed salmon was characterized by higher levels of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 than lice from wild salmon. Egg strings had higher levels of TAG and lower DHA compared to females, whereas L. hippoglossi had lower levels of TAG and higher DHA than L. salmonis. The results demonstrate that the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of lice obtained from wild and farmed salmon differ and that changes to the lipid and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of feeds for farmed salmon influence the louse <span class="hlt">compositions</span>. PMID:20206710</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tocher, J A; Dick, J R; Bron, J E; Shinn, A P; Tocher, D R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997ECSS...45..845L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">Composition</span> and Community Structure of Plankton from the San Lorenzo Channel, Gulf of California</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The structure of the plankton community and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of nano-, micro- and zooplankton are described during four seasons of 1994 from the San Lorenzo Channel. During August, the warmest temperature in the surface water was observed and a thermocline developed between 20 and 30 m. In the remaining months, a well-mixed layer occurred in the upper 30 m. The chlorophyll acontent of the nanoplankton fraction (<38 ?m) was higher than the microplanktonic fraction (38-200 ?m) year round. Maximal chlorophyll values (1·5-3 ? l -1) occurred in January, which may be associated with organic matter, since phytoplankton was lower than at other seasons. The relative abundance of diatoms increased from January (57% of phytoplankton) to November (99%). The increment was mainly due to Nitzschiaand Chaetoceros. Dinoflagellates were always low (0·03-1·36 cells ml -1). Copepods (mainly Eucalanus) dominated the zooplankton in winter and fall, while in spring and summer, the abundance of doliolids was similar to the copepods ( Nannocalanus minordominated). Four fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (16:0, 16:1, 18:0, 18:1) were the most conspicuous in the plankton, representing usually between 40 and 80% of the total fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> throughout the water column. In winter, higher fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> content and higher relative amounts of 16:0 and 16:1 were observed than in the warm months. Stearic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (18:0) peaked during fall. The major seasonal differences occurred in the nanoplankton, which had peaks of 20:5 during January, and 16:4 in April. A strong decrease in polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (PUFA) occurred during the warm months. The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of microplankton and larger zooplankton was similar in winter-spring. Individual copepods of selected species ( Eucalanus sewelli, Rhincalanus nasutus, Centropages furcatusand Labidocera acuta) showed fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> profiles similar to the mixed zooplankton, with some differences in content of PUFA.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lavaniegos, B. E.; López-Cortés, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JSR....50..271H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Composition</span>, assimilation and degradation of Phaeocystis globosa-derived fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in the North Sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fate of a Phaeocystis globosa bloom in the southern North Sea off Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany in May 1995 was investigated during a cruise with RV 'Belgica'. We used fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> as biomarkers to follow the fate of Phaeocystis-derived biomass of a Phaeocystis-dominated spring bloom. The bloom, in which up to >99% of the biomass was contributed by Phaeocystis, showed a fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> with a characteristically high abundance of polyunsaturated C 18-fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, which increased in concentration with number of double bonds up to 18:5 (n-3), and high concentrations of 20:5 (n-3) and 22:6 (n-3). In contrast to most previous studies, fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> analysis of the mesozooplankton community (mainly calanoid copepods) and meroplankton ( Carcinus maenas megalope) indicated that P. globosa was a major component (ca. 70% and 50%, respectively) in the diet of these organisms. Massive accumulations of amorphous grey aggregates, in which Phaeocystis colonies were major components, were dominated by saturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> and contained only few of the polyunsaturated C 18-fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>. A hydrophobic surface slick that covered the water surface during the bloom showed very similar patterns. Foam patches contained few Phaeocystis-typical fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, but increased amounts of diatom-typical compounds such as 16:1 (n-7) and 20:5 (n-3), and 38% fatty alcohols, indicating that wax esters dominated the lipid fraction in the foam with ca. 76% (w/w). The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of surface sediment showed that no sedimentation of fresh Phaeocystis occurred during the study. The results indicate that Phaeocystis-derived organic matter degraded while floating or in suspension, and had not reached the sediment in substantial amounts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hamm, Christian E.; Rousseau, Veronique</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11704343"> <span id="translatedtitle">The relationship between age and the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of cerebral cortex and erythrocytes in human subjects.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The important role that neural tissue fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> plays in neurodevelopment and various pathological states is increasingly recognized. However, there are limited data regarding the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of normal human brain at various ages. The purpose of this study was to describe human cerebral cortex fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> from ages 2 to 88 years. The relationship between cerebral cortex and erythrocyte fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> was also investigated. Samples of frontal cerebral cortex and of erythrocytes were obtained from 58 human subjects on whom autopsies were performed. The mean age of subjects was 40 +/- 29 years, with a range of 2 to 88 years. The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of tissues was determined, and linear regression models were used to describe the relationship between age and the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of cerebral cortex and erythrocytes. The data were bilinear, with changes occurring after the approximate age of 18 years. Therefore, the cohort was divided into subjects with ages < or =18 and >18 years. In the younger group, the polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> generally decreased with age, with the exception of 22:6n3, which demonstrated a significant increase. The level of mono-unsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, in contrast, generally increased to the age of 18 years. Several of the polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> also decreased with age in the older cohort, particularly 20:4n6. The levels of 18:2n6, however, increased significantly with age in the older cohort. Among subjects < or =18 years of age, there was no significant relationship between cerebral cortex and erythrocyte fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> levels. In the older cohort, there was a significant relationship between brain and erythrocyte levels for several fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, particularly 16:0. These data demonstrate that levels of cerebral cortex fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> change from early childhood through late adulthood, and indicate that the levels of several erythrocyte fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> may be useful in predicting brain fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> levels in adults. PMID:11704343</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carver, J D; Benford, V J; Han, B; Cantor, A B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3959884"> <span id="translatedtitle">Treatment with omega-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> ethyl-ester alters fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of lipoproteins in overweight or obese adults with insulin resistance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SUMMARY Introduction: The effects of dietary fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> supplementation on lipoprotein fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> have rarely been described. Patients and Methods: Sixty-one overweight and obese adults with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance were randomized to placebo, 2 g/day extended-release nicotinic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (ERN), 4 g/day prescription omega-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> ethyl ester (P-OM3), or combination therapy for sixteen weeks. Lipoprotein fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> was analyzed by gas chromatography pre- and post-treatment. Results: Treatment with P-OM3 or combination, but not ERN, increased proportions of eicosapentaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, and docosapentaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, and reduced those for arachidonic <span class="hlt">acid</span> in all lipoprotein fractions, with greatest impact in the high-density lipoprotein fraction. P-OM3-induced changes in eicosapentaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> within low-density lipoproteins and very low-density lipoproteins were associated with beneficial effects on mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure. Conclusions: P-OM3 supplementation, with or without ERN, was associated with differentially altered lipoprotein fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and improved blood pressure parameters. PMID:24378016</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Augustine, Alicia H; Lowenstein, Lisa M.; Harris, William S.; Shearer, Gregory C.; Block, Robert C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24463242"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adsorption of <span class="hlt">Acid</span> Red 57 from aqueous solutions onto polyacrylonitrile/activated carbon <span class="hlt">composite</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The adsorption of <span class="hlt">Acid</span> Red 57 (AR57) onto Polyacrylonitrile/activated carbon (PAN/AC) <span class="hlt">composite</span> was investigated in aqueous solution in a batch system with respect to contact time, pH and temperature. Physical characteristics of (PAN/AC) <span class="hlt">composite</span> such as fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were obtained. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were determined. The activation energy of adsorption was also evaluated for the adsorption of AR57 onto (PAN/AC) <span class="hlt">composite</span>. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data. The dynamic data fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well. The activation energy, change of free energy, enthalpy and entropy of adsorption were also evaluated for the adsorption of AR57 onto (PAN/AC) <span class="hlt">composite</span>. The thermodynamics of the adsorption indicated spontaneous and exothermic nature of the process. The results indicate that (PAN/AC) <span class="hlt">composite</span> could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of <span class="hlt">acid</span> dyes from textile effluents. PMID:24463242</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">El-Bindary, Ashraf A; Diab, Mostafa A; Hussien, Mostafa A; El-Sonbati, Adel Z; Eessa, Ahmed M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JOUC....9..381Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lipid and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of cod ( Gadus morhua), haddock ( Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study was conducted to compare lipid and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of cod, haddock and halibut. Three groups of cod (276 g ± 61 g), haddock (538 g ± 83 g) and halibut (3704 g ± 221 g) were maintained with commercial feeds mainly based on fish meal and marine fish oil for 12 weeks prior to sampling. The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of muscle and liver were determined by GC/FID after derivatization of extracted lipids into fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> methyl esters (FAME). Lipids were also fractionated into neutral and polar lipids using Waters silica Sep-Pak?. The phospholipid fraction was further separated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and the FAME profile was obtained. Results of the present study showed that cod and haddock were lean fish and their total muscle lipid contents were 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively, with phospholipid constituting 83.6% and 87.5% of the total muscle lipid, respectively. Halibut was a medium-fat fish and its muscle lipid content was 8%, with 84% of the total muscle lipid being neutral lipid. Total liver lipid contents of cod, haddock and halibut were 36.9%, 67.2% and 30.7%, respectively, of which the neutral lipids accounted for the major fraction (88.1%-97.1%). Polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> were the most abundant in cod and haddock muscle neutral lipid. Monounsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> level was the highest in halibut muscle neutral lipid. Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of phospholipid were relatively constant. In summary, the liver of cod and haddock as lean fish was the main lipid reserve organ, and structural phospholipid is the major lipid form in flesh. However, as a medium-fat fish, halibut stored lipid in both their liver and muscle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zeng, Duan; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; Milley, Joyce E.; Lall, Santosh P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AcAau..43...77S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> (18:2) and arachidonic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20380207"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effects of seston lipids on zooplankton fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in Lake Washington, Washington, USA.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We collected suspended particulate matter (seston) and zooplankton samples from Lake Washington in Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., over a 10-month period to investigate the effects of food availability on zooplankton fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> (FA) <span class="hlt">composition</span>. The percentage of nutritionally critical omega3 polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (PUFA) in the seston varied from 8% of the FA pool in midsummer to 30% during the spring diatom bloom. Zooplankton accumulated much higher percentages omega3 PUFA than was available in the seston. In particular, cladocerans preferentially accumulated eicosapentaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (EPA, 20:5omega3), copepods accumulated docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (DHA, 22:6omega3), and both copepods and cladocerans accumulated 18 carbon chain omega3 PUFAs (C18 omega3). By comparison, the FA of zooplanktivorous juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were strongly dominated by EPA (12.5% +/- 2.1%) and DHA (28.2% +/- 8.7%). The saturated fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> and the arachidonic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (ARA, 20:4omega6) <span class="hlt">composition</span> of Diaptomus ashlandi was strongly (r2 = 0.76) and moderately (r2 = 0.54) correlated with the prevalence of these FAs in the seston. Furthermore, the DHA content of Diaptomus was moderately correlated with the seston's DHA content (r2 = 0.45) and very strongly correlated with seston EPA (r2 = 0.89). Since EPA was the most prevalent PUFA in the seston and DHA was the most prevalent PUFA in Diaptomus, these results suggest that Diaptomus may synthesize DHA from the EPA in their food. In general, zooplankton species in Lake Washington were strongly enriched with those FA molecules that are most physiologically important for fish nutrition (i.e., ARA, EPA, and DHA), indicating a clear mechanism by which changes in seston <span class="hlt">composition</span> influence fisheries ecology. PMID:20380207</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ravet, Joseph L; Brett, Michael T; Arhonditsis, George B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HMR....66...51P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dietary effects on fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in muscle tissue of juvenile European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The role of intracontinental migration patterns of European eel ( Anguilla anguilla) receives more and more recognition in both ecological studies of the European eel and possible management measures, but small-scale patterns proved to be challenging to study. We experimentally investigated the suitability of fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> trophic markers to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats. Eight groups of juvenile European eels were fed on eight different diets in a freshwater recirculation system at 20°C for 56 days. Three groups were fed on freshwater diets ( Rutilus rutilus, Chironomidae larvae, and Gammarus pulex) and four groups were reared on diets of a marine origin ( Clupea harengus, Crangon crangon, Mysis spec., and Euphausia superba) and one on commercial pellets used in eel aquaculture. Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> (FAC) of diets differed significantly with habitat. FAC of eel muscle tissue seemed to be rather insensitive to fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> supplied with diet, but the general pattern of lower n3:n6 and EPA:ARA ratios in freshwater prey organisms could be traced in the respective eels. Multivariate statistics of the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the eels resulted in two distinct groups representing freshwater and marine treatments. Results further indicate the capability of selectively restraining certain fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in eel, as e.g. the n3:n6 ratio in all treatments was <4, regardless of dietary n3:n6. In future studies on wild eel, these measures can be used to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats of individual European eel.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prigge, Enno; Malzahn, Arne M.; Zumholz, Karsten; Hanel, Reinhold</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.557a2107L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Glass microporous fiber/nanoporous polytetrafluoroethene <span class="hlt">composite</span> membranes for high efficient phosphoric <span class="hlt">acid</span> fuel cell</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reports a high efficient phosphoric <span class="hlt">acid</span> fuel cell by employing a micro/nano <span class="hlt">composite</span> proton exchange membrane incorporating glass microfiber (GMF) sealed by polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) nano-porous film. This multilayer membrane not only possesses both thermal and chemical stability at phosphoric <span class="hlt">acid</span> fuel cell working temperature at 150~220°C but also is cost effective. As a result, the inclusion of the high porosity and proton conductivity from glass microfiber and the prevention of phosphoric <span class="hlt">acid</span> leakage from PTEF nano film can be achieved at the same time.The <span class="hlt">composite</span> membrane maximum proton conductivity achieves 0.71 S/cm at 150 °C from AC impedance analysis, much higher than common phosphoric <span class="hlt">acid</span> porous membranes For single cell test, The GMF fuel cell provides a 63.6mW/cm2 power density at 200mA/cm2 current density while GMF plus methanol treated PTFE (GMF+mPTFE) provides 59.2mW/cm2 power density at 160mA/cm2 current density for hydrogen and oxygen supply at 150 °C. When we change the electrodes that are more suited for phosphoric <span class="hlt">acid</span> fuel cell, the GMF+mPTFE single cell gets higher performance which achieve 296mW/cm2 power density at 900mA/cm2 current density for hydrogen and oxygen supply at 150 °C.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lu, Chia-Lien; Lee, Wei-Jia; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Tseng, Fan-Gang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36186121"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical synthesis of poly(lactic-co-glycolic <span class="hlt">acid</span>)\\/hydroxyapatite <span class="hlt">composites</span> for orthopaedic applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hydroxyapatite-biodegradable polymer <span class="hlt">composites</span> were synthesized by a colloidal non-aqueous chemical precipitation technique at room temperature. The starting materials used for synthesizing hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) were Ca(NO3)2·4H2O and H3PO4, resulting in single phase HA while poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic <span class="hlt">acid</span>) (PLGA) was used as the biodegradable polymer component. The <span class="hlt">composites</span> were prepared containing 10, 20, and 30wt.% HA in the presence of the dissolved</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sarah E. Petricca; Kacey G. Marra; Prashant N. Kumta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2174532"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Influence of Dietary Docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">Acid</span> and Arachidonic <span class="hlt">Acid</span> on Central Nervous System Polyunsaturated Fatty <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">Composition</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerous studies on perinatal long chain polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> nutrition have clarified the influence of dietary docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (DHA) and arachidonic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (ARA) on central nervous system PUFA concentrations. In humans, omnivorous primates, and piglets, DHA and ARA plasma and red blood cells concentrations rise with dietary preformed DHA and ARA. Brain and retina DHA are responsive to diet while ARA is not. DHA is at highest concentration cells and tissues associated with high energy consumption, consistent with high DHA levels in mitochondria and synaptosomes. DHA is a substrate for docosanoids, signaling compounds of intense current interest. The high concentration in tissues with high rates of oxidative metabolism may be explained by a critical role related to oxidative metabolism. PMID:18023566</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brenna, J. Thomas; Diau, Guan-Yeu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/ej1gv24p24p33p54.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> on plasma lipoproteins and tissue fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in humans</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Normal, healthy male volunteers (n=6) were fed diets [high docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span>-DHA] containing 6 g\\/d of DHA for 90 d. The stabilization (low-DHA) diet contained\\u000a less than 50 mg\\/d of DHA. A control group (n=4) remained on the low-DHA diet for the duration of the study (120 d). Blood samples were drawn on study days 30 (end of\\u000a the stabilization period),</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. J. Nelson; P. C. Schmidt; G. L. Bartolini; D. S. Kelley; David Kyle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B51C0401W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phospholipid Analyses for Microbial Community <span class="hlt">Composition</span> in Alpine <span class="hlt">Acid</span> Rock Drainage</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This project is examining factors of non-anthropogenic <span class="hlt">acid</span> rock drainage that influence microbial community <span class="hlt">composition</span> in the Peekaboo Gulch drainage basin (Sawatch Range, Colorado). At this site, natural <span class="hlt">acid</span> rock drainage outflows from <span class="hlt">acidic</span> springs (pH=2.6) on Red Mountain. The <span class="hlt">acid</span> drainage converges with South Fork Lake Creek (pH ~ 7.0, prior to convergence) two miles down gradient. Sediment samples were collected across confluences with gradient of pH, temperature, conductivity and metal concentration. In-situ parameter measurements ranged from 2.3 to 7.9 of pH, 3.8 to 16.6 degree Celsius for temperature, and 34.9 to 1820 for conductivity. Biomass as measured by phospholipids ranged from 280 to 95,900 pmol/g sediment. The only relationship between the in situ parameters and the phospholipid profiles is a weak positive correlation between pH and branched monounsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> methyl esters in that at a pH greater than 5.0 these fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> methyl esters were detected. The phospholipid profiles were diverse across the samples. These profiles changed with respect to the spatial relationship within the drainage pattern. The highest alpine samples contained greater relative abundances of monounsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> methyl esters compared to the lower alpine samples. Microbial community profiles shifted at each confluence depending on water source chemistry. Continuing research is needed to determine other biogeochemical factors that may influence these community shifts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Webster, C. E.; Tapp, J. B.; Pfiffner, S. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JOUC....4..157L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of growth phase on the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of four species of marine diatoms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of four species of marine diatoms ( Chaetoceros gracilis MACC/B13, Cylindrotheca fusiformis MACC/B211, Phaeodactylum tricornutum MACC/B221 and Nitzschia closterium MACC/B222), cultivated at 22°C±1°C with the salinity of 28 in f/2 medium and harvested in the exponential growth phase, the early stationary phase and the late stationary phase, were determined. The results showed that growth phase has significant effect on most fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> contents in the four species of marine diatoms. The proportions of 16:0 and 16:1n-7 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> increased while those of 16:3n-4 and eicosapentaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (EPA) decreased with increasing culture age in all species studied. The subtotal of saturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (SFA) increased with the increasing culture age in all species with the exception of B13. The subtotal of monounsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (MUFA) increased while that of polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (PUFA) decreased with culture age in the four species of marine diatoms. MUFA reached their lowest value in the exponential growth phase, whereas PUFA reached their highest value in the same phase.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liang, Ying; Mai, Kangsen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1075464"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Fatty <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">Composition</span> of Phosphatidylglycerol and Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol of Higher Plants in Relation to Chilling Sensitivity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of phosphatidylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol has been measured in the leaves of 27 species of higher plants from six families whose members differed in their degrees of chilling sensitivity. The content of high melting point fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (represented by the sum of hexadecanoic, trans-3-hexadecenoic and octadecanoic <span class="hlt">acids</span>) in phosphatidylglycerols varied little between members of the same plant family and was not obviously related to the relative chilling sensitivity of members of that family. The saturated fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> content (hexadecanoic + octadecanoic <span class="hlt">acids</span>) of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols also appeared to be characteristic of a plant family, although some exceptions were found. In one case, (Carica papaya) the content of saturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol was sufficiently high to suggest that this lipid could undergo phase separations above 0°C. It is concluded that the content of high melting point fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in leaf phosphatidylglycerol is not a direct indication of the chilling sensitivity of a plant, but rather may be a reflection of the genetic origin of that plant. PMID:16664962</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kenrick, Janette R.; Bishop, David G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-1966-THESIS-S173"> <span id="translatedtitle">The influence of dietary fat on the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the egg yolk</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">by the fact that on a mole per mole basis triglycerides have 33% more fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> than do phospholipids. The polar lipids of the yolks from hens fed fat supplemented diets exhibited slightly higher ratios of total saturates to unsaturates than did those...THE INFLUENCE OF DIETARY FAT ON THE FATTY <span class="hlt">ACID</span> <span class="hlt">COMPOSITION</span> OF THE EGG YOLK A Thesis by ABRAHAM EDUARDO SALOMA OROZCO Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saloma Orozco, Abraham Eduardo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1966-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41829837"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of ceramic filler content on the mechanical and thermal behaviour of poly- l -lactic <span class="hlt">acid</span> and poly- l -lactic-co-glycolic <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composites</span> for medical applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">One main application of resorbable poly-l-lactic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (PLLA) and poly-l-lactic-co-glycolic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (PLGA) based materials is in medical implants. In this study <span class="hlt">composites</span> were made from PLLA and PLGA\\u000a with hydroxyapatite (HAp) respective ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) fillers. The filler content and particle size were varied,\\u000a and the thermal properties as well as the mechanical strength of the <span class="hlt">composites</span> were investigated. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Behzad Damadzadeh; Hamideh Jabari; Mikael Skrifvars; Karri Airola; Niko Moritz; Pekka K. Vallittu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40691813"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of feeding oilseeds rich in linoleic and linolenic fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> to lactating ewes on cheese yield and on fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of milk and cheese</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forty-two crossbred ewes were used to determine effects of feeding oilseeds rich in linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> on milk and cheese yield, overall <span class="hlt">composition</span>, and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>. Ewes were divided into three groups and assigned to one of three diets for 21 days: a control diet with no oilseed, a sunflower supplemented diet, and a flaxseed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. H. Zhang; A. F. Mustafa; X. Zhao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2111377"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modification of rat platelet fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> by dietary lipids of animal and vegetable origin.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There were no statistically significant differences in final body weight or in food intake among groups of rats fed for 7 wk various fats of animal origin (lard fat and cod liver oil) or vegetable origin (corn, soybean and canola oils); the fats were fed as 10% of the diet (by wt) and were of varied fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>. Nevertheless, the mean weights of the kidneys from cod liver oil-fed animals were significantly higher than those of all other dietary groups. Platelets of rats from the groups receiving the animal fat contained significantly lower levels of linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, 18:2(n-6) [a precursor of arachidonic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, 20:4(n-6)], than did platelets from rats receiving the fat of vegetable origin. Although the soybean-, canola- and cod liver oil-fed animals received substantial quantities of (n-3) fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> [alpha-linolenic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, 18:3(n-3); eicosapentaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, 20:5(n-3); and docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, 22:6(n-3)], only the platelets of the latter two groups contained detectable levels of these fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> along with their products of elongation/desaturation/retroconversion. Platelets of the cod liver oil-fed group contained significantly less arachidonic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, a major precursor of eicosanoids, than did those from all other dietary groups. However, platelet arachidonic levels also varied markedly among the other dietary groups. Diet-induced fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> changes observed in platelets of various dietary groups may influence platelet responses, including secretion, aggregation and biosynthesis of eicosanoids. PMID:2111377</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piché, L A; Mahadevappa, V G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19504859"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bio-detection of <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> by the ZrO2/PVA/Cyt.c multilayer film.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The adsorption mechanism of <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> namely Gly-Glu, Asp-Glu with protein layer was successfully examined on cytochrome c (Cyt.c) surface probing by fluorescent dye molecule. Molecularly thin Cyt.c layer was immobilized on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) coated zirconium oxide (ZrO2) gel films by electrostatic interaction. Denaturation of Cyt.c was minimized on sol-gel derived ZrO2-gel film by PVA. The conformation of immobilized protein was verified by FTIR-ATR measurements. The fluorescent dye molecule was easily bound on the Cyt.c layer. The dye adsorbed protein thin film was soaked in two different <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> solution with various concentrations. The adsorption of <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> on Cyt.c thin film and consequent desorption of fluorescent dye from Cyt.c layer in <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> solutions was monitored by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance method. The ion exchange mechanism on protein surface between fluorescent dye and <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> is thought to be responsible for dye desorption and formation of relatively strong electrostatic bonding between <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> with protein. The adsorption behavior curve of <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> was analyzed by Hill equation. The number of functional group together with size of <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> play an important role for different adsorption parameters obtained from this model. PMID:19504859</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul, Sharmistha; Stokes, Jimmy M; Paul, Deepen; Ichinose, Izumi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11177261"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antiamnesic effect of acyl-prolyl-containing <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> (GVS-111) in compression-induced damage to frontal cortex.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Antiamnestic effect of acyl-prolyl-containing <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> GVS-111 was demonstrated in rats with bilateral compression-induced damage to the frontal cortex. Both intraperitoneal and oral administration of the <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> improved retrieval of passive avoidance responses in rats with compression-induced cerebral ischemia compared to untreated controls. PMID:11177261</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Romanova, G A; Mirzoev, T K; Barskov, I V; Victorov, I V; Gudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaya, R U</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25362563"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conjugated linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> alters growth performance, tissue lipid deposition, and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of darkbarbel catfish (Pelteobagrus vachelli).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fatty liver syndrome is a prevalent problem of farmed fish. Conjugated linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (CLA) has received increased attention recently as a fat-reducing fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> to control fat deposition in mammals. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary CLA can reduce tissue lipid content of darkbarbel catfish (Pelteobagrus vachelli) and whether decreased lipid content is partially due to alterations in lipid metabolism enzyme activities and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> profiles. A 76-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary CLA on the growth, tissue lipid deposition, and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of darkbarbel catfish. Five diets containing 0 % (control), 0.5 % (CLA0.5), 1 % (CLA1), 2 % (CLA2), and 3 % (CLA3) CLA levels were evaluated. Results showed that fish fed with 2-3 % CLA diets showed a significantly lower specific growth rate and feed conversion efficiency than those fed with the control diet. Dietary CLA decreased the lipid contents in the liver and intraperitoneal fat with the CLA levels from 1 to 3 %. Fish fed with 2-3 % CLA diets showed significantly higher lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triacylglycerol lipase activities in liver than those of fish fed with the control, and fish fed with 1-3 % CLA diets had significantly higher pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase activities in liver than those of fish fed with the control. Dietary CLA was incorporated into liver, intraperitoneal fat, and muscle lipids, with higher percentages observed in liver compared with other tissues. Liver CLA deposition was at the expense of monounsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (MUFA). In contrast, CLA deposition appeared to be primarily at the expense of MUFA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (PUFA) in the intraperitoneal fat, whereas in muscle it was at the expense of n-3 PUFA. Our results suggested that CLA at a 1 % dose can reduce liver lipid content without eliciting any negative effect on growth rate in darkbarbel catfish. This lipid-lowering effect could be in part due to an increment in the activity of lipid metabolism enzymes and an extensive interconversion of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>. Although CLA deposition in muscle (0.66-3.19 % of total fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>) are higher than presented in natural sources of CLA, EPA (C20:5n-3) in fish muscle appears simultaneously expendable, when the fish fed with 2-3 % CLA. PMID:25362563</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dong, Gui-Fang; Liu, Wen-Zuo; Wu, Lin-Zhou; Yu, Deng-Hang; Huang, Feng; Li, Peng-Cheng; Yang, Yan-Ou</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3169479"> <span id="translatedtitle">Associations between dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> and arachidonic <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> in plasma and erythrocytes in young and elderly Japanese volunteers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background We reported that the <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of arachidonic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (ARA) in erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids (PL) in the elderly were lower than those in the young, though the ARA intake was nearly identical. Objective We further analyzed data in four study groups with different ages and sexes, and determined that the blood ARA levels were affected by the kinds of dietary fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> ingested. Methods One hundred and four healthy young and elderly volunteers were recruited. Dietary records together with photographic records from 28 consecutive days were reviewed and the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in plasma lipid fractions and erythrocyte PL was analyzed. Results No correlations for ARA between dietary fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> and blood lipid fractions were observed. A significant negative correlation between eicosapentaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (EPA) + docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (DHA) intake and ARA <span class="hlt">composition</span> in erythrocyte PL was observed. ARA <span class="hlt">composition</span> in erythrocyte PL was significantly lower in elderly subjects than in young subjects, because EPA and DHA intake in elderly subjects was higher than in young subjects. However, after removing the effect of dietary EPA+DHA intake, the ARA <span class="hlt">composition</span> in erythrocyte PL in elderly subjects was significantly lower than that in young subjects. Conclusions Changes in physical conditions with aging influenced the low ARA <span class="hlt">composition</span> of erythrocyte in elderly subjects in addition to the effects of dietary EPA and DHA. PMID:21838914</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23107952"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coaxial electrospinning with acetic <span class="hlt">acid</span> for preparing ferulic <span class="hlt">acid</span>/zein <span class="hlt">composite</span> fibers with improved drug release profiles.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigated drug/zein <span class="hlt">composite</span> fibers prepared using a modified coaxial electrospinning process. With unspinnable acetic <span class="hlt">acid</span> as sheath liquid and an electrospinnable co-dissolving solution of zein and ferulic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (FA) as core fluid, the modified coaxial process could run smoothly and continuously without any clogging. Compared with those from the single-fluid electrospinning process, the FA-loaded zein fibers from the modified process were rounder and possessed higher quality in terms of diameter and distribution, as verified by scanning electron microscopic observations of their surface and cross-section. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction showed that fibers from both processes similarly formed a <span class="hlt">composite</span> with the FA present in the zein matrix in an amorphous state. The driving force of encapsulation of FA into zein fibers was hydrogen bonding, as evidenced by the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra. However, in vitro dissolution tests demonstrated that the fibers from the coaxial process exhibited better sustained-release profiles with a smaller initial burst effect and less tailing-off release compared with those from the single process. The modified coaxial electrospinning process is a useful tool for generating nanofibers with higher quality and improved functional performance. PMID:23107952</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Jian-Mao; Zha, Liu-sheng; Yu, Deng-Guang; Liu, Jianyun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1991729"> <span id="translatedtitle">N-terminal amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> sequences and amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of the Spirochaeta aurantia flagellar filament polypeptides.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The amino-terminal sequences and amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of the three major and two minor polypeptides constituting the filaments of Spirochaeta aurantia periplasmic flagella were determined. The amino-terminal sequence of the major 37.5-kDa outer layer polypeptide is identical to the sequence downstream of the proposed signal peptide of the protein encoded by the S. aurantia flaA gene. However, the amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the 37.5-kDa polypeptide is not in agreement with that inferred from the sequence of flaA. The 34- and 31.5-kDa major filament core polypeptides and the 33- and 32-kDa minor core polypeptides show a striking similarity to each other, and the amino-terminal sequences of these core polypeptides show extensive identity with homologous proteins from members of other genera of spirochetes. An additional 36-kDa minor polypeptide that occurs occasionally in preparations of S. aurantia periplasmic flagella appears to be mixed with the 37.5-kDa outer layer polypeptide or a degradation product of this polypeptide. PMID:1991729</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parales, J; Greenberg, E P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25745237"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> differences between adipose depot sites in dairy and beef steer breeds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of the study was to compare fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of longissimus dorsi (LD) and kidney fat (KF) in Holstein steers (HS), Simmental steers (SS) and Chinese LongDong Yellow Cattle steers (CLD). All steers received the same nutrition and management but in different locations. Cattle were harvested at approximately 550 kg and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of longissimus dorsi and kidney fat was analyzed in samples taken after 3 days of aging. There was evidence (P?<?0.05) that C18:3n6 was greater in KF than LD in CLD cattle but not in HS or SS cattle. Percentage C18:1n9, C18:2n6, C18:3n3, and n6 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> were greater in LD than KF for all breeds (P?<?0.05), but the difference between fat sources for n6 in CLD cattle was smaller than the other two breeds. The LD had greater percentage of polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (PUFA), monounsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (MUFA), and a greater ratio of n6:n3 PUFAs compared to the KF in each breed (P?<?0.05). The ?(9)-desaturase catalytic activity index was greater in LD than in KF in each breed group (P?<?0.05). Percentage cis-9, trans-11 CLA was greater in KF than LD in HS (P?<?0.05) but not SS or CLD cattle. These results indicate fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> percentages generally differed between longissimus dorsi fat and kidney fat. Further, there was some indication that some of these differences between fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> deposition sites were not consistent across breed group. PMID:25745237</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, T; Lei, Z M; Wu, J P; Brown, M A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.inria.fr/docs/00/89/80/86/PDF/hal-00898086.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effets d'un rgime contenant de l'thanol sur la <span class="hlt">composition</span> en <span class="hlt">acides</span> gras du foie, du sang et du tissu adipeux</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">on fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the liver, blood and adipose tissue in Zucker falfa rats. Zucker fa/fa rats were subjected to chronic ethanol intoxication ; (alcohol incorporated into the diet represented 36 <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of adipose tissue. The variations in the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the blood followed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boyer, Edmond</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41147817"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of four potential aquatic weeds and their possible use as fish-feed neutraceuticals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study was conducted to explore the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of four aquatic weeds, namely Salvinia cuculata, Trapa natans, Lemna minor and Ipomoea reptans collected from water bodies of Assam, India. It has been observed that C24:1 (Cis-15 Tetracosenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span>) followed by C16:1 n-3 (9-Hexadecenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span>) are the predominant fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in these aquatic weeds and among them, Ipomoea reptans</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. K. Mukherjee; P. Kalita; B. G. Unni; S. B. Wann; D. Saikia; P. K. Mukhopadhyay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.jlr.org/cgi/reprint/43/4/611.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Differential effects of n-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> deficiency on phospholipid molecular species <span class="hlt">composition</span> in the rat hippocampus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, we have examined the effects of n-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> deficient diets on the phospholipids (PL) molecu- lar species <span class="hlt">composition</span> in the hippocampus. Female rats were raised for two generations on diets containing linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (18:2n-6), with or without supplementation of ? -lino- lenic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (18:3n-3) or 18:3n-3 plus docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (22:6n-3). At 84 days of age, the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mahadev Murthy; Rebecca S. Greiner; Toru Moriguchi; Norman Salem; Hee-Yong Kim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/axxwjydbl8fv6ey7.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of lipid emulsions on production and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of eggs of the scallop Argopecten purpuratus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impact of supplementing lipid emulsions rich in eicosapentaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (EmEPA), docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (EmDHA) or saturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (EmCOCO) to a standard algal diet [3:1 mixture of Isochrysis galbana (T-iso) and Chaetoceros neogracile, St-diet] on Argopecten purpuratus broodstock was evaluated. Broodstock fecundity was compared as well as the egg quality in terms of lipid content, fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and lipid</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. Nevejan; V. Courtens; M. Hauva; G. Gajardo; P. Sorgeloos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49339482"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polyphenol oxidase activity, phenolic <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and browning in cashew apple ( Anacardium occidentale, L.) after processing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study describes the extraction and characterisation of cashew apple polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and the effect of wounding on cashew apple phenolic <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>, PPO activity and fruit browning. Purification factor was 59 at 95% (NH4)2SO4 saturation. For PPO activity, the optimal substrate was catechol and the optimum pH was 6.5. PPO Km and Vmax values were 18.8mM and 13.6Umin?1ml?1,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christiane Queiroz; Antonio Jorge Ribeiro da Silva; Maria Lúcia Mendes Lopes; Eliane Fialho; Vera Lúcia Valente-Mesquita</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34620715"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of 19 species of fish from the black sea and the Marmara Sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Evidence suggests that differences in fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> among various fish species may be due to differences in diet\\u000a or to environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, and depth at which the fish are caught. The beneficial effects\\u000a of a diet containing fish on cardiovascular or other diseases have been associated with their high content of eicosapentaenoic\\u000a (20?5n-3) and docosahexaenoic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Refik Tanakol; Zeliha Yazici; Erdal ?ener; Ergin Sencer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34813060"> <span id="translatedtitle">Continuous lactic <span class="hlt">acid</span> fermentation using a plastic <span class="hlt">composite</span> support biofilm reactor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An immobilized-cell biofilm reactor was used for the continuous production of lactic <span class="hlt">acid</span> by Lactobacillus caseisubsp. rhamnosus (ATCC 11443). At Iowa State University, a unique plastic <span class="hlt">composite</span> support (PCS) that stimulates biofilm formation has been developed. The optimized PCS blend for Lactobacillus contains 50% (wt\\/wt) agricultural products [35% (wt\\/wt) ground soy hulls, 5% (wt\\/wt) soy flour, 5% (wt\\/wt) yeast extract,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. C. Cotton; A. L. Pometto; J. Gvozdenovic-Jeremic</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34618802"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of dietary fats on fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and ?5 desaturase in normal and diabetic rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have studied the effect of various diets on the phospholipid fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> andin vitro ?5 desaturase activity of hepatic microsomes derived either from the normal or streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. The diets\\u000a studied were the standard rat chow diet and a basal fat-free diet supplemented either with 20 percent saturated fat, 20 percent\\u000a unsaturated fat, or 20 percent menhaden</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Q. Dang; K. Kemp; F. H. Faas; W. J. Carter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/w83u1285561357q2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-temperature stability of soybean oils with altered fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">One canola oil and six soybean oils with different fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> were heated intermittently, and bread cubes were\\u000a fried in them to determine the stability of the oils. Two of the soybean oils were commercial varieties Hardin and BSR 101.\\u000a The other soybean oils were from experimental lines developed at Iowa State University, and included A17 with 1.5% linolenate</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hui-Rong Liu; Pamela J. White</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49653950"> <span id="translatedtitle">Poly(lactic–co-glycolic <span class="hlt">acid</span>): Carbon nanofiber <span class="hlt">composites</span> for myocardial tissue engineering applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of the present in vitro research was to investigate cardiac tissue cell functions (specifically cardiomyocytes and neurons) on poly(lactic–co-glycolic <span class="hlt">acid</span>) (PLGA) (50:50wt.%)–carbon nanofiber (CNF) <span class="hlt">composites</span> to ascertain their potential for myocardial tissue engineering applications. CNF were added to biodegradable PLGA to increase the conductivity and cytocompatibility of pure PLGA. For this reason, different PLGA:CNF ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David A. Stout; Bikramjit Basu; Thomas J. Webster</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11562966"> <span id="translatedtitle">A protein delivery system: biodegradable alginate–chitosan–poly(lactic-co-glycolic <span class="hlt">acid</span>) <span class="hlt">composite</span> microspheres</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the present study we developed alginate–chitosan–poly(lactic-co-glycolic <span class="hlt">acid</span>) (PLGA) <span class="hlt">composite</span> microspheres to elevate protein entrapment efficiency and decrease its burst release. Bovine serum albumin (BSA), which used as the model protein, was entrapped into the alginate microcapsules by a modified emulsification method in an isopropyl alcohol-washed way. The rapid drug releases were sustained by chitosan coating. To obtain the desired</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cai-Hong Zheng; Jian-Qing Gao; Ye-Ping Zhang; Wen-Quan Liang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39549642"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biocompatibility and degradation of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic <span class="hlt">acid</span>)\\/calcium phosphate cement <span class="hlt">composites</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Injectable calcium phosphate (Ca-P) cement materials exhibit favorable osteocompatible behavior but are resorbed slowly because of a lack of a bone ingrowth-enabling macroporosity. In this study, poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic <span class="hlt">acid</span>) (PLGA) microparticles (average size 66 +\\/- 25 microm) were incorporated into Ca-P cement to obtain a macroporous Ca-P cement scaffold after PLGA hydrolysis in vivo. Preset PLGA\\/Ca-P cement <span class="hlt">composite</span> discs of various</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Quinten Ruhé; Elizabeth L. Hedberg; Nestor Torio Padron; Paul H. M. Spauwen; John A. Jansen; Antonios G. Mikos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40032815"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of planting date on sunflower seed oil content, fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and yield in Florida</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plantings of sunflower,Heliantbus annuus L., were made 5 times between Feb. 2 and Nov. 15 in Florida so that the effect of planting date on the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>\\u000a of sunflower oil might be assessed. Eleven popular hybrids were planted at Gainesville, FL, on Feb. 2 and 28, April 2, and\\u000a Aug. 14, and 15 hybrids were planted at Lake</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. A. Robertson; V. E. Green</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40048533"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) oil as influenced by seed position</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The variation in fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the oil from seeds located in different positions within an individual sunflower\\u000a head was determined. Each head was divided into three ring-shaped zones and four samples were taken from each zone. Ten heads\\u000a from an inbred line and ten from an open-pollinated variety were sampled. Position of the seed within the head had</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. C. Zimmerman; G. N. Fick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49694316"> <span id="translatedtitle">The preparation of novel nanofilled polymer <span class="hlt">composites</span> using poly( l-lactic <span class="hlt">acid</span>) and protein fibers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this communication, we present novel nanofilled polymer <span class="hlt">composites</span> prepared using a poly(l-lactic <span class="hlt">acid</span>) (PLLA) matrix and amyloid fibers. Amyloid fibers are made from protein sources’ and share many of the same material properties as spider silk, but exist at significantly smaller length scales with diameters of 5–10nm. This work highlights the potential use of amyloid fibers as nanofillers in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nolene Byrne; Nishar Hameed; Oliver Werzer; Qipeng Guo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/5453203p413212l2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dietary lipids modify the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of cartilage, isolated chondrocytes and matrix vesicles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of dietary lipids on the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of hyaline cartilage, epiphyseal chondrocytes (EC) and matrix\\u000a vesicles (MV) were evaluated in chicks. A basal semipurified diet was fed to chicks containing one of the following lipid\\u000a sources at 70 g\\/kg: soybean oil, butter+corn oil, margarine+corn oil or menhaden oil+corn oil (MEC). Articular and epiphyseal\\u000a growth cartilage were isolated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hui Xu; A. Watkins; Huston D. Adkisson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.inria.fr/docs/00/88/82/71/PDF/hal-00888271.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evacuation gastrique et <span class="hlt">composition</span> en <span class="hlt">acides</span> amins des protines du rgime chez le porc</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">base du même amidon de blé, associé selon le cas à un gluten de blé ou une farine de poisson, compte quantités recueillies étant significa- tivement plus importantes dans le cas du gluten 4 et 7 h après le le régime gluten dont la <span class="hlt">composition</span> en <span class="hlt">acides</span> aminés est fort différente. Mots clés :Evacuation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boyer, Edmond</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/3r0827v078j75487.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of dietary fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> on the growth of the tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Effects of dietary fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> on the growth of the tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes were examined. Eight experimental diets were formulated with fish meal and casein as the major ingredients, providing 45.0–48.2%\\u000a crude protein. Pollack and squid liver oils were used for the control diet while experimental diets contained three levels\\u000a of EPA-DHA concentrated (C-HUFA) oils, soybean oil, linseed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kotaro Kikuchi; Takeshi Furuta; Nakahiro Iwata; Kazue Onuki; Tamao Noguchi; Haruo Sugita</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/3n5u4333w133547r.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conjugated linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> supplementation in humans: Effects on body <span class="hlt">composition</span> and energy expenditure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent animal studies have demonstrated that dietary conjugated linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (CLA) reduces body fat and that this decrease\\u000a may be due to a change in energy expenditure. The present study examined the effect of CLA supplementation on body <span class="hlt">composition</span>\\u000a and energy expenditure in healthy, adult women. Seventeen women were fed either a CLA capsule (3 g\\/d) or a sunflower oil</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kirsten L. Zambell; Nancy L. Keim; Marta D. Van Loan; Barbara Gale; Paloma Benito; Darshan S. Kelley; Gary J. Nelson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36186569"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preparation of poly(lactic <span class="hlt">acid</span>)\\/siloxane\\/calcium carbonate <span class="hlt">composite</span> membranes with antibacterial activity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A poly(lactic <span class="hlt">acid</span>) (PLA)\\/siloxane\\/calcium carbonate <span class="hlt">composite</span> membrane containing mercapto groups (PSC-SH) with antibacterial ability and excellent bone-forming ability was prepared using 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane for application in guided bone regeneration. Mercapto groups were reported to adsorb silver ions, which are well known to show antibacterial activity. Ionic silicon species were reported to stimulate the proliferation of osteoblasts. A PSC-SH membrane with a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shingo Tokuda; Akiko Obata; Toshihiro Kasuga</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26328378"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of ammonium removal using a chitosan- g-poly (acrylic <span class="hlt">acid</span>)\\/rectorite hydrogel <span class="hlt">composite</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper concerns the removal of ammonium ions (NH4+) from aqueous solution using a hydrogel <span class="hlt">composite</span> chitosan grafted poly (acrylic <span class="hlt">acid</span>)\\/rectorite prepared from in situ copolymerization. The effects of rectorite content, contact time, pH, NH4+ concentration and temperature on the adsorption capacity were discussed. Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Redlich–Peterson isotherms were used to describe the experimental data. The results indicate</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yian Zheng; Aiqin Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/ap4547078w87t388.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of thermal acclimation on tissue fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of freshwater alewives ( Alosa pseudoharengus )</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, we examine changes in fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of polar and neutral lipids in gill, liver, and muscle of freshwater\\u000a alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) after temperature challenges in the laboratory. Alewives experienced either a warm or cold challenge in which temperatures\\u000a were raised or lowered 0.5°C day?1 over 4–6 weeks. In alewives experiencing the cold challenge, gill polar lipids showed evidence</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Randal J. SnyderWilliam; William D. Schregel; Yuanhong Wei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/062778723p46u345.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the seed fat from Swietenia macrophylla</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary  A light yellow oil was isolated in 50% yield from the decorticated seeds ofSwietenia macrophylla kina grown in India. The unrefined oil had a slightly bitter taste and an iodine value of 109.7. Other properties are reported.\\u000a \\u000a By means of spectrophotometry, fractional crystallization, and methyl ester distillation, the oil was found to have the following\\u000a fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> (as %):</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. M. Chakrabarty; D. K. Chowdhuri</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1957-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JPS...109..356A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of PEMFC operation above 100 °C employing perfluorosulfonic <span class="hlt">acid</span> silicon oxide <span class="hlt">composite</span> membranes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Various perfluorosulfonic <span class="hlt">acid</span> membranes (PFSAs) were studied as pure and silicon oxide <span class="hlt">composite</span> membranes for operation in hydrogen/oxygen proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) from 80 to 140 °C. The <span class="hlt">composite</span> membranes were prepared either by impregnation of pre-formed PFSAs via sol-gel processing of a polymeric silicon oxide, recasting a film using solubilized PFSAs and a silicon oxide polymer/gel. All <span class="hlt">composite</span> membranes had a silicon oxide content of less than or equal to 10% by weight. Decreasing the equivalent weight and thickness of the PFSAs, in addition to the incorporation of silicon oxide helped improve water management in a PEMFC at elevated temperatures. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FT-IR-ATR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) experiments indicated an evenly distributed siloxane polymer in all of the <span class="hlt">composite</span> membranes. At a potential of 0.4 V the Aciplex 1004/silicon oxide <span class="hlt">composite</span> membrane in a humidified H 2/O 2 PEMFC at 130 °C and a pressure of 3 atm delivered six times higher current density than unmodified Nafion 115 under the same conditions, and 1.73 times the current density when unmodified Nafion 115 was operated with humidified gases at 80 °C and 1 atm of pressure. Furthermore, the PEMFC performances with the PFSA/silicon oxide <span class="hlt">composite</span> membranes were physically more robust than the control membranes (unmodified PFSAs), which degraded after high operation temperature and thermal cycling.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adjemian, K. T.; Srinivasan, S.; Benziger, J.; Bocarsly, A. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ifzz.pan.pl/fusion_pages/jafs/ortiz_etal.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of dietary high-oleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> and conventional sunflower seeds and their refined oils on fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of adipose tissue and meat in broiler chickens</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of different dietary fat source on performance, tissue fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> (abdominal fat, thigh and breast muscles) and abdominal fat melting point was evaluated in female broiler chickens. Birds were fed diets containing 80 g\\/kg of added fat by the inclusion of high-oleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> sunflower seed (HOASS) and conventional sunflower seed (CSS), their respective refined oils (HOASO and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. T. Ortiz; C. Alzueta; A. Rebolé; M. L. Rodríguez; I. Arija; A. Brenes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.7995O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrical charging changes the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of sulfuric <span class="hlt">acid</span>-ammonia/dimethylamine clusters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sulfuric <span class="hlt">acid</span> clusters stabilized by base molecules are likely to have a significant role in atmospheric new-particle formation. Recent advances in mass spectrometry techniques have permitted the detection of electrically charged clusters. However, direct measurement of electrically neutral clusters is not possible. Mass spectrometry instruments can be combined with a charger, but the possible effect of charging on the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of neutral clusters must be addressed in order to interpret and understand the measured data. In the present work we have used formation free energies from quantum chemical methods to calculate the evaporation rates of electrically charged (both positive and negative) sulfuric <span class="hlt">acid</span>-ammonia/dimethylamine clusters. To understand how charging will affect the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of electrically neutral clusters, we have compared the evaporation rates of the most stable neutral clusters with those of the corresponding charged clusters. Based on the evaporation rates of different molecules from the charged clusters, we determined the most likely resulting cluster <span class="hlt">composition</span> when a stable neutral cluster is charged and the molecules with the highest evaporation rates are lost from it. We found that all of the most stable neutral clusters will be altered by both positive and negative charging. In the case of charging clusters negatively, base molecules will completely evaporate from clusters with 1 to 3 sulfuric <span class="hlt">acid</span> molecules in the case of ammonia, and from clusters with 1 or 2 sulfuric <span class="hlt">acid</span> molecules in the case of dimethylamine. Larger clusters will maintain some base molecules, but the H2SO4 : base ratio will increase. In the case of positive charging, some of the <span class="hlt">acid</span> molecules will evaporate, decreasing the H2SO4 : base ratio.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ortega, I. K.; Olenius, T.; Kupiainen-Määttä, O.; Loukonen, V.; Kurtén, T.; Vehkamäki, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22507983"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Polylactic <span class="hlt">Acid</span>\\/Kenaf and Polylactic <span class="hlt">Acid</span>\\/Rise Husk <span class="hlt">Composites</span>: The Influence of the Natural Fibers on the Mechanical, Thermal and Biodegradability Properties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper investigates and compares the performances of polylactic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (PLA)\\/kenaf (PLA-K) and PLA\\/rice husk (PLA-RH) <span class="hlt">composites</span>\\u000a in terms of biodegradability, mechanical and thermal properties. <span class="hlt">Composites</span> with natural fiber weight content of 20% with\\u000a fiber sizes of less than 100 ?m were produced for testing and characterization. A twin-screw extrusion was used to compound\\u000a PLA and natural fibers, and extruded <span class="hlt">composites</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. A. Yussuf; I. Massoumi; A. Hassan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25483915"> <span id="translatedtitle">Self-assembled <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span>-gold nanoparticle hybrid spheres for highly sensitive amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensors.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Novel self-assembled <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span>-gold nanoparticle (DP-AuNP) hybrid microspheres with a hollow structure have been prepared in aqueous solution by a simple one-step method. Diphenylalanine (FF) <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> was used as a precursor to form simultaneously peptide spheres and a reducing agent to reduce gold ions to gold nanoparticles in water at 60°C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that formed AuNPs were localized both inside and on the surface of the <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> spheres. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a model enzyme was further immobilized on the <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span>-AuNP hybrid spheres to construct a mediate H2O2 amperometric biosensor. UV-vis spectroscopy showed that the immobilized HRP retained its original structure. Cyclic voltammetry characterization demonstrated that the HRP/<span class="hlt">dipeptide</span>-AuNP hybrid spheres modified glassy carbon electrode showed high electrocatalytic activity to H2O2. The proposed biosensor exhibited a wide linear response in the range from 5.0×10(-7) to 9.7×10(-4)M with a high sensitivity of 28.3µAmM(-1). A low detection limit of 1.0×10(-7)M was estimated at S/N=3. In addition, the biosensor possessed satisfactory reproducibility and long-term stability. These results indicated that the <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span>-AuNP hybrid sphere is a promising matrix for application in the fabrication of electrochemical biosensors due to its excellent biocompatibility and good charge-transfer ability. PMID:25483915</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gong, Yufei; Chen, Xu; Lu, Yanluo; Yang, Wensheng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3587585"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detailed Dimethylacetal and Fatty <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">Composition</span> of Rumen Content from Lambs Fed Lucerne or Concentrate Supplemented with Soybean Oil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/<span class="hlt">acid</span> direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal <span class="hlt">composition</span> was quite similar to the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18?1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18?2n?6 and 18?3n?3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18?0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18?3n?3. PMID:23484024</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19577362"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of ammonium removal using a chitosan-g-poly (acrylic <span class="hlt">acid</span>)/rectorite hydrogel <span class="hlt">composite</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper concerns the removal of ammonium ions (NH(4)(+)) from aqueous solution using a hydrogel <span class="hlt">composite</span> chitosan grafted poly (acrylic <span class="hlt">acid</span>)/rectorite prepared from in situ copolymerization. The effects of rectorite content, contact time, pH, NH(4)(+) concentration and temperature on the adsorption capacity were discussed. Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Redlich-Peterson isotherms were used to describe the experimental data. The results indicate that the adsorption equilibrium can be achieved within 3-5 min and, the hydrogel <span class="hlt">composite</span> has a higher adsorption capacity for NH(4)(+) in a wide pH levels ranged from 4.0 to 9.0. No significant changes in the adsorption capacity are found over the temperature range studied. The adsorption mechanism of NH(4)(+) onto hydrogel <span class="hlt">composite</span> was proposed, and the reusable ability of this hydrogel adsorbent was evaluated. PMID:19577362</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zheng, Yian; Wang, Aiqin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21568823"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of Greek margarines and their change in fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> content over the past decades.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thirty-one brands of margarines from the Greek market were analyzed for their fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> including trans-fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> by gas chromatography. Trans fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (TFAs) were found within the range of 0.16-0.97% of total fat content, with no sample found to have TFA in a concentration more than 1% of the total fat content. Increased levels of either saturated or cis-unsaturated was observed in each brand. Saturated, cis-monounsaturated and cis-polyunsaturated were found in the ranges of 11.26-51.75%, 22.98-60.37% and 12.09-56.30% of total fat content respectively, with mean values of 30.81 ± 10.40%, 34.41 ± 10.46% and 34.28 ± 14.02% of total fat. The chemical analysis of Greek margarines over the past decades has indicated that the TFA content of Greek margarines has declined over the past 20 years by approximately 95%. PMID:21568823</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kroustallaki, Penelope; Tsimpinos, George; Vardavas, Constantine I; Kafatos, Anthony</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18087869"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical profile and amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of edible mushrooms Pleurotus sajor-caju.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two varieties of Pleurotus sajor-caju, obtained from the wild and cultivated (on shredded corncobs) were separated into cap and stalk and analysed on dry weight basis. The proximate <span class="hlt">composition</span> (g/100 g) showed that both varieties were highly concentrated in crude protein. The cultivated cap (Cc) was found to accumulate higher concentration of crude protein (26.34%) and ash (10.37%) than the wild cap (Wc), which had higher crude fat (3.90%) and crude fibre (16.32%) concentrations while the wild stalk (Ws) contained the highest concentration of crude fibre (26.14%). Amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> analysis showed the mushroom protein to be a rich source of nutritionally useful essential amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> with leucine as the most abundant occurring in highest concentration (mg/g) in the Cc (64.8 +/- 0.24). Methionine and cysteine concentrations were low as confirmed by their chemical scores (0.29-0.59). There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in the distribution of amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> in the mushroom varieties and parts. The total essential amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> (TEAA) in the cultivated range between 42.91-43.69% while in the wild it was between 42.90-43.73 % of the total amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> content. The amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> concentration was a function of mushroom variety and part selected. PMID:18087869</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oyetayo, F L; Akindahunsi, A A; Oyetayo, V O</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23395975"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of the stable carbon isotope <span class="hlt">composition</span> of formic and acetic <span class="hlt">acids</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Formic and acetic <span class="hlt">acids</span> are ubiquitous in the environment and in many biological processes. Analysis of the stable carbon isotope <span class="hlt">composition</span> (?(13)C) of formic and acetic <span class="hlt">acids</span> is important to understanding their biogeochemical cycles. However, it has been faced with poor accuracy and high detection limits due to their low carbon number, high hydrophilicity, and semi-volatility. Here we developed an analytical technique by needle trap and gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). The organic <span class="hlt">acids</span> in aqueous solution were extracted using a NeedlEx needle through purge-and-trap and were analyzed by GC-IRMS for ?(13)C. The procedures incur no isotope fractionation. Defined as the point at which the mean ?(13)C is statistically the same as the given value and the analytical error starts rising, the method's detection limits are 200 and 100 mg/L for formic and acetic <span class="hlt">acids</span>, respectively, with an uncertainty of approximately 0.5‰ in direct extraction and analysis. They were lowered to 1 mg/L with precision of 0.9‰ after samples were subjected to preconcentration. The method was successfully applied to natural samples as diverse as precipitation, vinegars, ant plasma, and vehicle exhaust, which vary considerably in concentration and matrix of the organic <span class="hlt">acids</span>. It is applicable to the organic <span class="hlt">acids</span> in not only aqueous solution but also gaseous phase. PMID:23395975</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Xinqing; Zhang, Like; Huang, Daikuan; An, Ning; Yang, Fang; Jiang, Wei; Fang, Bin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1197881"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changes in fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of cardiac lipids accompanying myocardial necrosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Administration of isoproterenol induces changes in phospholipids of heart muscle membranes. Longer and more unsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> replace shorter and less unsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, i.e., C22:6, replace C18:2 and C20:4 in phospholipids of heart muscle. Increased sensitivity to isoproterenol and increased myocardial cell damage is accompanied by a relative increase in long chain polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in phospholipids of heart muscle. Development of myocardial necrosis increases with a progressive replacement of C18:2 and C20:4 by C22:6. Alterations in fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of membrane phospholipids and consequent changes in membrane properties may play an important role in myocardial cell damage. Myocardial damage following administration of isoproterenol is increased when there is enhanced intramyocardial lipolysis and an increased amount of polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in membrane phospholipids. Mocardial damage is decreased when there is reduced intramyocardial lipolysis and the membrane response makes the membranes less permeable and more stable. PMID:1197881</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gudbjarnason, S; Oskarsdóttir, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/g23m527464727656.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of dietary conjugated linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> on growth, fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and hepatic lipogenesis in large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea R.)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examined the effects of conjugated linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (CLA) on growth, fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and enzyme activity of fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span>\\u000a oxidation in the liver of large yellow croaker. We divided 1600 fish (average initial weight 150 g) into 4 groups and reared\\u000a them in 8 cages. Four dietary treatments were formulated to contain 0%, 1%, 2% and 4% (w\\/w) CLA,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhan-yu Zhao; Tian-xing Wu; Hong-gang Tang; Ji-ze Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21398564"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of ensiling and silage additives on fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of ryegrass and corn experimental silages.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two experiments were conducted using laboratory mini-silos to study the effect of ensiling and silage additives on fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> (FA) <span class="hlt">composition</span>, including minor or unusual FA, of ryegrass and corn silages. Ryegrass was ensiled for 12 wk with no additives, with the addition of a bacterial inoculant or formic <span class="hlt">acid</span>. Corn was ensiled for 9 wk without additives, with the addition of a bacterial inoculant or calcium formate. Ensiling affected both total FA content and FA <span class="hlt">composition</span> of ryegrass silages. Total FA concentration increased (P < 0.001) during ryegrass ensiling. The proportions (g/100 g of total FA) of the major unsaturated FA, 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6, were not affected (P > 0.05) by ensiling. However, their concentration (mg/g of DM) in silages was greater (P=0.017 and P=0.001, respectively) than in fresh ryegrass. Two 18:2 FA (trans-11,cis-15 and cis-9,cis-15) that were not originally present in the fresh ryegrass were detected in silages. Silage additives affected the FA <span class="hlt">composition</span> of ryegrass silages, mostly by increasing the proportions of SFA, but not on total FA concentration. Ensiling did not affect (P=0.83) total FA content of corn silages; however, FA <span class="hlt">composition</span> was affected, mostly by decreasing the proportions of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. Silage additives had no effect on corn silage FA <span class="hlt">composition</span>. Exposing corn silages to air resulted in no oxidation of FA or reduction in total FA content or <span class="hlt">composition</span>. PMID:21398564</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alves, S P; Cabrita, A R J; Jerónimo, E; Bessa, R J B; Fonseca, A J M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013741"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isotope <span class="hlt">composition</span> of sulphate in <span class="hlt">acid</span> mine drainage as measure of bacterial oxidation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The formation of <span class="hlt">acid</span> waters by oxidation of pyrite-bearing ore deposits, mine tailing piles, and coal measures is a complex biogeochemical process and is a serious environmental problem. We have studied the oxygen and sulphur isotope geochemistry of sulphides, sulphur, sulphate and water in the field and in experiments to identify sources of oxygen and reaction mechanisms of sulphate formation. Here we report that the oxygen isotope <span class="hlt">composition</span> of sulphate in <span class="hlt">acid</span> mine drainage shows a large variation due to differing proportions of atmospheric- and water-derived oxygen from both chemical and bacterially-mediated oxidation. 18O-enrichment of sulphate results from pyrite oxidation facilitated by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in aerated environments. Oxygen isotope analysis may therefore be useful in monitoring the effectiveness of abatement programmes designed to inhibit bacterial oxidation. Sulphur isotopes show no significant fractionation between pyrite and sulphate, indicating the quantitative insignificance of intermediate oxidation states of sulphur under <span class="hlt">acid</span> conditions. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Taylor, B.E.; Wheeler, M.C.; Nordstrom, D.K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840053907&hterms=molecular+weight&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2528molecular%2Bweight%2529"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carbon isotope <span class="hlt">composition</span> of low molecular weight hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic <span class="hlt">acids</span> from Murchison meteorite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Carbon isotopic <span class="hlt">compositions</span> have been measured for individual hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic <span class="hlt">acids</span> from the Murchison meteorite, a C2 carbonaceous chondrite which fell in Australia in 1969. With few exceptions, notably benzene, the volatile products are substantially isotopically heavier than their terrestrial counterparts, signifying their extraterrestrial origin. For both classes of compounds, the ratio of C-13 to C-12 decreases with increasing carbon number in a roughly parallel manner, and each carboxylic <span class="hlt">acid</span> exhibits a higher isotopic ratio than the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms. These trends are consistent with the kinetically controlled synthesis of higher homologues from lower ones. The results suggest the possibility that the production mechanisms for hydrocarbons and carboxylic <span class="hlt">acids</span> may be similar, and impose constraints on the identity of the reactant species.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yuen, G.; Blair, N.; Des Marais, D. J.; Chang, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18391476"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of palm-based reference materials for the quantification of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Characterisation of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of three palm-based reference materials was carried out through inter-laboratory proficiency tests. Twelve laboratories collaborated in these tests and the fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined by applying the MPOB Test Methods p3.4:2004 and p3.5:2004. Determination of consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptable statistical agreement of results obtained from the collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties (%) for each palm oil reference material produced are listed as follows : 0.20% (C12:0), 1.66+/-0.05% (C14:0), 43.39+/-0.39% (C16:0), 0.14+/-0.06% (C16:1), 3.90+/-0.11% (C18:0), 40.95+/-0.23% (C18:1), 9.68+/-0.21% (C18:2), 0.16+/-0.07% (C18:3) and 0.31+/-0.08% (C20:0) for fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of palm oil; 0.23+/-0.04% (C12:0), 1.02+/-0.04% (C14:0), 39.66+/-0.19% (C16:0), 0.18+/-0.07% (C16:1), 3.81+/-0.04% (C18:0), 44.01+/-0.08% (C18:1), 10.73+/-0.08% (C18:2), 0.20+/-0.06% (C18:3) and 0.34+/-0.04% (C20:0) for fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of palm olein; and 0.20% (C12:0), 1.14+/-0.05% (C14:0), 49.42+/-0.25% (C16:0), 0.16+/-0.08% (C16:1), 4.15+/-0.10% (C18:0), 36.14+/-0.77% (C18:1), 7.95+/-0.29% (C18:2), 0.11+/-0.07% (C18:3) and 0.30+/-0.08% (C20:0) for fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of palm stearin. PMID:18391476</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai; Kuntom, Ainie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3661731"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Functional Nexus between Photoperiod Acclimation, Torpor Expression and Somatic Fatty <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">Composition</span> in a Heterothermic Mammal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The seasonal changes in thermal physiology and torpor expression of many heterothermic mammals are controlled by photoperiod. As function at low body temperatures during torpor requires changes of tissue lipid <span class="hlt">composition</span>, we tested for the first time whether and how fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> are affected by photoperiod acclimation in hamsters, Phodopus sungorus, a strongly photoperiodic species. We also examined changes in fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in relation to those in morphology and thermal biology. Hamsters in short photoperiod had smaller reproductive organs and most had a reduced body mass in comparison to those in long photoperiod. Pelage colour of hamsters under short photoperiod was almost white while that of long photoperiod hamsters was grey-brown and black. Short photoperiod acclimation resulted in regular (28% of days) torpor use, whereas all hamsters in long photoperiod remained normothermic. The <span class="hlt">composition</span> of total fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> differed between acclimation groups for brown adipose tissue (5 of 8 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>), heart muscle (4 of 7 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>) and leg muscle (3 of 11 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>). Importantly, 54% of all fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> detected were correlated (r2?=?0.60 to 0.87) with the minimum surface temperature of individuals, but the responses of tissues differed. While some of the <span class="hlt">compositional</span> changes of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> were consistent with a ‘homeoviscous’ response, this was not the case for all, including the sums of saturated and unsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, which did not differ between acclimation groups. Our data identify a possible nexus between photoperiod acclimation, morphology, reproductive biology, thermal biology and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>. They suggest that some of the changes in thermal physiology are linked to the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of tissue and organ fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>. PMID:23717487</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geiser, Fritz; Klingenspor, Martin; McAllan, Bronwyn M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17227079"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diet alters the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of individual phospholipid classes in beef muscle.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of diet on the distribution of phospholipid classes and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> profiles of individual phospholipid classes in longissimus muscle of beef. An experiment was established to examine the effect of pasture-based versus concentrate diet offered to two different breeds (German Holstein and German Simmental bulls) to enhance the content of beneficial fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in beef and improve the meat quality for the consumer. High-performance thin-layer chromatography was utilized to separate the phospholipid classes. The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the individual phospholipid classes was determined by gas chromatography. The main phospholipid classes in the muscle were phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, representing approximately 60% of the total phospholipids, followed by phosphatidylinositol ranging between 11.8 and 14.8%. The results have shown that the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> profiles in the detected seven phospholipid classes can be affected by different feeding systems. Pasture-based feeding resulted in an enrichment of total and individual n-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in all phospholipid classes of muscle lipids of bulls compared with those fed on concentrate. In contrast, pasture-based diet significantly decreased the proportion of total and individual n-6 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in phospholipid classes, except in the sphingomyelin fraction. The total saturated fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> proportions in the phospholipid classes were different and ranged between 4.5% in the cardiolipin fraction and 50.5% in the sphingomyelin fraction of muscle lipids of bulls. Furthermore, the diet effects on the saturated fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> proportion in the different phospholipid classes differ widely. The results have shown that the C18:1 trans and CLA profiles in the detected seven phospholipid classes can be affected by different feeding systems. PMID:17227079</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dannenberger, Dirk; Nuernberg, Gerd; Scollan, Nigel; Ender, Klaus; Nuernberg, Karin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5681095"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of soil <span class="hlt">acidity</span> factors on yields and foliar <span class="hlt">composition</span> of tropical root crops</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tropical root crops, a major source of food for subsistence farmers, varied in their sensitivity to soil <span class="hlt">acidity</span> factors. Tolerance to soil <span class="hlt">acidity</span> is an important characteristic of crops for the humid tropics where soils are often very <span class="hlt">acid</span> and lime-scarce and expensive. Experiments on two Ultisols and an Oxisol showed that three tropical root crops differed markedly in sensitivity to soil acicity factors. Yams (Dioscorea alata L.) were very sensitive to soil <span class="hlt">acidity</span> with yields on a Ultisol decreasing from 70% of maximum when Al saturation of the effective cation exchange capacity of the soil was 10 to 25% of maximum when Al saturation was 40%. On the other hand, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was very tolerant to high levels of soil <span class="hlt">acidity</span>, yielding about 85% of maximum with 60% Al saturation. Taniers (Xanthosoma sp.) were intermediate between yams and cassava in their tolerance to soil <span class="hlt">acidity</span> yielding about 60% of maximum with 50% Al saturation of the soil. Foliar <span class="hlt">composition</span> of cassava was not affected by soil <span class="hlt">acidity</span> levels and that of yams and taniers was also unaffected except for Ca content which decreased with decreasing soil pH and increasing Al saturation.Response of these tropical root crops to soil <span class="hlt">acidity</span> components was far more striking on Ultisols than on the Oxisol. For yams, soils should be limed to about pH 5.5 with essentially no exhangeable Al/sup 3 +/ present whereas high yields of taniers can be obtained at about pH 4.8 with 20% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/ and of cassava at pH as low as 4.5 with 60% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abruna-Rodriguez, F.; Vicente-Chandler, J.I. Rivera, E.; Rodriguez, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3478172"> <span id="translatedtitle">Liver transcriptome profile in pigs with extreme phenotypes of intramuscular fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background New advances in high-throughput technologies have allowed for the massive analysis of genomic data, providing new opportunities for the characterization of the transcriptome architectures. Recent studies in pigs have employed RNA-Seq to explore the transcriptome of different tissues in a reduced number of animals. The main goal of this study was the identification of differentially-expressed genes in the liver of Iberian x Landrace crossbred pigs showing extreme phenotypes for intramuscular fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> using RNA-Seq. Results The liver transcriptomes of two female groups (H and L) with phenotypically extreme intramuscular fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> were sequenced using RNA-Seq. A total of 146 and 180 unannotated protein-coding genes were identified in intergenic regions for the L and H groups, respectively. In addition, a range of 5.8 to 7.3% of repetitive elements was found, with SINEs being the most abundant elements. The expression in liver of 186 (L) and 270 (H) lncRNAs was also detected. The higher reproducibility of the RNA-Seq data was validated by RT-qPCR and porcine expression microarrays, therefore showing a strong correlation between RT-qPCR and RNA-Seq data (ranking from 0.79 to 0.96), as well as between microarrays and RNA-Seq (r=0.72). A differential expression analysis between H and L animals identified 55 genes differentially-expressed between groups. Pathways analysis revealed that these genes belong to biological functions, canonical pathways and three gene networks related to lipid and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> metabolism. In concordance with the phenotypic classification, the pathways analysis inferred that linolenic and arachidonic <span class="hlt">acids</span> metabolism was altered between extreme individuals. In addition, a connection was observed among the top three networks, hence suggesting that these genes are interconnected and play an important role in lipid and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> metabolism. Conclusions In the present study RNA-Seq was used as a tool to explore the liver transcriptome of pigs with extreme phenotypes for intramuscular fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>. The differential gene expression analysis showed potential gene networks which affect lipid and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> metabolism. These results may help in the design of selection strategies to improve the sensorial and nutritional quality of pork meat. PMID:23051667</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22257831"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recovery of uranium from phosphoric <span class="hlt">acid</span> medium by polymeric <span class="hlt">composite</span> beads encapsulating organophosphorus extractants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present study deals with the preparation and evaluation of the poly-ethersulfone (PES) based <span class="hlt">composite</span> beads encapsulating synergistic mixture of D2EHPA and Cyanex 923 (at 4:1 mole ratio) for the separation of uranium from phosphoric <span class="hlt">acid</span> medium. SEM was used for the characterization of the <span class="hlt">composite</span> materials. Addition of 1% PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) improved the internal morphology and porosity of the beads. Additionally, microscopic examination of the <span class="hlt">composite</span> bead confirmed central coconut type cavity surrounded by porous polymer layer of the beads through which exchange of metal ions take place. Effect of various experimental variables including aqueous <span class="hlt">acidity</span>, metal ion concentration in aqueous feed, concentration of organic extractant inside the beads, extractant to polymer ratio, liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and temperature on the extraction of uranium was studied. Increase in <span class="hlt">acidity</span> (1-6 M), L/S ratio (1- 10), metal ion concentration (0.2-3 g/L U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) and polymer to extractant ratio (1:4 -1:10) led to decrease in extraction of uranium. At 5.5 M (comparable to wet process phosphoric <span class="hlt">acid</span> concentration) the extraction of uranium was about 85% at L/S ratio 5. Increase in extractant concentration inside the bead resulted in enhanced extraction of metal ion. Increase in temperature in the range of 30 to 50 Celsius degrees increased the extraction, whereas further increase to 70 C degrees led to the decrease in extraction of uranium. Amongst various reagents tested, stripping of uranium was quantitative by 12% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. Polymeric beads were found to be stable and reusable up-to 10 cycles of extraction/stripping. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Singh, D.K.; Yadav, K.K.; Varshney, L.; Singh, H. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Nanot..16S.601L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Increased osteoblast functions on nanophase titania dispersed in poly-lactic-co-glycolic <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composites</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The design of nanophase titania/poly-lactic-co-glycolic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (PLGA) <span class="hlt">composites</span> offers an exciting approach to combine the advantages of a degradable polymer with nano-size ceramic grains to optimize physical and biological properties for bone regeneration. Importantly, nanophase titania mimics the size scale of constituent components of bone since it is a nanostructured <span class="hlt">composite</span> composed of nanometre dimensioned hydroxyapatite well dispersed in a mostly collagen matrix. For these reasons, the objective of the present in vitro study was to investigate osteoblast (bone-forming cell) adhesion and long-term functions on nanophase titania/PLGA <span class="hlt">composites</span>. Since nanophase titania tended to significantly agglomerate when added to polymers, different sonication output powers were applied in this study to improve titania dispersion. Results demonstrated that the dispersion of titania in PLGA was enhanced by increasing the intensity of sonication and that greater osteoblast adhesion correlated with improved nanophase titania dispersion in PLGA. Moreover, results correlated better osteoblast long-term functions, such as alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium-containing mineral deposition, on nanophase titania/PLGA <span class="hlt">composites</span> compared to plain PLGA. In fact, the greatest collagen production by osteoblasts occurred when cultured on nanophase titania sonicated in PLGA at the highest powers. In this manner, the present study demonstrates that PLGA <span class="hlt">composites</span> with well dispersed nanophase titania can enhance osteoblast functions necessary for improved bone tissue engineering applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Huinan; Slamovich, Elliott B.; Webster, Thomas J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20605445"> <span id="translatedtitle">Morphology and properties of hybrid <span class="hlt">composites</span> based on polypropylene/polylactic <span class="hlt">acid</span> blend and bamboo fiber.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The design of new <span class="hlt">composites</span> based on a polypropylene (PP)/polylactic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (PLA) matrix and filler bamboo fiber (BF) leads to changes in process ability, morphology, and rheological properties of the raw thermoplastic. We have designed more environmentally friendly <span class="hlt">composites</span> blended with PLA, filled with bamboo fiber. To refine dispersion of PLA and improve <span class="hlt">composite</span> toughness, MAH-g-PP was included in the filler-matrix interface to enhance interface strength for PP, PLA and BF. The incorporation of MAH-g-PP into <span class="hlt">composites</span> brought about beneficial changes in morphology and rheological, related with improved dispersion of PLA and increased bamboo fiber-matrix interactions. The SEM results showed the particle size of the dispersed PLA and BF phase significantly reduced with adding a litter MAH-g-PP. The XRD and DSC results showed that spread and phases in the <span class="hlt">composites</span> preserved crystallization. The good rheological, morphological and thermal properties obtained when the ratio of PP/PLA/BF/MAH-g-PP was 48.75/13/35/3.25. PMID:20605445</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ying-Chen, Zhang; Hong-Yan, Wu; Yi-Ping, Qiu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53659421"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optical properties of conjugated poly(3-hexylthiophene)\\/[6,6]-phenylC61-butyric <span class="hlt">acid</span> methyl ester <span class="hlt">composites</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work, we present the evolution of optical constants as a function of [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric <span class="hlt">acid</span> methyl ester (PCBM) concentration for conjugated poly(3-hexylthiophene)\\/[6,6]-phenylC61-butyric <span class="hlt">acid</span> methyl ester <span class="hlt">composites</span>. The PCBM concentration of the utilized samples varies from 1 to 50 wt %. The dielectric functions for all these <span class="hlt">composites</span> reveal electronic structural changes as a result of the addition of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Emmanouil Lioudakis; Andreas Othonos; Ioannis Alexandrou; Yasuhiko Hayashi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34622219"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">Acid</span> Profile of Sunshine Bass: I. Profile Change is Affected by Initial <span class="hlt">Composition</span> and Differs Among Tissues</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> (FA) <span class="hlt">composition</span> of fillet tissue can be tailored by transitioning fish from alternative lipid-based, low long-chain\\u000a polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> (LC-PUFA) grow-out feeds to high LC-PUFA “finishing” feeds. To address whether grow-out feed <span class="hlt">composition</span>\\u000a influences the responsiveness of fillet tissue to finishing, sunshine bass (SB, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis) were reared to a submarketable size on grow-out feeds containing fish</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jesse T. Trushenski; Heidi A. Lewis; Christopher C. Kohler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25502824"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">composite</span> dermal filler comprising cross-linked hyaluronic <span class="hlt">Acid</span> and human collagen for tissue reconstruction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, we developed a <span class="hlt">composite</span> filler comprising cross-linked hyaluronic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (HA) and human collagen (COL) derived from the human umbilical cord with the aim of improving its biocompatibility and longevity compared with commercially available fillers. After HA/ COL <span class="hlt">composite</span> fillers were made in two different ratios (10:1 and 5:1), the physical properties of the fillers were evaluated. The interior morphologies and in vivo weight change of these hydrogels were also characterized at 1-16 weeks after injection into mice. To evaluate their biocompatibility and durability in vivo, we injected the <span class="hlt">composite</span> fillers into nude mice subcutaneously. The variations of injected gel weight were measured and compared with the commercial dermal fillers (Restylane and TheraFill). The <span class="hlt">composites</span> showed improved or similar physical properties (complex viscosity of 19-22 × 10(5) cP, and injection force of 10- 12 N) over the commercial dermal fillers. Sixteen weeks following the injection, the ratio of remaining <span class="hlt">composite</span> filler weight to initial weight (75.5 ± 16.9%; 10:1) was shown to be greater than that of the commercial fillers (43.2 ± 8.1%, Restylane; 12.3 ± 5.3%, TheraFill). In addition, immunohistochemical analysis with angiogenesis-related markers such as isolectin and vWF revealed newly formed blood vessels and cellular influx into the <span class="hlt">composite</span> filler, which were not observed in the other fillers. These results clearly suggest that the HA/COL <span class="hlt">composite</span> filler is a superior candidate for soft tissue reconstruction. The filler we developed may be a suitable candidate as an injectable dermal filler for tissue augmentation in humans. PMID:25502824</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Z-Hun; Lee, Yongjun; Kim, Sun-Mi; Kim, Hojin; Yun, Chang-Koo; Choi, Yong-Soo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">441</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4245572"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polyunsaturated Fatty <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">Composition</span> of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old) in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet <span class="hlt">composition</span> was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span>) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic <span class="hlt">acid</span> and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bascuñán, Karla A.; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">442</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25606458"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of the bovine gene LIPE and possible influence on fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of meat.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">LIPE is an intracellular neutral lipase, which is capable of hydrolyzing a variety of esters and plays a key role in the mobilization of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> from diacylglycerols. The objectives of this study were to characterize the genetic polymorphism of bovine LIPE gene and to evaluate the possible association between three SNPs in the coding regions of this gene with the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of meat in a cattle population. Forty-three unrelated animals from different cattle breeds were re-sequenced and 21 SNPs were detected over approximately 2600 bp, five of these SNPs were novel. Three SNPs were selected, on the basis of evolutionary conservation, to perform validation and association studies in a crossbred cattle population. Our results may suggest a possible association of SNP1 with contents of oleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> and total monounsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (p < 0.01), and SNP2 and SNP3 with Heneicosylic <span class="hlt">acid</span> content (p < 0.01), may be helpful to improve the quality of meat and improve health. PMID:25606458</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goszczynski, Daniel Estanislao; Mazzucco, Juliana Papaleo; Ripoli, María Verónica; Villarreal, Edgardo Leopoldo; Rogberg-Muñoz, Andrés; Mezzadra, Carlos Alberto; Melucci, Lilia Magdalena; Giovambattista, Guillermo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">443</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25386693"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of maternal diet and erythrocyte phospholipid status in Chilean pregnant women.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20-36 years old) in the 3rd-6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet <span class="hlt">composition</span> was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span>) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic <span class="hlt">acid</span> and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bascuñán, Karla A; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">444</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11269697"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of lipids present in selected lichenized fungi: a chemotyping study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The total-lipid <span class="hlt">composition</span> of 21 lichens of the ascomycetous genera Cladonia (11) and Cladina (1) of the family Cladoniacea, Cladia (1), Parmotrema (3), Ramalina (2), Leptogium (1), Cetraria (1), and the basidiomycetous genus Dictyonema (1) was determined. Analyses of those of Dictyonema glabratum were carried out with a total extract and those obtained after successive extractions with various solvents. Each extract was partitioned between n-heptane/isopropanol and 1 M sulfuric <span class="hlt">acid</span>, giving triglycerides (TG) in the upper phase. Extracts were methanolyzed and the resulting methyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Methanolyzates of TG unexpectedly contained esters of 9-oxodecanoic, 9-methyl-tetradecanoic, 6-methyl-tetradecanoic, 3-hydroxy-decanoic, nonanedioic, and decanedioic <span class="hlt">acids</span>, as well as common fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>. Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> methyl ester profiles from the lichens were submitted to cluster analysis, and the resulting dendogram showed a cluster consistent with Cladonia spp., suggesting an efficient aid to lichen taxonomy. The total carbohydrate content of each lipid extract was determined by a modified phenol-sulfuric <span class="hlt">acid</span> method, which compensated for the presence of pigments. PMID:11269697</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sassaki, G L; Cruz, L M; Gorin, P A; Lacomini, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">445</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3892503"> <span id="translatedtitle">Proximate <span class="hlt">Composition</span>, Amino <span class="hlt">Acid</span>, Mineral, and Heavy Metal Content of Dried Laver</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Laver, a red algae belonging to the genus Porphyra, is one of the most widely consumed edible seaweeds. The most popular commercial dried laver species, P. tenera and P. haitanensis, were collected from Korea and China, respectively, and evaluated for proximate <span class="hlt">composition</span>, amino <span class="hlt">acids</span>, minerals, trace heavy metals, and color. The moisture and ash contents of P. tenera and P. haitanensis ranged from 3.66~6.74% and 8.78~9.07%, respectively; crude lipid and protein contents were 1.96~2.25% and 32.16~36.88%, respectively. Dried lavers were found to be a good source of amino <span class="hlt">acids</span>, such as asparagine, isoleucine, leucine, and taurine, and ?-aminobutyric <span class="hlt">acid</span>. K, Ca, Mg, Na, P, I, Fe, and Se minerals were selected for analysis. A clear regional variation existed in the amino <span class="hlt">acid</span>, mineral, and trace metal contents of lavers. Regular consumption of lavers may have heath benefits because they are relatively low in fat and high in protein, and contain functional amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> and minerals. PMID:24471123</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hwang, Eun-Sun; Ki, Kyung-Nam; Chung, Ha-Yull</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">446</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5185777"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diffusion dialysis. Effect of membrane <span class="hlt">composition</span> on <span class="hlt">acid</span>/salt separation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Diffusion dialysis is an energy-saving separation technique. In order to highlight the relationship between membrane <span class="hlt">composition</span> and ability to separate <span class="hlt">acid</span>/salt mixtures by diffusion dialysis, a few anion-exchange membranes were examined. Experiments on solubility/diffusivity phenomena were carried out in contact with hydrochloric <span class="hlt">acid</span> and sodium chloride solutions (single- and two-solute experiments). Computations using Glueckauf and Tye models have indicated high nonuniformity in the distribution of fixed charged within the membranes and different accessibilities of the internal membrane volumes for the <span class="hlt">acid</span> and salt. The Neosepta AFN-7 membrane (Tokuymam Soda Co.) has proved effective in differentiating the permeants by sorption (k{sub HCl}/k{sub NaCl} {approx} 2) and diffusivity ({bar D}{sub HCl}/{bar D}{sub NaCl} up to 10). This membrane is also the only one which, when in contact with two-solutes solutions, absorbs the <span class="hlt">acid</span> preferentially to the salt. For this membrane the preferential sorption and transport of the <span class="hlt">acid</span> depends not only on the physical structure of the membrane but also on the chemical nature of the polymer which contains pyridine moieties.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Narebska, A.; Warszawski, A. (Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Torun (Poland))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">447</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChJOL..33...70M"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effects of season on fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and ?3/?6 ratios of northern pike ( Esox lucius L., 1758) muscle lipids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the present study, the effects of season on fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>, total lipids, and ?3/?6 ratios of northern pike muscle lipids in Kizilirmak River (Kirikkale, Turkey) were investigated. A total of 35 different fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> were determined in gas chromatography. Among these, palmitic, oleic, and palmitoleic <span class="hlt">acids</span> had the highest proportion. The main polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (PUFAs) were found to be docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, eicosapentaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, and arachidonic <span class="hlt">acid</span>. There were more PUFAs than monounsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (MUFA) in all seasons. Similarly, the percentages of ?3 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> were higher than those of total ?6 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>. ?3/?6 ratios were calculated as 1.53, 1.32, 1.97, and 1.71 in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. Overall, we found that the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and ?3/?6 fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> ratio in the muscle of northern pike were significantly influenced by season.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mert, Ramazan; Bulut, Sait; Konuk, Muhsin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">448</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22285120"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of membrane bilayers: importance of diet polyunsaturated fat balance.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In one of the most extensive analyses to date we show that the balance of diet n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (PUFA) is the most important determinant of membrane <span class="hlt">composition</span> in the rat under 'normal' conditions. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of twelve moderate-fat diets (25% of total energy) for 8weeks. Diets differed only in fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> (FA) profiles, with saturate (SFA) content ranging 8-88% of total FAs, monounsaturate (MUFA) 6-65%, total PUFA 4-81%, n-6 PUFA 3-70% and n-3 PUFA 1-70%. Diet PUFA included only essential FAs 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. Balance between n-3 and n-6 PUFA is defined as the PUFA balance (n-3 PUFA as % of total PUFA) and ranged 1-86% in the diets. FA <span class="hlt">composition</span> was measured for brain, heart, liver, skeletal muscle, erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids, as well as adipose tissue and plasma triglycerides. The conformer-regulator model was used (slope=1 indicates membrane <span class="hlt">composition</span> completely conforming to diet). Extensive changes in diet SFA, MUFA and PUFA had minimal effect on membranes (average slopes 0.01, 0.07, 0.07 respectively), but considerable influence on adipose tissue and plasma triglycerides (average slopes 0.27, 0.53, 0.47 respectively). Diet balance between n-3 and n-6 PUFA had a biphasic influence on membrane <span class="hlt">composition</span>. When n-3 PUFA<10% of total PUFA, membrane <span class="hlt">composition</span> completely conformed to diet (average slope 0.95), while diet PUFA balance>10% had little influence (average slope 0.19). The modern human diet has an average PUFA balance ~10% and this will likely have significant health implications. PMID:22285120</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abbott, Sarah K; Else, Paul L; Atkins, Taleitha A; Hulbert, A J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">449</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22003234"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fish meal supplementation increases bovine plasma and luteal tissue omega-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this experiment was to determine if dietary inclusion of fish meal would increase plasma and luteal tissue concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acids</span>. Seventeen nonlactating Angus cows (2 to 8 yr of age) were housed in individual pens and fed a corn silage-based diet for approximately 60 d. Diets were supplemented with fish meal at 5% DMI (a rich source of eicosapentaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> and docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span>; n = 9 cows) or corn gluten meal at 6% DMI (n = 8 cows). Body weights and jugular blood samples were collected immediately before the initiation of supplementation and every 7 d thereafter for 56 d to monitor plasma n-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and BW. Estrous cycles were synchronized using 2 injections of PGF(2?) administered at 14-d intervals. The ovary bearing the corpus luteum was surgically removed at midcycle (between d 10 and 12) after estrus synchronization, which corresponded to approximately d 60 of supplementation. The ovary was transported to the laboratory, and approximately 1.5 g of luteal tissue was stored at -80°C until analyzed for n-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> content. Initial and ending BW did not differ (P > 0.10) between cows supplemented with fish meal and those with corn gluten meal. Plasma eicosapentaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 7 of supplementation and docosahexaenoic was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 14 of supplementation for cows receiving fish meal. Luteal tissue collected from fish meal-supplemented cows had greater (P < 0.05) luteal n-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> and reduced (P < 0.05) arachidonic <span class="hlt">acid</span> and n-6 to n-3 ratio as compared with tissue obtained from cows supplemented with corn gluten meal. Our data show that fish meal supplementation increases luteal n-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> content and reduces available arachidonic <span class="hlt">acid</span> content, the precursor for PGF(2?). The increase in luteal n-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> may reduce PGF(2?) intraluteal synthesis after breeding resulting in increased fertility in cattle. PMID:22003234</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">White, N R; Burns, P D; Cheatham, R D; Romero, R M; Nozykowski, J P; Bruemmer, J E; Engle, T E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">450</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25468700"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of dietary fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> supplements, varying in fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>, on milk fat secretion in dairy cattle fed diets supplemented to less than 3% total fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dietary fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> can affect both milk fat yield and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> (FA) <span class="hlt">composition</span>. This relationship is well established when the dietary level of FA exceeds 3% of diet dry matter (DM). We could find no reports directly examining the effects of dietary FA profile on milk fat at levels below 3%. Twenty-four primiparous and 36 multiparous lactating cows were paired by production (1 high with 1 low, within parity) to form 30 experimental units. Pairs were fed 6 diets in five 6×6 balanced Latin squares with 21-d periods, and data were collected during the last 5d of each period. Two control diets were fed: a corn control diet (CC; 29% corn silage, 16% alfalfa silage, 19% corn grain, and 8% distillers grain on a DM basis) containing 1.8% FA; and a low-oil control diet (LOC; 9% corn silage, 35% alfalfa silage, 20% food-grade corn starch, and 8% corn gluten feed on a DM basis) containing 1.2% FA. A portion of the food-grade corn starch in LOC was replaced with 4 different FA supplements to create the 4 treatment diets. Treatments were 1.7% (DM basis) of a 50:50 blend of corn oil and high-linoleic safflower oil (LO), 1.7% high-oleic sunflower oil (OO), 1.7% palm oil (PO), or 1.8% calcium salts of palm fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (PFA). The resultant diets were thus enriched in linoleic (LO), oleic (OO), or palmitic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (PO and PFA). Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake. Addition of any of the fat sources to LOC resulted in increased milk yield, but milk fat yields and milk FA <span class="hlt">composition</span> were variable for the different treatments. The LO treatment resulted in lower milk fat yield, fat concentration, and C16:0 yield but increased both trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 yields compared with the other added FA treatments. Diets PO and PFA resulted in increased milk C16:0 yield and decreased total milk C18 yield compared with OO. Regression analysis revealed a negative coefficient for dietary linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> content over basal (LOC) for both milk short-chain FA yield and C16:0 yield. Dietary linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> content also had a positive coefficient for milk trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> yield. These results demonstrate that even when total dietary FA are below 3%, free oils rich in linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> can reduce milk fat yield by reducing secretion of milk FA with fewer than 18 carbons. Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of fat supplements is important even at this low level of total dietary fat. PMID:25468700</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stoffel, C M; Crump, P M; Armentano, L E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">451</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23307846"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of pasture intake on meat quality, lipid oxidation, and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of geese.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study was conducted to investigate the influence of pasture intake on meat quality, lipid oxidation, and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of geese. One hundred twenty Dongbei White male geese (a local breed; BW = 878 ± 13 g; 28 d old) were randomly and equally divided into 2 treatments with 6 pens of 10 geese per treatment. The 2 treatments consisted of birds fed ad libitum a corn-based feed. One-half of the birds had no access to pasture (control) while the other half had access to an alfalfa (Medicago sativa)-based pasture (pasture). The study lasted 42 d. Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, geese were slaughtered to collect meat samples. Results showed that pasture intake reduced subcutaneous fat thickness (P < 0.05) and abdominal fat yield (P < 0.05) of geese compared with control. Geese with access to pasture had greater cooking loss (P < 0.05) and lightness (L*) value (P < 0.05) and lower pH at 24 h postmortem (pH24; P < 0.05) and thiobarbituric <span class="hlt">acid</span> reacting substance values (P < 0.05) at 0 and 30 min of forced oxidation. Moreover, pasture intake increased linolenic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (C18:3n-3; P < 0.05) and eicosapentaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (C20:5n-3; P < 0.05) and reduced the n-6:n-3 ratio (P < 0.05) in the breast muscle of geese compare with the control. In conclusion, pasture intake did not enhance growth performance but improved carcass characteristics and meat quality and changed fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of geese. PMID:23307846</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, H W; Zhou, D W</p>