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1

Comparison of Growth Performance and Whole-body Amino Acid Composition in Red Seabream (Pagrus major) Fed Free or Dipeptide Form of Phenylalanine  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the dipeptide form of phenylalanine as a new source of amino acid in terms of growth performance and whole-body amino acid composition in comparison to the free form for red seabream (Pagrus major). Fish (1.46±0.001 g) were fed four isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental diets containing 0.7 or 1.4% phenylalanine either in free or dipeptide form. A feeding trial was carried out in three replicates and the fish were fed to apparent satiation for six weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, feed intake of fish was influenced by both phenylalanine form and level and significantly higher values were obtained at an inclusion level of 0.7% and by the use of dipeptide form. However, the other growth parameters did not significantly differ among treatments. Whole-body amino acid compositions revealed no significant changes in concentrations of both essential and non-essential amino acids regardless of the increase in phenylalanine levels or the use of its different forms. The finding in this study indicates that juvenile red seabream can utilize dipeptide phenylalanine as efficiently as free form without any undesirable effects on growth performance or whole-body amino acid composition. PMID:25049673

Kim, Sung-Sam; Rahimnejad, Samad; Song, Jin-Woo; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

2012-01-01

2

Dipeptide Sequence Determination: Analyzing Phenylthiohydantoin Amino Acids by HPLC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acid composition and sequence determination, important techniques for characterizing peptides and proteins, are essential for predicting conformation and studying sequence alignment. This experiment presents improved, fundamental methods of sequence analysis for an upper-division biochemistry laboratory. Working in pairs, students use the Edman reagent to prepare phenylthiohydantoin derivatives of amino acids for determination of the sequence of an unknown dipeptide. With a single HPLC technique, students identify both the N-terminal amino acid and the composition of the dipeptide. This method yields good precision of retention times and allows use of a broad range of amino acids as components of the dipeptide. Students learn fundamental principles and techniques of sequence analysis and HPLC.

Barton, Janice S.; Tang, Chung-Fei; Reed, Steven S.

2000-02-01

3

Correlation and prediction of gene expression level from amino acid and dipeptide composition of its protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A large number of papers have been published on analysis of microarray data with particular emphasis on normalization of data, detection of differentially expressed genes, clustering of genes and regulatory network. On other hand there are only few studies on relation between expression level and composition of nucleotide\\/protein sequence, using expression data. There is a need to understand why

Gajendra P. S. Raghava; Joon H. Han

2005-01-01

4

ESLpred: SVM-based method for subcellular localization of eukaryotic proteins using dipeptide composition and PSI-BLAST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated prediction of subcellular localization of proteinsisanimportant stepinthefunctionalannota- tionofgenomes.Theexistingsubcellularlocalization prediction methods are based on either amino acid composition or N-terminal characteristics of the pro- teins.Inthispaper,supportvectormachine(SVM)has beenusedtopredictthesubcellularlocationofeukar- yotic proteins from their different features such as amino acid composition, dipeptide composition and physico-chemicalproperties.TheSVMmodulebased on dipeptide composition performed better than the SVM modules based on amino acid composition or physico-chemical properties. In addition,

Manoj Bhasin; G. P. S. Raghava

2004-01-01

5

Cyclopropane amino acid ester dipeptide sweeteners.  

PubMed

A series of esters of L-aspartyl-1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid has been prepared and their sweet tastes determined. The sweetest ester prepared was about 300 times sweeter than sucrose. An attempt to use basic conditions during preparation of the dipeptide allyl ester led to succinimide formation of the aspartyl peptide even though the beta-carboxyl group was protected by a t-butyl ester function. The X-ray structure of the propyl ester (1c) was determined and its conformation is discussed. PMID:3429129

Mapelli, C; Newton, M G; Ringold, C E; Stammer, C H

1987-10-01

6

Density functional theory calculations on dipeptide gallic acid interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to study the interaction of dipeptides with gallic acid, using Becke3 parameter Lee Yang Parr (B3LYP) method employing 3-21G*, 6-31G* and 6-31+G* basis sets. The interaction energies of the dipeptide-gallic acid complexes are in the range of -5 to -18 kcal/mol depending on the mode of intermolecular complexation. Calculated molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) for the various intermolecular complexes revealed the electrostatic nature of the interaction. Qualitative estimations based on chemical hardness and chemical potential demonstrated fractional electron transfer from dipeptide to gallic acid.

Madhan, B.; Parthasarathi, R.; Subramanian, V.; Raghava Rao, J.; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Ramasami, T.

2003-02-01

7

Kinetic studies of dipeptide-based and amino acid-based peritoneal dialysis solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic studies of dipeptide-based and amino acid-based peritoneal dialysis solutions.BackgroundDipeptide-based peritoneal dialysis solutions may have potential advantages compared with the glucose or amino acid-based solutions. Dipeptides may hydrolyze in the peritoneal cavity, generating constituent amino acids and thereby increasing the osmolality of the dialysate. Dipeptides can also be a valuable source of amino acids, which are poorly soluble in water,

Andrzej Wery?ski; Jacek Waniewski; Tao Wang; Björn Anderstam; Bengt Lindholm; Jonas Bergström

2001-01-01

8

Method for the synthesis of phosphinic acids from hypophosphites. V. The synthesis of pseudo-alpha,alpha-dipeptides.  

PubMed

The method for the synthesis of 2-substituted 2-hydroxycarbonylethyl-1-aminoalkylphosphinic acids (I) (pseudo-alpha,alpha-dipeptides) from ammonium and potassium hypophosphites (II) is described. The proposed route to the synthesis of pseudo-alpha,alpha-dipeptides consists in addition hypophosphite to acrylic compounds and formation of the first phosphorus-carbon bond with following addition of aminoacid fragment and formation of the second phosphorus-carbon bond. The key intermediates of the synthesis - phosphonous acids (III) and their silylic esters (IV) were obtained at the first stage of the process as the result of the addition of the bis(trimethylsilyl)hypophosphite in situ to suitably substituted acrylates. The modificated procedure for the Kabachnik-Fields reaction of 2-substituted 2-alkoxycarbonylethyl phosphonous acids (III), acetamide, benzaldehyde in acetic anhydride with following hydrolysis results in 2-substituted 2-hydroxycarbonylethyl-alpha-aminobenzyl phosphinic acids (Ia-c) (pseudo-phenylglycylpeptides). Bis(trimethylsilyl) 2-substituted 2-alkoxycarbonylethylphosphonites (IV) in situ were added to N-tritylmethanimine and following alcoholysis and acid hydrolysis of addition products gave 2-substituted 2-hydroxycarbonylethyl-aminomethylphosphinic acids (Id-f) (pseudo-glycylpeptides). PMID:15880266

Rozhko, L F; Ragulin, V V

2005-08-01

9

Dipeptide Formation from Amino Acid Monomer Induced by keV Ion Irradiation: An Implication for Physicochemical Repair by Radiation Itself  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An identification of Phe dipeptide from L-phenylalanine monomers after keV nitrogen and argon ion implantation, by using the HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) and LC-MS(liquid chromatography mass spectrometer) methods is reported. The results showed a similar yield behavior for both ion species, namely: 1) the yield of dipeptides under alkalescent conditions was distinctly higher than that under acidic or neutral conditions; 2) for different ion species, the dose-yield curves tracked a similar trend which was called a counter-saddle curve. The dipeptide formation may implicate a recombination repair mechanism of damaged biomolecules that energetic ions have left in their wake. Accordingly a physicochemical self-repair mechanism by radiation itself for the ion-beam radiobiological effects is proposed.

Wang, Wei; Yuan, Hang; Wang, Xiangqin; Yu, Zengliang

2008-02-01

10

Enantioseparation of dansyl amino acids and dipeptides by chiral ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis based on Zn(II)-L-hydroxyproline complexes coordinating with ?-cyclodextrins.  

PubMed

A chiral ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis (CLE-CE) method using Zn(II) as the central ion and L-4-hydroxyproline as the chiral ligand coordinating with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) was developed for the enantioseparation of amino acids (AAs) and dipeptides. The effects of various separation parameters, including the pH of the running buffer, the ratio of Zn(II) to L-4-hydroxyproline, the concentration of complexes and cyclodextrins (CDs) were systematically investigated. After optimization, it has been found that eight pairs of labeled AAs and six pairs of labeled dipeptides could be baseline-separated with a running electrolyte of 100.0mM boric acid, 5.0mM ammonium acetate, 3.0mM Zn(II), 6.0mM L-hydroxyproline and 4.0mM ?-CD at pH 8.2. The quantitation of AAs and dipeptides was conducted and good linearity (r(2)?0.997) and favorable repeatability (RSD?3.6%) were obtained. Furthermore, the proposed method was applied in determining the enantiomeric purity of AAs and dipeptides. Meanwhile, the possible enantiorecognition mechanism based on the synergistic effect of chiral metal complexes and ?-CD was explored and discussed briefly. PMID:25220143

Mu, Xiaoyu; Qi, Li; Qiao, Juan; Yang, Xinzheng; Ma, Huimin

2014-10-10

11

Cyclic dipeptides from lactic acid bacteria inhibit the proliferation of pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus plantarum LBP-K10 was identified to be the most potent antifungal strain from Korean traditional fermented vegetables. The culture filtrate of this strain showed remarkable antifungal activity against Ganoderma boninense. Five fractions from the culture filtrate were observed to have an inhibitory effect against G. boninense. Also, the electron ionization and chemical ionization indicated that these compounds might be cyclic dipeptides. Of the five active fractions, two fractions showed the most significant anti-Ganoderma activity, and one of these fractions inhibited the growth of Candida albicans. These compounds were identified to be cis-cyclo(L-Val-L-Pro) and cis-cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro), as confirmed by X-ray crystallography. PMID:24390839

Kwak, Min-Kyu; Liu, Rui; Kim, Min-Kyu; Moon, Dohyun; Kim, Andrew Hyoungjin; Song, Sung-Hyun; Kang, Sa-Ouk

2014-01-01

12

The stereochemistry of the amino acid side chain influences the inflammatory potential of muramyl dipeptide in experimental meningitis.  

PubMed

Intrathecal injections of 50 to 100 micro g of (N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine) muramyl dipeptide (MDP)/rabbit dose-dependently triggered tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion (12 to 40,000 pg/ml) preceding the influx of leukocytes in the subarachnoid space of rabbits. Intrathecal instillation of heat-killed unencapsulated R6 pneumococci produced a comparable leukocyte influx but only a minimal level of preceding TNF-alpha secretion. The stereochemistry of the first amino acid (L-alanine) of the MDP played a crucial role with regard to its inflammatory potential. Isomers harboring D-alanine in first position did not induce TNF-alpha secretion and influx of leukocytes. This stereospecificity of MDPs was also confirmed by measuring TNF-alpha release from human peripheral mononuclear blood cells stimulated in vitro. These data show that the inflammatory potential of MDPs depends on the stereochemistry of the first amino acid of the peptide side chain and suggest that intact pneumococci and MDPs induce inflammation by different pathways. PMID:12761158

Cottagnoud, P; Gerber, C M; Majcherczyk, P A; Acosta, F; Cottagnoud, M; Neftel, K; Moreillon, P; Täuber, M G

2003-06-01

13

Magnetic field dependent long-lived spin states in amino acids and dipeptides.  

PubMed

Magnetic field dependence of long-lived spin states (LLSs) of the ?-CH2 protons of aromatic amino acids was studied. LLSs are spin states, which are immune to dipolar relaxation, thus having lifetimes far exceeding the longitudinal relaxation times; the simplest example of an LLS is given by the singlet state of two coupled spins. LLSs were created by means of the photo-chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization technique. The systems studied were amino acids, histidine and tyrosine, with different isotopomers. For labeled amino acids with the ?-CH and aromatic protons substituted by deuterium at low fields the LLS lifetime, TLLS, for the ?-CH2 protons was more than 40 times longer than the T1-relaxation time. Upon increasing the number of protons the ratio TLLS/T1 was reduced; however, even in the fully protonated amino acids it was about 10; that is, the long-lived mode was still preserved in the system. In addition, the effect of paramagnetic impurities on spin relaxation was studied; field dependencies of T1 and TLLS were measured. LLSs were also formed in tyrosine-containing dyads; a TLLS/T1 ratio of ?7 was found, usable for extending the spin polarization lifetime in such systems. PMID:24634918

Pravdivtsev, Andrey N; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V; Zimmermann, Herbert; Vieth, Hans-Martin; Ivanov, Konstantin L

2014-04-28

14

Highly purified lipoteichoic acid induced pro-inflammatory signalling in primary culture of rat microglia through Toll-like receptor 2: selective potentiation of nitric oxide production by muramyl dipeptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to the role of lipopolysaccharide from Gram-neg- ative bacteria, the role of Gram-positive bacterial components in inducing inflammation in the CNS remains controversial. We studied the potency of highly purified lipoteichoic acid and muramyl dipeptide isolated from Staphylococcus aureus to activate primary cultures of rat microglia. Exposure of pure microglial cultures to lipoteichoic acid triggered a significant time-

Agnieszka Kinsner; Monica Boveri; Lars Hareng; Guy C. Brown; Sandra Coecke; Thomas Hartung; Anna Bal-Price

2006-01-01

15

Micellular Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Separation and Identification of the Amino Acid Residues in an Unknown Dipeptide Using FMOC Derivatization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This manuscript describes our efforts to introduce biochemistry students to micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC), a mode of capillary electrophoresis that employs micelles in the operating buffer. Unlike free solution capillary electrophoresis, MEKC is capable of resolving both charged and uncharged analytes because the micellar pseudo stationary phase allows for the separation of uncharged species. The experiment described herein includes a comparison of MEKC, employing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the micelle-forming species, with reverse-phase HPLC. Both methods are used to determine the amino acid residues in an unknown dipeptide. Advanced undergraduate chemistry, biochemistry, and biology majors perform this experiment in the Biochemical Methods course at Bucknell University. The students cleave the peptide bond, derivatize the resultant amino acids with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC), and separate the FMOC-amino acid derivatives using HPLC and MEKC. This manuscript details the analytical procedures for the MEKC separation and presents typical student data obtained using this relatively new method.

Strein, Timothy G.; Poechmann, James L.; Prudenti, Mark

1999-06-01

16

Classification of Nuclear Receptors Based on Amino Acid Composition and Dipeptide Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear receptors are key transcription factors that regulate crucial gene networks responsible for cell growth, differentiation, and homeostasis. Nuclear re- ceptors form a superfamily of phylogenetically related proteins and control functions associated with major diseases (e.g. diabetes, osteoporosis, and cancer). In this study, a novel method has been developed for classifying the subfamilies of nuclear receptors. The classification was achieved

Manoj Bhasin; Gajendra P. S. Raghava

2004-01-01

17

Bioactive cyclic dipeptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic dipeptides are among the simplest peptide derivatives commonly found in nature. Most cyclic dipeptides found to date appear to have emerged as by-products of fermentation and food processing. However, many are nedogenous to members of animal and plant kingdoms; these include cyclo(Pro-Leu), cyclo(Pro-Val), cyclo(Pro-Phe), cyclo(Ala-Leu), cyclo(Pro-Tyr), cyclo(Pro-Trp), and cyclo(His-Pro). Although the five cyclic dipeptides—cyclo(His-Pro), cyclo(Leu-Gly), cyclo(Tyr-Arg), cyclo(Asp-Pro), and cyclo(Pro-Phe)—exhibit

Chandan Prasad

1995-01-01

18

Dipeptide analysis of p53 mutations and evolution of p53 family proteins.  

PubMed

p53 gain-of-function mutations are similar to driver mutations in cancer genes, with both promoting tumorigenesis. Most previous studies focused on residues lost by mutations, providing information related to a dominantly-negative effect. However, to understand gain-of-function mutations, it is also important to investigate what are the distributions of residues gained by mutations. We compile available p53/p63/p73 protein sequences and construct a non-redundant dataset. We analyze the amino acid and dipeptide composition of p53/p63/p73 proteins across evolution and compare them with the gain/loss of amino acids and dipeptides in human p53 following cancer-related somatic mutations. We find that the ratios of amino acids gained via somatic mutations during evolution to those lost through p53 cancer mutations correlate with the ratios found in single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human proteome. The dipeptide mutational gain/loss ratios are inversely correlated with those observed over p53 evolution but tend to follow the increasing p63/p73-like dipeptide propensities. We successfully simulated the p53 cancer mutation spectrum using the dipeptide composition across the p53 family accounting for the likelihood of mutations in p53 codons. The results revealed that the p53 mutation spectrum is dominated not only by p53 evolution but also by reversal of evolution to a certain degree. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics, Systems Biology & Clinical Implications. Guest Editor: Yudong Cai. PMID:23583620

Huang, Qiang; Yu, Long; Levine, Arnold J; Nussinov, Ruth; Ma, Buyong

2014-01-01

19

Support Vector Machine-based Method for Subcellular Localization of Human Proteins Using Amino Acid Compositions, Their Order  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report a systematic approach for predicting subcellular localization (cytoplasm, mitochondrial, nu- clear, and plasma membrane) of human proteins. First, support vector machine (SVM)-based modules for pre- dicting subcellular localization using traditional amino acid and dipeptide (i 1) composition achieved overall accuracy of 76.6 and 77.8%, respectively. PSI-BLAST, when carried out using a similarity-based search against a nonredundant data

Aarti Garg; Manoj Bhasin; Gajendra P. S. Raghava

20

Glycation of lysine-containing dipeptides.  

PubMed

Protein glycation through Maillard reaction (MR) is a fundamental reaction both in foods and in the human body. The first step of the reaction is the formation of Amadori product (AP) that is converted into intermediate and advanced MR products during reaction development. Although the MR is not an enzymatic reaction, a certain degree of specificity in the glycation site has been observed. In the present study, we have monitored the glycation of different lysine-containing dipeptides to evaluate the influence on the NH(2) reactivity of the neighboring amino acid.Lysine dipeptides were reacted with glucose, galactose, lactose and maltose. The formation and identification of glycated compounds were monitored by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF and ESI-MS/MS) and by HPLC of their Fmoc derivatives. MS/MS analysis showed that the glucose APs formed on dipeptides have a characteristic fragmentation pattern: the fragment at [M - 84](+) due to the formation of pyrylium and furylium ion is mainly present in the monoglucosylated form, while the [M - 162](+) and the [M - 324](+) are more evident in the fragmentation pattern of the diglucosylated forms. The nature of the vicinal amino acids strongly affects lysine reactivity towards the different carbohydrates: the presence of hydrophobic residues such as Ile, Leu, Phe strongly increases lysine reactivity. Contrasting results were obtained with basic residues. The Lys-Arg dipeptide was among the most reactive while the Lys-Lys was not. PMID:16180244

Mennella, Carmela; Visciano, Marianna; Napolitano, Aurora; Del Castillo, Maria Dolores; Fogliano, Vincenzo

2006-04-01

21

A Comparison of the Effects of Oral Glutamine Dipeptide, Glutamine, and Alanine on Blood Amino Acid Availability in Rats Submitted to Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia  

PubMed Central

We compared the effects of oral administration of high-dose or low-dose glutamine dipeptide (GDP), alanine (ALA), glutamine (GLN), and ALA + GLN on the blood availability of amino acids in rats submitted to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH). Insulin detemir (1 U/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to produce IIH; this was followed by oral administration of GDP, GLN + ALA, GLN, or ALA. We observed higher blood levels of GLN, 30 min after oral administration of high-dose GDP (1000 mg/kg) than after administration of ALA (381 mg/kg) + GLN (619 mg/kg), GLN (619 mg/kg), or ALA (381 mg/kg). However, we did not observe the same differences after oral administration of low-dose GDP (100 mg/kg) compared with ALA (38.1 mg/kg) + GLN (61.9 mg/kg), GLN (61.9 mg/kg), or ALA (38.1 mg/kg). We also observed less liver catabolism of GDP compared to ALA and GLN. In conclusion, high-dose GDP promoted higher blood levels of GLN than oral ALA + GLN, GLN, or ALA. Moreover, the lower levels of liver catabolism of GDP, compared to ALA or GLN, contributed to the superior performance of high-dose GDP in terms of blood availability of GLN. PMID:25338272

Minguetti-Camara, Vania C.; Marques, Any de C. R.; Schiavon, Fabiana P. M.; Vilela, Vanessa R.; Brusch, Marcos L.; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa

2014-01-01

22

A comparison of the effects of oral glutamine dipeptide, glutamine, and alanine on blood amino Acid availability in rats submitted to insulin-induced hypoglycemia.  

PubMed

We compared the effects of oral administration of high-dose or low-dose glutamine dipeptide (GDP), alanine (ALA), glutamine (GLN), and ALA + GLN on the blood availability of amino acids in rats submitted to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH). Insulin detemir (1 U/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to produce IIH; this was followed by oral administration of GDP, GLN + ALA, GLN, or ALA. We observed higher blood levels of GLN, 30 min after oral administration of high-dose GDP (1000 mg/kg) than after administration of ALA (381 mg/kg) + GLN (619 mg/kg), GLN (619 mg/kg), or ALA (381 mg/kg). However, we did not observe the same differences after oral administration of low-dose GDP (100 mg/kg) compared with ALA (38.1 mg/kg) + GLN (61.9 mg/kg), GLN (61.9 mg/kg), or ALA (38.1 mg/kg). We also observed less liver catabolism of GDP compared to ALA and GLN. In conclusion, high-dose GDP promoted higher blood levels of GLN than oral ALA + GLN, GLN, or ALA. Moreover, the lower levels of liver catabolism of GDP, compared to ALA or GLN, contributed to the superior performance of high-dose GDP in terms of blood availability of GLN. PMID:25338272

Minguetti-Câmara, Vania C; Marques, Any de C R; Schiavon, Fabiana P M; Vilela, Vanessa R; Bruschi, Marcos L; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa

2014-01-01

23

Biological functions of histidine-dipeptides and metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

The rapid increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which is associated with a state of elevated systemic oxidative stress and inflammation, is expected to cause future increases in the prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sugars produces reactive carbonyl species, which, due to their electrophilic nature, react with the nucleophilic sites of certain amino acids. This leads to formation of protein adducts such as advanced glycoxidation/lipoxidation end products (AGEs/ALEs), resulting in cellular dysfunction. Therefore, an effective reactive carbonyl species and AGEs/ALEs sequestering agent may be able to prevent such cellular dysfunction. There is accumulating evidence that histidine containing dipeptides such as carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) and anserine (?-alanyl-methyl-L-histidine) detoxify cytotoxic reactive carbonyls by forming unreactive adducts and are able to reverse glycated protein. In this review, 1) reaction mechanism of oxidative stress and certain chronic diseases, 2) interrelation between oxidative stress and inflammation, 3) effective reactive carbonyl species and AGEs/ALEs sequestering actions of histidine-dipeptides and their metabolism, 4) effects of carnosinase encoding gene on the effectiveness of histidine-dipeptides, and 5) protective effects of histidine-dipeptides against progression of metabolic syndrome are discussed. Overall, this review highlights the potential beneficial effects of histidine-dipeptides against metabolic syndrome. Randomized controlled human studies may provide essential information regarding whether histidine-dipeptides attenuate metabolic syndrome in humans. PMID:24611099

Song, Byeng Chun; Joo, Nam-Seok; Aldini, Giancarlo; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

2014-02-01

24

How mono-valent cations bend peptide turns and a first-principles database of amino acids and dipeptides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution we detail our efforts to investigate the structural effects of cations binding to peptides and amino acids. We perform first-principles studies employing long-range dispersion-corrected approximate density-functional theory and compare to gas-phase experiments.

Baldauf, Carsten; Ropo, Matti; Blum, Volker; Scheffler, Matthias

2014-10-01

25

Predicting DNA-binding proteins: approached from Chou’s pseudo amino acid composition and other specific sequence features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  DNA-binding proteins play a pivotal role in gene regulation. It is vitally important to develop an automated and efficient\\u000a method for timely identification of novel DNA-binding proteins. In this study, we proposed a method based on alone the primary\\u000a sequences of proteins to predict the DNA-binding proteins. DNA-binding proteins were encoded by autocross-covariance transform,\\u000a pseudo-amino acid composition, dipeptide composition, respectively

Y. Fang; Y. Guo; Y. Feng; M. Li

2008-01-01

26

Dipeptide frequency/bias analysis identifies conserved sites of nonrandomness shared by cysteine-rich motifs.  

PubMed

This report describes the application of a simple computational tool, AAPAIR.TAB, for the systematic analysis of the cysteine-rich EGF, Sushi, and Laminin motif/sequence families at the two-amino acid level. Automated dipeptide frequency/bias analysis detects preferences in the distribution of amino acids in established protein families, by determining which "ordered dipeptides" occur most frequently in comprehensive motif-specific sequence data sets. Graphic display of the dipeptide frequency/bias data revealed family-specific preferences for certain dipeptides, but more importantly detected a shared preference for employment of the ordered dipeptides Gly-Tyr (GY) and Gly-Phe (GF) in all three protein families. The dipeptide Asn-Gly (NG) also exhibited high-frequency and bias in the EGF and Sushi motif families, whereas Asn-Thr (NT) was distinguished in the Laminin family. Evaluation of the distribution of dipeptides identified by frequency/bias analysis subsequently revealed the highly restricted localization of the G(F/Y) and N(G/T) sequence elements at two separate sites of extreme conservation in the consensus sequence of all three sequence families. The similar employment of the high-frequency/bias dipeptides in three distinct protein sequence families was further correlated with the concurrence of these shared molecular determinants at similar positions within the distinctive scaffolds of three structurally divergent, but similarly employed, motif modules. PMID:11455605

Campion, S R; Ameen, A S; Lai, L; King, J M; Munzenmaier, T N

2001-08-15

27

Identification of histidyl and thiol groups at the active site of rabbit renal dipeptide transporter.  

PubMed

Active transport of dipeptides in rabbit renal brush-border membrane vesicles is energized by an inward-directed H+ gradient rather than a Na+ gradient. We examined the effects of treatment of membrane vesicles with diethylpyrocarbonate (DEP), a reagent specific for histidyl groups, on this H+ gradient-dependent dipeptide uptake. DEP inhibited the uptake of all three dipeptides studied, Gly-sarcosine, Gly-Gly, and Gly-Pro (Ki = 0.6-0.9 mM), and the inhibition was noncompetitive. The dipeptide transporter could be protected from DEP inhibition by the presence of dipeptide substrates during the treatment of the vesicles with the inhibitor, whereas leucine plus Na+ failed to offer the protection. Na+-dependent leucine uptake was also inhibited by DEP (Ki = 2.5 mM) and the amino acid transporter could be protected from the inhibition by leucine plus Na+, but not by dipeptides. Treatment of membrane vesicles with the thiol group-specific reagents, 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole,3-bromopyruvate, p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid, and N-ethylmaleimide, also inhibited the H+ gradient-dependent dipeptide uptake. The potency of their inhibition was in the order: 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol greater than p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid greater than 3-bromopyruvate greater than N-ethylmaleimide. The inhibition could be reversed in some cases by treatment of the membrane vesicles with reducing agents such as 2,3-dimercaptopropanol following incubation with the inhibitors. Dipeptide substrates could protect the dipeptide transporter from the inhibition. We conclude that histidyl and thiol groups are present at or near the substrate-binding site of the rabbit renal dipeptide transporter. PMID:3023343

Miyamoto, Y; Ganapathy, V; Leibach, F H

1986-12-01

28

Optimization of dipeptide–protein mixtures in experimental diet formulations for rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) alevins  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has previously been shown that diets in which the amino acid portion is based on synthetic dipeptides result in positive growth of rainbow trout alevins. However, the protein-based diets used as a control performed significantly better. One objective of the present study was to identify a protein–dipeptide mixture ratio that results in comparable growth to a protein-based control, in

Bendik F. Terjesen; Kyeong-Jun Lee; Yongfang Zhang; Mark Failla; Konrad Dabrowski

2006-01-01

29

The synthesis, structural characterization and in vitro anti-cancer activity of novel N-(3-ferrocenyl-2-naphthoyl) dipeptide ethyl esters and novel N-(6-ferrocenyl-2-naphthoyl) dipeptide ethyl esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-(3-ferrocenyl-2-naphthoyl) dipeptide esters (5–7) and N-(6-ferrocenyl-2-naphthoyl) dipeptide esters (8–10) were prepared by coupling either 3-ferrocenylnaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid 2 or 6-ferrocenylnaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid 4 to the dipeptide ethyl esters GlyAla(OEt) (5, 8), AlaGly(OEt) (6, 9), and AlaAla(OEt) (7, 10) using the standard N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N?-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt) protocol. All the compounds were fully characterized using a combination of 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT-135

Áine Mooney; Alan J. Corry; Dermot O’Sullivan; Dilip K. Rai; Peter T. M. Kenny

2009-01-01

30

Synthesis and properties of N ? -lauroyl-L-arginine dipeptides from collagen-lauroyl-L-arginine dipeptides from collagen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to obtain protein-based amphoteric surfactants with antimicrobial properties, N\\u000a ?\\u000a -lauroyl arginine dipeptides have been prepared by condensation between N\\u000a ?\\u000a -lauroyl arginine and amino acids which come from a collagen hydrolysate. Some surfactant properties and the minimum inhibitory\\u000a concentration against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria have been evaluated. All types of compounds presented a surfactant-like\\u000a behavior.

J. Molineroa; M. R. Juliao; P. Erraa; M. Roberlb; M. R. Infante

1988-01-01

31

Chemical composition of acid fog  

SciTech Connect

Fog water collected at three sites in Los Angeles and Bakersfield, California, was found to have higher acidity and higher concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium than previously observed in atmospheric water droplets. The pH of the fog water was in the range of 2.2 to 4.0. the dominant processes controlling the fog water chemistry appear to be the condensation and evaporation of water vapor on preexisting aerosol and the scavenging of gas-phase nitric acid.

Waldman, J.M.; Munger, J.W.; Jacob, D.J.; Flagan, R.C.; Morgan, J.J.; Hoffmann, M.R.

1982-11-12

32

Chemical composition of acid fog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fog water collected at three sites in Los Angeles and Bakersfield, California, was found to have higher acidity and higher concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium than previously observed in atmospheric water droplets. The pH of the fog water was in the range of 2.2 to 4.0. the dominant processes controlling the fog water chemistry appear to be the condensation

J. M. Waldman; J. W. Munger; D. J. Jacob; R. C. Flagan; J. J. Morgan; M. R. Hoffmann

1982-01-01

33

Fatty acid composition of California grown almonds.  

PubMed

Eight almond (Prunus dulcis L.) cultivars from 12 different California counties, collected during crop years 2004 to 2005 and 2005 to 2006, were extracted with petroleum ether. The extracts were subjected to GC-MS analyses to determine fatty acid composition of soluble lipids. Results indicated palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), and alpha-linolenic (C18:3) acid, respectively, accounted for 5.07% to 6.78%, 57.54% to 73.94%, 19.32% to 35.18%, and 0.04% to 0.10%; of the total lipids. Oleic and linoleic acid were inversely correlated (r=-0.99, P= 0.05) and together accounted for 91.16% to 94.29% of the total soluble lipids. Statistically, fatty acid composition was significantly affected by cultivar and county. PMID:19021789

Sathe, S K; Seeram, N P; Kshirsagar, H H; Heber, D; Lapsley, K A

2008-11-01

34

Comparative fatty acid composition of four Sargassum species (Fucales, Phaeophyta)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fatty acid composition of four Sargassum species from Qingdao and Shidao, Shandong Province was investigated. 16:0 (palmitic acid) was the major saturated fatty acid. C18 and C20 were the main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid predominated among polyenoic acids in all the algal species examined, except for Sargassum sp. which had low concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid.

Wu, Xiang-Chun; Lu, Bao-Ren; Tseng, C. K.

1995-12-01

35

Relative stability of major types of beta-turns as a function of amino acid composition: a study based on Ab initio energetic and natural abundance data.  

PubMed

Folding properties of small globular proteins are determined by their amino acid sequence (primary structure). This holds both for local (secondary structure) and for global conformational features of linear polypeptides and proteins composed from natural amino acid derivatives. It thus provides the rational basis of structure prediction algorithms. The shortest secondary structure element, the beta-turn, most typically adopts either a type I or a type II form, depending on the amino acid composition. Herein we investigate the sequence-dependent folding stability of both major types of beta-turns using simple dipeptide models (-Xxx-Yyy-). Gas-phase ab initio properties of 16 carefully selected and suitably protected dipeptide models (for example Val-Ser, Ala-Gly, Ser-Ser) were studied. For each backbone fold most probable side-chain conformers were considered. Fully optimized 321G RHF molecular structures were employed in medium level [B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)//RHF/3-21G] energy calculations to estimate relative populations of the different backbone conformers. Our results show that the preference for beta-turn forms as calculated by quantum mechanics and observed in Xray determined proteins correlates significantly. PMID:12794897

Perczel, András; Jákli, Imre; McAllister, Michael A; Csizmadia, Imre G

2003-06-01

36

Antimicrobial activity of selected cyclic dipeptides.  

PubMed

Cyclic dipeptides are products of rational drug design, which may exhibit both antimicrobial and antitumor properties. The aim of this study was to investigate both the antimicrobial effects of the cyclic dipeptides cyclo(L-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl), cyclo(L-tyrosyl-L-prolyl), cyclo(L-tryptophanyl-L-prolyl) and cyclo(L-tryptophanyl-L-tryptophanyl) and the effects of these cyclic dipeptides on the gastrointestinal epithelium in vitro. Furthermore, a relevant solvent for the possible pharmaceutical application of the products was sought concurrently. The antimicrobial effect of the cyclic dipeptides was assayed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium notatum. The effect of the cyclic dipeptides on the gastrointestinal epithelium was assessed by changes in alkaline phosphatase expression of HT-29 cells. Cyclo(Pro-Trp) and cyclo(Phe-Pro) show broad spectrum antibacterial properties and cyclo(Trp-Pro) and cyclo(Trp-Trp) show broad spectrum antifungal properties. The maturation of the gastrointestinal cells was enhanced by cyclo(Phe-Pro), cyclo(Tyr-Pro), cyclo(Trp-Trp) and cyclo(Trp-Pro). The activity of these cyclic dipeptides thus indicates potential application of these compounds as pharmacological agents. PMID:10563376

Graz, M; Hunt, A; Jamie, H; Grant, G; Milne, P

1999-10-01

37

Structural characterization of a dipeptide compound with immunostimulant activity: 3-(5-thioxo-L-prolyl)-L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid.  

PubMed

The structural characteristics of an immunostimulating agent (3-(5-thioxo-L-prolyl)-L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) have been established using a combination of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, molecular mechanic calculations (in vacuo and in solution) and X-ray crystallographic analyses. Conformational calculations and NMR spectra identify two classes of conformers, cis and trans, around the peptide bond between the rings, while in the solid state only the cis form has been found. PMID:13679183

Artali, R; Bombieri, G; Meneghetti, F; Nava, D; Ragg, E; Stradi, R

2003-09-01

38

The amino acid composition of mammalian and bacterial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary High performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze the amino acid composition of cells. A total of 17 amino acids was analyzed. This method was used to compare the amino acid compositions of the following combinations: primary culture and established cells, normal and transformed cells, mammalian and bacterial cells, andEscherichia coli andStaphylococcus aureus. The amino acid compositions of mammalian

T. Okayasu; M. Ikeda; K. Akimoto; K. Sorimachi

1997-01-01

39

Using pseudo amino acid composition to predict protein subcellular location: approached with amino acid composition distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  In the Post Genome Age, there is an urgent need to develop the reliable and effective computational methods to predict the\\u000a subcellular localization for the explosion of newly found proteins. Here, a novel method of pseudo amino acid (PseAA) composition,\\u000a the so-called “amino acid composition distribution” (AACD), is introduced. First, a protein sequence is divided equally into\\u000a multiple segments. Then,

J.-Y. Shi; S.-W. Zhang; Q. Pan; G.-P. Zhou

2008-01-01

40

Cellular fatty acid composition of Plesiomonas shigelloides.  

PubMed Central

The cellular fatty acid compositions of 29 strains of Plesiomonas shigelloides and 5 strains of Aeromonas hydrophila were studied. The cellular fatty acid compositions of all the Plesiomonas strains were identical and characterized by the presence of hexadecanoate (16:0) (33%), hexadecenoate (16:1) (28%), octadecenoate (18:1) (9%), and octadecanoate (18:0) (6%). The cellular fatty acid composition of A. hydrophila was similar to that of the Plesiomonas strains, except that the former contained an average of 25% 16:0, 29% 16:1, 12% 18:1, and 2% 18:0 acids compared with 33, 28, 9, and 6%, respectively, for the latter. The percentage ratios of 16:1 to 16:0 and 18:1 to 18:0 could be used to differentiate P. shigelloides from A. hydrophila. These ratios were 0.8 and 1.5 for the former and 1.2 and 6.0 for the latter. PMID:2056045

Chou, S; Aldova, E; Kasatiya, S

1991-01-01

41

Nucleotide Composition of Nucleic Acids of Fungi I. Ribonucleic Acids  

PubMed Central

Storck, Roger (The University of Texas, Austin). Nucleotide composition of nucleic acids from fungi. I. Ribonucleic acids. J. Bacteriol. 90:1260–1264. 1965.—The nucleotide composition of the ribonucleic acids (RNA) present in extracts of 26 species of fungi was determined. The results were analyzed, together with those in the literature. It was found that the content in moles per cent of guanine plus cytosine (GC content) varied from 44.1 to 60.5 in a distribution composed of 8 species of zygomycetes, 10 of ascomycetes, 11 of deuteromycetes, and 8 of basidiomycetes. The GC-content range and average were, respectively, 44.1 to 49.3 and 46.4 for the zygomycetes, 47.4 to 54.4 and 50.2 for the ascomycetes, 48.2 to 54.5 and 51.6 for the deuteromycetes, and 50.4 to 60.5 and 52.4 for the basidiomycetes. The GC content averaged 45.6 and ranged from 44.1 to 46.3 for four Mucor species. In addition, GC contents significantly lower than 50 were also encountered in some species of Hemiascomycetidae, suggesting that AT type RNA is not uncommon in fungi. It was proposed that the base composition of fungal RNA might have a taxonomic and phylogenetic significance. PMID:5848326

Storck, Roger

1965-01-01

42

Electroactive organic dye incorporating dipeptides in the formation of self-assembled nanofibrous hydrogels.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the self-assembly of four dipeptides conjugated with the electroactive dye naphthalenediimide (NDI). The presence of the NDI group at the N-terminus of Phe-Phe and Phe-Gly promoted the formation of one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures and three-dimensional (3-D) colored hydrogels under both acidic and physiological conditions. The 1-D nanostructures of these gels were stabilized through intermolecular ?-? interactions of the conjugated systems and extended hydrogen bonding of the dipeptide units. PMID:25229206

Liu, Yu-Hao; Hsu, Shu-Min; Wu, Fang-Yi; Cheng, Hsun; Yeh, Mei-Yu; Lin, Hsin-Chieh

2014-10-15

43

[Strategy for the development of dipeptide drugs].  

PubMed

The author describes an original approach to the development of dipeptide drugs based on the concept of the leading role of the beta-bend in the interaction of biologically active endogenous peptides with their receptors. The approach called "peptide-based drug design" includes both developments from the structure of a known psychotropic agent toward its topological peptide analog and developments from the active dipeptide site of a neuropeptide toward its mimetic. This strategy has been worked out at the V.V. Zakusov Research Institute of Pharmacology for 25 years. Results of investigations that discovered endogenous peptide prototypes of the known non-peptidic drugs (piracetam and sulpiride) are presented. They provided a basis for the creation of highly active non-toxic oral dipeptide preparations, such as nootrop Noopept, potential anti psychotic Dilept, and potential selective anxiolytic GB-115. PMID:21899085

Gudasheva, T A

2011-01-01

44

Enzymatical and microbial degradation of cyclic dipeptides (diketopiperazines)  

PubMed Central

Diketopiperazines (DKPs) are cyclic dipeptides, representing an abundant class of biologically active natural compounds. Despite their widespread occurrence in nature, little is known about their degradation. In this study, the enzymatical and microbial cleavage of DKPs was investigated. Peptidase catalyzed hydrolysis of certain DKPs was formerly reported, but could not be confirmed in this study. While testing additional peptidases and DKPs no degradation was detected, indicating peptidase stability of the peptide bond in cyclic dipeptides. Besides confirmation of the reported degradation of cyclo(l-Asp-l-Phe) by Paenibacillus chibensis (DSM 329) and Streptomyces flavovirens (DSM 40062), cleavage of cyclo(l-Asp-l-Asp) by DSM 329 was detected. Other DKPs were not hydrolyzed by both strains, demonstrating high substrate specificity. The degradation of cyclo(l-Asp-l-Phe) by DSM 40062 was shown to be inducible. Three strains, which are able to hydrolyze hydantoins and dihydropyrimidines, were identified for the degradation of DKPs: Leifsonia sp. K3 (DSM 27212) and Bacillus sp. A16 (DSM 25052) cleaved cyclo(dl-Ala-dl-Ala) and cyclo(l-Gly-l-Phe), and Rhizobium sp. NA04-01 (DSM 24917) degraded cyclo(l-Asp-l-Phe), cyclo(l-Gly-l-Phe) and cyclo(l-Asp-l-Asp). The first enantioselective cleavage of cyclo(dl-Ala-dl-Ala) was detected with the newly isolated strains Paenibacillus sp. 32A (DSM 27214) and Microbacterium sp. 40A (DSM 27211). Cyclo(l-Ala-d-Ala) and cyclo(l-Ala-l-Ala) were completely degraded, whereas the enantiomer cyclo(d-Ala-d-Ala) was not attacked. Altogether, five bacterial strains were newly identified for the cleavage of DKPs. These bacteria may be of value for industrial purposes, such as degradation of undesirable DKPs in food and drugs and production of (enantiopure) dipeptides and amino acids. PMID:24001323

2013-01-01

45

Central administration of dipeptides, beta-alanyl-BCAAs, induces hyperactivity in chicks  

PubMed Central

Background Carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) is a putative neurotransmitter and has a possible role in neuron-glia cell interactions. Previously, we reported that carnosine induced hyperactivity in chicks when intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered. In the present study, we focused on other ?-alanyl dipeptides to determine if they have novel functions. Results In Experiment 1, i.c.v. injection of ?-alanyl-L-leucine, but not ?-alanyl-glycine, induced hyperactivity behavior as observed with carnosine. Both carnosine and ?-alanyl-L-leucine stimulated corticosterone release. Thus, dipeptides of ?-alanyl-branched chain amino acids were compared in Experiment 2. The i.c.v. injection of ?-alanyl-L-isoleucine caused a similar response as ?-alanyl-L-leucine, but ?-alanyl-L-valine was somewhat less effective than the other two dipeptides. ?-Alanyl-L-leucine strongly stimulated, and the other two dipeptides tended to stimulate, corticosterone release. Conclusion These results suggest that central ?-alanyl-branched chain amino acid stimulates activity in chicks through the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. We named ?-alanyl-L-leucine, ?-alanyl-L-isoleucine and ?-alanyl-L-valine as Excitin-1, Excitin-2 and Excitin-3, respectively. PMID:17537271

Tsuneyoshi, Yousuke; Tomonaga, Shozo; Asechi, Mari; Morishita, Koji; Denbow, D Michael; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

2007-01-01

46

Dietary trans fatty acids and composition of human atheromatous plaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Dietary fatty acids are incorporated into atheromatous plaques mainly in the form of cholesterol esters. Physicochemical properties of the plaque (e. g. mechanical strength) depend on its fatty acid composition. Trans isomers of unsaturated fatty acids (TFA) are known to reduce the availability of fatty acid precursors for the synthesis of anticoagulant PG 1 and PG 3 prostaglandins. The

Ewa Stachowska; Barbara Do??gowska; Dariusz Chlubek; Teresa Weso?owska; Kazimierz Ciechanowski; Piotr Gutowski; Halina Szumi?owicz; Rados?aw Turowski

2004-01-01

47

[Preclinical safety investigation of GB-115 dipeptide].  

PubMed

Preclinical safety investigations of newly synthesized dipeptide compound GB-115 (amide N-phenylhexanoyl-glycyl-L-tryptophan), an antagonist of cholecystokinin receptors, were performed. No animals were lost after GB-115 acute oral administration at a maximum dose of 6000 mg/kg in mice and at 3500 mg/kg in rats. GB-115 administered per os during 6 months in rabbits and rats (both males and females) at the doses of 0.1 and 10 mg/kg induced no irreversible pathological changes in organs and systems studied. The tested dipeptide exhibited no allergenic, immunotoxic and mutagenic activity, and did not affect generative function and the antenatal and postnatal development of progeny. GB-115 at a dose of 10 mg/kg produced suppression of the inflammatory reaction to concanavalin A. PMID:20726348

Sorokina, A V; Alekseeva, S V; Nemova, E P; Kovalenko, L P; Smol'nikova, N M; Shipaeva, E V; Shreder, O V; Miroshkina, I A; Diukova, S A; Daugel'-Dauge, N O; Kulakova, A V; Kolik, L G; Durnev, A D; Seredenin, S B

2010-06-01

48

Influence of dietary essential fatty acid level on fatty acid composition in peripheral nerve and muscle  

E-print Network

fatty acids, in the presence of a very high linoleic acid level, the PUFA of the (n-6) series decreased of polyunsaturated fatty acids (Kishimoto et al., 1969). This observation may be related to the highly specializedInfluence of dietary essential fatty acid level on fatty acid composition in peripheral nerve

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

49

Original article Influence of milk fatty acid composition  

E-print Network

Original article Influence of milk fatty acid composition and process parameters on the quality the fatty acid composition of milk fat in dairy products to improve the long-term health of consumers two process parameters (homogenization pressure and ageing temperature) on the quality of ice cream

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

50

Influence of substituents on conformational preferences of helix foldamers of ?-dipeptides.  

PubMed

Conformational preferences of 9- and 14-helix foldamers have been studied for ?-dipeptides of 2-aminocyclohexylacetic acid (?Ac6 a) residues such as Ac-(?Ac6 a)2 -NHMe (1), Ac-(C(?) -Et-?Ac6 a)2 -NHMe (2), Ac-(?Ac6 a)2 -NHBn (3), and Ac-(C(?) -Et-?Ac6 a)2 -NHBn (4) at the M06-2X/cc-pVTZ//M06-2X/6-31?+?G(d) level of theory to explore the influence of substituents on their conformational preferences. In the gas phase, the 9-helix foldamer H9 and 14-helix foldamer H14-z are found to be most preferred for dipeptides 2 and 4, respectively, as for dipeptides 1 and 3, which indicates no remarkable influence of the C(?) -ethyl substitution on conformational preferences. The benzyl substitution at the C-terminal end lead H14-z to be the most preferred conformer for dipeptides 3 and 4, whereas it is H9 for dipeptides 1 and 2, which can be ascribed to the favored C?H···? interactions between the cyclohexyl group of the first residue and the C-terminal benzyl group. There are only marginal changes in backbone structures and the distances and angles of H-bonds for all local minima by C(?) -ethyl and/or benzyl substitutions. Although vibrational frequencies and intensities of the dipeptide 4 calculated at both M06-2X/6-31?+?G(d) and M05-2X/6-31?+?G(d) levels of theory are consistent with observed results in the gas phase, H14-z is predicted to be most preferred by ?G only at the former level of theory. Hydration did not bring the significant changes in backbone structures of helix foldamers for both dipeptide 1 and 4. It is expected that the different substitutions at the C-terminal end lead to the different helix foldamers, which may increase the resistance of helical structures to proteolysis and provide the more surface to the helical structures suitable for molecular recognition. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 101: 1077-1087, 2014. PMID:24838173

Kee Kang, Young; Yoo, In Kee

2014-11-01

51

Pharmacokinetics of novel dipeptide ester prodrugs of acyclovir after oral administration: intestinal absorption and liver metabolism.  

PubMed

The amino acid prodrug of acyclovir (ACV), valacyclovir (VACV), is an effective antiherpetic drug. Systemic availability of ACV in humans is 3 to 5 times higher after oral administration of VACV. Enhanced bioavailability of VACV has been attributed to its carrier-mediated intestinal absorption via hPEPT1 peptide transporter followed by rapid and complete conversion to ACV. An earlier report suggested that the dipeptide ester prodrugs of ACV possess high affinity toward the intestinal oligopeptide transporter hPEPT1 and therefore seem to be promising candidates in the treatment of oral herpes virus infections. In the present study, we have examined the bioavailability of a series of dipeptide prodrugs of ACV after oral administration in Sprague-Dawley rats with cannulated jugular and portal veins. The area under plasma-concentration time curves expressed as minutes microgram milliliter(-1) for total concentration of VACV (208.4 +/- 41.2), and the dipeptide prodrugs Gly-Val-ACV (GVACV) (416.1 +/- 140.9), Val-Val-ACV (VVACV) (147.7 +/- 89.3), and Val-Tyr-ACV (VYACV) (180.7 +/- 81.2) were significantly higher than that of ACV (21.2 +/- 5.2) upon intestinal absorption. Interestingly, the bioavailability of ACV after administration of GVACV was approximately 2-fold higher than VACV. There was significant metabolism by hepatic first pass effect of the dipeptide prodrugs as evident by the higher levels of ACV obtained after systemic absorption compared with intestinal absorption of GVACV and VVACV. The dipeptide prodrugs of ACV exhibited higher systemic availability of regenerated ACV upon oral administration and thus seem to be promising drug candidates in treatment of genital herpes infections. PMID:15226381

Anand, Banmeet S; Katragadda, Suresh; Mitra, Ashim K

2004-11-01

52

Prediction of nuclear receptors with optimal pseudo amino acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear receptors are involved in multiple cellular signaling pathways that affect and regulate processes such as organ development and maintenance, ion transport, homeostasis, and apoptosis. In this article, an optimal pseudo amino acid composition based on physicochemical characters of amino acids is suggested to represent proteins for predicting the subfamilies of nuclear receptors. Six physicochemical characters of amino acids were

Qing-Bin Gao; Zhi-Chao Jin; Xiao-Fei Ye; Cheng Wu; Jia He

2009-01-01

53

Soil amino acid composition across a boreal forest successional sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil amino acids are important sources of organic nitrogen for plant nutrition, yet few studies have examined which amino acids are most prevalent in the soil. In this study, we examined the composition, concentration, and seasonal patterns of soil amino acids across a primary successional sequence encompassing a natural gradient of plant productivity and soil physicochemical characteristics. Soil was collected

Nancy R. Werdin-Pfisterer; Knut Kielland; Richard D. Boone

2009-01-01

54

Intramolecular condensation reactions in protonated dipeptides: Carbon monoxide, water, and ammonia losses in competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elimination of carbon monoxide and water from a series of protonated dipeptides, [XxxYyy + H]+, is investigated by tandem mass spectrometry experiments and density functional theory. The combined results show that CO\\u000a loss occurs on the a1-y1 pathway, which begins by rearrangement of the added proton to the amide N-atom and creates the proton-bound dimer of an amino\\u000a acid

Francesco Pingitore; Michael J. Polce; Ping Wang; Chrys Wesdemiotis; Béla Paizs

2004-01-01

55

Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species  

PubMed Central

The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18?:?2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

Gunc Ergonul, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergonul, Bulent

2013-01-01

56

Fatty acid compositions of six wild edible mushroom species.  

PubMed

The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

2013-01-01

57

Amino Acid Composition of Rumen Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acid analyses were made of 22 strains of rumen bacteria grown in pure culture. The organisms used were selected to represent some of the predominant or- ganisms found in the rumen when either concentrates or roughages are fed. The amino acid results expressed as grams per 100 g total amino acids showed very little variation over the entire range

D. B. Purser; Suzanne M. Buechler

1966-01-01

58

Gas-chromatographic separation of stereoisomers of dipeptides.  

PubMed

Synthetic dipeptides comprising mixtures of enantiomers, diastereomers, or sequential isomers were converted into their N-perfluoroacetyl dipeptide esters (perfluoroacetyl: trifluoroacetyl, pentafluoroacetyl, heptafluorobutyryl; ester: methyl, 1-propyl, 2-propyl, 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) and analyzed by GC-MS on the chiral stationary phases Chirasil-L-Val and Lipodex-E using helium as carrier gas. Further, dipeptides were converted into their N-trifluoroacetyl dipeptide S-(+)-2-butyl esters and separated on achiral phenylmethyl polysiloxane column (HP-5 MS). Derivatization of dipeptides was performed at ambient temperature in order to avoid formation of the corresponding diketopiperazines. The best separation of stereoisomers was achieved with TFA and PFP methyl esters on Chirasil-L-Val. PMID:16683229

Pätzold, Ralf; Theis, Christoph; Brückner, Hans

2006-08-01

59

Fatty Acid Composition and Volatile Constituents of Protaetia brevitarsis Larvae  

PubMed Central

A total of 48 different volatile oils were identified form P. brevitarsis larvae by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acids (48.67%) were detected as the major group in P. brevitarsis larvae comprising the largest proportion of the volatile compounds, followed by esters (19.84%), hydrocarbons (18.90%), alcohols (8.37%), miscellaneous (1.71%), aldehydes (1.35%) and terpenes (1.16%). The major volatile constituents were 9-hexadecenoic acid (16.75%), 6-octadecenoic acid (14.88%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (11.06%). The composition of fatty acid was also determined by GC analysis and 16 fatty acids were identified. The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (C18:1, 64.24%) followed by palmitic acid (C16:0, 15.89%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 10.43%) and linoleic acid (C18:2, 4.69%) constituting more than 95% of total fatty acids. The distinguished characteristic of the fatty acid profile of P. brevitarsis larvae was the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (80.54% of total fatty acids) versus saturated fatty acids (19.46% of total fatty acids). Furthermore, small but significant amounts of linoleic, linolenic and ?-linolenic acids bestow P. brevitarsis larvae with considerable nutritional value. The novel findings of the present study provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of the insect as a nutritionally promising food source and a possibility for more effective utilization. PMID:24471125

Yeo, Hyelim; Youn, Kumju; Kim, Minji; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira

2013-01-01

60

Amino acid composition of proteins reduces deleterious impact of mutations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolutionary origin of amino acid occurrence frequencies in proteins (composition) is not yet fully understood. We suggest that protein composition works alongside the genetic code to minimize impact of mutations on protein structure. First, we propose a novel method for estimating thermodynamic stability of proteins whose sequence is constrained to a fixed composition. Second, we quantify the average deleterious impact of substituting one amino acid with another. Natural proteome compositions are special in at least two ways: 1) Natural compositions do not generate more stable proteins than the average random composition, however, they result in proteins that are less susceptible to damage from mutations. 2) Natural proteome compositions that result in more stable proteins (i.e. those of thermophiles) are also tuned to have a higher tolerance for mutations. This is consistent with the observation that environmental factors selecting for more stable proteins also enhance the deleterious impact of mutations.

Hormoz, Sahand

2013-10-01

61

Fatty Acid and Volatile Oil Compositions of Allomyrina dichotoma Larvae  

PubMed Central

Thirty-two different volatile oils were identified from Allomyrina dichotoma (A. dichotoma) larvae by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major volatile components were 2,2,4-trimethyl-3-carboxyisopropyl pentanoic acid isobutyl ester (5.83%), phenol,2,6-bis(a,a-dimethyl ethyl)-4-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl) (5.72%), heptacosane (5.49%) and phenol,2,4-bis(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl) (5.47%). The composition of the fatty acids in A. dichotoma larvae was also determined by gas chromatography (GC) and fourteen constituents were identified. Oleic acid (19.13%) was the most abundant fatty acid followed by palmitic acid (12.52%), palmitoleic acid (3.71%) and linoleic acid (2.08%) in 100 g of A. dichotoma larvae on a dry weight basis. The quantity of unsaturated fatty acids (64.00%) were higher than that of saturated ones (36.00%). The predominant fatty acids in A. dichotoma consist of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA, 57.70%) such as oleic acid, myristoleic acid and palmitoleic acid, followed by saturated fatty acids (36.00%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 6.50%). In particular, the presence of essential fatty acids, such as linoleic (5.30%) and linolenic acid (0.40%) give A. dichotoma larvae considerable nutritional and functional value and it may be a useful source for food and/or industrial utilization. PMID:24471102

Youn, Kumju; Kim, Ji-Young; Yeo, Hyelim; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jun, Mira

2012-01-01

62

Self-assembly and gelation properties of glycine/leucine Fmoc-dipeptides.  

PubMed

Self-assembly of aromatic peptide amphiphiles is known to be driven by a combination of ?-? stacking of the aromatic moieties and hydrogen bonding between the peptide backbones, with possible stabilisation from the amino acid side chains. Phenylalanine-based Fmoc-dipeptides have previously been reported for their characteristic apparent pKa transitions, which were shown to coincide with significant structural and morphological changes that were peptide sequence dependent. Here, phenylalanine was replaced by leucine and the effect on the self-assembling behaviour of Fmoc-dipeptides was measured using potentiometry, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray scattering and shear rheometry. This study provides additional cues towards the elucidation of the sequence-structure relationship in self-assembling aromatic peptide amphiphiles. PMID:24085660

Tang, Claire; Ulijn, Rein V; Saiani, Alberto

2013-10-01

63

Genomic Regions Associated with Amino Acid Composition in Soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is the single largest source of protein in animal feed. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate\\u000a genomic regions controlling amino acid composition in soybean. It is important to study the genetics of amino acid composition\\u000a to achieve improvements through breeding. The objectives of this study were to determine the ratios between essential to

D. R. Panthee; V. R. Pantalone; A. M. Saxton; D. R. West; C. E. Sams

2006-01-01

64

Proteomic Signatures: Amino Acid and Oligopeptide Compositions Differentiate Among Phyla  

E-print Network

Proteomic Signatures: Amino Acid and Oligopeptide Compositions Differentiate Among Phyla Itsik Pe of single- residue and oligopeptide compositions of the corre- sponding proteomes. We have used principal even extend to subsets of the entire proteome, such as proteins pertaining to individual yeast chro

Sussman, Joel L.

65

Fatty acid composition of the edible sea cucumber Athyonidium chilensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The edible sea cucumber Athyonidium chilensis is a fishery resource of high commercial value in Chile, but no information on its lipid and fatty acid composition has been previously reported. Phospholipids were the major lipid contents of the ethanolic extracts of tubules, internal organs and body wall of A. chilensis. Saturated fatty acids predominated in tubule phospholipids (40.69%), while in

Valeria P. Careaga; Claudia Muniain; Martas S. Maier

2012-01-01

66

Identification and characterization of dppA, an Escherichia coli gene encoding a periplasmic dipeptide transport protein.  

PubMed Central

We describe the isolation and analysis of an Escherichia coli gene, dppA, and its role in dipeptide transport. dppA maps near min 79 and encodes a protein (DppA) that has regions of amino acid similarity with a peptide-binding protein from Salmonella typhimurium (OppA). Like OppA, DppA is found in the periplasmic space and thus is most likely a dipeptide-binding protein. Insertional inactivation of dppA results in the inability of a proline auxotroph to utilize Pro-Gly as a proline source. dppA-dependent Pro-Gly utilization does not require any of the three major proline transport systems, demonstrating that DppA is not simply a dipeptidase. An in vivo competition assay was used to show that DppA is probably involved in the transport of dipeptides other than Pro-Gly. Transcription of dppA is repressed by the presence of casamino acids, suggesting that the cell alters its dipeptide transport capabilities in response to an environmental signal. Images PMID:1702779

Olson, E R; Dunyak, D S; Jurss, L M; Poorman, R A

1991-01-01

67

AtPTR1 and AtPTR5 Transport Dipeptides in Planta1[OA  

PubMed Central

Transporters for di- and tripeptides belong to the large and poorly characterized PTR/NRT1 (peptide transporter/nitrate transporter 1) family. A new member of this gene family, AtPTR5, was isolated from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Expression of AtPTR5 was analyzed and compared with tissue specificity of the closely related AtPTR1 to discern their roles in planta. Both transporters facilitate transport of dipeptides with high affinity and are localized at the plasma membrane. Mutants, double mutants, and overexpressing lines were exposed to several dipeptides, including toxic peptides, to analyze how the modified transporter expression affects pollen germination, growth of pollen tubes, root, and shoot. Analysis of atptr5 mutants and AtPTR5-overexpressing lines showed that AtPTR5 facilitates peptide transport into germinating pollen and possibly into maturating pollen, ovules, and seeds. In contrast, AtPTR1 plays a role in uptake of peptides by roots indicated by reduced nitrogen (N) levels and reduced growth of atptr1 mutants on medium with dipeptides as the sole N source. Furthermore, overexpression of AtPTR5 resulted in enhanced shoot growth and increased N content. The function in peptide uptake was further confirmed with toxic peptides, which inhibited growth. The results show that closely related members of the PTR/NRT1 family have different functions in planta. This study also provides evidence that the use of organic N is not restricted to amino acids, but that dipeptides should be considered as a N source and transport form in plants. PMID:18753286

Komarova, Nataliya Y.; Thor, Kathrin; Gubler, Adrian; Meier, Stefan; Dietrich, Daniela; Weichert, Annett; Suter Grotemeyer, Marianne; Tegeder, Mechthild; Rentsch, Doris

2008-01-01

68

Kinetics of degradation and oil solubility of ester prodrugs of a model dipeptide (Gly-Phe).  

PubMed

Oil-based depot formulations may constitute a future delivery method for small peptides. Thus, a requirement is attainment of sufficient oil solubility for such active compounds. A model dipeptide (Gly-Phe) has been converted into lipophilic prodrugs by esterification at the C-terminal carboxylic acid group. The decomposition kinetics of octyl ester of Gly-Phe (IV) has been investigated at pH 7.4 (37 degrees C) and IV was shown to degrade by first-order kinetics via two parallel pathways (1) intramolecular aminolysis resulting in formation of a 2,5-diketopiperazine and (2) hydrolysis of the ester bond producing the dipeptide. The cyclisation reaction was dominating in the decomposition of methyl (II) butyl (III) octyl (IV) decyl (V) and dodecyl (VI) esters of Gly-Phe at pH 7.4. However, this degradation pathway was almost negligible for pH below 6. During degradation of the dipeptide esters in 80% human plasma pH 7.4 (37 degrees C) a minimal amount of cyclo(-Gly-Phe) was formed. A faster degradation of the esters in 80% human plasma pH 7.4 compared to those in aqueous solution pH 7.4 was suggested to be due to fast cleavage of the peptide bond. Low oil solubilities for Gly-Phe and the hydrochlorides of the dipeptide esters III and VI were observed. Although the solubility of Gly-Phe in oil solutions was enhanced by hydrophobic ion pairing with sodium decyl sulfonate the oil solubility was still less than 1 mg Gly-Phe/ml. By addition of a solubiliser, 10% N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), to Viscoleo the solubility of the HIP complexes increased significantly. The present study indicates that sufficient oil solubility might only be obtained for relatively small peptides by using the prodrug approach in combination with solubility enhancing organic solvents like DMA. PMID:15265509

Larsen, Susan Weng; Ankersen, Michael; Larsen, Claus

2004-08-01

69

Fatty acid compositions in local sea cucumber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid profile from crude extracts of local sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus was determined using gas chromatography (GC) technique. The extracts were prepared separately in methanol, ethanol, phosphate buffer saline (PBS), and distilled water as part of our study to look at the affinity of these solvents in extracting the lipid from sea cucumber. The PBS and distilled water extractions

B. D. Fredalina; B. H. Ridzwan; A. A. Zainal Abidin; M. A. Kaswandi; H. Zaiton; I. Zali; P. Kittakoop; A. M. Mat Jais

1999-01-01

70

Catabolic effects of muramyl dipeptide on rabbit chondrocytes  

SciTech Connect

Muramyl dipeptide, an essential structure for the diverse biologic activities of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan, inhibited the synthesis of glycosaminoglycan/proteoglycan in cultured rabbit costal chondrocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Muramyl dipeptide, as well as lipopolysaccharide and interleukin-1 alpha, also enhanced the release of 35S-sulfate-prelabeled glycosaminoglycan/proteoglycan from the cell layer, which seems to reflect, at least partially, the increasing degradation of glycosaminoglycan/proteoglycan. Five synthetic analogs of muramyl dipeptide known to be adjuvant active or adjuvant inactive were tested for their potential to inhibit synthesis of glycosaminoglycan/proteoglycan and to enhance the release of glycosaminoglycan/proteoglycan in chondrocytes. The structural dependence of these synthetic analogs on chondrocytes was found to parallel that of immunoadjuvant activity. These results suggest that muramyl dipeptide is a potent mediator of catabolism in chondrocytes.

Ikebe, T.; Iribe, H.; Hirata, M.; Yanaga, F.; Koga, T. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan))

1990-12-01

71

Nucleic acids, compositions and uses thereof  

DOEpatents

The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

Preston, III, James F. (Micanopy, FL); Chow, Virginia (Gainesville, FL); Nong, Guang (Gainesville, FL); Rice, John D. (Gainesville, FL); St. John, Franz J. (Baltimore, MD)

2012-02-21

72

Amino acid composition of Lesquerella seed meals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed meals from 14 species ofLesquerella, family Cruciferae, were analyzed for 18 amino acids. Lysine and methionine contents ranged, respectively, from 331 to 440,\\u000a and 72 to 94 mg. per g. of nitrogen. When compared with 9 species ofBrassica (rape, mustard),Lesquerella seeds were higher in lysine and lower in methionine. Thirteen unidentified substances were detected by the ion-exchange chromatographic\\u000a method

Roger Wayne Miller; C. H. Van Etten; I. A. Wolff

1962-01-01

73

Amino acid composition in parenteral nutrition: what is the evidence?  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Complete parenteral nutrition solutions contain mixed amino acid products providing all nine essential amino acids and a varying composition of nonessential amino acids. Relatively little rigorous comparative efficacy research on altered parenteral nutrition amino acid composition has been published in recent years. Recent findings Limited data from randomized, double-blind, adequately powered clinical trials to define optimal doses of total or individual amino acids in parenteral nutrition are available. An exception is the growing number of studies on the efficacy of glutamine supplementation of parenteral nutrition or given as a single parenteral agent. Parenteral glutamine appears to confer benefit in selected patients; however, additional data to define optimal glutamine dosing and the patient subgroups who may most benefit from this amino acid are needed. Although some promising studies have been published, little data are available in the current era of nutrition support on the clinical efficacy of altered doses of arginine, branched chain amino acids, cysteine, or taurine supplementation of parenteral nutrition. Summary Despite routine use of parenteral nutrition, surprisingly little clinical efficacy data are available to guide total or specific amino acid dosing in adult and pediatric patients requiring this therapy. This warrants increased attention by the research community and funding agencies to better define optimal amino acid administration strategies in patient subgroups requiring parenteral nutrition. PMID:21076291

Yarandi, Shadi S.; Zhao, Vivian M.; Hebbar, Gautam; Ziegler, Thomas R.

2011-01-01

74

High Homogeneity of the Yersinia pestis Fatty Acid Composition  

PubMed Central

The cellular fatty acid compositions of 29 strains of Yersinia pestis representing the global diversity of this species have been analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography to investigate the extent of fatty acid polymorphism in this microorganism. After culture standardization, all Y. pestis strains studied displayed some major fatty acids, namely, the 12:0, 14:0, 3-OH-14:0, 16:0, 16:1?9cis, 17:0-cyc, and 18:1?9trans compounds. The fatty acid composition of the various isolates studied was extremely homogeneous (average Bousfield's coefficient, 0.94) and the subtle variations observed did not correlate with epidemiological and genetic characteristics of the strains. Y. pestis major fatty acid compounds were analogous to those found in other Yersinia species. However, when the ratios for the 12:0/16:0 and 14:0/16:0 fatty acids were plotted together, the genus Yersinia could be separated into three clusters corresponding to (i) nonpathogenic strains and species of Yersinia, (ii) pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica isolates, and (iii) Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis strains. The grouping of the two latter species into the same cluster was also demonstrated by their high Bousfield's coefficients (average, 0.89). Therefore, our results indicate that the fatty acid composition of Y. pestis is highly homogeneous and very close to that of Y. pseudotuberculosis. PMID:10747141

Leclercq, Alexandre; Guiyoule, Annie; El Lioui, Mohamed; Carniel, Elisabeth; Decallonne, Jacques

2000-01-01

75

Modification of the fatty acid composition of bovine tissues  

E-print Network

and as a consequence their tissues respond to and reflect changes in the fatty acid composition of the diet. This is different than in cattle where the diet is subject to the actions of the bacteria that exist in the rumens. The ruminal microbes present... a problem when trying to modify the tissue fatty acid composition of cattle. Digestion and absorption of protein in forages appear to be dependent on the amount of intact proteins that have escaped the actions of the ruminal microbes, and numerous...

Chang, Joyce

2012-06-07

76

Fatty acid composition of mature human milk in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The fatty acid composition of mature human milk from 10 rural Nigerian women was analyzed by high-resolution capillary gas-liquid chromatography and compared to previously determined results on mature human milk from 15 German mothers. Human milk of the Nigerian group contains significantly higher proportions of saturated fatty acids (median 54.07 vs. 42.76% wt\\/wt). The difference is primarily caused by

B. Koletzko; I. Thiel; P. O. Abiodun

1991-01-01

77

Eicosapentaenoic Acid Supplementation Changes Fatty Acid Composition and Corrects Endothelial Dysfunction in Hyperlipidemic Patients  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effects of purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on vascular endothelial function and free fatty acid composition in Japanese hyperlipidemic subjects. In subjects with hyperlipidemia (total cholesterol ?220?mg/dL and/or triglycerides ?150?mg/dL), lipid profile and forearm blood flow (FBF) during reactive hyperemia were determined before and 3 months after supplementation with 1800?mg/day EPA. Peak FBF during reactive hyperemia was lower in the hyperlipidemic group than the normolipidemic group. EPA supplementation did not change serum levels of total, HDL, or LDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins, remnant-like particle (RLP) cholesterol, RLP triglycerides, or malondialdehyde-modified LDL cholesterol. EPA supplementation did not change total free fatty acid levels in serum, but changed the fatty acid composition, with increased EPA and decreased linoleic acid, ?-linolenic acid, and dihomo-?-linolenic acid. EPA supplementation recovered peak FBF after 3 months. Peak FBF recovery was correlated positively with EPA and EPA/arachidonic acid levels and correlated inversely with dihomo-?-linolenic acid. EPA supplementation restores endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in hyperlipidemic patients despite having no effect on serum cholesterol and triglyceride patterns. These results suggest that EPA supplementation may improve vascular function at least partly via changes in fatty acid composition. PMID:23326753

Yamakawa, Ken; Shimabukuro, Michio; Higa, Namio; Asahi, Tomohiro; Ohba, Kageyuki; Arasaki, Osamu; Higa, Moritake; Oshiro, Yoshito; Yoshida, Hisashi; Higa, Tohru; Saito, Taro; Ueda, Shinichiro; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Sata, Masataka

2012-01-01

78

The tRNA-Dependent Biosynthesis of Modified Cyclic Dipeptides  

PubMed Central

In recent years it has become apparent that aminoacyl-tRNAs are not only crucial components involved in protein biosynthesis, but are also used as substrates and amino acid donors in a variety of other important cellular processes, ranging from bacterial cell wall biosynthesis and lipid modification to protein turnover and secondary metabolite assembly. In this review, we focus on tRNA-dependent biosynthetic pathways that generate modified cyclic dipeptides (CDPs). The essential peptide bond-forming catalysts responsible for the initial generation of a CDP-scaffold are referred to as cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs) and use loaded tRNAs as their substrates. After initially discussing the phylogenetic distribution and organization of CDPS gene clusters, we will focus on structural and catalytic properties of CDPSs before turning to two recently characterized CDPS-dependent pathways that assemble modified CDPs. Finally, possible applications of CDPSs in the rational design of structural diversity using combinatorial biosynthesis will be discussed before concluding with a short outlook. PMID:25196600

Giessen, Tobias W.; Marahiel, Mohamed A.

2014-01-01

79

Discriminating acidic and alkaline enzymes using a random forest model with secondary structure amino acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understating the adaptation mechanism of enzymes to pH extremes and discriminating them is a challenging task and would help to design stable enzymes. In this work, we have systematically analyzed the secondary structure amino acid compositions of 105 acidic and 111 alkaline enzymes, respectively. We found that the propensity of the individual residues to participate in different secondary structures might

Guangya Zhang; Hongchun Li; Baishan Fang

2009-01-01

80

Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

Drmanac, Radoje (850 E. Greenwich Pl., Palo Alto, CA 94303)

2002-01-01

81

Modification of fetal plasma amino acid composition by placental amino acid exchangers in vitro.  

PubMed

Fetal growth is dependent on both the quantity and relative composition of amino acids delivered to the fetal circulation, and impaired placental amino acid supply is associated with restricted fetal growth. Amino acid exchangers can alter the composition, but not the quantity, of amino acids in the intra- and extracellular amino acid pools. In the placenta, exchangers may be important determinants of the amino acid composition in the fetal circulation. This study investigates the substrate specificity of exchange between the placenta and the feto-placental circulation. Maternal-fetal transfer of radiolabelled amino acids and creatinine were measured in the isolated perfused human placental cotyledon. Transfer of L-[14C]serine or L-[14C]leucine, and [3H]glycine, were measured in the absence of amino acids in the fetal circulation (transfer by non-exchange mechanisms) and following 10-20 micromol boluses of unlabelled amino acids into the fetal circulation to provide substrates for exchange (transfer by exchange and non-exchange mechanisms). The ability of fetal arterial boluses of L-alanine and L-leucine to stimulate release of amino acids from the placenta was also determined using HPLC in order to demonstrate the overall pattern of amino acid release. Experiments with radiolabelled amino acids demonstrated increased maternal-fetal transfer of L-serine and L-leucine, but not glycine, following boluses of specific amino acids into the fetal circulation. L-[14C]Leucine, but not L-[14C]serine or [3H]glycine, was transferred from the maternal to the fetal circulation by non-exchange mechanisms also (P<0.01). HPLC analysis demonstrated that fetal amino acid boluses stimulated increased transport of a range of different amino acids by 4-7 micromol l(-1) (P<0.05). Amino acid exchange provides a mechanism to supply the fetus with amino acids that it requires for fetal growth. This study demonstrates that these transporters have the capacity to exchange micromolar amounts of specific amino acids, and suggests that they play an important role in regulating fetal plasma amino acid composition. PMID:17478537

Cleal, Jane K; Brownbill, Paul; Godfrey, Keith M; Jackson, John M; Jackson, Alan A; Sibley, Colin P; Hanson, Mark A; Lewis, Rohan M

2007-07-15

82

Ontogenic changes of amino acid composition in planktonic crustacean species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in amino acid composition (AAC) during ontogeny of some planktonic crustacean species commonly found in fresh and brackish coastal waters were compared. For these comparisons two calanoid copepods (Eurytemora velox and Calanipeda aquae-dulcis), two cyclopoid copepods (Diacyclops bicuspidatus odessanus and Acanthocyclops robustus) and two Daphnia (Daphnia pulicaria and Daphnia magna) species were selected. A discriminant analysis was performed to

Sandra Brucet; Dani Boix; Rocìo López-Flores; Anna Badosa; Xavier D. Quintana

2005-01-01

83

Factors Affecting Fatty Acid Composition in Forage and Milk  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Fatty Acid Composition in Forage and Milk Katarina Arvidsson Faculty of Natural in Forage and Milk Abstract The aims of the studies underlying this thesis were to evaluate variations on the FA contents of the milk. Initially, samples of timothy (Phleum pratense L.) were subjected

84

Original article Proximate and amino acid composition of seeds of  

E-print Network

to be very similar to that of Faba bean seeds. The crude protein content (31.3% dry matter, DM) of CE shouldOriginal article Proximate and amino acid composition of seeds of Canavalia ensiformis le 10 septembre 1989) Summary — A proximate analysis of Canavalia ensiformis seeds (CE) appears

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

85

Dietary trans fatty acids and composition of human atheromatous plaques.  

PubMed

Dietary fatty acids are incorporated into atheromatous plaques mainly in the form of cholesterol esters. Physicochemical properties of the plaque (e. g. mechanical strength) depend on its fatty acid composition. Trans isomers of unsaturated fatty acids (TFA) are known to reduce the availability of fatty acid precursors for the synthesis of anticoagulant PG(1) and PG(3) prostaglandins. The present study was undertaken to determine the content of trans isomers in atheromatous plaques and to search for correlations between trans isomers in the plaque and adipose tissue. Atheromatous plaques were obtained from 31 patients who underwent surgery due to atherosclerotic stenosis of the abdominal aorta, iliac or femoral arteries. Fatty acids were extracted and separated as methyl esters using gas chromatography (GC) with an internal standard. Correlations were searched for with statistical methods, taking the level of significance as p < 0.05. We found spatial and positional isomers of sixteen- and eighteen-carbon fatty acids in plaques and adipose tissue, with elaidic acid (C18:1 trans-9) being the most abundant. Every plaque and adipose tissue sample contained linolelaidic acid (C18:2 trans-9 trans-12) which is derived exclusively from linoleic acid, as well as conjugated dienes of linoleic acid (CLA) produced during oxidative processes. The presence of trans isomers of fatty acids in the atheromatous plaque seems to be of relevance to plaque formation. Of much concern is the detection of elaidic and linolelaidic acids which adversely affect the physiologically important metabolism of eicosanoids. The TFA pool in adipose tissue has little effect on the amount of these acids in the atheromatous plaque. Apparently, the presence of TFA in atheromatous plaques is the result of processes taking place during plaque formation and maturation. PMID:15309454

Stachowska, Ewa; Do?egowska, Barbara; Chlubek, Dariusz; Weso?owska, Teresa; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz; Gutowski, Piotr; Szumi?owicz, Halina; Turowski, Rados?aw

2004-10-01

86

Perfluoroalkyl acid contamination and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of French freshwater and marine fishes.  

PubMed

In this study, French marine and freshwater fish perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) contamination are presented along with their fatty acid (FA) composition to provide further elements for a risk/benefit balance of fish consumption to be assessed. The 29 most consumed marine fish species were collected in four metropolitan French coastal areas in 2004 to constitute composite samples. Geographical differences in terms of consumed species and contamination level were taken into account. Three hundred and eighty-seven composite samples corresponding to 16 freshwater fish species collected between 2008 and 2010 in the six major French rivers or their tributaries were selected among the French national agency for water and aquatic environments freshwater fish sample library. The raw edible parts were analyzed for FA composition and PFAA contamination. Results show that freshwater fishes are more contaminated by PFAAs than marine fishes and do not share the same contamination profile. Freshwater fish contamination is mostly driven by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (75%), whereas marine fish contamination is split between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (24%), PFOS (20%), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (15%), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFHpA) (11%), and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (11%). Common carp, pike-perch, European perch, thicklip grey mullet, and common roach presented the most unfavorable balance profile due to their high level of PFAAs and low level of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). These data could be used, if needed, in an updated opinion on fish consumption that takes into account PFAA contamination. PMID:25004121

Yamada, Ami; Bemrah, Nawel; Veyrand, Bruno; Pollono, Charles; Merlo, Mathilde; Desvignes, Virginie; Sirot, Véronique; Oseredczuk, Marine; Marchand, Philippe; Cariou, Ronan; Antignac, Jean-Phillippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

2014-07-30

87

Synthesis of acid-functionalized composite via surface deposition of acid-containing amorphous carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A synthetic procedure, including two steps: a hydrothermal treatment using H2SO4 solution and a thermal treatment with concentrated H2SO4 in Teflon-lined stainless autoclaves was developed to synthesize acid-functionalized composite. In this process, the carbonization of glucose which contributed to the formation of carbon species with acid functional groups occurred on the silica surface. The resultant composite, investigated by powder XRD, low temperature N2 sorption and TEM, possessed well-defined mesostructure. And it was determined by XPS that amorphous carbon was deposited at the silica surface of SBA-15. The presence of multi-functional groups in the composite was confirmed by FT-IR results. Furthermore, carboxylic and sulfonic groups could be incorporated into the composite material via the covalent bond. The composite was employed as the catalyst for the acetalization of carbonyl compounds. It was suggested that acid sites were well dispersed, which was responsible for the good performance in the catalytic test. According to these facts, a synthesis route for mesostructured composite with acid functional groups has been proposed.

Du, Bin; Zhang, Xuan; Lou, Lan-Lan; Dong, Yanling; Liu, Gaixia; Liu, Shuangxi

2012-07-01

88

Prebiotically plausible mechanisms increase compositional diversity of nucleic acid sequences  

PubMed Central

During the origin of life, the biological information of nucleic acid polymers must have increased to encode functional molecules (the RNA world). Ribozymes tend to be compositionally unbiased, as is the vast majority of possible sequence space. However, ribonucleotides vary greatly in synthetic yield, reactivity and degradation rate, and their non-enzymatic polymerization results in compositionally biased sequences. While natural selection could lead to complex sequences, molecules with some activity are required to begin this process. Was the emergence of compositionally diverse sequences a matter of chance, or could prebiotically plausible reactions counter chemical biases to increase the probability of finding a ribozyme? Our in silico simulations using a two-letter alphabet show that template-directed ligation and high concatenation rates counter compositional bias and shift the pool toward longer sequences, permitting greater exploration of sequence space and stable folding. We verified experimentally that unbiased DNA sequences are more efficient templates for ligation, thus increasing the compositional diversity of the pool. Our work suggests that prebiotically plausible chemical mechanisms of nucleic acid polymerization and ligation could predispose toward a diverse pool of longer, potentially structured molecules. Such mechanisms could have set the stage for the appearance of functional activity very early in the emergence of life. PMID:22319215

Derr, Julien; Manapat, Michael L.; Rajamani, Sudha; Leu, Kevin; Xulvi-Brunet, Ramon; Joseph, Isaac; Nowak, Martin A.; Chen, Irene A.

2012-01-01

89

Fatty acid composition of some medicinally useful seeds.  

PubMed

Fatty acid composition of seeds from the fruits of Butea monosperma, Jatropha glandulifera and Portulaca oleracea of three different families, namely Papilionaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Portulaceae were determined through Gas Liquid Chromatography to find novel natural sources of essential fatty acids for human health and of economic interest. Comparative studies were also performed to ascertain the utilization of each species for domestic as well as industrial purpose and the quality parameters developed can be utilized as marker characters for the aforesaid seeds used by the pharmaceutical industries. PMID:17135159

Srivastava, Manjoosha; Banerji, Ranjan; Rawat, A K S; Mehrotra, Shanta

2006-01-01

90

Doxorubicin immunoconjugates containing bivalent, lysosomally-cleavable dipeptide linkages.  

PubMed

Bivalent doxorubicin (DOX)-dipeptides (16a-c) were prepared and conjugated to the monoclonal antibody BR96. The dipeptides are cleaved by lysosomal proteases following internalization of the resulting immunoconjugates. Conjugate 18b demonstrated antigen-specific in vitro tumor cell killing activity (IC(50)=0.2 microM) that was equipotent to DOX with a near doubling of drug molecules/MAb. Size exclusion chromatography showed 18b to be a noncovalent dimer that was formed immediately upon conjugation. PMID:12031335

Dubowchik, Gene M; Radia, Shilpa; Mastalerz, Harold; Walker, Michael A; Firestone, Raymond A; Dalton King, H; Hofstead, Sandra J; Willner, David; Lasch, Shirley J; Trail, Pamela A

2002-06-01

91

Intrinsic backbone preferences are fully present in blocked amino acids  

PubMed Central

The preferences of amino acid residues for ?,? backbone angles vary strikingly among the amino acids, as shown by the backbone angle ? found from the 3J(H?,HN) coupling constant for short peptides in water. New data for the 3J(H?,HN) values of blocked amino acids (dipeptides) are given here. Dipeptides exhibit the full range of coupling constants shown by longer peptides such as GGXGG and dipeptides present the simplest system for analyzing backbone preferences. The dipeptide coupling constants are surprisingly close to values computed from the coil library (conformations of residues not in helices and not in sheets). Published coupling constants for GGXGG peptides agree closely with dipeptide values for all nonpolar residues and for some polar residues but not for X = D, N, T, and Y, which are probably affected by polar side chain–backbone interactions in GGXGG peptides. Thus, intrinsic backbone preferences are already determined at the dipeptide level and remain almost unchanged in GGXGG peptides and are strikingly similar in the coil library of conformations from protein structures. The simplest explanation for the backbone preferences is that backbone conformations are strongly affected by electrostatic dipole–dipole interactions in the peptide backbone and by screening of these interactions with water, which depends on nearby side chains. Strong backbone electrostatic interactions occur in dipeptides. This is shown by calculations both of backbone electrostatic energy for different conformers of the alanine dipeptide in the gas phase and by electrostatic solvation free energies of amino acid dipeptides. PMID:16423894

Avbelj, Franc; Grdadolnik, Simona Golic; Grdadolnik, Joze; Baldwin, Robert L.

2006-01-01

92

DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID BASE COMPOSITION OF PROTEUS AND PROVIDENCE ORGANISMS  

PubMed Central

Falkow, Stanley (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington D.C.), I. R. Ryman, and O. Washington. Deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of Proteus and Providence organisms. J. Bacteriol. 83:1318–1321. 1962.—Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) from various species of Proteus and of Providence bacteria have been examined for their guanine + cytosine (GC) content. P. vulgaris, P. mirabilis, and P. rettgeri possess essentially identical mean GC contents of 39%, and Providence DNA has a GC content of 41.5%. In marked contrast, P. morganii DNA was found to contain 50% GC. The base composition of P. morganii is only slightly lower than those observed for representatives of the Escherichia, Shigella, and Salmonella groups. Aerobacter and Serratia differ significantly from the other members of the family by their relatively high GC content. Since a minimal requirement for genetic compatibility among different species appears to be similarity of their DNA base composition, it is suggested that P. morganii is distinct genetically from the other species of Proteus as well as Providence strains. The determination of the DNA base composition of microorganisms is important for its predictive information. This information should prove of considerable value in investigating genetic and taxonomic relationships among bacteria. PMID:13891463

Falkow, Stanley; Ryman, I. R.; Washington, O.

1962-01-01

93

The dipeptide carnosine constricts rabbit saphenous vein as a zinc complex apparently via a serotonergic receptor.  

PubMed Central

1. The endogenous dipeptide carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine), at 0.1-10 mM, provokes sustained contractures in rabbit saphenous vein rings with greater efficacy than noradrenaline (NA). 2. The effects of carnosine are specific; anserine and homocarnosine are ineffective, as are carnosine's constituent amino acids histidine and beta-alanine. 3. Maximum carnosine-induced tension is enhanced by Zn ions (e.g. to 127.5 +/- 13.1% of control at 10 microM total Zn concentration, Zntot) and the sensitivity to carnosine potentiated (mean [carnosine] required for half-maximal tension, K1/2, reduced from 1.23 mM to 17.0 microM carnosine with 15 microM Zntot). 4. The dipeptide apparently acts as a zinc-carnosine complex. The effects of carnosine at concentrations of 1 microM to 10 mM in the presence of 1-100 microM Zntot, can be described as a unique function of the concentration of Zn-carnosine, with an apparent K1/2 for the complex of 7.4 x 10(-8) M. 5. Contractures are reduced at low [Ca2+], unaffected by adrenoceptor antagonists, but can be blocked by serotonergic receptor antagonists including ketanserin and methiothepin. 6. Competition between albumin and carnosine for Zn ions, as might occur in plasma, can be demonstrated experimentally. 7. The mode of action of carnosine is virtually unique: a vascular muscle receptor apparently transduces the action of a dipeptide in the form of a metal chelate. PMID:8887763

O'Dowd, A; O'Dowd, J J; Miller, D J

1996-01-01

94

A dipeptide and two glycosides from Streptocaulon griffithii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Streptocaulon griffithii afforded a novel dipeptide, streptin (1), a new hemiterpenoid, (R)-3-ethyl-4-methylpentyl-?-rutinoside (2), and a new disaccharide, 1-methoxyl-4-O-?-glucopyronosyl-?-digitoxose (3), along with five known compounds. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic methods and comparison with literature values.

Xiao-Hui Zhang; Tong Zhou; Li-Jiang Xuan

2008-01-01

95

Shellfish: proximate composition, minerals, fatty acids, and sterols.  

PubMed

Proximate composition, minerals, fatty acids, and sterols were determined for eight species of shellfish commonly marketed in the Northwest. Moisture and total lipid content varied with the size of the species, with more variation in mollusca than in crustacea; total lipid content ranged from 0.7% in sea scallops to 3.1% in blue mussels but only from 1.2% in Dungeness crab to 1.3% in pink shrimp. The mineral content was highly variable; the mineral content of Northwest samples tended to be lower than that reported in other studies. Generally, shellfish are good sources of zinc, and Pacific oysters, blue mussels, and Manila clams are also good sources of iron. Five fatty acids (16:0, 16:1, 18:1, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3) represented from 60% to 84% of the fatty acid content. Palmitic acid ranged from 13% to 32% of the total fatty acids. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were predominant (37.6% to 54.3%), with sea scallops containing more than 50%; n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 1.5% to 6.5%. In crustacea, cholesterol was the primary sterol, and brassicasterol was the only other measurable sterol. In all mollusca except California squid, cholesterol averaged 37 mg/100 gm and ranged from 23% to 39% of the total sterols. In squid, cholesterol, at 231 mg/100 gm, was the only measurable sterol. We conclude that shellfish vary widely in their nutrient content but, in general, are valuable additions to the diet. PMID:2335682

King, I; Childs, M T; Dorsett, C; Ostrander, J G; Monsen, E R

1990-05-01

96

Analysing the substrate multispecificity of a proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter using a dipeptide library  

PubMed Central

Peptide uptake systems that involve members of the proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter (POT) family are conserved across all organisms. POT proteins have characteristic substrate multispecificity, with which one transporter can recognize as many as 8,400 types of di/tripeptides and certain peptide-like drugs. Here we characterize the substrate multispecificity of Ptr2p, a major peptide transporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using a dipeptide library. The affinities (Ki) of di/tripeptides toward Ptr2p show a wide distribution range from 48?mM to 0.020?mM. This substrate multispecificity indicates that POT family members have an important role in the preferential uptake of vital amino acids. In addition, we successfully establish high performance ligand affinity prediction models (97% accuracy) using our comprehensive dipeptide screening data in conjunction with simple property indices for describing ligand molecules. Our results provide an important clue to the development of highly absorbable peptides and their derivatives including peptide-like drugs. PMID:24060756

Ito, Keisuke; Hikida, Aya; Kawai, Shun; Lan, Vu Thi Tuyet; Motoyama, Takayasu; Kitagawa, Sayuri; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Kato, Ryuji; Kawarasaki, Yasuaki

2013-01-01

97

Relating Trp-Glu Dipeptide Fluorescence to Molecular Conformation: The Role of the Discrete Chi 1 and Chi 2 Angles  

PubMed Central

Molecular dynamics, coupled with fluorescence data for charged dipeptides of tryptophanyl glutamic acid (Trp-Glu), reveal a detailed picture of how specific conformation effects fluorescence. Fluorescence emission spectra and time-resolved emission measurements have been collected for all four charged species. Molecular dynamics simulations 20 to 30 ns in length have also been carried out for the Trp-Glu species as simulation provides aqueous-phase conformational data that can be correlated with the fluorescence data. The calculations show that each dipeptide species is characterized by a similar set of six, discrete Chi 1, Chi 2 dihedral angle pairs. The preferred Chi 1 angles---60°, 180° and 300°---play the significant role in positioning the terminal amine relative to the indole ring. A Chi 1 angle of 60° results in the arching of the backbone over the indole ring, and no interaction of the ring with the terminal amine. Chi 1 values of 180° and 300° result in an extension of the backbone away from the indole ring, and a NH3 cation-? interaction with indole. This interaction is believed responsible for charge transfer quenching. Two fluorescence lifetimes and their corresponding amplitudes correlate with the Chi 1 angle probability distribution for all four charged Trp-Glu dipeptides. Fluorescence emission band maxima are also consistent with the proposed pattern of terminal amine cation quenching of fluorescence. PMID:23564660

EISENBERG, AZARIA SOLOMON; JUSZCZAK, LAURA J.

2014-01-01

98

Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes  

DOEpatents

A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm.sup.3 -atm).sup.1/2. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes.

Matson, Stephen L. (Harvard, MA); Lee, Eric K. L. (Acton, MA); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Kelly, Donald J. (Bend, OR)

1988-01-01

99

Evaluation of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) grown in different geographical locations.  

PubMed

Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18-43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22-43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79-12.34%), stearic acid (6.36-7.73%), oleic acid (4.31-6.98%), arachidic acid (ND-3.48%), margaric acid (1.44-2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63-0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21-0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location. PMID:24171167

Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

2013-01-01

100

Pyrazinamide Effects on Cartilage Type II Collagen Amino Acid Composition  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Current therapeutic regimens with first-line antitubercular agents are associated to a high rate of adverse effects which could cause pronounced changes in collagen's contents and structure. Investigation of these changes is very important for optimization of antitubercular therapy and minimization of treatment-caused harm. The aim of present paper was to investigate potential effect of pyrazinamide on male rats' cartilage type II collagen amino acid composition. Materials and Methods. Wistar albino male rats (160–200?g?b.w.) were divided into three groups: I—received pyrazinamide per os at a dose of 1000?mg/kg?b.w./day; II—at a dose of 2000?mg/kg?b.w./day, in both groups it was given for 60 days; III—control. After 60 days of the experiment, rats of the experimental (groups I and II) and control groups were sacrificed and the amino acids contents of male rat cartilage type II collagens were determined using amino acid analyzer. Results and Discussion. The study of pyrazinamide effects (administered in different doses) on rat cartilage type II collagen amino acid contents demonstrated presence of dose-dependent pyrazinamide-mediated quantitative and qualitative changes in these rat extracellular matrix proteins in comparison with control. PMID:22611417

Bondarenko, Larysa B.; Kovalenko, Valentina M.

2012-01-01

101

The Role of a Dipeptide Outer-Coordination Sphere on H2 -Production Catalysts: Influence on Catalytic Rates and Electron Transfer  

SciTech Connect

The outer-coordination sphere of enzymes acts to fine-tune the active site reactivity and control catalytic rates, suggesting that incorporation of analogous structural elements into molecular catalysts may be necessary to achieve rates comparable to those observed in enzyme systems at low overpotentials. In this work, we evaluate the effect of an amino acid and dipeptide outer-coordination sphere on [Ni(PPh2NPh-R2)2]2+ hydrogen production catalysts. A series of 12 new complexes containing non-natural amino acids or dipeptides were prepared to test the effects of positioning, size, polarity and aromaticity on catalytic activity. The non-natural amino acid was either 3-(meta- or para-aminophenyl)propionic acid terminated as an acid, an ester or an amide. Dipeptides consisted of one of the non-natural amino acids coupled to one of four amino acid esters: alanine, serine, phenylalanine or tyrosine. All of the catalysts are active for hydrogen production, with rates averaging ~1000 s-1, 40% faster than the unmodified catalyst. Structure and polarity of the aliphatic or aromatic side chains of the C-terminal peptide do not strongly influence rates. However, the presence of an amide bond increases rates, suggesting a role for the amide in assisting catalysis. Overpotentials were lower with substituents at the N-phenyl meta position. This is consistent with slower electron transfer in the less compact, para-substituted complexes, as shown in digital simulations of catalyst cyclic voltammograms and computational modeling of the complexes. Combining the current results with insights from previous results, we propose a mechanism for the role of the amino acid and dipeptide based outer-coordination sphere in molecular hydrogen production catalysts.

Reback, Matthew L.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Jain, Avijita; Squier, Thomas C.; Raugei, Simone; Roberts, John A.; Shaw, Wendy J.

2013-02-04

102

Fatty acid composition of the milk lipids of women in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerol and phospholipid fractions of human milk samples obtained 2–4 weeks postpartum from 48 women living in rural Nepal. The most noteworthy aspects of the fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerol fraction were the proportions of the two essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) and ?-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3). The proportion of linoleic

Barbara L. Schmeits; Julia A. Cook; Dorothy J. VanderJagt; Margaret A. Magnussen; Shree Krishna Bhatt; Emil G. Bobik; Yung-Sheng Huang; Robert H. Glew

1999-01-01

103

Amino acid composition of processed fish silage using different raw materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to evaluate amino acid composition of silages produced from three raw materials. Commercial marine fish waste, commercial freshwater fish waste, and tilapia filleting residue were used to produce fish silage by acid digestion (20ml\\/kg formic acid and 20ml\\/kg sulfuric acid) and anaerobic fermentation (50g\\/kg Lactobacillus plantarum, 150g\\/kg sugar cane molasses). Protein content and amino acid composition were

Rose Meire Vidotti; Elisabete Maria Macedo Viegas; Dalton José Carneiro

2003-01-01

104

Carbon13 kinetic isotope effects in the decarbonylation of lactic acid of natural isotopic composition in phosphoric acid medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The13C kinetic isotope effect fractionation in the decarbonylation of lactic acid (LA) of natural isotopic composition by concentrated phosphpric acids (PA) and by 85% H3PO4 has been studied in the temperature interval of 60–150°C. The values of the13C(1) isotope effects in the decarbonylation of lactic acid in 100% H3PO4, in pyrophosphoric acid and in more concentrated phosphoric acids are intermediate

M. Zieli?ski; G. Czarnota; H. Papiernik-Zieli?ska; G. Kasprzyk; L. Gumó?ka; W. Städter

1993-01-01

105

Fatty acid composition of seeds of some species of Nepeta L.  

PubMed

The fatty acid compositions of Nepeta viscida, N. cilicica, N. crinita, N. nuda ssp. glandulifera and N. aristata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main free fatty acids were found as linolenic acid (49.8-58.5%), linoleic acid (10.9-23.5%), oleic acid (11.5-19.2%), palmitic acid (5.2-6.8%) and stearic acid (2.0-3.7%) and, total fatty acid compositions of species were analyzed and results were found as 36.2-49.8%, 17.1-25.8%, 15.4-25.8%, 6.4-7.8%, and 2.7-4.1%, respectively. PMID:17487620

Kiliç, Turgut; Dirmenci, Tuncay; Gören, Ahmet C

2007-05-01

106

Structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of a dipeptide ABC transporter reveals a novel iron-sulfur cluster-binding domain.  

PubMed

Dipeptide permease (Dpp), which belongs to an ABC transport system, imports peptides consisting of two or three L-amino acids from the matrix to the cytoplasm in microbes. Previous studies have indicated that haem competes with dipeptides to bind DppA in vitro and in vivo and that the Dpp system can also translocate haem. Here, the crystal structure of DppD, the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) of the ABC-type dipeptide/oligopeptide/nickel-transport system from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis, bound with ATP, Mg(2+) and a [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur cluster is reported. The N-terminal domain of DppD shares a similar structural fold with the NBDs of other ABC transporters. Interestingly, the C-terminal domain of DppD contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster. The UV-visible absorbance spectrum of DppD was consistent with the presence of a [4Fe-4S] cluster. A search with DALI revealed that the [4Fe-4S] cluster-binding domain is a novel structural fold. Structural analysis and comparisons with other ABC transporters revealed that this iron-sulfur cluster may act as a mediator in substrate (dipeptide or haem) binding by electron transfer and may regulate the transport process in Dpp ABC transport systems. The crystal structure provides a basis for understanding the properties of ABC transporters and will be helpful in investigating the functions of NBDs in the regulation of ABC transporter activity. PMID:23385461

Li, Xiaolu; Zhuo, Wei; Yu, Jie; Ge, Jingpeng; Gu, Jinke; Feng, Yue; Yang, Maojun; Wang, Linfang; Wang, Na

2013-02-01

107

A Study of the Acid Properties of Structurally and Compositionally Different Heteropoly Acids in Acetic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acid properties of heteropoly acids of the following three structure types were studied by conductometry in acetic acid: Keggin (H3PW12O40, H3PMo12O40, H4SiW12O40, H3PW11ThO39; and H5PW11XO40, where X(IV) = Ti or Zr), Dawson (a-H6P2W18O62and a-H6P2Mo18O62), and H6P2W21O71(H2O)3. These compounds are electrolytes that dissociate in only the first step of this solvent. The thermodynamic dissociation constants of the heteropoly acids were

M. N. Timofeeva; M. M. Matrosova; G. M. Maksimov; V. A. Likholobov

2001-01-01

108

Preparation and characterization of stearic acid\\/expanded graphite composites as thermal energy storage materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stearic acid\\/expanded graphite composites with different mass ratios were prepared by absorbing liquid stearic acid into the expanded graphite. In the composite materials, the stearic acid was used as the phase change material for thermal energy storage, and the expanded graphite acted as the supporting material. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and thermal diffusivity measurement were

Guiyin Fang; Hui Li; Zhi Chen; Xu Liu

2010-01-01

109

Proximate Chemical Composition and Fatty Acids of Three Small Coastal Pelagic Species  

E-print Network

high level of 22:6w3, but in general the fatty acid profiles of the three species were similar and didProximate Chemical Composition and Fatty Acids of Three Small Coastal Pelagic Species MALCOLM B. HALE Introduction Information on the proximate chem- ical composition and fatty acid profiles

110

Hydroxyapatite nanorod-reinforced biodegradable poly(L-lactic acid) composites for bone plate applications  

E-print Network

Hydroxyapatite nanorod-reinforced biodegradable poly(L-lactic acid) composites for bone plate composite fibers containing hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods with or without surface lactic acid grafting were/w) HAp nanorods, aligned parallel to fiber axis, were extruded. Lactic acid surface grafting of HAp

Hasýrcý, Vasýf

111

Effects of feeding bile acids and a bile acid sequestrant on hepatic bile acid composition in mice[S  

PubMed Central

An improved ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous analysis of various bile acids (BA) and applied to investigate liver BA content in C57BL/6 mice fed 1% cholic acid (CA), 0.3% deoxycholic acid (DCA), 0.3% chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), 0.3% lithocholic acid (LCA), 3% ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), or 2% cholestyramine (resin). Results indicate that mice have a remarkable ability to maintain liver BA concentrations. The BA profiles in mouse livers were similar between CA and DCA feedings, as well as between CDCA and LCA feedings. The mRNA expression of Cytochrome P450 7a1 (Cyp7a1) was suppressed by all BA feedings, whereas Cyp7b1 was suppressed only by CA and UDCA feedings. Gender differences in liver BA composition were observed after feeding CA, DCA, CDCA, and LCA, but they were not prominent after feeding UDCA. Sulfation of CA and CDCA was found at the 7-OH position, and it was increased by feeding CA or CDCA more in male than female mice. In contrast, sulfation of LCA and taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) was female-predominant, and it was increased by feeding UDCA and LCA. In summary, the present systematic study on BA metabolism in mice will aid in interpreting BA-mediated gene regulation and hepatotoxicity. PMID:20671298

Zhang, Youcai; Klaassen, Curtis D.

2010-01-01

112

Cyclic dipeptide immobilization on Au(111) and Cu(110) surfaces.  

PubMed

Soft X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy have been used to probe the electronic and adsorption properties of two cyclic dipeptides, i.e. cyclo(glycyl-histidyl) and cyclo(phenylalanyl-prolyl), on Au(111) and Cu(110) surfaces. The core level spectra show chemical shifts which indicate weak chemisorption on Au(111), and stronger chemisorption on the Cu(110) surface, mainly via one of the nitrogen atoms in the central rings of both molecules, and nitrogen in the imidazole ring of cyclo(glycyl-histidyl). From the angular dependence of the NEXAFS spectra at the O and N K-edges, we conclude that both dipeptides have a preferred orientation on the two surfaces. PMID:24584969

Plekan, Oksana; Feyer, Vitaliy; Ptasi?ska, Sylwia; Tsud, Nataliya; Prince, Kevin C

2014-04-14

113

Synthesis and characterization of novel dipeptide ester prodrugs of acyclovir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four dipeptide (Gly-Gly, Gly-Val, Val-Val, Val-Gly) ester prodrugs of 9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]guanine (acyclovir, ACV) were synthesized. LC/MS was used to characterize the new prodrugs. Both 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra of the four prodrugs of ACV were measured and assigned based on spectral comparison with compounds of similar structures.

Nashed, Yasser E.; Mitra, Ashim K.

2003-07-01

114

Adamantylamide dipeptide as effective immunoadjuvant in rabbits and mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the search for more potent and less toxic immunomodulators, adamantylamide dipeptide (AdDP) was synthesized by the covalent union of amantadine with the l-alanyl-d-isoglutamine residue of muramyldipeptide (MDP). The present experiments demonstrate the ability of AdDP, co-administered with a protein immunogen, to raise or enhance a humoral response in immunized animals. BALB\\/c mice were immunized either by the intraperitoneal (ip)

Pablo D. Becker; Ricardo S. Corral; Carlos A. Guzmán; Saul Grinstein

2001-01-01

115

Investigation on Interaction of L-Methionine Dipeptide with ct-DNA by Ultraviolet Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, L-methionine peptides were synthesized with the assistance of phosphorus oxychloride. L-methionine dipeptide was purified by HPLC and characterized by the means of H-NMR, C-NMR and ESI-MS. The interaction of L-Methionine dipeptide with ct-DNA was studied by ultraviolet spectra. The results showed that L-Methionine dipeptide could interact with phosphorous groups of ct-DNA. The influences of interaction time, ionic

Kui Lu; Rui Li; Li Ma

2008-01-01

116

Novel dipeptide macrocycles from 4-oxo, -thio, and -amino-substituted proline derivatives.  

PubMed

Dipeptide macrocycles of type A have been constructed in a versatile manner from the corresponding 4-heteroatom-substituted proline derivatives using an intramolecular Mitsunobu strategy. PMID:12027716

Arasappan, Ashok; Chen, Kevin X; Njoroge, F George; Parekh, Tejal N; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor

2002-05-31

117

Citric Acid-based Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds Enhance Calvarial Regeneration.  

PubMed

Citric acid-based polymer/hydroxyapatite composites (CABP-HAs) are a novel class of biomimetic composites that have recently attracted significant attention in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of using two different CABP-HAs, poly (1,8-octanediol citrate)-click-HA (POC-Click-HA) and crosslinked urethane-doped polyester-HA (CUPE-HA) as an alternative to autologous tissue grafts in the repair of skeletal defects. CABP-HA disc-shaped scaffolds (65 wt.-% HA with 70% porosity) were used as bare implants without the addition of growth factors or cells to renovate 4?mm diameter rat calvarial defects (n = 72, n = 18 per group). Defects were either left empty (negative control group), or treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds, POC-Click-HA scaffolds, or autologous bone grafts (AB group). Radiological and histological data showed a significant enhancement of osteogenesis in defects treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds when compared to POC-Click-HA scaffolds. Both, POC-Click-HA and CUPE-HA scaffolds, resulted in enhanced bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, and angiogenesis when compared to the control groups at 1, 3, and 6 months post-trauma. These results show the potential of CABP-HA bare implants as biocompatible, osteogenic, and off-shelf-available options in the repair of orthopedic defects. PMID:25372769

Sun, Dawei; Chen, Yuhui; Tran, Richard T; Xu, Song; Xie, Denghui; Jia, Chunhong; Wang, Yuchen; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Zhongmin; Guo, Jinshan; Yang, Jian; Jin, Dadi; Bai, Xiaochun

2014-01-01

118

Citric Acid-based Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds Enhance Calvarial Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Citric acid-based polymer/hydroxyapatite composites (CABP-HAs) are a novel class of biomimetic composites that have recently attracted significant attention in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of using two different CABP-HAs, poly (1,8-octanediol citrate)-click-HA (POC-Click-HA) and crosslinked urethane-doped polyester-HA (CUPE-HA) as an alternative to autologous tissue grafts in the repair of skeletal defects. CABP-HA disc-shaped scaffolds (65 wt.-% HA with 70% porosity) were used as bare implants without the addition of growth factors or cells to renovate 4?mm diameter rat calvarial defects (n = 72, n = 18 per group). Defects were either left empty (negative control group), or treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds, POC-Click-HA scaffolds, or autologous bone grafts (AB group). Radiological and histological data showed a significant enhancement of osteogenesis in defects treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds when compared to POC-Click-HA scaffolds. Both, POC-Click-HA and CUPE-HA scaffolds, resulted in enhanced bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, and angiogenesis when compared to the control groups at 1, 3, and 6 months post-trauma. These results show the potential of CABP-HA bare implants as biocompatible, osteogenic, and off-shelf-available options in the repair of orthopedic defects. PMID:25372769

Sun, Dawei; Chen, Yuhui; Tran, Richard T.; Xu, Song; Xie, Denghui; Jia, Chunhong; Wang, Yuchen; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Zhongmin; Guo, Jinshan; Yang, Jian; Jin, Dadi; Bai, Xiaochun

2014-01-01

119

Sensitive Amino Acid Composition and Chirality Analysis with the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of life on Mars requires definition of a suitable biomarker and development of sensitive yet compact instrumentation capable of performing in situ analyses. Our studies are focused on amino acid analysis because amino acids are more resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino acid chirality is a well-defined biomarker. Amino acid composition and chirality analysis has been

A. M. Skelley; J. R. Scherer; A. D. Aubrey; R. H. Ivester; P. Ehrenfreund; F. J. Grunthaner; J. L. Bada; R. A. Mathies

2004-01-01

120

Fatty Acid Composition of Commercial Spanish Fast Food and Snack Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid composition, total fat contents and percentages of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA) and trans isomers of fatty acids (t FA) were analysed in commercial Spanish fast food and snack food by capillary gas chromatography (CGC) using a capillary column. The results obtained show a great variability in the percentages of fatty acids (g\\/100 g total fatty acids)

P. Mario Fernández; San Juan

2000-01-01

121

Association between Plasma Nonesterified Fatty Acids Species and Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Composition  

PubMed Central

Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue (AT) is an established long-term biomarker for fatty acid (FA) intake and status, but AT samples are not easily available. Nonesterified FA composition in plasma (pNEFA) may be a good indicator of AT FA composition, because pNEFA are mainly generated by AT lipolysis. We investigated the correlation of 42 pNEFA and subcutaneous as well as visceral AT FA in 27 non-diabetic women with a median BMI of 36 kg/m2 (Q0.25: 25 kg/m2; Q0.75: 49 kg/m2). Close correlations of pNEFA and AT FA were found for odd-chain FA (15?0 r?=?0.838 and 0.862 for subcutaneous and visceral AT, respectively) and omega-3 FA (22?6 r?=?0.719/0.535), while no significant or low correlations were found for other FA including 18?1 (r?=?0.384/0.325) and 20?4 (r?=?0.386/0.266). Close correlations of pNEFA and AT FA were found for essential fatty acids, like 18?2 (r?=?0.541/0.610) and 20?5 (r?=?0.561/0.543). The lower correlation for some pNEFA species with AT FA indicates that the variation of most pNEFA is significantly affected by other FA sources and flux of FA to tissue, in addition to release from AT. A relevant influence of BMI on the level of correlation was shown for saturated FA. NEFA analysis in fasted plasma can serve as a virtual AT biopsy for some FA, and as a biomarker for intake of dairy products and sea fish. PMID:24098359

Hellmuth, Christian; Demmelmair, Hans; Schmitt, Isabel; Peissner, Wolfgang; Bluher, Matthias; Koletzko, Berthold

2013-01-01

122

Fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex of adolescent male and female suicide victims.  

PubMed

Prior epidemiological, prospective intervention, and peripheral and central fatty acid composition studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acid deficiency may be associated with the pathoaetiology of depression and suicide. In the present study, we determined the fatty acid composition of the postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) of adolescent male and female suicide victims and age-matched controls. Fatty acid composition (wt% total fatty acids) and concentrations (micromol/g) were determined in the postmortem PFC (Brodmann area 10) of male and female adolescent (aged 13-20 years) suicide victims (n=20) and age-matched controls (n=20) by gas chromatography. None of the major polyunsaturated fatty acids including the principle brain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), monounsaturated fatty acids, or saturated fatty acids differed significantly between adolescent suicide victims and controls before or after segregation by gender. The arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6): DHA ratio and adrenic acid (22:4n-6) composition were negatively correlated with age at death in controls but not in suicides, and males exhibited a greater AA:DHA ratio irrespective of cause-of-death. These results demonstrate that adolescent male and female suicide victims do not exhibit DHA deficits in the postmortem PFC relative to age-matched controls, and suggest that suicide victims do not exhibit the normal age-related decrease in adrenic acid composition and the AA:DHA ratio. PMID:19064316

McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Conley, Robert R; Pandey, Ghanshyam N

2009-01-01

123

The major metabolite of dipeptide piracetam analogue GVS-111 in rat brain and its similarity to endogenous neuropeptide cyclo- l -prolylglycine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The metabolism of a new piracetam analogue, the dipeptide cognitive enhancer N-phenylacetyl-l-prolylglycine ethyl ester (GVS-111) was studied in vivo. GVS-111 itself was not found in rat brain 1 h after 5 mg\\/kg i.p.\\u000a administration up to limit of detection (LOD) under high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions. Three substances\\u000a corresponding to the three possible GVS-111 metabolites, namely phenylacetic acid, prolylglycine

T. A. Gudasheva; S. S. Boyko; R. U. Ostrovskaya; T. A. Voronina; V. K. Akparov; S. S. Trofimov; G. G. Rozantsev; A. P. Skoldinov; V. P. Zherdev; S. B. Seredenin

1997-01-01

124

Continuous microcellular foaming of polylactic acid/natural fiber composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a biodegradable thermoplastic derived from renewable resources, stands out as a substitute to petroleum-based plastics. In spite of its excellent properties, commercial applications are limited because PLA is more expensive and more brittle than traditional petroleum-based resins. PLA can be blended with cellulosic fibers to reduce material cost. However, the lowered cost comes at the expense of flexibility and impact strength, which can be enhanced through the production of microcellular structures in the composite. Microcellular foaming uses inert gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) as physical blowing agents to make cellular structures with bubble sizes of less than 10 microm and cell-population densities (number of bubbles per unit volume) greater than 109 cells/cm³. These unique characteristics result in a significant increase in toughness and elongation at break (ductility) compared with unfoamed parts because the presence of small bubbles can blunt the crack-tips increasing the energy needed to propagate the crack. Microcellular foams have been produced through a two step batch process. First, large amounts of gas are dissolved in the solid plastic under high pressure (sorption process) to form a single-phase solution. Second, a thermodynamic instability (sudden drop in solubility) triggers cell nucleation and growth as the gas diffuses out of the plastic. Batch production of microcellular PLA has addressed some of the drawbacks of PLA. Unfortunately, the batch foaming process is not likely to be implemented in the industrial production of foams because it is not cost-effective. This study investigated the continuous microcellular foaming process of PLA and PLA/wood-fiber composites. The effects of the processing temperature and material compositions on the melt viscosity, pressure drop rate, and cell-population density were examined in order to understand the nucleation mechanisms in neat and filled PLA foams. The results indicated that the processing temperature had a strong effect of the rheology of the melt and cell morphology. Processing at a lower temperature significantly increased the cell nucleation rate of neat PLA (amorphous and semi-crystalline) because of the fact that a high melt viscosity induced a high pressure drop rate in the polymer/gas solution. The presence of nanoclay did not affect the homogeneous nucleation but increased the heterogeneous nucleation, allowing both nucleation mechanisms to occur during the foaming process. The effect of wood-flour (0-30 wt.%) and rheology modifier contents on the melt viscosity and cell morphology of microcellular foamed composites was investigated. The viscosity of the melt increased with wood-flour content and decreased with rheology modifier content, affecting the processing conditions (i.e., pressure drop and pressure drop rate) and foamability of the composites. Matching the viscosity of the composites with that of neat PLA resulted in the best cell morphologies. Physico-mechanical characterization of microcellular foamed PLA as a function of cell morphology was performed to establish process-morphology-property relationships. The processing variables, i.e., amount of gas injected, flow rate, and processing temperature affected the development of the cellular structure and mechanical properties of the foams.

Diaz-Acosta, Carlos A.

125

Protonated Dipeptide Losses from b 5 and b 4 Ions of Side Chain Hydroxyl Group Containing Pentapeptides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, C-terminal protonated dipeptide eliminations were reported for both b 5 and b 4 ions of side chain hydroxyl group (-OH) containing pentapeptides. The study utilized the model C-terminal amidated pentapeptides having sequences of XGGFL and AXVYI, where X represents serine (S), threonine (T), glutamic acid (E), aspartic acid (D), or tyrosine (Y) residue. Upon low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) of XGGFL (where X = S, T, E, D, and Y) model peptide series, the ions at m/z 279 and 223 were observed as common fragments in all b 5 and b 4 ion (except b 4 ion of YGGFL) mass spectra, respectively. By contrast, peptides, namely SMeGGFL-NH2 and EOMeGGFL-NH2, did not show either the ion at m/z 279 or the ion at m/z 223. It is shown that the side chain hydroxyl group is required for the possible mechanism to take place that furnishes the protonated dipeptide loss from b 5 and b 4 ions. In addition, the ions at m/z 295 and 281 were detected as common fragments in all b 5 and b 4 ion (except b 4 ion of AYVYI) mass spectra, respectively, for AXVYI model peptide series. The MS4 experiments exhibited that the fragment ions at m/z 279, 223, 295, and 281 entirely reflect the same fragmentation behavior of [M + H]+ ion generated from commercial dipeptides FL-OH, GF-OH, YI-OH, and VY-OH. These novel eliminations reported here for b 5 and b 4 ions can be useful in assigning the correct and reliable peptide sequences for high-throughput proteomic studies.

Atik, A. Emin; Yalcin, Talat

2013-10-01

126

Efficacy of Parenteral Nutrition Supplemented With Glutamine Dipeptide to Decrease Hospital Infections in Critically Ill Surgical Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Nosocomial infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Clinical benefits of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition may occur in hospitalized surgical patients, but efficacy data in different surgical subgroups are lacking. The objective was to determine whether glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition differentially affects nosocomial infection rates in selected subgroups of SICU patients. Methods This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled study of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide-supplemented parenteral nutrition in SICU patients requiring parenteral nutrition and SICU care after surgery for pancreatic necrosis, cardiac, vascular, or colonic surgery. Subjects (n = 59) received isocaloric/isonitrogenous parenteral nutrition, providing 1.5 g/kg/d standard glutamine-free amino acids (STD-PN) or 1.0 g/kg/d standard amino acids + 0.5 g/kg/d glutamine dipeptide (GLN-PN). Enteral feedings were advanced as tolerated. Nosocomial infections were determined until hospital discharge. Results Baseline clinical/metabolic data were similar between groups. Plasma glutamine concentrations were low in all groups and were increased by GLN-PN. GLN-PN did not alter infection rates after pancreatic necrosis surgery (17 STD-PN and 15 GLN-PN patients). In nonpancreatic surgery patients (12 STD-PN and 15 GLN-PN), GLN-PN was associated with significantly decreased total nosocomial infections (STD-PN 36 vs GLN-PN 13, P < .030), bloodstream infections (7 vs 0, P < .01), pneumonias (16 vs 6, P < .05), and infections attributed to Staphylococcus aureus (P < .01), fungi, and enteric Gram-negative bacteria (each P < .05). Conclusions Glutamine dipeptide-supplemented parenteral nutrition did not alter infection rates following pancreatic necrosis surgery but significantly decreased infections in SICU patients after cardiac, vascular, and colonic surgery. PMID:18596310

Estivariz, Concepcion F.; Griffith, Daniel P.; Luo, Menghua; Szeszycki, Elaina E.; Bazargan, Niloofar; Dave, Nisha; Daignault, Nicole M.; Bergman, Glen F.; McNally, Therese; Battey, Cindy H.; Furr, Celeste E.; Hao, Li; Ramsay, James G.; Accardi, Carolyn R.; Cotsonis, George A.; Jones, Dean P.; Galloway, John R.; Ziegler, Thomas R.

2011-01-01

127

Uptake of the cephalosporin, cephalexin, by a dipeptide transport carrier in the human intestinal cell line, Caco-2.  

PubMed

The transport of the orally absorbed cephalosporin, cephalexin, was examined in the human epithelial cell line, Caco-2 that possesses intestinal enterocyte-like properties when cultured. In sodium-free buffer, the cells accumulated 1 mM D-[9-14C]cephalexin against a concentration gradient and obtained a distribution ratio of 3.5 within 180 min. Drug uptake was maximal when the extracellular pH was 6.0. Uptake was reduced by metabolic inhibitors and by protonophores indicating that uptake was energy- and proton-dependent. Kinetic analysis of the concentration dependence of the rate of cephalexin uptake showed that a non-saturable component (Kd of 0.18 +/- 0.01 nmol/min per mg protein per mM) and a transport system with a Km of 7.5 +/- 2.8 mM and a Vmax of 6.5 +/- 0.9 nmol/min per mg protein were responsible for drug uptake. Uptake was competitively inhibited by dipeptides. The transport carrier exhibited stereospecificity for the L-isomer of cephalexin. Drug uptake was not affected by the presence of amino acids, organic anions, 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid or 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulfonic stilbene. Therefore, Caco-2 cells take up cephalexin by a proton-dependent dipeptide transport carrier that closely resembles the transporter present in the intestine. Caco-2 cells represent a cellular model for future studies of the dipeptide transporter. PMID:2397233

Dantzig, A H; Bergin, L

1990-09-01

128

Hydrolysis of Protein and Model Dipeptide Substrates by Attached and Nonattached Marine Pseudomonas sp. Strain NCIMB 2021 †  

PubMed Central

Rates of substrate hydrolysis by nonattached bacteria and by bacteria attached to particles derived from marine diatom frustules were estimated by using two substrates, a dipeptide analog and a protein. Adsorption of the two substrates onto the particles was also evaluated. Methyl-coumarinyl-amide-leucine (MCA-leucine) was used to estimate hydrolysis of dipeptides by measuring an increase in fluorescence as MCA-leucine was hydrolyzed to leucine and the fluorochrome methylcoumarin. To examine hydrolysis of a larger molecule, we prepared a radiolabeled protein by 14C-methylation of bovine serum albumin. The rate of protein hydrolysis in samples of particle-attached or nonattached bacteria was estimated by precipitating all nonhydrolyzed protein with cold trichloroacetic acid and then determining the trichloroacetic acid-soluble radiolabeled material, which represented methyl-14C-peptides and -amino acids. About 25% of the MCA-leucine adsorbed to the particles. MCA-leucine was hydrolyzed faster by nonattached than attached bacteria, which was probably related to its tendency to remain dissolved in the liquid phase. In contrast, almost 100% of the labeled protein adsorbed to the particles. Accordingly, protein was much less available to nonattached bacteria but was rapidly hydrolyzed by attached bacteria. PMID:16348534

Griffith, Peter C.; Fletcher, Madilyn

1991-01-01

129

Hydrolysis of protein and model dipeptide substrated by attached and nonattached marine Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIMB 2021  

SciTech Connect

Rates of substrate hydrolysis by nonattached bacteria and by bacteria attached to particles derived from marine diatom frustules were estimated by using two substrates, a dipeptide analog and a protein. Adsorption of the two substrates onto the particles was also evaluated. Methyl-coumarinyl-amide-leucine (MCA-leucine) was used to estimate hydrolysis of dipeptides by measuring an increase in fluorescence as MCA-leucine was hydrolyzed to leucine and the fluorochrome methylcoumarin. To examine hydrolysis of a larger molecule, was prepared a radiolabeled protein by {sup 14}C-methylation of bovine serum albumin. The rate of protein hydrolysis in samples of particle-attached or nonattached bacteria was estimated by precipitating all nonhydrolyzed protein with cold trichloroacetic acid and then determining the trichloroacetic acid-soluble radiolabeled material, which represented methyl-{sup 14}C-peptides and -amino acids. About 25% of the MCA-leucine adsorbed to the particles. MCA-leucine was hydrolyzed faster by nonattached than attached bacteria, which was probably related to its tendency to remain dissolved in the liquid phase. In contrast, almost 100% of the labeled protein adsorbed to the particles. Accordingly, protein was much less available to nonattached bacteria but was rapidly hydrolyzed by attached bacteria.

Griffith, P.C.; Fletcher, M. (Univ. of Maryland System, Baltimore (USA))

1991-08-01

130

Distribution and enantiomeric composition of amino acids in the Murchison meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of the amino acid contents and enantiomeric compositions of a single stone from the Murchison meteorite are reported. Water-extracted and 6M HCl-extracted samples from the meteorite interior of meteorite fragments were analyzed by gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Examination of the D/L ratios of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, proline, leucine and alanine reveals those amino acids extractable by water to be partially racemized, whereas the acid-extracted amino acids were less racemized. The amino acid composition of the stone is similar to those previously reported, including the absence of serine, threonine, tyrosine phenylalanine and methionine and the presence of unusual amino acids including such as isovaline, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid and pseudoleucine. It is concluded that the most likely mechanism accounting for the occurrence of nonracemic amino acid mixtures in the Murchison meteorite is by extraterrestrial stereoselective synthesis or decomposition reactions.

Engel, M. H.; Nagy, B.

1982-01-01

131

Natural infraspecific variation in fatty acid composition of Cuphea (Lythraceae) seed oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid analyses of seed lipids were performed for 28 populations representing three widely distributed Cuphea species. Locality and climatic data for all samples were also compiled. The objectives of this study were to examine the extent of variation in seed oil composition among the wild populations, and to discover any patterns of relationship between fatty acid composition of seed

Amanuel G. Ghebretinsae; Shirley A. Graham; Gerardo R. Camilo; Janet C. Barber

2008-01-01

132

Amino Acid Composition Distribution: a Novel Sequence Representation for Prediction of Protein Subcellular Localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel representation of protein sequence, amino acid composition distribution (AACD), is introduced to perform prediction of subcellular localization in this paper. First, a protein sequence is divided equally into multiple segments. Then, amino acid composition of each segment is calculated in series. After that, each protein sequence can be represented a feature vector. Finally, feature vectors of all sequences

Jianyu Shi; Shaowu Zhang; Quan Pan; Guo-Ping Zhou

2007-01-01

133

In vivo milk digestion in the calf abomasum. III. Amino acid compositions of the digesta leaving  

E-print Network

In vivo milk digestion in the calf abomasum. III. Amino acid compositions of the digesta leaving different test meals : whole milk, skim milk, 3 % whole casein solution, 3 % whole casein in simulated milk the first 10 min following the ingestion of whole or skim milk, the amino acid composition of the sediment

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

134

Amino acid nitrogen isotopic composition patterns in lacustrine sedimenting matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids (AAs) comprise a large fraction of organic nitrogen (N) in plankton and sedimenting matter. Aquatic studies of organic N compounds in general and of AAs in particular, mostly concentrate on marine environments. In order to study the cycling and fate of organic N and AAs in lakes, we measured the N isotopic composition (?15N) of bulk organic matter (OM) and of single hydrolysable AAs in sediment trap and sediment samples from two Swiss lakes with contrasting trophic state: Lake Brienz, an oligotrophic lake with an oxic water column, and Lake Zug a eutrophic, meromictic lake. We also measured the N isotopic composition of water column nitrate, the likely inorganic N source during biosynthesis in both lakes. The ?15N-AA patterns found for the sediment trap material were consistent with published ?15N-AA data for marine plankton. The AA composition and primary ?15N-AA signatures are preserved until burial in the sediments. During early sedimentary diagenesis, the ?15N values of single AAs appear to increase, exceeding those of the bulk OM. This increase in ?15N-AA is paralleled by a decreased contribution of AAs to the total OM pool with progressed degradation, suggesting preferential AA degradation associated with a significant N isotope fractionation. Indicators for trophic level based on ?15N-AAs were determined, for the first time in lacustrine systems. In our samples, the trophic AAs were generally enriched in 15N compared to source AAs and higher trophic ?15N-AA values in Lake Zug were consistent with a higher trophic level of the bulk biomass compared to Lake Brienz. Especially the difference between average trophic ?15N-AAs and average source ?15N-AAs was sensitive to the trophic states of the two lakes. A proxy for total heterotrophic AA re-synthesis (?V), which is strongly associated with heterotrophic microbial reworking of the OM, was calculated based on ?15N values of trophic AAs. Higher ?V in Lake Brienz indicate enhanced heterotrophic bacterial reworking of AAs under oligotrophic conditions. Despite changes in the ?15N-AA values within the sediments, the proxies based on these values were consistent over the studied sediment profile, indicating the preservation of trophic signatures; therefore, our results underscore that ?15N-AA analysis of sedimentary records represents a promising tool to assess trophic levels and bacterial re-synthesis in lakes.

Carstens, Dörte; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Hofstetter, Thomas B.; Schubert, Carsten J.

2013-11-01

135

Composition of phenolic acids in sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of phenolic acids in several varieties of sea buckthorn berries was determined by GC and MS. In six cultivars\\u000a the total content of phenolic acids ranged from 3570282 to 4439405 mg per kg of berries, on a dry basis. Seventeen phenolic\\u000a acids were tentatively identified in the berries. Salicylic acid was the principal phenolic acid in sea buckthorn

R. Zadernowski; M. Naczk; S. Czaplicki; M. Rubinskiene; M. Sza?kiewicz

2005-01-01

136

Controllable self-assembled laminated nanoribbons from dipeptide-amphiphile bearing azobenzene moiety  

E-print Network

Controllable self-assembled laminated nanoribbons from dipeptide-amphiphile bearing azobenzene nanostructures and biomaterials. In this paper, a dipeptide- amphiphile incorporated with an azobenzene moiety, Stupp has reported pH-induced self-assembly of a peptide-amphiphile to make nanostructured fibrous

Huang, Jianbin

137

Intramolecular condensation reactions in protonated dipeptides: carbon monoxide, water, and ammonia losses in competition.  

PubMed

The elimination of carbon monoxide and water from a series of protonated dipeptides, [XxxYyy + H](+), is investigated by tandem mass spectrometry experiments and density functional theory. The combined results show that CO loss occurs on the a(1)-y(1) pathway, which begins by rearrangement of the added proton to the amide N-atom and creates the proton-bound dimer of an amino acid (Yyy) and an imine (that from Xxx residue). The loss of H(2)O is initiated from a tautomer in which the added proton has migrated to the hydroxyl group of the C-terminus, thereby promoting the formation of an ion with protonated oxazolone structure (a nominal b(2) ion). The highest yields of [XxxYyy + H - CO](+) and [XxxYyy + H - H(2)O](+) are observed at threshold energies. As the internal energy of the protonated dipeptides increases, these primary products are depleted by consecutive dissociations yielding mostly backbone fragments. Specifically, [XxxYyy + H - CO](+) decomposes to y(1) (protonated Yyy) and a(1) (immonium ion of Xxx residue), while [XxxYyy + H - H(2)O](+) produces a(2) and the immonium ions of residues Xxx (a(1)) and Yyy ("internal" immonium ion). Water loss takes place more efficiently when the more basic residue is at the C-terminal position. Increasing the basicity of the N-terminal residue enhances the extent of CO versus H(2)O loss and introduces the competitive elimination of NH(3). The dissociations leading to eliminations of small neutrals (CO, H(2)O, etc.) generally proceed over transition states that lie higher in energy than the corresponding dissociation products. The excess energy is disposed of either in translational or rovibrational modes of the products, depending on the stability of the incipient noncovalent assemblies emerging during the cleavage of the small neutrals. PMID:15234362

Pingitore, Francesco; Polce, Michael J; Wang, Ping; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Paizs, Béla

2004-07-01

138

Supervised learning method for the prediction of subcellular localization of proteins using amino acid and amino acid pair composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Occurrence of protein in the cell is an important step in understanding its function. It is highly desirable to predict a protein's subcellular locations automatically from its sequence. Most studied methods for prediction of subcellular localization of proteins are signal peptides, the location by sequence homology, and the correlation between the total amino acid compositions of proteins. Taking amino-acid

Tanwir Habib; Chaoyang Zhang; Jack Y Yang; Mary Qu Yang; Youping Deng

2008-01-01

139

Volume and Lipid, Fatty Acid, and Amino Acid Composition of Golden Shiner Eggs during a Spawning Season  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arkansas baitfish industry leads the nation in production of golden shiners Notemigonus crysoleucas. To determine nutritional requirements for golden shiner broodstock diets, we examined the volume and lipid, fatty acid, and amino acid composition of the eggs produced by a group of captive broodstock over a spawning season. Egg volume was 0.67 ± 0.117 mm (mean ± SD); egg

S. E. Lochmann; K. J. Goodwin; R. T. Lochmann; N. M. Stone; T. Clemment

2007-01-01

140

The fatty acid composition of a Vibrio alginolyticus associated with the alga Cladophora coelothrix . Identification of the novel 9-methyl-10-hexadecenoic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid composition of a new strain of Vibrio alginolyticus, found in the alga Cladophora coelothrix, was studied. Among 38 different fatty acids, a new fatty acid, 9-methyl-10-hexadecenoic acid and the unusual 11-methyl-12-octadecenoic\\u000a acid, were identified. Linear alkylbenzene fatty acids, such as 10-phenyldecanoic acid, 12-phenyldodecanoic acid and 14-phenyltetradecanoic\\u000a acid, were also found in V. alginolyticus. The alga contained 43%

Néstor M. Carballeira; Anthony Sostre; Kamen Stefanov; Simeon Popov; Athanas Kujumgiev; Stefka Dimitrova-Konaklieva; Carmen G. Tosteson; Thomas R. Tosteson

1997-01-01

141

Fabrication and Mechanical Properties of Completely Biodegradable Hemp Fiber Reinforced Polylactic Acid Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradable composite materials can be produced by the combination of biodegradable polymers and natural fibers. In this study, a new biodegradable composite of hemp fiber reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) was fabricated using the hot press method. Mechanical properties of composites with different fiber volume fractions were tested. The optimum fiber content was determined according to the test results. Effects of

Ruihua Hu; Jae-Kyoo Lim

2007-01-01

142

Effects of broodstock dietary lipid on fatty acid compositions of eggs from sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) eggs from broodstock which had been fed either a formulated pelleted feed, containing fish and corn oil, or a local trash fish, bogue (Boops boops) were analysed for lipid class compositions, fatty acid compositions of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) and wax ester and fatty alcohol compositions of wax esters. The pelleted

J. Gordon Bell; Bruce M. Farndale; Michael P. Bruce; Jose M. Navas; Manuel Carillo

1997-01-01

143

Protein Subcellular Location Prediction Based on Pseudo Amino Acid Composition and Immune Genetic Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Protein subcellular location prediction with computational method is still a hot spot in bioinformatics. In this paper, we\\u000a present a new method to predict protein subcellular location, which based on pseudo amino acid composition and immune genetic\\u000a algorithm. Hydrophobic patterns of amino acid couples and approximate entropy are introduced to construct pseudo amino acid\\u000a composition. Immune Genetic algorithm (IGA) is

Tongliang Zhang; Yongsheng Ding; Shihuang Shao

2006-01-01

144

Amino Acids Composition of Teucrium Nutlet Proteins and their Systematic Significance  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Plant species are considered as a good source of dietary proteins, although the nutritional quality of proteins depends on their amino acid composition. In this work the protein content and amino acid composition of nutlets of 21 Teucrium taxa (Lamiaceae) from Spain were analysed and their nutritional quality was compared with the minimum values established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). In addition, the amino acid composition was evaluated as a chemical character to clarify the taxonomic complexity in this genus. • Methods Amino acid content of nutlets was determined after derivatization with diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate by high-performance liquid chromatography. Previously, nutlets samples were hydrolysed and incubated in an oven at 110 °C for 24 h. • Key Results The protein content was variable, ranging from 6·4 % in T. dunense to 43·8 % in T. algarbiense. According to the FAO values all taxa contain satisfactory amounts of leucine, threonine and valine and are deficient in lysine. The similarity analysis of Teucrium taxa using amino acid composition data did not clearly reflect the infrageneric classification of this genus. • Conclusions Annual species, such as T. spinosum, T. aristatum and T. resupinatum showed a better balanced amino acid composition. The dendrogram partly matched with the karyological complexity of Teucrium. No correlation between amino acid composition and habitat has been observed, showing that Teucrium nutlet amino acid composition may not be strongly influenced by the environment. PMID:15329333

JUAN, R.; PASTOR, J.; MILLÁN, F.; ALAIZ, M.; VIOQUE, J.

2004-01-01

145

The bile acid composition of crane gallbladder bile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. 1. The biliary bile acids of the whooping crane (Grus americana) and the Florida sandhill crane (G. canadensis pratensis) have been examined. 2. 2. Cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDOCA) and lithocholic acid were found in bile from both species of these North American cranes. 3. 3. CDOCA and CA were the primary bile acids in both species, together constituting 70% or more of the bile acids by weight. 4. 4. The primary bile acids of cranes appear to be the same as those that have been identified in other avian species.

Serafin, J.A.

1983-01-01

146

Stability of Fatty Acid Profile in Soybean Genotypes with Modified Seed Oil Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic effects and temperature during the reproductive period for unsaturated fatty acids in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seed oil affect oil composition. Increasing oleic and reducing linolenic acids are desirable to improve oil for food and other uses. The objective of this study was to access the environmental effect on fatty acids of seed oil for seventeen soybean genotypes

M. L. Oliva; J. G. Shannon; D. A. Sleper; M. R. Ellersieck; A. J. Cardinal; R. L. Paris; J. D. Lee

2006-01-01

147

Estimating the amino acid composition in milled rice by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to develop near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) equations to predict the amino acid and nitrogen content of milled rice powder. The samples were scanned by NIRS and analyzed for amino acid composition and total nitrogen by HCl hydrolysis–HPLC methodology and Kjeldahl method, respectively. The NIRS equations of 15 different amino acids, except for cystine, methionine and histidine,

Jianguo G. Wu; Chunhai Shi; Xiaoming Zhang

2002-01-01

148

Fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of caviar from farmed white sturgeon ( Acipenser transmontanus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to characterize caviar obtained from farmed white sturgeons (Acipenser transmontanus) subjected to different dietary treatments. Twenty caviar samples from fish fed two experimental diets containing different dietary lipid sources have been analysed for chemical composition, fatty acids and flavour volatile compounds. Fatty acid make up of caviar was only minimally influenced by dietary fatty acid

Fabio Caprino; Vittorio Maria Moretti; Federica Bellagamba; Giovanni Mario Turchini; Maria Letizia Busetto; Ivan Giani; Maria Antonietta Paleari; Mario Pazzaglia

2008-01-01

149

Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA). PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ?6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health. PMID:24167374

Boshtam, Maryam; Pourfarzam, Morteza; Ani, Mohsen; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Basati, Gholam; Mansourian, Marjan; Dinani, Narges Jafari; Asgary, Seddigheh; Abdi, Soheila

2013-01-01

150

Structure-guided, single-point modifications in the phosphinic dipeptide structure yield highly potent and selective inhibitors of neutral aminopeptidases.  

PubMed

Seven crystal structures of alanyl aminopeptidase from Neisseria meningitides (the etiological agent of meningitis, NmAPN) complexed with organophosphorus compounds were resolved to determine the optimal inhibitor-enzyme interactions. The enantiomeric phosphonic acid analogs of Leu and hPhe, which correspond to the P1 amino acid residues of well-processed substrates, were used to assess the impact of the absolute configuration and the stereospecific hydrogen bond network formed between the aminophosphonate polar head and the active site residues on the binding affinity. For the hPhe analog, an imperfect stereochemical complementarity could be overcome by incorporating an appropriate P1 side chain. The constitution of P1'-extended structures was rationally designed and the lead, phosphinic dipeptide hPheP?[CH2]Phe, was modified in a single position. Introducing a heteroatom/heteroatom-based fragment to either the P1 or P1' residue required new synthetic pathways. The compounds in the refined structure were low nanomolar and subnanomolar inhibitors of N. meningitides, porcine and human APNs, and the reference leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). The unnatural phosphinic dipeptide analogs exhibited a high affinity for monozinc APNs associated with a reasonable selectivity versus dizinc LAP. Another set of crystal structures containing the NmAPN dipeptide ligand were used to verify and to confirm the predicted binding modes; furthermore, novel contacts, which were promising for inhibitor development, were identified, including a ?-? stacking interaction between a pyridine ring and Tyr372. PMID:25192493

Vassiliou, Stamatia; W?glarz-Tomczak, Ewelina; Berlicki, Lukasz; Pawe?czak, Ma?gorzata; Nocek, Bogus?aw; Mulligan, Rory; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Mucha, Artur

2014-10-01

151

Biochemical properties and fatty acid composition of Mycobacterium haemophilum: study of 16 isolates from Australian patients.  

PubMed Central

The biochemical properties and fatty acid compositions of 16 strains of Mycobacterium haemophilum from Australian patients were studied. The strains proved to be indistinguishable from each other but could readily be differentiated from other slowly growing mycobacteria with similar cultural features. Mycolic acid analyses revealed the presence of alpha-, methoxy-, and ketomycolates. The fatty acid composition supports the validity of the fact that M. haemophilum is a distinct species. The fatty acid composition was consistent among the 16 strains, but it was unusual in that there was some resemblance to the fatty acid composition of M. leprae. The wide range of pHs (5.4 to 7.4) that supported growth of M. haemophilum on artificial medium is in keeping with suggestions that M. haemophilum exists in an environmental habitat. Images PMID:8417029

Portaels, F; Dawson, D J; Larsson, L; Rigouts, L

1993-01-01

152

The composition of furan fatty acids in the crayfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the sterol ester fatty acid methyl esters of the crayfish\\u000a hepatopancreas revealed the presence of at least 30 kinds of unusual furan fatty acids (F acids), which accounted for 28.49%\\u000a of the total sterol ester fatty acids. On the other hand, only small amounts were found in triacylglycerols (0.5%) and phospholipids\\u000a (0.7%). Among

Kazuo Ishii; Haruo Okajima; Tsuyoshi Koyamatsu; Youji Okada; Hiroshi Watanabe

1988-01-01

153

A dipeptide insertion in domain I of exotoxin A that impairs receptor binding.  

PubMed

Deletions within the structural exotoxin A gene of 27 or 119 amino acids in domain I of the mature polypeptide, or of 88 or 105 amino acids in domains I and II, resulted in the synthesis of exotoxin A (ETA) polypeptides that were not secreted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa hosts but were localized in the cell membrane. Insertions of a hexanucleotide sequence, either pCGAGCT or pCGAATT, at TaqI sites within the gene resulted in variant exotoxin A polypeptides which were secreted normally. pCGAGCT causes insertion of either Glu-Leu or Ser-Ser in the amino acid sequence of the toxin, while pCGAATT causes insertion of either Glu-Phe or Asn-Ser dipeptides. Although the cytotoxicity of eight variants was unimpaired, that of four others was reduced, and one variant which had a Glu-Phe insert between residues 60 and 61 (ETA-60EF61) was 500-fold less cytotoxic than wild-type exotoxin A. Purified ETA-60EF61 dissociated much faster from mouse LMTK- cells than wild-type ETA, suggesting that the insertion impaired the ability of ETA-60EF61 to interact with exotoxin A receptors. The location of the insert is within a major concavity on the surface of domain I of the exotoxin A molecule, suggesting that this concavity is important for toxin-receptor interaction. PMID:2570071

Chaudry, G J; Wilson, R B; Draper, R K; Clowes, R C

1989-09-01

154

Acid Rain Affecting the Electrical Properties of Outdoor Composite Dielectric Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid rain is precipitation with acidity, i.e., pH, below 5.6. There is an increasing interest in the degradation of the electrical properties of outdoor composite dielectric materials under severe contaminant conditions such as acid rain. In this study, the degradation effects of acid rain on the outdoor composite dielectrics are investigated by accelerated aging due to artificial acid rain. Based on the investigation of acid rain, the composition of artificial acid rain is chosen to agree with the actual composition of precipitation. The surface potential, breakdown voltage, tracking resistance, and surface discharge current of dielectric materials are studied. Furthermore, the degradation mechanisms of electrical properties of composite dielectrics are discussed by investigating the degradation of the chemical and physical microstructures of material surface using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), the X-ray diffraction spectrum (XDS), and the metalloscope. Experimental results show that the outdoor polymeric dielectrics suffer severely and degrade due to acid rain so that their surface electrical properties deteriorate after aging. The erosion, by acid rain, of the energized dielectric materials is larger than that of outdoor materials used for other purposes.

Wang, Xinsheng; Kumagai, Seiji; Yoshimura, Noboru

1998-12-01

155

Changes in serum influence the fatty acid composition of established cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The fatty acid composition of different kinds of commercially available serum used to supplement cell culture media differs\\u000a widely. As compared with fetal bovine serum, horse and bovine calf serum have a very high content of linoleic acid (18:2)\\u000a and are low in arachidonic acid (20:4). (Fatty acids are abbreviated as number of carbon atoms: number of double bonds). Swine

Lynn L. Stoll; Arthur A. Spector

1984-01-01

156

Evolution of nanoparticle composition in CLOUD in presence of sulphuric acid, ammonia and organics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigate the composition of nucleated nanoparticles formed from sulphuric acid, ammonia, amines, and oxidised organics in the CLOUD chamber experiments at CERN. The investigation is carried out via analysis of the particle hygroscopicity (size range of 15-63 nm), ethanol affinity (15-50nm), oxidation state (<50 nm), and ion composition (few nanometers). The organic volume fraction of particles increased with an increase in particle diameter in presence of the sulphuric acid, ammonia and organics. Vice versa, the sulphuric acid volume fraction decreased when the particle diameter increased. The results provide information on the size-dependent composition of nucleated aerosol particles.

Keskinen, H.; Virtanen, A.; Joutsensaari, J.; Tsagkogeorgas, G.; Duplissy, J.; Schobesberger, S.; Gysel, M.; Riccobono, F.; Slowik, J. G.; Bianchi, F.; Yli-Juuti, T.; Lehtipalo, K.; Rondo, L.; Breitenlechner, M.; Kupc, A.; Almeida, J.; Amorim, A.; Dunne, E. M.; Downard, A. J.; Ehrhart, S.; Franchin, A.; Kajos, M. K.; Kirkby, J.; Kürten, A.; Nieminen, T.; Makhmutov, V.; Mathot, S.; Miettinen, P.; Onnela, A.; Petäjä, T.; Praplan, A.; Santos, F. D.; Schallhart, S.; Sipilä, M.; Stozhkov, Y.; Tomé, A.; Vaattovaara, P.; Wimmer, D.; Prevot, A.; Dommen, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Weingartner, E.; Viisanen, Y.; Riipinen, I.; Hansel, A.; Curtius, J.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Baltensperger, U.; Wex, H.; Stratmann, F.; Laaksonen, A.

2013-05-01

157

A comparative study of the fatty acid composition of prochloron lipids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chemical analysis of lipids of Prochloron isolated from several hosts is discussed. The object was to determine whether differences in lipid composition could be used to characterize organisms from different sources. Major lipid components are given. An analysis of fatty acid composition of individual lipids slowed a distinctive disstribution of fatty acids. While present results do not justify the use of fatty acid content in the taxonomy of Prochlon, the variations found in the lipids of cells from the same host harvested from different areas, or at different times in the same area, suggest that a study of the effects of temperature and light intensity on lipid composition would be rewarding.

Kenrick, J. R.; Deane, E. M.; Bishop, D. G.

1983-01-01

158

Sulfonated mesoporous silica-carbon composites and their use as solid acid catalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of highly functionalized porous silica-carbon composites made up of sulfonic groups attached to a carbon layer coating the pores of three types of mesostructured silica (i.e. SBA-15, KIT-6 and mesocellular silica) is presented. The synthesis procedure involves the following steps: (a) removal of the surfactant, (b) impregnation of the silica pores with a carbon precursor, (c) carbonization and (d) sulfonation. The resulting silica-carbon composites contain ˜30 wt % of carbonaceous matter with a high density of acidic groups attached to the deposited carbon (i.e.sbnd SO3H, sbnd COOH and sbnd OH). The structural characteristics of the parent silica are retained in the composite materials, which exhibit a high surface area, a large pore volume and a well-ordered porosity made up uniform mesopores. The high density of the sulfonic groups in combination with the mesoporous structure of the composites ensures that a large number of active sites are easily accessible to reactants. These sulfonated silica-carbon composites behave as eco-friendly, active, selective, water tolerant and recyclable solid acids. In this study we demonstrate the usefulness of these composites as solid acid catalysts for the esterification of maleic anhydride, succinic acid and oleic acid with ethanol. These composites exhibit a superior intrinsic catalytic activity to other commercial solid acids such as Amberlyst-15.

Valle-Vigón, Patricia; Sevilla, Marta; Fuertes, Antonio B.

2012-11-01

159

Some applications of deoxyribonucleic acid base composition in bacterial taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “melting point”Tm, the mean molar (guanine+cytosine) composition and the compositional distribution of purified DNA from several strains ofXanthomonas, Chromobacterium and yellow-pigmented marine bacteria have been determined. These groups were selected because they had been analyzed adansonially. Ten strains ofXanthomonas had an average molar (guanine+cytosine) composition within the range 66.0–68.2%, which was very close to that ofPseudomonas (60–68%), as expected.

J. De Ley; J. Van Muylem

1963-01-01

160

Effects of dietary fatty acid composition on the regulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

E-print Network

polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) diet, a high saturated fatty acid (SFA) diet or a mixed fatty acid control (CTLEffects of dietary fatty acid composition on the regulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor Polyunsaturated fatty acids Rainbow trout Dietary fatty acid

McClelland, Grant B.

161

Self-organization of dipeptide-grafted polymeric nanoparticles film: A novel method for surface modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel dipeptide-grafted polymeric nanoparticles were prepared by grafting the dipeptide (Gly-Gly) to a block copolymer backbone, comprised of styrene-alt-(maleic anhydride) and styrene. In aqueous solution PSt130-b-P(St-alt-MAn)58-g-GlyGly26 formed stable dispersed spherical aggregates of ca. 75nm. The critical micelle concentration for the dipeptide-grafted block copolymer self-aggregates was 6.3×10?3mgmL?1. The zeta-potential of the aggregates was estimated experimentally. The dispersed polymer nanoparticles effectively self-organized

Jingtian Han; Patrick Silcock; A. James McQuillan; Phil Bremer

2010-01-01

162

Proximate composition, fatty acid and lipid class composition of the muscle from deep-sea teleosts and elasmobranchs.  

PubMed

Proximate composition of muscle was determined for the following deep-sea fish species: roughhead grenadier (Macrourus berglax), mora/deep-sea cod (Mora moro), Portuguese dogfish (Centroscymnus coelolepis), black dogfish (Centroscyllium fabricii), leafscale gulper shark (Centrophorus squamosus), greater lantern shark (Etmopterus princeps), smalleyed rabbitfish/ghostshark (Hydrolagus affinis), birdbeak dogfish (Deania calcea) and two species of smooth head (Alepocephalus bairdii and Alepocephalus agassizii). The first eight species contained less than 1% fat in the muscle, while the last two contained 3.0% and 3.6% fat, respectively. Fatty acid and lipid class composition was determined for the first five fish species and showed that the dominant class of lipids was phospholipids. The lipids consisted mainly of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the dominant fatty acid. Roughhead grenadier and mora showed resemblance to cod (Gadus morhua) regarding protein content, fat content and fatty acid composition. However, the muscle from the deep-sea fish species did contain a higher proportion of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) than cod muscle. PMID:15694592

Økland, Hege M W; Stoknes, Iren S; Remme, Jannicke F; Kjerstad, Margareth; Synnes, Marianne

2005-03-01

163

Effect of cell age on erythrocyte fatty acid composition in rats on different dietary regimes  

PubMed Central

1. Rat erythrocytes were fractionated into young, mature and old cell fractions by centrifugation. The fatty acid composition of each fraction was determined by gas–liquid chromatography, under four different dietary conditions: with adequate linoleic acid in the diet, with a diet deficient in linoleic acid, and with the deficient diet supplemented with corn oil for 3 and 12 days. 2. Significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of cells of different ages on all diets. The pattern of fatty acid distribution depended on the particular acid in question, on its concentration in the total erythrocyte sample and on the nature of the dietary fat. 3. When corn oil was fed to rats that had been fed previously on a deficient diet, the changes in fatty acid composition that occurred depended on the acid and on the cell age. For example, young cells were more active in incorporating palmitic acid and arachidonic acid but incorporated linoleic acid at a slightly lower rate than older cells. 4. These results are believed to indicate the presence in the erythrocyte of transacylases with different specificities, and to show that transacylase activity changes as the cells age. PMID:6033761

Walker, Brian L.; Yurkowski, M.

1967-01-01

164

Trans Fatty Acids and Fatty Acid Composition of Mature Breast Milk in Turkish Women and Their Association with Maternal Diet’s  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid composition and trans fatty acid and fatty acid contents of breast milk in Turkish women and to find the effect of breastfeeding mothers’ diet\\u000a on trans fatty acid and fatty acid composition. Mature milk samples obtained from 50 Turkish nursing women were analyzed. Total milk\\u000a lipids extracts were transmethylated

Gülhan Samur; Ali Topcu; Semra Turan

2009-01-01

165

Analyzing Variability in Nectar Amino Acids: Composition Is Less Variable Than Concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty species of flowering plants were analyzed for floral nectar amino acid composition. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used in conjunction with AccQtag derivatization to produce accurate and precise data. For any one species, the total concentration of amino acids varies greatly (average coefficient of variation 0.65), but composition is much less variable (average correlation among samples from a single

Mark C. Gardener; Michael P. Gillman

2001-01-01

166

ANALYZING VARIABILITY IN NECTAR AMINO ACIDS: COMPOSITION IS LESS VARIABLE THAN CONCENTRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty species of flowering plants were analyzed for floral nectar amino acid composition. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used in conjunction with AccQtag derivatization to produce accurate and pre- cise data. For any one species, the total concentration of amino acids varies greatly (average coefficient of variation 0.65), but composition is much less vari- able (average correlation among samples from

MARK C. GARDENER; MICHAEL P. GILLMAN

2001-01-01

167

Modifying yolk fatty acid composition to improve the health quality of shell eggs  

E-print Network

MODIFYING YOLK FATTY ACID COMPOSITION TO IMPROVE THE HEALTH QUALITY OF SHELL EGGS A Thesis by MARY ELIZABETH VAN ELSWYK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Nutrition MODIFYING YOLK FATTY ACID COMPOSITION TO IMPROVE THE HEALTH QUALITY OF SHELL EGGS A Thesis by MARY ELIZABETH VAN ELSWYK Approved as to style and content by: Pamela S. Har s (Chair...

Van Elswyk, Mary Elizabeth

2012-06-07

168

Fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue in genetically heat-tolerant FOK rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phospholipid fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was examined in inbred heat-tolerant FOK rats and compared with that in conventional Wistar rats not previously exposed to heat. The FOK rats showed higher unsaturation states, as indicated by higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and a higher unsaturation index and polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids ratio. This higher level of unsaturation was characterized by the higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It may be concluded that the increased docosahexaenoic acid level in BAT phospholipids brings about the hyperplasia of BAT, causing an enhancement of its in vivo thermogernic activity as well as the systemic non-shivering thermogenesis observed in heat-tolerant FOK rats.

Ohno, T.; Furuyama, F.; Kuroshima, A.

169

Synthesis, kinetic evaluation, and utilization of a biotinylated dipeptide proline diphenyl phosphonate for the disclosure of dipeptidyl peptidase IV-like serine proteases.  

PubMed

In this study, we report on the synthesis, kinetic characterisation, and application of a novel biotinylated and active site-directed inactivator of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). Thus, the dipeptide-derived proline diphenyl phosphonate NH(2)-Glu(biotinyl-PEG)-Pro(P)(OPh)(2) has been prepared by a combination of classical solution- and solid-phase methodologies and has been shown to be an irreversible inhibitor of porcine DPP-IV, exhibiting an over all second-order rate constant (k(i)/K(i)) for inhibition of 1.57 x 10(3) M(-1) min(-1). This value compares favourably with previously reported rates of inactivation of DPP-IV by dipeptides containing a P(1) proline diphenyl phosphonate grouping [B. Boduszek, J. Oleksyszyn, C.M. Kam, J. Selzler, R.E. Smith, J.C. Powers, Dipeptide phophonates as inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV, J. Med. Chem. 37 (1994) 3969-3976; B.F. Gilmore, J.F. Lynas, C.J. Scott, C. McGoohan, L. Martin, B. Walker, Dipeptide proline diphenyl phosphonates are potent, irreversible inhibitors of seprase (FAPalpha), Biochem, Biophys. Res. Commun. 346 (2006) 436-446.], thus demonstrating that the incorporation of the side-chain modified (N-biotinyl-3-(2-(2-(3-aminopropyloxy)-ethoxy)-ethoxy)-propyl) glutamic acid residue at the P(2) position is compatible with inhibitor efficacy. The utilisation of this probe for the detection of both purified dipeptidyl peptidase IV and the disclosure of a dipeptidyl peptidase IV-like activity from a clinical isolate of Porphyromonas gingivalis, using established electrophoretic and Western blotting techniques previously developed by our group, is also demonstrated. PMID:16824486

Gilmore, Brendan F; Carson, Louise; McShane, Laura L; Quinn, Derek; Coulter, Wilson A; Walker, Brian

2006-08-18

170

Natural fibres as reinforcement in polylactic acid (PLA) composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus in this work has been to study if natural fibres can be used as reinforcement in polymers based on renewable raw materials. The materials have been flax fibres and polylactic acid (PLA). PLA is a thermoplastic polymer made from lactic acid and has mainly been used for biodegradable products, such as plastic bags and planting cups, but in

K. Oksman; M. Skrifvars; J.-F. Selin

2003-01-01

171

Group composition of carboxylic acids from West Siberian crude oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

with alkali [i]~ The physical and chemical properties of the crude oils from which the petroleum acids were obtained are listed in Table i, along with the results from chromatographic separation of the extracts into fractions of neutral substances, phenol, and carboxyiic acids. The deviation between results of parallel analyses was no greater than 15% (relative), and the losses in

N. I. Zhil'tsov; V. A. Ershov; G. I. Samokhvalova

1982-01-01

172

Graphene-carbon nanotube composite aerogel for selective detection of uric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) composite aerogel has been prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. The restacking of graphene is effectively reduced by SWNTs inserted in between graphene layers in order to make available more active sites and reactive surface area. Electrochemical experiments show that the graphene-SWNT composite electrode has superior catalytic performance in selective detection of uric acid (UA).

Zhang, Feifei; Tang, Jie; Wang, Zonghua; Qin, Lu-Chang

2013-12-01

173

Polylactic acid–phosphate glass composite foams as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphate glass (PG) of the composition 0.46(CaO)- 0.04(Na2O)- 0.5(P2O5) was used as filler in poly-L-lactic acid (PLA) foams developed as degradable scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The effect of PG on PLA was assessed both in bulk and porous composite foams. Composites with various PG content (0, 5, 10, and 20 wt %) were melt-extruded, and either compression-molded or foamed

G. Georgiou; L. Mathieu; D. P. Pioletti; P.-E. Bourban; J.-A. E. Månson; J. C. Knowles; S. N. Nazhat

2007-01-01

174

Viscoelastic and thermal behavior of woven hemp fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid) composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the physical behavior of hemp\\/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites, particularly the thermal properties and viscoelastic behavior. Twill and plain woven hemp fabrics were used as reinforcements and hemp fabrics-reinforced PLA composites were produced using a film stacking method. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the composites decreased sharply with increasing the volume fraction of fiber. The twill structure

Young Seok Song; Jung Tae Lee; Ji Dong Sun; Myung Wook Kim; Seung Hwan Lee; Jae Ryoun Youn

175

Carbohydrate and amino acid composition of dissolved organic matter leached from soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS) in soil and soil solution include mainly amino acids, carboxylic acids, and carbohydrates. Due to their high bioavailability they play a crucial role in the cycles of C and nutrients in soils. The variety of soil processes that involve LMWOS requires identifying their composition to elucidate reactions and transformations. In most studies, LMWOS are

Holger Fischer; Axel Meyer; Klaus Fischer; Yakov Kuzyakov

2007-01-01

176

Fatty acids, protein contents and metal composition of some feed crops from Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of investigations of new sources of higher plant lipids, fatty acid and metal compositions of some feed crops -Vicia ervilia (bitter veitch), Lotus corniculatus, Onobrychis fallax, Trifolium aureum (golden clover), Trifolium repens (white clover) (Fabaceae)- from Turkey were investigated by using GC and ICP-OES system. All the legume crops showed the same pattern of fatty acids. The

Adil Bakoglu; Eyüp Bagci; Harun Ciftci

177

Stability and catalytic kinetics of acid phosphatase immobilized on composite beads of chitosan and activated clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of acid phosphatase immobilized on composite beads was studied. The beads were prepared from equal weights of cuttlebone chitosan and activated clay and were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. The immobilized enzyme maintained 90% of its original activity after 50 times of reuse. The immobilized acid phosphatase revealed acceptable thermal and pH stabilities over a broad experimental range. Thermal deactivation

Min-Yun Chang; Ruey-Shin Juang

2004-01-01

178

Fatty acid composition of wild edible mushrooms species: A comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study was developed on the total fatty acids composition of twelve wild edible mushroom species (Suillus bellini, Suillus luteus, Suillus granulatus, Hygrophorus agathosmus, Amanita rubescens, Russula cyanoxantha, Boletus edulis, Tricholoma equestre, Fistulina hepatica, Cantharellus cibarius, Amanita caesarea and Hydnum rufescens). In order to define qualitative and quantitative profiles, combined fatty acids were hydrolyzed with potassium hydroxide\\/methanol and all

Bárbara Ribeiro; Paula Guedes de Pinho; Paula B. Andrade; Paula Baptista; Patrícia Valentão

2009-01-01

179

Determination of Enantiomeric Compositions of Amino Acids by Near-Infrared Spectrometry  

E-print Network

Determination of Enantiomeric Compositions of Amino Acids by Near-Infrared Spectrometry through formation is not a requisite, this method is not limited to the amino acid studies here but is rather on either separation or spectroscopic techniques.2-15 Separation-based methods include HPLC, GC, and CE.2

Reid, Scott A.

180

Fatty acid composition and rheological behaviour of prickly pear seed oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prickly pear fruits constituted valuable foodstuff for humans and animals in arid and semi-arid regions. Two species of prickly pear from Tunisia, Opuntia ficus indica and Opuntia stricta, were investigated for fatty acid composition and physicochemical parameters of the seed oil. No significant difference in either physical or chemical parameters was found between the species. The main fatty acids of

Monia Ennouri; Bourret Evelyne; Mondolot Laurence; Attia Hamadi

2005-01-01

181

Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

2014-11-01

182

Effects of dietary fish oil on fatty acid composition and flavor of channel catfish  

E-print Network

, 1984). The 2-thiobarbituric acid method measures malonaldehyde formation which is an oxidative breakdown product of polyunsaturated fatty acids (Sanneh and Ammerman, 1984; Botta and Rutledge, 1974; Vyncke, 1976). Two 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA.... 1972, 192, 85. Bang, H. O. ; Dyerberg, J. ; Sinclair, H. M. "The composition of the Eskimo food innorth western Greenland". Am J. Ciin Nutr. 1980, 33, 2657. Botta, J. R. ; Rutledge, J. E. "Assessment of some chemical indices of texture and flavor...

Haynes, Kellie Cecile

2012-06-07

183

Amino acid and mineral compositions of the vegetative part of Chamerion angustifolium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amino acid and mineral compositions of the above-ground part of narrow-leaved fireweed (Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub) collected in the Krasnoyarsk region have been studied. A total of 16 free amino acids was identified by HPLC,\\u000a and 24 elements were detected by atomic-emission spectrometry. This plant may be recommended as a valuable source of amino\\u000a acids and trace elements.

I. V. Polezhaeva; N. I. Polezhaeva; L. N. Menyailo

2007-01-01

184

Fatty acid composition of phospholipids in different regions of developing human fetal brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid composition of total phospholipids in different regions, viz., cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata,\\u000a of developing human fetal brain was studied. All the brains analyzed in the present investigations were obtained from fetuses\\u000a whose mothers belonged to the poor socioeconomic section of the population. Palmitic, oleic and stearic acids were found to\\u000a be the dominant fatty acids, and

P. Srinivasa Rao; K. Subba Rao

1973-01-01

185

Change in the surface composition of the 08Kh14MF steel in sulfuric acid  

SciTech Connect

The nickel-free martensitic-ferritic steel 08Kh14MF exhibits considerable changes in its electrochemical properties under the action of mineral acid solutions. This paper deals with the changes in the chemical composition and the electrochemical properties of the surface of this steel as a function of time in a 1 N sulfuric acid solution at 20 +/- 2/sup 0/C and at different predetermined potentials. Sulfuric acid was selected as the most activating agent.

Zlobin, A.S.; Krutikov, P.G.; Mednikov, A.K.

1987-03-01

186

Analysis of sulfoxylated methyl esters (?-MES): Sulfonic acid composition and isomer identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Derivatization of a C12?-methyl ester sulfonic acid by using iodide-trifluoroacetic anhydride in dimethylformamide in a one-step reaction yielded\\u000a derivatized sulfonic thiotrifluoroacetates. The latter have been analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) and\\u000a liquid chromatography-MS techniques so that, for the first time, the acid composition and the mono sulfonic acid isomer distribution\\u000a are shown.

L. Cohen; F. Soto; M. S. Luna; C. R. Pratesi; G. Cassani; L. Faccetti

2003-01-01

187

Effets d'une carence en acides gras essentiels sur la composition en acides gras des muscle,  

E-print Network

et tissu adipeux chez la truite femelle (Salmo gairdneri) au cours du cycle sexuel I. NASSOUR, C. L trout (Salmo gairdneri) during sexual cycle. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue, muscle and liver'autre (Castell, 1979 ; Léger, 1980). De nombreuses études ont montré que les truites Salmo gairdneri ont besoin

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

188

[Effect of feeding rapeseed oil to dairy cows on the fatty acid composition of butterfat].  

PubMed

Butter is rich in lauric, myristic, and palmitic acids which are assumed to be hypercholesterolemic. The replacement of usual dietary fat by rapeseed oil induces a serum cholesterol decrease. The objective of the study consisted in measuring the influence of feeding different amounts of full-fat rapeseed or oil-rich rapeseed cake to dairy cows to improve the fatty acid composition of milk fat. The results demonstrate a significant increase of iodine number and spreadability of butter. The percentage of lauric+myristic+palmitic acid (LMP) decreased by about 18% of whole fatty acids. Stearic and oleic acid increased significantly but the percentage of trans octadecenoic acid increased too. It can be concluded that the special butter has a nutritionally improved fat characterized by an increase of cholesterol-lowering fatty acids (C18 and C18:1) and a decline of cholesterol-elevating fatty acids (LMP). PMID:8766892

Jahreis, G; Steinhart, H; Pfalzgraf, A; Flachowsky, G; Schöne, F

1996-06-01

189

Carbon composite micro- and nano-tubes-based electrodes for detection of nucleic acids  

PubMed Central

The first aim of this study was to fabricate vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs were successfully prepared by using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Further, three carbon composite electrodes with different content of carbon particles with various shapes and sizes were prepared and tested on measuring of nucleic acids. The dependences of adenine peak height on the concentration of nucleic acid sample were measured. Carbon composite electrode prepared from a mixture of glassy and spherical carbon powder and MWCNTs had the highest sensitivity to nucleic acids. Other interesting result is the fact that we were able to distinguish signals for all bases using this electrode. PMID:21711910

2011-01-01

190

Breast milk composition: fat content and fatty acid composition in vegetarians and  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk from vegetarians contained a lower proportion of fatty acids derived from animal fat and a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from dietary vegetable fat. No significant differences were observed between dietary groups in percent fat in the milk or in proportions of fatty acids synthesized de novo in the mammary gland. Among women consuming less than 35

Bo L; Louis E Grivetti

191

Effects of oleic acid surface coating on the properties of nickel ferrite nanoparticles/PLA composites.  

PubMed

Nickel ferrite nanoparticles with or without oleic acid surface coating were mixed with poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) by double emulsion method. If the nanoparticles were prepared without oleic acid coating, they adsorbed on the PLA surface. If the nanoparticles were coated with oleic acid, they could be readily encapsulated within the PLA microspheres. A slight depression in glass transition temperature was found in all composites and it could be related to the interfacial energies between nanoparticles and PLA. Optimum mixed composite was achieved by reducing interfacial energy. However, loading capacity was limited in this composite. Increasing the amount of nickel ferrite nanoparticles was not useful to increase loading capacity. Cytotoxicity of the composite decreased significantly when nickel ferrite nanoparticles were effectively encapsulated in PLA microspheres. PMID:18980192

Yin, Hong; Chow, Gan-Moog

2009-11-01

192

Composition of antioxidants and amino acids in Stevia leaf infusions.  

PubMed

Stevia, a non-caloric natural sweetener with beneficial properties and considerable antioxidants and amino acids, is increasingly consumed as an infusion. This work evaluates the influence of the conditions (temperature: 50, 70 or 90 °C and time: 1, 5, 20 or 40 min) applied to obtain Stevia infusions, on antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) and amino acids. The total concentration of the eleven amino acids found was 11.70 mg/g in dried leaves and from 6.84 to 9.11 mg/g per gram of Stevia in infusions. However, infusions showed higher levels of certain amino acids (alanine, asparagine, leucine and proline), and greater values of the three antioxidant parameters in comparison with dry leaves. Temperature had more influence (minimum values at 50 °C and maximum at 90 °C) than time in the case of antioxidants. At 90 °C there were no important increases in the extraction of antioxidant compounds after 5 min; each gram of Stevia had 117 mg trolox (total antioxidant activity), 90 mg gallic acid (total phenols) and 56 mg catechin equivalents (flavonoids). Varying the temperature and time conditions no notable differences were observed in the concentrations of the majority of amino acids. However, the infusion treatment at 90 °C for 5 min was the best, as it gave the highest yield of 8 of the 11 amino acids. Therefore, with respect to the compounds analyzed in this study, the best way to obtain Stevia leaf infusions is the same as the domestic process, almost boiling water for a short time. PMID:24293005

Periche, Angela; Koutsidis, Georgios; Escriche, Isabel

2014-03-01

193

Relationship of diet to the fatty acid composition of human adipose tissue structural and stored lipids1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The habitual intake of 20 healthy free-living subjects was determined by two 7-day food records. Documented fatty acid intakes were utilized to examine the influence of fatty acid intake on fatty acid composition of stored and structural lipids in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Subjects with higher intakes of saturated fatty acids exhibited increased levels of total saturated fatty acids and decreased

Catherine J Field; Aubie Angel; Michael T Clandinin

194

Amino acid composition of bulk protein and salt relationships of selected enzymes of Salinibacter ruber , an extremely halophilic bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extremely halophilic bacterium Salinibacter ruber was previously shown to have a high intracellular potassium content, comparable to that of halophilic Archaea of the family Halobacteriaceae. The amino acid composition of its bulk protein showed a high content of acidic amino acids, a low abundance of basic amino acids, a low content of hydrophobic amino acids, and a high abundance

Aharon Oren; Lili Mana

2002-01-01

195

Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in two economically important Hibiscus species.  

PubMed

The Hibiscus genus encompasses more than 300 species, but kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) are the two most economically important species within the genus. Seeds from these two Hibiscus species contain a relatively high amount of oil with two unusual fatty acids: dihydrosterculic and vernolic acids. The fatty acid composition in the oil can directly affect oil quality and its utilization. However, the variability in oil content and fatty acid composition for these two species is unclear. For these two species, 329 available accessions were acquired from the USDA germplasm collection. Their oil content and fatty acid composition were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Using NMR and GC analyses, we found that Hibiscus seeds on average contained 18% oil and seed oil was composed of six major fatty acids (each >1%) and seven minor fatty acids (each <1%). Hibiscus cannabinus seeds contained significantly higher amounts of oil (18.14%), palmitic (20.75%), oleic (28.91%), vernolic acids (VA, 4.16%), and significantly lower amounts of stearic (3.96%), linoleic (39.49%), and dihydrosterculic acids (DHSA, 1.08%) than H. sabdariffa seeds (17.35%, 18.52%, 25.16%, 3.52%, 4.31%, 44.72%, and 1.57%, respectively). For edible oils, a higher oleic/linoleic (O/L) ratio and lower level of DHSA are preferred, and for industrial oils a high level of VA is preferred. Our results indicate that seeds from H. cannabinus may be of higher quality than H. sabdariffa seeds for these reasons. Significant variability in oil content and major fatty acids was also detected within both species. The variability in oil content and fatty acid composition revealed from this study will be useful for exploring seed utilization and developing new cultivars in these Hibiscus species. PMID:22703121

Wang, Ming Li; Morris, Brad; Tonnis, Brandon; Davis, Jerry; Pederson, Gary A

2012-07-01

196

In vitro biostability evaluation of polyurethane composites in acidic, basic, oxidative, and neutral solutions.  

PubMed

New and improved properties can often be achieved by compounding two or more different but compatible materials. But, can failure possibility also be increased by such a compounding strategy? In this article, we compared the in vitro biostability of composites with that of the pure polymer. We tested three model composites in oxidative, acidic, basic, and neutral solutions. We found that oxidation degradation was much more profound in the composites than in the corresponding pure polymer. This degradation seemed to be an intrinsic property of composite materials. We also observed the well documented interfacial debonding between filler and matrix and its effects on the mechanical reinforcement of the hydrated composites. The improvements in acid and base resistance were also observed. PMID:18076092

Lyu, Suping; Schley, James; Loy, Brian; Luo, Lian; Hobot, Chris; Sparer, Randall; Untereker, Darrel; Krzeszak, Jason

2008-05-01

197

ZnO/carbon nano composite: Effective catalyst for the photo degradation of Acid Blue 113  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide carbon composite (ZnO/C) was synthesized by self - propagating solution combustion method. This method enabled the addition of carbon insitu to the metal oxide. The composite synthesized were characterised by XRD, SEM and BET analysis. This composite was used for the removal of organic pollutants such as the dye Acid blue 113 by UV irradiation performed in a batch reactor. The influence of various experimental parameters such as the initial concentration of the dye, Concentration of the photocatalyst and the pH on the photo catalytic degradation under UV irradiation was studied. It has been observed that the degradation of the dye to be more pronounced in neutral medium. The degradation of acid blue 113 was found to increase with ZnO/C composites loading and decreases with decrease in concentration of the composite.

Sunitha, S.; Rao, A. Nageswara; Karthikeyan, J.; Krithiga, T.

2013-06-01

198

Chemical composition of acid rains in the Venezuelan savannah region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of rain events has been determined at 6 sites in the Venezuelan savannah region. The results indicate that precipitations are little affected by anthropogenic emissions and that rain concentrations of anions and cations are similar to those observed at \\

E. Sanhueza; M. C. Arias; L. Donoso; N. Graterol; M. Hermoso; I. Martí; J. Romero; A. Rondón; M. Santana

1992-01-01

199

Effect of [alpha ]-linolenic acid[ndash ]rich Camelina sativa oil on serum fatty acid composition and serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Camelina sativa[ndash ]derived oil (camelina oil) is a good source of [alpha ]-linolenic acid. The proportion of [alpha ]-linolenic acid in serum fatty acids is associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases. We studied the effects of camelina oil on serum lipids and on the fatty acid composition of total lipids in comparison to rapeseed and olive oils in a

Henna M. Karvonen; Antti Aro; Niina S. Tapola; Irma Salminen; Matti I. J. Uusitupa; Essi S. Sarkkinen

2002-01-01

200

Fatty acid, amino acid and trace mineral composition of Eleusine coracana (Pwana) seeds from northern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In northern Nigeria the seeds of the cereal Eleusine coracana (finger millet), called ‘pwana’ by the Birom and ‘tamba’ by the Hausa, are used as a supplemental food taken in the form of tea or a porridge-like meal. Seeds were analyzed for fatty acid, amino acid and mineral contents. They contained 12 mg\\/g total fatty acid, 42% of which was

Diane R. Fernandez; Dorothy J. Vanderjagt; Mark Millson; Yung-Sheng Huang; Lu-Te Chuang; Andrzej Pastuszyn; Robert H. Glew

2003-01-01

201

IV. -Amino Acids: carboxyl and amino groups bonded to -Carbo n A. Acid/Base properties  

E-print Network

Carbohydrate) Nucleotide Oligonucleotide Nucleic Acid Amino Acid Peptid e Polypeptide Protein #12;Table 5. Peptides contain relatively few amino acids linked by peptide bonds: dipeptide, tripeptide, tetrapeptide Structure (1°) sequence of amino acids connected by peptide bonds 2. Secondary Structure (2°) local

Frey, Terry

202

Amino acid composition of some Tanzanian wild mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen known amino acids, including the essential ones except isoleucine, were identified in the Tanzanian wild mushroom species Boletus pruinatus (Fr. & HÖK), Boletinus cavipes (Opat.) Kalchbr., Cantharellus cibarius (Fr.) Fr., Inonotus sp. cf. obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) Pil., Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst, Agaricus sp. (L. ex Fr.), Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Sing., Lactarius sp. aff. pseudovolemus Heim., Russula hiemisilvae

Stephen J. M. Mdachi; Mayunga H. H. Nkunya; Vitus A. Nyigo; Isai T. Urasa

2004-01-01

203

Phenolic acid composition and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys.  

PubMed

The phenolic acid and flavonoid contents of Malaysian Tualang, Gelam, and Borneo tropical honeys were compared to those of Manuka honey. Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities were also quantified. All honey extracts exhibited high phenolic contents (15.21 ± 0.51- 42.23 ± 0.64 mg/kg), flavonoid contents (11.52 ± 0.27- 25.31 ± 0.37 mg/kg), FRAP values (892.15 ± 4.97- 363.38 ± 10.57 ?M Fe[II]/kg), and high IC?? of DPPH radical-scavenging activities (5.24 ± 0.40- 17.51 ± 0.51 mg/mL). Total of 6 phenolic acids (gallic, syringic, benzoic, trans-cinnamic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids) and 5 flavonoids (catechin, kaempferol, naringenin, luteolin, and apigenin) were identified. Among the Malaysian honey samples, Tualang honey had the highest contents of phenolics, and flavonoids, and DPPH radical-scavenging activities. We conclude that among Malaysian honey samples, Tualang honey is the richest in phenolic acids, and flavonoid compounds, which have strong free radical-scavenging activities. PMID:22417491

Khalil, M I; Alam, N; Moniruzzaman, M; Sulaiman, S A; Gan, S H

2011-08-01

204

Monosomic Analysis of Fatty Acid Composition in Embryo Lipids of ZEA MAYS L  

PubMed Central

The effects of monosomy of specific chromosomes on the fatty acid composition of maize embryos were studied. A novel technique was developed to obtain fatty acid profiles of single embryos without reducing the viability of the sampled kernels. Monosomic 2 embryos had significantly more oleic acid and significantly less linoleic acid than diploid control embryos. Since the conversion of oleic acid to linoleic acid is a single-enzyme-mediated reaction, we suggest that a gene involved in linoleic acid biosynthesis is located on chromosome 2. Additional consistent variations were found in other monosomic types. This study demonstrates that monosomic analysis can be used to study gene dosage effects at the biochemical level. PMID:17248691

Plewa, Michael J.; Weber, David F.

1975-01-01

205

Fatty acid, amino acid, and mineral composition of four common vetch seeds on Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of four common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) seeds was investigated to determine their nutrition value. The result shows that the seeds are low in lipid (1.55-2.74% of dry weight), and high in the unsaturated fatty acid (74.51-77.36% of total fatty acid). The ratio of essential amino acid to non-essential amino acid (0.62-0.69) is even higher than the amount (0.38) recommended by World Health Organization. Besides, the seeds are also found rich in Mg, Mn and Cu, but with a low ratio of Ca to P (0.24-0.73), which may increase the risk of the mineral element toxicity. The results indicate that the four common vetch seeds could be taken as an alternative food source, but the possible toxic effect should be taken into consideration. PMID:25308636

Mao, Zhuxin; Fu, Hua; Nan, Zhibiao; Wan, Changgui

2015-03-15

206

Genome-wide association study for fatty acid composition in Japanese Black cattle.  

PubMed

Fatty acid composition is one of the important traits in beef. The aim of this study was to identify candidate genomic regions for fatty acid composition by genome-wide association study with 50?K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array in Japanese Black cattle. A total of 461 individuals and 40?657 SNPs were used in this study. We applied genome-wide rapid association using mixed model and regression (GRAMMAR) and genomic control approaches to estimate the associations between genotypes and fatty acid composition. In addition, two SNPs in fatty acid synthase (FASN) (T1952A) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) (V293A) genes were also genotyped. Association analysis revealed that 30 significant SNPs for several fatty acids (C14:0, C14:1, C16:1 and C18:1) were located in the BTA19?FASN gene located within this region but the FASN mutation had no significant effect on any traits. We also detected one significant SNP for C18:1 on BTA23 and two SNPs for C16:0 on BTA25. The region around 17?Mb on BTA26 harbored two significant SNPs for C14:1 and SNP in SCD in this region showed the strongest association with C14:1. This study demonstrated novel candidate regions in BTA19, 23 and 25 for fatty acid composition. PMID:23607548

Ishii, Atsushi; Yamaji, Keita; Uemoto, Yoshinobu; Sasago, Nanae; Kobayashi, Eiji; Kobayashi, Naohiko; Matsuhashi, Tamako; Maruyama, Shin; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Sasazaki, Shinji; Mannen, Hideyuki

2013-10-01

207

Fatty Acid Composition and Nitrate Uptake of Soybean Roots during Acclimation to Low Temperature 1  

PubMed Central

Fatty acid composition of old and new roots was determined for soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom) at root-zone temperatures of 14, 18, and 22°C during a 26-day period. New roots had a greater concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids than old roots. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid concentration in new roots exposed to 14 and 18°C peaked at 16 days and declined, while the corresponding ratio in old roots increased throughout the treatment period. Apparently the response of fatty acid composition in old and new roots to low temperature was mediated by tissue aging or differentiation. These findings were contrary to the concept that modifications in fatty acid composition remain constant at lower temperatures. The function of root tissues exposed to lower temperature was evaluated with respect to the ability of the root systems to absorb NO3?. Over the relatively long periods of exposure, the ability of whole root systems to absorb NO3? was similar at cool and warm temperatures. The effect of cool temperature on functioning of roots appeared to involve reductions in the rates of initiation and differentiation of young root tissues rather than changes in membrane permeability related to alteration of fatty acid composition. PMID:16662745

Osmond, Deanna L.; Wilson, Richard F.; Raper, C. David

1982-01-01

208

Prebiotic syntheses of vitamin coenzymes: II. Pantoic acid, pantothenic acid, and the composition of coenzyme A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pantoic acid can by synthesized in good prebiotic yield from isobutyraldehyde or alpha-ketoisovaleric acid + H2CO + HCN. Isobutyraldehyde is the Strecker precursor to valine and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid is the valine transamination product. Mg2+ and Ca2+ as well as several transition metals are catalysts for the alpha-ketoisovaleric acid reaction. Pantothenic acid is produced from pantoyl lactone (easily formed from pantoic acid) and the relatively high concentrations of beta-alanine that would be formed on drying prebiotic amino acid mixtures. There is no selectivity for this reaction over glycine, alanine, or gamma-amino butyric acid. The components of coenzyme A are discussed in terms of ease of prebiotic formation and stability and are shown to be plausible choices, but many other compounds are possible. The gamma-OH of pantoic acid needs to be capped to prevent decomposition of pantothenic acid. These results suggest that coenzyme A function was important in the earliest metabolic pathways and that the coenzyme A precursor contained most of the components of the present coenzyme.

Miller, S. L.; Schlesinger, G.

1993-01-01

209

Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

2009-01-01

210

Amino acid composition of proteins extracted from endemic goiter glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteins were isolated and characterized in thyroid tissue of six patients from Brazil with endemic goiter. Biochemical studies\\u000a of these thyroidal proteins included gel filtration, electrophoresis, and amino acid analysis. In addition to thyroglobulin,\\u000a two of the most abundant proteins found in all goiters studied had molecular weights of 68 and 14 kDa. One protein was identified\\u000a as albumin based

Maria C. Baggio; Geraldo Medeiros-Neto; Yoichi Osawa; Nga Yen Nguyen; Pilar Santisteban; Meyer Knobel; Evelyn F. Grollman

1996-01-01

211

Hormone-sensitive lipase deficiency disturbs the fatty acid composition of mouse testis.  

PubMed

Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is a key enzyme in the mobilization of fatty acids from intracellular stores. In mice, HSL deficiency results in male sterility caused by a major defect in spermatogenesis. The testes contain high concentrations of PUFA and specific PUFA are essential for spermatogenesis. We investigated the fatty acid composition and the mRNA levels of key enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism in testis of HSL-knockout mice. HSL deficiency altered fatty acid composition in the testis but not in plasma. The most important changes were decreases in the essential n-6 PUFA LNA and the n-3 PUFA ALA, and an increase in the corresponding synthesis intermediates C22:4n-6 and C22:5n-3 without changes in DPAn-6 or DHA acids. Mead acid, which has been associated with an essential fatty acid deficit leading to male infertility, was increased in the testis from HSL-knockout mice. Moreover, the expression of SCD-1, FADS1, and FADS2 was increased while expression of ELOVL2, an essential enzyme for the formation of very-long PUFA in testis, was decreased. Given the indispensability of these fatty acids for spermatogenesis, the changes in fatty acid metabolism observed in testes from HSL-knockout male mice may underlie the infertility of these animals. PMID:23369366

Casado, M E; Pastor, O; Mariscal, P; Canfrán-Duque, A; Martínez-Botas, J; Kraemer, F B; Lasunción, M A; Martín-Hidalgo, A; Busto, R

2013-03-01

212

Fatty acid composition of the amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus: feeding strategies and trophic links.  

PubMed

Fatty acid (FA) compositions were determined for the invader amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus collected from July to September 2002, in an overheated, high-conductivity dammed reservoir in north-eastern France. Predominant fatty acids were the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA): eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (ARA), linolenic acid (LNA) together with the monounsaturated fatty acid 18:1omega9 and the saturated fatty acid 16:0. FA markers indicated that available food was constituted of incompletely degraded phytodetritus and terrestrial inputs, as well as animal remains. PUFA contents depended on the diet and the capacity of animals to desaturate and elongate LNA and LA in long chain PUFA as EPA and ARA respectively. Based on their FA compositions, we showed that gammarids represent naturally-occurring freshwater sources of essential PUFA, and could play a fundamental role in pelagic-benthic coupling and energy recycling in the ecosystem. The complexity of the feeding strategies of D. villosus--detritivorous, omnivorous, carnivorous--makes this species efficient at exploiting different components of the available food and may be a key factor in its high invasive success. PMID:17383206

Maazouzi, Chafik; Masson, Gérard; Izquierdo, Maria Soledad; Pihan, Jean-Claude

2007-08-01

213

Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of Mucor genevensis in Relation to Dimorphism and Anaerobic Growth  

PubMed Central

Fatty acid and sterol content and composition were determined for the dimorphic mold, Mucor genevensis, grown under a variety of experimental conditions. Fatty acids account for 6 to 9% of the dry weight of aerobically grown mycelium, and 70 to 80% of these are unsaturated. The organism contains ?-linolenic acid which is characteristic for Phycomycetes, and in sporangiospores this compound represents 40% of the total fatty acids. Of the sterols found in mycelium, 80% is ergosterol, and stigmasterol was positively identified as one of the minor components. In anaerobically grown yeastlike cells, sterol content is less than 10% of the level found in aerobically grown cells, and fatty acids amount to less than 2% of the dry weight. These fatty acids are predominantly short chain and less than 10% are unsaturated. Yeastlike cells obtained under aerobic conditions by growth in the presence of phenethyl alcohol have fatty acid and sterol compositions characteristic of aerobically grown mycelium. It is concluded that the dimorphology of the organism is not directly related to lipid composition. PMID:4327506

Gordon, P. A.; Stewart, P. R.; Clark-Walker, G. D.

1971-01-01

214

The influence of dietary docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid on central nervous system polyunsaturated fatty acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies on perinatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid nutrition have clarified the influence of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) on central nervous system PUFA concentrations. In humans, omnivorous primates, and piglets, DHA and ARA plasma and red blood cells concentrations rise with dietary preformed DHA and ARA. Brain and retina DHA are responsive to diet while ARA

J. Thomas Brenna; Guan-Yeu Diau

2007-01-01

215

Model dipeptides incorporating the trans cyclohexane analogues of phenylalanine: further evidence of the relationship between side-chain orientation and ?-turn type  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the influence of the side-chain orientation on the peptide backbone conformation we have synthesised the model dipeptides t-BuCO-l-Pro-(1S,2R)-c6Phe-NHMe and t-BuCO-l-Pro-(1R,2S)-c6Phe-NHMe, incorporating each enantiomer of the trans cyclohexane analogue of phenylalanine (trans-1-amino-2-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid). The orientation of the aromatic side-chain determines the ?-turn type accommodated by these peptides to the point that the (1S,2R)-c6Phe derivative retains the type

Marta Lasa; Ana I. Jiménez; María M. Zurbano; Carlos Cativiela

2005-01-01

216

Determination of fatty acid composition of ?-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

Gecgel, Umit; Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet

2011-04-01

217

Stable carbon isotopic compositions of organic acids in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual organic acids were determined in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou. The ? 13C values of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 20-C 28) varied from -34.1‰ to -32.4‰ and tended to be heavier in summer and lighter in winter. These ? 13C values indicate that high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids were derived mainly from emission by C 3 plants. Reduced biological synthesis of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids in winter may be the reason for the light carbon isotopic composition. The ? 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 10-C 18) changed from -31.7‰ to -30.3‰ and exhibited a reverse seasonal trend, i.e., heavier in winter and lighter in summer. Slightly heavier ? 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids than those of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids suggested that they may be emitted from blended sources, e.g., anthropogenic sources and vegetation waxes. Lighter ? 13C values in summer may be attributed to relatively low anthropogenic sources and high botanic sources in summer. Dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids have been proposed as secondary products from photochemical degradation. The average ? 13C values of dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids were heavier, and ranged from -25.2‰ to -22.9‰ and from -30.0‰ to -27.6‰, respectively. Both dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids displayed the same temporal variations in the ? 13C values, i.e., negative ? 13C in the summer samples and positive in the winter samples, which may be controlled by photochemical reactions; they are generally severe in winter in Guangzhou under the monsoon weather system. The heaviest ? 13C values were observed in dicarboxylic acids, indicating that dicarboxylic acids were formed by fast and more complete oxidation reactions. These results indicate that the stable carbon isotopic composition of organic acids may provide important information about sources and photochemical reactions of organic matter in the atmosphere.

Ma, Shexia; Peng, Ping'an; Song, Jianzhong; Zhao, Jinping; He, Lulu; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

2010-10-01

218

Influence of methylfenpropidine on growth, sterol content and fatty acid composition of Candida albicans.  

PubMed

The effect of methylfenpropidine on growth, lipid contents, sterol and fatty acid composition was investigated in 5 strains of Candida albicans. The sensitivity of the strains decreased in the order: wild strains > erg+ ade nysR > ade nysR erg (defective delta (8-7)-isomerase) > ade nysR erg (defective delta 5-desaturase). The presence of the inhibitor influenced fecosterol isomerization, episterol dehydrogenation, zymosterol transmethylation, ignosterol reduction and squalene epoxidation. Methylfenpropidine also induced changes in fatty acid composition, causing a reduction of the palmitic and oleic acid content with a concomitant elevation of stearic, linoleic and linolenic acid levels. The lipid unsaturation index slightly increased. Morphological changes of wild strains were observed after the fungicide treatment. PMID:11347252

Sajbidor, J; Breierová, E; Lamacka, M; Bohov, P

2000-01-01

219

Copper toxicity towards Saccharomyces cerevisiae: dependence on plasma membrane fatty acid composition.  

PubMed Central

One major mechanism of copper toxicity towards microorganisms is disruption of plasma membrane integrity. In this study, the influence of plasma membrane fatty acid composition on the susceptibility of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Cu2+ toxicity was investigated. Microbial fatty acid composition is highly variable, depending on both intrinsic and environmental factors. Manipulation was achieved in this study by growth in fatty acid-supplemented medium. Whereas cells grown under standard conditions contained only saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, considerable incorporation of the diunsaturated fatty acid linoleate (18:2) (to more than 65% of the total fatty acids) was observed in both whole-cell homogenates and plasma membrane-enriched fractions from cells grown in linoleate-supplemented medium. Linoleate enrichment had no discernible effect on the growth of S. cerevisiae. However, linoleate-enriched cells were markedly more susceptible to copper-induced plasma membrane permeabilization. Thus, after addition of Cu(NO3)2, rates of cellular K+ release (loss of membrane integrity) were at least twofold higher from linoleate-supplemented cells than from unsupplemented cells; this difference increased with reductions in the Cu2+ concentration supplied. Levels of cellular Cu accumulation were also higher in linoleate-supplemented cells. These results were correlated with a very marked dependence of whole-cell Cu2+ toxicity on cellular fatty acid unsaturation. For example, within 10 min of exposure to 5 microM Cu2+, only 3% of linoleate-enriched cells remained viable (capable of colony formation). In contrast, 100% viability was maintained in cells previously grown in the absence of a fatty acid supplement. Cells displaying intermediate levels of linoleate incorporation showed intermediate Cu2+ sensitivity, while cells enriched with the triunsaturated fatty acid linolenate (18:3) were most sensitive to Cu2+. These results demonstrate for the first time that changes in cellular and plasma membrane fatty acid compositions can dramatically alter microbial sensitivity to copper. PMID:8899983

Avery, S V; Howlett, N G; Radice, S

1996-01-01

220

Synthesis and characterization of multifunctional poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)\\/sodium humate superabsorbent composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel multifunctional superabsorbent composite from acrylic acid (AA), acrylamide (AM) and sodium humate (SH), PAA–AM\\/SH, was prepared by aqueous solution polymerization, using N,N?-methylenebisacrylamide as a crosslinker and ammonium persulfate as an initiator. In this paper, factors influencing water absorbency of the superabsorbent composite were investigated, and then the optimal synthesis conditions were obtained as follows: the amount of crosslinker,

Junping Zhang; An Li; Aiqin Wang

2006-01-01

221

Seasonal distribution and fatty acid composition of littoral microalgae in the Yenisei River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied fatty acid (FA) composition of littoral microalgae in the fast-flowing oligotrophic river, the Yenisei, Siberia,\\u000a monthly for 3 years. Seasonal dynamics of species composition had similar patterns in all the studied years. In springs, a\\u000a pronounced dominance of filamentous green algae occurred, in summer and autumn diatoms were abundant, and in late autumn and\\u000a winter epilithic biofilms consisted primarily

Nadezhda N. Sushchik; Michail I. Gladyshev; Elena A. Ivanova; Elena S. Kravchuk

2010-01-01

222

Water treatment to remove acid and basic dyes by biosorption on polysaccharide composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite material based on cross-linked cationic starch and sodium alginate was synthesized and studied. The composite\\u000a is an effective biosorbent for removing various types of synthetic dyes from water. The influence exerted on adsorption of\\u000a a basic dye (Methylene Blue) and an acid dye (Methyl Orange) by temperature, pH, solution ionic strength, and biosorbent amount\\u000a was examined, and the

E. V. Datskevich; R. V. Prikhod’ko; I. V. Stolyarova; A. V. Lozovskii; V. V. Goncharuk

2010-01-01

223

Proximate composition, fatty acids and cholesterol content of meat cuts from tegu lizard Tupinambis merianae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proximate composition, fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of three different cuts of meat from tegu Tupinambis merianae were determined. Moisture (72.0±0.7%), protein (23.6±0.7%), fat (4.0±1.3%) and ash (1.2±0.2%) did not differ from values obtained from beef or chicken meat. The cholesterol content (18.2±5.8mg\\/100g tissue) was similar among the cuts and was lower in tegu meat than in other

Hugo A. Caldironi; Mario E. Manes

2006-01-01

224

Composition of acid tars from sulfuric acid treatment of petroleum oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the production of distillate and residual lube oils, the lube stocks may be treated with concentrated sulfuric acid or oleum. This removes unsaturates, aromatics, sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds and resinous substances, all of which are materials that lower the stability and have a detrimental effect on the service indexes of commercial petroleum oils. Acid tar is formed as a

A. F. Frolov; T. S. Titova; I. V. Karpova; T. L. Denisova

1985-01-01

225

Pressure-Activated Microsyringe Composite Scaffold of Poly(L-lactic acid) and Carbon Nanotubes for Bone Tissue Engineering  

E-print Network

Pressure-Activated Microsyringe Composite Scaffold of Poly(L-lactic acid) and Carbon Nanotubes biocompatibility. In this study, we microfabricated three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds by mixing poly(L-lactic acid

Daraio, Chiara

226

Dynamics of fatty-acid composition of neutral acylglycerols in maturing euonymus fruits.  

PubMed

The dynamics of the fatty-acid (FA) composition of neutral acylglycerols (NAGs) composed of 1,2,3-triacyl-sn-glycerols (TAGs) and 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols (acDAGs) was determined in the fruit seeds and arils of three Euonymus L. species at three stages of their maturity. The NAG composition comprised 29 FAs, linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and ?-linolenic acids being predominant. Noticeable amounts of other FAs, such as lauric, myristic, hexadec-9-enoic, stearic, (Z)-vaccenic, and arachidic acid, etc., could also be present. In the course of maturation, the qualitative composition of major FAs remained nearly unchanged, while the unsaturation index of FAs in seeds and in TAGs, as well as, but to a lesser extent, in arils and in acDAGs, respectively, always decreased. This decline was brought about by a sharp fall of the ?-linolenate level, a decrease of the linoleate content, and a corresponding rise in the oleate content. It is suggested that, in both seeds and arils, both classes of NAGs were formed at the expense of the same FA pool; the quantitative composition of this pool was characteristic of a given fruit part and strongly changed during maturation. The accumulation of TAGs in E. europaeus fruits was accompanied by a conversion of hexadec-9-enoic acid into (Z)-vaccenic acid via the C2 -elongation reaction. PMID:24706628

Sidorov, Roman A; Zhukov, Anatoly V; Pchelkin, Vasily P; Vereshchagin, Andrei G; Tsydendambaev, Vladimir D

2014-04-01

227

Amino acid composition protein quality and water-soluble vitamin content of germinated cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acid composition, protein digestibility, calculated protein efficiency ratio (C-PER and DC-PER), chemical scores and water-soluble vitamin content of cowpea seeds germinated at 25°C or 30°C for 24h were determined. Also, the effect of processing steps (heated-air drying, decortication and cooking) on these parameters were examined. Germination had little effect on amino acid profile of cowpeas. In vitro protein digestibility

Ifendu A. Nnanna; R. Dixon Phillips

1989-01-01

228

Breeding for modified fatty acid composition via experimental mutagenesis in Camelina sativa (L.) Crtz  

Microsoft Academic Search

Camelina sativa (L.) Crtz. is a potential oil crop for non-food industrial applications. Seeds of the German C. sativa cultivar Lindo were mutagenically treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in order to modify the fatty acid composition in the seed oil and to select mutants with either reduced or increased linolenic acid (C18:3) content, respectively. The M2-generation was evaluated for fatty

A Büchsenschütz-Nothdurft; A Schuster; W Friedt

1998-01-01

229

Similar Bacterial Community Composition in Acidic Mining Lakes with Different pH and Lake Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

As extreme environmental conditions strongly affect bacterial community composition (BCC), we examined whether differences\\u000a in pH—even at low pH—and in iron and sulfate concentrations lead to changes in BCC of acidic mining lakes. Thereby, we tested\\u000a the following hypotheses: (1) diversity of the bacterial community in acidic lakes decreases with reducing pH, (2) BCC differs\\u000a between epilimnion and hypolimnion, and

Heike Kampe; Claudia Dziallas; Hans-Peter Grossart; Norbert Kamjunke

2010-01-01

230

Enzymatically cross-linked alginic-hyaluronic acid composite hydrogels as cell delivery vehicles.  

PubMed

An injectable composite gel was developed from alginic and hyaluronic acid. The enzymatically cross-linked injectable gels were prepared via the oxidative coupling of tyramine modified sodium algiante and sodium hyaluronate in the presence of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The composite gels were prepared by mixing equal parts of the two tyraminated polymer solutions in 10U HRP and treating with 1.0% H2O2. The properties of the alginate gels were significantly affected by the addition of hyaluronic acid. The percentage water absorption and storage modulus of the composite gels were found to be lower than the alginate gels. The alginate and composite gels showed lower protein release compared to hyaluronate gels in the absence of hyaluronidase. Even hyaluronate gels showed only approximately 10% protein release after 14 days incubation in phosphate buffer solution. ATDC-5 cells encapsulated in the injectable gels showed high cell viability. The composite gels showed the presence of enlarged spherical cells with significantly higher metabolic activity compared to cells in hyaluronic and alginic acid gels. The results suggest the potential of the composite approach to develop covalently cross-linked hydrogels with tuneable physical, mechanical, and biological properties. PMID:23357799

Ganesh, Nitya; Hanna, Craig; Nair, Shantikumar V; Nair, Lakshmi S

2013-04-01

231

Amino Acid Compositions of 27 Food Fishes and Their Importance in Clinical Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Proteins and amino acids are important biomolecules which regulate key metabolic pathways and serve as precursors for synthesis of biologically important substances; moreover, amino acids are building blocks of proteins. Fish is an important dietary source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and play important role in human nutrition. In the present investigation, crude protein content and amino acid compositions of important food fishes from different habitats have been studied. Crude protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method and amino acid composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and information on 27 food fishes was generated. The analysis showed that the cold water species are rich in lysine and aspartic acid, marine fishes in leucine, small indigenous fishes in histidine, and the carps and catfishes in glutamic acid and glycine. The enriched nutrition knowledge base would enhance the utility of fish as a source of quality animal proteins and amino acids and aid in their inclusion in dietary counseling and patient guidance for specific nutritional needs. PMID:25379285

Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T. V.; Chakraborty, Kajal; Rangasamy, Anandan; Paul, Baidyanath; Sarma, Debajit; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, Kurukkan Kunnath; Behera, Bijay; Aftabuddin, Md.; Debnath, Dipesh; Vijayagopal, P.; Sridhar, N.; Akhtar, M. S.; Sahi, Neetu; Mitra, Tandrima; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Das, Debajeet; Das, Pushpita; Vijayan, K. K.; Laxmanan, P. T.; Sharma, A. P.

2014-01-01

232

Polymorphism of SREBP1 is associated with beef fatty acid composition in Simmental bulls.  

PubMed

The sterol regulatory element binding factor 1 gene (SREBP1) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol, and in lipid metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of genetic polymorphisms of SREBP1 on the fatty acid composition of muscle and carcass traits in Simmental bulls and Snow Dragon black cattle. The 84-bp insertion/deletion (indel) in intron 5 of the bovine SREBP1 gene was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction to investigate its associations with traits. The results showed that the 84-bp indel in intron 5 was significantly associated with palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), saturated fatty acids (SFA), triglycerides (TAG), and the C16 index in Simmental bulls (P < 0.05). Cattle with the LL genotype had higher palmitic acid (C16:1), triglycerides, and C16 index but lower stearic acid (C18:0) and SFA compared to those with the LS genotype (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the 84-bp indel of SREBP1 could be used as a genetic marker for selecting Simmental breeding stock for healthier fatty acid composition. PMID:24301949

Xu, L; Zhang, L P; Yuan, Z R; Guo, L P; Zhu, M; Gao, X; Gao, H J; Li, J Y; Xu, S Z

2013-01-01

233

Multifaceted chitin/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid composite nanogels.  

PubMed

Cyto-compatible, 80nm sized chitin/PLGA composite nanogels (chit/PLGA-comp NGs) were prepared by regeneration method and characterized. The multifaceted chit/PLGA-comp NGs were surface modified with Au, Fe3O4, CdTe/ZnTe-QDs and umbelliferone, respectively. 185nm sized Au-chit/PLGA-comp NGs, 170nm sized QD-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs and 160nm sized Fe3O4-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs showed RF heating. The QD-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs and 180nm sized umb-chit/PLGA-comp-NGs were well uptaken by Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The chit/PLGA-comp NGs could be useful for microbial monitoring and RF application for cancer therapy. The preliminary data showed that multifaceted chit/PLGA-comp-NGs could be useful for hyperthermia for cancer treatment and microbial labelling and imaging. PMID:24685461

Rejinold, N Sanoj; Biswas, Raja; Chellan, Gopi; Jayakumar, R

2014-06-01

234

Influence of dietary lipid source and strain on fatty acid composition of Muscovy duck meat.  

PubMed

A trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary 2% soya bean oil and dietary 2% fish oil (FO) on fatty acid composition of breast meat of two different Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata domestica L.) strains. The two strains were a broiler strain selected for meat production and an unselected rural strain. Fatty acid composition of breast muscle was deeply influenced by lipid source. Dietary FO improved the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) of omega 3 series content, while the content of LC-PUFAs of omega 6 series was reduced. Differences in susceptibility in lipid manipulation were found between the two groups of animals suggesting the highest capability of animals belonging to the rural strain in stocking arachidonic acid in breast muscle. As the fatty acid profile of Muscovy duck meat can be considerably modified by changing the fatty acid composition of the diet, and dietary FO represents an easy way to reach this goal, human intake of healthy n-3 LC-PUFAs could be enhanced using this enriched poultry meat, even if the influence of FO on organoleptic characteristics (i.e. off-flavours) must be evaluated. PMID:15059231

Schiavone, A; Romboli, I; Chiarini, R; Marzoni, M

2004-04-01

235

Amino acid composition and antioxidant activities of hydrolysates and peptide fractions from porcine collagen.  

PubMed

The amino acid composition and antioxidant activities of different hydrolysates from porcine collagen were analyzed. The gelatin was hydrolyzed for antioxidative peptides with various proteases, namely papain, protease from bovine pancreas, protease from Streptomyces, and cocktail mixture of protease from bovine pancreas and protease from Streptomyces. The hydrolysates were assessed using methods of DPPH radical-scavenging ability, metal-chelating ability and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. It was found that the collagen hydrolysates by different protease treatments had different amino acid compositions and antioxidant properties. However, the contents of Hyp and Pro were improved and the content of Gly was decreased in each collagen hydrolysate compared with collagen. The hydrolysate prepared with the cocktail mixture of proteases, which exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, was separated into 6 fractions by gel filtration chromatography. Fraction 2 was further separated by ion exchange chromatography. Fraction 2b with abundant basic amino acids and Fraction 2d which was slightly acidic fractions had higher radical-scavenging and metal-chelating activities, and both Fraction 2b and 2d contained more hydrophobic amino acids. The results confirmed that the antioxidative peptides were rich in Hyp, Pro and Gly, which accounted for half of amino acid composition. This article added further support to the preparation of natural antioxidative peptides from porcine skin collagen. PMID:23064526

Ao, Jing; Li, Bo

2012-10-01

236

Effects of acid leaching on the Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions of ocean island basalts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to conduct multi-isotopic analyses (e.g., Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb) on the same sample is critical for studies that evaluate the mantle source components of oceanic basalts. The isotopic compositions of relatively immobile elements, such as Nd (and other REE) and Hf, are considered to be relatively resistant to alteration, however, accurate Sr and Pb isotopic analyses of oceanic basalts require thorough acid leaching prior to dissolution. A detailed study of the Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic systematics of acid-leached oceanic basalts from Hawaii and Kerguelen was undertaken to assess how acid leaching affects their isotopic compositions. Most of the Sr, Nd and Hf was removed in the first acid leaching steps. Hawaiian basalts lose up to 35% and 40% of their total Sr and Hf contents, respectively, whereas for Kerguelen basalts the corresponding losses are 63% and ˜70%. Acid leaching leads to significant loss of the original Nd content (up to 90%), which cannot be solely explained by the elimination of alteration phases and is likely related to preferential removal of the REE in the constituent silicate minerals (e.g., plagioclase, clinopyroxene). The leached residues yield Sr isotopic ratios significantly less radiogenic than their respective unleached powders and Nd-Hf isotopic compositions that are within analytical uncertainty of the respective unleached powders. This study shows that multi-isotopic analyses on the same acid-leached sample aliquot can produce reliable results for use in the discrimination of mantle source components of oceanic basalts.

Nobre Silva, Inês G.; Weis, Dominique; Scoates, James S.

2010-09-01

237

Thermochromic Organoaminomodified Silica Composite Films Containing Phosphomolybdic Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel thermochromic sol-gel film has been prepared for the first time through entrapping phosphomolybdic acid into a kind of inorganic-organic matrix co-hydrolyzed from tetraethylorthosilicate and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The thus-obtained amorphous nanocomposite film was characterized by IR spectra, UV-vis absorption spectra, XRD, TG-DTA, and ESR. Results show that phosphomolybdate polyanions interact with R-NH +3 cations strongly and disperse homogeneously in the sol-gel matrix. The sol-gel film exhibits thermochromic properties. Annealed from 120 to 180°C, the transparent film changes from pale-yellow to blue. A possible charge-transfer process has been suggested to explain the thermochromism.

Rui Zhang, Tie; Feng, Wei; Lu, Ran; Yan Bao, Chun; Jin Li, Tie; Ying Zhao, Ying; Nian Yao, Jian

2002-06-01

238

Ultrahigh dielectric constant composites based on the oleic acid modified ferroferric oxide nanoparticles and polyvinylidene fluoride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the dielectric properties of the percolative composites based on polyvinylidene fluoride and oleic acid modified ferroferric oxide nanoparticles. It demonstrates that surface modification not only can prevent the aggregation of the nanoparticles but also can greatly increase the dielectric constant of the composites. The space charge polarization at the interfaces between modified nanoparticles and polymers results in huge enhancement of dielectric constant. The maximum of dielectric constant is up to 24 105 at 100 Hz and the dielectric loss is still controlled in the range of 0-2.5. These composites can be used as the dielectric materials of super-capacitors.

Wang, Tingting; Li, Weiping; Luo, Laihui; Zhu, Yuejin

2013-03-01

239

Genome-wide association analyses for fatty acid composition in porcine muscle and abdominal fat tissues.  

PubMed

Fatty acid composition is an important phenotypic trait in pigs as it affects nutritional, technical and sensory quality of pork. Here, we reported a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for fatty acid composition in the longissimus muscle and abdominal fat tissues of 591 White Duroc×Erhualian F2 animals and in muscle samples of 282 Chinese Sutai pigs. A total of 46 loci surpassing the suggestive significance level were identified on 15 pig chromosomes (SSC) for 12 fatty acids, revealing the complex genetic architecture of fatty acid composition in pigs. Of the 46 loci, 15 on SSC5, 7, 14 and 16 reached the genome-wide significance level. The two most significant SNPs were ss131535508 (P?=?2.48×10(-25)) at 41.39 Mb on SSC16 for C20?0 in abdominal fat and ss478935891 (P?=?3.29×10(-13)) at 121.31 Mb on SSC14 for muscle C18?0. A meta-analysis of GWAS identified 4 novel loci and enhanced the association strength at 6 loci compared to those evidenced in a single population, suggesting the presence of common underlying variants. The longissimus muscle and abdominal fat showed consistent association profiles at most of the identified loci and distinct association signals at several loci. All loci have specific effects on fatty acid composition, except for two loci on SSC4 and SSC7 affecting multiple fatness traits. Several promising candidate genes were found in the neighboring regions of the lead SNPs at the genome-wide significant loci, such as SCD for C18?0 and C16?1 on SSC14 and ELOVL7 for C20?0 on SSC16. The findings provide insights into the molecular basis of fatty acid composition in pigs, and would benefit the final identification of the underlying mutations. PMID:23762394

Yang, Bin; Zhang, Wanchang; Zhang, Zhiyan; Fan, Yin; Xie, Xianhua; Ai, Huashui; Ma, Junwu; Xiao, Shijun; Huang, Lusheng; Ren, Jun

2013-01-01

240

A Novel ?-Peptidyl Aminopeptidase (BapA) from Strain 3-2W4 Cleaves Peptide Bonds of Synthetic ?-Tri- and ?-Dipeptides  

PubMed Central

A novel bacterial strain that was capable of growing on the ?-tripeptide H-?hVal-?hAla-?hLeu-OH as the sole carbon and nitrogen source was isolated from an enrichment culture. On the basis of physiological characterization, partial 16S rRNA sequencing, and fatty acid analysis, strain 3-2W4 was identified as a member of the family Sphingomonadaceae. Growth on the ?-tripeptide and the ?-dipeptide H-?hAla-?hLeu-OH was observed, and emerging metabolites were characterized. Small amounts of a persisting metabolite, the N-acetylated ?-dipeptide, were identified in both media. According to dissolved organic carbon measurements, 74 to 80% of the available carbon was dissimilated. The ?-peptide-degrading enzyme was purified from the crude cell extract of cells from strain 3-2W4 grown on complex medium. The enzyme was composed of two subunits, and the N-terminal sequences of both were determined. With this information, it was possible to identify the complete nucleotide sequence and to deduce the primary structure of the gene bapA. The gene encoded a ?-peptidyl aminopeptidase (BapA) of 402 amino acids that was synthesized as preprotein with a signal sequence of 29 amino acids. The enzyme was cleaved into two subunits (residues 30 to 278 and 279 to 402). It belonged to the N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn) hydrolase superfamily. PMID:16109932

Geueke, Birgit; Namoto, Kenji; Seebach, Dieter; Kohler, Hans-Peter E.

2005-01-01

241

Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings. PMID:22983174

Xue, Meilan; Ge, Yinlin; Zhang, Jinyu; Wang, Qing; Hou, Lin

2012-01-01

242

Phenolic acids composition and antioxidant activity of canola extracts in cooked beef, chicken and pork  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude polyphenol extracts (15 or 100mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)\\/kg meat) from canola meal reduced the formation of 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in pre-cooked beef (66–92%), pork (43–75%) and chicken (36–70%). The canola extract contained sinapic (99.7%), ferulic (0.28%) and p-hydroxybenzoic acids (0.07%).The relationship between polyphenol composition and the antioxidant activity of a blend containing of caffeic, cinnamic, p-coumaric, ferulic,

Amandine Brettonnet; Amitha Hewavitarana; Sharon DeJong; Maria Cecilia Lanari

2010-01-01

243

Determination of cellular fatty acid compositions of various yeasts by gas-liquid chromatography.  

PubMed Central

The cellular fatty acid composition of 51 cultures of various species of yeasts was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Analysis was done with a fused-silica gas-liquid chromatography capillary column, with resolution of all components including mono-, di-, and tri-unsaturated 18-carbon acids. The cultures were placed into one of four distinct gas-liquid chromatography groups on the basis of large quantitative differences in fatty acids. Group I contained only Saccharomyces species and group II only Torulopsis glabrata. Most Candida species were placed into group III, and group IV contained only basidiomycetous yeasts. PMID:7161374

Moss, C W; Shinoda, T; Samuels, J W

1982-01-01

244

Density estimation for fatty acids and vegetable oils based on their fatty acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liquid density of fatty acids can be accurately estimated by the modified Rackett equation over a wide range of temperatures.\\u000a The modified Rackett equation requires the critical properties and an empirical parameter,Z\\u000a \\u000a RA\\u000a , for each acid as the basis for computing density as a function of temperature. The liquid density of vegetable oils can\\u000a be estimated by using

J. D. Halvorsen; L. D. Clements

1993-01-01

245

Colorectal cancer cell growth inhibition by linoleic acid is related to fatty acid composition changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) possess anti-cancer action both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we detected\\u000a cell viability with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and cell membrane permeability with propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence\\u000a dyeing, and calculated cell membrane fluidity change as fluorescence anisotropy. Fatty acid content in cells was measured\\u000a by gas chromatography\\/mass spectroscopy (GC\\/MS), and the

Xiao-feng Lu; Guo-qing He; Hai-ning Yu; Qi Ma; Sheng-rong Shen; Undurti N. Das

2010-01-01

246

Changes in fatty-acid composition of body fat before and after birth in Tanzania: an international comparative study.  

PubMed Central

Changes in the fatty-acid composition of human adipose tissue before birth and during infancy and childhood were studied in Tanzania and compared with data for British and Dutch infants in relation to their diet. From the 32nd to the 37th week of gestation in Tanzania the proportion in the body fat of the unsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid tended to rise, suggesting an adequate supply of this essential fatty acid from the mother to the fetus. At term 2.5% of the total fatty acids of the body fat was linoleic acid, which corresponded with values in Dutch newborn infants but was significantly higher than those in British infants. During infancy in Tanzania the composition of the fat showed a dramatic increase in the proportions of the saturated fatty acids lauric acid and myristic acid, which did not occur in Dutch and British infants. The proportion of linoleic acid increased to 8%. These changes were a reflection of the fatty-acid composition of the fat in the human milk that the infants received. During weaning (1-2 years of age) the fatty-acid composition changed only slightly. The specific fatty-acid composition of the fat in Tanzanian breast milk may have a beneficial influence on the extent of intestinal absorption in the newborn child. PMID:435841

Boersma, E R

1979-01-01

247

Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fatty acid composition in an interspecific cross of oil palm  

PubMed Central

Background Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) is well suited to a perennial crop like oil palm, in which the economic products are not produced until several years after planting. The use of DNA markers for selection in such crops can greatly reduce the number of breeding cycles needed. With the use of DNA markers, informed decisions can be made at the nursery stage, regarding which individuals should be retained as breeding stock, which are satisfactory for agricultural production, and which should be culled. The trait associated with oil quality, measured in terms of its fatty acid composition, is an important agronomic trait that can eventually be tracked using molecular markers. This will speed up the production of new and improved oil palm planting materials. Results A map was constructed using AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers for an interspecific cross involving a Colombian Elaeis oleifera (UP1026) and a Nigerian E. guinneensis (T128). A framework map was generated for the male parent, T128, using Joinmap ver. 4.0. In the paternal (E. guineensis) map, 252 markers (199 AFLP, 38 RFLP and 15 SSR) could be ordered in 21 linkage groups (1815 cM). Interval mapping and multiple-QTL model (MQM) mapping (also known as composite interval mapping, CIM) were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling oil quality (measured in terms of iodine value and fatty acid composition). At a 5% genome-wide significance threshold level, QTLs associated with iodine value (IV), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) content were detected. One genomic region on Group 1 appears to be influencing IV, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 content. Significant QTL for C14:0, C16:1, C18:0 and C18:1 content was detected around the same locus on Group 15, thus revealing another major locus influencing fatty acid composition in oil palm. Additional QTL for C18:0 was detected on Group 3. A minor QTL for C18:2 was detected on Group 2. Conclusion This study describes the first successful detection of QTLs for fatty acid composition in oil palm. These QTLs constitute useful tools for application in breeding programmes. PMID:19706196

Singh, Rajinder; Tan, Soon G; Panandam, Jothi M; Rahman, Rahimah Abdul; Ooi, Leslie CL; Low, Eng-Ti L; Sharma, Mukesh; Jansen, Johannes; Cheah, Suan-Choo

2009-01-01

248

Fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of caviar from farmed white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to characterize caviar obtained from farmed white sturgeons (Acipenser transmontanus) subjected to different dietary treatments. Twenty caviar samples from fish fed two experimental diets containing different dietary lipid sources have been analysed for chemical composition, fatty acids and flavour volatile compounds. Fatty acid make up of caviar was only minimally influenced by dietary fatty acid composition. Irrespective of dietary treatments, palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (OA, 18:1 n-9) were the most abundant fatty acid followed by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) and eicopentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3). Thirty-three volatile compounds were isolated using simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and identified by GC-MS. The largest group of volatiles were represented by aldehydes with 20 compounds, representing the 60% of the total volatiles. n-Alkanals, 2-alkenals and 2,4-alkadienals are largely the main responsible for a wide range of flavours in caviar from farmed white surgeon. PMID:18486649

Caprino, Fabio; Moretti, Vittorio Maria; Bellagamba, Federica; Turchini, Giovanni Mario; Busetto, Maria Letizia; Giani, Ivan; Paleari, Maria Antonietta; Pazzaglia, Mario

2008-06-01

249

Comprehensive analysis of amino acid and nucleotide composition in eukaryotic genomes, comparing genes and pseudogenes  

PubMed Central

Based on searches for disabled homologs to known proteins, we have identified a large population of pseudogenes in four sequenced eukaryotic genomes—the worm, yeast, fly and human (chromosomes 21 and 22 only). Each of our nearly 2500 pseudogenes is characterized by one or more disablements mid-domain, such as premature stops and frameshifts. Here, we perform a comprehensive survey of the amino acid and nucleotide composition of these pseudogenes in comparison to that of functional genes and intergenic DNA. We show that pseudogenes invariably have an amino acid composition intermediate between genes and translated intergenic DNA. Although the degree of intermediacy varies among the four organisms, in all cases, it is most evident for amino acid types that differ most in occurrence between genes and intergenic regions. The same intermediacy also applies to codon frequencies, especially in the worm and human. Moreover, the intermediate composition of pseudogenes applies even though the composition of the genes in the four organisms is markedly different, showing a strong correlation with the overall A/T content of the genomic sequence. Pseudogenes can be divided into ‘ancient’ and ‘modern’ subsets, based on the level of sequence identity with their closest matching homolog (within the same genome). Modern pseudogenes usually have a much closer sequence composition to genes than ancient pseudogenes. Collectively, our results indicate that the composition of pseudogenes that are under no selective constraints progressively drifts from that of coding DNA towards non-coding DNA. Therefore, we propose that the degree to which pseudogenes approach a random sequence composition may be useful in dating different sets of pseudogenes, as well as to assess the rate at which intergenic DNA accumulates mutations. Our compositional analyses with the interactive viewer are available over the web at http://genecensus.org/pseudogene. PMID:12034841

Echols, Nathaniel; Harrison, Paul; Balasubramanian, Suganthi; Luscombe, Nicholas M.; Bertone, Paul; Zhang, Zhaolei; Gerstein, Mark

2002-01-01

250

Antiamnesic Effect of Acyl-Prolyl-Containing Dipeptide (GVS-111) in Compression-Induced Damage to Frontal Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antiamnestic effect of acyl-prolyl-containing dipeptide GVS-111 was demonstrated in rats with bilateral compression-induced damage to the frontal cortex. Both intraperitoneal and oral administration of the dipeptide improved retrieval of passive avoidance responses in rats with compression-induced cerebral ischemia compared to untreated controls.

G. A. Romanova; T. Kh. Mirzoev; I. V. Barskov; I. V. Victorov; T. A. Gudasheva; R. U. Ostrovskaya

2000-01-01

251

Antiamnesic effect of acyl-prolyl-containing dipeptide (GVS-111) in compression-induced damage to frontal cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antiamnestic effect of acyl-prolyl-containing dipeptide GVS-111 was demonstrated in rats with bilateral compression-induced\\u000a damage to the frontal cortex. Both intraperitoneal and oral administration of the dipeptide improved retrieval of passive\\u000a avoidance responses in rats with compression-induced cerebral ischemia compared to untreated controls.

G. A. Romanova; T. Kh. Mirzoev; I. V. Barskov; I. V. Victorov; T. A. Gudasheva; R. U. Ostrovskaya

2000-01-01

252

Antiamnesic effect of acyl-prolyl-containing dipeptide (GVS-111) in compression-induced damage to frontal cortex.  

PubMed

Antiamnestic effect of acyl-prolyl-containing dipeptide GVS-111 was demonstrated in rats with bilateral compression-induced damage to the frontal cortex. Both intraperitoneal and oral administration of the dipeptide improved retrieval of passive avoidance responses in rats with compression-induced cerebral ischemia compared to untreated controls. PMID:11177261

Romanova, G A; Mirzoev, T K; Barskov, I V; Victorov, I V; Gudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaya, R U

2000-09-01

253

Separation and amino acid composition of three troponin components from bovine muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three troponin components were isolated from bovine skeletal muscle, and their molecular weights and amino acid composition were studied. Crude troponin prepared from bovine muscle was purified by DEAE-Toyopearl chromatography. The purified troponin was dissociated in the order of tropopins C, I and T by CM-Toyopearl chromatography in the presence of 6 M urea. The molecular weights of troponins C,

H. Negishi; E. Yamamoto; T. Kuwata

1996-01-01

254

Using Nonlinear Energy Operator Index As Pseudo Amino Acid Compositions for Predicting Protein Subcellular Location  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functions of proteins are closely correlated with their subcellular localizations. Based on the concept of pseudo amino acid composition, the nonlinear energy operator (NEO) approach is introduced to incorporate the sequence order effect on protein subcellular localization. Results obtained through self- consistency, jackknife and independent dataset tests indicate that the prediction accuracies by the current algorithm are significantly higher

Xiaoli Guo; Xiaoming Chen; Yihong Qiu; Zhende Huang; Yisheng Zhu

2009-01-01

255

Author's personal copy Culture performance and tissue fatty acid compositions of yellow perch  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Culture performance and tissue fatty acid compositions of yellow perch of fish oil with soybean oil or flax oil in yellow perch Perca flavescens rearing performance and tissue diet. Flaxseed oil can partially replace fish oil in the diet of yellow perch while maintaining growth

256

FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF THE ESTUARINE AMPHIPOD, MELITA PLUMULOSA (ZEIDLER): LINK BETWEEN DIET AND FECUNDITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of various diets on the survival, fecundity, and the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of the benthic estuarine amphipod Melita plumulosa (Zeidler) in laboratory cultures were determined. Apart from a natural silty sediment, six commercial food supplements were examined: an omega-6 PUFA enriched Spirulina-based dry powder, Sera micron; a shrimp- based pellet food; an omega-3 PUFA enriched algal

Ross V. Hyne; Francisco Sánchez-Bayo; Ashley D. Bryan; Emma L. Johnston; Reinier M. Mann

2009-01-01

257

Mechanical Properties of Composite Monolayers of Triacontanoic Acid with Molybdenum Disulfide and Silicon Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical properties of composite monolayers of triacontanoic acid (TA) with MoS2 and SiO2 particles formed on silicon surfaces by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technology were studied. TA monolayer with MoS2 particles possessed highest endurance against mechanical influence of a steel ball indenter.

Salamianski, A. E.; Agabekov, V. E.

2013-05-01

258

SEX AND BREED DIFFERENCES IN THE FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF MUSCLE PHOSPHOLIPIDS IN CROSSBRED CATTLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Phospholipid data from the Longissimus dors i (eye muscle) of 117 weaners across 7 cattle genotypes were analysed. The aim was to investigate sex and breed differences in fatty acid composition of muscle phospholipids in an entirely grass-fed management situation. Results showed that sex was a significant source of variation in the levels of 18: ln-9, total monounsaturated fatty

M. P. B. Deland; A. E. O. Malau-Aduli; B. D. Siebert; C. D. K. Bottema; W. S. Pitchford

259

Carbon isotope composition of low molecular weight hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from Murchison meteorite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon isotopic compositions have been measured for individual hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids from the Murchison meteorite, a C2 carbonaceous chondrite which fell in Australia in 1969. With few exceptions, notably benzene, the volatile products are substantially isotopically heavier than their terrestrial counterparts, signifying their extraterrestrial origin. For both classes of compounds, the ratio of C-13 to C-12 decreases with increasing

George Yuen; Neal Blair; D. J. Des Marais; Sherwood Chang

1984-01-01

260

The amino acid and sugar composition of diatom cell-walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell walls of diatoms consist of a silica frustule encased in an organic coating. Biochemical characterization of this coating should allow insight into: (1) the mechanism of silicification; (2) taxonomy and evolution of diatoms; (3) preservation of fossil frustules. The amino acid and sugar composition of cell walls from 6 diatom species have been elucidated. When compared to cellular

R. E. Hecky; K. Mopper; P. Kilham; E. T. Degens

1973-01-01

261

Acid deposition effects on forest composition and growth on the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northern and central Appalachian forests are subject to high levels of atmospheric acid deposition (AD), which has been shown in some forests to negatively impact forest growth as well as predispose the forest system to damage from secondary stresses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible contribution of AD to changes in composition and productivity of

P. E. Elias; J. A. Burger; M. B. Adams

2009-01-01

262

Fatty acid composition and change in Collembola fed differing diets: identification of trophic biomarkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the potential of fatty acid (FA) compositions to act as biomarkers in the soil food web, two species of Collembola, Folsomia candida and Proisotoma minuta, were switched to four possible diets: Cladosporium cladosporioides (a common soil fungus), Panagrellus redivivus (a bacteria feeding nematode), Zea mays (maize) and Alnus glutinosa (alder). The change in FA content of the Collembola

P. M. Chamberlain; I. D. Bull; H. I. J. Black; P. Ineson; R. P. Evershed

2005-01-01

263

Ascorbic acid content in exotic fruits: A contribution to produce quality data for food composition databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbic acid (AA) is a water-soluble vitamin mainly present in fruits and vegetables. Food Composition Databases (FCDB) provide detailed information on nutritionally important components in foods. However, in some FCDB there is a significant lack of information on vitamin C content. The aim of this study is to produce new data for FCDB by measuring the AA content in 26

Ana Valente; Tânia Gonçalves Albuquerque; Ana Sanches-Silva; Helena S. Costa

2011-01-01

264

Effects on milk yield and composition of infusions of volatile fatty acids and caseinate into  

E-print Network

Effects on milk yield and composition of infusions of volatile fatty acids and caseinate Laitière, Saint-Gilles, 35590 L'Hermitage, France Changes in milk secretion and composi- tion, particularly concentrate and 7.5% soya bean meal. Duodenal infusion of casein increased milk yield (+ 1.9 kg

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

265

Biogeochemistry of the compost bioreactor components of a composite acid mine drainage passive remediation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compost bioreactor (“anaerobic cell”) components of three composite passive remediation systems constructed to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) at the former Wheal Jane tin mine, Cornwall, UK were studied over a period of 16 months. While there was some amelioration of the preprocessed AMD in each of the three compost bioreactors, as evidenced by pH increase and decrease in

D. Barrie Johnson; Kevin B. Hallberg

2005-01-01

266

Prediction of Biodiesel Properties from Fatty Acid Composition using Linear Regression and ANN Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel is currently the most widely accepted alternative fuel for diesel engines due to its various advantages. The fatty acid composition of vegetable oils affects the fuel properties of biodiesel, such as viscosity, flash point, fire point, cloud point, pour point, iodine value and saponification value. In the present work, biodiesel was prepared from different vegetable oils and its physical

Madhu Agarwal; Kailash Singh; S. P. Chaurasia

2010-01-01

267

Anodic corrosion of fiber reinforced lead composites for use in large lead-acid batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion resistance of lightweight, high strength lead metal matrix composites under conditions that simulate their use as grid materials in large lead-acid batteries has been studied. Constant potential testing provides an effective means for holding constant the oxidizing power of a metal-electrolyte system. Data are presented on corrosion currents, effect of exposure time on corrosion rates, dependence of the

C. M. Dacres; S. M. Reamer; R. A. Sutula; I. A. Angres

1981-01-01

268

Site-specific fatty acid composition in adipose tissues of several northern aquatic and terrestrial mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Site-specific differences in fatty acid compositions (by gas-liquid chromatography) were compared in aquatic, semiaquatic and terrestrial mammals: the ringed seals (Phoca hispida hispida and P. h. botnica), otter (Lutra lutra), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), brown bear (Ursus arctos) and grey wolf (Canis lupus). In addition, we briefly discuss our earlier results for the Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and muskrat (Ondatra

Reijo Käkelä; Heikki Hyvärinen

1996-01-01

269

Fat Content, Caloric Value, Cholesterol Content, and Fatty Acid Composition of Raw and Cooked Ostrich Meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of cooking on the ether-extractable fat content, caloric value, lipid content, cholesterol content, and fatty acid composition of theiliofibularismuscle from the ostrich carcass has been studied. A comparison was also made between values obtained for ostrich and those of beef and chicken. The ether-extractable fat content, caloric value, lipid content, and cholesterol content of ostrich meat were increased

James Sales; Dewet Marais; Marita Kruger

1996-01-01

270

Fatty Acid Composition of Mixed-Rumen Bacteria: Effect of Concentration and Type of Forage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of concentration and type of forage in the diet on lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of rumen bacteria were studied in 14 goats fitted with duodenal cannulas. The goats were fed a complete maintenance diet containing 40, 70, or 100% chopped forage (dry matter basis) in two equal meals. Forage was either corn stover or alfalfa

P. Bas; H. Archimède; A. Rouzeau; D. Sauvant

2003-01-01

271

Fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).  

PubMed

Little is known about the relationship between expression levels of fatty acid desaturase genes during seed development and fatty acid (FA) composition in flax. In the present study, we looked at promoter structural variations of six FA desaturase genes and their relative expression throughout seed development. Computational analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the sad1, sad2, fad2a, fad2b, fad3a and fad3b promoters showed several basic transcriptional elements including CAAT and TATA boxes, and several putative target-binding sites for transcription factors, which have been reported to be involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, the expression patterns throughout seed development of the six FA desaturase genes were measured in six flax genotypes that differed for FA composition but that carried the same desaturase isoforms. FA composition data were determined by phenotyping the field grown genotypes over four years in two environments. All six genes displayed a bell-shaped pattern of expression peaking at 20 or 24 days after anthesis. Sad2 was the most highly expressed. The expression of all six desaturase genes did not differ significantly between genotypes (P?=?0.1400), hence there were no correlations between FA desaturase gene expression and variations in FA composition in relatively low, intermediate and high linolenic acid genotypes expressing identical isoforms for all six desaturases. These results provide further clues towards understanding the genetic factors responsible for FA composition in flax. PMID:24871199

Thambugala, Dinushika; Cloutier, Sylvie

2014-11-01

272

Predicting subcellular localization of proteins by hybridizing functional domain composition and pseudo-amino acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in large-scale genome sequencing have led to the rapid accumulation of amino acid sequences of proteins whose functions are unknown. Since the functions of these proteins are closely correlated with their subcellular localizations, many efforts have been made to develop a variety of methods for predicting protein subcellular location. In this study, based on the strategy by hybridizing

Kuo-Chen Chou; Yu-Dong Cai

2004-01-01

273

Fatty acid composition of six varieties of dehulled African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) flour.  

PubMed

The proximate and fatty acids compositions of dehulled African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa, Hochst ex A. Rich. Harms) flour were reported. The crude protein values ranged from 20.18 +/- 0.02 to 25.78 +/- 0.05 g/100 g; the ether extract values ranged from 1.93 +/- 0.05 to 10.18 +/- 0.04 g/100 g; crude fibre values ranged from 1.61 +/- 0.02 to 2.38 +/- 0.00 g/100 g; total ash ranged from 2.06 +/- 0.03 to 2.36 +/- 0.05 g/100 g and carbohydrate values ranged from 58.46 +/- 0.04 to 63.34 +/- 0.05 g/100 g. The values of the moisture content ranged from 3.20 +/- 0.03 to 7.10 +/- 0.02 g/100 g. Significant differences were found (P < 0.05) among the samples in the proximate compositions. The most concentrated fatty acids were palmitic acid (18.18 to 19.78%) < linoleic acid (28.33 to 35.16%) < stearic acid (29.01 to 36.71%). Caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic, palmitoleic, oleic, eicosenoic and erucic acids were present in small quantities with none of them recording up to 2.00% in any of the samples. However, the values of alpha-linolenic acid ranged from 2.01 to 2.96%. Significant differences were observed in the fatty acid compositions among the African yam bean dehulled seed cultivars. PMID:10719567

Adeyeye, E I; Oshodi, A A; Ipinmoroti, K O

1999-09-01

274

Effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of ocean acidification on the fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community in the Arctic was studied in a large-scale mesocosm experiment, carried out in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) at 79° N. Nine mesocosms of ~50 cbm each were exposed to different pCO2 levels (from natural background conditions to ~1420 ?atm), yielding pH values (on the total scale) from ~8.3 to 7.5. Inorganic nutrients were added on day 13. The phytoplankton development during this 30 days experiment passed three distinct phases: (1) prior to the addition of inorganic nutrients, (2) first bloom after nutrient addition, and (3) second bloom after nutrient addition. The fatty acid composition of the natural plankton community was analysed and showed, in general, high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): 44-60% of total fatty acids. Positive correlations with pCO2 were found for most PUFAs during phases 2 and/or 3, with the exception of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), an important diatom marker. There are strong indications for these correlations being mediated indirectly through taxonomic changes and the natural development of the communities in the mesocosms exposed to different pCO2 levels. While diatoms increased during phase 3 mainly in the low and intermediate pCO2 treatments, dinoflagellates were favoured by high CO2 concentrations during the same time period. This is reflected in the development of group-specific fatty acid trophic markers. No indications were found for a generally detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the planktonic food quality in terms of essential fatty acids. The significant positive correlations between most PUFAs and pCO2 reflected treatment-dependent differences in the community composition between the mesocosms rather than a direct positive effect of pCO2 on specific fatty acids.

Leu, E.; Daase, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.

2012-07-01

275

The amino acid composition of the Sutter's Mill CM2 carbonaceous chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determined the abundances and enantiomeric compositions of amino acids in Sutter's Mill fragment #2 (designated SM2) recovered prior to heavy rains that fell April 25-26, 2012, and two other meteorite fragments, SM12 and SM51, that were recovered postrain. We also determined the abundance, enantiomeric, and isotopic compositions of amino acids in soil from the recovery site of fragment SM51. The three meteorite stones experienced terrestrial amino acid contamination, as evidenced by the low D/L ratios of several proteinogenic amino acids. The D/L ratios were higher in SM2 than in SM12 and SM51, consistent with rain introducing additional L-amino acid contaminants to SM12 and SM51. Higher percentages of glycine, ?-alanine, and ?-amino-n-butyric acid were observed in free form in SM2 and SM51 compared with the soil, suggesting that these free amino acids may be indigenous. Trace levels of D+L-?-aminoisobutyric acid (?-AIB) observed in all three meteorites are not easily explained as terrestrial contamination, as ?-AIB is rare on Earth and was not detected in the soil. Bulk carbon and nitrogen and isotopic ratios of the SM samples and the soil also indicate terrestrial contamination, as does compound-specific isotopic analysis of the amino acids in the soil. The amino acid abundances in SM2, the most pristine SM meteorite analyzed here, are approximately 20-fold lower than in the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite. This may be due to thermal metamorphism in the Sutter's Mill parent body at temperatures greater than observed for other aqueously altered CM2 meteorites.

Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Yin, Qing-Zhu

2014-03-01

276

The amino acid composition of the Sutter's Mill CM2 carbonaceous chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AbstractWe determined the abundances and enantiomeric <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> in Sutter's Mill fragment #2 (designated SM2) recovered prior to heavy rains that fell April 25-26, 2012, and two other meteorite fragments, SM12 and SM51, that were recovered postrain. We also determined the abundance, enantiomeric, and isotopic <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> in soil from the recovery site of fragment SM51. The three meteorite stones experienced terrestrial amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> contamination, as evidenced by the low D/L ratios of several proteinogenic amino <span class="hlt">acids</span>. The D/L ratios were higher in SM2 than in SM12 and SM51, consistent with rain introducing additional L-amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> contaminants to SM12 and SM51. Higher percentages of glycine, ?-alanine, and ?-amino-n-butyric <span class="hlt">acid</span> were observed in free form in SM2 and SM51 compared with the soil, suggesting that these free amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> may be indigenous. Trace levels of D+L-?-aminoisobutyric <span class="hlt">acid</span> (?-AIB) observed in all three meteorites are not easily explained as terrestrial contamination, as ?-AIB is rare on Earth and was not detected in the soil. Bulk carbon and nitrogen and isotopic ratios of the SM samples and the soil also indicate terrestrial contamination, as does compound-specific isotopic analysis of the amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> in the soil. The amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> abundances in SM2, the most pristine SM meteorite analyzed here, are approximately 20-fold lower than in the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite. This may be due to thermal metamorphism in the Sutter's Mill parent body at temperatures greater than observed for other aqueously altered CM2 meteorites.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Yin, Qing-Zhu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25207524"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxidative damage of aromatic <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> by the environmental oxidants NO2? and O3.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Irreversible oxidative damage at both aromatic side chains and <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> linkage occurs in the aromatic N- and C-protected <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> 7-11 upon exposure to the environmental pollutants NO2? and O3. The reaction proceeds through initial oxidation of the aromatic ring by in situ generated NO3?, or by NO2?, respectively, which leads to formation of nitroaromatic products. The indole ring in Phe-Trp undergoes oxidative cyclization to a pyrroloindoline. An important reaction pathway for <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> with less oxidisable aromatic side chains proceeds through fragmentation of the peptide bond with concomitant acyl migration. This process is likely initiated by an ionic reaction of the amide nitrogen with the NO2? dimer, N2O4. PMID:25207524</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gamon, L F; White, J M; Wille, U</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10342753"> <span id="translatedtitle">Protein and amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of silks from the cob weaver, Latrodectus hesperus (black widow).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The silks from the cob weaving spider, Latrodectus hesperus (black widow), have been examined with the goal of expanding our understanding of the relationship between the protein structure and mechanical performance of these unique biomaterials. The scaffolding, dragline and inner egg case silks each appear to be distinct fibers based on mole percent amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and polypeptide <span class="hlt">composition</span>. Further, we find that the amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of dragline and egg case silk are similar to the analogous silks produced by orb weaving spiders, while scaffolding silk may represent a novel silk. The black widow silks are comprised of multiple high molecular weight polypeptides, however, the egg case and scaffolding silks also contain some smaller polypeptides. PMID:10342753</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Casem, M L; Turner, D; Houchin, K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21656813"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> and hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">composition</span> in tropical marine Shewanella amazonensis strain SB2B(T).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shewanella amazonensis strain SB2B(T) is an isolate from shallow-water marine sediments derived from the Amazon River delta. This bacterium contained a long-chain polyunsaturated hydrocarbon, all-cis -3,6,9,12,16,19,22,25,28 hentriacontanonaene (C31:9), constituting 1-2% of the total fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> methyl ester and hydrocarbon fraction, which was produced dependently of decreased growth temperature. Analysis of its cellular fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> demonstrated that isopentadecanoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> was the major fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> component and that all the main monounsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> had straight chains with a cis configuration. However, monoenoic cyclopropyl fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, which were previously reported to be present in this bacterium, were not detected by mass spectrometric analysis. The growth temperature affected the content of ?9-cis -hexadecenoic [16:1(?9c)], palmitic, and heptadecanoic <span class="hlt">acids</span>. These results suggest that C31:9, as well as 16:1(?9c) might be involved in adaptation to low temperature in S. amazonensis strain SB2B(T) . Our result suggests that polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> synthase protein complex may be involved in synthesis of C31:9 but not in production of eicosapentaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span>. PMID:21656813</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Motoigi, Taro; Okuyama, Hidetoshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24360518"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of nitrogen concentration on lipid productivity and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of Monoraphidium sp.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Green algae, Monoraphidium sp. T4X, was isolated locally, in New Delhi, India and identified as a potential source of biofuel. The study focuses on the effect of nutritional amendments and their uptake rates with respect to growth and change in fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the species. The lipid productivity and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> profile were investigated and compared under six different nitrogen concentrations. Of the tested concentrations, cultures with nitrate concentration 0.36 g/l exhibited higher lipid productivity (0.18 g/l/day) with optimum content of all fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> (SFA=37.22, MUFA=39.19, PUFA=23.60) with appropriate biodiesel properties. The right phase for harvesting microalgae was also investigated on the basis of the growth curve. PMID:24360518</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dhup, Saumya; Dhawan, Vibha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22593692"> <span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of the physicochemical properties and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of indaiá (Attalea dubia) and Babassu (Orbignya phalerata) oils.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The physicochemical properties and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of Attalea dubia (Mart.) Burret (indaiá) seed oil were investigated. The oil was extracted in a soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether and evaluated for iodine, <span class="hlt">acid</span>, peroxide, ester, and saponification values. The oil was also analyzed using infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> profile of the oil was determined by GC-MS. For each analysis indaiá oil was compared to Orbignya phalerata (babassu) oil. The two oils appeared to be very similar in their fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>, in which lauric <span class="hlt">acid</span> (the most abundant), myristic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, caprylic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, and capric <span class="hlt">acid</span> were the four main fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> detected. The unsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> content was lower for indaiá oil (5.8%) than for babassu oil (9.4%). The results suggest that indaiá palm tree could be cultivated as a new source of vegetable oil with potential for food and cosmetic industries. PMID:22593692</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ferreira, Bianca Silva; Faza, Lara Pereira; Le Hyaric, Mireille</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3347479"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Comparison of the Physicochemical Properties and Fatty <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">Composition</span> of Indai? (Attalea dubia) and Babassu (Orbignya phalerata) Oils</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The physicochemical properties and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of Attalea dubia (Mart.) Burret (indaiá) seed oil were investigated. The oil was extracted in a soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether and evaluated for iodine, <span class="hlt">acid</span>, peroxide, ester, and saponification values. The oil was also analyzed using infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> profile of the oil was determined by GC-MS. For each analysis indaiá oil was compared to Orbignya phalerata (babassu) oil. The two oils appeared to be very similar in their fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>, in which lauric <span class="hlt">acid</span> (the most abundant), myristic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, caprylic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, and capric <span class="hlt">acid</span> were the four main fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> detected. The unsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> content was lower for indaiá oil (5.8%) than for babassu oil (9.4%). The results suggest that indaiá palm tree could be cultivated as a new source of vegetable oil with potential for food and cosmetic industries. PMID:22593692</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Silva Ferreira, Bianca; Pereira Faza, Lara; Le Hyaric, Mireille</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31811719"> <span id="translatedtitle">Species identification by the positional analysis of fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in triacylglyceride of adipose and bone tissues</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a new attempt at species identification, the total <span class="hlt">composition</span> and positional distribution of fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> in triacylglyceride (TG) of adipose and bone tissues were analyzed in human, bovine, pig, dog, cat and chicken tissues. Although the total fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of bovine and pig tissues were significantly different from those of human (different in more than half the fatty</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masato Kagawa; Kazuo Matsubara; Kojiro Kimura; Hiroshi Shiono; Yuko Fukui</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24690466"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lactic <span class="hlt">acid</span> fermentation by cells immobilised on various porous cellulosic materials and their alginate/poly-lactic <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composites</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Porous delignified cellulose (or tubular cellulose, abbr. TC) from Indian Mango (Mangifera indica) and Sal (Shorea robusta) wood and Rice husk, and TC/Ca-alginate/polylactic <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composites</span>, were used as Lactobacillus bulgaricus immobilisation carriers leading to improvements in lactic <span class="hlt">acid</span> fermentation of cheese whey and synthetic lactose media, compared to free cells. Specifically, shorter fermentation rates, higher lactic <span class="hlt">acid</span> yields (g/g sugar utilised) and productivities (g/Ld), and higher amounts of volatile by-products were achieved, while no significant differences were observed on the performance of the different immobilised biocatalysts. The proposed biocatalysts are of food grade purity, cheap and easy to prepare, and they are attractive for bioprocess development based on immobilised cells. Such <span class="hlt">composite</span> biocatalysts may be used for the co-immobilisation of different microorganisms or enzymes (in separate layers of the biocatalyst), to efficiently conduct different types of fermentations in the same bioreactor, avoiding inhibition problems of chemical or biological (competition) nature. PMID:24690466</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kumar, Mrinal Nishant; Gialleli, Angelika-Ioanna; Masson, Jean Bernard; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Bekatorou, Argyro; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kanellaki, Maria</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20218501"> <span id="translatedtitle">Egg fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic <span class="hlt">acid</span> and total omega-6 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acids</span>) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos. PMID:20218501</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Honeyfield, Dale C; Fitzsimons, John D; Tillitt, Donald E; Brown, Scott B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22908582"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of Juniperus species (Juniperus section) native to Turkey.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of seeds of five taxa of the Juniperus section of the genus Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae), i. e. J. drupacea Lab., J. communis L. var. communis, J. communis var. saxatilis Pall., J. oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus, and J. oxycedrus subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball, were investigated. Methyl ester derivatized fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> of the lipophylic extracts of the five species were comparatively analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Juniperus taxa showed uniform fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> patterns, among which linoleic (25.8 - 32.5%), pinolenic (11.9 - 24.1%) and oleic <span class="hlt">acids</span> (12.4 - 17.2%) were determined to be the main fractions in the seed oils. Juniperonic <span class="hlt">acid</span> was found to be remarkably high in J. communis var. saxatilis (11.4%), J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus (10.4%), and J. communis var. communis (10.1%). To the best of our knowledge, the present work discloses the first report on the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of seeds of this Juniperus section grown in Turkey. PMID:22908582</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Güvenç, Aysegül; Küçükboyaci, Nurgün; Gören, Ahmet Ceyhan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40713201"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative studies on fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the ovaries and hepatopancreas at different physiological stages of the Chinese mitten crab</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the ovary at different physiological stages (immature, mature, spawning, egg loss and abortion) of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis was investigated with capillary gas chromatograph. A total of 18 types of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> were found in the ovary of E. sinensis. Three of them were major fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>: oleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (C18:1) (31.96–37.31%), palmitic <span class="hlt">acid</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xue-Ping Ying; Wan-Xi Yang; Yong-Pu Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40128478"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonprotein amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of flatpea ( Lathyrus sylvestris L.) as affected by ethephon seed treatments and seedling fertilization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Use of flatpea (Lathyrus sylvestris L.) as a forage is limited because of nonuniform seed germination and the potentially toxic effects of 2,4-diaminobutyric\\u000a <span class="hlt">acid</span> (A2bu), a nonprotein amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> found in seeds and vegetative tissues. The effects of ethephon (2-chloroethyl phosphonic <span class="hlt">acid</span>)\\u000a on seed germination, amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> leachates of seeds, and amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> (particularly A2bu) of seedlings were investigated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David M. Orcutt; Joyce G. Foster</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGeo...10.1143L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of ocean acidification on the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of a natural plankton community</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of ocean acidification on the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of a natural plankton community in the Arctic was studied in a large-scale mesocosm experiment, carried out in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway) at 79° N. Nine mesocosms of ~50 m3 each were exposed to 8 different pCO2 levels (from natural background conditions to ~1420 ?atm), yielding pH values (on the total scale) from ~8.3 to 7.5. Inorganic nutrients were added on day 13. The phytoplankton development during this 30-day experiment passed three distinct phases: (1) prior to the addition of inorganic nutrients, (2) first bloom after nutrient addition, and (3) second bloom after nutrient addition. The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the natural plankton community was analysed and showed, in general, high percentages of polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (PUFAs): 44-60% of total fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>. Positive correlations with pCO2 were found for most PUFAs during phases 2 and/or 3, with the exception of 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, EPA), an important diatom marker. These correlations are probably linked to changes in taxonomic <span class="hlt">composition</span> in response to pCO2. While diatoms (together with prasinophytes and haptophytes) increased during phase 3 mainly in the low and intermediate pCO2 treatments, dinoflagellates were favoured by high CO2 concentrations during the same time period. This is reflected in the development of group-specific fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> trophic markers. No indications were found for a generally detrimental effect of ocean acidification on the planktonic food quality in terms of essential fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leu, E.; Daase, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4043687"> <span id="translatedtitle">New insight into the SSC8 genetic determination of fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in pigs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Fat content and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in swine are becoming increasingly studied because of their effect on sensory and nutritional quality of meat. A QTL (quantitative trait locus) for fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in backfat was previously detected on porcine chromosome 8 (SSC8) in an Iberian x Landrace F2 intercross. More recently, a genome-wide association study detected the same genomic region for muscle fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in an Iberian x Landrace backcross population. ELOVL6, a strong positional candidate gene for this QTL, contains a polymorphism in its promoter region (ELOVL6:c.-533C?<?T), which is associated with percentage of palmitic and palmitoleic <span class="hlt">acids</span> in muscle and adipose tissues. Here, a combination of single-marker association and the haplotype-based approach was used to analyze backfat fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in 470 animals of an Iberian x Landrace F2 intercross genotyped with 144 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) distributed along SSC8. Results Two trait-associated SNP regions were identified at 93 Mb and 119 Mb on SSC8. The strongest statistical signals of both regions were observed for palmitoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (C16:1(n-7)) content and C18:0/C16:0 and C18:1(n-7)/C16:1(n-7) elongation ratios. MAML3 and SETD7 are positional candidate genes in the 93 Mb region and two novel microsatellites in MAML3 and nine SNPs in SETD7 were identified. No significant association for the MAML3 microsatellite genotypes was detected. The SETD7:c.700G?>?T SNP, although statistically significant, was not the strongest signal in this region. In addition, the expression of MAML3 and SETD7 in liver and adipose tissue varied among animals, but no association was detected with the polymorphisms in these genes. In the 119 Mb region, the ELOVL6:c.-533C?>?T polymorphism showed a strong association with percentage of palmitic and palmitoleic fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> and elongation ratios in backfat. Conclusions Our results suggest that the polymorphisms studied in MAML3 and SETD7 are not the causal mutations for the QTL in the 93 Mb region. However, the results for ELOVL6 support the hypothesis that the ELOVL6:c.-533C?>?T polymorphism has a pleiotropic effect on backfat and intramuscular fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and that it has a role in the determination of the QTL in the 119 Mb region. PMID:24758572</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18942845"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative study on free amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of wild edible mushroom species.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A comparative study on the amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of 11 wild edible mushroom species (Suillus bellini, Suillus luteus, Suillus granulatus, Tricholomopsis rutilans, Hygrophorus agathosmus, Amanita rubescens, Russula cyanoxantha, Boletus edulis, Tricholoma equestre, Fistulina hepatica, and Cantharellus cibarius) was developed. To define the qualitative and quantitative profiles, a derivatization procedure with dabsyl chloride was performed, followed by HPLC-UV-vis analysis. Twenty free amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> (aspartic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, glutamic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, asparagine, glutamine, serine, threonine, glycine, alanine, valine, proline, arginine, isoleucine, leucine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, cysteine, ornithine, lysine, histidine, and tyrosine) were determined. B. edulis and T. equestre were revealed to be the most nutritional species, whereas F. hepatica was the poorest. The different species exhibited distinct free amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> profiles. The quantification of the identified compounds indicated that, in a general way, alanine was the major amino <span class="hlt">acid</span>. The results show that the analyzed mushroom species possess moderate amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> contents, which may be relevant from a nutritional point of view because these compounds are indispensable for human health. A combination of different mushroom species in the diet would offer good amounts of amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> and a great diversity of palatable sensations. PMID:18942845</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ribeiro, Bárbara; Andrade, Paula B; Silva, Branca M; Baptista, Paula; Seabra, Rosa M; Valentão, Patrícia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40507807"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preparation, thermal properties and thermal reliability of capric <span class="hlt">acid</span>\\/expanded perlite <span class="hlt">composite</span> for thermal energy storage</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this research is the preparation of a novel form-stable <span class="hlt">composite</span> PCM by incorporation of capric <span class="hlt">acid</span> (CA) within the expanded perlite (EP), characterization of the <span class="hlt">composite</span> by SEM and FT-IR technique and determination of thermal properties and thermal reliability of the <span class="hlt">composite</span> PCM using DSC analysis. The maximum proportion of CA as phase change material (PCM) in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahmet Sar?; Ali Karaipekli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22202345"> <span id="translatedtitle">Protein location prediction using atomic <span class="hlt">composition</span> and global features of the amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> sequence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Subcellular location of protein is constructive information in determining its function, screening for drug candidates, vaccine design, annotation of gene products and in selecting relevant proteins for further studies. Computational prediction of subcellular localization deals with predicting the location of a protein from its amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> sequence. For a computational localization prediction method to be more accurate, it should exploit all possible relevant biological features that contribute to the subcellular localization. In this work, we extracted the biological features from the full length protein sequence to incorporate more biological information. A new biological feature, distribution of atomic <span class="hlt">composition</span> is effectively used with, multiple physiochemical properties, amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>, three part amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>, and sequence similarity for predicting the subcellular location of the protein. Support Vector Machines are designed for four modules and prediction is made by a weighted voting system. Our system makes prediction with an accuracy of 100, 82.47, 88.81 for self-consistency test, jackknife test and independent data test respectively. Our results provide evidence that the prediction based on the biological features derived from the full length amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> sequence gives better accuracy than those derived from N-terminal alone. Considering the features as a distribution within the entire sequence will bring out underlying property distribution to a greater detail to enhance the prediction accuracy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cherian, Betsy Sheena, E-mail: betsy.skb@gmail.com [Centre for Bioinformatics, University of Kerala, Kariyavattom Campus, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); Nair, Achuthsankar S. [Centre for Bioinformatics, University of Kerala, Kariyavattom Campus, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India)] [Centre for Bioinformatics, University of Kerala, Kariyavattom Campus, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/archives/volume76/pdf/200776S8S073.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">Composition</span> in Intramuscular Lipids of Experimental Scaly Crossbreds in 3YearOld Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Buchtová H., Z. Svobodová, M. K?ížek, F. Vácha, M. Kocour, J. Velíšek: Fatty <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">Composition</span> in Intramuscular lipids of experimental Scaly Crossbreds in 3-Year-Old Common carp ( Cyprinus carpio l.). Acta Vet. Brno 2007, 76: S73-S81. The aim of the study was to determine the differences in the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (in % of total fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> investigated), their</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Buchtová; Z. Svobodová; M. K?ížek; F. Vácha; M. Kocour; J. Velíšek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24933001"> <span id="translatedtitle">GC constituents and relative codon expressed amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The genomic as well as structural relationship of phycobiliproteins (PBPs) in different cyanobacterial species are determined by nucleotides as well as amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>. The genomic GC constituents influence the amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> variability and codon usage of particular subunit of PBPs. We have analyzed 11 cyanobacterial species to explore the variation of amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> and causal relationship between GC constituents and codon usage. The study at the first, second and third levels of GC content showed relatively more amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> variability on the levels of G3+C3 position in comparison to the first and second positions. The amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> encoded GC rich level including G rich and C rich or both correlate the codon variability and amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> availability. The fluctuation in amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> such as Arg, Ala, His, Asp, Gly, Leu and Glu in ? and ? subunits was observed at G1C1 position; however, fluctuation in other amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> such as Ser, Thr, Cys and Trp was observed at G2C2 position. The coding selection pressure of amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> such as Ala, Thr, Tyr, Asp, Gly, Ile, Leu, Asn, and Ser in ? and ? subunits of PBPs was more elaborated at G3C3 position. In this study, we observed that each subunit of PBPs is codon specific for particular amino <span class="hlt">acid</span>. These results suggest that genomic constraint linked with GC constituents selects the codon for particular amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> and furthermore, the codon level study may be a novel approach to explore many problems associated with genomics and proteomics of cyanobacteria. PMID:24933001</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kannaujiya, Vinod K; Rastogi, Rajesh P; Sinha, Rajeshwar P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7962785"> <span id="translatedtitle">The degree of dietary fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> unsaturation affects torpor patterns and lipid <span class="hlt">composition</span> of a hibernator.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Diets rich in unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> have a positive effect on mammalian torpor, whereas diets rich in saturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> have a negative effect. To determine whether the number of double bonds in dietary fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> are responsible for these alterations in torpor patterns, we investigated the effect of adding to the normal diet 5% pure fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> of identical chain length (C18) but a different number of double bonds (0, 1, or 2) on the pattern of hibernation of the yellow-pine chipmunk, Eutamias amoenus. The response of torpor bouts to a lowering of air temperature and the mean duration of torpor bouts at an air temperature of 0.5 degree C (stearic <span class="hlt">acid</span> C18:0, 4.5 +/- 0.8 days, oleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> C18:1, 8.6 +/- 0.5 days; linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> C18:2, 8.5 +/- 0.7 days) differed among animals that were maintained on the three experimental diets. The mean minimum body temperatures (C18:0, +2.3 +/- 0.3 degrees C; C18:1, +0.3 +/- 0.2 degree C; C18:2, -0.2 +/- 0.2 degrees C), which torpid individuals defended by an increase in metabolic rate, and the metabolic rate of torpid animals also differed among diet groups. Moreover, diet-induced differences were observed in the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of total lipid fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> from depot fat and the phospholipid fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> of cardiac mitochondria. For depot fat 7 of 13 and for heart mitochondria 7 of 14 of the identified fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> differed significantly among the three diet groups. Significant differences among diet groups were also observed for the sum of saturated, unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7962785</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geiser, F; McAllan, B M; Kenagy, G J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25306338"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between cannabinoids content and <span class="hlt">composition</span> of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in hempseed oils.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hempseed oils acquired on the Croatian markets were characterised by cannabinoid content and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>. The new method for determination of cannabinoid content was developed and validated in the range of 0.05-60mg/kg, and the content of tetrahydrocannabinol varied between 3.23 and 69.5mg/kg. Large differences among the samples were obtained for phenotype ratio suggesting that not all of analysed hempseed oils were produced from industrial hemp. Sample clustering based on cannabinoid content assigned samples to two groups closely related to the phenotype ratios obtained. The results of this study confirm that hempseed oil is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, especially ?-linolenic and stearidonic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, but the content varies a lot more than the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The grouping of samples on fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> content assigned samples to two groups which were consistent with the groups obtained based on cannabinoid content clustering. PMID:25306338</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Petrovi?, Marinko; Debeljak, Zeljko; Kezi?, Nataša; Džidara, Petra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JOUC....2...65J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> analyses of the DCMU resistant mutants of Nannochloropsis oculata (eustigmatophyceae)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ultraviolet mutagenesis was applied to Nannochloropsis oculata and three mutants resistant to 3-(3, 4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) were isolated. The cellular chlorophyll a and total lipid content of the wild are higher in the medium supplemented with DCMU than in the control without DCMU. Without DCMU, the growth rates and chlorophyll a contents of the mutants are similar to those of the wild. Significant changes of fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> content and <span class="hlt">composition</span> have occurred in DCMU-resistant mutants growing in the medium supplemented with DCMU. The total lipid, palmitic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (16:0), palmitoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (16:1?9) and oleic (18:1?9) contents decrease significantly, while the vaccenic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (18:1?11) increases significantly and the EPA content of dried powder increases slightly in the mutants. The study may provide a basis to improve EPA content in Nannochloropsis oculata in the future.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jimin, Zhang; Shuang, Liu; Xue, Sun; Guanpin, Yang; Xuecheng, Zhang; Zhenhui, Gao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1689217"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of dietary amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> on egg production in blue tits</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most studies on the interaction between food supply and reproduction in animals have assumed that energy is likely to be the factor limiting egg number and/or size. In this paper, we investigate whether dietary protein proximately constrains egg production in birds. We provisioned breeding blue tits with two food supplements that differed only in the concentration of five essential amino <span class="hlt">acids</span>. Birds receiving a supplementary diet containing an amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> balance close to that required for egg protein formation laid significantly larger clutches (18% greater) than control birds, whereas birds receiving an otherwise identical supplementary diet but without a favourable amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> balance did not increase egg production. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that dietary amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> may limit egg production in free-living birds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramsay, S. L.; Houston, D. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20206710"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lipid and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of parasitic caligid copepods belonging to the genus Lepeophtheirus.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sea lice are copepod ectoparasites that constitute a major barrier to the sustainability and economic viability of marine finfish aquaculture operations worldwide. In particular, the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, poses a considerable problem for salmoniculture in the northern hemisphere. The free-swimming nauplii and infective copepodids of L. salmonis are lecithotrophic, subsisting principally on maternally-derived lipid reserves. However, the lipids and fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> of sea lice have been sparsely studied and therefore the present project aimed to investigate the lipid and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of sea lice of the genus Lepeophtheirus obtained from a variety of fish hosts. Total lipid was extracted from eggs and adult female L. salmonis obtained from both wild and farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) sampled at two time points, in the mid 1990s and in 2009. In addition, L. salmonis from wild sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) and L. hippoglossi from wild Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) were sampled and analyzed. The lipids of both females and egg strings of Lepeophtheirus were characterized by triacylglycerol (TAG) as the major neutral (storage) lipid with phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine as the major polar (membrane) lipids. The major fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> were 22:6n-3 (DHA), 18:1n-9 and 16:0, with lesser amounts of 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 18:0. L. salmonis sourced from farmed salmon was characterized by higher levels of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 than lice from wild salmon. Egg strings had higher levels of TAG and lower DHA compared to females, whereas L. hippoglossi had lower levels of TAG and higher DHA than L. salmonis. The results demonstrate that the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of lice obtained from wild and farmed salmon differ and that changes to the lipid and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of feeds for farmed salmon influence the louse <span class="hlt">compositions</span>. PMID:20206710</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tocher, J A; Dick, J R; Bron, J E; Shinn, A P; Tocher, D R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3560196"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) seed genotypes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%), of which about 60% is calendic <span class="hlt">acid</span>. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic <span class="hlt">acids</span> were the two dominant fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9%) and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2%) fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%), while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>) were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>). Conclusions All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (more than 50% of total fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>), making them favorable for industrial use. The <span class="hlt">compositional</span> differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes. PMID:23327299</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2186313"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of dietary selenium and omega-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> on muscle <span class="hlt">composition</span> and quality in broilers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Human health may be improved if dietary intakes of selenium and omega-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> are increased. Consumption of broiler meat is increasing, and the meat content of selenium and omega-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> are affected by the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of broiler feed. A two-way analyses of variance was used to study the effect of feed containing omega-3 rich plant oils and selenium enriched yeast on broiler meat <span class="hlt">composition</span>, antioxidation- and sensory parameters. Four different wheat-based dietary treatments supplemented with 5% rapeseed oil or 4% rapeseed oil plus 1% linseed oil, and either 0.50 mg selenium or 0.84 mg selenium (organic form) per kg diet was fed to newly hatched broilers for 22 days. Results The different dietary treatments gave distinct different concentrations of selenium and fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in thigh muscle; one percent linseed oil in the diet increased the concentration of the omega-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> 18:3, 20:5 and 22:5, and 0.84 mg selenium per kg diet gave muscle selenium concentration at the same level as is in fish muscle (0.39 mg/kg muscle). The high selenium intake also resulted in increased concentration of the long-chain omega-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> EPA (20:5), DPA (22:5) and DHA (22:6), thus it may be speculated if high dietary selenium might have a role in increasing the concentration of EPA, DPA and DHA in tissues after intake of plant oils contning omega-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>. Conclusion Moderate modifications of broiler feed may give a healthier broiler meat, having increased content of selenium and omega-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>. High intakes of selenium (organic form) may increase the concentration of very long-chain omega-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in muscle. PMID:17967172</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haug, Anna; Eich-Greatorex, Susanne; Bernhoft, Aksel; Wold, Jens P; Hetland, Harald; Christophersen, Olav A; Sogn, Trine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6184966"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shear thickening <span class="hlt">compositions</span> containing polyacrylic <span class="hlt">acid</span> and polyacrylamide, their preparation and use</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A process is described for plugging a portion of a well bore using a shear-thickening <span class="hlt">composition</span> and a emulsion spacer where a conduit, which contains a fluid, extends down into a well bore from the surface to at least that portion to be plugged and where the shear-thickening <span class="hlt">composition</span> comprises a water-in-oil emulsion having particles of hydratable, water-expandable clay dispersed in the continuous oily phase. The oily phase comprises a hydrocarbon liquid having a surfactant dissolved in which surfactant comprises a polyamine attached to an oil solubilizing hydrocarbon with or without an intervening bridging group and where the dispersed aqueous phase of the emulsion comprises an aqueous polymer solution, having a pH below 7, of both a polyacrylic <span class="hlt">acid</span> and polyacrylamine. The spacer comprises a water-in-oil emulsion having a <span class="hlt">composition</span> similar to the water-in-oil emulsion of the shear-thickening <span class="hlt">composition</span> and each droplet of dispersed aqueous phase of the shear-thickening <span class="hlt">composition</span> is encapsulated in a film which forms as a result of the interaction of the polyacrylic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, surfactant and polyacrylamide.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eustace, D.J.; Siano, D.B.; Drake, E.N.; Calcavecchio, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-08-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12031463"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phospholipid and triacylglycerol fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of major life stages of sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phospholipid and triacylglycerol fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of whole animals from all life stages of Eurygaster integriceps, including eggs, nymphs, pre-diapausing adults and diapausing adults, were determined. The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of total lipids of their food, wheat, was also determined. The major components of the insects and their food were the expected C16 and C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>. Since fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of third-stadium nymphs were not similar to the profiles of their food, most likely, dietary fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> are modified by the insect. The fact is that the food does not provide C20 polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, but the insect tissue lipids include these components. We suggest biosynthesis of the C20 components by elongation/desaturation of C18:2n-6, an abundant component of the diets. We also show differences in fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> profiles from each of the life stages. PMID:12031463</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bashan, Mehmet; Akbas, Halit; Yurdakoc, Kadir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41913834"> <span id="translatedtitle">A quantitative comparison between diet and body fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in wild northern pike ( Esox lucius L.)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of wild female northern pike (Esox lucius L.) and their principle prey species were compared to assess the extent to which pike modify the relative abundance of dietary fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> during assimilation and to indicate the optimum dietary content of essential fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (EFAs) for pike. Only minor differences existed between the estimated whole body fatty</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karl Schwalmel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/x74173705012u02m.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of salt concentration and temperature on the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of Ectothiorhodospira and other halophilic phototrophic purple bacteria</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Influences of the salt concentration on the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of Ectothiorhodospira species and other phototrophic purple bacteria have been analysed. Major fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in bacteria of the genera Rhodobacter, Rhodopseudomonas, Chromatium, and Ectothiorhodospira were straight chain saturated and monounsaturated C-16 and C-18 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>. Salt-dependent responses of all investigated bacteria revealed relations to their salt optima. Minimum values of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johannes F. Imhoff; Bernhard Thiemann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25208498"> <span id="translatedtitle">GC-EI-MS Analysis of Fatty <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">Composition</span> in Brain and Serum of Twitcher Mouse.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Globoid cell leukodystrophy or Krabbe disease is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the galactosylceramidase gene. The objective of the study was to present information about the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> (FA) <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the brain and serum of twitcher mice, a mouse model of Krabbe disease, compared to wild type, in order to identify biomarker of disease progression. We defined the FA profiles by identifying the main components present in serum and brain using GC-EI-MS analysis. The FA percentage <span class="hlt">composition</span> was measured and data were analyzed considering the disease and the mouse age as experimental factors. Significant correlations were established, both in brain and in serum, in the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> percentage <span class="hlt">composition</span> of twitcher compared to wild type mice. The most abundant saturated fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> in brain was the palmitic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (C16:0) with mean values significantly increased in twitcher mouse (p = 0.0142); moreover, three monounsaturated, three polyunsaturated (PUFA) and a plasmalogen were significantly correlated to disease. In the serum highly significant differences were observed between the two groups for three polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>. In fact, the docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (C22:6n3c) content was significantly increased (p = 0.0116), while the C20 PUFA (C20:3n6c and C20:5n3c) were significantly decreased in twitcher serum samples. Our study shows a specific FA profile that may help to define a possible pattern that could distinguish between twitcher and wild type; these data are likely to provide insight in the identification of new biomarkers to monitor the disease progression and thereby permit the critical analysis of therapeutic approaches. PMID:25208498</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zanfini, Assunta; Dreassi, Elena; Berardi, Anna; Piomboni, Paola; Costantino-Ceccarini, Elvira; Luddi, Alice</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AcAau..43...77S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> (18:2) and arachidonic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/72157x5w8tv41872.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fabrication and characterization of nano <span class="hlt">composite</span> scaffold of poly( l -lactic <span class="hlt">acid</span>)\\/hydroxyapatite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To mimic the nano-fibrous structure of the natural extracellular matrix, a nano <span class="hlt">composite</span> scaffold of poly(l-lactic <span class="hlt">acid</span>)\\/hydroxyapatite(PLLA\\/HAP) was fabricated by a thermally induced phase separation method. The characterization\\u000a of the <span class="hlt">composite</span> scaffold showed that the scaffold had a nano-fibrous PLLA network (fiber size 100–750 nm), an interconnective\\u000a microporous structure (1–10 ?m) and high porosity (>90%). HAP was homogeneously distributed in the scaffold,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xuejun Wang; Guojun Song; Tao Lou</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2010-05-7698"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Conjugated Linoleic <span class="hlt">Acid</span> or Oleic <span class="hlt">Acid</span> Addition on Fatty <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">Composition</span> Profiles of Poultry Meat</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">and fish oil diet had a lower C20:4 (arachidonic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, AA, n-6) deposition but showed a higher n-3/n-6 ratio in breast and thigh meat than those fed a flaxseed oil diet and CLA and flaxseed oil diet (P < 0.05). The C20:4 and n-3/n-6 ratio of breast...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shin, Dae Keun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=273482"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cellular fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of group IVe, a nonsaccharolytic organism from clinical sources.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The cellular fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of a group of gram-negative nonfermentative organisms designated group IVe was studied by gas-liquid chromatography. Strains of this group are isolated most frequently from urine and most closely resemble the Alcaligenes in conventional biochemical tests. On the basis of cellular fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, however, we found these organisms to be strikingly different from Alcaligenes and other gram-negative species with similar phenotypic characteristics. The gas-liquid chromatography procedure offers an additional diagnostic test for rapid identification of unclassified bacteria like group IVe. PMID:7430336</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dees, S; Thanabalasundrum, S; Moss, C W; Hollis, D G; Weaver, R E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23031638"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recent developments in altering the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of ruminant-derived foods.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is increasing evidence to indicate that nutrition is an important factor involved in the onset and development of several chronic human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), type II diabetes and obesity. Clinical studies implicate excessive consumption of medium-chain saturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (SFA) and trans-fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (TFA) as risk factors for CVD, and in the aetiology of other chronic conditions. Ruminant-derived foods are significant sources of medium-chain SFA and TFA in the human diet, but also provide high-quality protein, essential micronutrients and several bioactive lipids. Altering the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of ruminant-derived foods offers the opportunity to align the consumption of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in human populations with public health policies without the need for substantial changes in eating habits. Replacing conserved forages with fresh grass or dietary plant oil and oilseed supplements can be used to lower medium-chain and total SFA content and increase cis-9 18:1, total conjugated linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (CLA), n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (PUFA) to a variable extent in ruminant milk. However, inclusion of fish oil or marine algae in the ruminant diet results in marginal enrichment of 20- or 22-carbon PUFA in milk. Studies in growing ruminants have confirmed that the same nutritional strategies improve the balance of n-6/n-3 PUFA, and increase CLA and long-chain n-3 PUFA in ruminant meat, but the potential to lower medium-chain and total SFA is limited. Attempts to alter meat and milk fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> through changes in the diet fed to ruminants are often accompanied by several-fold increases in TFA concentrations. In extreme cases, the distribution of trans 18:1 and 18:2 isomers in ruminant foods may resemble that of partially hydrogenated plant oils. Changes in milk fat or muscle lipid <span class="hlt">composition</span> in response to diet are now known to be accompanied by tissue-specific alterations in the expression of one or more lipogenic genes. Breed influences both milk and muscle fat content, although recent studies have confirmed the occurrence of genetic variability in transcript abundance and activity of enzymes involved in lipid synthesis and identified polymorphisms for several key lipogenic genes in lactating and growing cattle. Although nutrition is the major factor influencing the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of ruminant-derived foods, further progress can be expected through the use of genomic or marker-assisted selection to increase the frequency of favourable genotypes and the formulation of diets to exploit this genetic potential. PMID:23031638</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shingfield, K J; Bonnet, M; Scollan, N D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41146127"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of green crab ( Carcinus mediterraneus) from the Tunisian mediterranean coasts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Green crab (Carcinus mediterraneus) was analysed for proximate and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>. The yields of crab claw meat and hepatopancreas were 24.9–26.1% and 8.8–9.2%, respectively. Crude protein (NX6.25) and crude fat contents of crab claw meat were 17.8–18.2% and 0.85–1%, respectively, on a dry weight basis, while those of hepatopancreas were 13–14% and 21.8–22.7%, respectively. The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> (FA) profiles</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Slim Cherif; Fakher Frikha; Youssef Gargouri; Nabil Miled</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18804640"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sensitive and selective detection of aspartic <span class="hlt">acid</span> and glutamic <span class="hlt">acid</span> based on polythiophene-gold nanoparticles <span class="hlt">composite</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In recent years, gold nanoparticles and water-soluble fluorescent conjugated polymers are promising materials in terms of their potential applications in a variety of fields, ranging from monitoring DNA hybridization to demonstrate the interaction between proteins, or detecting diseased cell, metal ions and small biomolecular. In order to exploit some new properties of the both, many attempts have been devoted to achieve nanoparticle-polymer <span class="hlt">composite</span> via incorporating metal nanoparticle into polymer or vice versa, however, only few of them are put into practical application. In the present paper, we utilize the "superquenching" property of AuNPs to polythiophene derivatives for detecting aspartic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (Asp) and glutamic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (Glu) in pure water, and discuss the factors accounting for fluorescence quenching and recovery via modulating pH. Thus an exceptionally simple, rapid and sensitive method for detecting Asp and Glu is established with a limit of detection (LOD) is 32 nM for Asp and 57 nM for Glu, the linear range of determination for Asp is 7.5x10(-8)M to 6x10(-6)M and 9.0x10(-8)M to 5x10(-6)M for Glu. The system is applied to real sample detection and the results are satisfying. Otherwise the <span class="hlt">composite</span> is very sensitive to pH change of solution, we expect it will be possible to use as pH sensor with wide range in the future. PMID:18804640</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guan, Hongliang; Zhou, Peng; Zhou, Xianglei; He, Zhike</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://intl-jn.nutrition.org/cgi/reprint/120/11/1277.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Failure to Demonstrate an Effect of Dietary Fatty <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">Composition</span> on Body Weight, Body <span class="hlt">Composition</span> and Parameters of Lipid Metabolism in Mature Rats1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of dietary fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> on body <span class="hlt">composition</span> and on several parameters of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and to assess the ease of weight loss with restricted dietary intake. Rats were fed diets containing 14% fish oil, safflower oil or beef fat plus 2% corn oil. These diets</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">ATIF B. AWAD; LEE L BERNARDIS; CAROL S. FINK</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21993964"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chromatographic retention and thermodynamics of adsorption of <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> on a chiral crown ether stationary phase.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The enantioselective adsorption of several <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> on the crown ether-based stationary phase ChiroSil RCA(+) was studied by means of the linear chromatography method. The retention of analytes was measured with acidified water-methanol mobile phases with varied concentration of methanol (from 60 to 90%, v/v) at different temperatures. Thermodynamic characteristics of adsorption were determined and analyzed applying extrathermodynamic relationships. A considerable difference in adsorption mechanisms of <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> with a chiral and achiral N-terminal fragment was proved. An explanation to this fact was proposed assuming that the enantiorecognition of the <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> of the first type occurred through the interaction of side groups of the N-terminus with the chiral cavity formed by the crown ether ring. The enantiorecognition of the <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> of the second type occurs through the interaction of the C-terminal residue with the side groups of the crown ether moiety. The study also demonstrates how extrathermodynamic concepts can be used for obtaining additional information about retention mechanisms from a limited amount of chromatographic data. PMID:21993964</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Asnin, Leonid; Sharma, Kavita; Park, Se Won</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16889437"> <span id="translatedtitle">In vivo ocular pharmacokinetics of acyclovir <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> ester prodrugs by microdialysis in rabbits.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In vivo corneal absorption of the <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) was evaluated using microdialysis in rabbits. A corneal well was placed on the cornea of the anesthetized New Zealand White rabbits with implanted linear probes into the aqueous humor. Two hundred microliters of a 1% solution of L-valine-ACV (VACV), glycine-valine-ACV (GVACV), valine-valine-ACV (VVACV), and valine-tyrosine-ACV (VYACV) was placed in the corneal well and was allowed to diffuse for a period of 2 h, following which the drug solution was aspirated and well removed. Samples were collected every 20 min throughout the infusion and postinfusion phases and were analyzed by HPLC to obtain the aqueous humor concentrations. Absorption rate constants of all the compounds were found to be lower than the elimination rate constants. GVACV exhibited highest absorption rate (ka) compared with other prodrugs, but all the prodrugs showed similar terminal elimination rate (lambda(z)). The time of maximum absorption (Tmax) of ACV after administration of VACV and the <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> prodrugs did not vary significantly (p < 0.05). GVACV exhibited the highest concentration (Cmax) and area under curve (AUC) upon absorption (p < 0.05) compared to VACV, VVACV, and VYACV. <span class="hlt">Dipeptide</span> prodrugs of ACV were absorbed through the cornea at similar rates but to varying extents. The <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> prodrug GVACV owing to its enhanced absorption of ACV seems to be a promising candidate for the treatment of ocular HSV infections. PMID:16889437</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anand, Banmeet S; Katragadda, Suresh; Gunda, Sriram; Mitra, Ashim K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25048158"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of the biosynthesis of antibacterial cyclic <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> in Nocardiopsis alba.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nocardiopsis alba is frequently isolated from environment and has recently been suggested as a casual symbiotic actinobacterium of diverse invertebrates. Using activity-guided fractionation, we purified two antibacterial cyclic <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span>, cyclo(?Phe-?Leu) (albonoursin) and cyclo(?mTyr-?Leu), from a culture of Nocardiopsis alba ATCC BAA-2165. Analysis of N. alba genome revealed genetic information similar to albonoursin biosynthetic gene cluster, albABC. An albABC gene deletion mutant of N. alba was generated. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the mutant could not produce the cyclic <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span>. Cyclic <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> production in the mutant was restored by genetic complementation with the albABC cloned in a native plasmid of Nocardiopsis. ?-Glucuronidase reporter assays with a second mutant construct, in which albABC promoter is transcriptionally fused to the reporting gene gusA, indicated that albABC gene expression was subject to osmoregulation. The system presented will be used to study the metabolic and genetic control of cyclic <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> biosynthesis in Nocardiopsis. PMID:25048158</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Yongli; Lai, Ying-Mi; Lu, Yi; Yang, Yu-Liang; Chen, Shawn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35524264"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of osmolyte or GdnHCl on volumetric properties of aqueous solutions containing cyclic <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To understand the biomolecular interactions between osmolytes or guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) with proteins, we have measured the densities (?) of a homologous series of cyclic <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> (CDs) in water and in aqueous solutions of osmolytes or GdnHCl through the high precision vibrating tube digital densitometer up to saturated state, as a function of solute concentrations at 25°C under atmospheric pressure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pannur Venkatesu; Ming-Jer Lee; Ho-Mu Lin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24782392"> <span id="translatedtitle">Whole-genome association study of fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in a diverse range of beef cattle breeds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of adipose tissue associated with meat is an important factor for the beef industry because of its implications for human health, processing, meat quality, and palatability. Individual fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> is a trait under genetic control, so improvement via selective breeding of cattle is possible. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and identify genes associated with this trait in 3 breed types: Bos indicus (Brahman), Bos taurus (4 breeds), and tropically adapted <span class="hlt">composites</span> (2 breeds). Using high-density data, regions on chromosomes 1, 9, 14, 16, 19, 23, 26, 29, and X were associated with fat <span class="hlt">composition</span> and quantity traits. Known candidate genes, such as fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> synthase (FASN; chromosome 19) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD; chromosome 26), were confirmed in our results. Other candidate genes and regions represent novel association results, requiring further validation. PMID:24782392</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kelly, M J; Tume, R K; Fortes, M; Thompson, J M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40048533"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) oil as influenced by seed position</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The variation in fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the oil from seeds located in different positions within an individual sunflower\\u000a head was determined. Each head was divided into three ring-shaped zones and four samples were taken from each zone. Ten heads\\u000a from an inbred line and ten from an open-pollinated variety were sampled. Position of the seed within the head had</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. C. Zimmerman; G. N. Fick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34619621"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> content and <span class="hlt">composition</span> of Oenothera hookeri seeds containing mutant plastids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of plastid mutations on seed oil content and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> are of considerable interest. Seeds of a number\\u000a of plastome mutants produced by thepm plastome mutator line ofOenothera hookeri were therefore harvested to investigate these effects. The mutants were altered solely in their plastome: each seed lot had\\u000a the same nuclear background. To facilitate the study, a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Melvin D. Epp; Michael R. Pollard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/l23261t838l63v38.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identification of subpopulations in pelagic marine fish species using amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The spatial stock complexity of marine fish species requires that population structure is taken into account in fisheries\\u000a management. The aim of this study was to determine whether the amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> (AAC) of the adult fish allows the identification\\u000a of subpopulations within the stock. During a cruise in November 2003 along the entire Mediterranean coast of Spain, individuals\\u000a were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Isabel RiveiroCastor; Cástor Guisande; Paula Iglesias; Gualtiero Basilone; Angela Cuttitta; Ana Giráldez; Bernardo Patti; Salvatore Mazzola; Angelo Bonanno; Alba-Ruth Vergara; Isabel Maneiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/r1h327077n510606.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of Subcellular Localization of Apoptosis Protein Using Chou’s Pseudo Amino <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">Composition</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Apoptosis proteins play an essential role in regulating a balance between cell proliferation and death. The successful prediction\\u000a of subcellular localization of apoptosis proteins directly from primary sequence is much benefited to understand programmed\\u000a cell death and drug discovery. In this paper, by use of Chou’s pseudo amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> (PseAAC), a total of 317 apoptosis\\u000a proteins are predicted by</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hao Lin; Hao Wang; Hui Ding; Ying-Li Chen; Qian-Zhong Li</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51136909"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sparse Bayesian prediction of disordered residues and disordered regions based on amino-<span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents some initial results of an investigation into the use of machine learning methods to detect natively disordered regions in proteins from sequence information. A committee of Relevance Vector Machines is used to select the optimal window size for residue-by-residue prediction of disordered regions, based on local amino-<span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>. The minimal error rate of 15% is achieved using</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gavin C. Cawley; Steven Hayward; Gareth J. Janacek; Geoff R. Moore</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41200239"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> content and <span class="hlt">composition</span> of english beef, lamb and pork at retail</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have determined the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> content and <span class="hlt">composition</span> of retail samples of meat and assessed them with respect to UK dietary recommendations. Fifty beef sirloin steaks, pork chops and lamb chops were purchased from four supermarkets on separate occasions. The percentage of muscle (boneless basis) in the samples was 84.4 ± 4.3, 69.8 ± 7.7 and 78.9 ± 7.1</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Enser; K. Hallett; B. Hewitt; G. A. J. Fursey; J. D. Wood</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://people.virginia.edu/~fc8b/kchou/new/paper/Prot_Sci_str-class.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">An optimization approach to predicting protein structural class from amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Proteins are generally classified into four structural classes: all-a proteins, all$ proteins, a+p proteins, and a\\/p proteins. In this article, a protein is expressed as a vector of 20-dimensional space, in which its 20 components are defined by the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of its 20 amino <span class="hlt">acids</span>. Based on this, a new method, the so-called maximum com- ponent coefficient method, is proposed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">CHUN-TING ZHANG; KUO-CHEN CHOU</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.inria.fr/docs/00/88/82/71/PDF/hal-00888271.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evacuation gastrique et <span class="hlt">composition</span> en <span class="hlt">acides</span> amins des protines du rgime chez le porc</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">base du même amidon de blé, associé selon le cas à un gluten de blé ou une farine de poisson, compte quantités recueillies étant significa- tivement plus importantes dans le cas du gluten 4 et 7 h après le le régime gluten dont la <span class="hlt">composition</span> en <span class="hlt">acides</span> aminés est fort différente. Mots clés :Evacuation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boyer, Edmond</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40335024"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preparation and mechanical properties of polylactic <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composites</span> containing hydroxyapatite fibers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ceramic-polymer <span class="hlt">composite</span> biomaterials were prepared by hot-pressing a mixture consisting of poly-l-lactic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (PLA) and hydroxyapatite fibers (HAF) with dimensions of 40–150?m length and 2–10?m diameter, which were converted from ?-Ca(PO3)2 fibers. After PLA dissolved with methylene chloride was mixed with the fibers, the mixture was dried completely and subsequently hot-pressed uniaxially under a pressure of 40MPa at 180°C, resulting</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Toshihiro Kasuga; Yoshio Ota; Masayuki Nogami; Yoshihiro Abe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://patft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-adv.htm&r=1&p=1&f=G&l=50&d=PTXT&S1=ballestera&OS=ballestera&RS=ballestera"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biodiesel processes in the presence of free fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> and biodiesel producer <span class="hlt">compositions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://patft.uspto.gov/netahtml/PTO/search-adv.htm">US Patent & Trademark Office Database</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Glyceride-containing feed for a base catalyzed transesterification with lower alkanol to make biodiesel is pretreated with glycerin separated during the transesterification to partially convert glycerides with lower alkanol contained in the separated glycerin using base catalyst in the separated glycerin while reducing the free fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> and phosphorus compound concentrations in the glyceride-containing feed. Unique producer <span class="hlt">compositions</span> are provided by the pretreatment processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/v251703388821030.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oil concentration and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of achenes of North American Helianthus (Asteraceae) species</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Oil concentration and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> were determined in achenes of two annual Helianthus species (112 populations)\\u000a and 11 perennial species (103 populations) from the Great Lakes region and the Central Great Plains of the U.S. The highest\\u000a average oil concentration was observed in annualH. petiolaris Nutt. with 28.8%, followedbyH. annuus L. with 25.4%. Among the perennial species,H. hirsutus Raf.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerald J. Seiler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/89/64/15/PDF/hal-00896415.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">DOSAGE DES LIPIDES DES FCES EXTRACTION SPARE, IMPORTANCE ET <span class="hlt">COMPOSITION</span> EN <span class="hlt">ACIDES</span> GRAS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">DOSAGE DES LIPIDES DES FÃ?CES EXTRACTION SÃ?PARÃ?E, IMPORTANCE ET <span class="hlt">COMPOSITION</span> EN <span class="hlt">ACIDES</span> GRAS DES ce travail a été la mise au point d'une méthode de dosage des lipides des fèces qui permette d nécessaire d'en tenir compte dans les calculs de digestibilité. Cependant, dans certains cas, il importe de</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42465578"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of broiler abdominal fat as influenced by temperature, diet, age and sex</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. Two environmentally controlled houses at 21°?30°?21°C (HT) and 21°C (LT) were used to study the effect of temperature on fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the abdominal fat of male and female broilers fed 13.8 and 13 MJ ME\\/kg diets and slaughtered at 34 and 54 d.2. Extracts from the abdominal fat of 160 carcases and of the experimental foods were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. B. Sonaiya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981JElS..128.2060D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anodic corrosion of fiber reinforced lead <span class="hlt">composites</span> for use in large lead-<span class="hlt">acid</span> batteries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The corrosion resistance of lightweight, high strength lead metal matrix <span class="hlt">composites</span> under conditions that simulate their use as grid materials in large lead-<span class="hlt">acid</span> batteries has been studied. Constant potential testing provides an effective means for holding constant the oxidizing power of a metal-electrolyte system. Data are presented on corrosion currents, effect of exposure time on corrosion rates, dependence of the rate of corrosion on temperature, and the current flow that is proportional to the rate of corrosion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dacres, C. M.; Reamer, S. M.; Sutula, R. A.; Angres, I. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6455048"> <span id="translatedtitle">Amine salt of n-triazolyl-hydrocarbyl succinamic <span class="hlt">acid</span> and lubricating oil <span class="hlt">composition</span> containing same</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An amine salt of n-triazolyl-hydrocarbyl succinamic <span class="hlt">acid</span> represented by the formula: 3-(HOOC-R''''-CO-NH-)-1,2,4-triazole. R'''-NH-R''' in which R'''' is an alkylene radical having from 2 to 24 carbon atoms and R''' is hydrogen or a hydrocarbyl radical having from 1 to 24 carbon atoms at least one R''' being a hydrocarbyl radical and a lubricating oil <span class="hlt">composition</span> containing same is provided.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nebzydoski, J.W.; Patmore, E.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-08-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48087162"> <span id="translatedtitle">Amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and functional properties of giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus ) collagen hydrolysates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Giant red sea cucumber (Parastichopus californicus) is an under-utilized species due to its high tendency to autolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional\\u000a properties of collagen hydrolysates from this species. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>, SDS-PAGE, emulsion\\u000a activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam expansion (FE), and foam stability (FS) of hydrolysates</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zunying Liu; Yicheng Su; Mingyong Zeng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22702103"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Effect of phenibut and its <span class="hlt">composition</span> with nicotinic <span class="hlt">acid</span> on hemostasis in rats with brain ischemia].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is shown that, in rats with global cerebral ischemia modeled by a complete irreversible occlusion of the common carotid artery and forced hypotension, the hemostasis is characterized by a shift toward hypercoagulation. A single preventive introduction of phenibut and, to a greater degree, a <span class="hlt">composition</span> of phenibut with nicotinic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, in rats with acute cerebral ischemia reduced the extent of disturbances in the hemostasis system of experimental animals. PMID:22702103</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tiurenkov, I N; Volotova, E V; Kurkin, D V; Litvinov, A A; Tarasov, A S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/88/72/56/PDF/hal-00887256.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">COMPOSITION</span> EN <span class="hlt">ACIDES</span> AMINS DU LAIT DE TRUIE P.-H. DUE J. JUNG</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Josas RÃ?SUMÃ? La <span class="hlt">composition</span> en <span class="hlt">acides</span> aminés des protéines du colostrum et du lait de 12 truies Lavge'azote, respectivement pour le colostrum et le lait, sont les suivantes : Par rapport au lait, le colostrum est plus lait : d'une part, au début de la lactation (qui correspond à la production de colostrum dont on sait</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40049696"> <span id="translatedtitle">Soybean seed protein and oil contents and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> adjustments by drought and temperature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Environmental stress during soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed fill can alter the chemical <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the seed and reduce yield, viability, and vigor. The effect of\\u000a drought and high air temperature (AT) on soybean seed protein and oil contents have not been reported. The objective of this\\u000a study was to characterize the protein and oil contents and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. L. Dornbos; R. E. Mullen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23406160"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of carbon black on the properties of plasticized poly(lactic <span class="hlt">acid</span>) <span class="hlt">composites</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) and poly(1,3-butylene adipate) (PBA) as the plasticizer of poly(lactic <span class="hlt">acid</span>) (PLA) and carbon black (CB) as reinforced filler, high performance <span class="hlt">composites</span> were prepared in melting blend. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the interaction existed between PLA and CB, and plasticizer could improve this interaction. The rheology showed that plasticizer could obviously improve the fluidity</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ning Wang; Xingxiang Zhang; Xiaofei Ma; Jianming Fang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.7995O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrical charging changes the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of sulfuric <span class="hlt">acid</span>-ammonia/dimethylamine clusters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sulfuric <span class="hlt">acid</span> clusters stabilized by base molecules are likely to have a significant role in atmospheric new-particle formation. Recent advances in mass spectrometry techniques have permitted the detection of electrically charged clusters. However, direct measurement of electrically neutral clusters is not possible. Mass spectrometry instruments can be combined with a charger, but the possible effect of charging on the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of neutral clusters must be addressed in order to interpret and understand the measured data. In the present work we have used formation free energies from quantum chemical methods to calculate the evaporation rates of electrically charged (both positive and negative) sulfuric <span class="hlt">acid</span>-ammonia/dimethylamine clusters. To understand how charging will affect the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of electrically neutral clusters, we have compared the evaporation rates of the most stable neutral clusters with those of the corresponding charged clusters. Based on the evaporation rates of different molecules from the charged clusters, we determined the most likely resulting cluster <span class="hlt">composition</span> when a stable neutral cluster is charged and the molecules with the highest evaporation rates are lost from it. We found that all of the most stable neutral clusters will be altered by both positive and negative charging. In the case of charging clusters negatively, base molecules will completely evaporate from clusters with 1 to 3 sulfuric <span class="hlt">acid</span> molecules in the case of ammonia, and from clusters with 1 or 2 sulfuric <span class="hlt">acid</span> molecules in the case of dimethylamine. Larger clusters will maintain some base molecules, but the H2SO4 : base ratio will increase. In the case of positive charging, some of the <span class="hlt">acid</span> molecules will evaporate, decreasing the H2SO4 : base ratio.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ortega, I. K.; Olenius, T.; Kupiainen-Määttä, O.; Loukonen, V.; Kurtén, T.; Vehkamäki, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24310723"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition of ATP citrate lyase induces triglyceride accumulation with altered fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in cancer cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">De novo lipogenesis is activated in most cancers and several lipogenic enzymes have been implicated as therapeutic targets. Here, we demonstrate a novel function of the lipogenic enzyme, ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), in lipid metabolism in cancer cells. ACLY depletion by small interfering RNAs caused growth suppression and/or apoptosis in a subset of cancer cell lines. To investigate the effect of ACLY inhibition on lipid metabolism, metabolome and transcriptome analysis was performed. ACLY depletion blocks the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> chain elongation from C16 to C18 in triglyceride (TG), but not in other lipid classes. Meanwhile, wild-type ACLY overexpression enhanced fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> elongation of TG, whereas an inactive mutant ACLY did not change it. ACLY depletion-mediated blockade of fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> elongation was coincident with downregulation of long-chain fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> elongase ELOVL6, which resides in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Paradoxically, ACLY depletion-mediated growth suppression was associated with TG accumulation. ACLY depletion downregulated the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A, which is a mitochondrial fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> transporter. Consistent with this finding, metabolome analysis revealed that ACLY positively regulates the carnitine system, which plays as an essential cofactor for fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> transport across mitochondrial membrane. AICAR, an activator of mitochondrial fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> oxidation (FAO), significantly reduced ACLY depletion-mediated TG accumulation. These data indicate that inhibition of ACLY might affect both fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> elongation in ER and FAO in mitochondria, thereby explaining the TG accumulation with altered fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>. This phenotype may be a hallmark of growth suppression mediated by ACLY inhibition. PMID:24310723</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Migita, Toshiro; Okabe, Sachiko; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Igarashi, Saori; Sugawara, Shoko; Tomida, Akihiro; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Taguchi, Ryo; Seimiya, Hiroyuki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21807372"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrophoretic deposition of polyacrylic <span class="hlt">acid</span> and <span class="hlt">composite</span> films containing nanotubes and oxide particles.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method has been developed for the deposition of thin films of polyacrylic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (PAA). This method allowed the formation of uniform films of controlled thickness on conductive substrates. It was shown that PAA can be used as a common dispersing agent suitable for charging and EPD of various materials, such as multiwalled carbon nanotubes, halloysite nanotubes, MnO(2), NiO, TiO(2) and SiO(2). The feasibility of EPD of <span class="hlt">composite</span> films containing the nanotubes and oxide particles in a PAA matrix has been demonstrated. The kinetics of deposition and deposition mechanisms were investigated and discussed. The films were studied by thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that film thickness and <span class="hlt">composition</span> can be varied. Obtained results pave the way for the fabrication of PAA and <span class="hlt">composite</span> films for biomedical, electrochemical and other applications. PMID:21807372</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Y; Deen, I; Zhitomirsky, I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23870970"> <span id="translatedtitle">Frying stability of high oleic sunflower oils as affected by <span class="hlt">composition</span> of tocopherol isomers and linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> content.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> content and tocopherol isomeric <span class="hlt">composition</span> on the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil was evaluated during a 14-day restaurant style frying operation. At equal linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> content, no significant difference was observed between high oleic sunflower oil containing only ?-tocopherol and the sample containing a mixture of ?-, ?-, and ?-isomers as measured by the amount of total polar components, oligomers, anisidine value, and free fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>. On the contrary, at similar tocopherol isomeric <span class="hlt">composition</span>, high oleic sunflower oil containing lower amount of linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> showed superior frying stability compared to the sample with a higher content of linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, suggesting that the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil is dictated primarily by the level of linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, with the tocopherol isomeric <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the oil having no significant influence. In all oil samples, the loss of ?-tocopherol was higher than the corresponding loss of ?-tocopherol. PMID:23870970</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JGRD..107.8265V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using gas-phase nitric <span class="hlt">acid</span> as an indicator of PSC <span class="hlt">composition</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">composition</span> of polar stratospheric cloud particles is investigated using data from several remote sensing instruments: gas-phase HNO3 measured by the Airborne Submillimeter Radiometer (ASUR), temperature measured by the Airborne Raman Ozone, Temperature and Aerosol Lidar (AROTEL), and aerosol backscatter wavelength dependence and depolarization measured by the UV Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL). All three instruments have been operated onboard the NASA DC-8 during the SOLVE winter 1999/2000. A simple thermodynamical model is used to calculate the gas-phase amount of HNO3 in the presence of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) along the flight track of the DC-8 for one flight into the polar vortex on 7 December 1999. Three types of PSCs are considered in the model: nitric <span class="hlt">acid</span> trihydrate (NAT), nitric <span class="hlt">acid</span> dihydrate (NAD), and supercooled ternary solutions (STS). The comparison of the modeled and measured gas-phase HNO3 in the presence of PSCs shows a very good agreement if a NAT <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the particles is assumed. However, sensitivity studies show that while the PSCs observed on this flight are not in agreement with a STS <span class="hlt">composition</span>, the model is very sensitive to temperature, and a NAD <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the PSC cannot be ruled out.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">von König, Miriam; Bremer, Holger; Kleinböhl, Armin; Küllmann, Harry; Künzi, Klaus F.; Goede, Albert P. H.; Browell, Edward V.; Grant, William B.; Burris, John F.; McGee, Thomas J.; Twigg, Laurence</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24632028"> <span id="translatedtitle">Green electrospun pantothenic <span class="hlt">acid</span>/silk fibroin <span class="hlt">composite</span> nanofibers: fabrication, characterization and biological activity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Silk fibroin (SF) from Bombyx mori has many established excellent properties and has found various applications in the biomedical field. However, some abilities or capacities of SF still need improving to meet the need for using practically. Indeed, diverse SF-based <span class="hlt">composite</span> biomaterials have been developed. Here we report the feasibility of fabricating pantothenic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (vitamin B5, VB5)-reinforcing SF nanofibrous matrices for biomedical applications through green electrospinning. Results demonstrated the successful loading of D-pantothenic <span class="hlt">acid</span> hemicalcium salt (VB5-hs) into resulting <span class="hlt">composite</span> nanofibers. The introduction of VB5-hs did not alter the smooth ribbon-like morphology and the silk I structure of SF, but significantly decreased the mean width of SF fibers. SF conformation transformed into ?-sheet from random coil when <span class="hlt">composite</span> nanofibrous matrices were exposed to 75% (v/v) ethanol vapor. Furthermore, nanofibers still remained good morphology after being soaked in water environment for five days. Interestingly, as-prepared <span class="hlt">composite</span> nanofibrous matrices supported a higher level of cell viability, especially in a long culture period and significantly assisted skin cells to survive under oxidative stress compared with pure SF nanofibrous matrices. These findings provide a basis for further extending the application of SF in the biomedical field, especially in the personal skin-care field. PMID:24632028</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fan, Linpeng; Cai, Zengxiao; Zhang, Kuihua; Han, Feng; Li, Jingliang; He, Chuanglong; Mo, Xiumei; Wang, Xungai; Wang, Hongsheng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40486526"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, water <span class="hlt">composition</span> and pH on the wettability alteration of calcite surface</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in presence of water film alter calcite surface to oil-wet. The wettability alteration is dependent on the structure of the fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, water <span class="hlt">composition</span> and pH. Long chain fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> (stearic <span class="hlt">acid</span>), strongly adsorbs onto the calcite surface from “oil phase” (n-C10) in oil\\/water\\/calcite system as indicated by contact angle measurements. On the other hand, short chain fatty</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. A. Rezaei Gomari; A. A. Hamouda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40890361"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isotopic <span class="hlt">composition</span> and probable origin of individual fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in modern sediments from Ruoergai Marsh and Nansha Sea, China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Carbon isotopic analyses of individual fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in modern sediments from Ruoergai Marsh and Nansha Sea, China were undertaken to evaluate the biological sources of individual sedimentary fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>. The mean ?13C values of individual fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> are ?33.9‰ for Ruoergai Marsh and ?29.3‰ for Nansha Sea, indicating different biological sources. The isotopic <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> of various chain</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yi Duan; Qibin Wen; Guodong Zheng; Binjie Luo; Lanhua Ma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/t30715p300011085.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Polylactic <span class="hlt">Acid</span>\\/Kenaf and Polylactic <span class="hlt">Acid</span>\\/Rise Husk <span class="hlt">Composites</span>: The Influence of the Natural Fibers on the Mechanical, Thermal and Biodegradability Properties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper investigates and compares the performances of polylactic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (PLA)\\/kenaf (PLA-K) and PLA\\/rice husk (PLA-RH) <span class="hlt">composites</span>\\u000a in terms of biodegradability, mechanical and thermal properties. <span class="hlt">Composites</span> with natural fiber weight content of 20% with\\u000a fiber sizes of less than 100 ?m were produced for testing and characterization. A twin-screw extrusion was used to compound\\u000a PLA and natural fibers, and extruded <span class="hlt">composites</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. A. Yussuf; I. Massoumi; A. Hassan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41202264"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of slaughter season on fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>, conjugated linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> isomers and nutritional value of intramuscular fat in Barrosã-PDO veal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes the influence of slaughter season on lipid content, fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>, conjugated linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (CLA) isomeric profile and nutritional value of fat in Barrosã veal from calves reared according to the specifications of the Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). Barrosã purebred calves (n=27) were raised in a traditional production system and slaughtered in early autumn (October) and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cristina M. M. Alfaia; Matilde L. F. Castro; Susana I. V. Martins; Ana P. V. Portugal; Susana P. A. Alves; Carlos M. G. A. Fontes; Rui J. B. Bessa; José A. M. Prates</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=247140"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">Composition</span> of Cladosporium resinae Grown on Glucose and on Hydrocarbons</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cladosporium resinae was grown in submerged cultures on glucose; on Jet-A commercial aviation fuel; and on a series of n-alkanes, n-decane through n-tetradecane. Cell yield was greatest on glucose and least on Jet-A; n-alkanes were intermediate. Among n-alkanes cell yield decreased as chain length increased, except for n-dodecane, which supported less growth than n-tridecane or n-tetradecane. The total fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> of stationary-phase cells were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. In all cases the predominant fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> were 16:0, 18:1, and 18:2. The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of glucose-grown cells was similar to that of hydrocarbon-grown cells. Cells grown on n-tridecane or n-tetradecane yielded small amounts of <span class="hlt">acids</span> homologous to the carbon source, but a similar correlation was not noted for n-decane, n-undecane, or n-dodecane. Cells grown on n-undecane or n-tridecane contained more odd-carbon fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> than cells grown on the other substrates, and the effect was more pronounced in n-tridecane-grown cells. Thus, the fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> of this organism are derived chiefly from de novo synthesis rather than from direct incorporation of oxidized hydrocarbons. The extent of direct incorporation increases as the chain length of the hydrocarbon growth substrate is increased. PMID:5166858</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cooney, J. J.; Proby, C. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1971-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7252086"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ion-molecular <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the methanesulfonic <span class="hlt">acid</span>-water system from IR spectroscopic data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study of the equilibria in <span class="hlt">acid</span>-water systems as a function of the ratio of the components is of interest from the point of view of ascertaining the mechanism of the catalytic activity of aqueous solutions of strong <span class="hlt">acids</span>. Methanesulfonic <span class="hlt">acid</span> is classified as a strong <span class="hlt">acid</span>, which makes it a convenient subject for a study of the state of the equilibria of various systems. The equilibrium <span class="hlt">compositions</span> and structures of the ionic and molecular complexes in the CH/sub 3/SO/sub 3/H-H/sub 2/O system over the entire range of the concentrations of the components were determined by IR spectroscopy; the highest concentration of the anionic forms is reached at a water:<span class="hlt">acid</span> ratio of 2:1. Primarily H/sub 5/O/sup 2 +/ ions are formed at high <span class="hlt">acid</span> concentrations, and the presence of CH/sub 3/SO/sub 3/H. OSO/sub 2/CH/sub 3/ complexes was also revealed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kirilova, A.P.; Gur'yanova, E.N.; Librovich, N.B.; Maiorov, V.D.; Serebryanskaya, A.I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18087869"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical profile and amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of edible mushrooms Pleurotus sajor-caju.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two varieties of Pleurotus sajor-caju, obtained from the wild and cultivated (on shredded corncobs) were separated into cap and stalk and analysed on dry weight basis. The proximate <span class="hlt">composition</span> (g/100 g) showed that both varieties were highly concentrated in crude protein. The cultivated cap (Cc) was found to accumulate higher concentration of crude protein (26.34%) and ash (10.37%) than the wild cap (Wc), which had higher crude fat (3.90%) and crude fibre (16.32%) concentrations while the wild stalk (Ws) contained the highest concentration of crude fibre (26.14%). Amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> analysis showed the mushroom protein to be a rich source of nutritionally useful essential amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> with leucine as the most abundant occurring in highest concentration (mg/g) in the Cc (64.8 +/- 0.24). Methionine and cysteine concentrations were low as confirmed by their chemical scores (0.29-0.59). There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in the distribution of amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> in the mushroom varieties and parts. The total essential amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> (TEAA) in the cultivated range between 42.91-43.69% while in the wild it was between 42.90-43.73 % of the total amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> content. The amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> concentration was a function of mushroom variety and part selected. PMID:18087869</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oyetayo, F L; Akindahunsi, A A; Oyetayo, V O</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24912701"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antioxidant enzymes and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> as related to disease resistance in postharvest loquat fruit.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two cultivars of loquat fruit were stored at 20°C for 10days to investigate the relationship between disease resistance, and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that decay incidence increased with storage time in both cultivars. A significantly lower disease incidence was observed in 'Qingzhong' fruit than in 'Fuyang', suggesting 'Qingzhong' had increased disease resistance. Meanwhile, 'Qingzhong' fruit also had lower levels of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide, and lower lipoxygenase activity, but higher levels of linolenic and linoleic <span class="hlt">acids</span> and higher activities of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) compared with 'Fuyang'. These results suggest that the higher levels of linolenic and linoleic <span class="hlt">acids</span> and the higher activity of CAT and APX have a role in disease resistance of postharvest loquat fruit. PMID:24912701</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cao, Shifeng; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cai, Yuting; Zheng, Yonghua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5761869"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interaction of vanadate (H/sub 2/VO/sub 4//sup /minus//) with <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> investigated by /sup 51/V NMR spectroscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The complexation of vanadates by <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> has been studied, and the results are reported herein. The simple <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> selected with respect to the elucidation of their mode of coordination contained glycine at the N-terminal end. It is also known that <span class="hlt">acidic</span> side chains of the protein matrix are likely to be involved in the vanadate coordination in vanadate-dependent peroxidase. At pH 7.5 and at overall vanadium concentrations of 10 mmol/L, the species present in solution are H/sub 2/VO/sub 4//sup /minus//, H/sub 2/V/sub 2/O/sub 7//sup /minus//, V/sub 4/O/sub 12//sup 4/minus//, and V/sub 5/O/sub 15//sup 5/minus//. Another possible species present is V/sub 6/O/sub 18//sup 6/minus//. /sup 51/V NMR spectroscopy was used to elucidate the vanadate species. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rehder, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-11-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3587585"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detailed Dimethylacetal and Fatty <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">Composition</span> of Rumen Content from Lambs Fed Lucerne or Concentrate Supplemented with Soybean Oil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/<span class="hlt">acid</span> direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal <span class="hlt">composition</span> was quite similar to the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18?1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18?2n?6 and 18?3n?3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18?0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18?3n?3. PMID:23484024</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23928861"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genetic variation of six desaturase genes in flax and their impact on fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is one of the richest plant sources of omega-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> praised for their health benefits. In this study, the extent of the genetic variability of genes encoding stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD), and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> desaturase 2 (FAD2) and 3 (FAD3) was determined by sequencing the six paralogous genes from 120 flax accessions representing a broad range of germplasm including some EMS mutant lines. A total of 6 alleles for sad1 and sad2, 21 for fad2a, 5 for fad2b, 15 for fad3a and 18 for fad3b were identified. Deduced amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> sequences of the alleles predicted 4, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7 isoforms, respectively. Allele frequencies varied greatly across genes. Fad3a, with 110 SNPs and 19 indels, and fad3b, with 50 SNPs and 5 indels, showed the highest levels of genetic variations. While most of the SNPs and all the indels were silent mutations, both genes carried nonsense SNP mutations resulting in premature stop codons, a feature not observed in sad and fad2 genes. Some alleles and isoforms discovered in induced mutant lines were absent in the natural germplasm. Correlation of these genotypic data with fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> data of 120 flax accessions phenotyped in six field experiments revealed statistically significant effects of some of the SAD and FAD isoforms on fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>, oil content and iodine value. The novel allelic variants and isoforms identified for the six desaturases will be a resource for the development of oilseed flax with unique and useful fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> profiles. PMID:23928861</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thambugala, Dinushika; Duguid, Scott; Loewen, Evelyn; Rowland, Gordon; Booker, Helen; You, Frank M; Cloutier, Sylvie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18391476"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of palm-based reference materials for the quantification of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Characterisation of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of three palm-based reference materials was carried out through inter-laboratory proficiency tests. Twelve laboratories collaborated in these tests and the fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined by applying the MPOB Test Methods p3.4:2004 and p3.5:2004. Determination of consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptable statistical agreement of results obtained from the collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties (%) for each palm oil reference material produced are listed as follows : 0.20% (C12:0), 1.66+/-0.05% (C14:0), 43.39+/-0.39% (C16:0), 0.14+/-0.06% (C16:1), 3.90+/-0.11% (C18:0), 40.95+/-0.23% (C18:1), 9.68+/-0.21% (C18:2), 0.16+/-0.07% (C18:3) and 0.31+/-0.08% (C20:0) for fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of palm oil; 0.23+/-0.04% (C12:0), 1.02+/-0.04% (C14:0), 39.66+/-0.19% (C16:0), 0.18+/-0.07% (C16:1), 3.81+/-0.04% (C18:0), 44.01+/-0.08% (C18:1), 10.73+/-0.08% (C18:2), 0.20+/-0.06% (C18:3) and 0.34+/-0.04% (C20:0) for fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of palm olein; and 0.20% (C12:0), 1.14+/-0.05% (C14:0), 49.42+/-0.25% (C16:0), 0.16+/-0.08% (C16:1), 4.15+/-0.10% (C18:0), 36.14+/-0.77% (C18:1), 7.95+/-0.29% (C18:2), 0.11+/-0.07% (C18:3) and 0.30+/-0.08% (C20:0) for fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of palm stearin. PMID:18391476</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai; Kuntom, Ainie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/841268"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of adipose cells in red and yellow marrow: A possible determinant of haematopoietic potential.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of whole bone marrow and that of isolated, disaggregated adipose cells from red and yellow marrow was examined by gas chromatography. Consistent and significant shifts from myristic and palmatic <span class="hlt">acids</span> (in red marrow) to their respective monounsaturated derivatives myristoleic and palmitoleic <span class="hlt">acids</span> (in yellow marrow) were found. These differences in the fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> correlate with histochemical studies and lend further support to the concept that the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of lipid in the adipose cells of bone marrow may determine their relative stability in relation to haematopoietic requirements. PMID:841268</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tavassoli, M; Houchin, D N; Jacobs, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17227079"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diet alters the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of individual phospholipid classes in beef muscle.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of diet on the distribution of phospholipid classes and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> profiles of individual phospholipid classes in longissimus muscle of beef. An experiment was established to examine the effect of pasture-based versus concentrate diet offered to two different breeds (German Holstein and German Simmental bulls) to enhance the content of beneficial fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in beef and improve the meat quality for the consumer. High-performance thin-layer chromatography was utilized to separate the phospholipid classes. The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the individual phospholipid classes was determined by gas chromatography. The main phospholipid classes in the muscle were phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, representing approximately 60% of the total phospholipids, followed by phosphatidylinositol ranging between 11.8 and 14.8%. The results have shown that the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> profiles in the detected seven phospholipid classes can be affected by different feeding systems. Pasture-based feeding resulted in an enrichment of total and individual n-3 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in all phospholipid classes of muscle lipids of bulls compared with those fed on concentrate. In contrast, pasture-based diet significantly decreased the proportion of total and individual n-6 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in phospholipid classes, except in the sphingomyelin fraction. The total saturated fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> proportions in the phospholipid classes were different and ranged between 4.5% in the cardiolipin fraction and 50.5% in the sphingomyelin fraction of muscle lipids of bulls. Furthermore, the diet effects on the saturated fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> proportion in the different phospholipid classes differ widely. The results have shown that the C18:1 trans and CLA profiles in the detected seven phospholipid classes can be affected by different feeding systems. PMID:17227079</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dannenberger, Dirk; Nuernberg, Gerd; Scollan, Nigel; Ender, Klaus; Nuernberg, Karin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7018225"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improving the temperature resistance of aluminum-matrix <span class="hlt">composites</span> by using an <span class="hlt">acid</span> phosphate binder</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fabrication of metal-matrix <span class="hlt">composites</span> by vacuum infiltration of a liquid metal (close to the liquidus temperature) into a SiC-whisker perform under an inert gas pressure was shown to produce SiC-whisker-reinforced aluminum (12-37 vol.%) which was comparable in quality to those produced by powder metallurgy or squeeze casting. The {alpha}-SiC whisker perform (22 vol.%) was made by wet forming using water and a binder. The use of phosphate binders (with Al (OH){sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} as precursors) instead of the widely used silica (SiO{sub 2}) binder resulted in increased tensile strength and temperature resistance of the SiC whisker <span class="hlt">composites</span>. The excess H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} from the <span class="hlt">acid</span> phosphate binder reacted with SiC to form SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, which strengthened the preform by acting as an in-situ binder. The excess H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} also reacted with Al to form AlP, which strengthened the Al/ binder interface. Upon heating the SiC whisker <span class="hlt">composites</span> (not the preforms) at 400 or 600 C for 240 h, the tensile strength decreased for <span class="hlt">composites</span> made with the silica binders, but increased for <span class="hlt">composites</span> made with the phosphate binders.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chiou, Jengmaw.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24706101"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of wheatgrass on membrane fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> during hepatotoxicity induced by alcohol and heated PUFA.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Alcoholism is a broad term used for problems related to alcohol, medically considered as disease, specifically an addictive illness, abuse, and dependence. It is the major cause of liver disease in western countries. Alcoholic liver disease encompasses the hepatic alterations leading to fatty liver, hepatitis, and fibrosis or cirrhosis. Fried food items prepared with repeatedly heated polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> (PUFA) exacerbate the disturbances induced by alcohol. The use of herbs to treat diseases is almost universal. Wheatgrass (WG) is used as a supplemental nutrition because of its unique curative properties. As it has antioxidant property, it prevents cancer, diabetes, and acts as liver cleanser. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of WG on preserving membrane integrity in liver damage induced by alcohol and heated PUFA (?PUFA).The rats were divided into four groups. The animals in group 1 served as normal (standard diet), group 2 served as hepatotoxic (alcohol + ?PUFA), group 3 served as treated (alcohol + ?PUFA + WG), and group 4 served as WG control. The <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of membrane fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span>, total phospholipids, phospholipase A, C (PLA and PLC) were analyzed in liver to evaluate the effects of WG. Changes in fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>, decrease in phospholipids levels, and increase in PLA, PLC were observed in the diseased group. Restoration effect was seen in WG-treated rats. Histopathological observations were in correlation with the biochemical parameters. From the results obtained, we conclude that WG effectively protects the liver against alcohol and ?PUFA-induced changes in fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and preserves membrane integrity. PMID:24706101</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Durairaj, Varalakshmi; Shakya, Garima; Pajaniradje, Sankar; Rajagopalan, Rukkumani</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22257831"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recovery of uranium from phosphoric <span class="hlt">acid</span> medium by polymeric <span class="hlt">composite</span> beads encapsulating organophosphorus extractants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present study deals with the preparation and evaluation of the poly-ethersulfone (PES) based <span class="hlt">composite</span> beads encapsulating synergistic mixture of D2EHPA and Cyanex 923 (at 4:1 mole ratio) for the separation of uranium from phosphoric <span class="hlt">acid</span> medium. SEM was used for the characterization of the <span class="hlt">composite</span> materials. Addition of 1% PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) improved the internal morphology and porosity of the beads. Additionally, microscopic examination of the <span class="hlt">composite</span> bead confirmed central coconut type cavity surrounded by porous polymer layer of the beads through which exchange of metal ions take place. Effect of various experimental variables including aqueous <span class="hlt">acidity</span>, metal ion concentration in aqueous feed, concentration of organic extractant inside the beads, extractant to polymer ratio, liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and temperature on the extraction of uranium was studied. Increase in <span class="hlt">acidity</span> (1-6 M), L/S ratio (1- 10), metal ion concentration (0.2-3 g/L U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) and polymer to extractant ratio (1:4 -1:10) led to decrease in extraction of uranium. At 5.5 M (comparable to wet process phosphoric <span class="hlt">acid</span> concentration) the extraction of uranium was about 85% at L/S ratio 5. Increase in extractant concentration inside the bead resulted in enhanced extraction of metal ion. Increase in temperature in the range of 30 to 50 Celsius degrees increased the extraction, whereas further increase to 70 C degrees led to the decrease in extraction of uranium. Amongst various reagents tested, stripping of uranium was quantitative by 12% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. Polymeric beads were found to be stable and reusable up-to 10 cycles of extraction/stripping. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Singh, D.K.; Yadav, K.K.; Varshney, L.; Singh, H. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3661731"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Functional Nexus between Photoperiod Acclimation, Torpor Expression and Somatic Fatty <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">Composition</span> in a Heterothermic Mammal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The seasonal changes in thermal physiology and torpor expression of many heterothermic mammals are controlled by photoperiod. As function at low body temperatures during torpor requires changes of tissue lipid <span class="hlt">composition</span>, we tested for the first time whether and how fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> are affected by photoperiod acclimation in hamsters, Phodopus sungorus, a strongly photoperiodic species. We also examined changes in fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in relation to those in morphology and thermal biology. Hamsters in short photoperiod had smaller reproductive organs and most had a reduced body mass in comparison to those in long photoperiod. Pelage colour of hamsters under short photoperiod was almost white while that of long photoperiod hamsters was grey-brown and black. Short photoperiod acclimation resulted in regular (28% of days) torpor use, whereas all hamsters in long photoperiod remained normothermic. The <span class="hlt">composition</span> of total fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> differed between acclimation groups for brown adipose tissue (5 of 8 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>), heart muscle (4 of 7 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>) and leg muscle (3 of 11 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>). Importantly, 54% of all fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> detected were correlated (r2?=?0.60 to 0.87) with the minimum surface temperature of individuals, but the responses of tissues differed. While some of the <span class="hlt">compositional</span> changes of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> were consistent with a ‘homeoviscous’ response, this was not the case for all, including the sums of saturated and unsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, which did not differ between acclimation groups. Our data identify a possible nexus between photoperiod acclimation, morphology, reproductive biology, thermal biology and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>. They suggest that some of the changes in thermal physiology are linked to the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of tissue and organ fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>. PMID:23717487</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geiser, Fritz; Klingenspor, Martin; McAllan, Bronwyn M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/149274"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Herbicides on Winter Canola (Brassica napus L.) Production and Fatty <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">Composition</span> in South Texas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">to be developed. Agronomic practices can affect seed oil content, protein content, and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>, however the effect of herbicides on these and other characteristic of canola are unknown. Therefore, experiments were conducted in 2010 and 2011...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cogdill, Todd Joseph</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000IJBm...43..163S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adaptive modification of membrane phospholipid fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and metabolic thermosuppression of brown adipose tissue in heat-acclimated rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thermogenesis, especially facultative thermogenesis by brown adipose tissue (BAT), is less important in high ambient temperature and the heat-acclimated animals show a lower metabolic rate. Adaptive changes in the metabolic activity of BAT are generally found to be associated with a modification of membrane phospholipid fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>. However, the effect of heat acclimation on membrane phospholipid fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> is as yet unknown. In this study, we examined the thermogenic activity and phospholipid fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of interscapular BAT from heat-acclimated rats (control: 25+/-1°C, 50% relative humidity and heat acclimation: 32+/-0.5°C, 50% relative humidity). Basal thermogenesis and the total thermogenic capacity after noradrenaline stimulation, as estimated by in vitro oxygen consumption of BAT (measured polarographically using about 1-mm3 tissue blocks), were smaller in the heat-acclimated group than in the control group. There was no difference in the tissue content of phospholipids between the groups when expressed per microgram of DNA. The phospholipid fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> was analyzed by a capillary gas chromatograph. The state of phospholipid unsaturation, as estimated by the number of double bonds per fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> molecule, was similar between the groups. The saturated fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> level was higher in the heat-acclimated group. Among the unsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, heat acclimation decreased docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> and oleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> levels, and increased the arachidonic <span class="hlt">acid</span> level. The tissue level of docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> correlated with the basal oxygen consumption of BAT (r=0.6, P<0.01) and noradrenaline-stimulated maximum values of oxygen consumption (r=0.5, P<0.05). Our results show that heat acclimation modifies the BAT phospholipid fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, especially the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, which is possibly involved in the metabolic thermosuppression.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saha, S. K.; Ohno, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Kuroshima, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4245572"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polyunsaturated Fatty <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">Composition</span> of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old) in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet <span class="hlt">composition</span> was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span>) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic <span class="hlt">acid</span> and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bascuñán, Karla A.; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3892503"> <span id="translatedtitle">Proximate <span class="hlt">Composition</span>, Amino <span class="hlt">Acid</span>, Mineral, and Heavy Metal Content of Dried Laver</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Laver, a red algae belonging to the genus Porphyra, is one of the most widely consumed edible seaweeds. The most popular commercial dried laver species, P. tenera and P. haitanensis, were collected from Korea and China, respectively, and evaluated for proximate <span class="hlt">composition</span>, amino <span class="hlt">acids</span>, minerals, trace heavy metals, and color. The moisture and ash contents of P. tenera and P. haitanensis ranged from 3.66~6.74% and 8.78~9.07%, respectively; crude lipid and protein contents were 1.96~2.25% and 32.16~36.88%, respectively. Dried lavers were found to be a good source of amino <span class="hlt">acids</span>, such as asparagine, isoleucine, leucine, and taurine, and ?-aminobutyric <span class="hlt">acid</span>. K, Ca, Mg, Na, P, I, Fe, and Se minerals were selected for analysis. A clear regional variation existed in the amino <span class="hlt">acid</span>, mineral, and trace metal contents of lavers. Regular consumption of lavers may have heath benefits because they are relatively low in fat and high in protein, and contain functional amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> and minerals. PMID:24471123</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hwang, Eun-Sun; Ki, Kyung-Nam; Chung, Ha-Yull</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25386693"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polyunsaturated Fatty <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of maternal diet and erythrocyte phospholipid status in chilean pregnant women.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20-36 years old) in the 3rd-6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet <span class="hlt">composition</span> was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span>) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic <span class="hlt">acid</span> and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bascuñán, Karla A; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24534688"> <span id="translatedtitle">The amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of tissue protein is affected by the total sulfur amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> supply in growing pigs.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The factorial approach to assess the amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> (AA) requirements of pigs is based on the assumption that the AA <span class="hlt">composition</span> of body protein is constant. However, there are indications that this assumption may not be valid because the AA <span class="hlt">composition</span> of body protein can be affected by the AA supply. The extent to which different tissues are affected by an AA deficiency is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding pig diets with a deficient or sufficient total sulfur AA supply (TSAA; Met+Cys) from 6 to 23 weeks of age on tissue <span class="hlt">composition</span> and meat quality. The deficient diet (TSAA-) provided 24% Met : Lys and 51% TSAA : Lys on a standardized ileal digestible basis, which are 19% and 16% below the recommended requirements, respectively. The sufficient diet (TSAA+) provided 33% Met : Lys and 60% TSAA : Lys. Diets were offered slightly below the ad libitum feed intake capacity of the pigs. Pigs offered diet TSAA- had a lower average daily gain, lower weights of the longissimus dorsi (LM) and rhomboideus muscles (RM), and of selected skin sections (P<0.05). The weight of different sections of the small intestine and the liver was not affected by the diet. The protein content of the LM and RM decreased in pigs offered diet TSAA- (P<0.05), whereas the protein content of other tissues was not affected. The TSAA supply affected the AA <span class="hlt">composition</span> (g/16 g N) of protein in all tissues, but the Met content was changed only in the liver (P<0.05). Pigs receiving diet TSAA- had a lower Cys content in the RM and in the distal jejunum and ileum (P<0.01). The deficient TSAA supply resulted in a lower carcass weight and higher muscle glycogen stores (P<0.05), but did not affect other meat quality traits. The results of this study indicate that the muscles, jejunum and ileum respond more to a prolonged AA deficiency than the liver. In addition, the observed changes in AA <span class="hlt">composition</span> of tissue protein question the use of a constant AA profile of retained protein to assess AA requirements. PMID:24534688</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Conde-Aguilera, J A; Cobo-Ortega, C; Mercier, Y; Tesseraud, S; van Milgen, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/mu8077g76g224241.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using pseudo amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and binary-tree support vector machines to predict protein structural classes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary.  Compared with the conventional amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> (AA), the pseudo amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> (PseAA) as originally introduced\\u000a by Chou can incorporate much more information of a protein sequence; this remarkably enhances the power to use a discrete\\u000a model for predicting various attributes of a protein. In this study, based on the concept of Chou’s PseAA, a 46-D (dimensional)\\u000a PseAA was</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T.-L. Zhang; Y.-S. Ding</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/px5287nmq2726886.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of protein subcellular localization by support vector machines using multi-scale energy and pseudo amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary.  As more and more genomes have been discovered in recent years, there is an urgent need to develop a reliable method to predict\\u000a the subcellular localization for the explosion of newly found proteins. However, many well-known prediction methods based\\u000a on amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> have problems utilizing the sequence-order information. Here, based on the concept of Chou’s pseudo\\u000a amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J.-Y. Shi; S.-W. Zhang; Q. Pan; Y.-M. Cheng; J. Xie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HMR....68..465B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal dynamics of amino and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in the razor clam Ensis siliqua (Mollusca: Bivalvia)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Few studies have been conducted on the temporal dynamics of both amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> (AA) and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> (FA) profiles in marine bivalves. We investigated the seasonal variation of these compounds in the pod razor clam Ensis siliqua in relation to food availability, salinity, water temperature and reproductive cycle. AA content varied between 46.94 and 54.67 % dry weight (DW), and the AAs found in greater quantity were glutamic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, glycine and aspartic <span class="hlt">acid</span>. FA content varied between 34.02 and 87.94 mg g-1 DW and the FAs found in greater quantity were 16:0 and 22:6 n-3. Seasonal trends were observed for AAs and FAs. FAs increased with gametogenesis and decreased with spawning while AA content increased throughout spawning. The effect of increasing temperature and high food availability during the spawning season masked the loss of AAs resulting from gamete release. Still, a comparatively greater increase in the contents of glutamic <span class="hlt">acid</span> and leucine with spawning indicate their possible involvement in a post-spawning gonad recovery mechanism. A post-spawning decrease in 14:0, 16:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-7 and 18:1 n-9 is indicative of the importance of these FAs in bivalve eggs. An increase in 18:3 n-3, 18:4 n-3, 20:1 n-9 and 20:2 n-6 during gametogenesis suggests their involvement in oocyte maturation. The FA 22:4 n-6, while increasing with spawning, appears to play a role in post-spawning gonad recovery. Salinity did not have an effect on the AA <span class="hlt">composition</span>. None of the environmental parameters measured had an effect on FA <span class="hlt">composition</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Narciso, Luis; Marques, António; Bandarra, Narcisa; Rosa, Rui</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CorRe..30..217D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Differential stability of photosynthetic membranes and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> at elevated temperature in Symbiodinium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Coral reefs are threatened by increasing surface seawater temperatures resulting from climate change. Reef-building corals symbiotic with dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium experience dramatic reductions in algal densities when exposed to temperatures above the long-term local summer average, leading to a phenomenon called coral bleaching. Although the temperature-dependent loss in photosynthetic function of the algal symbionts has been widely recognized as one of the early events leading to coral bleaching, there is considerable debate regarding the actual damage site. We have tested the relative thermal stability and <span class="hlt">composition</span> of membranes in Symbiodinium exposed to high temperature. Our results show that melting curves of photosynthetic membranes from different symbiotic dinoflagellates substantiate a species-specific sensitivity to high temperature, while variations in fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> under high temperature rather suggest a complex process in which various modifications in lipid <span class="hlt">composition</span> may be involved. Our results do not support the role of unsaturation of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> of the thylakoid membrane as being mechanistically involved in bleaching nor as being a dependable tool for the diagnosis of thermal susceptibility of symbiotic reef corals.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Díaz-Almeyda, E.; Thomé, P. E.; El Hafidi, M.; Iglesias-Prieto, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/451098"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carbon isotope <span class="hlt">composition</span> of individual amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> in the Murchison meteorite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A SIGNIFICANT parties of prebiotic organic matter on the early Earth may have been introduced by carbonaceous asteroids and comets.{sup 1} The distribution and stable-isotope <span class="hlt">composition</span> of individual organic compounds in carbonaceous meteorites, which are thought to be derived from asteroidal parent bodies, may therefore provide important information concerning mechanistic pathways for prebiotic synthesis{sup 2} and the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of organic matter on Earth before living systems developed.{sup 3} Previous studies{sup 11,12} have shown that meteorite amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> are enriched in {sup 13}C relatives to their terrestrial counterparts, but individual species were not distinguished. Here we report the {sup 13}C contents of individual amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> in the Murchison meteorite. The amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> are enriched in {sup 13}C, indicating an extraterrestrial origin. Alanine is not racemic, and the {sup 13}C enrichment of its D- and L-enantiomers implies that the excess of the L-enantiomer is indigenous rather than terrestrial contamination, suggesting that optically active materials were present in the early Solar System before life began. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Engel, M.H. [School of Geology and Geophysics, 100 E Boyd Street, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Macko, S.A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903 (United States); Silter, J.A. [School of Geology and Geophysics, 100 E Boyd Street, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22273976"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dissolution of cerium(IV)-lanthanide(III) oxides: Comparative effect of chemical <span class="hlt">composition</span>, temperature, and <span class="hlt">acidity</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dissolution of Ce{sub 1-x}Ln{sub x}O{sub 2-x/2} solid solutions was undertaken in various <span class="hlt">acid</span> media in order to evaluate the effects of several physicochemical parameters such as chemical <span class="hlt">composition</span>, temperature, and <span class="hlt">acidity</span> on the reaction kinetics. The normalized dissolution rates (R{sub L,0}) were found to be strongly modified by the trivalent lanthanide incorporation rate, due to the presence of oxygen vacancies decreasing the samples cohesion. Conversely, the nature of the trivalent cation considered only weakly impacted the R{sub L,0} values. The dependence of the normalized dissolution rates on the temperature then appeared to be of the same order of magnitude than that of chemical <span class="hlt">composition</span>. Moreover, it allowed determining the corresponding activation energy (E{sub A} ? 60-85 kJ.mol{sup -1}) which accounts for a dissolution driven by surface-controlled reactions. A similar conclusion was made regarding the <span class="hlt">acidity</span> of the solution: the partial order related to (H{sub 3}O{sup +}) reaching about 0.7. Finally, the prevailing effect of the incorporation of aliovalent cations in the fluorite-type CeO{sub 2} matrix on the dissolution kinetics precluded the observation of slight effects such as those linked to the complexing agents or to the crystal structure of the samples. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Horlait, D.; Clavier, N.; Szenknect, S.; Dacheux, N.; Dubois, V. [ICSM, CEA CNRS UM2 ENSCM, UMR 5257, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze, (France)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3899287"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of Aptamer-Target Interacting Pairs with Pseudo-Amino <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">Composition</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aptamers are oligonucleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> or peptide molecules that bind to specific target molecules. As a novel and powerful class of ligands, aptamers are thought to have excellent potential for applications in the fields of biosensing, diagnostics and therapeutics. In this study, a new method for predicting aptamer-target interacting pairs was proposed by integrating features derived from both aptamers and their targets. Features of nucleotide <span class="hlt">composition</span> and traditional amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> as well as pseudo amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> were utilized to represent aptamers and targets, respectively. The predictor was constructed based on Random Forest and the optimal features were selected by using the maximum relevance minimum redundancy (mRMR) method and the incremental feature selection (IFS) method. As a result, 81.34% accuracy and 0.4612 MCC were obtained for the training dataset, and 77.41% accuracy and 0.3717 MCC were achieved for the testing dataset. An optimal feature set of 220 features were selected, which were considered as the ones that contributed significantly to the interacting aptamer-target pair predictions. Analysis of the optimal feature set indicated several important factors in determining aptamer-target interactions. It is anticipated that our prediction method may become a useful tool for identifying aptamer-target pairs and the features selected and analyzed in this study may provide useful insights into the mechanism of interactions between aptamers and targets. PMID:24466214</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Guo-Hua; Cui, Wei-Ren; Zhang, Ning; Cai, Yu-Dong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49211549"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of glycyl <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> on the micellar behavior of gemini surfactant: A conductometric and fluorescence spectroscopic study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of glycyl <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> (glycylglycine, glycyl-L-valine, and glycyl-L-leucine) on the micellar properties of gemini surfactant pentamethylene-1,5-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium bromide) (12-5-12) has been investigated by means of conductivity and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results obtained from conductivity show that the effect of glycyl <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> depends upon their nature and concentration, as well as the temperature. The values of critical micelle concentration (cmc) of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhenning Yan; Yu Li; Xiaolan Wang; Junying Dan; Jianji Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14519807"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dietary conjugated linoleic <span class="hlt">acids</span> as free fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> and triacylglycerols similarly affect body <span class="hlt">composition</span> and energy balance in mice.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this study was to compare the effects of conjugated linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (CLA) as triacylglycerols (TAG) or free fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (FFA) on body <span class="hlt">composition</span> and energy balance in mice. We fed four groups of 5-wk-old Balb-C mice (n = 9) semipurified diets containing either CLA (0.5 g CLA/100 g of diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSF) in the form of FFA or TAG for 42 d. Body <span class="hlt">composition</span> was determined and the energy in the carcasses, excreta and food was measured in a bomb calorimeter. The amount of body fat was 4.72 +/- 0.95 g (17.9 +/- 2.8%) in the HOSF-FFA group, 2.36 +/- 0.29 g (9.4 +/- 1.0%) in the CLA-FFA mice (mean +/- SD, P < 0.05), 4.76 +/- 0.74 g (18.2 +/- 2.2%) in the HOSF-TAG group and 2.32 +/- 0.38 g (9.3 +/- 1.1%) in the CLA-TAG mice (P < 0.05). The percentage of energy intake that was stored in the body was 3.5 +/- 1.2% in the HOSF-FFA group, 0.6 +/- 0.3% in the CLA-FFA group (P < 0.05), 3.5 +/- 1.1% in the HOSF-TAG group and 0.5 +/- 0.4 in the CLA-TAG mice (P < 0.05). Conversely, the percentage of energy intake that was expended as heat was 89.4 +/- 1.2% in the HOSF-FFA group, 92.4 +/- 0.8% in the CLA-FFA mice (P < 0.05), 89.47 +/- 1.23% in the HOSF-TAG group and 92.2 +/- 0.4% in the CLA-TAG group (P < 0.05). Thus, CLA in the form of FFA or TAG had similar effects on body <span class="hlt">composition</span> and energy balance. PMID:14519807</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Terpstra, A H M; Javadi, M; Beynen, A C; Kocsis, S; Lankhorst, A E; Lemmens, A G; Mohede, I C M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48113144"> <span id="translatedtitle">The influence of a dietary lipid source on growth, muscle fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of hybrid tilapia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of various dietary lipids on the growth, tissue proximate <span class="hlt">composition</span>, muscle fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic semipurified diets were supplemented with 10% of either cod liver oil (CLO), sunflower oil (SFO), crude palm oil (CPO), crude palm kernel</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wing-Keong Ng; Phaik-Kin Lim; Hadizah Sidek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5572844"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in major lipid classes of the dominant benthic invertebrates of the Yenisei river</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">composition</span> and content of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (FAs) in total lipids, triacylglycerols (TAG) and polar lipids (PL) in dominant groups of benthic invertebrates: gammarids (Gammaridae, Amphipoda), chironomid larvae (Chironomidae, Diptera), caddisfly larvae (Trichoptera) and mayfly larvae (Ephemeroptera) were studied in the Yenisei river. For the first time data on the FA <span class="hlt">composition</span> of species belonging to Trichoptera (Insecta) are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. N. Sushchik; M. I. Gladyshev; A. V. Moskvichova; O. N. Makhutova; G. S. Kalachova</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23418604"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preparation, characterization and thermal properties of lauric <span class="hlt">acid</span>\\/expanded perlite as novel form-stable <span class="hlt">composite</span> phase change material</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper mainly includes the preparation of a novel form-stable <span class="hlt">composite</span> phase change material (PCM) by incorporation of lauric <span class="hlt">acid</span> (LA) within the expanded perlite (EP), characterization of the <span class="hlt">composite</span> by SEM and FT-IR techniques and determination of thermal properties and thermal reliability of the <span class="hlt">composite</span> PCM using DSC analysis. The LA could be retained by 60wt.% into EP without</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahmet Sar?; Ali Karaipekli; Cemil Alkan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37172823"> <span id="translatedtitle">Red blood cell fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> in a patient with autistic spectrum disorder: a characteristic abnormality in neurodevelopmental disorders?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of red blood cell (RBC) phospholipids from a patient with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) had reduced percentages of highly unsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (HUFA) compared to control samples. The percentage of HUFA in the RBC from the autistic patient was dramatically reduced (up to 70%) when the sample was stored for 6 weeks at ?20°C. However, only</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. G. Bell; J. R. Sargent; D. R. Tocher; J. R. Dick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57159617"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span>, cholesterol and fat-soluble vitamin <span class="hlt">composition</span> of wild and captive freshwater crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The proximate analysis (dry matter, protein, fat and ash), cholesterol, fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> and fat-soluble vitamin <span class="hlt">compositions</span> of the tail muscle of wild caught and captive crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) were investigated. Captive crayfish contained higher moisture and fat content than wild crayfish. In contrast, wild crayfish contained a higher level of crude protein, ash and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (PUFA), particularly</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Gül Harlio?lu; S. Aydin; Ö. Yilmaz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21859315"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adhesion of resin <span class="hlt">composite</span> to hydrofluoric <span class="hlt">acid</span>-exposed enamel and dentin in repair protocols.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intraoral repairs of ceramic fixed-dental-prostheses (FDP) often include cervical recessions that require pretreatment of the exposed tooth surfaces either before or after the ceramic is conditioned with hydrofluoric (HF) <span class="hlt">acid</span> gel. The sequence of repair protocol may cross-contaminate the exposed etched enamel or dentin surfaces during the application or rinsing process and thereby affect the adhesion. This study evaluated the influence of HF <span class="hlt">acid</span> gel with two concentrations on bond strengths of <span class="hlt">composite</span> to enamel and dentin. Human third molars (N=100, n=10 per group) with similar sizes were selected and randomly divided into 10 groups. Flat surfaces of enamel and dentin were created by wet ground finishing. Before or after the enamel (E) or dentin (D) was conditioned with phosphoric <span class="hlt">acid</span> (P), substrate surfaces were conditioned with either 9.5% HF (HF(9.5)) or 5% HF (HF(5)). Subsequently, a bonding agent (B) was applied. The experimental groups by conditioning sequence were as follows where the first letter of the group abbreviation represents the substrate (E or D) followed by the <span class="hlt">acid</span> type and concentration: group 1 (EPHF(9.5)), group 2 (EPHF(5)), group 3 (EHF(9.5)P), group 4 (EHF(5)P), group 5 (DPHF(9.5)), group 6 (DPHF(5)), group 7 (DHF(9.5)P), and group 8 (DHF(5)P). Group 9 (EPB) and group 10 (DPB) acted as the control groups. Repair resin was adhered incrementally onto the conditioned enamel and dentin in polyethylene molds. Each layer was photo-polymerized for 40 seconds. All specimens were thermocycled (×1000, 5°-55°C) and subjected to shear test (universal testing machine, 1 mm/min). Specimens that debonded during thermocycling were considered as 0 MPa. The bond strength data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test and failure types using the chi-square test (?=0.05). Overall, the bond results (MPa) were lower on dentin than on enamel (p<0.01). EPB (25.6 ± 6.6) and DPB (20.2 ± 4.9) control groups showed significantly higher results than those of other groups (p<0.05). While higher mean bond strengths were obtained in group 1 (EPHF(9.5)) (11.5 ± 2.1) and group 2 (EPHF(5)) (7.3 ± 0.6), lower results were obtained when HF <span class="hlt">acid</span> gels were applied prior to phosphoric <span class="hlt">acid</span> (EHF(9.5)P: 5.0 ± 1.1, EHF(5)P: 3.6 ± 0.1) (p<0.05). On dentin, the results were the lowest in group 8 (DHF(5)P: 1.5 ± 1.6), being significantly lower than those of group 5 (DPHF(9.5)) (p<0.05). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images revealed predominantly mixed failures with less than half of the <span class="hlt">composite</span> left on both enamel and dentin surfaces (64 out of 80) (p<0.05), indicating that in general, adhesion was not ideal. Contamination of the enamel or dentin surfaces with HF <span class="hlt">acid</span> gel impairs the bond strength of <span class="hlt">composites</span>. Considering both the bond strength results and failure types, when dental tissues are to be repaired next to ceramic, application of phosphoric <span class="hlt">acid</span> before HF <span class="hlt">acid</span> gel application can be recommended. HF <span class="hlt">acid</span> gel concentration did not influence the results except on enamel. PMID:21859315</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saracoglu, A; Ozcan, M; Kumbuloglu, O; Turkun, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940030569&hterms=die+casting&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3D%2528die%2Bcasting%2529"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low pressure process for continuous fiber reinforced polyamic <span class="hlt">acid</span> resin matrix <span class="hlt">composite</span> laminates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A low pressure processor was developed for preparing a well-consolidated polyimide <span class="hlt">composite</span> laminate. Prepreg plies were formed from unidirectional fibers and a polyamic <span class="hlt">acid</span> resin solution. Molding stops were placed at the sides of a matched metal die mold. The prepreg plies were cut shorter than the length of the mold in the in-plane lateral direction and were stacked between the molding stops to a height which was higher than the molding stops. The plies were then compressed to the height of the stops and heated to allow the volatiles to escape and to start the imidization reaction. After removing the stops from the mold, the heat was increased and 0 - 500 psi was applied to complete the imidization reaction. The heat and pressure were further increased to form a consolidated polyimide <span class="hlt">composite</span> laminate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Druyun, Darleen A. (inventor); Hou, Tan-Hung (inventor); Kidder, Paul W. (inventor); Reddy, Rakasi M. (inventor); Baucom, Robert M. (inventor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25142132"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Composition</span> of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, triacylglycerols and polar compounds of different walnut varieties (Juglans regia L.) from Tunisia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The chemical <span class="hlt">composition</span> (total oil content, fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, triacylglycerols (TAGs) and polar compounds) of six walnuts (Juglans regia L.) cultivars (Lauzeronne, Franquette, Hartley, Local pt, Local gd and Parisienne) collected from Mateur (north of Tunisia) was evaluated. The major fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> found in the walnut oils are linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (60.42-65.77%), oleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (13.21-19.94%) and linolenic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (7.61-13%). The TAG species were mainly composed of trilinolein (LLL), dilinoleoyl-linolenoyl-glycerol, dilinoleoyl-oleoyl-glycerol and palmitoyl-dilinoleoyl-glycerol classes. The results revealed that Local pt variety has the highest level of oil (62.56%), linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (65.77%) and LLL (33.48%). Significant differences among oil samples were observed, therefore showing a great variability in the oil <span class="hlt">composition</span> among cultivars. PMID:25142132</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bouabdallah, I; Bouali, I; Martinez-Force, E; Albouchi, A; Perez Camino, M C; Boukhchina, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhyB..407.2451K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preparation and characterization of aligned carbon nanotubes/polylactic <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composite</span> fibers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aligned functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polylactic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (MWNTs-PCL/PLA) <span class="hlt">composite</span> fibers were successfully prepared by electrospinning processing. The MWNTs bonded with the polycaprolactone chains exhibited excellent uniform dispersion in PLA solution by comparing with the <span class="hlt">acid</span>-functionalized MWNTs and amino-functionalized MWNTs. Optical microscopy was used to study the aligned degree of the fibers and to investigate the influences of the electrodes distance on the alignment and structure of the fibers, and results showed that the best quality of aligned fibers with dense structure and high aligned degree were obtained at an electrodes distance of 3 cm. Moreover, the MWNTs embedded inside the MWNTs-PCL/PLA fibers displayed well orientation along the axes of the fibers, which was demonstrated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kong, Yuxia; Yuan, Jie; Qiu, Jun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18069321"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Comparative study of the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of some groups of purple nonsulfur bacteria].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> (FAC) of 43 strains of purple nonsulfur bacteria belonging to six genera--Rubrivivax, Rhodopseudomonas, Rhodoplanes, Blastochloris, Rhodobium, and Rhodomicrobium--was studied by capillary gas chromatography. The cultures were grown on standard medium under standard conditions. Automatic identification of the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> methyl esters and statistical processing of the results were performed by the computerized Microbial Identification System (M.I.S). Significant differences between the FACs of different genera, species, and, sometimes, strains were revealed. 16S rRNA genes of some of the new isolates, primarily those having a specific FAC, were sequenced. The taxonomic status of a number of the strains in question was determined using the FAC characteristics as one of the criteria. It was shown that the FAC characteristics may be used both for affiliating the isolates to known species and for revealing new taxa. PMID:18069321</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kompantseva, E I; Imhoff, J F; Thiemann, B; Panteleeva, E E; Akimov, V N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35571582"> <span id="translatedtitle">Unusual fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of cerebrosides from the filamentous soil fungus Mortierella alpina</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The cerebrosides produced by the soil filamentous fungus Mortierella alpina strain KG-1\\/95 account for about 13% of the total polar lipids extractable from lyophilised cells with chloroform\\/methanol mixtures. By means of 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionisation mass spectrometry, and chemical degradation experiment, they have been shown to be 1-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-2-N-(2?-d-hydroxyalkanoyl)-9-methylsphinga-4(E),8(E)-dienines, the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of which is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. G Batrakov; I. V Konova; V. I Sheichenko; S. E Esipov; L. A Galanina; L. N Istratova</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23754145"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">compositional</span> characteristics of amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> between livestock wastewater and carcass leachate.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study was purposed to examine the use of amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> as an indicator to determine whether groundwater around carcass burial sites is polluted by livestock wastewater (LW) or carcass leachate (CL). The analysis of samples showed that the average amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> concentration of carcass leachate (531.897 mg/L; 4341.784 ?mol/L) was about 300 times as high as that of livestock wastewater (1.755 mg/L; 16.283 ?mol/L). To identify distinct characteristics between LW and CL, six amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> were paired with one another to calculate their relative <span class="hlt">composition</span> ratios, which were found to be Leu/Trp (CL 8.39?98.6, LW 0.89?4.77), Val/Trp (CL 11.95?175.38, LW 0.73?3.62), Lys/Leu (CL 0.01?0.72, LW 0.96?8.44), Lys/Ile (CL 0.02?1.55, LW 1.64?10.99), Met/Lys (CL 0.14?0.45, LW 0.03?0.14), and Ile/Val (CL 0.38?0.73, LW 0.40?0.97). The hierarchical clustering result showed that the similarity was 0.617 among the seven LW samples and 0.563 among the seven CL samples, while the similarity between LW and CL samples was 0.198, presenting that these two sources are distinct from each other. All these results indicate that amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> can be used as a tracer to evaluate if the contamination source is livestock wastewater or carcass leachate. To apply amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> to tracing pollutants more effectively, however, further studies are needed to understand whether the relative abundance ratios of amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> are maintained as they are transporting through soils as a medium. PMID:23754145</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Choi, Jong-Woo; Kim, Jee-Young; Nam, Yong-Jae; Lee, Won-Seok; Han, Jin-Seok</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49330161"> <span id="translatedtitle">Habitat effects on yield, fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and tocopherol contents of prickly pear ( Opuntia ficus- indica L.) seed oils</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, oil yields, fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and tocopherol contents of prickly pear seeds were determined. The oil contents of the seeds of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) varied from 5.0% (Ortaören) to 14.4% (Eskioba). Palmitic <span class="hlt">acid</span> contents of seed oils ranged between 10.6% (Mut) and 12.8% (Kepez). While seed oils contained 13.0% (Hatay-2) to 23.5% (Kepez) oleic <span class="hlt">acid</span>, its</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bertrand Matthäus; Mehmet Musa Özcan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22899574"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study of the <span class="hlt">compositional</span> heterogeneity in poly( N-isopropylacrylamide–acrylic <span class="hlt">acid</span>) microgels by potentiometric titration experiments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">compositional</span> distribution of acrylic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (AA) residues in poly(N-isopropylacrylamide–acrylic <span class="hlt">acid</span>) [poly(NIPAM–AA)] microgels has been investigated using alkaline titration experiments. It is found that the apparent <span class="hlt">acid</span> dissociation constant (pKaapp) of the AA residues increases with the degree of dissociation. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises as AA residues dissociate, and the pKaapp change depends on the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morten Lykkegaard Christensen; Kristian Keiding</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22519122"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nickel-cadmium batteries: effect of electrode phase <span class="hlt">composition</span> on <span class="hlt">acid</span> leaching process.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">At the end of their life, Ni-Cd batteries cause a number of environmental problems because of the heavy metals they contain. Because of this, recycling of Ni-Cd batteries has been carried out by dedicated companies using, normally, pyrometallurgical technologies. As an alternative, hydrometallurgical processes have been developed based on leaching operations using several types of leachants. The effect of factors like temperature, <span class="hlt">acid</span> concentration, reaction time, stirring speed and grinding of material on the leaching yields of metals contained in anodic and cathodic materials (nickel, cadmium and cobalt) using sulphuric <span class="hlt">acid</span>, is herein explained based on the structural <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the electrode materials. The nickel, cobalt and cadmium hydroxide phases, even with a small reaction time (less than 15 minutes) and low temperature (50 degrees C) and <span class="hlt">acid</span> concentration (1.1 M H2SO4), were efficiently leached. However, leaching of the nickel metallic phase was more difficult, requiring higher values of temperature, <span class="hlt">acid</span> concentration and reaction time (e.g. 85 degrees C, 1.1 M H2SO4 and 5 h, respectively) in order to obtain a good leaching efficiency for anodic and cathodic materials (70% and 93% respectively). The stirring speed was not significant, whereas the grinding of electrode materials seems to promote the compaction of particles, which appears to be critical in the leaching of Ni degrees. These results allowed the identification and understanding of the relationship between the structural <span class="hlt">composition</span> of electrode materials and the most important factors that affect the H2SO4 leaching of spent Ni-Cd battery electrodes, in order to obtain better metal-recovery efficiency. PMID:22519122</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nogueira, C A; Margarido, F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3749172"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen Consumption Constrains Food Intake in Fish Fed Diets Varying in Essential Amino <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">Composition</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Compromisation of food intake when confronted with diets deficient in essential amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> is a common response of fish and other animals, but the underlying physiological factors are poorly understood. We hypothesize that oxygen consumption of fish is a possible physiological factor constraining food intake. To verify, we assessed the food intake and oxygen consumption of rainbow trout fed to satiation with diets which differed in essential amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> (methionine and lysine) <span class="hlt">compositions</span>: a balanced vs. an imbalanced amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> diet. Both diets were tested at two water oxygen levels: hypoxia vs. normoxia. Trout consumed 29% less food under hypoxia compared to normoxia (p<0.001). Under both hypoxia and normoxia trout significantly reduced food intake by 11% and 16% respectively when fed the imbalanced compared to the balanced amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> diet. Oxygen consumption of the trout per unit body mass remained identical for both diet groups not only under hypoxia but also under normoxia (p>0.05). This difference in food intake between diets under normoxia together with the identical oxygen consumption supports the hypothesis that food intake in fish can be constrained by a set-point value of oxygen consumption, as seen here on a six-week time scale. PMID:23991148</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saravanan, Subramanian; Geurden, Inge; Figueiredo-Silva, A. Claudia; Nusantoro, Suluh; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Verreth, Johan; Schrama, Johan W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21700399"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of morning vs. afternoon grazing on intramuscular fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> in lamb.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study was to assess whether different grazing management affect animal performance and meat fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>. Thirty-five lambs were divided into three groups: 12 lambs grazed from 9 am to 5 pm (8 h group); 11 lambs grazed from 9 am to 1 pm (4hAM group) and 12 lambs grazed from 1 pm to 5 pm (4hPM group). The trial was conducted over 72 days. The 8 h lambs had greater DMI (P<0.0005) and final body weight (P<0.05) than the 4hPM and 4hAM lambs while carcass weight was not different between the three groups. The meat of the 4hPM lambs contained greater (P<0.05) percentages of polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, C18:2 cis-9 trans-11 and lower saturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> and C18:0 than the meat of the 8 h and 4hAM lambs. It is concluded that allowing lambs to graze during the afternoon rather than during 8 h does not compromise the carcass yield and results in a healthier meat fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> profile. PMID:21700399</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vasta, Valentina; Pagano, Renato Italo; Luciano, Giuseppe; Scerra, Manuel; Caparra, Pasquale; Foti, Francesco; Cilione, Caterina; Biondi, Luisa; Priolo, Alessandro; Avondo, Marcella</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10564005"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changes of amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and lysinoalanine formation in alkali-pickled duck eggs.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Duck eggs were pickled in alkali for 20 days to prepare Pidan. The extent of the degradation of <span class="hlt">compositional</span> amino <span class="hlt">acids</span>, the formation of lysinoalanine (LAL) in Pidan, and the relationship between the formation of LAL and the racemization values of D-serine and D-aspartic <span class="hlt">acid</span> in Pidan albumen during the pickling period were investigated. Results showed that the remaining percentages of Cys, Arg, Lys, Ser, and Thr in albumen were much lower than that of the corresponding amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> in yolk. The formation of LAL in albumen in the first stage was due to the speedy increase in the pH and the abundant formation of dehydroalanine (DHA) from cysteine. However, the formation of LAL in the later pickling period was related much more to the alkali-treating time than to the pH factor. Among the amino <span class="hlt">acids</span>, cysteine was observed to be the most sensitive to alkaline and contributed mostly to the formation of LAL throughout the pickling period. PMID:10564005</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, H M; Tsai, C F; Li, C F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15969511"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemometric discrimination among wild and cultured age-0 largemouth bass, black crappies, and white crappies based on fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The potential to distinguish juvenile wild from cultured fishes and to discriminate among juvenile fishes by species based on fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> was demonstrated. Statistical approaches to data evaluation included analysis of variance, correlation analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA). Differences were determined between wild and cultured fishes both within and between species and between hatcheries. Fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">compositions</span> were compared among individual (not <span class="hlt">composited</span>) specimens of wild and cultured, age-0, freshwater species: largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, black crappies Pomoxis nigromaculatus, white crappies P. annularis, and black-nose crappies. Four fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> were investigated: linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (18:2n-6), linolenic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (18:3n-3), arachidonic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (20:4n-6), and docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (22:6n-3). Linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> was the primary fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> used to differentiate juvenile wild from cultured fishes. Concentrations of linoleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> were significantly different (p < 0.05) in cultured largemouth bass and black crappies from the wild counterparts. Linolenic <span class="hlt">acid</span> concentrations were not significantly different (p < 0.05) between wild and cultured largemouth bass but were significantly different between wild and cultured black crappies. Wild largemouth bass contained higher concentrations of arachidonic <span class="hlt">acid</span> than the cultured bass, and concentrations of docosahexaenoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> were twice as high in wild black crappies than cultured black crappies. On the basis of four signature fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, 90 of 91 juvenile fishes were correctly classified as wild or cultured; 32 of 37 wild juvenile fishes originating from the same reservoir were differentiated by species. Data from the training set were used to classify a test set of fishes as to species, source, or origin with 100% accuracy. PMID:15969511</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tritt, Kay L; O'Bara, Christopher J; Wells, Martha J M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-06-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24896538"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stable emulsions formed by self-assembly of interfacial networks of <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> derivatives.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We demonstrate the use of <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> amphiphiles that, by hand shaking of a biphasic solvent system for a few seconds, form emulsions that remain stable for months through the formation of nanofibrous networks at the organic/aqueous interface. Unlike absorption of traditional surfactants, the interfacial networks form by self-assembly through ?-stacking interactions and hydrogen bonding. Altering the <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> sequence has a dramatic effect on the properties of the emulsions formed, illustrating the possibility of tuning emulsion properties by chemical design. The systems provide superior long-term stability toward temperature and salts compared to with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and can be enzymatically disassembled causing on-demand demulsification under mild conditions. The interfacial networks facilitate highly tunable and stable encapsulation and compartmentalization with potential applications in cosmetics, therapeutics, and food industry. PMID:24896538</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bai, Shuo; Pappas, Charalampos; Debnath, Sisir; Frederix, Pim W J M; Leckie, Joy; Fleming, Scott; Ulijn, Rein V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13.2235M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molecular <span class="hlt">composition</span> of dicarboxylic <span class="hlt">acids</span>, ketocarboxylic <span class="hlt">acids</span>, ?-dicarbonyls and fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in atmospheric aerosols from Tanzania, East Africa during wet and dry seasons</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atmospheric aerosol samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected during the wet and dry seasons in 2011 from a rural site in Tanzania and analysed for water-soluble dicarboxylic <span class="hlt">acids</span>, ketocarboxylic <span class="hlt">acids</span>, ?-dicarbonyls, and fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> using a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry. Here we report the molecular <span class="hlt">composition</span> and sources of diacids and related compounds for wet and dry seasons. Oxalic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (C2) was found as the most abundant diacid species followed by succinic and/or malonic <span class="hlt">acids</span> whereas glyoxylic <span class="hlt">acid</span> and glyoxal were the dominant ketoacid and ?-dicarbonyl, respectively in both seasons in PM2.5 and PM10. Mean concentration of C2 in PM2.5 (121 ± 47 ng m-3) was lower in wet season than dry season (258 ± 69 ng m-3). Similarly, PM10 samples showed lower concentration of C2 (169 ± 42 ng m-3) in wet season than dry season (292 ± 165 ng m-3). Relative abundances of C2 in total diacids were 65% and 67% in PM2.5 and 65% and 64% in PM10 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Total concentrations of diacids (289-362 ng m-3), ketoacids (37.8-53.7 ng m-3), and ?-dicarbonyls (5.7-7.8 ng m-3) in Tanzania are higher than those reported at a rural background site in Nylsvley (South Africa) but comparable or lower than those reported from sites in Asia and Europe. Diacids and ketoacids were found to be present mainly in PM2.5 in both seasons (total ?-dicarbonyls in the dry season), suggesting a production of organic <span class="hlt">acids</span> from pyrogenic sources and photochemical oxidations. Averaged contributions of total diacids to aerosol total carbon were 1.4% in PM2.5 and 2.1% in PM10 during wet season and 3.3% in PM2.5 and 3.9% in PM10 during dry season whereas those to water-soluble organic carbon were 2.2% and 4.7% in PM2.5 during wet season and 3.1% and 5.8% in PM10 during dry season. The higher ratios in dry season suggest an enhanced photochemical oxidation of organic precursors probably via heterogeneous reactions on aerosols under strong solar radiation. Strong positive correlations were found among diacids and related compounds as well as good relations to source tracers in both seasons, suggesting a mixed source from natural biogenic emissions, biomass burning, biofuel combustion, and photochemical production.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mkoma, S. L.; Kawamura, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35488438"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adjuvant activity of muramyl <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> derivatives to enhance immunogenicity of a hantavirus-inactivated vaccine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The adjuvant effect of two lipophilic derivatives of muramyl <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> (MDP), B30-MDP and MDP-Lys(L18), on the ability of an inactivated vaccine of B-1 virus (B-1 vaccine) to induce immune response against Hantavirus causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) was examined. When mice were immunized subcutaneously (s.c.) twice at 2-week intervals with B-1 vaccine admixed with or without 100 ?g</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yung Choon Yoo; Kumiko Yoshimatsu; Yuko Koike; Rei Hatsuse; Koichi Yamanishi; Osamu Tanishita; Jiro Arikawa; Ichiro Azuma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35284837"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cyclic <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> exhibit synergistic, broad spectrum antimicrobial effects and have anti-mutagenic properties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cyclic <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> are known to have antiviral, antibiotic and antitumour properties. The aim of this study was to determine the combined effects of cyclo(l-leucyl–l-prolyl) and cyclo(l-phenylalanyl–l-prolyl) on the growth of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and pathogenic yeasts, as well as determining their anti-mutagenic effects. This drug combination was especially effective against five VRE strains: Enterococcus faecium (K-99-38), E. faecalis (K-99-17), E.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ki-Hyeong Rhee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/q486595577750641.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of the synthetic neuroprotective <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> noopept on glutamate release from rat brain cortex slices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The level of spontaneous and K+-stimulated release of endogenous glutamate was studied in experiments on slices of brain cortex of Wistar rats. Pronounced\\u000a spontaneous release of the neuromediator and its increase under conditions of stimulation were registered by high-performance\\u000a liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The effect of the nootropic and neuroprotective <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> Noopept (GVS-111)\\u000a on release of glutamate was investigated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. S. Us; P. M. Klodt; V. S. Kudrin; A. Ya. Sapronova; R. U. Ostrovskaya; M. V. Ugryumov; K. S. Rayevsky</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47965843"> <span id="translatedtitle">Immunomodulatory synthetic <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> L-Glu-L-Trp slowsdown aging and inhibits spontaneous carcinogenesis in rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Immunomodulatory molecule L-Glu-L-Trp wasisolated from natural calf thymic peptide complexThymalin by reverse-phase high performance liquidchromatography. On the basis of the synthesizeddipeptide a pharmaceutical was designed containg this compound, which later receives the brand nameThymogen®. The agent activated T-celldifferentiation, T-cell recognition of peptide-MHCcomplexes, induced changes in intracellularcomposition of cyclic nucleotides, and activatedneutrophilic chemotaxis and phagocytosis. The effectof <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> on survival, life</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vladimir N. Anisimov; Vladimir Kh. Khavinson; Vyacheslav G. Morozov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2662997"> <span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical Study of the Catalysis of Cyanohydrin Formation by the Cyclic <span class="hlt">Dipeptide</span> Catalyst cyclo[(S)-His-(S)-Phe</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Dipeptide</span> cyclo[(S)-His-(S)-Phe] 1, first applied by Inoue et al. in 1981, catalyzes the hydrocyanation of aromatic aldehydes very efficiently. Enantioselective autoinduction has also been reported for the process. We have employed QM (Density Functional Theory and MP2), Molecular Mechanics (MM) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) methods to (i) derive a mechanistic picture for catalysis and (ii) reveal the origin of stereochemistry and autoinduction. A dimer is proposed to be the catalytic species, in which one imidazole group is essential for the delivery of the nucleophile and the second imidazole group acts as an <span class="hlt">acid</span>, accompanied with ?-interaction for most favorable substrate binding. H-bonding via hydroxy groups is crucial for catalysis also. MD studies indicate stability of the dimer only in non-polar media, which is consistent with the need of the experimental (heterogeneous) reaction conditions to achieve high enantioselectivities. DFT and MP2 results suggest the incorporation of the product cyanohydrin via extended edge-to-face ?-interaction over three aromatic units. Transition states derived from this model are in good agreement with experimental findings and enantioselectivities. PMID:19161315</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schoenebeck, Franziska; Houk, K. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23629449"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design and synthesis of tryptophan containing <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> derivatives as formyl peptide receptor 1 antagonist.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our previous studies identified an Fmoc-(S,R)-tryptophan-containing <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> derivative, 1, which selectively inhibited neutrophil elastase release induced by formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP) in human neutrophils. In an attempt to improve pharmacological activity, a series of tryptophan-containing <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> were synthesized and their pharmacological activities were investigated in human neutrophils. Of these, five compounds 3, 6, 19a, 24a, and 24b exhibited potent and dual inhibitory effects on FMLP-induced superoxide anion (O2?(-)) generation and neutrophil elastase release in neutrophils with IC50 values of 0.23/0.60, 1.88/2.47, 1.87/3.60, 0.12/0.37, and 1.32/1.03 ?M, respectively. Further studies indicated that inhibition of superoxide production in human neutrophils by these <span class="hlt">dipeptides</span> was associated with the selective inhibition of formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1). Furthermore, the results of structure-activity relationship studies concluded that the fragment N-benzoyl-Trp-Phe-OMe (3) was most suitable as a core structure for interaction with FPR1, and may be approved as a lead for the development of new drugs in the treatment of neutrophilic inflammatory diseases. As some of the synthesized compounds exhibited separable conformational isomers, and showed diverse bioactivities, the conformation analysis of these compounds is also discussed herein. PMID:23629449</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hwang, Tsong-Long; Hung, Chih-Hao; Hsu, Ching-Yun; Huang, Yin-Ting; Tsai, Yu-Chi; Hsieh, Pei-Wen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3942691"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Dipeptide</span> Monoester Prodrugs of Floxuridine and Gemcitabine—Feasibility of Orally Administrable Nucleoside Analogs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Dipeptide</span> monoester prodrugs of floxuridine and gemcitabine were synthesized. Their chemical stability in buffers, enzymatic stability in cell homogenates, permeability in mouse intestinal membrane along with drug concentration in mouse plasma, and anti-proliferative activity in cancer cells were determined and compared to their parent drugs. Floxuridine prodrug was more enzymatically stable than floxuridine and the degradation from prodrug to parent drug works as the rate-limiting step. On the other hand, gemcitabine prodrug was less enzymatically stable than gemcitabine. Those <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> monoester prodrugs exhibited 2.4- to 48.7-fold higher uptake than their parent drugs in Caco-2, Panc-1, and AsPC-1 cells. Floxuridine and gemcitabine prodrugs showed superior permeability in mouse jejunum to their parent drugs and exhibited the higher drug concentration in plasma after in situ mouse perfusion. Cell proliferation assays in ductal pancreatic cancer cells, AsPC-1 and Panc-1, indicated that <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> prodrugs of floxuridine and gemcitabine were more potent than their parent drugs. The enhanced potency of nucleoside analogs was attributed to their improved membrane permeability. The prodrug forms of 5?-l-phenylalanyl-l-tyrosyl-floxuridine and 5?-l-phenylalanyl-l-tyrosyl-gemcitabine appeared in mouse plasma after the permeation of intestinal membrane and the first-pass effect, suggesting their potential for the development of oral dosage form for anti-cancer agents. PMID:24473270</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tsume, Yasuhiro; Bermejo, Blanca Borras; Amidon, Gordon L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9483398"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Dipeptide</span> nootropic agent GVS-111 prevents accumulation of the lipid peroxidation products during immobilization].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Immobilization of rats in a narrow plastic chamber for 24 h caused a sharp increase in the level of diene conjugates and the content of schiff bases in the synaptosomes of the brain cortex as well as accumulation of extraerythrocytic hemoglobin in blood serum. The <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> nootropic agent GVS-111 (ethyl ether of phenylacetylprolylglycine), when administered 15 and particularly 60 min before immobilization reduced the accumulation of these products of lipid peroxidation in the brain and blood. GVS-111 demonstrated these signs of its antioxidant effect after a single i.p. injection in doses of 0.12 and 0.5 mg/kg. Pyracetam produced a similar effect on the listed parameters in injection in a dose of 300 mg/kg for three successive days. The protective effect of the new pyracetam <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span> analog GVS-111 in relation to activation of free-radical processes induced by immobilization is additional proof of the antistress action of this <span class="hlt">dipeptide</span>. PMID:9483398</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lysenko, A V; Uskova, N I; Ostrovskaia, R U; Gudasheva, T A; Voronina, T A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4203290"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-resolution food webs based on nitrogen isotopic <span class="hlt">composition</span> of amino <span class="hlt">acids</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Food webs are known to have myriad trophic links between resource and consumer species. While herbivores have well-understood trophic tendencies, the difficulties associated with characterizing the trophic positions of higher-order consumers have remained a major problem in food web ecology. To better understand trophic linkages in food webs, analysis of the stable nitrogen isotopic <span class="hlt">composition</span> of amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> has been introduced as a potential means of providing accurate trophic position estimates. In the present study, we employ this method to estimate the trophic positions of 200 free-roaming organisms, representing 39 species in coastal marine (a stony shore) and 38 species in terrestrial (a fruit farm) environments. Based on the trophic positions from the isotopic <span class="hlt">composition</span> of amino <span class="hlt">acids</span>, we are able to resolve the trophic structure of these complex food webs. Our approach reveals a high degree of trophic omnivory (i.e., noninteger trophic positions) among carnivorous species such as marine fish and terrestrial hornets.This information not only clarifies the trophic tendencies of species within their respective communities, but also suggests that trophic omnivory may be common in these webs. PMID:25360278</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Steffan, Shawn A; Ogawa, Nanako O; Ishikawa, Naoto F; Sasaki, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Masashi; Ohkouchi, Naohiko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JChPh.130r5101J"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of lipid <span class="hlt">composition</span> for insertion and stabilization of amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> in membranes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While most membrane protein helices are clearly hydrophobic, recent experiments have indicated that it is possible to insert marginally hydrophobic helices into bilayers and have suggested apparent in vivo free energies of insertion for charged residues that are low, e.g., a few kcals for arginine. In contrast, a number of biophysical simulation studies have predicted that the bilayer interior is close to a pure hydrophobic environment with large penalties for hydrophilic amino <span class="hlt">acids</span>-and yet the experimental scales do significantly better at predicting actual membrane proteins from sequence. Here, we have systematically studied the dependence of the free energy profiles on lipid properties, including tail length, saturation, headgroup hydrogen bond strength, and charge, both to see to whether the in vivo insertion can be explained in whole or part from lipid <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, and if the solvation properties can help interpret how protein function depends on the lipids. We find that lipid charge is important to stabilize charged amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> inside the bilayer (with implications, e.g., for ion channels), that thicker bilayers have higher solvation costs for hydrophilic side chains, and that headgroup hydrogen bond strength determines how adaptive the lipids are as a hydrophobic/hydrophilic solvent. None of the different free energy profiles are even close to the low apparent in vivo insertion cost, which suggests that regardless of the specific ER membrane <span class="hlt">composition</span> the current experimental results cannot be explained by normal lipid-type variation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johansson, Anna C. V.; Lindahl, Erik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11065499"> <span id="translatedtitle">Requirement of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> for European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles: growth and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">European sea bass juveniles (14.4±0.1 g mean weight) were fed diets containing different levels of fish oil then of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (n-3 HUFA) for 12 weeks. The fish performance as well as fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> (FA) <span class="hlt">composition</span> of neutral and polar lipids from whole body after 7 and 12 weeks feeding were studied. The requirements of juvenile sea</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ali Skalli; Jean H. Robin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25092258"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distinctive lipid <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the copepod Limnocalanus macrurus with a high abundance of polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied the copepod Limnocalanus macrurus for seasonal variation in the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>, wax esters and sterols in large boreal lakes, where it occurs as a glacial-relict. Vast wax ester reserves of Limnocalanus were accumulated in a period of only two months, and comprised mono- and polyunsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (PUFA) and saturated fatty alcohols. In winter, the mobilization of wax esters was selective, and the proportion of long-chain polyunsaturated wax esters declined first. PUFA accounted for >50% of all fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> throughout the year reaching up to ca. 65% during late summer and fall. Long-chain PUFA 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 together comprised 17-40% of all fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>. The rarely reported C24 and C26 very-long-chain PUFA (VLC-PUFA) comprised 6.2 ± 3.4 % of all fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in August and 2.1 ± 1.7% in September. The VLC-PUFA are presumably synthesized by Limnocalanus from shorter chain-length precursors because they were not found in the potential food sources. We hypothesize that these VLC-PUFA help Limnocalanus to maximize lipid reserves when food is abundant. Sterol content of Limnocalanus, consisting ca. 90% of cholesterol, did not show great seasonal variation. As a lipid-rich copepod with high abundance of PUFA, Limnocalanus is excellent quality food for fish. The VLC-PUFA were also detected in planktivorous fish, suggesting that these compounds can be used as a trophic marker indicating feeding on Limnocalanus. PMID:25092258</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hiltunen, Minna; Strandberg, Ursula; Keinänen, Markku; Taipale, Sami; Kankaala, Paula</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3196505"> <span id="translatedtitle">A J-Like Protein Influences Fatty <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">Composition</span> of Chloroplast Lipids in Arabidopsis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A comprehensive understanding of the lipid and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> metabolic machinery is needed for optimizing production of oils and fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> for fuel, industrial feedstocks and nutritional improvement in plants. T-DNA mutants in the poorly annotated Arabidopsis thaliana gene At1g08640 were identified as containing moderately high levels (50–100%) of 16?1?7 and 18?1?9 leaf fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> and subtle decreases (5–30%) of 16?3 and 18?3 (http://www.plastid.msu.edu/). TLC separation of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in the leaf polar lipids revealed that the chloroplastic galactolipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) were the main lipid types affected by this mutation. Analysis of the inferred amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> sequence of At1g08640 predicted the presence of a transit peptide, three transmembrane domains and an N-terminal J-like domain, and the gene was named CJD1 for Chloroplast J-like Domain 1. GFP reporter experiments and in vitro chloroplast import assays demonstrated CJD1 is a chloroplast membrane protein. Screening of an Arabidopsis cDNA library by yeast-2-hybrid (Y2H) using the J-like domain of CJD1 as bait identified a plastidial inner envelope protein (Accumulation and Replication of Chloroplasts 6, ARC6) as the primary interacting partner in the Y2H assay. ARC6 plays a central role in chloroplast division and binds CJD1 via its own J-like domain along with an adjacent conserved region whose function is not fully known. These results provide a starting point for future investigations of how mutations in CJD1 affect lipid <span class="hlt">composition</span>. PMID:22028775</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ajjawi, Imad; Coku, Ardian; Froehlich, John E.; Yang, Yue; Osteryoung, Katherine W.; Benning, Christoph; Last, Robert L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22559919"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen content, amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and digestibility of fungi from a nutritional perspective in animal mycophagy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fungi comprise a major part of the diet of many animals. Even so, the nutritional value of fungi has been much debated, with some arguing that fungi are nutritionally poor. However, the chemical <span class="hlt">composition</span> of fungi and of the biology of the animals that eat them are not well understood, particularly in reference to amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> (AA) <span class="hlt">composition</span> of fungi and digestibility of fungal protein. We analysed fibre, total nitrogen (N), available N, and AA contents and measured in vitro digestibility of a wide range of epigeous and hypogeous fungi collected in Australia and the USA to test three hypotheses: (i) fungi are nutritionally poor because they contain few nutrients or are otherwise of low digestibility, (ii) fungi vary substantially in their nutritional <span class="hlt">composition</span>; and (iii) animals can counter this variable quality by eating diverse taxa. Resultant data indicate many fungi are a reasonable source of AAs and digestible nitrogen. However, they vary highly between species in AA content, and the protein has a poor balance of digestible AAs. This helps explain why many mycophagous animals eat a wide array of fungi and often have digestive strategies to cope with fungi, such as foregut fermentation. Another common strategy is to supplement the diet with high quality protein, such as insect protein. Accordingly, evaluating nutritional value of fungi requires consideration of physiology of the animal species and their whole diet. PMID:22559919</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wallis, Ian R; Claridge, Andrew W; Trappe, James M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6655395"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flow path-<span class="hlt">composition</span> relationships for groundwater entering an <span class="hlt">acidic</span> lake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relationship of groundwater flow paths to the <span class="hlt">acid</span>/base status and <span class="hlt">composition</span> of groundwater was examined by directly monitoring groundwater inputs to an <span class="hlt">acidic</span> Adirondack, New York, lake (Dart's Lake). Groundwater inputs near the shoreline of the lake were <span class="hlt">acidic</span> throughout the year ( pH <5 and alkalinity <0 [mu]eq L[sup [minus]1]) and reflected the influence of shallow soil horizons. Groundwater transported within the deep surficial deposits and through sediments farther from shore was characterized by higher alkalinity and higher pH values and was enriched in nitrate (>40 [mu]eq L[sup [minus]1]). Elevated concentrations of basic cations and alkalinity as well as lower concentrations of organic anions and sulfate were characteristic of deep ground water entering the lake at the study site. Spatial variability of groundwater chemistry was found to be substantial over a relatively short distance (<6 m) from the lake shoreline and indicates that input, to the lake of components dissolved in groundwater are highly flow path dependent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schafran, G.C. (Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)); Driscoll, C.T. (Syracuse Univ., NY (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24912363"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antioxidant capacity and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of different parts of Adenocarpus complicatus (Fabaceae) from Turkey.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Adenocarpus complicatus is distributed throughout the Anatolian peninsula and is widely used for human and animal nutrition. The purpose of this work was to study the antioxidant properties and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of different parts of this plant (fruits and mixed materials). The species was collected from Golyuzu village of the Seydisehir district near Konya province, Turkey. Fruit and mixed parts obtained from this species were ground and a 15g sample was used to prepare methanolic extracts. Powdered plant samples were extracted with 100mL methanol in a mechanical shaker. The obtained extracts were filtered and concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure and were subsequently stored at -20 degrees C. Antioxidant components, namely total phenolic and flavonoid content, were detected for each extract using spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by various assays including phosphomolybdenum, DPPH free radical scavenging capacity, metal chelating activity, and ferric and cupric ion reducing power. The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> profiles of plant parts were also determined by using gas chromatography. The total phenolic content of fruit (36.21mgGAE/g) was higher than that of mixed materials (13.79mgGAE/g). The methanolic extract of mixed material had higher amounts of flavonoid than fruit extract. The free radical scavenging activity of extracts was expressed as IC50 value (microg/mL) (amount required to inhibit DPPH radical formation by 50%). The lower IC50 value reflects better free radical scavenging action. The radical scavenging activity of the samples was compared with BHT, it showed the mixed material to be almost two times more potent than the fruit extract. However, BHT is an excellent free radical scavenger with an IC50 of 34.061 microg/mL. The ferric and cupric reducing power potentials of the extracts were expressed as EC50 value (the effective concentration at which the absorbance was 0.5). Fruit extract exhibited strong ferric reducing power with an EC50 of 871.25 microg/mL. The metal chelating activity of the extracts increased with concentration. Chelating effect was 83.60% for fruit extract at 1mg/mL concentration. Oil content of fruit and mixed parts were detected as 6.71 and 6.14%, respectively. A total of 32 fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> were found in the oil. Essential fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (linoleic and a-linolenic <span class="hlt">acid</span>) were identified as the most abundant fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> in the oil. These results demonstrated that this plant species can be considered as an alternative to synthetic antioxidants. Likewise, the oil obtained from the plant can be used as a source of essential fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> for food and pharmacological applications. PMID:24912363</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berber, Adnan; Zengin, Gokhan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Sanda, Murad Aydin; Uysal, Tuna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23796822"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ambient temperature and nutritional stress influence fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of structural and fuel lipids in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) tissues.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In birds, fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> (FA) serve as the primary metabolic fuel during exercise and fasting, and their <span class="hlt">composition</span> affects metabolic rate and thus energy requirements. To ascertain the relationship between FAs and metabolic rate, a distinction should be made between structural and fuel lipids. Indeed, increased unsaturation of structural lipid FAs brings about increased cell metabolism, and changes in the FA <span class="hlt">composition</span> of fuel lipids affects metabolic rate through selective mobilization and increasing availability of specific FAs. We examined the effects of acclimation to a low ambient temperature (Ta: 12.7±3.0°C) and nutritional status (fed or unfed) on the FA <span class="hlt">composition</span> of four tissues in Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica. Differentiating between neutral (triglycerides) and polar (phospholipids) lipids, we tested the hypothesis that both acclimation to low Ta and nutritional status modify FA <span class="hlt">composition</span> of triglycerides and phospholipids. We found that both factors affect FA <span class="hlt">composition</span> of triglycerides, but not the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of phospholipids. We also found changes in liver triacylglyceride FA <span class="hlt">composition</span> in the low-Ta acclimated quail, namely, the two FAs that differed, oleic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (18:1) and arachidonic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (20:4), were associated with thermoregulation. In addition, the FAs that changed with nutritional status were all reported to be involved in regulation of glucose metabolism, and thus we suggest that they also play a role in the response to fasting. PMID:23796822</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ben-Hamo, Miriam; McCue, Marshall D; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; McWilliams, Scott R; Pinshow, Berry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23565112"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of tetraether lipid <span class="hlt">composition</span> in the adaptation of thermophilic archaea to <span class="hlt">acidity</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Diether and tetraether lipids are fundamental components of the archaeal cell membrane. Archaea adjust the degree of tetraether lipid cyclization in order to maintain functional membranes and cellular homeostasis when confronted with pH and/or thermal stress. Thus, the ability to adjust tetraether lipid <span class="hlt">composition</span> likely represents a critical phenotypic trait that enabled archaeal diversification into environments characterized by extremes in pH and/or temperature. Here we assess the relationship between geochemical variation, core- and polar-isoprenoid glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT, respectively) lipid <span class="hlt">composition</span>, and archaeal 16S rRNA gene diversity and abundance in 27 geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The <span class="hlt">composition</span> and abundance of C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal ecosystems were distinct from surrounding soils, indicating that they are synthesized endogenously. With the exception of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), the abundances of individual C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids were significantly correlated. The abundance of a number of individual tetraether lipids varied positively with the relative abundance of individual 16S rRNA gene sequences, most notably crenarchaeol in both the core and polar GDGT fraction and sequences closely affiliated with Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. This finding supports the proposal that crenarchaeol is a biomarker for nitrifying archaea. Variation in the degree of cyclization of C- and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal mats and sediments could best be explained by variation in spring pH, with lipids from <span class="hlt">acidic</span> environments tending to have, on average, more internal cyclic rings than those from higher pH ecosystems. Likewise, variation in the phylogenetic <span class="hlt">composition</span> of archaeal 16S rRNA genes could best be explained by spring pH. In turn, the phylogenetic similarity of archaeal 16S rRNA genes was significantly correlated with the similarity in the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of C- and P-iGDGT lipids. Taken together, these data suggest that the ability to adjust the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of GDGT lipid membranes played a central role in the diversification of archaea into or out of environments characterized by extremes of low pH and high temperature. PMID:23565112</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boyd, Eric S; Hamilton, Trinity L; Wang, Jinxiang; He, Liu; Zhang, Chuanlun L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22801465"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variation of <span class="hlt">acidity</span> constants and pH values of some organic <span class="hlt">acids</span> in water—2-propanol mixtures with solvent <span class="hlt">composition</span>. Effect of preferential solvation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A general equation which relates the dissociation constant of an <span class="hlt">acid</span> with the solvent <span class="hlt">composition</span> in binary solvent mixtures is derived. The equation considers that the two solvents interact to form mixed structures. The electrolyte interacts with the mixed solvent formed and with the two pure solvents mixed. The degree of these interactions determines the preferential solvation of the electrolyte</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elisabeth Bosch; Clara Ràfols; Martí Rosés</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23100601"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mononuclear leukocyte fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> and inflammatory phenotype in periparturient and lactating sows.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Increased plasma NEFA concentrations and compromised immune responses are associated with increased disease susceptibility during farrowing and lactation. Increased plasma NEFA concentrations cause changes in the fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> (FA) content of plasma lipid fractions and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) that could modify inflammatory responses. The goals of this study were to describe changes in plasma lipid <span class="hlt">composition</span> and to characterize the FA content and proinflammatory phenotype of PBMC in periparturient and lactating sows. Blood samples from 10 sows were collected at 2 wk prefarrow, at 2 d after farrowing (hereafter referred to as farrowing), and at 18 d of lactation (hereafter referred to as lactation). Total lipids and lipid fractions were extracted from plasma and PBMC. Isolated PBMC also were assessed for gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes involved in lipid mediator biosynthesis using quantitative PCR. The FA profile of plasma NEFA, phospholipids, neutral lipids, and PBMC phospholipids differed from the <span class="hlt">composition</span> of total lipids in plasma. At farrowing and lactation, the proportion of palmitic and stearic <span class="hlt">acids</span> increased (P<0.05) in the plasma NEFA and phospholipid fractions in comparison with prefarrowing concentrations. At the same time, the concentration of palmitic and linoleic <span class="hlt">acids</span> increased (P<0.05) in the PBMC phospholipid fraction. Omega-3 FA, including docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic, increased (P<0.05) at farrowing in plasma and PBMC phospholipids compared with prefarrowing and lactation. Gene expression of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) decreased (P<0.05) after farrowing and in lactation. Similarly, cyclooxygenase expression was reduced during lactation when compared with farrowing (P<0.05). This study demonstrated changes in FA <span class="hlt">composition</span> of serum lipid fractions and PBMC cellular membranes. Furthermore, it provided an initial assessment of inflammatory responses in mononuclear cells as a function of plasma and PBMC content of saturated and omega-3 FA. Future studies need to address the effect of increased NEFA concentrations, the main hallmark of lipid mobilization, and changes in plasma and cellular lipid profiles on immune function. PMID:23100601</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Contreras, G A; Kirkwood, R N; Sordillo, L M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22686014"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Monosaccharide and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of exopolymer complex of bacteria-destructors of the protective coating of gas pipeline].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monosaccharide and fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of the exopolymer complex (EPC) of heterotrophic bacteria Pseudomonas pseudoalkaligenes 109, Pseudomonas sp. T/2, Rhodococcus erythropolis 102--destructors of the protective coating Polyken 980-25 has been studied. It is shown that qualitative and quantitative <span class="hlt">composition</span> of EPC components changes depending on the model of bacteria growth. Arabinose, mannose, galactose and glucose are dominating saccharides. Xylose has been revealed only under conditions of the biofilm form of growth of all the studied bacteria; ribose only in the biofilm of Pseudomonas sp. T/2. The fatty <span class="hlt">acid</span> <span class="hlt">composition</span> of EPC contains saturated and unsaturated <span class="hlt">acids</span> with 12-19 carbon atoms. Hexadecanoic <span class="hlt">acid</span> (C 16:0) <span class="hlt">acid</span> which content in the biofilm and plankton conditions is from 24.9 to 32.4% prevailed in the spectrum of fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span> of EPC bacteria. Unsaturated fatty <span class="hlt">acids</span>: hexadecanoic (C 16:1) and octadecenoic (C 18:1) ones have been revealed only in the biofilm of bacteria-destructors of the coating. PMID:22686014</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kopteva, Zh P; Zanina, V V; Boretskaia, M A; Iumyna, Iu M; Kopteva, A E; Kozlova, I A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.P43A0916S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sensitive Amino <span class="hlt">Acid</span> <span class="hlt">Composition</span> and Chirality Analysis with the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Detection of life on Mars requires definition of a suitable biomarker and development of sensitive yet compact instrumentation capable of performing in situ analyses. Our studies are focused on amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> analysis because amino <span class="hlt">acids</span> are more resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino <span class="hlt">acid</span> chirality i