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Sample records for acid gases so2

  1. Enhanced adsorption of acidic gases (CO2, NO2 and SO2) on light metal decorated graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi; Xu, Kui; Ji, Xiao; Miao, Ling; Jiang, Jianjun

    2014-06-14

    The adsorption of several acidic gases (CO2, NO2 and SO2) on light metal (Li, Al) decorated graphene oxide (GO) is theoretically studied, based on the first-principles calculations. Configuration relaxation, binding energy and charge transfer are carried out to discuss the acidic gas adsorption ability of light metal decorated GO. It is found out that Li, Al could be anchored stably by hydroxyl and epoxy groups on GO, and then a strong adsorption of CO2, NO2 and SO2 will occur above these light metals. In contrast to Ti, Li decorated GO exhibits a comparable adsorption ability of acidic gases, but a much smaller interaction with O2 about 2.85-3.98 eV lower in binding energy; and Al decorated GO displays much higher binding energy of all acidic gases with an enhancement of about 0.59-2.29 eV. The results of enhanced acidic gas adsorption ability and a reduced interference by O2 imply that Li, Al decorated GO may be useful and promising for collection and filtration of exhaust gases. PMID:24777197

  2. Removal of Particles and Acid Gases (SO2 or HCl) with a Ceramic Filter by Addition of Dry Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmer, G.; Kasper, G.; Wang, J.; Schaub, G.

    2002-09-20

    The present investigation intends to add to the fundamental process design know-how for dry flue gas cleaning, especially with respect to process flexibility, in cases where variations in the type of fuel and thus in concentration of contaminants in the flue gas require optimization of operating conditions. In particular, temperature effects of the physical and chemical processes occurring simultaneously in the gas-particle dispersion and in the filter cake/filter medium are investigated in order to improve the predictive capabilities for identifying optimum operating conditions. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH){sub 2}) are known as efficient sorbents for neutralizing acid flue gas components such as HCl, HF, and SO{sub 2}. According to their physical properties (e.g. porosity, pore size) and chemical behavior (e.g. thermal decomposition, reactivity for gas-solid reactions), optimum conditions for their application vary widely. The results presented concentrate on the development of quantitative data for filtration stability and overall removal efficiency as affected by operating temperature. Experiments were performed in a small pilot unit with a ceramic filter disk of the type Dia-Schumalith 10-20 (Fig. 1, described in more detail in Hemmer 2002 and Hemmer et al. 1999), using model flue gases containing SO{sub 2} and HCl, flyash from wood bark combustion, and NaHCO{sub 3} as well as Ca(OH){sub 2} as sorbent material (particle size d{sub 50}/d{sub 84} : 35/192 {micro}m, and 3.5/16, respectively). The pilot unit consists of an entrained flow reactor (gas duct) representing the raw gas volume of a filter house and the filter disk with a filter cake, operating continuously, simulating filter cake build-up and cleaning of the filter medium by jet pulse. Temperatures varied from 200 to 600 C, sorbent stoichiometric ratios from zero to 2, inlet concentrations were on the order of 500 to 700 mg/m{sup 3}, water vapor contents ranged from zero to 20 vol%. The experimental program with NaHCO{sub 3} is listed in Table 1. In addition, model calculations were carried out based on own and published experimental results that estimate residence time and temperature effects on removal efficiencies.

  3. Electron beam process for SO 2 removal from flue gases with high SO 2 content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licki, J.; Chmielewski, A. G.; Zimek, Z.; Tymiñski, B.; Bułka, S.

    2002-03-01

    Flue gases with high SO 2 concentration are emitted from different industrial processes, e.g. combustion of coal with high sulfur content, copper smelting and sintering plant. The application of the electron beam process for SO 2 removal from such flue gases was investigated. A parametric study was carried out to determine the removal efficiency as a function of temperature and humidity of irradiated gases, dose and ammonia stoichiometry. At the dose 11.5 kGy 95% SO 2 removal efficiency was obtained when the temperature and humidity of irradiated flue gases and ammonia stoichiometry were properly adjusted. The synergistic effect of high SO 2 concentration on NO x removal was observed. The collected by-product was the mixture of (NH 4) 2 SO 4 and NH 4NO 3. The content of heavy metals in the by-product was many times lower than the values acceptable for commercial fertilizer.

  4. REMOVAL OF SO2 FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTE GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses technology for sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution control by flue gas cleaning (called 'scrubbing') in the utility industry, a technology that has advanced significantly during the past 5 years. Federal Regulations are resulting in increasingly large-scale applica...

  5. SO2 REMOVAL FROM FLUE GASES USING UTILITY SYNTHESIZED ZEOLITES

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL GRUTZECK

    1998-10-31

    It is well known that natural and synthetic zeolites (molecular sieves) can adsorb gaseous SO2 from flue gas and do it more efficiently than lime based scrubbing materials. Unfortunately their cost ($500-$800 per ton) has deterred their use in this capacity. It is also known that zeolites are easy to synthesize from a variety of natural and man-made materials. The overall objective of the current work has been to evaluate the feasibility of having a utility synthesize its own zeolites, on-site, from fly ash and other recycled materials and then use these zeolites to adsorb SO2 from their flue gases. Work to date has shown that the efficiency of the capture process is related to the degree of crystallinity and the type of zeolite that forms in the samples. Normally, those samples cured at 150°C contained a greater proportion of zeolite and as such were more SO2 adsorptive than their low-temperature counterparts. However, in order for the project to be successful, on site synthesis must remain an option, i.e. _100°C synthesis. In light of this, the experimental focus now has two aspects. First, compositions of the starting materials are being altered by blending the current suite of fly ashes with other fly ashes, ground glass cullet and silica fume to promote the formation and growth of well crystallized and highly adsorptive zeolites. Second, greater degrees of reaction at significantly lower temperatures are being promote by ball milling the fly ash prior to use, by the use of more concentrated caustic solutions, and by the addition of zeolite seeds to the reactants. In all cases studies will focus on the effect of structure type and degree of conversion on SO2 adsorption. Future work will concentrate on the study of the effect of weathering on the suitability of converting fly ash into zeolites. This is an especially important study, considering the acres of fly ash now in storage throughout the country.

  6. SO2 REMOVAL FROM FLUE GASES USING UTILITY SYNTHESIZED ZEOLITES

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Grutzeck

    1999-04-30

    It is well known that natural and synthetic zeolites (molecular sieves) can adsorb gaseous SO{sub 2} from flue gas and do it more efficiently than lime based scrubbing materials. Unfortunately their cost ($500-$800 per ton) has deterred their use in this capacity. It is also known that zeolites are easy to synthesize from a variety of natural and man-made materials. The overall objective of the current work has been to evaluate the feasibility of having a utility synthesize its own zeolites, on-site, from fly ash and other recycled materials and then use these zeolites to adsorb SO{sub 2} from their flue gases. Work to date has shown that the efficiency of the capture process is related to the degree of crystallinity and the type of zeolite that forms in the samples. Normally, those samples cured at 150 C contained a greater proportion of zeolite and as such were more SO{sub 2} adsorptive than their low-temperature counterparts. However, in order for the project to be successful, on site synthesis must remain an option, i.e. 100 C synthesis. In light of this, the experimental focus now has two aspects. First, compositions of the starting materials are being altered by blending the current suite of fly ashes with ground glass cullet and silica fume to promote the formation and growth of well crystallized and highly adsorptive zeolites. Second, greater degrees of reaction at significantly lower temperatures are being promote by ball milling the fly ash prior to use, by the use of more concentrated caustic solutions, and by the addition of zeolite seeds to the reactants. In all cases studies will focus on the effect of structure type and degree of conversion on SO{sub 2} adsorption. Future work will concentrate on the study of the effect of weathering on the suitability of converting fly ash into zeolites. This is an especially important study, considering the acres of fly ash now in storage throughout the US.

  7. Present state of eb removal of so2 and nox from combustion flue gases in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, D. C. R.; Osso, J. A.; Rivelli, V.; Vieira, J. M.; Lugão, A. B.

    1995-09-01

    Environmental problems caused by the increased world energy demands are becoming of growing importance and Brazil is now starting to set limits to the emission of toxic gases. The development of technologies for removal of these gases are therefore necessary and this work shows the present state of the technology of SO2 and NOX removal by electron beam irradiation in Brazil. Data concerning the increasing energy demand in Brazil and the environmental governmental measures are presented, along with the design and implementation of a laboratory pilot plant for the electron beam flue gases removal process located at IPEN-CNEN/SP.

  8. Removal of SO2 from simulated flue gases using non-thermal plasma-based microgap discharge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhitao; Bai, Mindong; Bai, Mindi; Bai, Xiyao; Pan, Qiaoyuan

    2006-06-01

    The removal of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from simulated flue gases streams (N2/O2/H2O/SO2) was experimentally investigated using microgap discharge. In the experiment, the thinner dielectric layers of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) were used to form the microgap discharge. With this physical method, a high concentration of hydroxyl (OH*) radicals were produced using the ionization of O2 and H2O to further the conversion of SO2 into sulfuric acid (H2SO4) at 120 degrees C in the absence of any catalysts and absorbents, which were captured with the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). As a result, the increase of discharge power and concentrations of O2 and H2O increased the production of OH. radicals resulting in enhanced removal of SO2 from gas streams. With the test and analysis, a number of H2SO4 droplets were produced in experiment. Therefore, a new method for removal of SO2 in semidry method without ammonia (NH3) additive was found. PMID:16805405

  9. In-situ characterisation of aerosol and gases (SO2, HCl, ozone) in Mt Etna volcano plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Tjarda; Vignelles, Damien; Giudice, Gaetano; Liuzzo, Marco; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Chartier, Michel; Coute, Benoit; Lurton, Thibaut; Renard, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-05-01

    We present findings from a measurement campaign that deployed a range of in-situ real-time atmospheric measurement techniques to characterise aerosols and gases in Mt Etna plume in October 2013. The LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter) instrument for size-resolved particle measurements was deployed alongside two Multi-Gas instruments (measuring SO2, H2S, HCl, CO2) and an ozone sensor. Measurements were performed at the summit craters (in cloudy- and non-cloudy conditions) and in grounding downwind plume on the volcano flank. These high frequency measurements (acid gases: 1 to 0.1 Hz, aerosol: 0.1 Hz) provide a detailed in-situ dataset for time-resolved plume characterisation and volcano monitoring. The LOAC measurement of sized-resolved aerosol (over a 0.2 to 50 µm particle diameter range) alongside SO2 (10's ppbv to 10's ppmv) provides a valuable dataset for determining the volcanic aerosol volume and surface area to SO2 ratios. These parameters are presently poorly defined but are important for atmospheric models of the reactive halogen chemistry that occurs on volcanic aerosol surfaces to convert volcanic HBr into reactive bromine, including BrO. The LOAC's patented optical design can also provide insights into particle properties. The two Multi-Gas SO2 time-series show good agreement, detecting co-varying plume fluctuations in the downwind plume, which also correlate with the LOAC total aerosol volume time-series. An estimate of HCl/SO2 in Etna emissions was made by Multi-Gas electrochemical sensor, using a novel design to limit absorption/desorption effects and low-noise electronics for improved resolution. The detection of volcanic HCl by electrochemical sensor brings new possibilities for Multi-Gas monitoring of volcanic halogen emissions. Electrochemical sensor response times are not instantaneous, particularly for sticky gases such as HCl (T90 ~min), but also even for "fast" response (T90 ~ 10 to 30 s) sensors such as SO2 and H2S. However, in a volcanic plume environment, Multi-Gas instruments are exposed to very rapidly fluctuating gas concentrations due to turbulent plume eddies. The combination of these effects can introduce measurement errors, emphasizing a need for sensor response modelling approaches for accurate determination of gas ratios from Multi-Gas instruments. Measurement of ozone in volcanic plume is of interest to quantify the atmospheric impact of rapid reactive halogen chemistry cycles that occur in the dispersing plume, depleting ozone. The UV-based ozone sensor we deployed exhibited a positive cross-sensitivity to SO2 (as expected) that dominated the signal in strong plume. In the dilute (few ppmv SO2) grounding plume, near-ambient ozone concentrations were observed. However the instrument was also occasionally subject to an interference (under evaluation, but potentially from mercury). Nevertheless, the data provide some constraints on BrO-mediated ozone loss in near-source volcanic plumes, towards improved initialisation of atmospheric chemistry models that aim to simulate this process.

  10. Simultaneous treatment of SO2 containing stack gases and waste water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A process for simultaneously removing sulfur dioxide from stack gases and the like and purifying waste water such as derived from domestic sewage is described. A portion of the gas stream and a portion of the waste water, the latter containing dissolved iron and having an acidic pH, are contacted in a closed loop gas-liquid scrubbing zone to effect absorption of the sulfur dioxide into the waste water. A second portion of the gas stream and a second portion of the waste water are controlled in an open loop gas-liquid scrubbing zone. The second portion of the waste water contains a lesser amount of iron than the first portion of the waste water. Contacting in the openloop scrubbing zone is sufficient to acidify the waste water which is then treated to remove solids originally present.

  11. Monitoring the SO2 concentration at the summit of Mt. Fuji and a comparison with other trace gases during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Yasuhito; Sawa, Yosuke; Yoshioka, Katsuhiro; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Fujii, Kenji; Dokiya, Yukiko

    2004-09-01

    An SO2 continuous monitor consisting of a commercially available pulsed UV fluorescence instrument with zero and span gas calibration was installed at the summit of Mt. Fuji (3776 m asl) in September 2002. The system produces data with a time resolution comparable with other trace gases. The instrumental feasibility was tested onsite, and the SO2 concentration level at the summit was thereafter routinely observed. The present detection capability of the system, expressed in terms of the critical level (Lc, definition by International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and International Organization for Standardization), was estimated to be about 0.05 ppbv. Thus it was difficult to observe the temporal change of very low background SO2. However, the system is satisfactory for observing episodic transport of SO2, particularly during winter. No high SO2 episodes were observed during summer, in contrast to winter. One extraordinary episode was observed in late October 2003, the only one attributable to the Miyake-jima SO2 volcanic plume. High SO2 episodes were more evident (with longer duration and higher concentration level) in February 2003 among the winter months observed. Typical February conditions were determined using backward trajectory, a surface weather map, and other indicators. A comparison of the temporal changes in SO2, CO, and 222Rn concentrations in the winter months suggests that these gases in the free troposphere over Japan may have been transported together in most cases from the same source regions somewhere in the Asian continent. The correlation between SO2 and 222Rn in such episodes may also suggest a short timescale for transport from the source to Mt. Fuji of within a few days. The chemical time series data of SO2 at Mt. Fuji is important for understanding the free tropospheric chemical nature, such as the Asian outflow over the North Pacific.

  12. Coal fly ash based carbons for SO2 removal from flue gases.

    PubMed

    Rubio, B; Izquierdo, M T

    2010-07-01

    Two different coal fly ashes coming from the burning of two coals of different rank have been used as a precursor for the preparation of steam activated carbons. The performance of these activated carbons in the SO(2) removal was evaluated at flue gas conditions (100 degrees C, 1000 ppmv SO(2), 5% O(2), 6% H(2)O). Different techniques were used to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of the samples in order to explain the differences found in their behaviour. A superior SO(2) removal capacity was shown by the activated carbon obtained using the fly ash coming from a sub-bituminous-lignite blend. Experimental results indicated that the presence of higher amount of certain metallic oxides (Ca, Fe) in the carbon-rich fraction of this fly ash probably has promoted a deeper gasification in the activation with steam. A more suitable surface chemistry and textural properties have been obtained in this case which explains the higher efficiency shown by this sample in the SO(2) removal. PMID:20167465

  13. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy of Atmospheric Trace Gases HCl, NO and SO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haridass, C.; Aw-Musse, A.; Dowdye, E.; Bandyopadhyay, C.; Misra, P.; Okabe, H.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectral data have been recorded in the spectral region 400-4000/cm of hydrogen chloride and sulfur dioxide with I/cm resolution and of nitric oxide with 0.25 cm-i resolution, under quasi-static conditions, when the sample gas was passed through tubings of aluminum, copper, stainless steel and teflon. The absorbance was measured for the rotational lines of the fundamental bands of (1)H(35)Cl and (1)H(37)Cl for pressures in the range 100-1000 Torr and for the (14)N(16)O molecule in the range 100-300 Torr. The absorbance was also measured for individual rotational lines corresponding to the three modes of vibrations (upsilon(sub 1) - symmetric stretch, upsilon(sub 2) - symmetric bend, upsilon(sub 3) - anti-symmetric stretch) of the SO2 molecule in the pressure range 25-150 Torr. A graph of absorbance versus pressure was plotted for the observed rotational transitions of the three atmospherically significant molecules, and it was found that the absorbance was linearly proportional to the pressure range chosen, thereby validating Beer's law. The absorption cross-sections were determined from the graphical slopes for each rotational transition recorded for the HCl, NO and SO2 species. Qualitative and quantitative spectral changes in the FT-IR data will be discussed to identify and characterize various tubing materials with respect to their absorption features.

  14. Effect of the greenhouse gases (CO2, H2O, SO2) on Martian paleoclimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postawko, S. E.; Kuhn, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    There is general agreement that certain surface features on Mars are indicative of the presence of liquid water at various times in the geologic past. In particular, the valley networks are difficult to explain by a mechanism other than the flow of liquid water. It has been suggested in several studies that a thick CO2 atmosphere on Mars early in its history could have provided a greenhouse warming that would have allowed the flow of water either on the surface or just below the surface. However, this effect was examined with a detailed radiation model, and it was found that if reduced solar luminosity early in the history of the solar system is taken into account, even three bars of CO2 will not provide sufficient greeenhouse warming. The addition of water vapor and sulflur dioxide (both plausible gases that may have been emitted by Martian volcanoes) to the atmosphere also fail to warm the surface above 273 K for reduced solar luminosity conditions. The increase in temperature may be large enough, however, for the formation of these features by brines.

  15. E-Beam SO2 and NOx removal from flue gases in the presence of fine water droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calinescu, Ioan; Martin, Diana; Chmielewski, Andrezj; Ighigeanu, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The Electron Beam Flue Gas Treatment (EBFGT) has been proposed as an efficient method for removal of SO2 and NOx many years ago. However, the industrial application of this procedure is limited to just a few installations. This article analyses the possibility of using medium-power EB accelerators for off-gases purification. By increasing electron energy from 0.7 MeV to 1-2 MeV it is possible to reduce the energy losses in the windows and in the air gap between them (transformer accelerators can be applied as well in the process). In order to use these mid-energy accelerators it is necessary to reduce their penetration depth through gas and this can be achieved by increasing the density of the reaction medium by means of dispersing a sufficient amount of fine water droplets (FWD). The presence of FWD has a favorable effect on the overall process by increasing the level of liquid phase reactions. A special reactor was designed and built to test the effect of FWD on the treatment of flue gases with a high concentration of SO2 and NOx using high-energy EBs (9 MeV). By determining the energy efficiency of the process the favorable effect of using FWD and high-energy EB was demonstrated.

  16. SO2 gas adsorption by modified kaolin clays: influence of previous heating and time acid treatments.

    PubMed

    Volzone, Cristina; Ortiga, Jose

    2011-10-01

    Modified kaolin clays were used as adsorbents for SO(2) gas adsorptions. The clays were heated up to 900 °C previous to acid treatments with 0.5 N sulfuric acid solutions at boiling temperature during different times up to 1440 min. Equilibrium adsorption at 25 °C and 0.1 MPa was carried out by using a volumetric apparatus. The samples were characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and infrared analysis. The heating of the clays followed by acid treatment improved the adsorption capacity of the kaolin clays. The presence of amorphous silica and hydroxyl in the final products improved SO(2) adsorption capacity. Better properties for SO(2) adsorption were found in kaolin rich in not well ordered kaolinite clay mineral. PMID:21696883

  17. MnFe2O4 as a gas sensor towards SO2 and NO2 gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathore, Deepshikha; Mitra, Supratim

    2016-05-01

    The chemical co-precipitation method was used to synthesize MnFe2O4 nanoparticles. Single cubic phase formation of nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction technique. The average particle size of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles was found to be 10.7 nm using Scherrer formula. The ultrafine powder of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles was pressed to design pellet of 10 mm diameter and 1mm thickness. Copper electrodes have been deposited on the surface of pellet using silver paste in the form of capacitor. Fabricated gas sensing device of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles was tested towards SO2 and NO2 gases. Cole-Cole plot of MnFe2O4 was investigated with the help of electrochemical workstation. The performance of the sensors including sensitivity, response and recovery time was also determined. It was observed that the MnFe2O4 nanoparticles are more sensible for NO2 gas as compared to SO2 gas.

  18. Effect of SO2 and bisulfite on heterotrophic activity in an acid soil.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, I F; Bancroft, K; Alexander, M

    1979-01-01

    Glucose oxidation was inhibited in a forest soil (pH 4.01) previously exposed by 1.0 microliter of SO2 per liter, the extent of inhibition and the decline in pH being directly related to the length of exposure. The phase of rapid CO2 evolution in protein hydrolysate-amended soil previously treated with 5.0 microliter of SO2 per liter for 24 h or 1.0 microliter/liter for 48 h was delayed, but the degradation of the amino acid mixture then proceeded rapidly. Bacterial numbers in soil incubated for 48 h with 1.0 microliter of SO2 per liter were reduced, but the bacteria grew rapidly if glucose or an amino acid mixture was added after the exposure period. Low levels of bisulfite inhibited amino acid decomposition in soil at pH 3.89, but the effect was less pronounced in soil at pH 4.01. Comparable levels of sulfate were not toxic to carbon mineralization. Approximately 1.0 microgram of bisulfite S and about 20 microgram of sulfate S per g of soil appeared when the soil was treated with 1.0 microliter of SO2 per liter for 48 h. Bisulfite added to the soil disappeared readily. The possible ecological significance of the findings is discussed. PMID:39507

  19. Effect of artificial acid rain and SO2 on characteristics of delayed light emission.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenglong; Xing, Da; Zeng, Lizhang; Ding, Chunfeng; Chen, Qun

    2005-01-01

    The structure and function of chloroplast in plant leaves can be affected by acid rain and air pollution. The photosystem II in a plant is considered the primary site where light-induced delayed light emission (DLE) is produced. With the lamina of zijinghua (Bauhinia variegata L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) as testing models, we studied the effects of artificial acid rain and SO2 on characteristics of DLE by using a home-made weak luminescence detection system. The results show that the changes in DLE intensity of green plants can reflect the changes in chloroplast intactness and function. With proper calibration, DLE may provide an alternative means of evaluating environmental acid stress on plants. The changes in DLE intensity may provide a new approach for the detection of environmental pollution and its impact on the ecosystem. PMID:15685660

  20. Effect of SO2 on oxidation of metallic materials in CO2/H2O‐rich gases relevant to oxyfuel environments

    SciTech Connect

    Huczkowski, P; Olszewski, T; Schiek, M; Lutz, B; Holcomb, G R; Shemet, V; Nowak, W; Meier, G H; Singheiser, L; Quadakkers, W J

    2014-01-01

    In an oxyfuel plant, heat exchanging metallic components will be exposed to a flue gas that contains substantially higher contents of CO2, water vapor, and SO2 than conventionalflue gases. In the present study, the oxidation behavior of the martensitic steel P92 was studied in CO2‐and/or H2O‐rich gas mixtures with and without addition of SO2. For this purpose, the corrosion of P92 at 550 8C up to 1000 h in Ar–H2O–SO2, Ar–CO2–SO2, Ar–CO2–O2–SO2 and simulated oxyfuel gas (Ar–CO2–H2O–O2–SO2) was compared with the behavior in selected SO2‐free gases. The oxidation kinetics were estimated by a number of methods such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy and wave length dispersive X‐ray analysis, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, X‐ray diffraction as well as transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results revealed that the effect of SO2 addition on the materials behavior substantially differed, depending on the prevailing base gas atmosphere. The various types of corrosion attack affected by SO2 could not be explained by solely comparing equilibrium activities of the gas atmospheres with thermodynamic stabilities of possible corrosion products. The results were found to be strongly affected by relative rates of reactions of the various gas species occurring within the frequently porous corrosion scales as well as at the scale/gas‐and scale/alloy interfaces.Whereas SO2 addition to Ar–CO2 resulted in formation of an external mixed oxide/sulfide layer, the presence of SO2 in oxyfuel gas and in Ar–H2O–SO2 resulted in Fe‐sulfide formation near the interface between inner and outer oxide layer as well as Cr‐sulfide formation in the alloy. In the latter gases, the presence of SO2 seemed to have no dramatic effect on oxide scale growth rates.

  1. Hydrothermal buffering of the SO2/H2S ratio in volcanic gases: Evidence from La Fossa Crater fumarolic field, Vulcano Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiuppa, A.; Federico, C.; Giudice, G.; Gurrieri, S.; Valenza, M.

    2006-11-01

    Sulfur speciation in volcanic gases is a potentially valuable tracer of degassing processes at volcanoes. Hitherto, observations of sulfur speciation in volcanic gas plumes have however been limited both in number and quality. Here, we report on periodic measurements of SO2 to H2S proportions in the volcanic gases from La Fossa volcano (Vulcano Island) performed during 2004-2006, a period which encompasses two heating events of the fumarolic field in January-April 2005 and December 2005. Results indicate a systematic relative increase (by a factor of 2-6) of SO2 to H2S proportions in the fumaroles during the heating events, which we ascribe to a temperature increase in the mixing zone between magmatic and hydrothermal fluids. We also demonstrate that sulphur speciation in La Fossa fumaroles reflects re-equilibration within a poly-baric hydrothermal system, and that this hydrothermal re-equilibration erases the pristine SO2/H2S ratios of any magma-derived sulphur present.

  2. Reactivity of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCIs) from isoprene and monoterpene ozonolysis toward SO2 and organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipilä, M.; Jokinen, T.; Berndt, T.; Richters, S.; Makkonen, R.; Donahue, N. M.; Mauldin, R. L., III; Kurtén, T.; Paasonen, P.; Sarnela, N.; Ehn, M.; Junninen, H.; Rissanen, M. P.; Thornton, J.; Stratmann, F.; Herrmann, H.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Petäjä, T.

    2014-11-01

    Oxidation processes in Earth's atmosphere are tightly connected to many environmental and human health issues and are essential drivers for biogeochemistry. Until the recent discovery of the atmospheric relevance of the reaction of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCIs) with SO2, atmospheric oxidation processes were thought to be dominated by a few main oxidants: ozone, hydroxyl radicals (OH), nitrate radicals and, e.g. over oceans, halogen atoms such as chlorine. Here, we report results from laboratory experiments at 293 K and atmospheric pressure focusing on sCI formation from the ozonolysis of isoprene and the most abundant monoterpenes (α-pinene and limonene), and subsequent reactions of the resulting sCIs with SO2 producing sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The measured total sCI yields were (0.15 ± 0.07), (0.27 ± 0.12) and (0.58 ± 0.26) for α-pinene, limonene and isoprene, respectively. The ratio between the rate coefficient for the sCI loss (including thermal decomposition and the reaction with water vapour) and the rate coefficient for the reaction of sCI with SO2, k(loss) /k(sCI + SO2), was determined at relative humidities of 10 and 50%. Observed values represent the average reactivity of all sCIs produced from the individual alkene used in the ozonolysis. For the monoterpene-derived sCIs, the relative rate coefficients k(loss) / k(sCI + SO2) were in the range (2.0-2.4) × 1012 molecules cm-3 and nearly independent of the relative humidity. This fact points to a minor importance of the sCI + H2O reaction in the case of the sCI arising from α-pinene and limonene. For the isoprene sCIs, however, the ratio k(loss) / k(sCI + SO2) was strongly dependent on the relative humidity. To explore whether sCIs could have a more general role in atmospheric oxidation, we investigated as an example the reactivity of acetone oxide (sCI from the ozonolysis of 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene) toward small organic acids, i.e. formic and acetic acid. Acetone oxide was found to react faster with the organic acids than with SO2; k(sCI + acid) / k(sCI + SO2) = (2.8 ± 0.3) for formic acid, and k(sCI + acid) / k(sCI + SO2) = (3.4 ± 0.2) for acetic acid. This finding indicates that sCIs can play a role in the formation and loss of other atmospheric constituents besides SO2.

  3. Reactivity of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCI) from isoprene and monoterpene ozonolysis toward SO2 and organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipilä, M.; Jokinen, T.; Berndt, T.; Richters, S.; Makkonen, R.; Donahue, N. M.; Mauldin, R. L., III; Kurten, T.; Paasonen, P.; Sarnela, N.; Ehn, M.; Junninen, H.; Rissanen, M. P.; Thornton, J.; Stratmann, F.; Herrmann, H.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Petäjä, T.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation processes in Earth's atmosphere are tightly connected to many environmental and human health issues and are essential drivers for biogeochemistry. Until the recent discovery of the atmospheric relevance of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCI), atmospheric oxidation processes were thought to be dominated by few main oxidants: ozone, hydroxyl radicals (OH), nitrate radicals and, e.g. over oceans, halogen atoms such as chlorine. Here, we report results from laboratory experiments at 293 K and atmospheric pressure focusing on sCI formation from the ozonolysis of isoprene and the most abundant monoterpenes (α-pinene and limonene), and subsequent reactions of the resulting sCIs with SO2 producing sulphuric acid (H2SO4). The measured sCI yields were (0.15 ± 0.07), (0.27 ± 0.12) and (0.58 ± 0.26) for the ozonolysis of α-pinene, limonene and isoprene, respectively. The ratio between the rate coefficient for the sCI loss (including thermal decomposition and the reaction with water vapour) and the rate coefficient for the reaction of sCI with SO2, k(loss) / k(sCI + SO2), was determined at relative humidities of 10% and 50%. Observed values represent the average reactivity of all sCIs produced from the individual alkene used in the ozonolysis. For the monoterpene derived sCIs, the relative rate coefficients k(loss) / k(sCI + SO2) were in the range (2.0-2.4) × 1012 molecule cm-3 and nearly independent on the relative humidity. This fact points to a minor importance of the sCI + H2O reaction in the case of the sCI arising from α-pinene and limonene. For the isoprene sCIs, however, the ratio k(loss) / k(sCI + SO2) was strongly dependent on the relative humidity. To explore whether sCIs could have a more general role in atmospheric oxidation, we investigated as an example the reactivity of acetone oxide (sCI from the ozonolysis of 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene) toward small organic acids, i.e. formic and acetic acid. Acetone oxide was found to react faster with the organic acids than with SO2; k(sCI + acid) / k(sCI + SO2) = (2.8 ± 0.3) for formic acid and k(sCI + acid) / k(sCI + SO2) = (3.4 ± 0.2) for acetic acid. This finding suggests that sCIs can play a role in the formation and loss of several atmospheric constituents besides SO2.

  4. The effect of functional groups on the SO2 adsorption on carbon surface I: A new insight into noncovalent interaction between SO2 molecule and acidic oxygen-containing groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Sun, Fei; Qu, Zhibin; Gao, Jihui; Wu, Shaohua

    2016-04-01

    For the aim to give a new insight into the interactions between SO2 molecule and carbon surface and the effect of acidic oxygen-containing groups, density functional theory and noncovalent interaction analysis in terms of reduced density gradient were employed to investigate both the intensity and type of the interactions. The results indicate that the physisorption of SO2 molecule mainly occurs on the basal plane of pure carbon surface due to van der Waals interactions, however, when acidic oxygen-containing groups were decorated on the carbon surface, they would facilitate SO2 adsorption as a result of hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole interactions. What's more, these groups could not affect the chemisorption of SO2 remarkably, no matter they are near the adsorption sites or not. In addition, calculation results show that the interactions between SO2 and acidic oxygen-containing groups are in physisorption nature, which challenges a long-held the viewpoint of irreversible chemisorption. Acidic oxygen-containing groups could boost the effective surface area of carbon by enhancing the physisorption on edge positions.

  5. Control of acid gases using a fluidized bed adsorber.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Bo-Chin; Wey, Ming-Yen; Yeh, Chia-Lin

    2003-08-01

    During incineration, secondary pollutants such as acid gases, organic compounds, heavy metals and particulates are generated. Among these pollutants, the acid gases, including sulfur oxides (SO(x)) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), can cause corrosion of the incinerator piping and can generate acid rain after being emitted to the atmosphere. To address this problem, the present study used a novel combination of air pollution control devices (APCDs), composed of a fluidized bed adsorber integrated with a fabric filter. The major objective of the work is to demonstrate the performance of a fluidized bed adsorber for removal of acid gases from flue gas of an incinerator. The adsorbents added in the fluidized bed adsorber were mainly granular activated carbon (AC; with or without chemical treatment) and with calcium oxide used as an additive. The advantages of a fluidized bed reactor for high mass transfer and high gas-solid contact can enhance the removal of acid gases when using a dry method. On the other hand, because the fluidized bed can filter particles, fine particles prior to and after passing through the fluidized bed adsorber were investigated. The competing adsorption on activated carbon between different characteristics of pollutants was also given preliminary discussion. The results indicate that the removal efficiencies of the investigated acid gases, SO(2) and HCl, are higher than 94 and 87%, respectively. Thus, a fluidized bed adsorber integrated with a fabric filter has the potential to replace conventional APCDs, even when there are other pollutants at the same time. PMID:12935758

  6. Evaluation of gases, condensates, and SO2 emissions from Augustine volcano, Alaska: the degassing of a Cl-rich volcanic system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symonds, R.B.; Rose, William I., Jr.; Gerlach, T.M.; Briggs, P.H.; Harmon, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    After the March-April 1986 explosive eruption a comprehensive gas study at Augustine was undertaken in the summers of 1986 and 1987. Airborne COSPEC measurements indicate that passive SO2 emission rates declined exponentially during this period from 380??45 metric tons/day (T/D) on 7/24/86 to 27??6 T/D on 8/24/87. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the Augustine magma reservoir has become more degassed as volcanic activity decreased after the spring 1986 eruption. Gas samples collected in 1987 from an 870??C fumarole on the andesitic lava dome show various degrees of disequilibrium due to oxidation of reduced gas species and condensation (and loss) of H2O in the intake tube of the sampling apparatus. Thermochemical restoration of the data permits removal of these effects to infer an equilibrium composition of the gases. Although not conclusive, this restoration is consistent with the idea that the gases were in equilibrium at 870??C with an oxygen fugacity near the Ni-NiO buffer. These restored gas compositions show that, relative to other convergent plate volcanoes, the Augustine gases are very HCl rich (5.3-6.0 mol% HCl), S rich (7.1 mol% total S), and H2O poor (83.9-84.8 mol% H2O). Values of ??D and ??18O suggest that the H2O in the dome gases is a mixture of primary magmatic water (PMW) and local seawater. Part of the Cl in the Augustine volcanic gases probably comes from this shallow seawater source. Additional Cl may come from subducted oceanic crust because data by Johnston (1978) show that Cl-rich glass inclusions in olivine crystals contain hornblende, which is evidence for a deep source (>25km) for part of the Cl. Gas samples collected in 1986 from 390??-642??C fumaroles on a ramp surrounding the inner summit crater have been oxidized so severely that restoration to an equilibrium composition is not possible. H and O isotope data suggest that these gases are variable mixtures of seawater, FMW, and meteoric steam. These samples are much more H2O-rich (92%-97% H2O) than the dome gases, possibly due to a larger meteoric steam component. The 1986 samples also have higher Cl/S, S/C, and F/Cl ratios, which imply that the magmatic component in these gases is from the more degassed 1976 magma. Thus, the 1987 samples from the lava dome are better indicators than the 1986 samples of degassing within the Augustine magma reservoir, even though they were collected a year later and contain a significant seawater component. Future gas studies at Augustine should emphasize fumaroles on active lava domes. Condensates collected from the same lava-dome fumarole have enrichments ot 107-102 in Cl, Br, F, B, Cd, As, S, Bi, Pb, Sb, Mo, Zn, Cu, K, Li, Na, Si, and Ni. Lower-temperature (200??-650??C) fumaroles around the volcano are generally less enriched in highly volatile elements. However, these lower-termperature fumaroles have higher concentration of rock-forming elements, probably derived from the wall rock. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Effects of acetic acid, ethanol, and SO(2) on the removal of volatile acidity from acidic wines by two Saccharomyces cerevisiae commercial strains.

    PubMed

    Vilela-Moura, Alice; Schuller, Dorit; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Crte-Real, Manuela

    2010-07-01

    Herein, we report the influence of different combinations of initial concentration of acetic acid and ethanol on the removal of acetic acid from acidic wines by two commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains S26 and S29. Both strains reduced the volatile acidity of an acidic wine (1.0 gl(-1) acetic acid and 11% (v/v) ethanol) by 78% and 48%, respectively. Acetic acid removal by strains S26 and S29 was associated with a decrease in ethanol concentration of 0.7 and 1.2% (v/v), respectively. Strain S26 revealed better removal efficiency due to its higher tolerance to stress factors imposed by acidic wines. Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) in the concentration range 95-170 mg l(-1)inhibits the ability of both strains to reduce the volatile acidity of the acidic wine used under our experimental conditions. Therefore, deacidification should be carried out either in wines stabilized by filtration or in wines with SO(2)concentrations up to 70 mg l(-1). Deacidification of wines with the better performing strain S26 was associated with changes in the concentration of volatile compounds. The most pronounced increase was observed for isoamyl acetate (banana) and ethyl hexanoate (apple, pineapple), with an 18- and 25-fold increment, respectively, to values above the detection threshold. The acetaldehyde concentration of the deacidified wine was 2.3 times higher, and may have a detrimental effect on the wine aroma. Moreover, deacidification led to increased fatty acids concentration, but still within the range of values described for spontaneous fermentations, and with apparently no negative impact on the organoleptical properties. PMID:20390413

  8. MULTIPOLLUTANT MERCURY AND ACID GASES CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plans are to continue testing for acid gas, mercury and NOx removal on baseline CFB operation with lime slurry, then use modified lime hydrates and slurries, and modified calcium silicates as additives for enhanced mercury and SO2 removal. Also, data from a coal-fired utility b...

  9. The Performance of a Novel Synthetic Ca-Based Solid Sorbent Suitable for the Removal of CO2 and SO2 from Flue Gases in a Fluidised Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacciani, R.; Müller, C. R.; Davidson, J. F.; Dennis, J. S.; Hayhurst, A. N.

    The extent and mechanism of the sulphation and carbonation of a limestone, dolomite and chalk, have been compared with a novel, synthetic sorbent (85 wt% CaO and 15 wt% Ca12Al14O33), from experiments in a small, electrically-heated fluidised bed. The sorbent particles were either (i) untreated, but then sieved into two particle sizes and reacted with SO2 of two different concentrations, or (ii) cycled 20 times between (a) carbonation in 14 vol.% CO2 in N2, and (b) calcination, in pure N2, at 750°C. The uptake of SO2 by untreated limestone and dolomite was generally low (<0.2 gSO 2/gsorbent) and dependent on particle size, confirming previous results. In comparison with limestone and dolomite, the untreated chalk and the synthetic sorbent were found to be substantially more reactive with SO2; their final uptake was significantly higher (> 0.5 gSO 2/gsorbent) and essentially independent of the particle size. Hg-intrusion porosimetry, performed on calcined sorbents, revealed that the volume inside the pores of limestone and dolomite was entirely in small pores (<200 nm dia.), confirmed by EDAX analysis. The small pores were easily plugged, hindering the diffusion of SO2 through the particle. On the other hand, calcined chalk and fresh synthetic sorbent possessed large volumes in wide pores (> 200 nm dia.); these bigger pores were not blocked by newly formed CaSO4. This allowed sulphation to proceed uniformly throughout the particle. It was also found that the uptake of SO2 by limestone, dolomite and chalk was substantially lower when the particles had been subjected to cycles of calcination and carbonation in CO2 prior to sulphation; this was attributed to a loss of volume inside the small pores during carbonation and calcination, confirmed by Hg-intrusion porosimetry. The uptake of SO2 by the synthetic sorbent, on the other hand, was much closer to that achieved when it was used untreated, because large pores remained accessible after cycling.

  10. Simultaneous removal of SO2 and trace As2O3 from flue gas: mechanism, kinetics study, and effect of main gases on arsenic capture.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuzhong; Tong, Huiling; Zhuo, Yuqun; Li, Yan; Xu, Xuchang

    2007-04-15

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and trace elements are pollutants derived from coal combustion. This study focuses on the simultaneous removal of S02 and trace arsenic oxide (As2O3) from flue gas by calcium oxide (CaO) adsorption in the moderate temperature range. Experiments have been performed on a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The interaction mechanism between As2O3 and CaO is studied via XRD detection. Calcium arsenate [Ca3(AsO4)2] is found to be the reaction product in the range of 600-1000 degrees C. The ability of CaO to absorb As2O3 increases with the increasing temperature over the range of 400-1000 degrees C. Through kinetics analysis, it has been found that the rate constant of arsenate reaction is much higher than that of sulfate reaction. SO2 presence does not affect the trace arsenic capture either in the initial reaction stage when CaO conversion is relatively low or in the later stage when CaO conversion is very high. The product of sulfate reaction, CaS04, is proven to be able to absorb As2O3. The coexisting CO2 does not weaken the trace arsenic capture either. PMID:17533855

  11. Variations in PM2.5, TSP, BC, and trace gases (NO2, SO2, and O3) between haze and non-haze episodes in winter over Xi'an, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Shen, Zhenxing; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Renjian; Zhang, Leiming; Huang, R.-J.; Zheng, Chenjia; Wang, Linqing; Liu, Suixin; Xu, Hongmei; Zheng, Chunli; Liu, Pingping

    2015-07-01

    To investigate chemical profiles and formation mechanisms of aerosol particles in winter haze events, daily PM2.5 and TSP, 5-min BC, and 15-min trace gases (SO2, NO2, and O3) were measured continuously during Dec. 1-31, 2012 in Xi'an. Chemical analysis was also conducted for nine water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, F-, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42-), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and eight carbon fractions (OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4, EC1, EC2, EC3, and OP) in both PM2.5 and TSP samples. Higher levels of TSP, PM2.5, BC, SO2, and NO2, and lower levels of O3 were observed during haze periods in comparison with non-haze days. The sum of the major secondary ionic species (NH4+, NO3-, and SO42-) in PM2.5 or TSP during haze periods was about 3 times of that during non-haze days. Ion balance calculations showed that PM2.5 samples were acidic during haze periods and were close to neutral during non-haze days. The mean carbon levels were 52.9 μg m-3 and 82.1 μg m-3 in PM2.5 and TSP, respectively, during haze events, which were ∼1.5 times of those during non-haze days. The diurnal variations of BC during non-haze days showed a bimodal distribution with two peaks coincided with traffic rush hours. This was not the case during haze periods, which exhibited a relatively smooth pattern but with high concentration levels, providing evidence of particle accumulation. The ratios of SO42 - /EC, NO3-/EC, and NH4+/EC sharply increased during haze periods, indicating the important pathway of secondary inorganic species formation through aqueous-phase transformation under high relative humidity condition. This study also highlights that wintertime secondary organic carbon (SOC) formation can be an important contributor to carbonaceous aerosol, especially during haze periods.

  12. SENSITIVITY OF IMPORTANT WESTERN CONIFER SPECIES TO SO2 AND SEASONAL INTERACTION OF ACID FOG AND OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increased concern for forest health and the role of anthropogenic deposition, including acidic/wet deposition and gaseous air pollutants, has led to the need to understand which forest species face the highest risk from atmospheric deposition. n order to address this issue fo...

  13. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, S.G.

    1994-09-20

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

  14. Influence of UV rays on Feulgen-type staining with azure A-SO2 prepared with normal hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate.

    PubMed

    Dutt, M K

    1981-07-01

    This communication presents a new method for the preparation of azure A-SO2 for use in Feulgen procedure. The salient feature of this method lies in the fact that azure A-SO2 can be decolourised with normal hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate. The pH of this dye reagent is 2.3 and it is of water colour after filtration. The pH of this dye-reagent is raised to 4.0 with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. Nuclear colouration with this newly developed dye-reagent on acid-hydrolysed DNA of tissue sections becomes fairly satisfactory under the usual laboratory conditions. Staining with this dye-reagent under exposure to UV ray is, however, vastly improved within 5 minutes as compared with the control. Stained sections do withstand treatment in SO2 water without exhibiting any leaching of the dye from the nuclei. Possible mode of action of UV rays in increasing the intensity of staining as well as the speed of reaction has been suggested. PMID:6167839

  15. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO.sub.2 ; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO.sub.2 with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0.degree. and 100.degree. C. at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environ-mentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed.

  16. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, I. J.; Blake, N. J.; Barletta, B.; Diskin, G. S.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Gorham, K.; Huey, L. G.; Meinardi, S.; Rowland, F. S.; Vay, S. A.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Yang, M.; Blake, D. R.

    2010-08-01

    Oil sands comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves and the crude oil reserves in Canada's oil sands deposits are second only to Saudi Arabia. The extraction and processing of oil sands is much more challenging than for light sweet crude oils because of the high viscosity of the bitumen contained within the oil sands and because the bitumen is mixed with sand and contains chemical impurities such as sulphur. Despite these challenges, the importance of oil sands is increasing in the energy market. To our best knowledge this is the first peer-reviewed study to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from Alberta's oil sands mining sites. We present high-precision gas chromatography measurements of 76 speciated C2-C10 VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, monoterpenes, oxygenates, halocarbons, and sulphur compounds) in 17 boundary layer air samples collected over surface mining operations in northeast Alberta on 10 July 2008, using the NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory as a research platform. In addition to the VOCs, we present simultaneous measurements of CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2, which were measured in situ aboard the DC-8. Methane, CO, CO2, NO, NO2, NOy, SO2 and 53 VOCs (e.g., halocarbons, sulphur species, NMHCs) showed clear statistical enhancements (up to 1.1-397×) over the oil sands compared to local background values and, with the exception of CO, were higher over the oil sands than at any other time during the flight. Twenty halocarbons (e.g., CFCs, HFCs, halons, brominated species) either were not enhanced or were minimally enhanced (< 10%) over the oil sands. Ozone levels remained low because of titration by NO, and three VOCs (propyne, furan, MTBE) remained below their 3 pptv detection limit throughout the flight. Based on their mutual correlations, the compounds emitted by the oil sands industry fell into two groups: (1) evaporative emissions from the oil sands and its products and/or from the diluent used to lower the viscosity of the extracted bitumen (i.e., C4-C9 alkanes, C5-C6 cycloalkanes, C6-C8 aromatics), together with CO; and (2) emissions associated with the mining effort (i.e., CO2, CO, CH4, NO, NO2, NOy, SO2, C2-C4 alkanes, C2-C4 alkenes, C9 aromatics, short-lived solvents such as C2Cl4 and C2HCl3, and longer-lived species such as HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b). Prominent in the second group, SO2 and NO were remarkably enhanced over the oil sands, with maximum enhancements of 38.7 and 5.0 ppbv, or 383 and 319× the local background, respectively. The SO2 enhancements are comparable to maximum values measured in heavily polluted megacities such as Mexico City and are attributed to coke combustion. By contrast, relatively poor correlations between CH4 ethane and propane suggest low natural gas leakage despite its heavy use at the surface mining sites. In addition to the emission of many trace gases, the natural drawdown of OCS by vegetation was absent above the surface mining operations, presumably because of the widespread land disturbance. Unexpectedly, the mixing ratios of α- and β-pinene were much higher over the oil sands (up to 217 and 610 pptv, respectively) than over vegetation in the background boundary layer (20±7 and 84±24 pptv, respectively), and the pinenes correlated well with several industrial tracers that were elevated in the oil sands plumes. Because so few independent measurements from the oil sands mining industry exist, this study provides an important initial characterization of trace gas emissions from oil sands surface mining operations.

  17. Method for removing acid gases from a gaseous stream

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Everett; Zielke, Clyde W.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking a heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating a gaseous stream containing hydrogen, at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases from the molten metal halide and regenerating the molten metal halide, thereby producing a purified molten metal halide stream for recycle to the hydrocracking zone, an improvement comprising; contacting the gaseous acid gas, hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels-containing stream with the feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to remove acid gases from the acid gas containing stream. Optionally at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels are separated from gaseous stream containing hydrogen, hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases prior to contacting the gaseous stream with the feedstock.

  18. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, I. J.; Blake, N. J.; Barletta, B.; Diskin, G. S.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Gorham, K.; Huey, L. G.; Meinardi, S.; Rowland, F. S.; Vay, S. A.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Yang, M.; Blake, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Oil sands comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves and the crude oil reserves in Canada's oil sands deposits are second only to Saudi Arabia. The extraction and processing of oil sands is much more challenging than for light sweet crude oils because of the high viscosity of the bitumen contained within the oil sands and because the bitumen is mixed with sand and contains chemical impurities such as sulphur. Despite these challenges, the importance of oil sands is increasing in the energy market. To our best knowledge this is the first peer-reviewed study to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from Alberta's oil sands mining sites. We present high-precision gas chromatography measurements of 76 speciated C2-C10 VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, monoterpenes, oxygenated hydrocarbons, halocarbons and sulphur compounds) in 17 boundary layer air samples collected over surface mining operations in northeast Alberta on 10 July 2008, using the NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory as a research platform. In addition to the VOCs, we present simultaneous measurements of CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2, which were measured in situ aboard the DC-8. Carbon dioxide, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, SO2 and 53 VOCs (e.g., non-methane hydrocarbons, halocarbons, sulphur species) showed clear statistical enhancements (1.1-397×) over the oil sands compared to local background values and, with the exception of CO, were greater over the oil sands than at any other time during the flight. Twenty halocarbons (e.g., CFCs, HFCs, halons, brominated species) either were not enhanced or were minimally enhanced (<10%) over the oil sands. Ozone levels remained low because of titration by NO, and three VOCs (propyne, furan, MTBE) remained below their 3 pptv detection limit throughout the flight. Based on their correlations with one another, the compounds emitted by the oil sands industry fell into two groups: (1) evaporative emissions from the oil sands and its products and/or from the diluent used to lower the viscosity of the extracted bitumen (i.e., C4-C9 alkanes, C5-C6 cycloalkanes, C6-C8 aromatics), together with CO; and (2) emissions associated with the mining effort, such as upgraders (i.e., CO2, CO, CH4, NO, NO2, NOy, SO2, C2-C4 alkanes, C2-C4 alkenes, C9 aromatics, short-lived solvents such as C2Cl4 and C2HCl3, and longer-lived species such as HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b). Prominent in the second group, SO2 and NO were remarkably enhanced over the oil sands, with maximum mixing ratios of 38.7 ppbv and 5.0 ppbv, or 383× and 319× the local background, respectively. These SO2 levels are comparable to maximum values measured in heavily polluted megacities such as Mexico City and are attributed to coke combustion. By contrast, relatively poor correlations between CH4, ethane and propane suggest low levels of natural gas leakage despite its heavy use at the surface mining sites. Instead the elevated CH4 levels are attributed to methanogenic tailings pond emissions. In addition to the emission of many trace gases, the natural drawdown of OCS by vegetation was absent above the surface mining operations, presumably because of the widespread land disturbance. Unexpectedly, the mixing ratios of α-pinene and β-pinene were much greater over the oil sands (up to 217 pptv and 610 pptv, respectively) than over vegetation in the background boundary layer (20±7 pptv and 84±24 pptv, respectively), and the pinenes correlated well with several industrial tracers that were elevated in the oil sands plumes. Because so few independent measurements from the oil sands mining industry exist, this study provides an important initial characterization of trace gas emissions from oil sands surface mining operations.

  19. Reaction of monoterpenes with ozone, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide—gas-phase oxidation of SO 2 and formation of sulphuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzias, D.; Fytianos, K.; Geiss, F.

    Teflon bag experiments were carried out in the dark in order to study the gas-phase reactions of selected monoterpenes with O 3 in the presence of SO 2 (β-pinene) as well as in the presence of SO 2/NO 2 (α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene). Emphasis was given in identifying the main reaction products and in quantifying the H 2SO 4 aerosol formed. Apart from the H 2SO 4 aerosol no other S containing compounds could be detected. It was found that the reaction of β-pinene with O 3, SO 2 and NO 2 leads mainly to 6,6-dimethyl-bicyclo [3.1.1] heptan-2-one (nopinone), the α-pinene-O 3-SO 2-NO 2-reaction produced 2',2'-dimethyl-3-acetyl cyclobutyl ethanal (pinonaldehyde). The reaction of limonene with O 3-SO 2-NO 2 leads mainly to an unidentified product with a molecular weight M + 134. In addition to the above-mentioned volatile products, the formation of organic nitrates could be established by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The yield of H 2SO 4 in the system β-pinene/O 3/SO 2 varies between 0.13 and 0.44 depending on the initial conditions, e.g. humidity. In the system terpene/O 3/SO 2/NO 2 the yield of H 2SO 4 for α-pinene (after 1 h reaction time) was 0.01-0.03, for β-pinene (2 or 4 h reaction time) 0.07-0.13 and for limonene (1 h reaction time) 0.02-0.09.

  20. SO2 abatement, energy conservation, and productivity at copper cliff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landolt, C. A.; Dutton, A.; Edwards, J. D.; McDonald, R. N.

    1992-09-01

    Inco pioneered the use of tonnage oxygen in nonferrous metallurgy when it commissioned the first industrial oxygen flash smelting process for the treatment of copper concentrates in the early 1950s. This was followed by other applications of oxygen such as the enrichment of reverberatory furnace and Peirce-Smith converter blasts; oxy-fuel smelting in reverb furnaces; and, very recently, flash conversion of chalcocite to copper. Inco is currently implementing a sulfur dioxide abatement project designed to reduce SO2 emissions from the smelter by 60 percent (to 265 kt) in 1994. At that time, oxygen consumption at the smelter will reach about 1.7 t O2/t Cu+Ni. Oxygen smelting and converting technology will lead toa substantial decrease in the use of fossil fuels and to the generation afhigh-strength SO2 off-gases suitable for cost-effective fixation in a new acid plant.

  1. Process for removing sulphuric acid components from flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Bechthold, H.; Mohn, U.

    1982-10-19

    A process for removing acidic and other polluting components from flue gases exhausted from a boiler installation and passed through a preliminary air heater, then through a dust separator and desulphurization means; a partial current of the flue gases is branched off upstream of the air heater and passed through an auxiliary dust separator and a spray drier which is supplied with washing liquid from the desulphurization means, and thereupon the partial current is reunited with the main gas current downstream of the air preheater.

  2. Volcanological applications of SO2 cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, M. R.; Prata, F.; Platt, U.

    2015-07-01

    Ground-based volcanic gas and ash imaging has the potential to revolutionise the way in which volcanoes are monitored and studied. The ability to track and quantify volcanic emissions in space and time with unprecedented fidelity opens the door to integration with geophysical measurements, allowing breakthroughs in our understanding of the physical processes driving volcanic activity. In May 2013 a European Science Foundation funded Plume Imaging workshop was conducted in Stromboli, Italy, with the objective of bringing the ground-based volcanic plume imaging community together in order to examine the state of the art, and move towards a 'best-practice' for volcanic ash and gas imaging techniques. A particular focus was the development of SO2 imaging systems, or SO2 cameras, with six teams deploying and testing various designs of ultraviolet and infrared-based imaging systems capable of imagining SO2. One conclusion of the workshop was that the term 'SO2 camera' should be applied to any SO2 imaging system, regardless of wavelength of radiation used. This Special Issue on Volcanic Plume Imaging is the direct result of the Stromboli workshop, and together the papers presented here represent the state of the art of ground-based volcano plume imaging science and technology. In this work, we examine in detail the volcanological applications of the SO2 camera, reviewing previous works and placing the new research contained in this Special Issue in context. The development of the SO2 camera, and future developments extending imaging to other volcanic gases, is one of the most exciting and novel research frontiers in volcanology today.

  3. CO2-SO2 clathrate hydrate formation on early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassefière, Eric; Dartois, Emmanuel; Herri, Jean-Michel; Tian, Feng; Schmidt, Frédéric; Mousis, Olivier; Lakhlifi, Azzedine

    2013-04-01

    It is generally agreed that a dense CO2-dominant atmosphere was necessary in order to keep early Mars warm and wet. However, current models have not been able to produce surface temperature higher than the freezing point of water. Most sulfate minerals discovered on Mars are dated no earlier than the Hesperian, despite likely much stronger volcanic activities and more substantial release of sulfur-bearing gases into martian atmosphere during the Noachian. Here we show, using a 1-D radiative-convective-photochemical model, that clathrate formation during the Noachian would have buffered the atmospheric CO2 pressure of early Mars at ˜2 bar and maintained a global average surface temperature ˜230 K. Because clathrates trap SO2 more favorably than CO2, all volcanically outgassed sulfur would have been trapped in Noachian Mars cryosphere, preventing a significant formation of sulfate minerals during the Noachian and inhibiting carbonates from forming at the surface in acidic water resulting from the local melting of the SO2-rich cryosphere. The massive formation of sulfate minerals at the surface of Mars during the Hesperian could be the consequence of a drop of the CO2 pressure below a 2-bar threshold value at the late Noachian-Hesperian transition, which would have released sulfur gases into the atmosphere from both the Noachian sulfur-rich cryosphere and still active Tharsis volcanism. A lower value of the pressure threshold, down to ˜0.5 bar, could have been sufficient to maintain middle and high latitude regions below the clathrate formation temperature during the Noachian and to make the trapping of SO2 in clathrates efficient. Our hypothesis could allow to explain the formation of chaotic terrains and outflow channels, and the occurrence of episodic warm episodes facilitated by the release of SO2 to the atmosphere. These episodes could explain the formation of valley networks and the degradation of impact craters, but remain to be confirmed by further modeling.

  4. CO2-SO2 clathrate hydrate formation on early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassefiere, E.; Dartois, E.; Herri, J.; Tian, F.; Schmidt, F.; Mousis, O.; Lakhlifi, A.

    2013-12-01

    It is generally agreed that a dense CO2-dominant atmosphere was necessary in order to keep early Mars warm and wet. However, current models have not been able to produce surface temperature higher than the freezing point of water. Most sulfate minerals discovered on Mars are dated no earlier than the Hesperian, despite likely much stronger volcanic activities and more substantial release of sulfur-bearing gases into Martian atmosphere during the Noachian. Here we show, using a 1-D radiative-convective-photochemical model, that clathrate formation during the Noachian would have buffered the atmospheric CO2 pressure of early Mars at ~2 bar and maintained a global average surface temperature ~230 K. Because clathrates trap SO2 more favorably than CO2, all volcanically outgassed sulfur would have been trapped in Noachian Mars cryosphere, preventing a significant formation of sulfate minerals during the Noachian and inhibiting carbonates from forming at the surface in acidic water resulting from the local melting of the SO2-rich cryosphere. The massive formation of sulfate minerals at the surface of Mars during the Hesperian could be the consequence of a drop of the CO2 pressure below a 2-bar threshold value at the late Noachian-Hesperian transition, which would have released sulfur gases into the atmosphere from both the Noachian sulfur-rich cryosphere and still active Tharsis volcanism. A lower value of the pressure threshold, down to ~0.5 bar, could have been sufficient to maintain middle and high latitude regions below the clathrate formation temperature during the Noachian and to make the trapping of SO2 in clathrates efficient. Our hypothesis could allow to explain the formation of chaotic terrains and outflow channels, and the occurrence of episodic warm episodes facilitated by the release of SO2 to the atmosphere. These episodes could explain the formation of valley networks and the degradation of impact craters, but remain to be confirmed by further modeling.

  5. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part I: experimental tests in full scale plants.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Rigamonti, Lucia; Marras, Roberto; Grosso, Mario

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, several waste-to-energy plants in Italy have experienced an increase of the concentration of acid gases (HCl, SO2 and HF) in the raw gas. This is likely an indirect effect of the progressive decrease of the amount of treated municipal waste, which is partially replaced by commercial waste. The latter is characterised by a higher variability of its chemical composition because of the different origins, with possible increase of the load of halogen elements such as chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F), as well as of sulphur (S). A new dolomitic sorbent was then tested in four waste-to-energy plants during standard operation as a pre-cleaning stage, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber. For a sorbent injection of about 6 kg per tonne of waste, the decrease of acid gases concentration downstream the boiler was in the range of 7-37% (mean 23%) for HCl, 34-95% (mean 71%) for SO2 and 39-80% (mean 63%) for HF. This pre-abatement of acid gases allowed to decrease the feeding rate of the traditional low temperature sorbent (sodium bicarbonate in all four plants) by about 30%. Furthermore, it was observed by the plant operators that the sorbent helps to keep the boiler surfaces cleaner, with a possible reduction of the fouling phenomena and a consequent increase of the specific energy production. A preliminary quantitative estimate was carried out in one of the four plants. PMID:25465511

  6. Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-01-14

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

  7. Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  8. SO2 SCRUBBING TECHNOLOGIES: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electricity generating units may use sulfur dioxide (SO2) scrubbers to meet the requirements of Phase II of the Acid Rain S02 Reduction Program. Additionally, the use of scrubbers can result in reduction of mercury emissions. It is timely, therefore, to review the commercially av...

  9. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

  10. DETERMINATION OF 2-METHYL TETROLS AND 2-METHYLGLYCERIC ACID IN SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FROM LABORATORY IRRADIATED ISOPRENE/NO X/SO 2/AIR MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation addresses recent work performed at EPA to evaluate the potential for the photooxidation of isoprene to produce secondary organic aerosol. Analysis of the samples for methyl tetrols and 2-methylglyceric acid were performed at EPA and the University of Antwerp. T...

  11. Acid dew and the role of chemistry in the dry deposition of reactive gases to wetted surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chameides, William L.

    1987-01-01

    A formalism is developed to describe the dry deposition of soluble reactive gases to wetted surfaces in terms of the relevant meteorological conditions, the surface roughness, the total amount of liquid water present on the surface, the rate of accumulation of this water, and the species' solubility and reactivity in the surface water. This formulation is then incorporated into a model designed to simulate the generation of acidic dew from the deposition of HNO3, SO2, S(IV) oxidants, H2O2, and O3. Similar to the observations of dew in the continental U.S., the model generates a dewdrop pH of about 4 by the end of the night; the pH can rapidly fall to toxic levels due to rapid evaporation after sunrise. Relatively low deposition velocities are predicted for the SO2 and O3 because of their lower solubilities and hence larger surface resistances than those of the other oxidants. Because the chemical lifetime of the SO2 in the dew is influenced by the atmospheric levels of H2O2, O3, and SO2, the SO2 deposition velocity is a strong function of these species' atmospheric abundances.

  12. Solubility calculations for acid gases in amine blends

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarty, T.

    1985-01-01

    Treating with alkanolamines is often used to sweeten gases containing only a few parts per million of CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S. Primary amines such as monoethanolamine (MEA) have great affinity for acid gases and are able to produce high purity sweet gas; on the other hand, tertiary amines like methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) have large capacity and are easy to regenerate but, because they do not bind chemically with CO/sub 2/, they are unable to produce a sweetened gas low in this component. Recently, the use of amine blends has become a subject of potentially great commercial importance. Since, the range of possible amines and blend formulations is large, a method for predicting equilibrium solubility is needed. A rigorous thermodynamic model has been developed which uses the extended Debye-Huckel expression, is very similar to one developed for single-amine solutions, and involves the fitting of binary interaction parameters to experimental data. In this work the interaction parameters found to be important in the activity coefficient expression were fitted to each single-acid-gas single-amine subsystem using all published solubility data. The resulting model was then validated by comparing mixed-acid-gas single-amine solubility predictions with published VLE data. MEA-MDEA and DEA-MDEA blends have been studied in detail in this work. It is found that each amine contributes to the overall acid gas solubility in a nonlinear way and that the solubility curves can exhibit maxima and minima as a function of the relative concentrations of the amines.

  13. Changes in SO2 and NO2 Pollution over the Past Decade Observed by Aura OMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkov, N. A.; Li, C.; Lamsal, L. N.; Celarier, E. A.; Marchenko, S. V.; Swartz, W.; Bucsela, E. J.; Fioletov, V.; McLinden, C. A.; Joiner, J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Duncan, B. N.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), a NASA partnership with the Netherlands and Finland, flies on the EOS Aura satellite and uses reflected sunlight to measure two critical atmospheric trace gases, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), characterizing daily air quality. Both gases and the secondary pollutants they produce (particulate matter, PM2.5, and tropospheric ozone) are among USEPA designated criteria pollutants, posing serious threats to human health and the environment (e.g., acid rain, plant damage, and reduced visibility). A new generation of the OMI standard SO2 and NO2 products (based on critically improved DOAS spectral fitting for NO2 and innovative Principal Component Analysis method for SO2) provides a valuable dataset for studying anthropogenic pollution on local to global scales. Here we highlight some of the OMI observed long-term changes in air quality over several regions. Over the US, average NO2 and SO2 pollution levels have decreased dramatically as a result of both technological improvements (e.g., catalytic converters on cars) and stricter regulations of emissions. We see continued decline in NO2 and SO2 pollution over Europe. Over China OMI observed a ~ 60% increase in NO2 pollution between 2005 and 2013, despite a temporary reversal of the growing trend due to both 2008 Olympic Games and the economic recession in 2009. Chinese SO2 pollution seems to have stabilized since peaking in 2007, probably due to government efforts to curb SO2 emissions from the power sector. We have also observed large increases in both SO2 and NO2 pollution particularly in Eastern India where a number of new large coal power plants have been built in recent years. We expect that further improvements in the OMI NO2 and SO2 products will allow more robust quantification of long-term trends in local to global air quality.

  14. Validation of the SO2 camera for high temporal and spatial resolution monitoring of SO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smekens, Jean-François; Burton, Michael R.; Clarke, Amanda B.

    2015-07-01

    Ground-based measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) are a key part of monitoring networks at many volcanic centers. SO2 camera systems represent an attractive addition to conventional spectroscopic methods such as COSPEC or DOAS, because they offer higher sampling rates (up to 1 Hz) and two-dimensional concentration mapping which provides additional contextual information for emission rate calculation and interpretation. Here we present the results of an SO2 camera development project and corresponding validation experiment conducted at a coal-burning power plant in Arizona (USA), where the emissions are independently measured. Emissions of SO2 and other acid gases are regulated in the United States, and hourly data are publicly reported by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). We measured the emissions from two exhaust stacks that had an average combined rate of 8.2 ± 2.1 × 10- 2 kg s- 1 (7 ± 1.8 t d- 1) over a period of 3 h. Masses integrated from our dataset are within 10-20% of the emissions reported by the EPA. The contextual information contained in the images allowed the identification and measurement of the individual plumes from each stack. Measured emission rates decrease with increasing distance from the source, pointing to an apparent loss of SO2 primarily by gas dilution processes, with SO2 concentrations dropping below the detection limit at the edge of the plume at distances > 200 m from the source. Cross-sections very close to the vent (within 50 m; ~ 2 vent diameters), through the optically thick condensing part of the plume, yielded emission rates lower than those reported to the EPA. This near-vent discrepancy is interpreted to be the result of light dilution effects due to attenuation and reflections off the surface of the condensing plume. This work is the first reported validation of emission rate measurements produced by an SO2 camera in a volcano-like geometry, and demonstrates that reliable emission rates can be measured, but also emphasizes the importance of the selection of the cross-section locations.

  15. Annular denuders for use in global climate and stratospheric measurements of acidic gases and particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Robert K.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of acidic and basic gases that coexist with fine particle (less than 2.5 micron) may be useful for determining the impact of these species on global climate changes and determining species that influence stratospheric ozone levels. Annular denuders are well suited for this purpose. A new concentric annular denuder system, consisting of a three channel denuder, a Teflon coated cyclone preseparator, and a multistage filter pack was developed, evaluated, and shown to provide reliable atmospheric measurements of SO2, HNO2, HNO3, NH3, SO4(=), NH4(+), NO3(-), and H(+). For example, the precision of the annular denuder for the ambient measurements of HNO3 and nitrates at concentrations between 0.1 to 3 microgram/cu m was + or - 12 and 16 pct., respectively. The 120 x 25 mm three channel denuder is encased in a stainless steel sheath and has annular spaces that are 1 mm wide. This design was shown to have nearly identical capacity for removal of SO2 as conventional 210 x 25 mm single channel denuder configurations. The cyclone preseparator was designed and tested to have a D sub 50 cutoff diameter of 2.5 micron and minimal retention of HNO3.

  16. Simultaneous control of acid gases and PAHs using a spray dryer combined with a fabric filter using different additives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen Shu; Wey, Ming Yen; Lin, Chiou Liang

    2002-04-26

    The purpose of this research was to simultaneously evaluate the removal efficiency of acid gases and PAHs from the flue gas emitted by a laboratory incinerator. This flue gas contained dust, acid gases, organics and heavy metals. A spray dryer combined with a fabric filter was used as the air pollution control device (APCD) in this study. The operating conditions investigated included different feedstock additives (polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and NaCl) and spray dryer additives (SiO2, CaCl2 and NaHCO3). The removal efficiency for SO2 could be enhanced by adding inorganic additives, such as SiO2, CaCl2 and NaHCO3. The presence of PVC in the incinerator feedstock also increased the removal efficiency of SO2in the spray dryer. The improved removal of PAHs could be attributed to the addition of feedstock additives (PVC and NaCl) and spray dryer additives (SiO2, CaCl2 and NaHCO3). PMID:11900910

  17. Uptake of Ambient Organic Gases to Acidic Sulfate Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, J.; Li, S.

    2009-05-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere has been an area of significant interest due to its climatic relevance, its effects on air quality and human health. Due largely to the underestimation of SOA by regional and global models, there has been an increasing number of studies focusing on alternate pathways leading to SOA. In this regard, recent work has shown that heterogeneous and liquid phase reactions, often leading to oligomeric material, may be a route to SOA via products of biogenic and anthropogenic origin. Although oligomer formation in chamber studies has been frequently observed, the applicability of these experiments to ambient conditions, and thus the overall importance of oligomerization reactions remain unclear. In the present study, ambient air is drawn into a Teflon smog chamber and exposed to acidic sulfate aerosols which have been formed in situ via the reaction of SO3 with water vapor. The aerosol composition is measured with a High Resolution Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), and particle size distributions are monitored with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The use of ambient air and relatively low inorganic particle loading potentially provides clearer insight into the importance of heterogeneous reactions. Results of experiments, with a range of sulfate loadings show that there are several competing processes occurring on different timescales. A significant uptake of ambient organic gases to the particles is observed immediately followed by a slow shift towards higher m/z over a period of several hours indicating that higher molecular weight products (possibly oligomers) are being formed through a reactive process. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions can occur with ambient organic gases, even in the presence of ammonia, which may have significant implications to the ambient atmosphere where particles may be neutralized after their formation.

  18. Mineral Sequestration of CO2 mixed with H2S and SO2 in Sandstone-Shale Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, T.; Pruess, K.; Apps, J. A.; Yamamoto, H.

    2004-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) injection into deep geologic formations can potentially reduce atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases. Sequestering less-pure CO2 waste streams (containing of H2S and/or SO2) is less expensive or requires less energy than separating CO2 from flue gas or a coal gasification process. The long-term interaction of these injected acid gases with shale-confining layers of sandstone formations has not been well investigated. We therefore have developed a conceptual model of injection of CO2 with H2S and/or SO2 into a sandstone-shale sequence, using hydrogeologic properties and mineral compositions commonly encountered in Gulf Coast sediments. We have performed numerical simulations using a 1-D radial well region considering sandstone alone and a 2-D model using a sandstone-shale sequence under acid-gas injection conditions. Results indicate that shale plays a limited role in mineral alteration and sequestration of gases within a sandstone horizon for a short time period (10,000 years in present simulations). Unlike H2S, the co-injection of SO2 results in different pH distribution, mineral alteration patterns, and CO2 mineral sequestration. Simulations generate a zonal distribution of mineral alteration and formation of CO2 and SO2 trapping minerals that depends the pH distribution. Co-injection of SO2 results in a larger and stronger acidic zone close to the well. Precipitation of CO2 trapping minerals occurs in the higher pH ranges beyond the acidic zones. In contrast, SO2 trapping minerals are stable at low pH ranges (below 5) in the front of the acidic zone. Corrosion and well abandonment caused by co-injection of SO2 is a very significant issue. Significant CO2 is sequestered in ankerite and dawsonite, and some in siderite. CO2 mineral-trapping capability can reach 76 kg per cubic meter of medium. Most of SO2 is trapped by alunite precipitation, while some of the SO2 is trapped by anhydrite and pyrite precipitation. Addition of the acid gases and induced mineral alteration result in changes in porosity. The limited information currently available on the mineralogy of natural high-pressure acid-gas reservoirs is generally consistent with our simulations.

  19. ACID GASES IN CO2-RICH SUBSURFACE GEOLOGIC ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Chialvo, Ariel A; Vlcek, Lukas; Cole, David

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of species behavior involving dilute fluid environments has been crucial for the advance of modern solvation thermodynamics through molecular-based formalisms to guide the development of macroscopic regression tools in the description of fluid behavior and correlation of experimental data (Chialvo 2013). Dilute fluid environments involving geologic formations are of great theoretical and practical relevance regardless of the thermodynamic state conditions. The most challenging systems are those involving highly compressible and reactive confined environments, i.e., where small perturbations of pressure and/or temperature can trigger considerable density changes. This in turn can alter significantly the species solvation, their preferential solvation, and consequently, their reactivity with one another and with the surrounding mineral surfaces whose outcome is the modification of the substrate porosity and permeability, and ultimately, the integrity of the mineral substrates. Considering that changes in porosity and permeability resulting from dissolution and precipitation phenomena in confined environments are at the core of the aqueous CO2-mineral interactions, and that caprock integrity (e.g., sealing capacity) depends on these key parameters, it is imperative to gain fundamental understanding of the mineral-fluid interfacial phenomena and fluid-fluid equilibria under mineral confinement at subsurface conditions. In order to undertand the potential effects of acid gases as contaminants of supercritical CO2 streams, in the next section we will discuss the thermodynamic behavior of CO2 fluid systems by addressing two crucial issues in the context of carbon capture, utilization and sequestration (CCUS) technologies: (i) Why should we consider (acid gas) CO2 impurities? and (ii) Why are CO2 fluid - mineral interactions of paramount relevance?

  20. MODELING OF SO2 OXIDATION IN SMOG

    EPA Science Inventory

    Smog chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the (1) kinetics of free radical reactions of SO2 in smog and (2) SO2 transformation to sulfate for atmospheric simulations. Rate constants were derived for the following reactions: SO2+HO+M yields sulfate (60), SO2+HO2 yield...

  1. The microwave absorption of SO2 in the Venus atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janssen, M. A.; Poynter, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide has a strong and complex rotational spectrum in the microwave and far infrared regions. The microwave absorption due to SO2 in a CO2 mixture is calculated for conditions applicable to the Venus atmosphere. It is shown that at the concentrations detected by Pioneer-Venus in situ measurements, SO2 may be expected to contribute significantly to the microwave opacity of the Venus atmosphere. In particular, SO2 might provide the major source of opacity in the atmospheric region immediately below the main sulfuric acid cloud deck. The spectrum is largely nonresonant at the pressures where SO2 is expected to occur, however.

  2. OPERATION OF A SULFURIC ACID PLANT USING BLENDED COPPER SMELTER GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high degree of control of SOx emissions at copper smelters can be obtained by blending reverberatory furnace gases with gases from roasters and converters and using the combined stream as feed to a sulfuric acid plant. The Bor Copper Smelter in Bor, Yugoslavia, experimented wit...

  3. Monitoring of volcanic emissions of SO2 and ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theys, Nicolas; Clarisse, Lieven; Brenot, Hugues; van Gent, Jeroen; Campion, Robin; van der A, Ronald; Valks, Pieter; Corradini, Stefano; Merucci, Luca; Van Roozendael, Michel; Coheur, Pierre-François; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clerbaux, Cathy; Tait, Steve; Ferrucci, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions can emit large quantities of fine particles (ash) into the atmosphere as well as several trace gases, such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, sulphur species (SO2, H2S) and halogens (HCl, HBr, HF). These volcanic ejecta can have a considerable impact on the atmosphere, human health and society. Volcanic ash in particular is known to be a major threat for aviation, especially after dispersion over long distances (>1000 km) from the erupting volcano. In this respect, the continuous monitoring of volcanic ash from space is playing an essential role for the mitigation of aviation hazards. Compared to ash, SO2 is less critical for aviation safety, but is much easier to measure. Therefore, SO2 observations are often use as a marker of volcanic ash in the atmosphere. Moreover, SO2 yields information on the processes occurring in the magmatic system and is used as a proxy for the eruptive rate. In this presentation we give an overview of recent developments of the Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS). The focus is on the near-real time detection and monitoring of volcanic plumes of ash and SO2 using polar-orbiting instruments GOME-2, OMI, IASI and AIRS. The second part of the talk is dedicated to the determination of volcanic SO2 fluxes from satellite measurements. We review different techniques and investigate the temporal evolution of the total emissions of SO2 for recent volcanic events.

  4. STATUS OF SO2 SCRUBBING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the extent of current sulfur dioxide (SO2) scrubber applications on electricity generating units in the U.S. and abroad. The technical performance of recent SO2 scrubber installations is discussed. Recently reported technical innovations to SO2 scrubbing tech...

  5. Radiolysis gases from nitric acid solutions containing HSA and HAN

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1994-10-28

    The concentration of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) in the radiolytically produced off-gas from 2.76-4.25M HNO{sub 3}/PU solutions has been found to be greatly reduced in the presence of sulfamic acid (HSA) and hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN). The H{sub 2} concentration ([H{sub 2}]) is reduced from 35 percent to about 4 percent by dilution caused from an increase in the production rates of nitrogen (N{sub 2}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and oxygen (O{sub 2}) gases. The generation rate of H{sub 2} was not affected by HSA or HAN giving a measured radiolytic yield, G(H{sub 2}), value of 0.201 molecules/100 eV for 2.765M NO{sub 3}{sup -} solution (a value of 0.213 is predicted from previous data). The G(H{sub 2}) values are dependent on the solution nitrate concentration ([NO{sub 3}{sup -}]). The generation rates of N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2} are not dependent on the [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] in this narrow range, but are dependent on the presence of HSA and the concentration of HAN. The percentage [H{sub 2}] for the 2.5 to 3.0M NO{sub 3}{sup -} range expected in the off- from the FB-Line Pu{sup +3} Hold Tanks is conservatively estimated to be about 3.5 to 4.5 % for Pu + 3 solutions initially containing 0.023M HAN/0.165M HSA. The upper limit [H{sub 2}] may actually be about 4.1 % (4.3 % at 90 % confidence limits) but more {open_quotes}initial{close_quotes} off-gas rate data is needed at about 2.9M [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] in Pu{sup +3} solution for verification. Addition of ascorbic acid had no effect on the off-gas rate of Pu{sup +3} solutions containing HSA and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations higher than those expected in the hold tanks. The maximum {open_quotes}hold time{close_quotes} for 50 grams/liter Pu{sup +3}/0.165M HSA/0.023M HAN/2.5-3.0M HNO{sub 3} solution is 20.3{+-}2.1 days. After this time the HSA initially present will become exhausted and the [H{sub 2}] will increase to 35 %. This hold time may be longer in [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] < 3.0M, but again more study is needed.

  6. Space-borne constraints on SO2 fluxes for recent volcanic eruptions in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theys, N.; Campion, R.; Clarisse, L.; Brenot, H.; van Gent, J.; Coheur, P.; Van Roozendael, M.; Tait, S.; Ferrucci, F.

    2012-04-01

    Magmatic gases (H2O, CO2, sulphur and halogenated species) are the driving forces of volcanic eruptions. These emissions can strongly impact the local biosphere (through acid deposition) and also affect significantly the chemical composition of the atmosphere and climate. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) measurements have been used to characterize and monitor volcanic activity for decades. However, remote-sensing methods based on absorption spectroscopy generally provide integrated concentration of already dispersed plumes of SO2. In the last years, consolidated measurements of total emission fluxes of SO2 have been made possible for active degassing volcanoes using ground-based measurements. For non-monitored volcanoes or explosive volcanic eruptions, space-based measurements of SO2 are more adequate but unfortunately fluxes estimates are sparse. The motivation for this study is an effort to constrain volcanic SO2 fluxes using satellite measurements of dispersed and large-scale plumes of SO2. We combine different approaches and investigate the temporal evolution of the total emissions of SO2 for a number of recent volcanic events in 2011: Nyamuragira (Congo), Nabro (Eritrea) and Puyehue (Chili). High spectral resolution satellite instruments operating both in the UV-visible (OMI/Aura and GOME-2/MetOp-A) and thermal Infrared (IASI/MetOp-A) spectral ranges are used in a synergistic way. Although the primary objective of this study is the calculation of SO2 fluxes, it also enables to assess the consistency of the SO2 products from the different sensors used. Moreover, our estimates of SO2 fluxes are confronted to magma fluxes constraints obtained from independent thermal measurements. This work is performed in the frame of the European Volcano Observatory Space Services (EVOSS) EU FP7 project whose aim is to develop and demonstrate a portfolio of GMES Downstream Services, based on Earth Observation data products, to monitor volcanic activity and relevant hazards at a global scale. The region of interest of EVOSS (EU and Africa) is monitored for ground-deformations, thermal, SO2 and ash detection using state-of-the-art remote sensing techniques.

  7. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. are attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO and SO.sub.2 can be removed in an economic fashion.

  8. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, S.G.; Liu, D.K.

    1992-11-17

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50 C is attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2], alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] can be removed in an economic fashion. 9 figs.

  9. Process for removal of carbonyl sulfide in liquified hydrocarbon gases with absorption of acid gases

    SciTech Connect

    Beavon, D.K.; Mackles, M.

    1980-11-11

    Liquified hydrocarbon gases containing at least carbonyl sulfide as an impurity are purified by intimately mixing the liquified hydrocarbon gas with an aqueous absorbent for hydrogen sulfide in a hydrolysis zone maintained at a temperature and a pressure sufficient to maintain the liquified hydrocarbon gas in the liquid state and hydrolyze the carbonyl sulfide to hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The liquified hydrocarbon gas containing at least a portion of the formed carbonyl sulfide and carbon dioxide is separated from the liquid absorbent and passed to an absorption zone where it is contacted with a liquid hydrogen sulfide absorbent where at least the formed hydrogen sulfide is separated from the liquified petroleum gas. A stage of absorption of at least hydrogen sulfide may proceed mixing of the liquified hydrocarbon gas with the absorbent in the hydrolysis reaction zone. The absorbent employed does not combine irreversibly with carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide, and preferably is an aqueous solution of diethanolamine.

  10. Atmospheric SO2 measurements at the Brazilian Antarctic station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariano, Ericka; Paes Leme, Neusa Maria; Alvala, Plinio

    For a better comprehension of the atmospheric chemical and radiative properties, it is necessary to understand the behavior of trace gases and aerosols; some of these species are not well studied. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is found in the troposphere, as a result of both natural and anthropogenic emissions. To study the behavior of this gas in the Antarctic continent, the data collected by the Brewer Spectrophotometer installed in the Brazilian Antarctic Station Comandante Ferraz (62o 05'S, 58o 24'W) were used. With this ground-based instrument, the total column of SO2 was measured from the beginning of springtime, to the beginning of summer, in the years from 2003 to 2009. It was possible to observe that the total columns of SO2 did not show any differences in the time of the development of the ozone hole, as comparing to other periods. The main sources of anthropogenic SO2 pollution in this region are the generation of energy, the operations with ships, and the burning of garbage, being a punctual impact. The natural generation of SO2 in this region is mainly related to the conversion of DMS (dimethyl sulfide) emitted by the ocean. In a few days, the SO2 total column exceeded the values considered normal for remote regions (¿2UD), and these high concentrations must have their sources identified and monitored.

  11. [Aqueous oxidation of SO2 with microbial method].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen-ju; Tong, Xiao-shuang; Zhu, Xiao-fan; Zhu, Lian-xi; Jin, Yan

    2006-05-01

    The desulfurizations in dilute sulfuric acid solution, acidic ferric solution, acidic ferrous solution, microbial solution (Thiobacillus ferrooridans) and microbial culture medium solution were conducted to discuss biodesulfurization mechanism. The effect of Fe3+ concentration, Fe2+ concentration, SO2 concentration and temperature on biodesulfurization was examined on SO4(2-) concentration in the solution. Biodesulfurization has two ways: direct oxidation and indirect oxidation. In direct oxidation, Thiobacillus ferrooxridans oxidize S(IV) to S(VI). In indirect oxidation, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans can fast transform Fe2+ to Fe3+ in acidic conditions and then increase aqueous catalytic oxidation capacity of Fe3+ on SO2. It shows that indirect oxidation is the dominant way in biodesulfurization process. The desulfurization efficiency increase with concentration of Fe3+ or Fe2+ in the range of 0-1.2 g/L. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans enforce oxidation of SO2 in Fe3+ /Fe2+ system. The removal of SO2 decrease as concentration of SO2 increase, however, concentrations of SO4(2-) in the solution do not vary much in different inlet concentrations of SO2. Temperature has important effect on biodesulfurization. The optimal operative temperature range is 30-40 degrees C. PMID:16850819

  12. Aura OMI Observations of Global SO2 and NO2 Pollution from 2005 to 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotkov, Nickolay; Li, Can; Lamsal, Lok; Celarier, Edward; Marchenko, Sergey; Swartz, William H.; Bucsela, Eric; Fioletov, Vitali; McLinden, Chris; Joiner, Joanna; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Duncan, Bryan; Dickerson, Russ

    2014-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), a NASA partnership with the Netherlands and Finland, flies on the NASA Aura satellite and uses reflected sunlight to measure the two critical atmospheric trace gases: nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) characterizing daily air quality. Both gases and the secondary pollutants they produce (particulate matter, PM2.5, and tropospheric ozone) are USEPA designated criteria pollutants, posing serious threats to human health and the environment (e.g., acid rain, plant damage and reduced visibility). Our group at NASA GSFC has developed and maintained OMI standard SO2 and NO2 data products. We have recently released an updated version of the standard NO2 L2 and L3 products (SP v2.1) and continue improving the algorithm. We are currently in the process of releasing next generation pollution SO2 product, based on an innovative Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm, which greatly reduces the noise and biases. These new standard products provide valuable datasets for studying anthropogenic pollution on local to global scales. Here we highlight some of the OMI observed changes in air quality over several regions. Over the US average NO2 and SO2 pollution levels had decreased dramatically as a result of both technological improvements (e.g., catalytic converters on cars) and stricter regulations of emissions. We see continued decline in pollution over Europe. Over China OMI observed an increase of about 60 percent in NO2 pollution between 2005 and 2013, despite a temporal reversal of the growing trend due to both 2008 Olympic Games and the economic recession in 2009. Chinese SO2 pollution seems to have stabilized since peaking in 2007, probably due to government efforts to curb SO2 emissions from the power sector. We have also observed large increases in both SO2 and NO2 pollution particularly in Eastern India where a number of large new coal power plants had been built in recent years. We expect that further improvements in the OMI NO2 and SO2 products will allow more robust quantification of long-term trends in global air quality.

  13. Understanding SO2 Capture by Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Anirban; Balasubramanian, Sundaram

    2016-05-19

    Ionic liquids have generated interest for efficient SO2 absorption due to their low vapor pressure and versatility. In this work, a systematic investigation of the structure, thermodynamics, and dynamics of SO2 absorption by ionic liquids has been carried out through quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. MP2 level calculations of several ion pairs complexed with SO2 reveal its preferential interaction with the anion. Results of condensed phase MD simulations of SO2-IL mixtures manifested the essential role of both cations and anions in the solvation of SO2, where the solute is surrounded by the "cage" formed by the cations (primarily its alkyl tail) through dispersion interactions. These structural effects of gas absorption are substantiated by calculated Gibbs free energy of solvation; the dissolution is demonstrated to be enthalpy driven. The entropic loss of SO2 absorption in ionic liquids with a larger anion such as [NTf2](-) has been quantified and has been attributed to the conformational restriction of the anion imposed by its interaction with SO2. SO2 loading IL decreases its shear viscosity and enhances the electrical conductivity. This systematic study provides a molecular level understanding which can aid the design of task-specific ILs as electrolytes for efficient SO2 absorption. PMID:27119562

  14. Retrieval and validation of surface SO2 from OMI SO2 columns over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, H.; Wang, W.; Chen, L.

    2013-12-01

    There is concern about the impact of near-surface SO2 on human health and ecosystems over China. Remote sensing technology provides an unprecedented tool for continuous and real-time monitoring for atmospheric SO2. In this paper, we used the SO2 vertical profile from multi-scale air quality model system RAMS-CMAQ model, to get near-surface SO2 concentrations from OMI observations. And then the ground-based SO2 Air Pollution Index (API) data were used to estimate the effectiveness of the near-surface SO2 concentrations obtained from OMI SO2 columns. Results show that, (1) SO2 columns from RAMS-CMAQ model have good correlation with the near-surface SO2 concentrations (correlation coefficient R reaching to 0.73); (2) the near-surface SO2 concentrations, which are derived by combining the OMI SO2 columns and RAMS-CMAQ SO2 profile, have a higher correlation (R=0.592) with ground-based SO2 API than OMI SO2 columns (R=0.271) and RAMS-CMAQ near-surface SO2 concentrations (R=0.306). The present findings improve our understanding of SO2 air pollution over China, and also have contributed to the near-surface SO2 retrieval studies.

  15. Evolution of CO2, SO2, HCl, and HNO3 in the volcanic plumes from Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, C.; Jessberger, P.; Jurkat, T.; Kaufmann, S.; Baumann, R.; Schlager, H.; Bobrowski, N.; Giuffrida, G.; Salerno, G.

    2014-03-01

    The volcanic plumes from degassing Etna (Italy) were extensively probed with instruments onboard the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt research aircraft Falcon during the contrail, volcano, and cirrus experiment CONCERT on 29/30 September 2011. Up to 10.4 ppmv SO2and 0.3 ppmv HCl were detected with the atmospheric chemical ionization mass spectrometer AIMS at 3.1 km altitude and 20 km distance to the summit. HNO3 is the dominant reactive nitrogen component in the plumes. Linking aircraft and ground-based observations by Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory dispersion modeling, we identify two crater plumes with different compositions primarily injected by the Bocca Nuova and North East craters. Uniquely, we follow their chemical evolution up to 5 h plume age. Our results show that CO2/SO2and SO2/HCl molar ratios are stable in the ageing plumes. Hence, conversion of SO2 to H2SO4 and partitioning of HCl in acidic plume particles play a minor role at dry tropospheric conditions. Thus, these trace gases allow monitoring volcanic activity far from the crater.

  16. Io's atmosphere from microwave detection SO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lellouch, Emmanuel; Encrenaz, Therese; Belton, Michael; De Pater, Imke; Gulkis, Samuel

    1990-01-01

    The microwave detection of SO2 at 222 GHz in Io's atmosphere is reported. The observations imply an SO2 surface pressure of 4-35 nanobars, covering 3-15 percent of the surface on both leading and trailing sides of Io when illuminated by the sun. This supports atmospheric models in which the partial pressure of SO2 at the surface is determined by the Io surface temperature, favoring, in particular, the 'albedo cold-trap' models. The failure to detect H2S at 169 GHz suggests that the pressure of this gas is probably below 10 to the -10th bar. These results, taken together with Pioneer ionospheric data, suggest that an atmospheric gas other than SO2 is present. It is proposed that the locally buffered SO2 atmosphere coexists with a background atmosphere of oxygen with a partial surface pressure of about 20 nanobars.

  17. Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases

    DOEpatents

    Towler, Gavin P.; Lynn, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

  18. New developments to improve SO2 cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luebcke, P.; Bobrowski, N.; Hoermann, C.; Kern, C.; Klein, A.; Kuhn, J.; Vogel, L.; Platt, U.

    2012-12-01

    The SO2 camera is a remote sensing instrument that measures the two-dimensional distribution of SO2 (column densities) in volcanic plumes using scattered solar radiation as a light source. From these data SO2-fluxes can be derived. The high time resolution of the order of 1 Hz allows correlating SO2 flux measurements with other traditional volcanological measurement techniques, i.e., seismology. In the last years the application of SO2 cameras has increased, however, there is still potential to improve the instrumentation. First of all, the influence of aerosols and ash in the volcanic plume can lead to large errors in the calculated SO2 flux, if not accounted for. We present two different concepts to deal with the influence of ash and aerosols. The first approach uses a co-axial DOAS system that was added to a two filter SO2 camera. The camera used Filter A (peak transmission centred around 315 nm) to measures the optical density of SO2 and Filter B (centred around 330 nm) to correct for the influence of ash and aerosol. The DOAS system simultaneously performs spectroscopic measurements in a small area of the camera's field of view and gives additional information to correct for these effects. Comparing the optical densities for the two filters with the SO2 column density from the DOAS allows not only a much more precise calibration, but also to draw conclusions about the influence from ash and aerosol scattering. Measurement examples from Popocatépetl, Mexico in 2011 are shown and interpreted. Another approach combines the SO2 camera measurement principle with the extremely narrow and periodic transmission of a Fabry-Pérot interferometer. The narrow transmission window allows to select individual SO2 absorption bands (or series of bands) as a substitute for Filter A. Measurements are therefore more selective to SO2. Instead of Filter B, as in classical SO2 cameras, the correction for aerosol can be performed by shifting the transmission window of the Fabry-Pérot interferometer towards the SO2 absorption cross section minima. A correction of ash and aerosol influences with this technique can decrease deviation from the true column by more than 60%, since the wavelength difference between the two measurement channels is much smaller than in classical SO2 cameras. While the implementation of this approach for a 2D camera encompasses many challenges, it gives the possibility to build a relatively simple and robust scanning instrument for volcanic SO2 distributions. A second problem of the SO2 camera technique is the relatively high price, which prevents its use in many volcano observatories in developing countries. Most SO2 cameras use CCDs that were originally designed for astronomical purposes. The large pixel size and low noise of these detectors compensates for the low intensity of solar radiation in the UV and the low quantum efficiency of the detector in this spectral range. However, the detectors used cost several thousand US dollars. We present results from test measurements using a consumer DSLR camera as a detector of an SO2 camera. Since the camera is not sensitive in the UV, the incoming radiation is first imaged onto a screen that is covered with a suitable fluorescent dye converting the UV radiation to visible light.

  19. Interspecific Variation in SO2 Flux 1

    PubMed Central

    Olszyk, David M.; Tingey, David T.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SO2 air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SO2 and H2O vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps. (a native California shrub). Fluxes were measured using the mass-balance approach during exposure to 4.56 micromoles per cubic meter (0.11 microliters per liter) SO2 for 2 hours in a controlled environmental chamber. Flux through adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces with closed stomata ranged from 1.9 to 9.4 nanomoles per square meter per second for SO2, and 0.3 to 1.3 millimoles per square meter per second for H2O vapor. Flux of SO2 into leaves through stomata ranged from ∼0 to 8.5 (dark) and 3.8 to 16.0 (light) millimoles per square meter per second. Flux of H2O vapor from leaves through stomata ranged from ∼0 to 0.6 (dark) to 0.4 to 0.9 (light) millimole per square meter per second. Lycopersicon had internal flux rates for both SO2 and H2O vapor over twice as high as for the other species. Stomatal conductance based on H2O vapor flux averaged from 0.07 to 0.13 mole per square meter per second among the four species. Internal conductance of SO2 as calculated from SO2 flux was from 0.04 mole per square meter per second lower to 0.06 mole per square meter per second higher than stomatal conductance. For Pisum, Geranium, and Diplacus stomatal conductance was the same or slightly higher than internal conductance, indicating that, in general, SO2 flux could be predicted from stomatal conductance for H2O vapor. However, for the Lycopersicon mutant, internal leaf conductance was much higher than stomatal conductance, indicating that factors inside leaves can play a significant role in determining SO2 flux. PMID:16664551

  20. Co-Sequestration Geochemical Modeling: Simple Brine Solution + CO2-O2-SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verba, C.; Kutchko, B. G.; Reed, M. H.

    2012-12-01

    Class H well cement (LaFarge) was exposed to supercritical CO2 to evaluate the impact of brine chemistry on the well cement. Simulated experimental downhole conditions include a pressure of 28.6 MPa and a temperature of 50oC. Brine composition was formulated from the NETL NATCARB database, resulting in a simple solution of 1 M (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2). It was determined that the brine chemistry plays a vital role in determining the degree and type of alteration of cement in carbon sequestration conditions. The implications of co-sequestration (CO2/O2/SO2 mixtures) from of oxy-fueled combustion, coal gasification and sour gas have been considered. Geochemical modeling was conducted to understand the interaction between formation brine, cement and co-contaminant gases, using a gas composition of 95.5% CO2, 4% O2, and 1.5% SO2. The modeling results are significant in determining the validity of co-sequestering coal flue gas containing SOx gases or sour hydrocarbon gas which could potentially produce pyrite or other sulfur-bearing species in the cement via mineralization trapping. Thermodynamic components of aqueous species, gases, and minerals were used to calculate the pH and mineral saturation indices using CHIM-XPT. The computed pH of the solution is 4.34. The total sulfate molality within the brine is 0.0095 M. In experimental conditions of 600 mL of brine, 0.0057 moles of sulfate will be converted into 5.7 mL of sulfuric acid. The modeling shows that an excess of 31% O2 forms, indicating that H2S from SO2 disporportionation is oxidized to sulfate, thus no gaseous H2S will form. Remaining SO2 in the experimental headspace has a predicted mole fraction is 10-46. Additional SO2 gas added to the system produces the reaction to precipitate gypsum. Additional gas reactions precipitate gypsum, anhydrite, calcite, and dolomite.

  1. Exposure assessment of oxidant gases and acidic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Lioy, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    Clearly the presence of high ozone and acidic species in North America is primarily dependent upon photochemical air pollution. Evidence shows, however, that high acid exposures may occur in specific types of areas of high sulfur fuel use during the winter. At the present time, our concerns about exposure to local populations and regional populations should be directed primarily toward the outdoor activity patterns of individuals in the summer, and how those activity patterns relate to the location, duration, and concentrations of ozone and acid aerosol in photochemical air pollution episodes. Lioy Dyba and Mage et al have examined the activity patterns of children in summer camps. Because they spend more time outside than the normal population, these children form an important group of exercising individuals subject to photochemical pollution exposures. The dose of ozone inhaled by the children in the two camps was within 50% and 25% of the dose inhaled by adults in controlled clinical situations that produced clinically significant decrements in pulmonary function and increased the symptoms after 6.6 hr exposure in a given day. The chamber studies have used only ozone, whereas in the environment this effect may be enhanced by the presence of a complex mixture. The work of Lioy et al in Mendham, New Jersey found that hydrogen ion seemed to play a role in the inability of the children to return immediately to their normal peak expiratory flow rate after exposure. The camp health study conducted in Dunsville, Ontario suggested that children participating in a summer camp where moderate levels of ozone (100 ppb) but high levels of acid (46 micrograms/m3) occurred during an episode had a similar response. Thus, for children or exercising adults who are outdoors for at least one hour or more during a given day, the presence and persistence of oxidants in the environment are of particular concern. 63 references.

  2. Model Simulations of the Competing Climatic Effects of SO2 and CO2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Chou, Ming-Dah

    1993-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide-derived cloud condensation nuclei are expected to enhance the planetary albedo, thereby cooling the planet. This effect might counteract the global warming expected from enhanced greenhouse gases. A detailed treatment of the relationship between fossil fuel burning and the SO2 effect on cloud albedo is implemented in a two-dimensional model for assessing the climate impact. Although there are large gaps in our knowledge of the atmospheric sources and sinks of sulfate aerosol, it is possible to reach some general conclusions. Using a conservative approach, results show that the cooling induced by the SO2 emission can presently counteract 50% of the CO2 greenhouse warming. Since 1980, a strong warming trend has been predicted by the model, 0.15°C, during the 1980-1990 period alone. The model predicts that by the year 2060 the SO2 cooling reduces climate warming by 0.5°C or 25% for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) business as usual (BAU) scenario and 0.2°C or 20% for scenario D (for a slow pace of fossil fuel burning). The hypothesis is examined that the different responses between the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and the Southern Hemisphere (SH) can be used to validate the presence of the SO2-induced cooling. Despite the fact that most of the SO2-induced cooling takes place in the Northern Hemispheric continents, the model-predicted difference in the temperature response between the NH and the SH of 0.2°C in 1980 is expected to remain about the same at least until 2060. This result is a combined effect of the much faster response of the continents than the oceans and of the larger forcing due to CO2 than due to the SO2. The climatic response to a complete filtering of SO2 from the emission products in order to reduce acid rain is also examined. The result is a warming surge of 0.4°C in the first few years after the elimination of the SO2 emission.

  3. Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; MacKenzie, Patricia D.

    1985-01-01

    Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia, and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with steam, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

  4. Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Mackenzie, P.D.

    1982-09-03

    Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with stream, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

  5. 40 CFR 60.54a - Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases. 60.54a Section 60.54a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Municipal Waste Combustors for...

  6. 40 CFR 60.54a - Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases. 60.54a Section 60.54a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Municipal Waste Combustors for...

  7. 40 CFR 60.54a - Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor... for Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced After December 20, 1989 and on or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.54a Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases. (a)-(b) (c) On...

  8. 40 CFR 60.54a - Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for municipal waste combustor... for Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction Is Commenced After December 20, 1989 and On or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.54a Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases. (a)-(b) (c) On...

  9. Electrochemical Methods for Cleansing of H2S and SO2 in Industrial and Natural Contaminated Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Konstantin

    Hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide are hazardous to the environment pollutants. They are contained in industrial and utility waste gases and waters as well as in some natural lakes and Seas. The present paper is a review of our studies on the electrochemical oxidation-reduction processes for SO2 and H2S cleansing by their oxidation with oxygen contained in the air. An innovative Carbon-Teflon structure of the electrodes (membranes) allows for the simultaneous electro-catalytic reactions of SO2, H2S and oxygen, proceeding on dispersed micro-galvanic elements, based on their chemical affinity without external power application. The physical model of electrochemical reactions in Carbon-Teflon electrodes is presented. The electrochemical nature of the processes is revealed using the additive principle. The results are used for development of processes for purification of SO2 and H2S from industrial gasses and waters. The major relations describing the processes, namely the impacts of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid concentrations have been studied. The revealed simplified expressions facilitate the performance estimation of an innovative process for SO2 cleansing in waste gases, labeled ELCOX.

  10. Satellite SO2 retrievals from ash rich volcanic plumes: Comparison between different correction procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradini, S.; Pugnaghi, S.; Campion, R.; Arvani, B.; Guerrieri, L.; Merucci, L.

    2012-04-01

    Observations of volcanic degassing yield insights into the magmatic processes which control volcanic activity during both quiescent and eruptive phases. SO2 is an important volcanic gas because of its effects on the environment (e.g. acid rain, effects on plants and public health) and also because once it has reached high altitudes it can be transported over long distances, has a great residence time and can be oxidized to form sulphates. The sulphates are capable of reflecting solar radiation and causing surface cooling. For these reasons there is great interest in improving the quality and frequency of volcanic SO2 retrievals. Satellite observations have been used for a long time to monitor globally distributed volcanic activity because they offer a practical and safe source of valuable data. While no satellite sensor has been developed explicitly for volcanic observations, continuous technological improvement has achieved spatial resolutions and acquisition frequencies that allow increasingly detailed volcanological studies at local scales. Monitoring of volcanic SO2 is one of the key facilities offered by satellite remote sensing techniques both in the UV and in the TIR spectral range. During volcanic eruptions ash and gases can be emitted simultaneously. The plume ash particles (from 1 to 10 micron) tend to reduce the top of atmosphere radiance in the entire Thermal InfraRed spectral range (7-14 micron), including the channels used for the SO2 retrieval. The net effect is a significant SO2 column abundance overestimation. In this work three different ash correction procedures for SO2 volcanic plume retrieval are compared. These procedures, applied to MODIS and ASTER TIR measurements, has been used to retrieve the SO2 emission from the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull (Iceland) and the 2011 Mt. Etna (Italy) eruptions. The first procedure (P1), based on Corradini et al. 2009, needs the simultaneous presence of the 8.7 micron SO2 absorption bands, as well as the split window bands centered around 11 and 12 micron used for ash retrieval. This implies the possibility of a simultaneous retrieval of both volcanic SO2 and ash in the same data set. The procedure is based on computing the plume atmospheric terms, taking into account the ash content of the different pixels, by using MODTRAN 4 radiative transfer model. The second procedure (P2), based on Campion et al. 2010, consists of adjusting the SO2 column amount until the ratios of radiance simulated on several ASTER bands match the observations. The selected band ratios depend much less on atmospheric humidity, sulfate aerosols, surface altitude and emissivity than the raw radiances. The third (P3) is a novel procedure which determines the radiance at the sensor if no plume was in the scene and then the plume transmittance at each band. A relationship, of the ash transmittance at 8.7 versus 11 micron transmittance, is used to retrieve the SO2 abundance. The P1 procedure has been considered as a reference. Its main drawback is the time required to compute the simulated atmospheric terms Look-Up Tables. The P2 procedure, valid for ASTER images, gives a very good spatial resolution but, because of that, the plume is generally not completely observed. The P3 procedure is very fast and can be used for a volcanic early warning, but seems too sensitive to the plume temperature. Even if the P1 procedure tends to overestimate the SO2 amounts with respect to the P2 and P3 procedures, the results show a good agreement in both the the SO2 flux trends and total mass for all the different eruptive events considered.

  11. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of a municipal waste combustor plant may elect to implement a nitrogen oxides emissions averaging... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.33b Section 60.33b Protection of Environment..., acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor...

  12. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of a municipal waste combustor plant may elect to implement a nitrogen oxides emissions averaging... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.33b Section 60.33b Protection of Environment..., acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor...

  13. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of a municipal waste combustor plant may elect to implement a nitrogen oxides emissions averaging... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.33b Section 60.33b Protection of Environment..., acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor...

  14. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of a municipal waste combustor plant may elect to implement a nitrogen oxides emissions averaging... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.33b Section 60.33b Protection of Environment..., acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor...

  15. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of a municipal waste combustor plant may elect to implement a nitrogen oxides emissions averaging... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.33b Section 60.33b Protection of Environment..., acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor...

  16. ADVANCED CONCEPTS: SO2 REMOVAL PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of a potassium scrubbing system that recovers useful forms of sulfur from pollutants while using a low-energy process to regenerate the absorbing medium. The report also describes two versions of a new, regenerable process for SO2 scrubbing tha...

  17. Long life Li/SO2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, S.

    1981-03-01

    The development of a long life Li/SO2 battery (one that could operate continuously for periods of at least five years) is discussed. The causes of premature failures in battery concepts are defined and solutions to these problems are described. In particular the corrosion of the glass in a glass-to-metal seal and a spot welded positive lead are addressed.

  18. Investigating Statospheric Loss Rates of Volcanic SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, J. M.; Bluth, G. J.; Prata, A. J.

    2002-12-01

    Explosive volcanism is the predominant pathway for sulfur species to enter the stratosphere. The most important species is sulfur dioxide (SO2) which subsequently converts to sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol particles. The aerosol particles have relatively long lifetimes in the dry, stable stratosphere and have potential consequences for both climate and atmospheric chemistry. The aerosol particles can reflect incoming solar radiation, but can also absorb outgoing radiation. Also, the surfaces of aerosol particles catalyze other chemical reactions by providing a surface for additional reactions to take place. To better understand and constrain these effects, it is necessary to examine the chemical fate and transport of volcanogenic SO2 emplaced in the stratosphere. Since 1978, detection and quantification of stratospheric SO2 from explosive eruptions have been predominantly accomplished with the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). To date, over 100 eruptions have been detected. However, to study the fate and transport of volcanic SO2, the cloud must be generated from a discrete event and be observable for multiple days. Although the TOMS database contains many detected events, only infrequent, powerful eruptions produce large SO2 clouds that reach the stratosphere and have multiple-day lifetimes. Thus, SO2 loss rates in the stratosphere have been difficult to study with TOMS for lack of sufficient statistical data. More recently, an SO2 retrieval algorithm has been developed for the Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) suite of instruments. TOVS data cover nearly the same 24 year period as TOMS, and provide valuable validation and comparison information. In this study, we begin a comparative analysis of the available multiple-day SO2 clouds observed by TOMS and TOVS throughout their 24 year record. SO2 clouds from explosive eruptions have been chosen and processed using the latest algorithms. These eruptions include Mt. St. Helens (1980), El Chichon (1982), Cerro Hudson (1991), Mt. Pinatubo (1991), and Mt. Spurr (1992). We examine the influence of total erupted tonnage, latitude, eruption altitude, and meteorological conditions on the SO2 loss rates calculated for each eruption. Preliminary results show that e-folding times are proportional to altitude and total mass, but inversely proportional to temperature.

  19. Contribution of SO2 to antioxidant potential of white wine.

    PubMed

    Abramovič, Helena; Košmerl, Tatjana; Poklar Ulrih, Nataša; Cigić, Blaž

    2015-05-01

    The reactivity of SO2 with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and in Folin Ciocalteu (FC) assays was analysed under different experimental conditions. There was significantly higher reactivity between SO2 and DPPH in buffered methanol than in methanol alone. When DPPH and FC assays were performed in a mixture of caftaric acid and SO2, there were synergistic effects that were more pronounced with the FC assay. Phenolics are an important parameter of wine quality, and their accurate characterisation in wine is essential. Analysis of white wines with DPPH and FC assays overestimates the contribution of phenolics to the antioxidant potential (AOP). SO2 contributes (from 20% to 45%) to the AOP of the white wines analysed. As SO2 reactivity depends highly on buffer composition, pH, time of incubation and other compounds, e.g. phenolics and aldehydes, different experimental protocols can produce large variations in AOPs, and therefore control of experimental conditions is extremely important. PMID:25529664

  20. Selection of SO2 Control for Non-Steady-State Operating Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniele, R. A.; Selmeczi, J. G.

    1981-03-01

    Most proven SO2 scrubbing processes are applied under quasi-steady-state conditions. Due to the low solubility of SO2 in water, an alkali is added in the suspended or dissolved state and fed proportionally to the quantity of SO2 entering the scrubber. Highly variable gas composition and flow requires careful monitoring and unusual flexibility of the scrubber system. In addition to SO2, concentration of other gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide can significantly affect the choice of a process. Selection of scrubbing processes and systems is described for two cases: TBRC™ Copper Smelting and Secondary Lead Smelting effluents.

  1. Mineral dust photochemistry induces nucleation events in the presence of SO2

    PubMed Central

    Dupart, Yoan; King, Stephanie M.; Nekat, Bettina; Nowak, Andreas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Herrmann, Hartmut; David, Gregory; Thomas, Benjamin; Miffre, Alain; Rairoux, Patrick; D’Anna, Barbara; George, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Large quantities of mineral dust particles are frequently ejected into the atmosphere through the action of wind. The surface of dust particles acts as a sink for many gases, such as sulfur dioxide. It is well known that under most conditions, sulfur dioxide reacts on dust particle surfaces, leading to the production of sulfate ions. In this report, for specific atmospheric conditions, we provide evidence for an alternate pathway in which a series of reactions under solar UV light produces first gaseous sulfuric acid as an intermediate product before surface-bound sulfate. Metal oxides present in mineral dust act as atmospheric photocatalysts promoting the formation of gaseous OH radicals, which initiate the conversion of SO2 to H2SO4 in the vicinity of dust particles. Under low dust conditions, this process may lead to nucleation events in the atmosphere. The laboratory findings are supported by recent field observations near Beijing, China, and Lyon, France. PMID:23213230

  2. Adsorptions of SO2, SOF2, and SO2F2 on Pt-modified anatase (1 0 1) surface: Sensing mechanism study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Chen, Qinchuan; Hu, Weihua; Zhang, Jinbin

    2015-10-01

    The type and severity of faults occurring in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) can be assessed by detecting SF6 decomposed gases, which is significant for fault diagnosis and online condition monitoring of GIS. Characteristic decomposition components of SF6 under partial discharge or overheating faults and first-principle density functional theory calculations are adopted to analyze the adsorption of SO2, SOF2, and SO2F2 on Pt-modified anatase (1 0 1) surface and to examine further the sensing mechanism of Pt-modified anatase-based gas sensor used to detect SO2, SOF2, and SO2F2. Results show that SO2F2 molecule more easily decomposes upon adsorption on the active Pt nanoparticle than SOF2 molecule. Meanwhile, SO2 molecule does not decompose. This finding explains the phenomenon in the sensing experiment of Pt-modified TiO2 nanotube array gas sensor, wherein the response of SO2F2 is higher than that of SOF2 at the optimal temperature of the sensor. Moreover, the responses of SO2F2 and SOF2 significantly change at the optimal temperature, whereas the response of SO2 is nearly unchanged.

  3. Soluble species in the Arctic summer troposphere - Acidic gases, aerosols, and precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Vijgen, A. S.; Harriss, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    The large-scale spatial distribution from 0.15-to 6 km altitude in the North American Arctic troposphere of several soluble acidic gases and major aerosol species during the summertime is reported. The distribution is found to be compositionally consistent on a large spatial scale. The summertime troposphere is an acidic environment, with HCOOH and CH3COOH the principal acidic gases while acidic sulfate aerosols dominate the particulate phase. There appears to be a surface source of NH3 over the pack ice which may originate from decay of dead marine organisms on the ice surface, evolution from surface ocean waters in open ice leads, or release from rotting sea ice. At low altitude over the pack ice this NH34 appears to partially neutralize aerosol acidity. Over sub-Arctic tundra in southeastern Alaska, inputs of marine biogenic sulfur from the Bering Sea appear to be an important source of boundary layer aerosol SO4(2-). The rainwater acidity over the tundra is typical of remote regions.

  4. Soluble species in the Arctic summer troposphere - acidic gases, aerosols, and precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, R.W.; Vijgen, A.S.; Harriss, R.C. Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA )

    1992-10-01

    The large-scale spatial distribution from 0.15-to 6 km altitude in the North American Arctic troposphere of several soluble acidic gases and major aerosol species during the summertime is reported. The distribution is found to be compositionally consistent on a large spatial scale. The summertime troposphere is an acidic environment, with HCOOH and CH3COOH the principal acidic gases while acidic sulfate aerosols dominate the particulate phase. There appears to be a surface source of NH3 over the pack ice which may originate from decay of dead marine organisms on the ice surface, evolution from surface ocean waters in open ice leads, or release from rotting sea ice. At low altitude over the pack ice this NH34 appears to partially neutralize aerosol acidity. Over sub-Arctic tundra in southeastern Alaska, inputs of marine biogenic sulfur from the Bering Sea appear to be an important source of boundary layer aerosol SO4(2-). The rainwater acidity over the tundra is typical of remote regions. 61 refs.

  5. 40 CFR 96.254 - Compliance with CAIR SO2 emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... limitation for the control period as follows: (1) For a CAIR SO2 source subject to an Acid Rain emissions...) remain in the compliance account. (2) For a CAIR SO2 source not subject to an Acid Rain emissions... number of tons of the source's excess emissions minus, if the source is subject to an Acid Rain...

  6. 40 CFR 97.254 - Compliance with CAIR SO2 emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... period as follows: (1) For a CAIR SO2 source subject to an Acid Rain emissions limitation, the...) remain in the compliance account. (2) For a CAIR SO2 source not subject to an Acid Rain emissions... number of tons of the source's excess emissions minus, if the source is subject to an Acid Rain...

  7. 40 CFR 97.254 - Compliance with CAIR SO2 emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... period as follows: (1) For a CAIR SO2 source subject to an Acid Rain emissions limitation, the...) remain in the compliance account. (2) For a CAIR SO2 source not subject to an Acid Rain emissions... number of tons of the source's excess emissions minus, if the source is subject to an Acid Rain...

  8. 40 CFR 96.254 - Compliance with CAIR SO2 emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... limitation for the control period as follows: (1) For a CAIR SO2 source subject to an Acid Rain emissions...) remain in the compliance account. (2) For a CAIR SO2 source not subject to an Acid Rain emissions... number of tons of the source's excess emissions minus, if the source is subject to an Acid Rain...

  9. Raman Scattering Sensor for On-Line Monitoring of Amines and Acid Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Uibel, Rory; Smith, Lee

    2010-05-20

    Sulfur and CO2 removal from hydrocarbon streams and power plant effluents are a major problem. The sulfur is normally in the form of H2S. These two acid gases are scrubbed using aqueous amine solutions that are difficult to control with conventional technology. Process Instruments Inc. developed Raman scattering technology for on-line, real-time monitoring of amine streams to improve their efficiency in scrubbing H2S and CO2 from hydrocarbon streams and power plant effluents. Improved control of amine and acid gas concentrations will allow refineries, natural gas processes and power plants to more efficiently scrub Sulfur and CO2, saving energy, time and financial resources.

  10. Historical analysis of SO2 pollution control policies in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Cailing; Yin, Huaqiang; Ai, Nanshan; Huang, Zhengwen

    2009-03-01

    Coal is not only an important energy source in China but also a major source of air pollution. Because of this, China's national sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emissions have been the highest in the world for many years, and since the 1990s, the territory of China's south and southwest has become the third largest acid-rain-prone region in the world. In order to control SO(2) emissions, the Chinese government has formulated and promulgated a series of policies and regulations, but it faces great difficulties in putting them into practice. In this retrospective look at the history of SO(2) control in China, we found that Chinese SO(2) control policies have become increasingly strict and rigid. We also found that the environmental policies and regulations are more effective when central officials consistently give environmental protection top priority. Achieving China's environmental goals, however, has been made difficult by China's economic growth. Part of this is due to the practice of environmental protection appearing in the form of an ideological "campaign" or "storm" that lacks effective economic measures. More recently, better enforcement of environmental laws and regulations has been achieved by adding environmental quality to the performance assessment metrics for leaders at all levels. To continue making advances, China needs to reinforce the economic and environmental assessments for pollution control projects and work harder to integrate economic measures into environmental protection. Nonetheless, China has a long way to go before economic growth and environmental protection are balanced. PMID:19159968

  11. High-throughput technology for novel SO2 oxidation catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loskyll, Jonas; Stoewe, Klaus; Maier, Wilhelm F.

    2011-10-01

    We review the state of the art and explain the need for better SO2 oxidation catalysts for the production of sulfuric acid. A high-throughput technology has been developed for the study of potential catalysts in the oxidation of SO2 to SO3. High-throughput methods are reviewed and the problems encountered with their adaptation to the corrosive conditions of SO2 oxidation are described. We show that while emissivity-corrected infrared thermography (ecIRT) can be used for primary screening, it is prone to errors because of the large variations in the emissivity of the catalyst surface. UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometry was selected instead as a reliable analysis method of monitoring the SO2 conversion. Installing plain sugar absorbents at reactor outlets proved valuable for the detection and quantitative removal of SO3 from the product gas before the UV-Vis analysis. We also overview some elements used for prescreening and those remaining after the screening of the first catalyst generations.

  12. Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  13. Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1998-09-15

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 5 figs.

  14. Improved determination of volcanic SO2 emission rates from SO2 camera images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Angelika; Lübcke, Peter; Bobrowski, Nicole; Platt, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    SO2 cameras determine the SO2 emissions of volcanoes with a high temporal and spatial resolution. They thus visualize the plume morphology and give information about turbulence and plume dispersion. Moreover, from SO2 camera image series emission rates can be determined with high time resolution (as will be explained below), these data can help to improve our understanding of variations in the degassing regime of volcanoes. The first step to obtain emission rates is to integrate the column amount of SO2 along two different plume cross sections (ideally perpendicular to the direction of plume propagation); combined with wind speed information this allows the determination of SO2 fluxes. A popular method to determine the mean wind speed relies on estimating the time lag of the SO2 signal derived for two cross sections of the plume at different distances downwind of the source. This can be done by searching the maximum cross-correlation coefficient of the two signals. Another, more sophisticated method to obtain the wind speed is to use the optical flow technique to obtain a more detailed wind field in the plume from a series of SO2 camera images. While the cross correlation method only gives the mean wind speed between the two cross sections of the plume, the optical flow technique allows to determine the wind speed and direction for each pixel individually (in other words, a two-dimensional projection of the entire wind field in the plume is obtained). While optical flow algorithms in general give a more detailed information about the wind velocities in the volcanic plume, they may fail to determine wind speeds in homogeneous regions (i.e. regions with no spatial variation in SO2 column densities) of the plume. Usually the wind speed is automatically set to zero in those regions, which leads to an underestimation of the total SO2 emission flux. This behavior was observed more than once on a data set of SO2 camera images taken at Etna, Italy in July, 2014. For those data the cross-correlation method leads to a more realistic result, which was close to simultaneously measured SO2 fluxes calculated from spectra taken by a zenith looking differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument traversing underneath the plume. In the analyzed data the flux determined with the cross-correlation method was twice the flux determined with the optical flow algorithm. We further investigated the potential error in the SO2 flux determination caused by a slant view on the plume. This is a situation commonly encountered when observing volcanic SO2-fluxes by remote sensing techniques. Frequently it is difficult to determine the precise angle between wind direction (i.e. plume propagation direction) and observation direction. We find that in volcanic plumes with an inclination that differs more than 20 degree from the assumed wind direction, can cause an error in the determined SO2 flux can deviate from the true value by more than 10 percent.

  15. Measurement, analysis, and modeling of gas-to-particle conversion between ammonia, acid gases, and fine particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Bok-Haeng

    Since 1990, the population of hogs in eastern North Carolina has increased sharply resulting in increased emissions of ammonia. An Annular Denuder System (ADS) was used, which consisted of a cyclone separator, two diffusion denuders coated with sodium carbonate and citric acid, respectively, and a filter pack consisting of Teflon and nylon filters in series. The ADS measured ammonia, acid gases, and fine particles in ambient atmosphere at a commercial hog farm in Eastern North Carolina from April 1998 to March 1999. The sodium carbonate coated denuders yielded average acid gas concentrations of 0.23 mug/m 3 HCl (+/-0.20 mug/m3); 1.10 mug/m 3 HONO (+/-1.17 mug/m3); 1.14 mug/m 3 HNO3 (+/-0.81 mug/m3), and 1.61 mug/m 3 SO2 (+/-1.58 mug/m3). The citric acid coated denuders yielded an average concentration of 17.89 mug/m 3 NH3 (+/-15.03 mug/m3). The filters yielded average fine aerosol (i.e., fine particular matter, Dp ≤ 2.5 mum) concentrations of 1.64 mug/m3 NH4+ (+/-1.26 mug/m3); 0.26 mug/m3 Cl - (+/-0.69 mug/m3); 1.92 mug/m 3 NO3- (+/-1.09 mug/m 3), and 3.18 mug/m3 SO42- (+/-3.12 mug/m3). Using the data collected from the study sites, we evaluated the seasonal variations and the effects of relative humidity on fine particle species. Based on the measurements of ammonia, acid gases, and fine particles, the mean pseudo-first-order rate constant, kS, between NH3 and H2SO4 aerosol is estimated to be 3.70 (+/-2.99) x 10-3 sec-1. The rate constant was found to increase as temperature increases, and decrease with increasing relative humidity. The equilibrium time constant was determined based on the estimated kinetic rate constants and the observed inorganic components of atmospheric aerosols. The average value of equilibrium time constant was determined to be 17.01 (+/-12.19) minutes for ambient equilibrium time between ammonia, nitric acid gas and ammonium nitrate aerosol; and 10.83 (+/-8.97) minutes for ammonia, hydrochloric acid, and ammonium chloride. The aerosol chemical compositions predicted by the use of a thermodynamic equilibrium model (EQUISOLV II) were in good agreement for ammonium and under-estimated nitrate aerosol when compared with the observed chemical composition at the experimental site.

  16. 40 CFR 97.254 - Compliance with CAIR SO2 emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... period as follows: (1) For a CAIR SO2 source subject to an Acid Rain emissions limitation, the...) remain in the compliance account. (2) For a CAIR SO2 source not subject to an Acid Rain emissions... chapter, in the order of recordation. (d) Deductions for excess emissions. (1) After making the...

  17. SO2 on Venus: A final cross-calibration with Pioneer Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1992-01-01

    In our previous report, we noted that we had successfully completed all of the IUE observations which were proposed. A total of 7 Venus spectra were obtained. In the present reporting period, essentially all of the associated data reduction and analysis activities were completed, and Drs. Stern, Barker, and Na met to collaborate on data interpretation. The model atmosphere used in this analysis is similar to the one used in the analysis of the Pioneer Venus observations (Esposito, et al. 1979, 1988) and the previous IUE observations (Na, et al. 1990). In this model, sulfuric acid aerosols with a radius of about 1 micron are mixed uniformly with Rayleigh scattering gases throughout the cloud layer. There are two wavelength-independent absorbers. First, the aerosols are assumed to have a single scattering albedo of 0.98, and second a pure absorbing layer with an optical depth of 0.2 is added at an altitude of 75 mbar. The variable parameters in this model are the mixing ratios of SO2 at the cloud top (40 mbar level), and the scale height of SO2 at the same altitude. Model spectra were calculated using a radiative transfer code utilizing a Markov Chain method. Each model calculation takes into account the multiple scattering and the vertical inhomogeneity of the atmosphere. We reported those initial results at the 1992 meeting of the AAS Division of Planetary Sciences (Barker, Stern, and Na 1992) The important finding we have reached is that the 1991 IUE observations indicate that the long-term decline in Venus SO2 abundance has either halted or reversed. Our simultaneous groundbased measurements made on the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m corroborate this result. We are now preparing a paper describing these IUE results for publication in Icarus. With the IUE results reduced, we are also beginning a project to compare the 1991 IUE results to Pioneer Venus UV spectra made on the same dates.

  18. Noble Gases and Nitrogen Released from a Lunar Soil Pyroxene Separate by Acid Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rider, P. E.

    1993-07-01

    We report initial results from a series of experiments designed to measure recently implanted solar wind (SW) ions in lunar soil mineral grains [1]. An acid-etching technique similar to the CSSE method developed at ETH Zurich was used to make abundance and isotope measurements of the SW noble gas and nitrogen compositions. Among the samples examined was a pyroxene separate from soil 75081. It was first washed with H2O to remove contamination from the sample finger walls and grain surfaces. H2O also acted as a weak acid, releasing gases from near-surface sites. Treatment with H2SO3 followed the water washes. Acid pH (~1.8 to ~1.0) and temperature (~23 degrees C to ~90 degrees C) and duration of acid attack (several minutes to several days) were varied from step to step. Finally, the sample was pyrolyzed in several steps to remove the remaining gases, culminating with a high-temperature pyrolysis at 1200 degrees C. Measurements of the light noble gases were mostly consistent with those from previous CSSE experiments performed on pyroxene [2,3]. It should be noted, however, that the Zurich SEP component was not easily distinguishable in the steps where it was expected to be observed. We suspect our experimental protocol masked the SEP reservoir, preventing us from seeing its distinctive signature. The most interesting results from this sample are its Kr and Xe isotopic and elemental compositions. Pyroxene apparently retains heavy noble gases as well as ilmenite (and plagioclase [4]). The heavy noble gas element ratios from this sample along with those previously reported [5,6] are, however, considerably heavier than the theoretically determined "solar system" values [7,8]. Explanations for the difference include the possibility that the derivations are incorrect, that there is another component of lunar origin mixing with the solar component, or that some type of loss mechanism is altering the noble gas reservoirs of the grains. The Kr and Xe isotopic compositions for the two acid-etch steps most likely to have released SW gases were identical to the "solar" values reported by the Zurich group [5]. The krypton from both steps appeared to be mixtures of "solar" krypton, an isotopically heavier component (perhaps the Zurich SEP component [5]), and a spallation component. There was, however, no evidence for such a mixture in the xenon. The compositions of the two acid-etch steps were clearly combinations of a solar Xe component and a Xe spallation component. They were also identical to that of U-Xe [9] for isotopes up to 132Xe, with the exception of an ~300 per mil enhancement of the 126Xe/132Xe ratio. This anomaly does not appear to be an artifact of spallation correction. These measurements constitute the first experimental verification of the U-Xe composition for isotopes lighter than 134Xe. Persistent contamination problems and the possibility of nitrogen being held back in the acid residue during the etching process make interpretation of the nitrogen data uncertain. However, results from the steps not obviously affected by contamination show an enhancement of N over Ar by 2x to 12x the "solar" value (from [8]). References: [1] Rider P. E. and Pepin R. O. (1993) GCA, submitted. [2] Wieler R. et al. (1986) GCA, 50, 1997-2017. [3] Benkert J.-P. (1989) Ph.D. thesis, ETH Zurich (No. 8812). [4] Wieler R. (1993) personal communication. [5] Wieler R. et al. (1992) LPS XXIII, 1525-1526. [6] Wieler R. et al. (1993) LPS XXIV, 1519-1520. [7] Anders E. and Grevesse N. (1989) GCA, 53, 197-214. [8] Cameron A. G. W. (1982) In Essays in Nuclear Physics (Barnes et al., eds.), 23-43. [9] Pepin R. O.(1991) Icarus, 92, 2-79.

  19. Noble gases and nitrogen released from lunar soils by acid etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rider, Paul E.; Pepin, Robert O.; Becker, Richard H.

    1995-12-01

    A stepwise acid-etching technique similar to the closed system stepwise etching (CSSE) method developed at ETH Zurich was used to examine the solar wind reservoirs of lunar soil grains. Samples were treated with weak acids (H 2O, H 2SO 3) to facilitate the release of the most shallowly implanted gases. Noble gas abundances and isotopic compositions, including Kr and Xe in some cases, and a few nitrogen data were obtained for mineral or grain-size separates of three lunar soils (plagioclase from 60051, pyroxene from 75081, and <25 ym bulk 79035). The 60051 plagioclase grains, considered to be a possibly unique resource for determining the modern-day solar wind composition, show unusually low contents of solar wind He, Ne, and particularly Ar, but do not otherwise possess any characteristics clearly attributable to a modem-day solar wind exposure. Initial water and acid treatments of the grains, however, release an apparently pure SEP component. The 75081 pyroxene and the size separate of bulk 79035 both yield Kr and Xe compositions in initial etch steps that are characteristic of undiffused solar wind, significantly increasing the database for measurements of solar wind Kr and Xe where possible laboratory thermal diffusion and fractionation effects are not a concern. Pyroxene in particular appears to be a suitable alternative to ilmenite for the purpose of making measurements of this kind. Nitrogen release by acid etching is not at present quantitative, and while it appears possible to obtain reasonable isotopic ratios for solar wind N, we are unable to use the technique to determine solar nitrogen to noble gas ratios. Light noble gases in all three soil separates, other than the aforementioned behavior of 60051, appear to behave in accord with expectations based on acid-etching analyses performed by the Züirich group.

  20. Market Opportunities for Austenitic Stainless Steels in SO2 Scrubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michels, Harold T.

    1980-10-01

    Recent U.S. federal legislation has created new opportunities for SO2 scrubbers because all coals, even low-sulfur western coals, will probably require scrubbing to remove SO2 from gaseous combustion products. Scrubbing, the chemical absorption of SO2 by vigorous contact with a slurry—usually lime or limestone—creates an aggressive acid-chloride solution. This presents a promising market for pitting-resistant austenitic stainless steels, but there is active competition from rubber and fiberglass-lined carbon steel. Since the latter are favored on a first-cost basis, stainless steels must be justified on a cost/performance or life-cost basis. Nickel-containing austenitic alloys are favored because of superior field fabricability. Ferritic stainless steels have little utility in this application because of limitations in weldability and resulting poor corrosion resistance. Inco corrosion test spools indicate that molybdenum-containing austenitic alloys are needed. The leanest alloys for this application are 316L and 317L. Low-carbon grades of stainless steel are specified to minimize corrosion in the vicinity of welds. More highly alloyed materials may be required in critical areas. At present, 16,000 MW of scrubber capacity is operational and 17,000 MW is under construction. Another 29,000 MW is planned, bringing the total to 62,000 MW. Some 160,000 MW of scrubber capacity is expected to be placed in service over the next 10 years. This could translate into a total potential market of 80,000 tons of alloy plate for new power industry construction in the next decade. Retrofitting of existing power plants plus scrubbers for other applications such as inert gas generators for oil tankers, smelters, municipal incinerators, coke ovens, the pulp and paper industry, sulfuric acid plants, and fluoride control in phosphoric acid plants will add to this large market.

  1. SO2 Emission Control: The Problem and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Leonard J.

    1981-03-01

    In the past 10 years sulfur oxide emission control has been a key factor in the economic performance of many smelting operations, and markedly effects the choice of process and the design of new installations. This paper presents a review of pyrometallurgical processes for the production of copper, lead, and zinc. To put the problem in perspective, the review first outlines sulfur emission sources and alternate processing techniques, including oxygen enrichment and continuous and flash smelting. Alternate control systems, including sulfuric acid, liquid SO2, elemental sulfur, and weak gas scrubbing processes are then described from operational and economic standpoints.

  2. Historical Analysis of SO2 Pollution Control Policies in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Cailing; Yin, Huaqiang; Ai, Nanshan; Huang, Zhengwen

    2009-03-01

    Coal is not only an important energy source in China but also a major source of air pollution. Because of this, China’s national sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have been the highest in the world for many years, and since the 1990s, the territory of China’s south and southwest has become the third largest acid-rain-prone region in the world. In order to control SO2 emissions, the Chinese government has formulated and promulgated a series of policies and regulations, but it faces great difficulties in putting them into practice. In this retrospective look at the history of SO2 control in China, we found that Chinese SO2 control policies have become increasingly strict and rigid. We also found that the environmental policies and regulations are more effective when central officials consistently give environmental protection top priority. Achieving China’s environmental goals, however, has been made difficult by China’s economic growth. Part of this is due to the practice of environmental protection appearing in the form of an ideological “campaign” or “storm” that lacks effective economic measures. More recently, better enforcement of environmental laws and regulations has been achieved by adding environmental quality to the performance assessment metrics for leaders at all levels. To continue making advances, China needs to reinforce the economic and environmental assessments for pollution control projects and work harder to integrate economic measures into environmental protection. Nonetheless, China has a long way to go before economic growth and environmental protection are balanced.

  3. Correlations between stream sulphate and regional SO2 emissions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.A.; Alexander, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between atmospheric SO2 emissions and stream and lake acidification has been difficult to quantify, largely because of the limitations of sulphur deposition measurements. Precipitation sulphate (SO4) records are mostly <5 yr in length and do not account for dry sulphur deposition. Moreover, a variable fraction of wet- and dry-deposited sulphur is retained in soils and vegetation and does not contribute to the acidity of aquatic systems. We have compared annual SO2 emissions for the eastern United States from 1976 to 1980 with stream SO4 measurements from fifteen predominantly undeveloped watersheds. We find that the two forms of sulphur are strongly correlated on a regional basis and that streams in the southeastern United States (SE) receive a smaller fraction (on average, 16%, compared with 24%) of regional sulphur emissions than do streams in the northeastern United States (NE). In addition to providing direct empirical evidence of a relationship between sulphur emissions and aquatic chemistry, these results suggest that there are significant regional differences in the fraction of deposited sulphur retained in basin soils and vegetation.The relationship between atmospheric SO//2 emissions and stream and lake acidification has been difficult to quantify, largely because of the limitations of sulphur deposition measurements. The authors have compared annual SO//2 emissions for the eastern United States from 1967 to 1980 with stream SO//4 measurements from fifteen predominantly undeveloped watersheds. They found that both the wet - and dry-deposited forms of sulphur are strongly correlated on a regional basis and that streams in the southeastern United States receive a smaller fraction (on average, 16%, compared with 24%) of regional sulphur emissions than do streams in the northeastern United States. In addition to providing direct empirical evidence of a relationship between sulphur emissions and aquatic chemistry, these results suggest that there are significant regional differences in the fraction of deposited sulphur retained in basin soils and vegetation.

  4. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay. PMID:23907148

  5. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay.

  6. Flux of SO2 into Leaf Cells and Cellular Acidification by SO21

    PubMed Central

    Pfanz, Hardy; Martinoia, Enrico; Lange, Otto-Ludwig; Heber, Ulrich

    1987-01-01

    A comparison of fluxes of SO2 from the atmosphere into leaves with fluxes across biomembranes revealed that, apart from the cuticle, the main barrier to SO2 entry into leaves are the stomates. SO2 fluxes into leaves can be calculated with an accuracy sufficient for many purposes on the assumption that the intracellular SO2 concentration is zero. SO2 entering green leaf cells is trapped in the cytoplasm. In the light, the products formed in its reaction with water are processed particularly in the chloroplasts. Flux of SO2 to the acidic central vacuole of leaf cells is insignificant. Intracellular acidification of barley mesophyll protoplasts by SO2 was measured by the uptake of 14C-labeled 5,5-dimethyl-oxazolidine-2,4-dione. The measured acidification was similar to the acidification calculated from known buffer capacities and the rate of SO2 influx when the H+/SO2 ratio was assumed to be 2. A comparison of photosynthesis inhibition by SO2 with calculated acidification revealed different mechanisms of inhibition at low and at high concentrations of SO2. At very low concentrations, inhibition by SO2 was even smaller than expected from calculated acidification. The data suggest that, if acidification cannot be compensated by pH-stabilizing cellular mechanisms, it is a main factor of SO2 toxicity at low SO2 levels. At high levels of SO2, anion toxicity and/or radical formation during oxidation of SO2 to sulfate may play a large role in inhibition. PMID:16665833

  7. High frequency SO2 flux measurements at Semeru volcano, Indonesia, using the SO2 camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smekens, J.; Burton, M. R.; Clarke, A. B.; Harijoko, A.; Wibowo, H.; Sawyer, G.

    2013-12-01

    SO2 monitoring is a common technique at many volcanic centers. Recently, automated networks of scanning spectrometers have led to great improvement in frequency and accuracy of measurements. Simultaneously a new instrument has been proposed to acquire 2D images of volcanic plumes in the UV spectrum. This imaging technique (hereafter referred to as the SO2 camera) provides additional contextual information, as well as a quantitative way of determining plume velocity from a single remote location, without relying on weather reports. These advantages are to be balanced against a loss of spectroscopic information associated with using band-pass filters that reduce precision in the measurements. We have developed a custom-built acquisition and processing software to be used with the SO2 camera developed by INGV-Pisa for monitoring of Etna and Stromboli, which consists of two Quantum Scientific Imaging CCD cameras equipped with UV filters and a USB2000+ spectrometer. We have tested the instrument at two power plants in Arizona, USA. We were able to successfully measure SO2 fluxes as low as 1-2 tons/day. We also validated our method by comparing the SO2 camera measurements against high-frequency in-situ measurements (1 data point every minute) obtained from chemical sensors within the stacks. We have also used the SO2 camera during a field campaign at Semeru volcano, Indonesia, in May and June of 2013. Semeru is a persistently active explosive volcano, whose latest eruption began in 1967. Its eruptive behavior can be characterized by cyclic dome growth and collapse in the active crater and frequent small magnitude explosions occurring at periods of minutes to hours. We found that the majority of SO2 at Semeru is released during the explosive phases (instantaneous peaks of up to 40 kg/s), with passive emission levels between explosions fluctuating from 0-5 kg/s. After the initial explosive release, emission returns to background levels following an exponential decline over a period of 10-15 mins, often punctuated by several secondary gas-release pulses. Based on the eruptive freqeuency we observed at the time of measurement (1 explosion every 30-60 mins), we estimate the average SO2 flux from Semeru to be 300-400 tons/day, depending on the magnitude of individual explosions. To interpret the data in terms of magma ascent we also used DOMEFLOW, a 1.5D transient isothermal numerical model. Petrologic observations from tephra and ballistic samples collected at the summit help us constrain the initial conditions of the system, including the volatile content. Preliminary model runs produced periodic lava extrusion and pulses of gas release at the vent, with a cycle period on the order of hours, even though a steady magma supply rate was prescribed at the bottom of the conduit. Enhanced shallow permeability creates a dense plug in the shallow subsurface, which in turn plays a critical role in creating and controlling the observed periodic behavior.

  8. Simultaneous removal of SO2 and NO2 using a Mg-Al oxide slurry treatment.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tomohito; Kodama, Aki; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2013-11-01

    SO2 and NO2 were simultaneously removed from a mixed gas using a Mg-Al oxide slurry treatment. Both adsorption to the oxide material itself and dissolution of the gases in the aqueous slurry contributed to the removal. A comparison was made between removal of the two gases separately and the simultaneous process. The removal of SO2 using both the simultaneous and individual process was similar; however, the removal of NO2 was lower for the simultaneous process. For the individual treatments, SO2 and NO2 were separately dissolved in the Mg-Al oxide slurry to produce SO3(2-), NO2(-), and NO3(-), which were subsequently removed by the Mg-Al oxide. However, when the simultaneous process was employed, the dissolved gases were seen to have a significant effect on each other. It was speculated that the production of NO2(-) was increased by the reduction of NO2 by SO3(2-). On increasing the quantity of the Mg-Al oxide, or on raising the temperature of the system, the removal of SO2 increased, with a concurrent decrease in NO2 removal. The increase in removal of SO3(2-) was speculated to hinder the conversion of NO2 to NO2(-), therefore decreasing the removal of the nitrogen species. The results demonstrate that the Mg-Al oxide slurry was highly effective for simultaneously removing NO2 and SO2 from a mixed gas. PMID:24125705

  9. A Fabry-Perot interferometer based camera for two-dimensional mapping of SO2 distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, J.; Bobrowski, N.; Lübcke, P.; Vogel, L.; Platt, U.

    2014-05-01

    We examine a new imaging method for the remote sensing of volcanic gases, which relies on the regularly spaced narrow-band absorption structures in the UV-VIS of many molecules. A Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) is used to compare the scattered sunlight radiance at wavelengths corresponding to absorption bands with the radiance at wavelengths in between the bands, thereby identifying and quantifying the gas. In this first theoretical study, we present sample calculations for the detection of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Optimum values for the FPI set-up parameters are proposed. Further, the performance of the FPI method is compared to SO2 cameras. We show that camera systems using a FPI are far less influenced by changes in atmospheric radiative transfer (e.g. due to aerosol) and have a great potential as a future technique to examine emissions of SO2 (or other gases) from volcanic sources and other point sources.

  10. Monitoring of volcanic SO2 emissions using the GOME-2 instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedelt, Pascal; Valks, Pieter; Loyola, Diego

    2014-05-01

    This contribution focusses on the GOME-2 SO2 column products from the METOP-A and B satellites. The GOME-2 SO2 column product has been developed in the framework of EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M-SAF). Satellite-based remote sensing measurements of volcanic SO2 provide critical information for reducing volcanic hazards. Volcanic eruptions may bring ash and gases (e.g. SO2) high up into the atmosphere, where a long-range transport can occur. SO2 is an important indicator for volcanic activity and an excellent tracer for volcanic eruption clouds, especially if ash detection techniques fail. SO2 can affect aviation safety: In the cabin it can cause disease and respiratory symptoms, whereas in its hydrogenated form H2SO4 it is highly corrosive and can cause damage to jet engines as well as pitting of windscreens. We will present results for volcanic events retrieved from GOME-2 solar backscattered measurements in the UV wavelength region around 320nm using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method. SO2 columns are generated operationally by DLR with the GOME Data Processor (GDP) version 4.7 and are available in near-real-time, i.e. within two hours after sensing. Using data from both MetOp satellites allows for a daily global coverage. We will furthermore present current improvements to the GOME-2 SO2 column product.

  11. 40 CFR 96.288 - CAIR SO 2 allowance allocations to CAIR SO 2 opt-in units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false CAIR SO 2 allowance allocations to CAIR SO 2 opt-in units. 96.288 Section 96.288 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO 2...

  12. PROJECT SUMMARY: CONTROLLING SO2 EMISSIONS: A REVIEW OF TECHNOLOGIES (EPA/600/SR-00/093)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) scrubbers may be used by electricity generating units to meet the requirements of Phase II of the Acid Rain SO2Reduction Program. Additionally, the use of scrubbers can result in reduction of mercury and particulate matter emissions. It is timely,therefore,...

  13. CONTROLLING SO2 EMISSIONS: A REVIEW OF TECHNOLOGIES (EPA/600/R-00/093)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) scrubbers may be used by electricity generating units to meet the requirements of Phase II of the Acid Rain SO2 Reduction Program.Additionally, the use of scrubbers can result in reduction of mercury and particulate matter emissions. It is timely, therefore...

  14. Mineral dust and NOx promote the conversion of SO2 to sulfate in heavy pollution days

    PubMed Central

    He, Hong; Wang, Yuesi; Ma, Qingxin; Ma, Jinzhu; Chu, Biwu; Ji, Dongsheng; Tang, Guiqian; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Hongxing; Hao, Jiming

    2014-01-01

    Haze in China has been increasing in frequency of occurrence as well as the area of the affected region. Here, we report on a new mechanism of haze formation, in which coexistence with NOx can reduce the environmental capacity for SO2, leading to rapid conversion of SO2 to sulfate because NO2 and SO2 have a synergistic effect when they react on the surface of mineral dust. Monitoring data from five severe haze episodes in January of 2013 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei regions agreed very well with the laboratory simulation. The combined air pollution of motor vehicle exhaust and coal-fired flue gases greatly reduced the atmospheric environmental capacity for SO2, and the formation of sulfate was found to be a main reason for the growth of fine particles, which led to the occurrence of haze. These results indicate that the impact of motor vehicle exhaust on the atmospheric environment might be underestimated. PMID:24566871

  15. Mineral dust and NOx promote the conversion of SO2 to sulfate in heavy pollution days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong; Wang, Yuesi; Ma, Qingxin; Ma, Jinzhu; Chu, Biwu; Ji, Dongsheng; Tang, Guiqian; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Hongxing; Hao, Jiming

    2014-02-01

    Haze in China has been increasing in frequency of occurrence as well as the area of the affected region. Here, we report on a new mechanism of haze formation, in which coexistence with NOx can reduce the environmental capacity for SO2, leading to rapid conversion of SO2 to sulfate because NO2 and SO2 have a synergistic effect when they react on the surface of mineral dust. Monitoring data from five severe haze episodes in January of 2013 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei regions agreed very well with the laboratory simulation. The combined air pollution of motor vehicle exhaust and coal-fired flue gases greatly reduced the atmospheric environmental capacity for SO2, and the formation of sulfate was found to be a main reason for the growth of fine particles, which led to the occurrence of haze. These results indicate that the impact of motor vehicle exhaust on the atmospheric environment might be underestimated.

  16. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.52b Section 60.52b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance...

  17. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for municipal waste combustor... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Large Municipal Waste Combustors for Which Construction is Commenced... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides....

  18. SO(2N) and SU(N) gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, R.; Teper, M.

    We present our preliminary results of SO(2N) gauge theories, approaching the large-N limit. SO(2N) theories may help us to understand QCD at finite chemical potential since there is an orbifold equivalence between SO(2N) and SU(N) gauge theories at large-N and SO(2N) theories do not have the sign problem present in QCD. We consider the string tensions, mass spectra, and deconfinement temperatures in the SO(2N) pure gauge theories in 2+1 dimensions, comparing them to their corresponding SU(N) theories.

  19. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study

    SciTech Connect

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Marras, Roberto; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Two scenarios of acid gases removal in WTE plants were compared in an LCA study. • A detailed inventory based on primary data has been reported for the production of the new dolomitic sorbent. • Results show that the comparison between the two scenarios does not show systematic differences. • The potential impacts are reduced only if there is an increase in the energy efficiency of the WTE plant. - Abstract: The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO{sub 2} emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in Biganzoli et al. (2014) and from the dolomitic sorbent production plant. The results of the LCA show minor changes in the potential impacts between the two operational modes of the plants. These differences are for 8 impact categories in favour of the new operational mode based on the addition of the dolomitic sorbent, and for 7 impact categories in favour of the traditional operation. A final evaluation was conducted on the potential role of the dolomitic sorbent in enhancing the electric energy production efficiency of the plant, thanks to the better cleaning of the heat exchange surface that can be achieved. If such improvement is accounted for, all the potential impacts are considerably decreased (e.g. the Climate change by 28%), and in the comparison with the traditional operation 17 impact categories out of 19 are reduced.

  20. 40 CFR 97.288 - CAIR SO 2 allowance allocations to CAIR SO 2 opt-in units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CAIR SO 2 allowance allocations to CAIR SO 2 opt-in units. 97.288 Section 97.288 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Opt-in Units § 97.288 CAIR...

  1. 40 CFR 97.288 - CAIR SO 2 allowance allocations to CAIR SO 2 opt-in units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false CAIR SO 2 allowance allocations to CAIR SO 2 opt-in units. 97.288 Section 97.288 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Opt-in Units § 97.288 CAIR...

  2. Mt. Pinatubo SO2 column measurements from Mauna Loa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Rinsland, C. P.; Blatherwick, R. D.; David, S. J.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Absorption features of the nu sub 1 band of SO2 are identified in high-resolution IR solar-absorption spectra recorded from Mauna Loa, Hawaii, on July 9 and 12, 1991, shortly after the arrival of the first eruption plume from the Mt. Pinatubo volcano. A total SO2 vertical column amount of (5.1 +/- 0.5) x 10 exp 16 molecules/sq cm on July 9 is retrieved based on nonlinear least-squares spectral fittings of 9 selected SO2 absorption features with an updated set of SO2 spectral parameters. A SO2 total-column upper limit of 0.9 x 10 exp 16 molecules/sq cm deduced from measurements on September 20-24, 1991, is consistent with the dispersion of the SO2 cloud and the rapid conversion of the SO2 vapor into volcanic aerosol particles.

  3. Mt. Pinatubo SO2 Column Measurements From Mauna Loa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Rinsland, C. P.; Blatherwick, R. D.; David, S. J.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Absorption features of the nu(sub 1) band of SO2 have been identified in high resolution infrared solar absorption spectra recorded from Mauna Loa, Hawaii, on July 9 and 12, 1991, shortly after the arrival of the first eruption plume from the Mt. Pinatubo volcano in the Phillipines. A total SO2 vertical column amount of (5.1 +/- 0.5) x 10(exp 16) molecules/sq cm on July 9 has been retrieved based on nonlinear least- squares spectral fittings of 9 selected SO2 absorption features with an updated set of SO2 spectral parameters. A SO2 total column upper limit of 0.9 x 10(esp 16) molecules/sq cm deduced from measurements on September 20-24, 1991, is consistent with the dispersion of the SO2 cloud and the rapid conversion of the SO2 vapor into volcanic aerosol particles.

  4. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Marras, Roberto; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO2 emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in Biganzoli et al. (2014) and from the dolomitic sorbent production plant. The results of the LCA show minor changes in the potential impacts between the two operational modes of the plants. These differences are for 8 impact categories in favour of the new operational mode based on the addition of the dolomitic sorbent, and for 7 impact categories in favour of the traditional operation. A final evaluation was conducted on the potential role of the dolomitic sorbent in enhancing the electric energy production efficiency of the plant, thanks to the better cleaning of the heat exchange surface that can be achieved. If such improvement is accounted for, all the potential impacts are considerably decreased (e.g. the Climate change by 28%), and in the comparison with the traditional operation 17 impact categories out of 19 are reduced. PMID:25465510

  5. 40 CFR 96.288 - CAIR SO 2 allowance allocations to CAIR SO 2 opt-in units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CAIR SO 2 allowance allocations to CAIR SO 2 opt-in units. 96.288 Section 96.288 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO...

  6. Long-range transport of volcanic SO2 over Northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, Chinmay; Joshi, Hema; Chand, D.; Lal, Shyam; Naja, Manish; Venkataramani, S.; Pant, P.

    2012-07-01

    Anthropogenic activities contribute to more than 70% of global sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. Among the natural sources of SO2, volcanic emissions can be significant but sporadic contributors. Apart from releasing a plethora of pollutant gases, volcanoes can also impact atmospheric temperatures and radiation balance as was observed after El Chichon (1982) and Mt. Pinatubo (1991) eruptions. The present study deals with episodes of long-range transport of SO2 from Africa to Northern India using multiple satellite observations. Monthly averaged SO2 from OMI were of the order of 0.6-0.9 DU during November, 2008 over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). In contrast, SO2 monthly averages retrieved from observations across different locations over North India had never exceeded 0.3 DU during the six year period of 2005-2010. The columnar SO2 loadings were a factor of 10 higher than background levels over most of the IGP on the day of impact. These enhanced SO2 levels were, however, not reciprocated in satellite derived NO2 or CO columns, indicating transport from a non-anthropogenic source of SO2. Back-trajectory analysis revealed strong winds in the free troposphere, which originated from a volcanic eruption over Ethiopia. Wind streams and stable atmospheric conditions were conducive to the long-range transport of volcanic plume over the IGP. Increase in aerosol optical depths were observed both from ground-based measurements as well as satellite observations. A well separated layer of aerosols above the boundary layer was observed from CALIPSO, most likely as a result of this transport. Apart from known anthropogenic sources, the additional transport of volcanic SO2 over the IGP region would have implications to air quality and radiation balance over this region. Details of this episode of transport in terms of meteorology and dynamics will be presented during the assembly.

  7. SO2 camera measurements at Lastarria volcano and Lascar volcano in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübcke, Peter; Bobrowski, Nicole; Dinger, Florian; Klein, Angelika; Kuhn, Jonas; Platt, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    The SO2 camera is a remote-sensing technique that measures volcanic SO2 emissions via the strong SO2 absorption structures in the UV using scattered solar radiation as a light source. The 2D-imagery (usually recorded with a frame rate of up to 1 Hz) allows new insights into degassing processes of volcanoes. Besides the large advantage of high frequency sampling the spatial resolution allows to investigate SO2 emissions from individual fumaroles and not only the total SO2 emission flux of a volcano, which is often dominated by the volcanic plume. Here we present SO2 camera measurements that were made during the CCVG workshop in Chile in November 2014. Measurements were performed at Lastarria volcano, a 5700 m high stratovolcano and Lascar volcano, a 5600 m high stratovolcano both in northern Chile on 21 - 22 November, 2014 and on 26 - 27 November, 2014, respectively. At both volcanoes measurements were conducted from a distance of roughly 6-7 km under close to ideal conditions (low solar zenith angle, a very dry and cloudless atmosphere and an only slightly condensed plume). However, determination of absolute SO2 emission rates proves challenging as part of the volcanic plume hovered close to the ground. The volcanic plume therefore is in front of the mountain in our camera images. An SO2 camera system consisting of a UV sensitive CCD and two UV band-pass filters (centered at 315 nm and 330 nm) was used. The two band-pass filters are installed in a rotating wheel and images are taken with both filter sequentially. The instrument used a CCD with 1024 x 1024 pixels and an imaging area of 13.3 mm x 13.3 mm. In combination with the focal length of 32 mm this results in a field-of-view of 25° x 25°. The calibration of the instrument was performed with help of a DOAS instrument that is co-aligned with the SO2 camera. We will present images and SO2 emission rates from both volcanoes. At Lastarria gases are emitted from three different fumarole fields and we will attempt to investigate the degassing behavior of the individual fumaroles. Lascar volcano only had a very weak plume originating from the active central crater with maximum SO2 column densities of only up to 5 × 1017[molecules/cm2] during our measurements. These low SO2 column densities in combination with the almost ideal measurements conditions will be used to assess the detection limit of our current SO2 camera system.

  8. Are industrial SO2 emissions reducing CO2 uptake by the boreal forest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Martine M.; Bgin, Christian; Parent, Michel

    2002-05-01

    Although the boreal forest has been proposed to accommodate increasing amounts of CO2, the large-scale response of photosynthesis to widespread noxious gases is largely unknown. Here we present carbon isotope ratios for ring series from trees subjected to different levels of SO2 emitted from a copper smelter. Our results indicate that noxious gases drastically lower the ability of trees to capture CO2 in the region of the smelter, and that this ability may also be reduced in an extensive region of the Canadian boreal forest undergoing effects from diffuse pollution. This raises concerns about the proposed increased capacity of boreal forests to sequester excess anthropogenic CO2.

  9. New discoveries enabled by OMI SO2 measurements and future missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkov, Nickolay

    2010-05-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA Aura satellite makes global daily measurements of the total column of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a short-lived trace gas produced by fossil fuel combustion, smelting, and volcanoes. This talk highlights most recent science results enabled by using OMI SO2 data. OMI daily contiguous volcanic SO2 data continue 25+ climatic record by its predecessors (Total Ozone mapping Spectrometers 1978-2005), but higher SO2 sensitivity allows measuring volcanic plumes for a longer time as well as measuring passive volcanic degassing from space. New algorithm development allows direct estimating of SO2 plume heights to refine SO2 tonnages in largest volcanic plumes important for climate applications. Quantitatively, anthropogenic SO2 is more difficult to measure from space, since ozone absorption and Rayleigh scattering reduce sensitivity to pollutants in the lower troposphere. OMI data first enabled daily detection of SO2 burdens from individual smelters as well as observed SO2 pollution lofting from boundary layer and long-range transport in free troposphere. Interplay between volcanic and anthropogenic SO2 emissions resulted in highly variable SO2 pollution levels in Peru and Mexico City. We have updated our copper smelter analysis, which showed interesting new trends. Combining OMI data with trajectory models and aerosol/cloud measurements by A-train sensors (MODIS, CALIPSO) allowed tracking long-range transport of volcanic and anthropogenic aerosol/SO2 plumes. These studies placed new constraints on conversion rates of SO2 to sulfate at different heights from free troposphere to the lower stratosphere. We describe new techniques for spatial and time averaging that have been used to determine the global distribution of anthropogenic SO2 burdens, and the efficacy of abatement strategies. OMI seasonal to multi-year average images clearly show the world-highest consistent SO2 pollution in eastern China, mostly due to the burning of high-sulfur coal in its many coal-fired power plants. Recently, China's government has instituted nationwide measures to control SO2 emissions through the adoption of flue-gas desulfurization technology (FGD) on new power plants; and even greater measures were adopted in the Beijing area in anticipation of the Olympic Games. We demonstrate that the OMI can pick up both SO2 and NO2 emissions from large point sources in northern China, where large increases in both gases were observed from 2005 to 2007, over areas with newly established power plants. The OMI SO2/NO2 ratio generally agrees with the estimated emission factors for coal-fired power plants based on a bottom-up approach. Between 2007 and 2008, OMI detected little change in NO2 but dramatic decline in SO2 over the same areas. While the almost constant NO2 levels between the two years imply steady electricity generation from the power plants, the large reduction in SO2 confirms the effectiveness of the FGD units, which likely became operational between 2007 and 2008. Further development of satellite detection and monitoring of point pollution sources requires better than 10km ground resolution. We show how planned Dutch /ESA TROPOMI and NASA GEOCape missions will advance the art of measuring point source emissions in coming decade.

  10. Radiative forcing of SO2 and NOx: A case study in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Z. A.; Wang, X. Y.; Zeng, X. N.

    2006-03-01

    A case study was performed in Beijing in 2000 to observe concentrations Of SO2 and NO, in the atmosphere and to evaluate their radiative impact. It was found that the concentrations of these gases are usually high in the morning due to a temperature inversion in the boundary layer. The average concentrations obtained from the observations are much higher than those used in the McClatchey reference atmosphere. The radiative impacts of these gases are calculated using a line-by-line radiative transfer model. The results show that the radiative forcing at the surface due to SO2 is 0.0576 W m(-2) and that due to NOx is 0.0032 W m(-2). These figures are almost compatible with that due to CFC11.

  11. Benzosulfones as photochemically activated sulfur dioxide (SO2) donors.

    PubMed

    Malwal, Satish R; Chakrapani, Harinath

    2015-02-28

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a gaseous environmental pollutant which is routinely used in industry as a preservative and antimicrobial. Recent data suggests that SO2 may have value as a therapeutic agent. However, due to its gaseous nature, localizing SO2 generation is challenging. Herein, various 1,3-dihydrobenzo[c]thiophene 2,2-dioxides (benzosulfones) were prepared as candidates for photochemically activated sulfur dioxide (SO2) generation. These compounds were found to be stable in buffer but were photolysed upon irradiation with UV light to generate SO2. Our data indicates that photolysis of benzosulfones depends on substituents, and that the presence of electron donating groups results in an enhanced yield of SO2. PMID:25563212

  12. Sulfur chemistry in the Venus mesosphere from SO 2 and SO microwave spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandor, Brad J.; Todd Clancy, R.; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald; Mills, Franklin P.

    2010-07-01

    First measurements of SO 2 and SO in the Venus mesosphere (70-100 km) are reported. This altitude range is distinctly above the ˜60-70 km range to which nadir-sounding IR and UV investigations are sensitive. Since July 2004, use of ground-based sub-mm spectroscopy has yielded multiple discoveries. Abundance of each molecule varies strongly on many timescales over the entire sub-Earth Venus hemisphere. Diurnal behavior is evident, with more SO 2, and less SO, at night than during the day. Non-diurnal variability is also present, with measured SO 2 and SO abundances each changing by up to 2× or more between observations conducted on different dates, but at fixed phase, hence identical sub-Earth Venus local times. Change as large and rapid as a 5 σ doubling of SO on a one-week timescale is seen. The sum of SO 2 and SO abundances varies by an order of magnitude or more, indicating at least one additional sulfur reservoir must be present, and that it must function as both a sink and source for these molecules. The ratio SO 2/SO varies by nearly two orders of magnitude, with both diurnal and non-diurnal components. In contrast to the strong time dependence of molecular abundances, their altitude distributions are temporally invariant, with far more SO 2 and SO at 85-100 km than at 70-85 km. The observed increase of SO 2 mixing ratio with altitude requires that the primary SO 2 source be upper mesospheric photochemistry, contrary to atmospheric models which assert upward transport as the only source of above-cloud SO 2. Abundance of upper mesospheric aerosol, with assumption that it is composed primarily of sulfuric acid, is at least sufficient to provide the maximum gas phase (SO + SO 2) sulfur reported in this study. Sulfate aerosol is thus a plausible source of upper mesospheric SO 2.

  13. Regional climatic effects of atmospheric SO2 on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postawko, S. E.; Fanale, F. P.

    1992-01-01

    The conditions under which the valley networks on Mars may have formed remains controversial. The magnitude of an atmospheric greenhouse effect by an early massive CO2 atmosphere has recently been questioned by Kasting. Recent calculations indicate that if solar luminosity were less than about 86 percent of its current value, formation of CO2 clouds in the Martian atmosphere would depress the atmospheric lapse rate and reduce the magnitude of surface warming. In light of recent revisions of magma generation on Mars during each Martian epoch, and the suggestions by Wanke et al. that the role of liquid SO2 should be more carefully explored, we have recalculated the potential greenhouse warming by atmospheric SO2 on Mars, with an emphasis on more localized effects. In the vicinity of an active eruption, the concentration of atmospheric SO2 will be higher than if it is assumed that the erupted SO2 is instantaneously globally distributed. The local steady-state concentration of SO2 is a function of the rate at which it is released, its atmospheric lifetime, and the rate at which local winds act to disperse the SO2. We have made estimates of eruption rates, length of eruption, and dispersion rates of volcanically released SO2, for a variety of atmospheric conditions and atmospheric lifetimes of SO2 to explore the maximum regional climatic effect of SO2.

  14. A Balloon Sounding Technique for Measuring SO2 Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Gary A.; Komhyr, Walter D.; Hirokawa, Jun; Lefer, Barry; Krotkov, Nicholay; Ngan, Fong

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a new technique for inexpensive measurements of SO2 profiles using a modified dual-ozonesonde instrument payload. The presence of SO2 interferes with the standard electrochemical cell (ECC) ozonesonde measurement, resulting in -1 molecule of O3 reported for each molecule of SO2 present (provided [O3] > [SO2]). In laboratory tests, an SO2 filter made with Cr03 placed on the inlet side of the sonde removes nearly 100% of the SO2 present for concentrations up to 60 ppbv and remained effective after exposure to 2.8 X 10(exp 16) molecules of SO2 [equivalent to a column approximately 150 DU (1 DU = 2.69 X 10(exp 20) molecules m(exp -2))]. Flying two ECC instruments on the same payload with one filtered and the other unfiltered yields SO2 profiles, inferred by subtraction. Laboratory tests and field experience suggest an SO2 detection limit of approximately 3 pbb with profiles valid from the surface to the ozonopause [i.e., approximately (8-10 km)]. Two example profiles demonstrate the success of this technique for both volcanic and industrial plumes.

  15. SO2 measurements at a high altitude site in the central Himalayas: Role of regional transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naja, Manish; Mallik, Chinmay; Sarangi, Tapaswini; Sheel, Varun; Lal, Shyam

    2014-12-01

    Continuous measurements of a climatically important acidic gas, SO2, were made over Nainital (29.37°N, 79.45°E; 1958 m amsl), a regionally representative site in the central Himalayas, for the first time during 2009-2011. Unlike many other sites, the SO2 levels over Nainital are higher during pre-monsoon (345 pptv) compared to winter (71 pptv). High values during pre-monsoon are attributed to the transport of air masses from regions viz. Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), northern India and north-East Pakistan, which are dotted with numerous industries and power plants, where coal burning occurs. Transport from the polluted regions is evinced from good correlations of SO2 with wind speed, NOy and UV aerosol index during these periods. Daytime elevations in SO2 levels, influenced by 'valley winds' and boundary layer evolution, is a persistent feature at Nainital. SO2 levels are very much lower during monsoon compared to pre-monsoon, due to oxidation losses and wet scavenging. Despite this, SO2/NOy slopes are high (>0.4) both during pre-monsoon and monsoon, indicating impacts of point sources. The SO2 levels during winter are lower as the measurement site is cut off from the plains due to boundary layer dynamics. Further, the SO2 levels during winter nights are the lowest (lesser than 50 pptv) and resemble free tropospheric conditions.

  16. Low to middle tropospheric profiles and biosphere/troposphere fluxes of acidic gases in the summertime Canadian taiga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemm, O.; Talbot, R. W.; Fitzgerald, D. R.; Klemm, K. I.; Lefer, B. L.

    1994-01-01

    We report features of acidic gases in the troposphere from 9 to 5000 m altitude above ground over the Canadian taiga in the summer of 1990. The measurements were conducted at a 30-m meteorological tower and from the NASA Wallops Electra aircraft as part of the joint U.S.-Canadian Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B Northern Wetland Studies (NOWES). We sampled air for acidic gases using the mist chamber collector coupled with subsequent analysis using ion chromatography. At the tower we collected samples at two heights during a 13-day period, including diurnal studies. Using eddy flux and profile data, we estimated the biosphere/troposphere fluxes of nitric, formic, and acetic acids and sulfur dioxide. For the organic acids, emissions from the taiga in the afternoon hours and deposition during the predawn morning hours were observed. The flux intensities alone were however not high enough to explain the observed changes in mixing ratios. The measured deposition fluxes of nitric acid were high enough to have a significant influence on its mixing ratio in the boundary layer. On three days we measured vertical profiles of nitric, formic, and acetic acids through the lower to midtroposphere. We found that the chemical composition of the troposphere was extremely heterogenous. Pronounced layers of polluted air were readily apparent from our measurements. Local photochemical production and episodic long-range transport of trace components, originating from biomass burning and possibly industrial emissions, appear to have a strong influence on the composition of the troposphere and biosphere/troposphere fluxes of acidic gases at this site.

  17. STATUS OF DRY SO2 CONTROL SYSTEMS: FALL 1983

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, on the status of dry SO2 control for utility and industrial boilers in the U.S., reviews curent and recently completed research, development, and commercial activities. Dry SO2 control systems covered include: (1) spray dryers with a fabric filter or an electrostatic ...

  18. SO2 ABATEMENT FOR COAL-FIRED BOILERS IN JAPAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a compilation of information on the current status of SO2 abatement technologies for coal-fired boilers in Japan, where strict ambient air quality standards for SO2 and NOx mandate the use of various air pollution control technologies. It focuses on flue gas desulfu...

  19. AN ADVANCED FLUE GAS MONITOR FOR SO2 - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of an instrument for continuously monitoring SO2 levels in flue gas is proposed. The SO2 will be detected by means of an electrochemical sensor cell, which operates in a three-electrode potentiostatic mode. The proposed innovation is develop-ment of an advan...

  20. ACCURACY OF REMOTELY SENSED SO2 MASS EMISSION RATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing data of single-stack power plant emissions and local wind speed have been analyzed to determined SO2 mass flux for comparison with EPA referenced methods. Four days of SO2 data were gathered from a moving platform by three upward-viewing remote sensors -- two ultra...

  1. JAPANESE ACTIVITIES IN SO2 AND NOX CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews Japanese activities in SO2 and NOx control. From 1970 to 1985, energy use in Japan increased by 25%, and annual coal consumption rose from virtually nothing to 20 million tons, yet emissions of SO2 declined by 75% and NOx by 40%. While increases in hydroelectric...

  2. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO 2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actual SO 2 emissions rate. 74.22 Section 74.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.22 Actual SO 2 emissions rate. (a) Data requirements. The...

  3. Acidic gases and nitrate and sulfate particles in the atmosphere in the city of Guadalajara, México.

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Waliszewski, Stefan; Murillo-Tovar, Mario; Hernández-Mena, Leonel; de la Garza-Rodríguez, Iliana; Colunga-Urbina, Edith; Cuevas-Ordaz, Rosalva

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of nitrous acid, nitric acid, nitrate and sulfate particles were obtained in this study from April to June 2008 in the center of the city of Guadalajara, while concentrations of ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and meteorological parameters (temperature and relative humidity), were acquired by the Secretaría del Medio Ambiente para el Desarrollo Sustentable del Estado de Jalisco (SEMADES). The results showed that nitric acid (2.7 μg m(-3)) was 2.7 times higher than nitrous acid (1.0 μg m(-3)). The sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) concentration indicated an opposite trend to sulfate (SO(4) (2-)), with the average concentration of SO(2) (6.9 μg m(-3)) higher in almost the entire period of study. The sulfur conversion ratio (Fs, 24.9%) and nitrogen conversion ratio (Fn, 6.2%), were revealed to be similar to that reported in other urban areas during warm seasons. It is also noted that ozone is not the main oxidizer of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. This determination was made by taking into account the slightly positively correlation determined for Fn (r(2) = 0.084) and Fs (r(2) = 0.092) with ozone that perhaps suggests there are other oxidizing species such as the radical OH, which are playing an important role in the processes of atmospheric oxidation in this area. PMID:22358115

  4. Formation of secondary aerosols from gasoline vehicle exhausts when mixing with SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Wang, X.; Hu, Q.; Deng, W.; Zhang, Y.; Ding, X.; Fu, X.; Bernard, F.; Zhang, Z.; Lü, S.; He, Q.; Bi, X.; Chen, J.; Sun, Y.; Yu, J.; Peng, P.; Sheng, G.; Fu, J.

    2015-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) can enhance the formation of secondary aerosols from biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but its influence on secondary aerosol formation from anthropogenic VOCs, particularly complex mixtures like vehicle exhausts, is still poorly understood. Here we directly co-introduced gasoline vehicles exhausts (GVE) and SO2, a typical pollutant from coal burning, into a smog chamber to investigate the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and sulfate aerosols through photooxidation. In the presence of high concentration of SO2, new particle formation was enhanced while substantial sulfate was formed through the oxidation of SO2. The homogenous oxidation by OH radicals contributed a negligible fraction to the conversion of SO2 to sulfate, and instead the oxidation by stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCIs), formed from alkenes in the exhaust reacting with ozone, dominated the conversion of SO2. After 5 h of photochemical aging, GVE's SOA production factor revealed an increase by 60-200 % in the presence of high concentration of SO2. This increase could largely be attributed to acid-catalyzed SOA formation, which was evidenced by the strong positive linear correlation (R2 = 0.97) between the SOA production factor and in-situ particle acidity calculated by AIM-II model. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS) resolved OA's relatively lower oxygen-to-carbon (O : C) and higher hydrogen-to-carbon (H : C) molar ratios for the GVE/SO2 mixture, with a much lower estimated average carbon oxidation state (OSc) of -0.51 ± 0.06 than that of -0.19 ± 0.08 for GVE alone. The relative higher mass loading of OA in the experiments with SO2 might be the major reason for the lower oxidation degree of SOA.

  5. Formation of secondary aerosols from gasoline vehicle exhaust when mixing with SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Wang, X.; Hu, Q.; Deng, W.; Zhang, Y.; Ding, X.; Fu, X.; Bernard, F.; Zhang, Z.; Lü, S.; He, Q.; Bi, X.; Chen, J.; Sun, Y.; Yu, J.; Peng, P.; Sheng, G.; Fu, J.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) can enhance the formation of secondary aerosols from biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but its influence on secondary aerosol formation from anthropogenic VOCs, particularly complex mixtures like vehicle exhaust, remains uncertain. Gasoline vehicle exhaust (GVE) and SO2, a typical pollutant from coal burning, are directly co-introduced into a smog chamber, in this study, to investigate the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and sulfate aerosols through photooxidation. New particle formation was enhanced, while substantial sulfate was formed through the oxidation of SO2 in the presence of high concentration of SO2. Homogenous oxidation by OH radicals contributed a negligible fraction to the conversion of SO2 to sulfate, and instead the oxidation by stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCIs), formed from alkenes in the exhaust reacting with ozone, dominated the conversion of SO2. After 5 h of photochemical aging, GVE's SOA production factor revealed an increase by 60-200 % in the presence of high concentration of SO2. The increase could principally be attributed to acid-catalyzed SOA formation as evidenced by the strong positive linear correlation (R2 = 0.97) between the SOA production factor and in situ particle acidity calculated by the AIM-II model. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS) resolved OA's relatively lower oxygen-to-carbon (O : C) (0.44 ± 0.02) and higher hydrogen-to-carbon (H : C) (1.40 ± 0.03) molar ratios for the GVE / SO2 mixture, with a significantly lower estimated average carbon oxidation state (OSc) of -0.51 ± 0.06 than -0.19 ± 0.08 for GVE alone. The relative higher mass loading of OA in the experiments with SO2 might be a significant explanation for the lower SOA oxidation degree.

  6. Next-Generation Aura/OMI NO2 and SO2 Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotkov, Nickolay; Yang, Kai; Bucsela, Eric; Lamsal, Lok; Celarier, Edward; Swartz, William; Carn, Simon; Bhartia, Pawan; Gleason, James; Pickering, Ken; Dickerson, Russ

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of both SO2 and NO2 gases are recognized as an essential component of atmospheric composition missions. We describe current capabilities and limitations of the operational Aura/OMI NO2 and SO2 data that have been used by a large number of researchers. Analyses of the data and validation studies have brought to light a number of areas in which these products can be expanded and improved. Major improvements for new NASA standard (SP) NO2 product include more accurate tropospheric and stratospheric column amounts, along with much improved error estimates and diagnostics. Our approach uses a monthly NO2 climatology based on the NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry-transport model and takes advantage of OMI data from cloudy scenes to find clean areas where the contribution from the trap NO2 column is relatively small. We then use a new filtering, interpolation and smoothing techniques for separating the stratospheric and tropospheric components of NO2, minimizing the influence of a priori information. The new algorithm greatly improves the structure of stratospheric features relative to the original SP. For the next-generation OMI SO2 product we plan to implement operationally the offline iterative spectral fitting (ISF) algorithm and re-process the OMI Level-2 SO2 dataset using a priori SO2 and aerosol profiles, clouds, and surface reflectivity appropriate for observation conditions. This will improve the ability to detect and quantify weak tropospheric SO2 loadings. The new algorithm is validated using aircraft in-situ data during field campaigns in China (2005 and 2008) and in Maryland (Frostburg, 2010 and DISCOVER-AQ in July 2011). The height of the SO2 plumes will also be estimated for high SO2 loading cases (e.g., volcanic eruptions). The same SO2 algorithm will be applied to the data from OMPS sensor to be launched on NPP satellite later this year. The next-generation NO2 and SO2 products will provide critical information (e.g., averaging kernels) for evaluation of chemistry-transport models, for data assimilation, and to impose top-down constraints on the SO2 and NO2 emission sources.

  7. 40 CFR 60.54a - Standard for municipal waste combustor acid gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... affected facility any gases that contain hydrogen chloride in excess of 5 percent of the potential hydrogen chloride emission rate (95 percent reduction by weight or volume) or 25 parts per million by...

  8. Multi-decadal satellite measurements of passive and eruptive volcanic SO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carn, Simon; Yang, Kai; Krotkov, Nickolay; Prata, Fred; Telling, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    Periodic injections of sulfur gas species (SO2, H2S) into the stratosphere by volcanic eruptions are among the most important, and yet unpredictable, drivers of natural climate variability. However, passive (lower tropospheric) volcanic degassing is the major component of total volcanic emissions to the atmosphere on a time-averaged basis, but is poorly constrained, impacting estimates of global emissions of other volcanic gases (e.g., CO2). Stratospheric volcanic emissions are very well quantified by satellite remote sensing techniques, and we report ongoing efforts to catalog all significant volcanic SO2 emissions into the stratosphere and troposphere since 1978 using measurements from the ultraviolet (UV) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS; 1978-2005), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI; 2004 - present) and Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS; 2012 - present) instruments, supplemented by infrared (IR) data from HIRS, MODIS and AIRS. The database, intended for use as a volcanic forcing dataset in climate models, currently includes over 600 eruptions releasing a total of ~100 Tg SO2, with a mean eruption discharge of ~0.2 Tg SO2. Sensitivity to SO2 emissions from smaller eruptions greatly increased following the launch of OMI in 2004, but uncertainties remain on the volcanic flux of other sulfur species other than SO2 (H2S, OCS) due to difficulty of measurement. Although the post-Pinatubo 1991 era is often classified as volcanically quiescent, many smaller eruptions (Volcanic Explosivity Index [VEI] 3-4) since 2000 have injected significant amounts of SO2 into the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS), peaking in 2008-2011. We also show how even smaller (VEI 2) tropical eruptions can impact the UTLS and sustain above-background stratospheric aerosol optical depth, thus playing a role in climate forcing on short timescales. To better quantify tropospheric volcanic degassing, we use ~10 years of operational SO2 measurements by OMI to identify the strongest volcanic SO2 sources between 2004 and 2015. OMI measurements are most sensitive to SO2 emission rates on the order of ~1000 tons/day or more, and thus the satellite data provide new constraints on the location and persistence of major volcanic SO2 sources. We find that OMI has detected non-eruptive SO2 emissions from at least ~60 volcanoes since 2004. Results of our analysis reveal the emergence of several major tropospheric SO2 sources that are not prominent in existing inventories (Ambrym, Nyiragongo, Turrialba, Ubinas), the persistence of some well-known sources (Etna, Kilauea) and a possible decline in emissions at others (e.g., Lascar). The OMI measurements provide particularly valuable information in regions lacking regular ground-based monitoring such as Indonesia, Melanesia and Kamchatka. We describe how the OMI measurements of SO2 total column, and their probability density function, can be used to infer SO2 emission rates for compatibility with existing emissions data and assimilation into chemical transport models. The satellite-derived SO2 emission rates are in good agreement with ground-based measurements from frequently monitored volcanoes (e.g., from the NOVAC network), but differ for other volcanoes. We conclude that some ground-based SO2 measurements may be biased high if collected during periods of elevated unrest, and hence may not be representative of long-term average emissions.

  9. Simultaneous removal of SO2 and NO by wet scrubbing using aqueous chlorine dioxide solution.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dong-Seop; Deshwal, Bal-Raj; Park, Young-Seong; Lee, Hyung-Keun

    2006-07-31

    The present study attempts to generate chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) gas continuously by chlorate-chloride process and to utilize it further to clean up SO(2) and NO(x) gases simultaneously from the flue gas in the lab-scale bubbling reactor. Experiments were carried out to examine the effect of various operating parameters like input SO(2) concentration, input NO concentration, pH of the reaction medium, and ClO(2) feeding rate on the SO(2) and NO(x) removal efficiencies at 45 degrees C. Complete oxidation of NO into NO(2) occurred on passing sufficient ClO(2) gas into the scrubbing solution. SO(2) removal efficiency of about 100% and NO(x) removal efficiency of 66-72% were achieved under optimized conditions. NO(x) removal efficiency decreased slightly with increasing pH and NO concentration. Input SO(2) concentration had marginal catalytic effect on NO(2) absorption. No improvement in the NO(x) removal efficiency was observed on passing excess of chlorine dioxide in the scrubbing solution. PMID:16442222

  10. BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF CALCIUM SORBENTS FOR ACID GAS EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Calcium sorbents for acid gas emission control were evaluated for effectiveness in removing SO2/HCl and SO2/NO from simulated incinerator and boiler flue gases. All tests were conducted in a bench-scale reactor (fixed-bed) simulating fabric filter conditions in an acid gas remova...

  11. Thermophilic biofilter for SO2 removal: performance and microbial characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingying; Li, Lin; Liu, Junxin

    2015-03-01

    A bench-scale thermophilic biofilter was applied to remove SO2 at 60°C in the present study. The SO2 concentration in the inlet stream ranged from 100mg/m(3) to 200mg/m(3). An average SO2 removal efficiency of 93.10% was achieved after developing acclimated organisms that can degrade SO2. The thermophilic biofilter effectively reduced SO2, with a maximum elimination capacity of 50.67g/m(3)/h at a loading rate of 51.44g/m(3)/h. Removal efficiency of the thermophilic biofilter was largely influenced by the water containing rate of the packing materials. The SO2 transfer in the biofilter included adsorption by the packing materials, dissolution in liquid, and microbial degradation. The main product of SO2 degradation was SO4(2-). The temporal shifts in the bacterial community that formed in the biofilter were determined through polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and DNA sequence analysis. These shifts revealed a correlation between biofilter performance and bacterial community structure. PMID:25594505

  12. Surface Hydrophobicity Causes SO2 Tolerance in Lichens

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Brinkmann, Martin; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The superhydrophobicity of the thallus surface in one of the most SO2-tolerant lichen species, Lecanora conizaeoides, suggests that surface hydrophobicity could be a general feature of lichen symbioses controlling their tolerance to SO2. The study described here tests this hypothesis. Methods Water droplets of the size of a raindrop were placed on the surface of air-dry thalli in 50 lichen species of known SO2 tolerance and contact angles were measured to quantify hydrophobicity. Key Results The wettability of lichen thalli ranges from strongly hydrophobic to strongly hydrophilic. SO2 tolerance of the studied lichen species increased with increasing hydrophobicity of the thallus surface. Extraction of extracellular lichen secondary metabolites with acetone reduced, but did not abolish the hydrophobicity of lichen thalli. Conclusions Surface hydrophobicity is the main factor controlling SO2 tolerance in lichens. It presumably originally evolved as an adaptation to wet habitats preventing the depression of net photosynthesis due to supersaturation of the thallus with water. Hydrophilicity of lichen thalli is an adaptation to dry or humid, but not directly rain-exposed habitats. The crucial role of surface hydrophobicity in SO2 also explains why many markedly SO2-tolerant species are additionally tolerant to other (chemically unrelated) toxic substances including heavy metals. PMID:18077467

  13. Measurements of SO2 in the Mount St. Helens debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, J. B.; Evans, F. J.; Mateer, C. L.

    1982-01-01

    Routine measurements of ozone and SO2 are made with the Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers at the Atmospheric Environment Service in Downsview Ontario. On May 20 and 21, 1980, large values of column SO2 were observed with both spectrophotometers at the time of passage of the Mount St. Helens debris. Enhanced SO2 values were first observed at 1800Z on May 20. The maximum column amount of SO2 measured was 0.06 cm at 2200 Z. On May 21, SO2 values slowly decreased from 0.03 cm at 1100 Z cm to 0.01 cm at 2000Z. Typical SO2 amounts due to pollution at the Downsview site are approximately 0.003 to 0.005 cm. At the same time of maximum SO2 enhancement, both Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers measured a 0.040 cm decrease of total ozone. It is not clear whether the decrease of total ozone was caused by the volcanic cloud or natural ozone variability. Air mass trajectories indicate that the altitude of the debris cloud, which passed over Downsview at the time, was between 10 km and 12 km.

  14. Influence of O2 and H2O on carbothermal reduction of SO2 by oil-sand fluid coke.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenguo; Jia, Charles Q

    2005-12-15

    To develop a new process for removing high-concentration SO2 from industrial flue gases, the carbothermal reduction of SO2 by oil-sand fluid coke at 700 degrees C was investigated by varying the inlet concentration of either O2 or H2O. Concentrations of O2 and H2O ranged from 0 to 20% and from 0 to 30%, respectively, in a stream of SO2 (18%) with the balance helium. Addition of O2 and H2O was found to enhance SO2 reduction. The enhancement was attributed to the reducing gases, CO and H2, produced by solid-gas reactions between carbon and O2 or H2O. The effects of O2 and H2O on sulfur yield, however, were bifacial: adding O2 and/or H2O increased the sulfur yield when SO2 conversion was incomplete, otherwise, it decreased the sulfur yield through the formation of sulfides such as H2S. The results of a thermodynamic analysis were in a good agreementwith the experimental results, suggesting that gas-solid reactions were slow enough to allow gas-phase equilibrium. This study indicates that carbon, such as oil-sand fluid coke, can be utilized to remove SO2 in flue gases containing O2/H2O and to convert it to elemental sulfur. PMID:16475356

  15. Supported polytertiary amines: highly efficient and selective SO2 adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Tailor, Ritesh; Abboud, Mohamed; Sayari, Abdelhamid

    2014-01-01

    Tertiary amine containing poly(propyleneimine) second (G2) and third (G3) generation dendrimers as well as polyethyleneimine (PEI) were developed for the selective removal of SO2. N-Alkylation of primary and secondary amines into tertiary amines was confirmed by FTIR and NMR analysis. Such modified polyamines were impregnated on two nanoporous supports, namely, SBA-15PL silica with platelet morphology and ethanol-extracted pore-expanded MCM-41 (PME) composite. In the presence of 0.1% SO2/N2 at 23 °C, the uptake of modified PEI, G2, and G3 supported on SBA-15PL was 2.07, 2.35, and 1.71 mmol/g, respectively; corresponding to SO2/N ratios of 0.22, 0.4, and 0.3. Under the same conditions, the SO2 adsorption capacity of PME-supported modified PEI and G3 was significantly higher, reaching 4.68 and 4.34 mmol/g, corresponding to SO2/N ratios of 0.41 and 0.82, respectively. The working SO2 adsorption capacity decreased with increasing temperature, reflecting the exothermic nature of the process. The adsorption capacity of these materials was enhanced dramatically in the presence of humidity in the gas mixture. FTIR data before SO2 adsorption and after adsorption and regeneration did not indicate any change in the materials. Nonetheless, the SO2 working capacity decreased in consecutive adsorption/regeneration cycles due to evaporation of impregnated polyamines, rather than actual deactivation. FTIR and (13)C and (15)N CP-MAS NMR of fresh and SO2 adsorbed modified G3 on PME confirmed the formation of a complexation adduct. PMID:24437448

  16. Adsorption of SO2 onto oxidized and heat-treated activated carbon fibers (ACFS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daley, M.A.; Mangun, C.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Riha, S.; Lizzio, A.A.; Donnals, G.L.; Economy, J.

    1997-01-01

    A series of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) and heat-treated oxidized ACFs prepared from phenolic fiber precursors have been studied to elucidate the role of pore size, pore surface chemistry and pore volume for the adsorption of SO2 and its catalytic conversion to H2SO4. For untreated ACFs, the initial rate of SO2 adsorption from flue gas was shown to be inversely related to pore size. At longer times, the amount of SO2 adsorbed from flue gas was dependent on both the pore size and pore volume. Oxidation of the ACFs, using an aqueous oxidant, decreased their adsorption capacity for SO2 from flue gas due to a decrease in pore volume and repulsion of the SO2 from acidic surface groups. If these samples were heat-treated to desorb the oxygen containing function groups, the amount of SO2 adsorption increased. This increase in adsorption capacity was directly correlated to the amount of CO2 evolved during heat-treatment of the oxidized ACFs. The amount of SO2 adsorbed for these samples was related to the pore size, pore surface chemistry and pore volume. This analysis is explained in more detail in this paper. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adsorption and dissociation of acidic trace gases on ice surfaces - caught in the act with core level spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldner, Astrid; Orlando, Fabrizio; Ammann, Markus; Kleibert, Armin; Huthwelker, Thomas; Peter, Thomas; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    Chemistry and physical processes in Earth's ice and snow cover can change the composition of the atmosphere and the contaminant content of the cryosphere. They have thus direct impacts on geochemical cycles and the climate system. Our ability to predict the fate of chemicals in snow or air masses in exchange with the cryosphere on a regional scale or to model those in snow chemistry models is currently hampered by our limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms on a molecular level. So far, direct experimental observations under environmentally relevant conditions of the ice surface and of the adsorption of trace gases to it are very limited. The unique approach of this study is to combine two surface sensitive spectroscopic methods to directly probe the hydrogen-bonding network at the ice surface ( ~1 nm depth) and the concentration, depth profile (~1 to 10 nm), and dissociation degree of the dopant. We present first core-electron photoemission (XPS) and partial electron yield X-ray absorption (NEXAFS) measurements of formic acid adsorbed to ice at 240 K. The analysis of oxygen NEXAFS spectra reveals information on changes in the hydrogen-bonding network of the ice surface upon adsorption of formic acid. Depth profiles based on XPS measurements indicate that the adsorbed acid stays at the ice surface. Furthermore we obtained a preliminary estimation of the degree of formic acid dissociation at the ice surface. Results are compared to earlier core-electron studies of several trace gases adsorbed to ice at 240 K and compared to results from more traditional method to and snow to reveal fundamental aspects of the ice surface and how it interacts with dopants. Even with the focus on adsorption of acidic trace gases to ice, results of this study will thus be of high relevance also for other chemical processes in ice and snow. This is of interest not only in environmental science but also in material science, cryobiology, and astrophysics.

  18. Use of sulfate reducing cell suspension bioreactors for the treatment of SO2 rich flue gases.

    PubMed

    Lens, P N L; Gastesi, R; Lettinga, G

    2003-06-01

    This paper describes a novel bioscrubber concept for biological flue gas desulfurization, based on the recycling of a cell suspension of sulfite/sulfate reducing bacteria between a scrubber and a sulfite/sulfate reducing hydrogen fed bioreactor. Hydrogen metabolism in sulfite/sulfate reducing cell suspensions was investigated using batch activity tests and by operating a completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The maximum specific hydrogenotrophic sulfite/sulfate reduction rate increased with 10% and 300%, respectively, by crushing granular inoculum sludge and by cultivation of this sludge as cell suspension in a CSTR. Operation of a sulfite fed CSTR (hydraulic retention time 4 days; pH 7.0; sulfite loading rate 0.5-1.5 g SO3(2-) l(-1) d(-1)) with hydrogen as electron donor showed that high (up to 1.6 g l(-1)) H2S concentrations can be obtained within 10 days of operation. H2S inhibition, however, limited the sulfite reducing capacity of the CSTR. Methane production by the cell suspension disappeared within 20 days reactor operation. The outcompetition of methanogens in excess of H2 can be attributed to CO2 limitation and/or to sulfite or sulfide toxicity. The use of cell suspensions opens perspectives for monolith or packed bed reactor configurations, which have a much lower pressure drop compared to air lift reactors, to supply H2 to sulfite/sulfate reducing bioreactors. PMID:12889613

  19. Galapagos Islands Volcanic SO2 Emissions (1979-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, E. M.; Carn, S. A.; Bluth, G. J.

    2010-12-01

    Quantification of sulfur dioxide (SO2) released from the Galapagos Islands volcanoes is an essential part of interpreting their explosive and effusive eruptive activity. This is the first comprehensive study of Galapagos volcanic SO2 emissions (1979-2009), which has allowed us to evaluate their contribution to the global sulfur budget, assess the fate of the volcanic clouds, and interpret the connection between the emissions and eruptive dynamics. Galapagosian eruptions typically produce effusive SO2 clouds through nearly constant emissions over the course of several days. We used measurements from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite instruments to quantify SO2 emissions between 1979 and 2005. Daily SO2 emission rates are traditionally estimated by analyzing individual satellite images. Analyses of polar-orbiting satellite data for effusive eruptions, however, can underestimate total SO2 emissions because the instantaneous satellite images contain a spectrum of SO2 plume ages, from freshly emitted to aged (erupted 24 hours or more earlier and dispersing). Therefore, a new method is used in this study, involving extrapolation between once-daily TOMS data acquisitions to more accurately estimate SO2 emissions from the Galapagosian eruptions. Comparing our results to current global volcanic sulfur budget studies, all known Galapagos eruptions between 1979 and 1997 produced a total SO2 emission of 5 Mt +/- 2 Mt, equivalent to roughly 2% of the global volcanic sulfur budget. However, the SO2 emissions may be significant on a regional scale and their effects on the environment and ecosystem of the islands merit further investigation. One of the most explosive of these volcanoes is Sierra Negra, which produced almost half of the total estimated SO2 (2 Mt) during a single eruption (in 1979) in this time period. The Galapagos volcanic clouds are typically entrained into the lower troposphere and have a 60-95% decay rate, with most SO2 clouds losing ~70% mass within a 24 hour period. Of the eight Galapagos eruptions studied so far, SO2 emission patterns from the 1979 Sierra Negra and 1982 Wolf eruptions suggest that the eruption mechanism for these two eruptions is a release of elastic strain within their individual magma chambers. The remaining eruptions have SO2 emission patterns that would suggest different eruption mechanisms. More recently, eruptions occurred at Sierra Negra in 2005, Cerro Azul in 1998 and 2008, and Fernandina in 2009. We will present new SO2 emission data for these eruptions using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA’s Aura satellite, which has better spectral and spatial resolution than TOMS. With these new OMI data, we will reassess the contribution of the Galapagos SO2 emissions to the global sulfur budget, as well as evaluate the eruption mechanisms in relation to previous activity.

  20. Effect of plasma treatment on multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the detection of H2S and SO2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Yang, Bing; Wang, Xiaojing; Luo, Chenchen

    2012-01-01

    H(2)S and SO(2) are important characteristic gases of partial discharge (PD) generated by latent insulated defects in gas insulated switchgear (GIS). The detection of H(2)S and SO(2) is of great significance in the diagnosis and assessment of the operating status of GIS. In this paper, we perform experiments on the gas sensitivity of unmodified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and those modified by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) air plasma at different times (30, 60 and 120 s) for H(2)S and SO(2), respectively. The results show that the sensitivity and response time of modified MWNTs to H(2)S are both improved, whereas the opposite effects are observed for SO(2). The modified MWNTs have almost zero sensitivity to SO(2). Thus, the MWNTs modified by atmospheric pressure DBD air plasma present good selectivity to H(2)S, and have great potential in H(2)S detection. PMID:23012548

  1. Effect of Plasma Treatment on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for the Detection of H2S and SO2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Yang, Bing; Wang, Xiaojing; Luo, Chenchen

    2012-01-01

    H2S and SO2 are important characteristic gases of partial discharge (PD) generated by latent insulated defects in gas insulated switchgear (GIS). The detection of H2S and SO2 is of great significance in the diagnosis and assessment of the operating status of GIS. In this paper, we perform experiments on the gas sensitivity of unmodified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and those modified by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) air plasma at different times (30, 60 and 120 s) for H2S and SO2, respectively. The results show that the sensitivity and response time of modified MWNTs to H2S are both improved, whereas the opposite effects are observed for SO2. The modified MWNTs have almost zero sensitivity to SO2. Thus, the MWNTs modified by atmospheric pressure DBD air plasma present good selectivity to H2S, and have great potential in H2S detection. PMID:23012548

  2. Li/SO2 Cell for Galileo. [process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blagdon, L. J.; Marcoux, L.

    1981-01-01

    Some information on the special process controls for lithium sulfur dioxide (Li/SO2) batteries is presented with reference to how those controls affected the Galileo probe program and the instrument test vehicle program. The general considerations that go into any application for basically any type of battery system are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to some of the design tradeoffs which resulted because of the addition of the safety characteristics of the Li/SO2 system.

  3. Mesophyll Resistances to SO2 Fluxes into Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Pfanz, Hardy; Martinoia, Enrico; Lange, Otto-Ludwig; Heber, Ulrich

    1987-01-01

    Uptake of label from solutions containing 35SO2, H35SO3− and 35SO32− into mesophyll protoplasts, vacuoles, and chloroplasts isolated from young barley leaves was measured at different pH values. Uptake was fast at low pH, when the concentration of SO2 was high, and low at high pH, when the concentration of SO2 was low. When the resistance (R) of plasmalemma, tonoplast, and chloroplast envelope to the penetration of SO2 was calculated from rates of uptake of label, comparable values were obtained for the different biomembranes at low pH values. R was close to 8000 seconds per meter and permeability coefficients were close to 1.25 × 10−4 meters per second. Under these conditions R may describe resistance to SO2 diffusion across a lipid bilayer. At higher pH values, R decreased. As R was calculated on the assumption that SO2 is the only penetrating molecular species, the data suggest that carrier-mediated anion transport contributes to the uptake of sulfur at physiological pH values thereby decreasing apparent RSO2. The contribution of anion transport appeared to be smaller for transfer across the plasmalemma than for transfer across the tonoplast. It was large for transfer across the chloroplast envelope. The phosphate translocator of the chloroplast envelope catalyzed uptake of SO32− into chloroplasts at neutral pH. Uptake was decreased in the presence of high levels of phosphate or sulfate and by pyridoxal phosphate. SO2 transfer into cells leads to the intracellular liberation of one or two protons, depending on pH and oxidizing conditions. When the divalent sulfite anion is exchanged across the chloroplast envelope, bisulfite formation results in proton uptake in the chloroplast stroma, whereas SO2 uptake into chloroplasts lowers the stroma pH. PMID:16665832

  4. SO2-rich equatorial basins and epeirogeny of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, Alfred S.

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of Io's large scale topography with an SO2 abundance map shows that SO2 is concentrated in equatorial topographic basins. In these basins, about 30 pct. of the surface is covered by SO2 at all elevations above the mean triaxial figure, and SO2 coverage increases with decreasing elevation to as much as 56 pct. at elevations below -1.5 km. The correlation is not good from long 240 to 360 degs where bright areas are covered by red, Pele type plume fallout, and in the polar regions where the topography is poorly known. The histogram of SO2 abundance binned by elevation appears bimodal, with a secondary concentration of SO2 at high elevations, but it is not certain that this is significant. Additional observations suggest that the basins have relatively little higher frequency topographic relief. The distribution of active plumes and hotspots show no obvious correlation with the topography. However, the Pele type plume all erupted from regions higher than the mean figure, and five of the eight Prometheus type plumes are more energetic and are associated with high temperature hotspots, whereas Prometheus type plumes are long lived and require large volatile reservoirs.

  5. Novel process of simultaneous removal of SO2 and NO2 by sodium humate solution.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoxin; Sun, Zhiguo; Gao, Hanyang

    2010-09-01

    A novel simultaneous flue gas desulfurization and denitrification (FGDD) process using sodium humate (HA-Na) solution was proposed. This study relates to the SO2/NO2 absorption efficiency and products of simultaneous removing SO2 and NO2 in a bubbling reactor, especially the effect of recycled water on the SO2/NO2 absorption. Under alkaline conditions, the sulfate content in S-containing compound decreases with the increase of NO2 concentration, whereas there is a contrary result under acidic conditions. Whether the absorption liquid is alkaline or acidic, the presence of NO2 improves the SO2 absorption into HA-Na solution, because NO2 may promote the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate. It seems that the presence of SO2 is unfavorable for the NO2 absorption, but the NO2 absorption efficiency can be improved with the cycle number rising due to the increasing amount of sulfite. Although all the ion concentrations of Na+,SO4(2-),SO3(2-), and NO3- have a gradual increase as the cycle number rises, the ion concentrations of SO4(2-) and Na+ are far more than that of the other ions, which results in a slight decrease of the SO2 absorption efficiency. However, the initial pH of HA-Na solution prepared by recycled water decreases from 10 to 8.1 with the cycle number increasing from 1 to 10, whereas the final pH (the pH after absorption reaction is finished) remains almost constant (3.3). The SO2 absorption efficiency is above 98% and the NO2 absorption efficiency may reach above 95% in the optimal condition in this process. The chief byproduct is a compound fertilizer consisting of humic acid (HA), sulfate, and nitrate. PMID:20704283

  6. Central Arctic Atmospheric SO2 pollution from smelters: Airborne detection and Arctic Haze formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, F.; Nau, R.; Jurkat, T.; Schlager, H.; Minikin, A.; Dörnbrack, A.; Pirjola, L.; Stohl, A.

    2009-04-01

    Arctic Haze represents a dramatic manifestation of anthropogenic pollution of a remote and previously pristine atmospheric environment, which presently experiences faster climate warming than any other region on the planet. Arctic haze influences visibility, ecosystems, and may contribute to Arctic climate warming. In spring, Arctic Haze occupies large parts of the Arctic lower troposphere, the so called Arctic Dome. The most abundant Arctic Haze component is sulphate, which was previously thought to stem preferably from Extra-Arctic anthropogenic pollution sources. However, recent model simulations suggest that sulphate particle transport into the Arctic Dome is severely hindered. During the recent POLAR YEAR 2007/2008, in 2007, we have made the first Central Arctic SO2 measurements with high vertical and horizontal resolution and detected SO2 rich pollution plumes in the entire troposphere height range up to 9000 m. Below 2000 m, inside the Arctic Dome, these plumes were most pronounced and stemmed preferably from a giant Ni-Cu smelter complex, located in the Siberian sector of the Arctic Dome, near the city Norilsk, at a distance of 2100 km from our measurement region. Our measurements and accompanying model simulations indicate that SO2 emitted by that smelter complex represents a mayor if not the dominant precursor of Arctic Dome cloud condensation nuclei and haze particles. Along with SO2, were measured aerosol particles and additional trace gases including also gas-phase NOy (sum of reactive nitrogen gases). Importantly, the abundance ratio R=SO2/NOy is quite different for different SO2 source types (about 1-2 for fossil fuel combustion, <0.1 for bio mass burning, and about 40 for Ni/Cu smelting) and therefore serves as an SO2-source marker. In addition to our air craft measurements, we have made accompanying model simulations of pollutant transport and aerosol formation and growth. Our air craft measurements were part of the ASTAR 2007 (ASTAR=Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosols, Clouds, and Radiation) campaign and took place in March/April 2007 (during the recent "International Polar Research Year") aboard the German research air craft FALCON, mostly in the vicinity of Spitsbergen about 2100 km away from Norilsk. Atmospheric SO2 was measured on 7 Central Arctic FALCON flights at altitudes up to 10000 m in the geographic region between approximately 74-83 degrees North and 10-20 degrees East. On the FALCON flights, Arctic Haze was often observed as a dark coloured band against the horizon. During each of the 7 Central Arctic FALCON flights, stratified SO2 rich pollution plumes, with elevated SO2 mole fractions of 300-6000 ppt, have been detected below 2000 m. In comparison, measured atmospheric background SO2 mole fractions were usually below about 40 ppt. In addition, numerous SO2 rich pollution plumes were detected in almost the entire altitude range covered.

  7. FORMATION OF 2-METHYL TETROLS AND 2-METHYLGLYCERIC ACID IN SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FROM LABORATORY IRRADIATED ISOPRENE/NO X/SO 2/AIR MIXTURES AND THEIR DETECTION IN AMBIENT PM 2.5 SAMPLES COLLECTED IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of isoprene/NOx/air irradiation experiments, carried out in both the absence and presence of SO2, were conducted to assess whether isoprene contributes to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. In the absence of SO2 , the SOA yield of 0.002 was low. However, in th...

  8. BrO/SO2 ratios from the NOVAC network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lbcke, Peter; Bobrowski, Nicole; Galle, Bo; Garzon, Guastavo; Vogel, Leif; Platt, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    The halogen/sulphur ratio is an important indicator for dynamical changes in the upper part of a volcanic system. In particular, the BrO/SO2 ratio was recently suggested to be an indicator for changes in volcanic activity. This ratio can be assessed by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy measurements in the UV. SO2 is emitted by volcanoes and relatively stable on time-scales usually observed during ground-based remote-sensing measurements. On the other hand, BrO is not directly released from volcanoes, but probably a product of photochemical oxidation of primary emitted HBr in the atmosphere. This study presents BrO/SO2 ratios measured from the Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC). NOVAC has so far installed 64 spectrometers at 24 volcanoes world-wide, some of which measure volcanic gas and their fluxes for 7 years. This vast database will allow to correlate changes in the BrO/SO2 ratio with volcanic activity and to investigate other parameters that might influence the formation of BrO in the volcanic plume, i.e., meteorology and time since release from the volcano. We show that it is possible to obtain BrO/SO2 ratios from the Type 1 NOVAC instrumentation at Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, and present an adapted data evaluation scheme. Issues in the evaluation of automatically acquired spectroscopic data will be discussed and possible solutions will be suggested and application to the data will be shown. This includes the correct parameter settings for the BrO and SO2 evaluation, the availability of reference spectra and problems with the variation of the instrument temperature. Measurement results and BrO/SO2 time-series will be presented and the possibilities of the data set will be illustrated.

  9. Special Polymer/Carbon Composite Films for Detecting SO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie; Ryan, Margaret; Yen, Shiao-Pin; Kisor, Adam; Jewell, April; Shevade, Abhijit; Manatt, Kenneth; Taylor, Charles; Blanco, Mario; Goddard, William

    2008-01-01

    A family of polymer/carbon films has been developed for use as sensory films in electronic noses for detecting SO2 gas at concentrations as low as 1 part per million (ppm). Most previously reported SO2 sensors cannot detect SO2 at concentrations below tens of ppm; only a few can detect SO2 at 1 ppm. Most of the sensory materials used in those sensors (especially inorganic ones that include solid oxide electrolytes, metal oxides, and cadmium sulfide) must be used under relatively harsh conditions that include operation and regeneration at temperatures greater than 100 C. In contrast, the present films can be used to detect 1 ppm of SO2 at typical opening temperatures between 28 and 32 C and can be regenerated at temperatures between 36 and 40 C. The basic concept of making sensing films from polymer/carbon composites is not new. The novelty of the present family of polymer/carbon composites lies in formulating the polymer components of these composites specifically to optimize their properties for detecting SO2. First-principles quantum-mechanical calculations of the energies of binding of SO2 molecules to various polymer functionalities are used as a guide for selecting polymers and understanding the role of polymer functionalities in sensing. The polymer used in the polymer-carbon composite is a copolymer of styrene derivative units with vinyl pyridine or substituted vinyl pyridine derivative units. To make a substituted vinyl pyridine for use in synthesizing such a polymer, poly(2-vinyl pyridine) that has been dissolved in methanol is reacted with 3-chloropropylamine that has been dissolved in a solution of methanol. The methanol is then removed to obtain the copolymer. Later, the copolymer can be dissolved in an appropriate solvent with a suspension of carbon black to obtain a mixture that can be cast and then dried to obtain a sensory film.

  10. The utilization of catalyst sorbent in scrubbing acid gases from incineration flue gas.

    PubMed

    Wey, Ming-Yen; Lu, Chi-Yuan; Tseng, Hui-Hsin; Fu, Cheng-Hao

    2002-04-01

    Catalyst sorbents based on alumina-supported CuO, CeO2, and CuO-CeO2 were applied to a dry scrubber to clean up the SO2/HCl/NO simultaneously from pilot-scale fluidized-bed incineration flue gas. In the presence of organic compounds, CO and the submicron particles SO2 and HCI removed by the fresh catalyst sorbents and NO reduced to N2 by NH3 under the catalysis of fresh and spent desulfurization/dechloridization (DeSO2/DeHCl) catalyst sorbents (copper compounds, Cu, CuO, and CuSO4) were evaluated in this paper. The fresh and spent catalyst sorbents were characterized by the Brunner-Emmett-Teller method (BET), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the elemental analyzer (EA). The study showed that the performances of CuO, CeO2, and CuO-CeO2/gamma-Al2O3 were better than that of Ca(OH)2. The removal efficiency of SO2 and HCl was 80-95% in the dry scrubber system. Under NH3/NO = 1, NO could not be reduced to N2 because it was difficult to control the ratio of air/fuel in the flue gas. For estimating the feasibility of regenerating the spent catalyst sorbents, BET and EA analyses were used. They indicated that the pore structures were nearly maintained and a small amount of carbon accumulated on their surface. PMID:12002190

  11. SO2 protects the amino nitrogen metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under thermal stress

    PubMed Central

    Ancn?Azpilicueta, Carmen; Barriuso?Esteban, Blanca; Nieto?Rojo, Rodrigo; Aristizbal?Lpez, Nerea

    2012-01-01

    Summary Thermal stress conditions during alcoholic fermentation modify yeasts' plasma membrane since they become more hyperfluid, which results in a loss of bilayer integrity. In this study, the influence of elevated temperatures on nitrogen metabolism of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was studied, as well as the effect of different concentrations of SO2 on nitrogen metabolism under thermal stress conditions. The results obtained revealed that amino nitrogen consumption was lower in the fermentation sample subjected to thermal stress than in the control, and differences in amino acid consumption preferences were also detected, especially at the beginning of the fermentation. Under thermal stress conditions, among the three doses of SO2 studied (0, 35, 70?mg?l?1 SO2), the highest dose was observed to favour amino acid utilization during the fermentative process, whereas sugar consumption presented higher rates at medium doses. PMID:22452834

  12. Removal of NO sub x from flue gases using the urea acidic process; Kinetics of the chemical reaction of nitrous acid with urea

    SciTech Connect

    Lasalle, A.; Roizard, C.; Midoux, N.; Bourret, P.; Dyens, P.J. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper deals with the removal of nitrogen oxides from flue gases using the acidic urea process. The chemical hydrolysis of nitrous acid, which leads to NO formation, is avoided by nitrous acid reaction with urea. Products of this reaction are gases, e.g. CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} which can then be directly released into the atmosphere. The aim here is to determine the kinetic parameters of the chemical reaction of nitrous acid with urea. Experiments are performed in a closed stirred reactor. The manometric method (measurement of the pressure versus time curve) leads to the determination of the concentration of HNO{sub 2} and then to the chemical rate versus time. Operating parameters are the concentration of urea (333-3330 mol m{sup {minus}3}), the pH (0.75-1.25), and the temperature (3-40{degrees}C). The experimental results are as follows: the order relative to nitrous acid is 1; the rate constant decreases with pH; the influence of temperature on the rate constant can be expressed by (pH = 1) k = 1.82 {times} 10{sup 8} exp ({minus}(60400/RT)) (SI units).

  13. Stratospheric SO2 and sulfate aerosol: model simulations and satellite observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Bruehl, C.; Hoepfner, M.; Tost, H.

    2013-12-01

    A multiyear study with the atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model EMAC, applying a comprehensive aerosol module, demonstrates that the sulfur gases COS and SO2, the latter from low-latitude volcanic eruptions, predominantly control the stratospheric aerosol. The central role of COS for the non-volcanic background aerosol was recently corroborated by photolytic isotope measurements. Our results suggest that upper stratospheric SO2 can be simulated accurately only when a sulfur sink on meteoritic dust is included and the photolysis of gaseous H2SO4 in the near infrared is higher than assumed previously. We present simulations of the major atmospheric perturbation by Mt. Pinatubo in 1991, and the period from 1999 to 2009 with background aerosol, influenced by 6 medium-strength volcano eruptions. We show comparisons with satellite data for aerosol extinction (e.g. SAGE) and SO2 in the middle atmosphere (MIPAS). They confirm the interannual variability induced by the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, which is internally generated by the model. The model also realistically simulates the radiative effects of stratospheric and tropospheric aerosol, including influences on the dynamics. The medium strength volcanic eruptions of 2005 and 2006 exerted a non-negligible radiative forcing of up to -0.6 Wm-2 in the tropics, while the large Pinatubo eruption caused a maximum though short-term tropical forcing of about -10 Wm-2. The modeled stratospheric perturbations by volcanic SO2 and their climate impacts can be constrained by measured isotope anomalies produced by UV photolysis.

  14. Simultaneous control of Hg0, SO2, and NOx by novel oxidized calcium-based sorbents.

    PubMed

    Ghorishi, S Behrooz; Singer, Carl F; Jozewicz, Wojciech S; Sedman, Charles B; Srivastava, Ravi K

    2002-03-01

    Efforts to develop multipollutant control strategies have demonstrated that adding certain oxidants to different classes of Ca-based sorbents leads to a significant improvement in elemental Hg vapor (Hg0), SO2, and NOx removal from simulated flue gases. In the study presented here, two classes of Ca-based sorbents (hydrated limes and silicate compounds) were investigated. A number of oxidizing additives at different concentrations were used in the Ca-based sorbent production process. The Hg0, SO2, and NOx capture capacities of these oxidant-enriched sorbents were evaluated and compared to those of a commercially available activated carbon in bench-scale, fixed-bed, and fluid-bed systems. Calcium-based sorbents prepared with two oxidants, designated C and M, exhibited Hg0 sorption capacities (approximately 100 microg/g) comparable to that of the activated carbon; they showed far superior SO2 and NOx sorption capacities. Preliminary cost estimates for the process utilizing these novel sorbents indicate potential for substantial lowering of control costs, as compared with other processes currently used or considered for control of Hg0, SO2, and NOx emissions from coal-fired boilers. The implications of these findings toward development of multipollutant control technologies and planned pilot and field evaluations of more promising multipollutant sorbents are summarily discussed. PMID:11924858

  15. Model simulations of the competing climatic effects of SO2 and CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Chou, Ming-Dah

    1993-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide-derived cloud condensation nuclei are expected to enhance the planetary albedo, thereby cooling the planet. This effect might counteract the global warming expected from enhanced greenhouse gases. A detailed treatment of the relationship between fossil fuel burning and the SO2 effect on cloud albedo is implemented in a two-dimensional model for assessing the climate impact. Using a conservative approach, results show that the cooling induced by the SO2 emission can presently counteract 50 percent of the CO2 greenhouse warming. Since 1980, a strong warming trend has been predicted by the model: 0.15 C during the 1980-1990 period alone. The model predicts that by the year 2060 the SO2 cooling reduces climate warming by 0.5 C or 25 percent for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) business as usual (BAU) scenario and 0.2 C or 20 percent for scenario D (for a slow pace of fossil fuel burning). The hypothesis is examined that the different responses between the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere can be used to validate the presence of the SO2-induced cooling.

  16. Effects of SO2 and NO on growth of Chlorella sp. KR-1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Suk; Kim, Deog-Keun; Lee, Jun-Pyo; Park, Soon-Chul; Koh, Jong-Ho; Cho, Hye-Sung; Kim, Seung-Wook

    2002-03-01

    Effects of the toxic compounds in flue gas, SOx and NOx, on growth of Chlorella sp. KR-1 have been determined. Although growth of KR-1 was suppressed by the toxic compounds, KR-1 exhibited excellent tolerances to SOx compared to other algal strains. When Chlorella KR-1 was cultured with the model gas containing 60 ppm SO2, the linear growth rate was 1.24 g/l day which is about 25% lower than that of the control culture aerated with the gas mixture containing no toxic compounds, SO2 and NO. KR-1 could grow even with the model gas containing 100 ppm SO2 and the linear growth rate of KR-1 in the culture was 0.78 g/l day. The period for lag phase was increased with increasing of SO2 concentration that also resulted in the decrease of the linear growth rate and the maximum cell concentration. Direct CO2 fixation by Chlorella KR-1 has been successfully done using actual flue gases from a liquified natural gas (LNG)- or diesel-fueled boiler. These results indicated that Chlorella KR-1 may be applied for direct CO2 fixation from actual flue gas. PMID:11848373

  17. Exploring the Capabilities of Satellite Observation of Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) in the Lower Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, K.; Krotkov, N. A.; Li, C.; He, H.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities, such as fuel combustion, oil refining, and metal smelting, emit sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL), leading to air quality degradation near the source regions. SO2 in the air is oxidized to form sulfate aerosols, which may have a significant impact on regional air quality and climate. Sulfate aerosols are usually removed from the atmosphere through acid deposition, which can damage the environment and ecosystems. SO2 and sulfate aerosols are sometimes lifted into the middle or upper troposphere and subsequently transported over long distances, affecting remote regions. Space-borne UV instruments, such as Aura/OMI, MetOp/GOME-2, and NPP/OMPS, provide a unique perspective on the spatial and temporal distribution of SO2 over the globe. In this presentation, we will describe the recent advances in retrieval algorithm that provide improved detection and quantification of PBL SO2, and compare the new retrievals with the operational OMI SO2 products to show significant reduction in noise and bias. We will also present validation results obtained by the comparisons with co-located in-situ aircraft measurements to illustrate improved accuracy achieved with the advanced algorithm.

  18. The effect of SO2 on mineral carbonation in batch tests

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, Cathy A.; Dahlin, David C.; Ochs, Thomas L.

    2004-01-01

    CO2 sequestration is a key element of future emission-free fossil-fueled power plants. Other constituents of flue gas must also be captured and rendered innocuous. Contemporary power plants remove SOx from exit gases, but next-generation plants may simultaneously treat CO2, SOx, and other pollutants. Pioneering tests at the U.S. Department of Energy's Albany Research Center investigated the combined treatment of CO2 and SO2 in a mineral-carbonation process. SO2 was removed from the gas stream, and as a small fraction of the total volume of mineralizing gas, it did not inhibit the carbonation reaction. The results indicate that this approach to CO2 sequestration could be used to treat multiple pollutants.

  19. Flux Calculation Using CARIBIC DOAS Aircraft Measurements: SO2 Emission of Norilsk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, D.; Heue, K.-P.; Rauthe-Schoech, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Lamsal, L. N.; Krotkov, N. A.; Platt, U.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a case-study of the nickel smelter in Norilsk (Siberia), the retrieval of trace gas fluxes using airborne remote sensing is discussed. A DOAS system onboard an Airbus 340 detected large amounts of SO2 and NO2 near Norilsk during a regular passenger flight within the CARIBIC project. The remote sensing data were combined with ECMWF wind data to estimate the SO2 output of the Norilsk industrial complex to be around 1 Mt per year, which is in agreement with independent estimates. This value is compared to results using data from satellite remote sensing (GOME, OMI). The validity of the assumptions underlying our estimate is discussed, including the adaptation of this method to other gases and sources like the NO2 emissions of large industries or cities.

  20. Apparatus for purifying arsine, phosphine, ammonia, and inert gases to remove Lewis acid and oxidant impurities therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Tom, Glenn M.; Brown, Duncan W.

    1991-01-08

    An apparatus for purifying a gaseous mixture comprising arsine, phosphine, ammonia, and/or inert gases, to remove Lewis acid and/or oxidant impurities therefrom, comprising a vessel containing a bed of a scavenger, the scavenger including a support having associated therewith an anion which is effective to remove such impurities, such anion being selected from one or more members of the group consisting of: (i) carbanions whose corresponding protonated compounds have a pK.sub.a value of from about 22 to about 36; and (ii) anions formed by reaction of such carbanions with the primary component of the mixture.

  1. Volcanic SO2 plume forecasts based on UV satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemming, J.; Inness, A.

    2012-04-01

    We present how SO2 observations from satellites were used to facilitate forecasts of volcanic sulphur dioxide (SO2) plumes. Volcanic SO2 is often co-located with volcanic ash and can in many cases be considered as a proxy for volcanic ash. Satellite retrievals of SO2 total columns from GOME-2, OMI and SCIAMACHY for the eruptions of Grímsvötn and Eyjafjallajökull in May 2011 and 2010 were inter-compared and used to (i) estimate source strength and injection height and (ii) to provide SO2 initial conditions for forecasts by means of data assimilation. The forecasts were carried out as an activity within the European MACC project (Monitoring of atmospheric composition and climate). MACC builds and runs a near-real-time system for the forecast of global atmospheric composition using the integrated forecast system of ECMWF. Our study found that OMI retrievals had the highest maximum values and that GOME-2 observations provided the most complete spatial coverage. Basic estimates of plume parameters were inferred from the satellite retrievals by finding the best match with an ensemble of plume forecasts injected at different levels. Further, the SO2 retrievals were assimilated with ECMWF's 4D-VAR algorithm to obtain initial conditions for the plume forecasts. These initialized plume forecasts were also used to validate the consistency of the satellite observations for consecutive days. The Grímsvötn plume could mostly be predicted by the initialized forecasts, whereas the forecasts of the Eyjafjallajökull plume benefited more from the source term estimate.

  2. Measuring SO2 ship emissions with an ultraviolet imaging camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prata, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Over the last few years fast-sampling ultraviolet (UV) imaging cameras have been developed for use in measuring SO2 emissions from industrial sources (e.g. power plants; typical emission rates ~ 1-10 kg s-1) and natural sources (e.g. volcanoes; typical emission rates ~ 10-100 kg s-1). Generally, measurements have been made from sources rich in SO2 with high concentrations and emission rates. In this work, for the first time, a UV camera has been used to measure the much lower concentrations and emission rates of SO2 (typical emission rates ~ 0.01-0.1 kg s-1) in the plumes from moving and stationary ships. Some innovations and trade-offs have been made so that estimates of the emission rates and path concentrations can be retrieved in real time. Field experiments were conducted at Kongsfjord in Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, where SO2 emissions from cruise ships were made, and at the port of Rotterdam, Netherlands, measuring emissions from more than 10 different container and cargo ships. In all cases SO2 path concentrations could be estimated and emission rates determined by measuring ship plume speeds simultaneously using the camera, or by using surface wind speed data from an independent source. Accuracies were compromised in some cases because of the presence of particulates in some ship emissions and the restriction of single-filter UV imagery, a requirement for fast-sampling (> 10 Hz) from a single camera. Despite the ease of use and ability to determine SO2 emission rates from the UV camera system, the limitation in accuracy and precision suggest that the system may only be used under rather ideal circumstances and that currently the technology needs further development to serve as a method to monitor ship emissions for regulatory purposes. A dual-camera system or a single, dual-filter camera is required in order to properly correct for the effects of particulates in ship plumes.

  3. SO2-flux measurements and BrO/SO2 ratios at Guallatiri volcano, Altiplano, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliss, Jonas; Stebel, Kerstin; Thomas, Helen

    2015-04-01

    Sulphur dioxide (SO2) fluxes were measured recently at Guallatiri volcano using two UV SO2-cameras and one IR SO2-camera. Furthermore, measurements of reactive halogens (e.g. BrO, OClO) were investigated using a high performance DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) instrument. Guallatiri (18° 25' 00″ S, 69° 5' 30″ W, 6.071 m a.s.l.) is situated in the Altiplano in northern Chile, close to the Bolivian border. The last known eruption of Guallatiri was in 1960. The measurements were performed during a short-term field trip on three days in November 2014 (20.11.-22.11.2014). During that time, the volcano showed a quiescent degassing behaviour from the summit crater and from a fumarolic field on the southern flank. A preliminary evaluation of the spectra recorded with the DOAS instruments showed SO2 column amounts (SCDs) up to 3 - 1017 molec/cm2 and BrO-SCDs of the order of several 1013 molec/cm2. This corresponds to BrO/SO2-ratios of the order of 10-4 which is a typical order of magnitude for volcanic emissions. We will present SO2-flux estimates for Guallatiri volcano during these three days as well as BrO/SO2-ratio estimates in dependence of different plume ages. Furthermore, we will compare the results retrieved with the two UV-cameras with the data recorded simultaneously with the IR-camera.

  4. A Fabry-Perot interferometer-based camera for two-dimensional mapping of SO2 distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, J.; Bobrowski, N.; Lübcke, P.; Vogel, L.; Platt, U.

    2014-11-01

    We examine a new imaging method for the remote sensing of volcanic gases, which relies on the regularly spaced narrow-band absorption structures in the UV-VIS of many molecules. A Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) is used to compare the scattered sunlight radiance at wavelengths corresponding to absorption bands with the radiance at wavelengths in between the bands, thereby identifying and quantifying the gas. In this first theoretical study, we present sample calculations for the detection of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Optimum values for the FPI setup parameters are proposed. Furthermore, the performance of the FPI method is compared to SO2 cameras. We show that camera systems using an FPI are far less influenced by changes in atmospheric radiative transfer (e.g., due to aerosol) and have a great potential as a future technique for examining emissions of SO2 (or other gases) from volcanic sources and other point sources.

  5. Orbifold family unification in SO(2N) gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Yoshiharu; Miura, Takashi

    2010-04-01

    We study the possibility of family unification on the basis of SO(2N) gauge theory on the five-dimensional space-time, M{sup 4}xS{sup 1}/Z{sub 2}. Several SO(10), SU(4)xSU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}, or SU(5) multiplets come from a single bulk multiplet of SO(2N) after the orbifold breaking. Other multiplets including brane fields are necessary to compose three families of quarks and leptons.

  6. Observed levels and trends of gaseous SO2 and HNO3 at Mt. Waliguan, China: results from 1997 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weili; Xu, Xiaobin; Yu, Xiaolan; Zhang, Xiaochun; Huang, Jianqing

    2013-04-01

    Long-term measurements of SO2 and HNO3, particularly those from the background sites, are rarely reported. We present for the first time the long-term measurements of SO2 and HNO3 at Waliguan (WLG), the only global baseline station in the back-land of the Eurasian Continent. The concentrations of SO2 and HNO3 were observed at WLG from 1997 to 2009. The observed annual mean concentrations of SO2 and HNO3 at WLG were 1.28 +/- 0.41 and 0.22 +/- 0.19 microg/m3, respectively. The HNO3 concentrations were much higher in warmer seasons than in colder seasons, while the SO2 concentrations showed a nearly reversed seasonal pattern. In most months, the concentration of HNO3 was significantly correlated with that of SO2, suggesting that some common factors influence the variations of both gases and the precursors of HNO3 may partially be from the SO2-emitting sources. The SO2 concentration had a very significant (P < 0.0001) decreasing trend (-0.2 microg/(m3 x yr)) in 1997-2002, but a significant (P < 0.05) increasing trend (+0.06 microg/(m3 x yr)) in 2003-2009. The HNO3 concentration showed no statistically significant trend during 1997-2009. While the decrease of SO2 in 1997-2002 agrees with the trend of global SO2 emissions, the increase in 2003-2009 is not consistent with the decreasing trends in many other regions over the world. Trajectory analysis suggests that the airmasses from the northern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the Takla Makan Desert regions contributed significantly to the increasing trends of SO2 and HNO3 at WLG in 2003-2009, with a rate of +0.13 microg/(m3 x yr) and +0.007 microg/(m3 x yr), respectively. PMID:23923781

  7. Aura OMI observations of regional SO2 and NO2 pollution changes from 2005 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkov, N. A.; McLinden, C. A.; Li, C.; Lamsal, L. N.; Celarier, E. A.; Marchenko, S. V.; Swartz, W. H.; Bucsela, E. J.; Joiner, J.; Duncan, B. N.; Boersma, K. F.; Veefkind, J. P.; Levelt, P. F.; Fioletov, V. E.; Dickerson, R. R.; He, H.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.

    2015-10-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard NASA's Aura satellite has been providing global observations of the ozone layer and key atmospheric pollutant gases, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), since October 2004. The data products from the same instrument provide consistent spatial and temporal coverage and permit the study of anthropogenic and natural emissions on local-to-global scales. In this paper we examine changes in SO2 and NO2 over some of the world's most polluted industrialized regions during the first decade of OMI observations. In terms of regional pollution changes, we see both upward and downward trends, sometimes in opposite directions for NO2 and SO2, for the different study areas. The trends are, for the most part, associated with economic and/or technological changes in energy use, as well as regional regulatory policies. Over the eastern US, both NO2 and SO2 levels decreased dramatically from 2005 to 2014, by more than 40 and 80 %, respectively, as a result of both technological improvements and stricter regulations of emissions. OMI confirmed large reductions in SO2 over eastern Europe's largest coal power plants after installation of flue gas desulfurization devices. The North China Plain has the world's most severe SO2 pollution, but a decreasing trend has been observed since 2011, with about a 50 % reduction in 2012-2014, due to an economic slowdown and government efforts to restrain emissions from the power and industrial sectors. In contrast, India's SO2 and NO2 levels from coal power plants and smelters are growing at a fast pace, increasing by more than 100 and 50 %, respectively, from 2005 to 2014. Several SO2 hot spots observed over the Persian Gulf are probably related to oil and gas operations and indicate a possible underestimation of emissions from these sources in bottom-up emission inventories. Overall, OMI observations have proved to be very valuable in documenting rapid changes in air quality over different parts of the world during the last decade. The baseline established during the first 10 years of OMI is indispensable for the interpretation of air quality measurements from current and future satellite atmospheric composition missions.

  8. Aura OMI observations of regional SO2 and NO2 pollution changes from 2005 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkov, Nickolay A.; McLinden, Chris A.; Li, Can; Lamsal, Lok N.; Celarier, Edward A.; Marchenko, Sergey V.; Swartz, William H.; Bucsela, Eric J.; Joiner, Joanna; Duncan, Bryan N.; Folkert Boersma, K.; Pepijn Veefkind, J.; Levelt, Pieternel F.; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Dickerson, Russell R.; He, Hao; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.

    2016-04-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard NASA's Aura satellite has been providing global observations of the ozone layer and key atmospheric pollutant gases, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), since October 2004. The data products from the same instrument provide consistent spatial and temporal coverage and permit the study of anthropogenic and natural emissions on local-to-global scales. In this paper, we examine changes in SO2 and NO2 over some of the world's most polluted industrialized regions during the first decade of OMI observations. In terms of regional pollution changes, we see both upward and downward trends, sometimes in opposite directions for NO2 and SO2, for different study areas. The trends are, for the most part, associated with economic and/or technological changes in energy use, as well as regional regulatory policies. Over the eastern US, both NO2 and SO2 levels decreased dramatically from 2005 to 2015, by more than 40 and 80 %, respectively, as a result of both technological improvements and stricter regulations of emissions. OMI confirmed large reductions in SO2 over eastern Europe's largest coal-fired power plants after installation of flue gas desulfurization devices. The North China Plain has the world's most severe SO2 pollution, but a decreasing trend has been observed since 2011, with about a 50 % reduction in 2012-2015, due to an economic slowdown and government efforts to restrain emissions from the power and industrial sectors. In contrast, India's SO2 and NO2 levels from coal power plants and smelters are growing at a fast pace, increasing by more than 100 and 50 %, respectively, from 2005 to 2015. Several SO2 hot spots observed over the Persian Gulf are probably related to oil and gas operations and indicate a possible underestimation of emissions from these sources in bottom-up emission inventories. Overall, OMI observations have proved valuable in documenting rapid changes in air quality over different parts of the world during last decade. The baseline established during the first 11 years of OMI is indispensable for the interpretation of air quality measurements from current and future satellite atmospheric composition missions.

  9. STATUS OF DRY SO2 CONTROL SYSTEMS: FALL 1982

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, updating the status of dry SO2 control systems for coal-fired utility and industrial boilers in the U.S. through the Fall of 1982, is based on current and recent research, research and development, and commercial activities. Systems addressed include: (1) spray dryer/...

  10. The role of SO2 in volcanism on Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, B.A.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Kieffer, S.W.; Cook, A.F., II

    1979-01-01

    Io and Earth are the only planetary bodies known to be volcanically active; the energetics of the eruptive plumes on Io have important structural implications and are closely linked with the presence of sulphur and SO 2. ?? 1979 Nature Publishing Group.

  11. BENCH SCALE STUDIES OF LIMESTONE INJECTION FOR SO2 CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of experiments in a boiler simulator furnace, indicating that the parameters of major importance to SO2 capture are thermal environment, calcium/sulfur ratio, and sorbent composition. Thermal environment (local temperature) had a strong effect on the util...

  12. SO2 SCRUBBING TECHNOLOGIES: A REVIEW: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-RTP-P-585 Srivastava*, R.K., Jozewicz, W., and Singer, C. SO2 Scrubbing Technologies: a Review. Environmental Progress 20 (4):219-227 (2001). EPA/600/J-02/022, Available: Environmental Progress (journal), http://www.aiche.org/publications/tocs/issuedtl.asp, [NET]. 03...

  13. One-Dimensional SO2 Predictions for Duct Injection

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-10-05

    DIAN1D is a one-dimensional model that predicts SO2 absorption by slurry droplets injected into a flue gas stream with two-fluid atomizers. DIANUI is an interactive user interface for DIAN1D. It prepares the input file for DIAN1D from plant design specifications and process requirements.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED SORBENTS FOR DRY SO2 CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the development of new flyash/lime sorbents for removing SO2 from coal-fired flue gas. Flyash/lime weight ratios of 1:1 to 10:1 and several additives to these sorbents for promoting their reactivity were evaluated in a bench-scale reactor simulating conditions...

  15. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... calculations under this section based on data submitted under § 74.20 for the following calendar year: (1) For... fuel consumed during the specified year, expressed in pounds per thousand tons for coal, pounds per....6 for natural gas For other fuels, the combustion source must specify the SO2 emissions factor....

  16. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO 2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... calculations under this section based on data submitted under § 74.20 for the following calendar year: (1) For... fuel consumed during the specified year, expressed in pounds per thousand tons for coal, pounds per....6 for natural gas For other fuels, the combustion source must specify the SO2 emissions factor....

  17. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... actual SO2 emissions rate shall be 1985. (2) For combustion sources that commenced operation after... this section; “control system efficiency” is as defined under § 60.48(a) and part 60, appendix A...(a) and part 60, appendix A, method 19 of this chapter, if applicable. (d) Annual fuel...

  18. COMBUSTION ENGINEERING'S FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION PROGRAMS FOR SO2 CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses three Combustion Engineering programs relating to the furnace sorbent injection process, a low-cost method for controlling sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from tangentially fired, coal burning boilers. The programs are: (1) pilot-scale investigations in the lab...

  19. A simulation of the Cerro Hudson SO2 cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Doiron, Scott D.; Lait, Leslie R.; Newman, Paul A.; Krueger, Arlin J.

    1993-01-01

    An isentropic trajectory model is used to simulate the evolution of the southern hemisphere SO2 cloud associated with the eruption of Cerro Hudson. By matching the parcel trajectories with total ozone mapping spectrometer SO2 retrievals, the principal stratospheric injection region is determined to be between 11 and 16 km in altitude. This region is characterized by weak wind shears and is located just poleward of the subtropical jet in the outer fringe of the stratospheric polar vortex. The lack of wind shear in the injection region explains the slow zonal dispersal of the SO2 cloud which was still clearly observed 19 days after the eruption. The trajectory model simulation of the SO2 cloud shows good agreement with observations for 7 days after the eruption. Using the potential vorticity and potential temperature estimates of the initial eruption cloud, the cloud position relative to the polar night jet is shown to be nearly fixed up to September 2, 1991, which was as long as the cloud was observed. This result suggests that the lower stratospheric polar and midlatitude regions are nearly isolated from each other during the late August period.

  20. Novel retrieval of volcanic SO 2 abundance from ultraviolet spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, G. G.; Burton, M. R.; Oppenheimer, C.; Caltabiano, T.; Tsanev, V. I.; Bruno, N.

    2009-03-01

    The recent development of fixed networks of scanning ultraviolet spectrometers for automatic determination of volcanic SO 2 fluxes has created tremendous opportunities for monitoring volcanoes but has brought new challenges in processing (and interpreting) the copious data flow they produce. A particular difficulty in standard implantation of differential optical absorption (DOAS) methods is the requirement for a clear-sky (plume-free) background spectrum. Our experience after four years of measurements with two UV scanner networks on Etna and Stromboli shows that wide plumes are frequently observed, precluding simple selection of clear-sky spectra. We have therefore developed a retrieval approach based on simulation of the background spectrum. We describe the method here and tune it empirically by collecting clear, zenith sky spectra using calibration cells containing known amounts of SO 2. We then test the performance of this optimised retrieval using clear-sky spectra collected with the same calibration cells but for variable scan angles, time of day, and season (through the course of 1 year), finding acceptable results (~ 12% error) for SO 2 column amounts. We further illustrate the analytical approach using spectra recorded at Mt. Etna during its July 2006 eruption. We demonstrate the reliability of the method for tracking volcano dynamics on different time scales, and suggest it is widely suited to automated SO 2-plume monitoring.

  1. BOILER SIMULATOR STUDIES ON SORBENT UTILIZATION FOR SO2 CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a program to provide process design information for sorbent utilization as applied to EPA's LIMB process. Specifically, the program was designed to investigate the role of boiler thermal history, sorbent injection location, Ca/S molar ratio, and SO2 pa...

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF AN SO2 MONITOR FOR MOBILE SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An instrument has been designed and built to monitor the concentration of SO2 in the exhaust of mobile sources. A grating assembly disperses the ultraviolet energy from a deuterium-arc source and passes five narrow spectral intervals. Three of the intervals (set A) coincide with ...

  3. INTRASPECIFIC VARIABILITY IN METABOLIC RESPONSES TO SO2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variation in metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide is widespread within many plant species. Plant responses are a consequence of a series of biochemical and physiological events beginning with SO2 flux into plant and progressing through perturbation, and homeostasis, and ending w...

  4. EVALUATION OF SIMULTANEOUS SO2/NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of work concentrating on characterizing three process operational parameters of a technology that combines sorbent injection and selective non-catalytic reduction for simultaneous sulfur dioxide/nitrogen oxide (SO2/NOx) removal from coal-fired industrial ...

  5. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... thousand barrels for oil and pounds per million cubic feet (scf) for gas, shall be calculated as follows... subbituminous coal = 30,000 for lignite = 5,964 for distillate (light) oil = 6,594 for residual (heavy) oil = 0.6 for natural gas For other fuels, the combustion source must specify the SO2 emissions factor....

  6. PROCEEDINGS: 1991 SO2 CONTROL SYMPOSIUM - VOLUME 4. SESSION 7

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document the 1991 SO2 Control Symposium, held December 3-6, 1991, in Washington, DC, and jointly sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). he symposium focus...

  7. Noxious gases in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Likas, C; Exarchou, V; Gourgoulianis, K; Giaglaras, P; Gemptos, T; Kittas, K; Molyvdas, P A

    2001-01-01

    The concentration of NO(2) and SO(2) was measured in a commercial greenhouse from 23/9/1999 25/01/2000. The measurements showed that the level of the two gases is very high in the greenhouse atmosphere. Lung function tests in 42 workers showed that temporary work did not influence significantly the respiratory health status. PMID:11426932

  8. Procedures for safe handling of off-gases from electric vehicle lead-acid batteries during overcharge

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, S.J.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Loutfy, R.O.; Varma, R.

    1980-01-25

    The potential for generation of toxic gases from lead-acid batteries has long been recognized. Prior to the current interest in electric vehicles, there were no studies specificaly oriented to toxic gas release from traction batteries, however. As the Department of Energy Demonstration Project (in the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program) progresses, available data from past studies and parallel health effects programs must be digested into guidance to the drivers and maintenance personnel, tailored to their contact with electric vehicles. The basic aspects of lead-acid battery operation, vehicle use, and health effects of stibine and arsine to provide electric vehicle users with the information behind the judgment that vehicle operation and testing may proceed are presented. Specifically, it is concluded that stibine generation or arsine generation at rapid enough rates to induce acute toxic response is not at all likely. Procedures to guard against low-level exposure until more definitive data on ambient concentrations of the gases are collected are presented for both charging the batteries and driving the vehicles. A research plan to collect additional quantitative data from electric traction batteries is presented.

  9. Sea salt aerosols as a reactive surface for inorganic and organic acidic gases in the Arctic troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, J. W.; Li, W. J.; Zhang, D. Z.; Zhang, J. C.; Lin, Y. T.; Shen, X. J.; Sun, J. Y.; Chen, J. M.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y. M.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-10-01

    Sea salt aerosols (SSA) are dominant particles in the Arctic atmosphere and determine the polar radiative balance. SSA react with acidic pollutants that lead to changes in physical and chemical properties of their surface, which in turn alter their hygroscopic and optical properties. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry was used to analyze morphology, composition, size, and mixing state of individual SSA at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, in summertime. Individual fresh SSA contained cubic NaCl coated by certain amounts of MgCl2 and CaSO4. Individual partially aged SSA contained irregular NaCl coated by a mixture of NaNO3, Na2SO4, Mg(NO3)2, and MgSO4. The comparison suggests the hydrophilic MgCl2 coating in fresh SSA likely intrigued the heterogeneous reactions at the beginning of SSA and acidic gases. Individual fully aged SSA normally had Na2SO4 cores and an amorphous coating of NaNO3. Elemental mappings of individual SSA particles revealed that as the particles ageing Cl gradually decreased, the C, N, O, and S content increased. 12C- mapping from nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry indicates that organic matter increased in the aged SSA compared with the fresh SSA. 12C- line scan further shows that organic matter was mainly concentrated on the aged SSA surface. These new findings indicate that this mixture of organic matter and NaNO3 on particle surfaces likely determines their hygroscopic and optical properties. These abundant SSA as reactive surfaces adsorbing inorganic and organic acidic gases can shorten acidic gas lifetime and influence the possible gaseous reactions in the Arctic atmosphere, which need to be incorporated into atmospheric chemical models in the Arctic troposphere.

  10. Kinetics of SO2-ethanol-water (AVAP®) fractionation of sugarcane straw.

    PubMed

    You, Xiang; van Heiningen, Adriaan; Sixta, Herbert; Iakovlev, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Kinetics of SO2-ethanol-water (AVAP®) fractionation was determined for sugarcane (SC) straw in terms of pulp composition (non-carbohydrate components, cellulose, hemicelluloses) and properties (kappa number, pulp intrinsic viscosity in CED and cellulose degree of polymerization). Effect of temperature (135-165°C) and time (18-118min) was studied at fixed liquor composition (SO2/ethanol/water=12:22.5:65.5, w/w) and a liquor-to-solid ratio (4Lkg(-1)). Interpretation is given in terms of major fractionation reactions, removal of non-carbohydrate components and xylan, as well as acid hydrolysis of cellulose, and is compared to other lignocellulosic substrates (beech, spruce and wheat straw). Overall, SO2-ethanol-water process efficiently fractionates SC straw by separating cellulose from both non-carbohydrate components and xylan while reducing cellulose DP. PMID:27089426

  11. Carbon-catalyzed oxidation of SO2 by NO2 and air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, R. S.; Schryer, D. R.; Cofer, W. R., III; Edahl, R. A., Jr.; Munavalli, S.

    1982-01-01

    A series of experiments was performed using carbon particles (commercial furnace black) as a surrogate for soot particles. Carbon particles were suspended in water, and gas mixtures were bubbled into the suspensions to observe the effect of carbon particles on the oxidation of SO2 by air and NO2. Identical gas mixtures were bubbled into a blank containing only pure water. After exposure each solution was analyzed for pH and sulfate. It was found that NO2 greatly enhances the oxidation of SO2 to sulfate in the presence of carbon particles. The amount of sulfate found in the blanks was significantly less. Under the conditions of these experiments no saturation of the reaction was observed and SO2 was converted to sulfate even in a highly acid medium (pH or = 1.5).

  12. Oxidation of SO2 by NO2 and air in an aqueous suspension of carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, R. S.; Schryer, D. R.; Cofer, W. R., III; Edahl, R. A., Jr.; Munavalli, S.

    1982-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed using carbon black as a surrogate for soot particles. Carbon black was suspended in water and gas mixtures were bubbled into the suspensions to observe the effect of carbon particles on the oxidation of SO2 by air and NO2. Identical gas mixtures were bubbled into a black containing only pure water. After exposure each solution was analyzed for pH and sulfate. It was found that NO2 greatly enhances the oxidation of SO2 to sulfate in the presence of carbon black. The amount of sulfate in the blanks was significantly less. Under the conditions of the experiments no saturation of the reaction was observed and SO2 was converted to sulfate even in a highly acid medium (pH not less than 1.5).

  13. Co-injection of SO2 With CO2 in Geological Sequestration: Potential for Acidification of Formation Brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, B. R.; Crandell, L. E.; Peters, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    Coal-fired power plants produce flue gas streams containing 0.02-1.4% SO2 after traditional sulfur scrubbing techniques are employed. Due to the corrosive nature of H2SO4, it will likely be necessary to remove the residual SO2 prior to carbon capture and transport; however, it may still be economically advantageous to reintroduce the SO2 to the injection stream to mitigate the cost of SO2 disposal and/or to get credits for SO2 emissions reduction. This study examines the impact of SO2 co-injection on the pH of formation brine. Using phase equilibrium modeling, it is shown that a CO2 gas stream with 1% SO2 under oxidizing conditions can create extremely acidic conditions (pH<1), but this will occur only near the CO2 plume and over a short time frame. Nearly all of the SO2 will be lost to the brine during this first phase equilibration, within approximately a decade, and the pH after the second is only 3.7, which is the pH that would occur from the carbonic acid alone. This suggests that although SO2 will create low pH values due to the formation of H2SO4, the effect will have a very limited lifespan and a localized impact spatially. SO2 is much more soluble than CO2 and as the relative of amount of SO2 to CO2 is very small, the SO2 will quickly dissolve into the formation brine. The extent of H2SO4 formation is dependent on the redox conditions of the system. Several SO2 oxidation pathways are investigated, including SO2 disproportionation which produces both sulfate and the weaker acid, H2S. Further modeling considers a time varying, diffusion limited flux of SO2. Relative to the case of instantaneous phase equilibrium, this results in a smaller decrease in pH occurring over a longer duration. Our overall conclusion is that brine acidification due to SO2 co-injection is not likely to be significant over relevant time and spatial scales.

  14. GIS-assisted dispersion of SO2 in the industrial regions.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Mohamad Mehdi; Dehghani, Mansooreh; Rastgoo, Ebrahim

    2014-06-01

    Sulfur dioxide is one of the most important pollutants in urban areas which cause respiratory problems and acid rain. The aim of this research is to study the feasibility of using passive diffusive air sampling and GIS technique to determine the dispersion level of SO2 in the industrialized Zarghan area and assessing the contribution level of generating sources of SO2 in the urban areas. It is also essential to determine the contribution of other sources and dispersion radius of pollutants in the area as well. In this study, we used passive sampling method to measure the concentration of sulfur dioxide at 10 monitoring stations. Interpolation tools in ArcGIS technique create a continuous surface from measured values to predict SO2 concentration in other parts of the city. The concentrations of SO2 around Shiraz oil refinery and Dudej region located at 3 km from the oil refinery were 60 and 19 μg m(-3), respectively. In conclusion the results indicated that SO2 concentration was not exceeded the standard limit in the residential area and the role of the local highway and industrial park was not significant. PMID:26035958

  15. Lifetime assessment analysis of Galileo Li/SO2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Samuel C.; Jaeger, Calvin D.; Bouchard, Darryl A.

    1988-12-01

    Galileo Li/SO2 cells from five lots and five storage temperatures were studied to establish a database from which the performance of flight modules may be predicted. Nondestructive tests consisting of complex impedance analysis and a 15-s pulse were performed on all cells. Chemical analysis was performed on one cell from each lot/storage group, and the remaining cells were discharged at Galileo mission loads. An additional number of cells were placed on high-temperature accelerated aging storage for 6 months and then discharged. All data were statistically analyzed. Results indicate that the present Galileo design Li/SO2 cell will satisfy electrical requirements for a 10-year mission.

  16. Microwave rotational spectral study of SO2-CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovas, F. J.; Sprague, M. K.

    2015-10-01

    The microwave spectrum of the molecular complex of sulfur dioxide (SO2) with carbon monoxide (CO) has been studied with a pulsed-beam Fourier Transform Microwave Spectrometer (FTMW) from a pair of gas samples of 1% by volume of SO2 and CO in Ar, and introduced via separate capillary inputs to the flow nozzle. The frequency coverage was about 7-16 GHz for various isotopomers. The molecular structure was determined with the aid of spectral studies of isotopically substituted monomers containing 13C, 18O and 34S. The rotational analyses provide the rotational and centrifugal distortion constants for all of the isotopomers analyzed. The structure determination is compared to detailed ab initio structural calculations. The electric dipole moment components along the a- and c-axis were determined from Stark effect measurements.

  17. Variability of the SO2 Atmosphere of Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feaga, L. M.; McGrath, M. A.; Feldman, P. D.; Strobel, D. F.

    2003-05-01

    Io is the most volcanically active body in the solar system and plays an important role in supplying material to the entire Jovian system. A combination of volcanism and sublimation has maintained an atmosphere on Io primarily consisting of SO2. Analysis of the reflected solar Lyman-α intensities from the disk of Io has proved to be an effective method of mapping the atmospheric SO2 distribution. It has been shown using HST Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) data that an equatorial SO2 atmosphere, N ˜ 1-4 x1016 cm-2, decreasing to below 1015 cm-2 at the poles exists at Io (Feldman et al. 2000, GRL 27, 1787, Strobel & Wolven 2001, Ap & SS 277, 271). Although this general trend is seen in all HST/STIS G140L data of Io acquired from 1997-2001, there are large variations in the Lyman-α intensities at latitudes larger than +/-20° between dates as well as north/south asymmetries observed in the same exposure. The variability could be due to either temporal changes in the SO2 atmosphere or spatial differences at Io, in particular the location of surface features and volcanoes. We analyze the Lyman-α signature in a sub-set of the HST/STIS data, in which there are both temporal and longitudinal commonalities, to distinguish between temporal and spatial variations, to quantitatively describe the variations at higher latitudes, and to attempt a correlation between bright surface frosts or volcanic centers and significant spatial variations.

  18. On the absolute calibration of SO2 cameras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lübcke, Peter; Bobrowski, Nicole; Illing, Sebastian; Kern, Christoph; Alvarez Nieves, Jose Manuel; Vogel, Leif; Zielcke, Johannes; Delgados Granados, Hugo; Platt, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the uncertainty of results gained through the two commonly used, but quite different, calibration methods (DOAS and calibration cells). Measurements with three different instruments, an SO2 camera, a NFOVDOAS system and an Imaging DOAS (I-DOAS), are presented. We compare the calibration-cell approach with the calibration from the NFOV-DOAS system. The respective results are compared with measurements from an I-DOAS to verify the calibration curve over the spatial extent of the image. The results show that calibration cells, while working fine in some cases, can lead to an overestimation of the SO2 CD by up to 60% compared with CDs from the DOAS measurements. Besides these errors of calibration, radiative transfer effects (e.g. light dilution, multiple scattering) can significantly influence the results of both instrument types. The measurements presented in this work were taken at Popocatepetl, Mexico, between 1 March 2011 and 4 March 2011. Average SO2 emission rates between 4.00 and 14.34 kg s−1 were observed.

  19. Sea salt aerosols as a reactive surface for inorganic and organic acidic gases in the arctic troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, J. W.; Li, W. J.; Zhang, D. Z.; Zhang, J. C.; Lin, Y. T.; Shen, X. J.; Sun, J. Y.; Chen, J. M.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y. M.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-06-01

    Sea salt aerosols (SSA) are dominant particles in the arctic atmosphere and determine the polar radiative balance. SSA react with acidic pollutants that lead to changes of physical and chemical properties of their surface, which in turn alter their hygroscopic and optical properties. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry was used to analyze morphology, composition, size, and mixing state of individual SSA at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard in summertime. Individual fresh SSA contained cubic NaCl coated by certain amounts of MgCl2 and CaSO4. Individual partially aged SSA contained irregular NaCl coated by a mixture of NaNO3, Na2SO4, Mg(NO3)2, and MgSO4. The comparison suggests the hydrophilic MgCl2 coating in fresh SSA likely intrigued the heterogeneous reactions at the beginning of SSA and acidic gases. Individual fully aged SSA normally had Na2SO4 cores and an amorphous coating of NaNO3. Elemental mappings of individual SSA particles revealed that as the particles ageing Cl gradually decreased but the C, N, O, and S content increased. 12C14N- mapping from nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry indicates that organic matter increased in the aged SSA compared with the fresh SSA. 12C14N- line scans further show that organic matter was mainly concentrated on the aged SSA surface. These new findings indicate that this mixture of organic matter and NaNO3 on particle surfaces determines their hygroscopic and optical properties. These abundant SSA, whose reactive surfaces absorb inorganic and organic acidic gases in the arctic troposphere, need to be incorporated into atmospheric chemical models.

  20. Comparative study of the reactions of metal oxides with H2S and SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotirchos, S. V.

    1991-10-01

    The primary objective of this project is the investigation of the effects of pore structure on the capacity of porous metal oxides for removal of gaseous pollutants from flue gases of power plants (SO2) and hot coal gas (primarily H2S). Specifically, we intend to appropriately exploit the differences of the sulfidation and sulfation reactions (for instance, different molar volumes of solid products) to elucidate the dependence of the sorptive capacity of a porous sorbent on its physical microstructure. The following tasks were identified for the proposed project: (1) literature search and identification of solids to be used in experimental studies; (2) experimental study of the reaction of the chosen solids with SO2 and/or H2S; (3) experimental study of the evolution of the structure of the solids during reaction with SO2 and/or H2S using pore structure analysis and effective diffusivity measurements; and (4) model testing and validation using the obtained experimental data.

  1. Double photoionization of SO 2 and fragmentation spectroscopy of SO 2++ studied by a photoion-photoion coincidence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dujardin, Gérald; Leach, Sydney; Dutuit, Odile; Guyon, Paul-Marie; Richard-Viard, Martine

    1984-08-01

    Doubly charged sulphur dioxide cations (SO 2++) are produced by photoionization with synchrotron radiation from ACO in the excitation-energy range 34-54 eV. A new photoion-photoion coincidence (PIPICO) experiment is described in which coincidences between photoion fragments originating from the dissociation of the doubly charged parent cation are counted. This PIPICO method enables us to study the fragmentation of individual electronically excited states of SO 2++ and to determine the corresponding absolute double-photoionization partial cross sections as a function of the excitation energy. A tentative assignment of the three observed α, β and γ SO 2++ states is given. The dissociation processes of the α and β states into the products SO + + O + are found to be non-statistical in nature; the γ state dissociates completely into three atomic fragments S + + O + + O. Three main observed features of the double-photoionization cross-section curves are discussed in the text: appearance potentials, linear threshold laws, and constant double-photoionization cross sections relative to the total ionization cross section at high energies.

  2. Reactive uptake and hydration experiments on amorphous carbon treated with NO2, SO2, O3, HNO3, and H2SO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogaski, C. A.; Golden, D. M.; Williams, L. R.

    The reactivity and hydration properties of amorphous carbon were studied in a low-pressure Knudsen cell reactor at room temperature (298 K). Reactions of NO2 (γ=0.11±0.04) and HNO3 (γ=0.038±0.008) were observed and may be important for nitrogen partitioning in the atmosphere. Water uptake was measured before and after exposure to various gases. Treating the amorphous carbon with NO2 and O3 does not alter the H2O uptake, while treatment with SO2, HNO3, and H2SO4 significantly increases the H2O uptake. The experimental results support current assumptions in jet aircraft plume models that sulfuric acid condensation is involved in the activation of soot particles as condensation nuclei.

  3. Solubility and Diffusivity of SO2 for Co-injection With CO2 in Geological Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandell, L.; Ellis, B.; Peters, C.

    2008-12-01

    There are potential economic benefits to the co-injection of SO2 with CO2 in the context of geological sequestration, but the impact of this co-injection on the fate and migration of SO2 and CO2 is poorly understood. Previous modeling studies have shown that injection of SO2 with CO2 would create highly acidic conditions due to formation of sulfuric acid. However, little is known regarding the solubility of SO2 under high pressure, high salinity conditions, and the kinetic limitations of SO2 diffusion in a CO2 phase. A method to estimate the phase partitioning of SO2 under geological storage conditions was developed in this study. The method uses the Krichevsky-Ilinskaya equation to correct for high pressures and the Schumpe model for mixed electrolyte solutions. Henry's constants for a broad range of brine solutions were calculated at storage conditions of 100 bar pressure. The Henry's constant for SO2 is 1.5 M/atm at 40°C and is 0.86 M/atm at 60°C. Under these same conditions, the Henry's constant for CO2 is much smaller, roughly 0.01 M/atm (40°C to 60°C). Henry's constants increase with increasing pressure but decrease with increasing temperature. These effects can be observed by comparing the SO2 Henry's constants under storage conditions with the value under ambient temperature and pressure conditions in pure water, 1.2 M/atm. To simulate diffusion through stationary CO2, a non- steady state two-dimensional model of SO2 diffusion through supercritical CO2 was also created. A binary diffusion coefficient of 5×10-8 m2/sec was estimated based on the Takahashi correlation to account for high pressures, where a low pressure coefficient was determined using the Fuller estimation. Binary diffusion coefficients for polar compounds in supercritical CO2 have been previously studied and are on the same order of magnitude as the binary diffusion coefficient estimated in this study. The system that was modeled is a cone-shaped system representing separate-phase CO2 confined in a formation after injection. Boundary conditions consisted of a no-flux boundary at the top of the cone to account for the impermeable confining caprock, and a zero concentration boundary at the cone edge to simulate a worst case scenario for dissolution. The initial conditions considered a uniform concentration of one percent SO2 everywhere in the cone. To numerically simulate the concentration profile throughout the cone, a time-split explicit difference method was applied. The diffusion modeling results show that contact between SO2 and formation brine will be diffusion limited; after 3000 years approximately 75% of sulfur remains in the cone. In summary, while SO2 is highly soluble in water, its slow diffusion through a supercritical CO2 phase will likely inhibit its mass transfer.

  4. Sulfide catalysts for reducing SO2 to elemental sulfur

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Yun; Yu, Qiquan; Chang, Shih-Ger

    2001-01-01

    A highly efficient sulfide catalyst for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur, which maximizes the selectivity of elemental sulfur over byproducts and has a high conversion efficiency. Various feed stream contaminants, such as water vapor are well tolerated. Additionally, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen sulfides can be employed as the reducing gases while maintaining high conversion efficiency. This allows a much wider range of uses and higher level of feed stream contaminants than prior art catalysts.

  5. Evaluation of the Giggenbach bottle method using artificial fumarolic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Jeong, H. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic eruption is one of the most dangerous natural disasters. Mt. Baekdu, located on the border between North Korea and China, has been recently showing multiple signs of its eruption. The magmatic activity of a volcano strongly affects the composition of volcanic gases, which can provide a useful tool for predicting the eruption. Among various volcanic gas monitoring methods, the Giggenbach bottle method involves the on-site sampling of volcanic gases and the subsequent laboratory analysis, thus making it possible to detect a range of volcanic gases at low levels. In this study, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the Giggenbach bottle method and develop the associated analytical tools using artificial fumarolic gases with known compositions. The artificial fumarolic gases are generated by mixing CO2, CO, H2S, SO2, Ar, and H2 gas streams with a N2 stream sparged through an acidic medium containing HCl and HF. The target compositions of the fumarolic gases are selected to cover those reported for various volcanoes under different tectonic environments as follows: CO2 (2-12 mol %), CO (0.3-1 mol %), H2S (0.7-2 mol %), SO2 (0.6-4 mol %), Ar (0.3-0.7 mol %), H2 (0.3-0.7 mol %), HCl (0.2-1 mol %), and HF (< 0.015 mol %). The artificial fumarolic gases are collected into an evacuated bottle partially filled with 4 M NaOH solution containing 0.5 mM Cd(CH3COO)2. While non-condensable components such as CO, Ar, H2, and N2 accumulate in the headspace of the bottle, acidic components including CO2, SO2, HCl, and HF dissolve into the alkaline solution. In case of H2S, it reacts with dissolved Cd2+ to precipitate as CdS(s). The gas accumulated in the headspace can be analyzed for CO, Ar, H2, and N2 on a gas chromatography. The alkaline solution is first separated from yellowish CdS precipitates by filtration, and then pretreated with hydrogen peroxide to oxidize dissolved SO2 (H2SO3) to SO42-. The resultant solution can be analyzed for SO2 as SO42-, HCl as Cl-, and HF as F- on an ion chromatography and CO2 on an ionic carbon analyzer. Also, the amount of H2S can be determined by measuring the remaining dissolved Cd2+ on an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

  6. Industrial SO2 emission monitoring through a portable multichannel gas analyzer with an optimized retrieval algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Youwen; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Pinhua; Hartl, Andreas; Chan, Kalok; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Wei; Qin, Min; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Wenqing

    2016-03-01

    SO2 variability over a large concentration range and interferences from other gases have been major limitations in industrial SO2 emission monitoring. This study demonstrates accurate industrial SO2 emission monitoring through a portable multichannel gas analyzer with an optimized retrieval algorithm. The proposed analyzer features a large dynamic measurement range and correction of interferences from other coexisting infrared absorbers such as NO, CO, CO2, NO2, CH4, HC, N2O, and H2O. The multichannel gas analyzer measures 11 different wavelength channels simultaneously to correct several major problems of an infrared gas analyzer including system drift, conflict of sensitivity, interferences among different infrared absorbers, and limitation of measurement range. The optimized algorithm uses a third polynomial instead of a constant factor to quantify gas-to-gas interference. Measurement results show good performance in the linear and nonlinear ranges, thereby solving the problem that the conventional interference correction is restricted by the linearity of the intended and interfering channels. The results imply that the measurement range of the developed multichannel analyzer can be extended to the nonlinear absorption region. The measurement range and accuracy are evaluated through experimental laboratory calibration. Excellent agreement was achieved, with a Pearson correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.99977 with a measurement range from approximately 5 to 10 000 ppmv and a measurement error of less than 2 %. The instrument was also deployed for field measurement. Emissions from three different factories were measured. The emissions of these factories have been characterized by different coexisting infrared absorbers, covering a wide range of concentration levels. We compared our measurements with commercial SO2 analyzers. Overall, good agreement was achieved.

  7. Kinetics of a Criegee intermediate that would survive high humidity and may oxidize atmospheric SO2.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao-Li; Chao, Wen; Lin, Jim Jr-Min

    2015-09-01

    Criegee intermediates are thought to play a role in atmospheric chemistry, in particular, the oxidation of SO2, which produces SO3 and subsequently H2SO4, an important constituent of aerosols and acid rain. However, the impact of such oxidation reactions is affected by the reactions of Criegee intermediates with water vapor, because of high water concentrations in the troposphere. In this work, the kinetics of the reactions of dimethyl substituted Criegee intermediate (CH3)2COO with water vapor and with SO2 were directly measured via UV absorption of (CH3)2COO under near-atmospheric conditions. The results indicate that (i) the water reaction with (CH3)2COO is not fast enough (kH2O < 1.5 × 10(-16) cm(3) s(-1)) to consume atmospheric (CH3)2COO significantly and (ii) (CH3)2COO reacts with SO2 at a near-gas-kinetic-limit rate (kSO2 = 1.3 × 10(-10) cm(3) s(-1)). These observations imply a significant fraction of atmospheric (CH3)2COO may survive under humid conditions and react with SO2, very different from the case of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO, in which the reaction with water dimer predominates in the CH2OO decay under typical tropospheric conditions. In addition, a significant pressure dependence was observed for the reaction of (CH3)2COO with SO2, suggesting the use of low pressure rate may underestimate the impact of this reaction. This work demonstrates that the reactivity of a Criegee intermediate toward water vapor strongly depends on its structure, which will influence the main decay pathways and steady-state concentrations for various Criegee intermediates in the atmosphere. PMID:26283390

  8. H(2) production through electro-oxidation of SO(2): identifying the fundamental limitations.

    PubMed

    Kriek, Roelof J; Rossmeisl, Jan; Siahrostami, Samira; Björketun, Mårten E

    2014-05-28

    Sulphur dioxide (SO2), a known industrial pollutant and pulmonary irritant, is emitted to the atmosphere in excess of 120 Mt per annum. Great strides have been taken to reduce SO2 emissions, but with the growth of specifically China, and to a lesser extent India, it is on the rise again. The electrolysis of aqueous solutions of dissolved SO2 holds huge environmental potential in that SO2 is converted to sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and at the same time hydrogen gas is produced. A further benefit or incentive is that a sulphur depolarised electrolyser (SDE) operates at an applied potential that is about one volt lower than that of a regular water electrolyser. In taking this technology forward the greatest improvement to be made is in developing a suitable electrocatalyst, which is also the 'lowest hanging fruit' in that very limited research and development has been conducted on the electrocatalyst for this process. In this work, density functional theory is employed to model the electro-oxidation of SO2 on single crystal planes of the 4d and 5d transition metals. Two reaction mechanisms are considered, a HSO3 intermediate pathway and a SO3 intermediate pathway. The binding energies of all intermediates are found to scale with the surface reactivity (measured as the adsorption of OH). Irrespective of the pathway water needs to be activated and reduction of SO2 to elemental sulphur must be avoided. This requirement alone calls for an electrode potential of at least 0.7-0.8 V for all the investigated transition metals and thus challenges the proclaimed goal to operate the SDE at 0.6 V. A high chemical barrier is further found to severely limit the oxidation reaction on reactive metals. A much higher catalytic activity can be obtained on precious metals but at the cost of running the reaction at high overpotentials. PMID:24728561

  9. Kinetics of a Criegee intermediate that would survive high humidity and may oxidize atmospheric SO2

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao-Li; Chao, Wen; Lin, Jim Jr-Min

    2015-01-01

    Criegee intermediates are thought to play a role in atmospheric chemistry, in particular, the oxidation of SO2, which produces SO3 and subsequently H2SO4, an important constituent of aerosols and acid rain. However, the impact of such oxidation reactions is affected by the reactions of Criegee intermediates with water vapor, because of high water concentrations in the troposphere. In this work, the kinetics of the reactions of dimethyl substituted Criegee intermediate (CH3)2COO with water vapor and with SO2 were directly measured via UV absorption of (CH3)2COO under near-atmospheric conditions. The results indicate that (i) the water reaction with (CH3)2COO is not fast enough (kH2O < 1.5 × 10−16 cm3s−1) to consume atmospheric (CH3)2COO significantly and (ii) (CH3)2COO reacts with SO2 at a near–gas-kinetic-limit rate (kSO2 = 1.3 × 10−10 cm3s−1). These observations imply a significant fraction of atmospheric (CH3)2COO may survive under humid conditions and react with SO2, very different from the case of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO, in which the reaction with water dimer predominates in the CH2OO decay under typical tropospheric conditions. In addition, a significant pressure dependence was observed for the reaction of (CH3)2COO with SO2, suggesting the use of low pressure rate may underestimate the impact of this reaction. This work demonstrates that the reactivity of a Criegee intermediate toward water vapor strongly depends on its structure, which will influence the main decay pathways and steady-state concentrations for various Criegee intermediates in the atmosphere. PMID:26283390

  10. A Pilot-Scale Evaluation of a New Technology to Control NO(x) Emissions from Boilers at KSC: Hydrogen Peroxide Injection into Boiler Flue Gases Followed by Wet Scrubbing of Acid Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, C. David

    1997-01-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides NO(x) are a significant problem in the United States. NO(x) are formed in any combustion process, therefore it is not surprising that NO(x) are emitted from the boilers at KSC. Research at UCF has shown (in the laboratory) that injecting H2O2 into hot simulated flue gases can oxidize the NO and NO2 to their acid gas forms, HNO2 and HNO3, respectively. These acid gases are much more water soluble than their counterparts, and theoretically can be removed easily by wet scrubbing. This technology was of interest to NASA, both for their boilers at KSC, and for their combustion sources elsewhere. However, it was necessary to field test the technology and to provide pilot-scale data to aid in design of full-scale facilities. Hence this project was initiated in May of 1996.

  11. Photothermal beam deflection applied to SO2 trace detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzano, Francisco A.; D'Accurso, V.; Radulovich, O.

    2004-10-01

    We present the application to environmental monitoring of a compact setup for in situ trace gas detection based on photothermal beam deflection (mirage effect) spectroscopy. Gas traces measurements are performed by detecting the time-varying component of the photothermal deflection of a red diode laser beam, propagating inside the region where a pollutant is excited by another laser. In this work, detection of traces of SO2 in a mixture with Nitrogen at atmospheric pressure enclosed in a glass cell, was performed using the fourth-harmonic pulses of a 10 Hz Nd:YAG laser. It was verified by FTIR spectroscopy that negligible SO2 destruction was produced after irradiation of high pressure mixtures with 105 UV pulses. Several beam sizes and propagating angles for the UV and visible laser were tested and evaluated in order to overcome parasitic signals due to unwanted absorption in optical elements. With this setup we reached a detection limit of 5 ppbV in a hundred-second averaging time span but we estimate sub-ppbV levels can be reached by simple changes in the geometry for improving the signal to noise ratio.

  12. The ground state rotational spectrum of SO 2F 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotger, M.; Boudon, V.; Loëte, M.; Margulès, L.; Demaison, J.; Mäder, H.; Winnewisser, G.; Müller, H. S. P.

    2003-12-01

    The analysis of the ground state rotational spectrum of SO 2F 2 [K. Sarka, J. Demaison, L. Margulès, I. Merke, N. Heineking, H. Bürger, H. Ruland, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 200 (2000) 55] has been performed with the Watson's Hamiltonian up to sextic terms but shows some limits due to the A and S reductions. Since SO 2F 2 is a quasi-spherical top, it can also be regarded as derived from an hypothetical XY 4 molecule. Thus we have developed a new tensorial formalism in the O(3)⊃ Td⊃ C2 v group chain (M. Rotger, V. Boudon, M. Loëte, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 216 (2002) 297]. We test it on the ground state of this molecule using the same experimental data (10 GHz-1 THz region, J up to 99). Both fits are comparable even if the formalisms are slightly different. This paper intends to establish a link between the classical approach and the tensorial formalism. In particular, our tensorial parameters at a given order of the development are related to the usual ones. Programs for spectrum simulation and fit using these methods are named C2 vTDS. They are freely available at the URL: http://www.u-bourgogne.fr/LPUB/c2vTDS.html.

  13. Episodes of high SO 2 concentration in The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenkist, R.

    In episodes of high daily mean SO 2 concentrations in the atmosphere there is a very extensive concentration field over The Netherlands caused by influx from both the Ruhr area and Central Europe. The meteorological conditions for such episodes range from very stable to stable with a boundary layer height between 100 and 450 m, wind speed at 200 m between 0 and 18 m s -1 and at 20 m between 0 and 9 m s -1. The last figures indicate that transport, as well as transport combined with stagnation, causes the high concentrations. The episodes nearly all occur in December, January and February, with easterly winds. In two thirds of the cases a local snow cover is present. This cover is more extensive in the east, so probably in all cases there is reduced dry deposition of SO 2. The turbulence is very low with hardly any vertical dispersion at higher altitudes, except around noon. In consequence of the wind direction variations over a day and the wind direction shear, the daily horizontal dispersion is normal or larger than normal. Therefore the contribution of a local high point source in The Netherlands to the ground level concentration will be small during air pollution episodes in winter.

  14. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: a feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, L.; Galle, B.; Kern, C.; Delgado Granados, H.; Conde, V.; Norman, P.; Arellano, S.; Landgren, O.; Lübcke, P.; Alvarez Nieves, J. M.; Cárdenas Gonzáles, L.; Platt, U.

    2011-09-01

    Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) or sulphuric acid (H2SO4) aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to volcanic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ±40 mrad (2.3°) angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the detection limit. In combination with radiative transfer studies, this study indicates that an extended volcanic cloud with a concentration of 1012 molecules cm-3 at typical flight levels of 10 km can be detected unambiguously at distances of up to 80 km away. This range provides enough time (approx. 5 min) for pilots to take action to avoid entering a volcanic cloud in the flight path, suggesting that this technique can be used as an effective aid to prevent dangerous aircraft encounters with potentially ash rich volcanic clouds.

  15. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: a feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, L.; Galle, B.; Kern, C.; Delgado Granados, H.; Conde, V.; Norman, P.; Arellano, S.; Landgren, O.; Lübcke, P.; Alvarez Nieves, J. M.; Cárdenas Gonzáles, L.; Platt, U.

    2011-05-01

    Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) or sulphuric acid (H2SO4) aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to volcanic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ± 40 mrad (2.3°) angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the detection limit. In combination with radiative transfer studies, this study indicates that an extended volcanic cloud with a concentration of 1012 molecules cm-3 at typical flight levels of 10 km can be detected unambiguously at distances of up to 80 km away. This range provides enough time (approx. 5 min) for pilots to take action to avoid entering a volcanic cloud in the flight path, suggesting that this technique can be used as an effective aid to prevent dangerous aircraft encounters with potentially ash rich volcanic clouds.

  16. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: A feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogel, L.; Galle, B.; Kern, C.; Delgado, Granados H.; Conde, V.; Norman, P.; Arellano, S.; Landgren, O.; Lubcke, P.; Alvarez, Nieves J.M.; Cardenas, Gonzales L.; Platt, U.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized 5 since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) or sulphuric acid (H2SO4) aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in 10 volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to vol- 15 canic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ±40 mrad (2.3◦) angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to 25 the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the detection limit. In combination with radiative transfer studies, this study indicates that an extended volcanic cloud with a concentration of 1012 molecules cm−3 at typical flight levels of 10 km can be detected unambiguously at distances of up to 80 km away. This range provides enough time (approx. 5 min) for pilots to take action to avoid entering a volcanic cloud in the flight path, suggesting that this technique can be used as an effective aid to prevent dangerous aircraft encounters with potentially ash rich volcanic clouds.

  17. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds present in Earth's atmosphere behave as 'greenhouse gases'. These are gases ... direct sunlight (relative shortwave energy) to reach the Earth's surface unimpeded. As the shortwave energy (that in ...

  18. Flue gas SO 2/NO x control by combination of dry scrubber and electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfritch, D. J.; Feldman, P. L.

    This study examines the feasibility of adding an electron beam between the spray dryer and the fabric filter of "dry scrubber" flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The beam promises effective removal of nitrogen oxides (NO x) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2), even at higher coal-sulfur levels than usually economic for dry scrubbers. The beam excites gas molecules, promoting reactions that convert SO 2 and NO x to acids that then react with calcium compounds and are removed by the filter. The cost findings are promising for both manufacture and operation. The system uses commercially available components. The relatively low temperatures and high humidity downstream of the spray dryer favor economic beam operation. The beam removes SO 2, so the dryer can be run for economy, not high removal. Pilot scale tests will soon be carried out which are designed to verify earlier bench scale test results and to serve as the next step to full commercialization. It is expected that better than 90% SO 2 and NO x removal will be achieved.

  19. Io's Thermal Regions and Non-SO2 Spectral Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, W. D.; Soderblom, L. A.; Lopes, R. M. C.

    2003-01-01

    Several absorptions have been identified in the Galileo NIMS spectra of Io that are not related to SO2. [1,2]. These absorptions have band centers at 2.97, 3.15, 3.85, and 3.91 microns. There are also broad absorptions in the regions 1-1.3 and 3- 3.4 microns. Patterning noise in wavelength registration, arising from the pushbroom imaging and grating motion of the NIMS instrument have previously inhibited reliable mapping of weak absorptions. Recent improvements in techniques to remove the coherent pattern noise from the NIMS dataset have been made by Soderblom. This greatly improves the signal to noise ratio and enables mapping of weak spectral signatures such as the 3.15 micron absorption on Io.

  20. Reaction of cobalt in SO2 atmospheric at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.; Worrell, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    The reaction rate of cobalt in SO2 argon environments was measured at 650 C, 700 C, 750 C and 800 C. Product scales consist primarily of an interconnected sulfide phase in an oxide matrix. At 700 C to 800 C a thin sulfide layer adjacent to the metal is also observed. At all temperatures, the rapid diffusion of cobalt outward through the interconnected sulfide appears to be important. At 650 C, the reaction rate slows dramatically after five minutes due to a change in the distribution of these sulfides. At 700 C and 750 C the reaction is primarily diffusion controlled values of diffusivity of cobalt (CoS) calculated from this work show favorable agreement with values of diffusivity of cobalt (CoS) calculated from previous sulfidation work. At 800 C, a surface step becomes rate limiting.

  1. Reaction of cobalt in SO2 atmospheres at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.; Worrell, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    The reaction rate of cobalt in SO2 argon environments was measured at 650 C, 700 C, 750 C and 800 C. Product scales consist primarily of an interconnected sulfide phase in an oxide matrix. At 700 C to 800 C, a thin sulfide layer adjacent to the metal is also observed. At all temperatures, the rapid diffusion of cobalt outward through the interconnected sulfide appears to be important. At 650 C, the reaction rate slows dramatically after five minutes due to a change in the distribution of these sulfides. At 700 C and 750 C, the reaction is primarily diffusion controlled; values of diffusivity of cobalt (CoS) calculated from this work show favorable agreement with values of diffusivity of cobalt (CoS) calculated from previous sulfidation work. At 800 C, a surface step becomes rate limiting. Previously announced in STAR as N83-35104

  2. Noncommutative SO(2,3) gauge theory and noncommutative gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, Marija; Radovanović, Voja

    2014-06-01

    In this paper noncommutative gravity is constructed as a gauge theory of the noncommutative SO(2,3)⋆ group, while the noncommutativity is canonical (constant). The Seiberg-Witten map is used to express noncommutative fields in terms of the corresponding commutative fields. The commutative limit of the model is the Einstein-Hilbert action with the cosmological constant term and the topological Gauss-Bonnet term. We calculate the second order correction to this model and obtain terms that are of zeroth to fourth power in the curvature tensor and torsion. Trying to relate our results with f(R) and f(T) models, we analyze different limits of our model. In the limit of big cosmological constant and vanishing torsion we obtain an x-dependent correction to the cosmological constant; i.e. noncommutativity leads to an x-dependent cosmological constant. We also discuss the limit of small cosmological constant and vanishing torsion and the teleparallel limit.

  3. Application of V2O5/WO3/TiO2 for Resistive-Type SO2 Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Izu, Noriya; Hagen, Gunter; Schönauer, Daniela; Röder-Roith, Ulla; Moos, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    A study on the application of V2O5/WO3/TiO2 (VWT) as the sensitive material for resistive-type SO2 sensor was conducted, based on the fact that VWT is a well-known catalyst material for good selective catalytic nitrogen oxide reduction with a proven excellent durability in exhaust gases. The sensors fabricated in this study are planar ones with interdigitated electrodes of Au or Pt. The vanadium content of the utilized VWT is 1.5 or 3.0 wt%. The resistance of VWT decreases with an increasing SO2 concentration in the range from 20 ppm to 5,000 ppm. The best sensor response to SO2 occurs at 400 °C using Au electrodes. The sensor response value is independent on the amount of added vanadium but dependent on the electrode materials at 400 °C. These results are discussed and a sensing mechanism is discussed. PMID:22163780

  4. Investigation of SO2, HCl and NOx, control from waste incinerators using a novel additive in a pilot scale reactor.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T; Nimmo, W; Patsias, A; Hall, W

    2006-05-01

    A pilot scale experimental investigation of the use of a novel additive, calcium magnesium acetate, for the simultaneous control of SO2, HCl and NOx has been carried out. The pilot scale reactor simulated the furnace and flue gas conditions of a typical large scale waste incinerator and was a vertical 4m high reactor operated at 80 kW. The calcium magnesium acetate was added as a wet spray to the reactor at temperatures above 750 degrees C. The influence of the calcium magnesium acetate dose rate was investigated on the simultaneous removal of SO2, HCl and NOx. Maximum reductions were achieved at a Ca/S ratio (or Ca/Cl ratio) of 2.5 and were, 70% for SO2, 45% for HCl and 18% for NOx for each of the pollutant gases respectively. PMID:16749624

  5. Adsorption and oxidation of SO2 by graphene oxides: A van der Waals density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Cen, Wanglai; Liu, Jie; Guo, Jiaxiu; Yin, Huaqiang; Ning, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Carbon materials have been used for low temperature (20-150 °C) catalytic removal of SO2 from the coal-burned flue gases for a long time, but the mechanism at atomic level is still controversial. Density functional theory was used to investigate the adsorption and oxidation of SO2 on elaborated graphene oxides (GOs) to discover the insights. It is found that the hydroxyl groups on GO surface possess bi-functional effects: both enhancing the adsorption of SO2 through H-bonding interaction and reducing the reaction barrier for its oxidation to SO3. The promotion of oxidation is related to a pre-activation of the surface epoxy group. Based on Bader population, charge difference and electron localization function analysis, a charge transfer channel is proposed to explain the pre-activation.

  6. Continuous desulfurization and bacterial community structure of an integrated bioreactor developed to treat SO2 from a gas stream.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian; Li, Lin; Ding, Wenjie; Zhang, Jingying; Liu, Junxin

    2015-11-01

    Sulfide dioxide (SO2) is often released during the combustion processes of fossil fuels. An integrated bioreactor with two sections, namely, a suspended zone (SZ) and immobilized zone (IZ), was applied to treat SO2 for 6months. Sampling ports were set in both sections to investigate the performance and microbial characteristics of the integrated bioreactor. SO2 was effectively removed by the synergistic effect of the SZ and IZ, and more than 85% removal efficiency was achieved at steady state. The average elimination capacity of SO2 in the bioreactor was 2.80g/(m(3)·hr) for the SZ and 1.50g/(m(3)·hr) for the IZ. Most SO2 was eliminated in the SZ. The liquid level of the SZ and the water content ratio of the packing material in the IZ affected SO2 removal efficiency. The SZ served a key function not only in SO2 elimination, but also in moisture maintenance for the IZ. The desired water content in IZ could be feasibly maintained without any additional pre-humidification facilities. Clone libraries of 16S rDNA directly amplified from the DNA of each sample were constructed and sequenced to analyze the community composition and diversity in the individual zones. The desulfurization bacteria dominated both zones. Paenibacillus sp. was present in both zones, whereas Ralstonia sp. existed only in the SZ. The transfer of SO2 to the SZ involved dissolution in the nutrient solution and biodegradation by the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. This work presents a potential biological treatment method for waste gases containing hydrophilic compounds. PMID:26574096

  7. Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using Targets: SO2 and NO2 Measurements in Montevideo City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louban, Ilia; Píriz, Gustavo; Platt, Ulrich; Frins, Erna

    2008-04-01

    SO2 and NO2 were remotely measured in a main street of Montevideo city using Multiaxis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) combined with on-field selected targets. Target-based measurements are the basis of a new experimental procedure called Topographic Target Light scattering-DOAS (TOTAL-DOAS) that provides a well define absorption path to measure the near surface distribution of trace gases in the boundary layer. It combines the measurement principles of the long-path DOAS and zenith-scattered sunlight DOAS, within the near UV and VIS spectral range. We give a general description of the procedure and present first results of the 2006 campaign at Montevideo.

  8. Aqueous phase oxidation of SO2 by O3 measured at the CERN CLOUD chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, Christopher; Fuchs, Claudia; Gysel, Martin; Troestl, Jasmin; El Haddad, Imad; Frege, Carla; Dommen, Josef; Dias, Antonio; Jaervinen, Emma; Moehler, Ottmar; Baltensperger, Urs

    2015-04-01

    Measurements of aerosol growth due to the oxidation of SO2 by O3 in cloud droplets at temperatures of 10° C and -10° C are presented. Although this reaction has been well studied in bulk solutions at temperatures above 0° C, this is, to the best of our knowledge, the first time the reaction rate has been studied in laboratory formed, super-cooled cloud droplets. These experiments were made possible by utilising the adiabatic expansion system in the 27 m3 CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber at CERN. Experiments were performed on both acidic (sulphuric acid) and neutral (ammonium sulphate) seed aerosol. During 6 minute cloud cycles, droplets of approximately 10μm diameter were formed, and the growth of the aerosol due to the uptake and oxidation of SO2 was measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). A microphysical model was developed to simulate the cloud droplet activation and growth as well as the aqueous phase chemistry. The ability of the model to accurately represent the observed aerosol growth is assessed, and the implications for the extrapolation of the SO2+O3oxidation rates to sub-zero temperatures are discussed.

  9. The enhanced oxidation of SO2 by NO2 on carbon particulates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Schryer, D. R.; Rogowski, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    The oxidation of SO2 on carbon particles in dry air and in air at 65% relative humidity (RH) was found to be greatly enhanced by the presence of gaseous NO2. Exposures of 20-80ppm SO2 + 10ppm NO2 on 1-mg samples of commercial carbon black were found to produce both sorption and desorption coverages (weight retained after desorption into N2) of over one order of magnitude greater than for corresponding SO2 exposures. Significant agglomeration and wetting were observed to occur progressively during exposures at 65% RH, and samples, even after 150-h exposure, rarely reached steady-state weight gain. The wetting may have regenerated fresh reactive carbon surface. Sorptions conducted in nitrogen atmospheres, rather than in air, appeared to produce slightly higher sorptions and weight retentions for equivalent exposure concentrations and times, indicating that NO2 served as the oxidizer and that molecular oxygen, or some trace constitutents in air, may have weakly inhibited the oxidation by NO2. Wet chemical analysis of the desorbed phase indicated that sulfate, presumably H2SO4 accounted for over half of the retained weight. Measurements of pH from water-quenched samples indicated a highly acidic surface phase, and suggested the oxidation process could proceed in an acidic environment.

  10. Modeling of SO2 dispersion from the 2014 Holuhraun eruption in Iceland using WRF-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rognvaldsson, Olafur; Arnason, Gylfi; Palsson, Thorgeir; Eliasson, Jonas; Weber, Konradin; Böhlke, Christoph; Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Tirpitz, Lukas; Platt, Ulrich; Smith, Paul D.; Jones, Roderic L.

    2015-04-01

    The fissure eruption in Holuhraun in central Iceland is the country's largest lava and gas eruption since 1783 but has produced very little volcanic ash. The eruption started in late August 2014 and is still ongoing as of January 2015. The main threat from this event has been atmospheric pollution of SO2 that is carried by wind to all parts of the country and produces elevated concentrations of SO2 that have frequently violated National Air Quality Standards (NAQS) in many population centers. The Volcanic Ash Research (VAR) group in Iceland is focused on airborne measurement of ash contamination to support safe air travel, as well as various gas concentrations. In relation to the Holuhraun eruption the VAR group has organized an investigation campaign including 10 measurement flights and performed measurements of both the source emissions and the plume distribution. SO2 concentrations measured at the source showed clear potential for creating pollution events in the toxic range and contamination of surface waters. The data obtained in the measurement campaign was used for calibration of the WRF-chem model of the dispersion of SO2 and volcanic ash concentration. The model has both been run in operational forecast mode (since mid October) as well as in a dynamical downscaling mode, to estimate the dispersion and fallout of SO2 from the plume. The model results indicate that a large part of the sulphur was precipitated in the Icelandic highlands. The first melt waters during the spring thaw are likely to contain acid sulphur compounds that can be harmful for vegetation, with the highland vegetation being the most vulnerable. These results will be helpful to estimate the pollution load on farmlands and pastures of farmers.

  11. Influence of Tropospheric SO2 Emissions on Particle Formation and the Stratospheric Humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notholt, J.; Luo, B. P.; Fueglistaler, S.; Weisenstein, D.; Rex, M.; Lawrence, M. G.; Bingemer, H.; Wohltmann, I.; Corti, T.; Warneke, T.; vonKuhlmann, R.; Peters, T.

    2005-01-01

    Stratospheric water vapor plays an important role in the chemistry and radiation budget of the stratosphere. Throughout the last decades stratospheric water vapor levels have increased and several processes have been suggested to contribute to this trend. Here we present a mechanism that would link increasing anthropogenic SO2 emissions in southern and eastern Asia with an increase in stratospheric water. Trajectory studies and model simulations suggest that the SO2 increase results in the formation of more sulfuric acid aerosol particles in the upper tropical troposphere. As a consequence, more ice crystals of smaller size are formed in the tropical tropopause, which are lifted into the stratosphere more readily. Our model calculations suggest that such a mechanism could increase the amount of water that entered the stratosphere in the condensed phase by up to 0.5 ppmv from 1950-2000.

  12. Feulgen type staining with Hoffmann's violet-SO2 under exposure to UV rays.

    PubMed

    Dutt, M K

    1979-07-01

    The paper contains an account of the use of Hoffmann's violet-SO2 under exposure to UV rays during staining acid-hydrolysed DNA of mammalian tissue nuclei. Preparations stained with Hoffmann's violet-SO2 without exposure to UV rays reveal extremely pale violet nuclei but when stained under the influence of UV rays show a considerably faster reaction resulting in a very much deeper staining of the nuclei. Sections after staining with this dye-reagent require n-butanol as differentiating reagent. Possible interpretation for the increase in staining ability of this dye-reagent under exposure to UV rays has been elucidated and the reason for considering the reaction as Feulgen type has been discussed. PMID:91084

  13. A field evaluation of a SO 2 passive sampler in tropical industrial and urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Lcia P. S.; Campos, Vnia P.; Silva, Adriana M. C.; Tavares, Tania M.

    Passive samplers have been widely used for over 30 years in the measurement of personal exposure to vapours and gases in the workplace. These samplers have just recently been applied in the monitoring of ambient air, which presents concentrations that are normally much smaller than those found in occupational environments. The locally constructed passive sampler was based on gas molecular diffusion through static air layer. The design used minimizes particle interference and turbulent diffusion. After exposure, the SO 2 trapped in impregnated filters with Na 2CO 3 was extracted by means of an ultrasonic bath, for 15 min, using 1.010 -2 mol L -1 H 2O 2. It was determined as SO 4-2 by ion chromatography. The performance of the passive sampler was evaluated at different exposure periods, being applied in industrial and urban areas. Method precision as relative standard deviation for three simultaneously applied passive samplers was within 10%. Passive sampling, when compared to active monitoring methods under real conditions, used in urban and industrial areas, showed an overall accuracy of 15%. A statistical comparison with an active method was performed to demonstrate the validity of the passive method. Sampler capacity varied between 98 and 421 ?g SO 2 m -3 for exposure periods of one month and one week, respectively, which allows its use in highly polluted areas.

  14. Correlations between SO2 flux and long-period seismicity at Galeras volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Tobias P.; Morrissey, Meghan M.; Marta Lucía Calvache, V.; Diego Gòmez, M.; Roberto Torres, C.; Stix, John; Williams, Stanley N.

    1994-03-01

    THE 14 January 1993 eruption of Galeras volcano, in Colombia, which killed six scientists and three tourists1, was followed by a larger eruption on 23 March 19932. Both eruptions were preceded by episodes of long-period seismicity. The source of long-period seismic events has been modelled extensively3-8, as the resonance within a fluid-filled crack induced by pressure transients in the fluid5-7. Here we use the SO2 flux from Galeras volcano, measured remotely, to infer the degassing history during the episode of long-period events preceding the 23 March eruption. SO2 flux and long-period seismicity have been monitored separately elsewhere to forecast volcanic activity9-13. Our results show how the combination and correlation of the two methods can be used to interpret the movement of gases from the magma body to the surface, and to monitor the pressure buildup leading to an eruption at explosive volcanoes.

  15. The Distribution and Variability of Io's SO2 Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feaga, Lori

    2004-07-01

    We propose the first comprehensive analysis of archival HI Lyman-alpha images of Io acquired in four HST programs from 1997-2001. This dataset comprises the best currently available data to study some of the fundamental properties of Io's SO2 atmosphere, including spatial extent, surface pressure, origin {is the dominant source sublimation or volcanos?}, and variability. The two viable sources are both expected to be highly variable, the sublimation due to the orders of magnitude change in surface vapor pressure from day- to nightside, and the volcanos due to their inherent variability. Indeed, a preliminary look at the archival dataset as a whole confirms the presense of obvious variability for images of the same hemisphere taken at different times {Feaga et al. 2003; see also Figure 4 of the proposal}. Only a single co-added exposure of the 34 Lyman-alpha images available has been modeled previously {Strobel & Wolven 2001}, so these data are ripe for a more thorough analysis. Analysis tools for this type of HST data {STIS imaging spectroscopy} have been developed previously by the PI for a project involving atomic sulfur emission from Io {Feaga et al. 2002}. This work is timely, focused, and well within the scope of a one year, modestly-funded archival research program.

  16. Modeling of SO(2) scrubbing in spray towers.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Amitava; Biswas, Manindra N

    2007-09-20

    The present article aims at developing simple realistic models in order to describe the gaseous removal process of SO(2) by absorption with and without chemical reaction in spray towers. Effects of droplet size, droplet velocity, superficial gas velocity, liquid flow rate and tower height on the performance of such a system are theoretically predicted. Model calculations bring out some very interesting facets of gas scrubbing as functions of droplet diameter and velocity. Four distinct regimes, viz. droplet lean, dense droplet, rigid droplet and droplet inertia controlling regimes, are found important in spray scrubbing process. Model calculation also elucidates the existence of rigid droplet (sphere) for a distinct droplet size at a specific droplet velocity. Theoretical considerations reveal that best performance can be achieved in the droplet inertia-controlling regime. Effect of turbulence on scrubbing is also considered for modeling. The model development and experimental data are limited to use of water-soluble alkaline scrubbing. However, the predicted values agree reasonably well with the available experimental data at lower gas and liquid flow rates for relatively smaller droplets. Models can also be applied to any gas-liquid spray absorption process subject to the assumptions and conditions necessary to describe the specific physico-chemical hydrodynamics of the system. However, incorporation of various droplet interactions can further refine the models for better prediction of removal efficiency. PMID:17568656

  17. Processes involving gases in valve-regulated lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodoardo, S.; Maja, M.; Penazzi, N.

    The kinetics of O 2 and H 2 reactions with the active mass of the plates have been investigated by carrying out open-circuit and overcharge tests on cells and plates coming from commercial valve-regulated lead/acid batteries of different producers. The tests at open circuit showed that the rate of O 2 reduction at the negative plates is about four orders of magnitude higher than that of the other four reactions examined (evolution of O 2 at positive plates and of H 2 at freshly charged negatives, H 2 consumption at positive and partially discharged negative plates). H 2 leaking through the battery walls, which showed a permselective membrane behaviour, was also considered. Overcharge tests allowed the mathematical model proposed elsewhere to be verified and provided information on the cell behaviour when the overcharge current became equal or lower than the O 2-reduction limiting current. The experiments on single plates and on couples (1 positive and 1 negative) sealed in glass vessels showed that the cell construction has a strong influence on the rate of gas-recombination processes.

  18. In-vivo measurement of intrauterine gases and acid-base values early in human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jauniaux, E; Watson, A; Ozturk, O; Quick, D; Burton, G

    1999-11-01

    A new multiparameter sensor that combines electrochemical and fibre-optic technology was used for continuous in-vivo investigation of pH, carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO(2)), oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)), bicarbonate concentration (HCO(3)(-)), base excess, and oxygen saturation (O(2)Sat) early in human pregnancy. The sensor was inserted into the amniotic cavity and the placental bed of 16 pregnancies at 10-15 weeks gestation, before termination under general anaesthesia. Amniotic fluid and retroplacental blood from the same site were also aspirated and analysed by means of cartridges and a portable blood gas analyser. Eleven series of measurements were obtained. The variation in measurements over the 5 min of monitoring was acid-base with a sensor is stable and accurate. Such technology will be helpful in improving our understanding of the fetoplacental metabolism in normal and complicated pregnancies. PMID:10548645

  19. Health hazards from volcanic gases: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hansell, Anna; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2004-12-01

    Millions of people are potentially exposed to volcanic gases worldwide, and exposures may differ from those in anthropogenic air pollution. A systematic literature review found few primary studies relating to health hazards of volcanic gases. SO2 and acid aerosols from eruptions and degassing events were associated with respiratory morbidity and mortality but not childhood asthma prevalence or lung function decrements. Accumulations of H2S and CO2 from volcanic and geothermal sources have caused fatalities from asphyxiation. Chronic exposure to H2S in geothermal areas was associated with increases in nervous system and respiratory diseases. Some impacts were on a large scale, affecting several countries (e.g., Laki fissure eruption in Iceland in 1783-4). No studies on health effects of volcanic releases of halogen gases or metal vapors were located. More high quality collaborative studies involving volcanologists and epidemiologists are recommended. PMID:16789471

  20. Sensitivity of OMI SO2 measurements to variable eruptive behaviour at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayer, C. S.; Wadge, G.; Edmonds, M.; Christopher, T.

    2016-02-01

    Since 2004, the satellite-borne Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI) has observed sulphur dioxide (SO2) plumes during both quiescence and effusive eruptive activity at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. On average, OMI detected a SO2 plume 4-6 times more frequently during effusive periods than during quiescence in the 2008-2010 period. The increased ability of OMI to detect SO2 during eruptive periods is mainly due to an increase in plume altitude rather than a higher SO2 emission rate. Three styles of eruptive activity cause thermal lofting of gases (Vulcanian explosions; pyroclastic flows; a hot lava dome) and the resultant plume altitudes are estimated from observations and models. Most lofting plumes from Soufrière Hills are derived from hot domes and pyroclastic flows. Although Vulcanian explosions produced the largest plumes, some produced only negligible SO2 signals detected by OMI. OMI is most valuable for monitoring purposes at this volcano during periods of lava dome growth and during explosive activity.

  1. Potential effects of clean coal technologies on acid precipitation, greenhouse gases, and solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Miller, R.L.; McCold, L.N.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) was initially funded by Congress to demonstrate more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies. Although the environmental focus at first was on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) because their relationship to acid precipitation, the CCTDP may also lead to reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and in the volume of solid waste produced, compared with conventional technologies. The environmental effects of clean coal technologies (CCTs) depend upon which (if any) specific technologies eventually achieve high acceptance in the marketplace. In general, the repowering technologies and a small group of retrofit technologies show the most promise for reducing C0{sub 2} emissions and solid waste. These technologies also compare favorably with other CCTs in terms of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} reductions. The upper bound for CO{sup 2} reductions in the year 2010 is only enough to reduce global ``greenhouse`` warming potential by about 1%. However, CO{sub 2} emissions come from such variety of sources around the globe that no single technological innovation or national policy change could realistically be expected to reduce these emissions by more than a few percent. Particular CCTs can lead to either increases or decreases in the amount of solid waste produced. However, even if decreases are not achieved, much of the solid waste from clean coal technologies would be dry and therefore easier to dispose of than scrubber sludge.

  2. The sensitivity of global nucleation, cloud condensation nuclei and climate to SO2 and Criegee-intermediate chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, J. R.; Evans, M. J.; Scott, C. E.; D'Andrea, S. D.; Farmer, D. K.; Swietlicki, E.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that the reaction of stabilized Criegee intermediates (CIs, formed from the ozonolysis of alkenes) with SO2 may be an important source sulfuric acid vapor (H2SO4) in alkene-rich regions. We use a global atmospheric chemistry model, GEOS-Chem, with the online aerosol microphysics module, TOMAS, to investigate the impact of CI+SO2 chemistry on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. To get an upper bound for the effect of CI+SO2 chemistry, we use the fastest published rate constants in our simulations. The addition of CI+SO2 chemistry increases H2SO4 globally by 4%, but by over 100% in forested regions, particularly the tropics. However, changes in CCN due to CI+SO2 chemistry were significantly lower, less than 1% globally and no more than 15% in any region. The estimated change in the brightness aerosol indirect effect (AIE) due to the addition of CI+SO2 chemistry was-0.03 W m-2 globally, which is over an order-of-magnitude smaller than many other model uncertainties such as nucleation mechanisms, primary emissions, SOA and deposition. Thus, we conclude that the details of CI+SO2 chemistry are relatively unimportant in predicting the aerosol indirect effect and have only a minor impact on climate.

  3. PROCEEDINGS: JOINT SYMPOSIUM ON DRY SO2 AND SIMULTANEOUS SO2/NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (1ST). VOLUME 1. FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forty six papers describing recent advances in dry sorbent injection technologies for SO2 control were presented at the 1st Joint Symposium on Dry SO2 and Simultaneous SO2/NOx Control Technologies. These papers covered the following topics: fundamental research; pilot-scale devel...

  4. Measurements of HONO, NO, NOy and SO2 in aircraft exhaust plumes at cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkat, T.; Voigt, C.; Arnold, F.; Schlager, H.; Kleffmann, J.; Aufmhoff, H.; Schäuble, D.; Schaefer, M.; Schumann, U.

    2011-05-01

    Measurements of gaseous nitrogen and sulfur oxide emissions in young aircraft exhaust plumes give insight into chemical oxidation processes inside aircraft engines. Particularly, the OH-induced formation of nitrous acid (HONO) from nitrogen oxide (NO) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) from sulfur dioxide (SO2) inside the turbine which is highly uncertain, need detailed analysis to address the climate impact of aviation. We report on airborne in situ measurements at cruise altitudes of HONO, NO, NOy, and SO2 in 9 wakes of 8 different types of modern jet airliners, including for the first time also an A380. Measurements of HONO and SO2 were made with an ITCIMS (Ion Trap Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer) using a new ion-reaction scheme involving SF5- reagent ions. The measured molar ratios HONO/NO and HONO/NOy with averages of 0.038 ± 0.010 and 0.027 ± 0.005 were found to decrease systematically with increasing NOx emission-index (EI NOx). We calculate an average EI HONO of 0.31 ± 0.12 g NO2 kg-1. Using reliable measurements of HONO and NOy, which are less adhesive than H2SO4 to the inlet walls, we derive the OH-induced conversion fraction of fuel sulfur to sulfuric acid $\\varepsilon$ with an average of 2.2 ± 0.5 %. $\\varepsilon$ also tends to decrease with increasing EI NOx, consistent with earlier model simulations. The lowest HONO/NO, HONO/NOy and $\\varepsilon$ was observed for the largest passenger aircraft A380.

  5. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... facility shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from that affected facility any gases that... operator of an affected facility shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from that affected... atmosphere from that affected facility any gases that contain cadmium in excess of the limits specified...

  6. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... facility shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from that affected facility any gases that... operator of an affected facility shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from that affected... atmosphere from that affected facility any gases that contain cadmium in excess of the limits specified...

  7. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... facility shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from that affected facility any gases that... operator of an affected facility shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from that affected... atmosphere from that affected facility any gases that contain cadmium in excess of the limits specified...

  8. Two years of MAXDOAS measurements of NO2, HONO, SO2 and HCHO at SORPES station in Nanjing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Nan; Ding, Aijun; Van Roozendael, Michel; Hendrick, Francois; Shen, Yicheng; Valks, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region includes the mega-city Shanghai and the well-industrialized and urbanized areas of Zhejiang Province and Jiangsu Province, with over ten large cities, such as Hangzhou, Suzhou and Nanjing. Covering only 2% land area, this region produces over 20% of China's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) which makes it the most densely populated region and one of the most polluted regions in China. In the YRD region, knowledge gaps still exist in the understanding of the source and transport of air pollutants because only few measurement studies have been conducted. This work presents two years measurements of air pollutants including NO2, HONO, SO2, HCHO and CHOCHO at a regional back-ground site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China. A retrieval algorithm, based on an on-line implementation of the radiative transfer code LIDORT and the optimal estimation technique, has been used to provide information on trace gases vertical profiles and vertical column densities (VCDs). The seasonal and diurnal cycles of trace gases have been studies and compared with in situ measurements. The retrieved tropospheric NO2, HCHO and SO2 VCDs were compared to satellite measurements, while the NO2 and SO2 near surface concentrations (0-200 m layer) were compared to measurements from in situ instruments at SORPES.

  9. NOBLE GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Noble Gases symposium, on which this report is based, provided comprehensive coverage of the noble gases. The coverage included, but was not limited to, the properties, biokinetics, bioeffects, production and release to the environment, detection techniques, standards, and ap...

  10. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? 60.4330 Section 60.4330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either... contains total potential sulfur emissions in excess of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If...

  11. 40 CFR 96.286 - Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO2 Opt-in Units § 96.286 Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading Program. Except as...

  12. 40 CFR 96.286 - Withdrawal from CAIR SO 2 Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR SO 2 Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO 2 Opt-in Units § 96.286 Withdrawal from CAIR SO 2 Trading Program. Except...

  13. 40 CFR 96.286 - Withdrawal from CAIR SO 2 Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR SO 2 Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO 2 Opt-in Units § 96.286 Withdrawal from CAIR SO 2 Trading Program. Except...

  14. 40 CFR 97.286 - Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Opt-in Units § 97.286 Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading Program. Except as provided under paragraph (g)...

  15. 40 CFR 96.286 - Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO2 Opt-in Units § 96.286 Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading Program. Except as...

  16. 40 CFR 97.286 - Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Opt-in Units § 97.286 Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading Program. Except as provided under paragraph (g)...

  17. 40 CFR 97.286 - Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Opt-in Units § 97.286 Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading Program. Except as provided under paragraph (g)...

  18. 40 CFR 97.220 - General CAIR SO2 Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General CAIR SO2 Trading Program... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.220 General CAIR SO2 Trading Program permit requirements. (a) For each CAIR SO2...

  19. 40 CFR 97.220 - General CAIR SO2 Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General CAIR SO2 Trading Program... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.220 General CAIR SO2 Trading Program permit requirements. (a) For each CAIR SO2...

  20. 40 CFR 97.220 - General CAIR SO2 Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General CAIR SO2 Trading Program... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.220 General CAIR SO2 Trading Program permit requirements. (a) For each CAIR SO2...

  1. 40 CFR 97.286 - Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Opt-in Units § 97.286 Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading Program. Except as provided under paragraph (g)...

  2. 40 CFR 96.286 - Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO2 Opt-in Units § 96.286 Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading Program. Except as...

  3. 40 CFR 97.286 - Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Opt-in Units § 97.286 Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading Program. Except as provided under paragraph (g)...

  4. 40 CFR 97.220 - General CAIR SO2 Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General CAIR SO2 Trading Program... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.220 General CAIR SO2 Trading Program permit requirements. (a) For each CAIR SO2...

  5. 40 CFR 97.220 - General CAIR SO2 Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General CAIR SO2 Trading Program... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.220 General CAIR SO2 Trading Program permit requirements. (a) For each CAIR SO2...

  6. Water droplets and ice retrievals in volcanic clouds using multispectral TIR satellite data. Correction procedure for SO2 estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradini, Stefano; Guerrieri, Lorenzo; Merucci, Luca; Pugnaghi, Sergio; Salerno, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Among ash and gases, the volcanic clouds generated from several 2011-2014 Etna (Italy) lava fountains, were characterized by the huge presence of water droplets (wd) and/or ice. In some cases the wd/ice presence totally masked the ash signal and always significantly influenced the SO2 retrievals. Here the MODIS multispectral measurements are used to retrieve the volcanic wd and ice particles by means of two different techniques based on BTD (Brightness Temperature Difference) algorithm and VPR (Volcanic Plume Removal) approach. As test case the MODIS-Aqua images collected on Etna volcano the 10 April 2011 at 12:30 UTC and the 12 August 2011 at 11:15 UTC have been considered. Similarly to volcanic ashes, the wd/ice particles reduce the top of atmosphere radiance in the entire TIR spectral range, including the channels used for the SO2 retrieval. The net effect is a significant SO2 overestimation. Here two procedures for the correction of the wd/ice influence on SO2 retrieval are proposed. The results obtained from the MODIS 10 April 2011 MODIS image have been compared with the measurements collected by the FLAME ground-based network of DOAS instruments deployed on Mt. Etna.

  7. Rapid recovery of stem increment in Norway spruce at reduced SO2 levels in the Harz Mountains, Germany.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus; Zimmermann, Jorma; Jacob, Mascha; Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Bade, Claudia; Ahrends, Bernd; Leuschner, Christoph

    2012-05-01

    Tree-ring width of Picea abies was studied along an altitudinal gradient in the Harz Mountains, Germany, in an area heavily affected by SO(2)-related forest decline in the second half of the 20th century. Spruce trees of exposed high-elevation forests had earlier been shown to have reduced radial growth at high atmospheric SO(2) levels. After the recent reduction of the SO(2) load due to clean air acts, we tested the hypothesis that stem growth recovered rapidly from the SO(2) impact. Our results from two formerly damaged high-elevation spruce stands support this hypothesis suggesting that the former SO(2)-related spruce decline was primarily due to foliar damage and not to soil acidification, as the deacidification of the (still acidic) soil would cause a slow growth response. Increasing temperatures and deposited N accumulated in the topsoil are likely additional growth-promoting factors of spruce at high elevations after the shortfall of SO(2) pollution. PMID:22361051

  8. Computer simulation of an aircraft-based differential absorption and scattering system for retrieval of SO2 vertical profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoell, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using the differential absorption and scattering technique from aircraft altitudes for remotely measuring the vertical distribution of SO2 was studied via a computer simulation. Particular care was taken in this simulation to use system parameters (i.e., laser energy, telescope size, etc.) which can be accommodated on an aircraft and can be realized with commercially available technology. The vertical molecular and aerosol profiles were chosen to simulate the types of profiles which might be experienced over a large city. Results are presented on the retrieval of the assumed SO2 profile which show the effects of systematic errors due to interfering gases and aerosols, as well as random errors due to shot noise in the return signal, detector and background noise, and instrument-generated noise.

  9. Oxidation of SO2 and formation of water droplets under irradiation of 20 MeV protons in N2/H2O/SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Shigeo; Nakai, Yoichi; Funada, Shuhei; Tanikawa, Hideomi; Harayama, Isao; Kobara, Hitomi; Sasa, Kimikazu; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Hvelplund, Preben

    2015-12-01

    We have performed an experiment on charged droplet formation in a humidified N2 gas with trace SO2 concentration and induced by 20 MeV proton irradiation. It is thought that SO2 reacts with the chemical species, such as OH radicals, generated through the reactions triggered by N2+ production. Both droplet number and droplet size increased with SO2 consumption for the proton irradiation. The total charged droplet numbers entering the differential mobility analyzer per unit time were proportional to the 0.68 power of the SO2 consumption. These two findings suggest that coagulation among the small droplets contributes to the formation of the droplets. The charged droplet volume detected per unit time is proportional to the SO2 consumption, which indicates that a constant amount of sulfur atoms is contained in a unit volume of droplet, regardless of different droplet-size distributions depending on the SO2 consumption.

  10. [Analysis About Spatial and Temporal Distribution of SO2 and An Ambient SO2 Pollution Process in Beijing During 2000-2014].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Nian-liang; Zhang, Da-wei; Li, Yun-ting; Chen, Tian; Li, Jin-xiang; Dong, Xin; Sun, Rui-wen; Meng, Fan

    2015-11-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of SO2 during 2000-2014 was all analyzed based on the SO2 monitoring data that Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center released and the formation mechanism of a typical air pollution episode in January 2014 was also investigated by combining numerical model CAM(x). Analysis results showed that mass concentration of ρ(SO2) in Beijing in 2014 decreased 69% compared to that in 2000 with an annual gradient from 2000 to 2014 of - 3.5 μg x (m3 x a)(-1). Monthly average concentration of SO2 changed in a U shape curve and from the lowest to the highest, and seasonal variations of SO2 concentrations were as follows: winter > spring > autumn > summer; concentration of SO2 in heating season was significantly higher than that in non heating season. Annual average concentration of SO2 was lower in northern and western regions while higher in six city area and southern area. Concentrations of SO2 at Shijingshan, Dongsi, Tongzhou monitoring sites were significantly decreased related to SO2 emission reduction measures. During a heavy air pollution process in January 14 - 18th 2014 there was obviously SO2 regional transportation and model simulation analysis based on PAST showed that the contribution of SO2 regional transport to Beijing was 83% with elevated power plants surrounding Beijing accounting for 21% and the four major Beijing power plants contributing about 3.5% to the SO2 concentration during this heavy air pollution process. PMID:26910979

  11. Canopy stomatal uptake of NOX, SO2 and O3 by mature urban plantations based on sap flow measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yanting; Zhao, Ping; Niu, Junfeng; Sun, Zhenwei; Zhu, Liwei; Ni, Guangyan

    2016-01-01

    Canopy stomatal uptake of NOX (NO, NO2), SO2 and O3 by three mature urban plantations (of Schima superba, Eucalyptus citriodora and Acacia auriculaeformis) were studied using the sap flow-based approach under free atmospheric conditions. The annual mean concentration for NO, NO2, SO2 and O3 were 18.2, 58.1, 12.8 and 42.4 μg m-3, respectively. The atmospheric concentration exhibited a spring or winter maximum for NO, NO2 and SO2, whereas the concentration maximum for O3 occurred in the autumn. Despite the daytime mean canopy stomatal conductance (GC) being positively related with the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and negatively with the vapour pressure deficit (VPD), the maximal daytime mean GC did not appear when the PAR was at its highest level or the VPD was at its lowest level because a positive correlation was noted between the daytime mean PAR and VPD (P < 0.001) under field conditions. The GC value was regulated by the cooperation of the PAR and VPD. When analysing the respective effect of the PAR or VPD on GC separately, a positive logarithmical correlation was noted between the daytime mean GC and PAR as the following equation:Gc = a × lnPAR - b (P < 0.01), and the daytime mean GC was negatively logarithmically correlated with the VPD: Gc =Gsref - m × lnVPD (P < 0.001). The daytime mean GC declined with decreases in the soil water content (SWC) under similar meteorological condition. Differences in the seasonal pattern of the canopy stomatal conductance and atmospheric concentrations led to a differentiated peak flux. The flux for NO, NO2 and SO2 exhibited a spring maximum, whereas the flux maximum for O3 appeared in the autumn or summer. The annual cumulative stomatal flux for NO, NO2, O3 and SO2 was 100.19 ± 3.76, 510.68 ± 24.78, 748.59 ± 52.81 and 151.98 ± 9.33 mg m-2 a-1, respectively. When we focus on the foliar uptake of trace gases, the effect of these gases on the vegetation in turn should be considered, particularly for regions with serious air pollution problems. These trace gases had not yet reached injury levels, except for NO2. Flux-based measurements were better suited for evaluating the risk of O3 damage to vegetation than the exposure-based method.

  12. MAX-DOAS measurements of tropospheric NO2 and SO2 during the AROMAT-campaign in Rumania in September 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaiganfar, Reza; Wagner, Thomas; Riffel, Katharina; Donner, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The Airborne Romanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaigh took place in Rumania during September 2014. The aim of the AROMAT campaign was to measure the spatial distribution of trace gases (mainly NO2 and SO2) and aerosols. We carried out car-borne Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements using two Mini-MAX-DOAS instruments covering the UV and visible spectral range. During the first week car-MAX-DOAS measurements were carried-out on circles around Bucharest. From these observations, together with information on the wind fields, we derive the total NOx emissions from the city. We also provide estimates on the SO2 emissions, but these estimates have rather large uncertainties because the SO2 measurements are close or below the detection limit. We also made measurements within the city to quantify the spatial gradients. This information is especially important for the validation of satellite observations. In the second week, the car-MAX-DOAS measurements were carried-out around large power plants at Turceni. During these measurements, very strong SO2 absorptions were observed downwind of the power plants. From these observations, we estimate the SO2 emissions. We also determine the NO2 / SO2 ratio and investigate its dependence on the distance from the power plant.

  13. SORPTION OF MERCURY SPECIES BY ACTIVATED CARBONS AND CALCIUM-BASES SORBENTS: EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE, MERCURY CONCENTRATION AND ACID GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale studies of mercury/sorbent reactions were conducted to understand mechanistic limitations of field-scale attempts to reduce emissions of mercury from combustion processes. The effects of temperature (60 - 140 degrees C), sulfur dioxide (SO2, 1000 ppm ), hydrogen chlor...

  14. Novel process for simultaneous removal of NO(x) and SO2 from simulated flue gas by using a sustainable Ag(I)/Ag(II) redox mediator.

    PubMed

    Raju, Thasan; Chung, Sang Joon; Moon, Il Shik

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a sustainable process for simultaneous removal of waste gases such as NO, NO2, and SO2 by an electrochemically generated Ag(I)/Ag(II) redox mediator system. High removal efficiency was achieved for NO and SO2 by the wet scrubbing method at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. This removal is achieved through oxidation and absorption by contacting the gaseous stream with redox mediator ions that offer specific or selective solubility for the solute gases to be recovered in a wet scrubber. The process parameters such as gas velocity, liquid velocity, Ag(I) concentration, and HNO3 concentration were investigated to explore the possibility of complete removal of waste gases. The Ag(I)/Ag(II)-based mediated electrochemical oxidation process proved to be quite effective for simultaneous removal of NO, NO(x), and SO2 from the simulated flue gas mixtures containing NO and SO2 over a wide concentration range of 100-400 ppm. Studies were carried out with individual gas components for the mixture, and the effect of input NO and input SO2 concentrations on the NO(x) and SO2 removal efficiencies at 20 degrees C was examined. Complete oxidation of NO to NO2 with 100% NO removal efficiency and 92% NO(x) removal efficiency was achieved along with 100% SO2 removal efficiency, highlighting a potentially far greater efficiency of the Ag(I)/Ag(II)-based system in functionality and selectivity. Active research work in this direction is anticipated in the near future. PMID:18939587

  15. Synergistic formation of sulfate and ammonium resulting from reaction between SO2 and NH3 on typical mineral dust.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiwei; He, Hong; Ma, Qingxin; Ma, Jinzhu; Liu, Yongchun; Liu, Pengfei; Mu, Yujing

    2016-01-14

    The heterogeneous reactions of SO2 and NH3 on typical mineral oxides were investigated using in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). A new sulfate formation pathway was proposed where NH3 accelerated the formation of sulfate species. The results revealed that surface hydroxyls and oxygen played principal roles in the conversion of SO2 to sulfate. It was proposed that NH3 adsorbed onto Lewis acid sites, and hydroxyls and water molecules adsorbed on the surfaces of mineral dust. The enhancement of surface Lewis basicity by NH3 induced more SO2 molecules to adsorb on the surface, which were further oxidized to sulfate by interacting with surface hydroxyls and oxygen atoms. The formation of sulfate, in turn, contributed to the adsorption of NH3, mainly as NH4(+) due to enhanced Brønsted acid sites. The IC results showed that the synergistic effect between SO2 and NH3 was more significant on acidic oxides like γ-Al2O3 and α-Fe2O3 compared to basic oxides like MgO. PMID:26650181

  16. PROCEEDINGS: JOINT SYMPOSIUM ON DRY SO2 AND SIMULTANEOUS SO2/NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (1ST): VOLUME 2. POWER PLANT INTEGRATION, ECONOMICS, AND FULL-SCALE EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document the First Joint Symposium on Dry SO2 and Simultaneous SO2/NOx Control Technologies, held November 13-16, 1984, in San Diego, CA. The symposium, sponsored jointly by EPRI and EPA, was the first meeting of its kind devoted solely to the discussion of emissi...

  17. PROCEEDINGS: JOINT SYMPOSIUM ON DRY SO2 AND SIMULTANEOUS SO2/NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (1986). VOLUME 2. ECONOMICS, POWER PLANT INTERGRATION AND COMMERICAL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document the 1986 Joint Symposium on Dry SO2 and Simultaneous SO2/NOx Control Technologies, held in Raleigh, NC, June 2-6, 1986. Fortynine papers were presented by EPA and EPRI staff members representing utility companies, equipment manufacturers, sorbent supplier...

  18. PROCEEDINGS: JOINT SYMPOSIUM ON DRY SO2 AND SIMULTANEOUS SO2/NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (1986). VOLUME 1. SORBENTS, PROCESS RESEARCH, AND DISPERSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document the 1986 Joint Symposium on Dry SO2 and Simultaneous SO2/NOx Control Technologies, held in Raleigh, NC, June 2-6, 1986. Fortynine papers were presented by EPA and EPRI staff members representing utility companies, equipment manufacturers, sorbent supplier...

  19. Temporal variation of microbial population in a thermophilic biofilter for SO2 removal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingying; Li, Lin; Liu, Junxin

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a biofilter relies on the activity of microorganisms during the gas contaminant treatment process. In this study, SO2 was treated using a laboratory-scale biofilter packed with polyurethane foam cubes (PUFC), on which thermophilic desulfurization bacteria were attached. The thermophilic biofilter effectively reduced SO2 within 10months of operation time, with a maximum elimination capacity of 48.29g/m(3)/hr. Temporal shifts in the microbial population in the thermophilic biofilter were determined through polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence analysis. The substrate species and environmental conditions in the biofilter influenced the microbial population. Oxygen distribution in the PUFC was analyzed using a microelectrode. When the water-containing rate in PUFC was over 98%, the oxygen distribution presented aerobic-anoxic-aerobic states along the test route on the PUFC. The appearance of sulfate-reducing bacteria was caused by the anaerobic conditions and sulfate formation after 4months of operation. PMID:26899638

  20. Simultaneous removal of SO2 and trace SeO2 from flue gas: effect of SO2 on selenium capture and kinetics study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuzhong; Tong, Huiling; Zhuo, Yuqun; Wang, Shujuan; Xu, Xuchang

    2006-12-15

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and trace elements are all pollutants derived from coal combustion. This study relates to the simultaneous removal of SO2 and trace selenium dioxide (SeO2) from flue gas by calcium oxide (CaO) adsorption in the moderate temperature range, especially the effect of SO2 presence on selenium capture. Experiments performed on a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) can reach the following conclusions. When the CaO conversion is relatively low and the reaction rate is controlled by chemical kinetics, the SO2 presence does not affect the selenium capture. When the CaO conversion is very high and the reaction rate is controlled by product layer diffusion, the SO2 presence and the product layer diffusion resistance jointly reduce the selenium capture. On the basis of the kinetics study, a method to estimate the trace selenium removal efficiency using kinetic parameters and the sulfur removal efficiency is developed. PMID:17256549

  1. Infrared absorption of CH3SO2 observed upon irradiation of a p-H2 matrix containing CH3I and SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yu-Fang; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2011-03-01

    Irradiation with a mercury lamp at 254 nm of a p-H2 matrix containing CH3I and SO2 at 3.3 K, followed by annealing of the matrix, produced prominent features at 633.8, 917.5, 1071.1 (1072.2), 1272.5 (1273.0, 1273.6), and 1416.0 cm-1, attributable to ν11 (C-S stretching), ν10 (CH3 wagging), ν8 (SO2 symmetric stretching), ν7 (SO2 antisymmetric stretching), and ν4 (CH2 scissoring) modes of methylsulfonyl radical (CH3SO2), respectively; lines listed in parentheses are weaker lines likely associated with species in a different matrix environment. Further irradiation at 365 nm diminishes these features and produced SO2 and CH3. Additional features at 1150.1 and 1353.1 (1352.7) cm-1 are tentatively assigned to the SO2 symmetric and antisymmetric stretching modes of ISO2. These assignments are based on comparison of observed vibrational wavenumbers and 18O- and 34S-isotopic shifts with those predicted with the B3P86 method. Our results agree with the previous report of transient IR absorption bands of gaseous CH3SO2 at 1280 and 1076 cm-1. These results demonstrate that the cage effect of solid p-H2 is diminished so that CH3 radicals, produced via UV photodissociation of CH3I in situ, might react with SO2 to form CH3SO2 during irradiation and upon annealing. Observation of CH3SO2 but not CH3OSO is consistent with the theoretical predictions that only the former reactions proceed via a barrierless path.

  2. Adsorption of SO2 and NO from incineration flue gas onto activated carbon fibers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Shu

    2008-11-01

    Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were used to remove SO2 and NO from incineration flue gas. Three types of ACFs in their origin state and after pretreatment with HNO3, NaOH, and KOH were investigated. The removal efficiencies of SO2 and NO were determined experimentally at defined SO2 and NO concentrations and at temperatures of 150, 200 and 260 degrees C. Experimental results indicated that the removal efficiencies of SO2 and NO using the original ACFs were < 56% and < 27%, respectively. All ACFs modified with HNO3, NaOH, and KOH solution could increase the removal efficiencies of SO(2) and NO. The mesopore volumes and functional groups of ACFs are important in determining the removal of SO2 and NO. When the mesopore volumes of the ACFs are insufficient for removing SO2 and NO, the functional groups on the ACFs are not important in determining the removal of SO2 and NO. On the contrary, the effects of the functional groups on the removal of SO2 and NO are more important than the mesopore volumes as the amount of mesopores on the ACFs is sufficient to remove SO2 and NO. Moreover, the removal efficiencies of SO2 and NO were greatest at 200 degrees C. When the inlet concentration of SO2 increased to 600 ppm, the removal efficiency of SO2 increased slightly and the removal efficiency of NO decreased. PMID:18083361

  3. Reactions of acetone oxide stabilized Criegee intermediate with SO2, NO2, H2O and O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukui, Alexandre; Chen, Hui; Xiao, Shan; Mellouki, Wahid; Daële, Veronique

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles represent a critical component of the atmosphere, impacting global climate, regional air pollution, and human health. The formation of new atmospheric particles and their subsequent growth to larger sizes are the key processes for understanding of the aerosol effects. Sulphuric acid, H2SO4, has been identified to play the major role in formation of new atmospheric particles and in subsequent particle growth. Until recently the reaction of OH with SO2 has been considered as the only important source of H2SO4 in the atmosphere. However, recently it has been suggested that the oxidation of SO2 by Criegee biradicals can be a significant additional atmospheric source of H2SO4 comparable with the reaction of SO2 with OH. Here we present some results about the reactions of the acetone oxide stabilized Criegee intermediate, (CH3)2=OO, produced in the reaction of 2,3-dimethyl-butene (TME) with O3. The formation of the H2SO4 in the reaction of acetone oxide with SO2 was investigated in the specially constructed atmospheric pressure laminar flow reactor. The Criegee intermediate was generated by ozonolysis of TME. The H2SO4, generated by addition of SO2, was directly monitored with Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (SAMU, LPC2E). Relative rates of reactions of acetone oxide with SO2, NO2, H2O and ozone were determined from the dependencies of the H2SO4 yield at different concentrations of the reactants. Atmospheric applications of the obtained results are discussed in relation to the importance of this additional H2SO4 formation pathway compared to the reaction of OH with SO2.

  4. Effect of screwcap and cork closures on SO2 levels and aromas in a Sauvignon Blanc wine.

    PubMed

    Brajkovich, Michael; Tibbits, Nigel; Peron, Guilaine; Lund, Cynthia M; Dykes, Stuart I; Kilmartin, Paul A; Nicolau, Laura

    2005-12-28

    The development of a Sauvignon Blanc wine sealed under screwcap and cork was undertaken using different fill heights and initial levels of free SO2 (20, 25, and 30 mg/L) over 2 years. More SO2 was lost for wines under cork over the first 3 months, corresponding to a higher level of dissolved oxygen at bottling. From this time wines under cork and screwcap lost SO2 at a similar rate and retained dissolved CO2 equally well, indicating that both types of closure presented a similar effective barrier to gas movement. After 2 years in the bottle, the different treatments retained similar levels of the volatile thiols 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA) and 3-mercaptohexanol (3MH) responsible for fruity aromas, with initial SO2 levels having no effect, but the thiol concentrations were 18-23% lower under cork, which may be due to absorption of volatiles into the cork. Levels of polyphenols such as caftaric acid and the absorbance at 420 nm were the same for wines under cork and screwcap, whereas some indication was given that more oxidation occurred with a lower level of initial free SO2. Although the different treatments were not readily distinguished by a sensory panel, the data for individual wines showed a positive correlation between passion fruit descriptors and levels of 3MHA and 3MH. PMID:16366687

  5. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operator of an affected facility must not cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from that affected... operator of an affected facility must not cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from that affected... discharged into the atmosphere from that affected facility any gases that contain mercury in excess of...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operator of an affected facility must not cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from that affected... operator of an affected facility must not cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from that affected... discharged into the atmosphere from that affected facility any gases that contain mercury in excess of...

  7. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operator of an affected facility must not cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from that affected... operator of an affected facility must not cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from that affected... discharged into the atmosphere from that affected facility any gases that contain mercury in excess of...

  8. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operator of an affected facility must not cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from that affected... operator of an affected facility must not cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from that affected... discharged into the atmosphere from that affected facility any gases that contain mercury in excess of...

  9. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operator of an affected facility must not cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from that affected... operator of an affected facility must not cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from that affected... discharged into the atmosphere from that affected facility any gases that contain mercury in excess of...

  10. EXPERIMENTAL AIR EXCLUSION SYSTEM FOR FIELD STUDIES OF SO2 EFFECTS ON CROP PRODUCTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) characterized and quantified relationships among sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure, symptomatology of injury, and yield of soybean crops, which are sensitive to SO2 and economically important to the southeastern United States. Characterization inc...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 72 - Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... = (coal SO2 emissions) + (oil SO2 emissions) (in tons) If gas is the only fuel, gas emissions are... (light) 142 lbs/1,000 gal Residual (heavy) 157 For all fuel, the units conversion factor is 1...

  12. Top-Down Estimates of SO2 Degassing Emissions from the Turrialba Volcano Using in Situ Measurements from Unmanned Aerial Systems and the WRF-Stilt Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, X.; Johnson, M. S.; Fladeland, M. M.; Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Jeong, S.; Bland, G.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the continuous volcanic degassing emissions as an important natural source of sulfur-rich gases and aerosols. To investigate the impact of volcanic degassing on atmospheric chemistry and climate forcing, chemical transport models rely on emission inventories compiled from various sources. For example, the emission database from the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AEROCOM) project derives eruptive SO2 emissions from past literature, Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI), and limited observations from satellite and in situ instruments. Additionally, for all volcanoes with historic eruptions, AEROCOM simply assigns a constant SO2 degassing rate of 6.2x10-4 kt/day. This rudimentary estimate can lead to large uncertainties in model simulations of the volcanic SO2lifecycle and its impact on the atmospheric composition. In this study, we propose to apply inverse modeling techniques to estimate top-down SO2 emission rates from the Turrialba Volcano (10.025°N, 83.767°W) using in situ SO2 measurements from unmanned aerial systems (UASs) during March 2013. We predict SO2 mixing ratios along the UASs' flight paths based on the AEROCOM a priori SO2 emission dataset and the atmospheric trajectories and surface influence simulated by the WRF-STILT model. We incorporate a high-resolution (~ 30 m) terrain data into the model in order to account for the effects of the complex orography on the wind conditions near the volcano. The predicted SO2 mixing ratios are compared with measurements in a statistical procedure to minimize the model-data difference thereby yielding improved posterior estimates of volcanic SO2 degassing emission rates. A detailed uncertainty analysis will be conducted during this study taking into account all sources of error in the inverse modeling approach, such as the SO2 measurements, meteorological inputs, model configurations (e.g., spatial resolution, model physics parameterizations), and back trajectory calculations.

  13. Recent SO2 camera and OP-FTIR field measurements in Mexico and Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Spina, Alessandro; Salerno, Giuseppe; Burton, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Between 22 and 30 November 2012 a field campaign was carried out at Mexico and Guatemala with the objectives of state the volcanic gas composition and flux fingerprints of Popocatepetl, Santiaguito, Fuego and Pacaya by exploiting simultaneously UV-camera and FTIR measurements. Gases were measured remotely using instruments sensitive to ultraviolet and infrared radiation (UV spectrometer, SO2-camera and OP-FTIR). Data collection depended on the requirements of the methodology, weather condition and eruptive stage of the volcanoes. OP-FTIR measurements were carried out using the MIDAC interferometer with 0.5 cm-1 resolution. Spectra were collected in solar occultation mode in which the Sun acts as an infrared source and the volcanic plume is interposed between the Sun and the spectrometer. At Santiaguito spectra were also collected in passive mode using the lava flow as a radiation source. The SO2-camera used for this study was a dual camera system consisting of two QS Imaging 640s cameras. Each of the two cameras was outfitted with two quartz 25mm lens, coupled with two band-pass filters centred at 310nm and at 330nm. The imaging system was managed by a custom-made software developed in LabView. The UV-camera system was coupled with a USB2000+ spectrometer connected to a QP1000-2-SR 1000 micron optical fiber with a 74-UV collimating lens. For calibration of plume imagery, images of five quartz cells containing known concentration path-lengths of SO2 were taken at the end of each sampling. Between 22 and 23 November 2012 UV-camera and FTIR observations were carried out at Popocatepetl. During the time of our observation, the volcano was characterised by pulsing degassing from the summit crater forming a whitish plume that dispersed rapidly in the atmosphere according to wind direction and speed. Data were collected from the Observatorio Atmosférico Altzomoni (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México) at 4000 metre a.s.l. and at a distance of ~12 km from the volcano summit. SO2 camera observations were made for ~30 and 130 minutes on the 22 and 23 November, respectively, with a sampling rate of ~7 seconds. FTIR measurements were carried out for 20 and 15 minutes on 22 and 23 November. At Santiaguito volcano, we carried out volcanic gas measurements on 27 and 28 November 2012. During the period of our observations the volcano activity was characterised by lava flow extrusion on the S flank of dome edifice. Occasionally, incandescent blocks detached from the lava flow front rolling onto the dome flanks. During the time of our survey the explosive activity was low frequency (every ~5 - 6 hours). We observed a persistent and sustained degassing plume was observed occasionally polluted by ash. However, on 28 November at 5:25 local time, a violent pyroclastic flow occurred generating an ash-plume that rose ~5 km passing Santa Maria's summit and spreading ~30 km south. SO2 camera and FTIR data were simultaneously collected on 27 November from El Mirador at a distance of ~2 Km from the lava-dome. Data were collected for ~75 and ~90 minutes for SO2-camera and FTIR, respectively. On 28 November, due to the pyroclastic flow event, only distal solar occultation FTIR measurements and open-path UV spectra (using a USB spectrometer) were collected from the west flank of Santa Maria volcano. Both UV and IR spectra were recorded for ~60 minutes Ash released by the pyroclastic flow was sampled from a distance of 6.5 km from the volcano collecting the fallout products along a 60 minute time interval Data from the volcanic plumes of Pacaya and Fuego were collected on 29 and 30 November 2012. During our survey the eruptive activity of Pacaya consisted of weak puffing from the summit crater, while Fuego showed a weak outgassing occasionally interrupted by explosion from its summit crater. In both days, we carried out only SO2 camera measurements due to the poor weather conditions which prevented solar FTIR measurments. At both volcanoes, UV images were taken for a period of ~45 minutes from a distance of ~ 3 km and ~ 10 km, respectively. In this paper we summarise the results from the field campaign and interpret the gas observations in light of the current activity of each volcanic source.

  14. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: A feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, L.; Galle, B.; Kern, C.; Delgado Granados, H.; Conde, V.; Norman, P.; Arellano, S.; Landgren, O.; Luebcke, P.; Alvarez Nieves, J.; Cárdenas Gonzáles, L.; Platt, U.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanic ash is a hazard to aviation mainly due to its threat to jet engines with the risk of total engine failure. Other hazards consist of abrasion of windshields and damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized since the early 1980s, when volcanic ashes provoked severe incidents of engine failure of jet aircrafts (e.g. Mt. St. Helens, USA, 1980; Mt. Galunggung, Indonesia, 1982 and Redoubt volcano, USA, 1989). In addition to volcanic ash, also volcanic gases pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure of sulfur dioxide (SO2) or sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and provokes damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention because its presence above the lower troposphere atmosphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic plume and indicates that fine ash could also be present. One of the most recent examples of volcanic ash impairing aviation is the eruption of Eyjafjallajoküll, Iceland, between March and May 2010, which lead to temporal closure of the European air space. Although no severe incidents were reported, it affected an unprecedented number of people and had a considerable negative economic impact on carriers. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet spectral region has primarily been used to measure volcanic clouds from satellites and ground-based platforms. Here we present a set of experimental and model data, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 distributions in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove the concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements were conducted at Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, in April 2010. These observations were combined with radiative transfer studies modelling the conditions at hand. The ground based measurements were made by two stationary instruments, a further, mobile instrument was used to perform vehicle traverses below the plume. From these data, plume height and wind direction relative to the source were retrieved. The plume of Popocatépetl extended at an altitude around 5000m a.s.l. and was approached and passed through at the same flight level with forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ±40mrad angles in both horizontal and vertical directions relative to it. The approaches were started at up to 25km distance to the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the detection limit. The experimental data validate the radiative transfer modelling results. They indicate that a volcanic plume with a slant column density of 1018 molecules/cm2 as viewed from the outside can be detected unambiguously at distances up to 80km away.

  15. STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN CA-BASED SORBENTS USED FOR SO2 EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses structural transformations in Ca-based sorbents used for SO2 emission control. conomizer temperature injection of Ca-based sorbents is an option for dry control of SO2 emissions from coal-fired boilers. heir reactivity with SO2 was found to be a function of th...

  16. JOINT ACTION OF O3 AND SO2 IN MODIFYING PLANT GAS EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The joint action of O3 and SO2 stress on plants was investigated. Gas exchange measurements of O3, SO2, and H2O vapor were made for garden pea. Plants were grown under controlled environments; O3, SO2, H2O vapor fluxes were evaluated with a whole-plant gas exchange chamber using ...

  17. Li/SO2 Cell lot to lot variations and some design comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walk, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    Data collected from an investigation of Li/SO2 cells are presented. Two different cell designs are discussed: the standard cell, which has very high Li/SO2 ratios (1.5 or 2:1); and the balanced design, where the Li/SO2 ratio is 0.9:1 on an ampere hour basis.

  18. 40 CFR 97.254 - Compliance with CAIR SO2 emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance with CAIR SO2 emissions limitation. 97.254 Section 97.254 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Allowance Tracking System §...

  19. 40 CFR 96.220 - General CAIR SO2 Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General CAIR SO2 Trading Program... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.220 General CAIR SO2 Trading Program permit requirements....

  20. 40 CFR 96.220 - General CAIR SO 2 Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General CAIR SO 2 Trading Program... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.220 General CAIR SO 2 Trading Program permit requirements....

  1. 40 CFR 96.220 - General CAIR SO 2 Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General CAIR SO 2 Trading Program... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.220 General CAIR SO 2 Trading Program permit requirements....

  2. 40 CFR 96.220 - General CAIR SO2 Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General CAIR SO2 Trading Program... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.220 General CAIR SO2 Trading Program permit requirements....

  3. 40 CFR 96.220 - General CAIR SO2 Trading Program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General CAIR SO2 Trading Program... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.220 General CAIR SO2 Trading Program permit requirements....

  4. 40 CFR 96.254 - Compliance with CAIR SO 2 emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance with CAIR SO 2 emissions limitation. 96.254 Section 96.254 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO2 Allowance...

  5. 40 CFR 96.260 - Submission of CAIR SO 2 allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Submission of CAIR SO 2 allowance transfers. 96.260 Section 96.260 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO2 Allowance Transfers...

  6. 40 CFR 96.260 - Submission of CAIR SO 2 allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Submission of CAIR SO 2 allowance transfers. 96.260 Section 96.260 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO2 Allowance...

  7. 40 CFR 96.253 - Recordation of CAIR SO 2 allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR SO 2 allowances. 96.253 Section 96.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO2 Allowance Tracking System...

  8. 40 CFR 96.253 - Recordation of CAIR SO 2 allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recordation of CAIR SO 2 allowances. 96.253 Section 96.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO2 Allowance Tracking System...

  9. 40 CFR 96.254 - Compliance with CAIR SO 2 emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance with CAIR SO 2 emissions limitation. 96.254 Section 96.254 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO2...

  10. A rapid deployment instrument network for temporarily monitoring volcanic SO2 emissions - a case study from Telica volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, V.; Nilsson, D.; Galle, B.; Cartagena, R.; Muñoz, A.

    2014-08-01

    Volcanic gas emissions play a crucial role in describing geophysical processes; hence, measurements of magmatic gases such as SO2 can be used as tracers prior to and during volcanic crises. Different measurement techniques based on optical spectroscopy have provided valuable information when assessing volcanic crises. This paper describes the design and implementation of a network of spectroscopic instruments based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) for remote sensing of volcanic SO2 emissions, which is robust, portable and can be deployed in relatively short time. The setup allows the processing of raw data in situ even in remote areas with limited accessibility, and delivers pre-processed data to end users in near real time, even during periods of volcanic crisis, via a satellite link. In addition, the hardware can be used to conduct short-term studies of volcanic plumes in remote areas. We describe here tests of the network at Telica, an active volcano located in western Nicaragua, during three different measurement periods, including an eruptive crisis. The tests produced what is so far the largest data set of continuous SO2 flux measurements at this volcano. The measurements show that, during the period 2010-2013, the flux averages approximately 100 tons per day (t day-1).

  11. A rapid deployment instrument network for temporarily monitoring volcanic SO2 emissions - a study case from Telica volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, V.; Nilsson, D.; Galle, B.; Cartagena, R.; Muñoz, A.

    2014-04-01

    Volcanic gas emissions play a crucial role in describing geophysical processes; hence measurements of magmatic gases such as SO2 can be used as tracers prior and during volcanic crises. Different measurement techniques based on optical spectroscopy have provided valuable information when assessing volcanic crises. This paper describes the design and implementation of a network of spectroscopic instruments based on Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) for remote sensing of volcanic SO2 emissions, which is robust, portable and can be deployed in relative short time. The setup allows the processing of raw data in situ even in remote areas with limited accessibility, and delivers pre-processed data to end-users in near real time even during periods of volcanic crisis, via a satellite link. In addition, the hardware can be used to conduct short term studies of volcanic plumes in remotes areas. The network was tested at Telica, an active volcano located in western Nicaragua, producing what is so far the largest data set of continuous SO2 flux measurements at this volcano.

  12. Simultaneous treatment of NO and SO2 with aqueous NaClO2 solution in a wet scrubber combined with a plasma electrostatic precipitator.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Woo; Choi, Sooseok; Park, Dong-Wha

    2015-03-21

    NO and SO2 gases that are generally produced in thermal power plants and incinerators were simultaneously removed by using a wet scrubber combined with a plasma electrostatic precipitator. The wet scrubber was used for the absorption and oxidation of NO and SO2, and non-thermal plasma was employed for the electrostatic precipitation of aerosol particles. NO and SO2 gases were absorbed and oxidized by aerosol particles of NaClO2 solution in the wet scrubber. NO and SO2 reacted with the generated NaClO2 aerosol particles, NO2 gas, and aqueous ions such as NO2(-), NO3(-), HSO3(-), and SO4(2-). The aerosol particles were negatively charged and collected on the surface of grounded anode in the plasma electrostatic precipitator. The NO and SO2 removal efficiencies of the proposed system were 94.4% and 100% for gas concentrations of 500 mg/m(3) and a total gas flow rate of 60 Nm(3)/h, when the molar flow rate of NaClO2 and the gas-liquid contact time were /min and 1.25 s, respectively. The total amount and number of aerosol particles in the exhaust gas were reduced to 7.553 μg/m(3) and 210/cm(3) at the maximum plasma input power of 68.8 W, which are similar to the values for clean air. PMID:25497024

  13. Determination of the profile of fatty acids of 4 species of Shigella spp by chromatography of gases.

    PubMed

    Robles Valderrama, E; Hurtado Bocanegra, M D; González Arreaga, M E; Ramírez García, P; Durán Díaz, A; Ayala Patiño, R; Martínez Pérez, M E

    2002-01-01

    Shigella boydii, Shigella flexneri, Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella sonnei were identified using gas chromatography instead of the traditional techniques. Their acid methyl esters profiles were determined using a gas chromatograph Hewlett Packard 5890A and a RSL-150 heliflex capillary column. A total of 192 samples were analyzed both reference strains (ATCC 8700, INDRE B2188, B2194 and B2199) and environmental isolates. 12 fatty acids were included in the profiles from which 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid (peak 12), trans 9-octadecanoic acid (peak 22), heptadecanoic acid (peak 18) and octadecanoic acid (peak 23), were the most important for the differentiation of the species analyzed. PMID:17063774

  14. Measurements of Acidic Gases and Aerosol Species Aboard the NASA DC-8 Aircraft During the Pacific Exploratory Mission in the Tropics (PEM-Tropics A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, Robert W.; Dibb, Jack E.

    1999-01-01

    We received funding to provide measurements of nitric acid (HNO3), formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), and the chemical composition of aerosols aboard the NASA Ames DC-8 research aircraft during the PEM-Tropics A mission. These measurements were successfully completed and the final data resides in the electronic archive (ftp-gte.larc.nasa.gov) at NASA Langley Research Center. For the PEM-Tropics A mission the University of New Hampshire group was first author of four different manuscripts. Three of these have now appeared in the Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, included in the two section sections on PEM-Tropics A. The fourth manuscript has just recently been submitted to this same journal as a stand alone paper. All four of these papers are included in this report. The first paper (Influence of biomass combustion emissions on the distribution of acidic trace gases over the Southern Pacific basin during austral springtime) describes the large-scale distributions of HNO3, HCOOH, and CH3COOH. Arguments were presented to show, particularly in the middle tropospheric region, that biomass burning emissions from South America and Africa were a major source of acidic gases over the South Pacific basin. The second paper (Aerosol chemical composition and distribution during the Pacific Exploratory Mission (PEM) Tropics) covers the aerosol aspects of our measurement package. Compared to acidic gases, O3, and selected hydrocarbons, the aerosol chemistry showed little influence from biomass burning emissions. The data collected in the marine boundary layer showed a possible marine source of NH3 to the troposphere in equatorial areas. This source had been speculated on previously, but our data was the first collected from an airborne platform to show its large-scale features. The third paper (Constraints on the age and dilution of Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics biomass burning plumes from the natural radionuclide tracer Pb-210) utilized the unexpectedly high concentrations of Pb-210 in the combustion plumes to estimate their ages and mixing along the transport route to the South Pacific basin. The final paper in the group (Tropospheric reactive-odd nitrogen over the South Pacific in austral springtime). This paper provides a summary of reactive nitrogen during PEM-Tropics A, with HNO3 and PAM showing the most impact from combustion emission.

  15. The atmospheric SO2 budget for Pinatubo derived from NOAA-11 SBUV/2 spectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpeters, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    Spectral scan data from the NOAA-11 SBUV/2 instrument were used to derive SO2 for three days following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo - June 19, July 1, and July 17, 1991. Band structure between 300 and 310 nm observed in the backscattered albedo uniquely identifies the presence of SO2. Band ratios are used to infer SO2 amounts to better accuracy (10-20 percent) and sensitivity (about 0.5 milli-atm-cm of SO2) than the TOMS retrieval, but with relatively poor spatial coverage because the measurement is nadir only. Only 7 scans showed detectable SO2 on June 19 when the cloud was still very localized. On July 1 there were 29 scans between 35N and 12S with SO2, with the highest concentration detected over the Atlantic, and on July 17 SO2 was detected in 30 scans around the world, but in decreased concentration. Estimates of the total SO2 budget made after the cloud had spread sufficiently for the sparse SBUV/2 sampling to be adequate indicated that there were 8.4 million metric tons (MMT) of SO2 in the stratosphere on July 1, 1991, and 4.1 MMT remaining on July 17. This corresponds to an e-folding time of about 24 days for the conversion of SO2 to aerosol, and is consistent with an initial injection into the stratosphere of 12-15 MMT of SO2.

  16. SO2 columns over China: Temporal and spatial variations using OMI and GOME-2 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huanhuan, Yan; Liangfu, Chen; Lin, Su; Jinhua, Tao; Chao, Yu

    2014-03-01

    Enhancements of SO2 column amounts due to anthropogenic emission sources over China were shown in this paper by using OMI and GOME-2 observations. The temporal and spatial variations of SO2 columns over China were analyzed for the time period 2005-2010. Beijing and Chongqing showed a high concentration in the SO2 columns, attributable to the use of coal for power generation in China and the characteristic of terrain and meteorology. The reduction of SO2 columns over Beijing and surrounding provinces in 2008 was observed by OMI, which confirms the effectiveness of strict controls on pollutant emissions and motor vehicle traffic before and during 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games. The SO2 columns over China from GOME-2 (0.2-0.5 DU) were lower than those from OMI (0.6-1 DU), but both showed a decrease in SO2 columns over northern China since 2008 (except an increase in OMI SO2 in 2010).

  17. Ambient lithium-SO2 batteries with ionic liquids as electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Xing, Huabin; Liao, Chen; Yang, Qiwei; Veith, Gabriel M; Guo, Bingkun; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Ren, Qilong; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Dai, Sheng

    2014-02-17

    Li-SO2 batteries have a high energy density but bear serious safety problems that are associated with pressurized SO2 and flammable solvents in the system. Herein, a novel ambient Li-SO2 battery was developed through the introduction of ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes with tailored basicities to solvate SO2 by reversible chemical absorption. By tuning the interactions of ILs with SO2, a high energy density and good discharge performance with operating voltages above 2.8 V were obtained. This strategy based on reversible chemical absorption of SO2 in IL electrolytes enables the development of the next generation of ambient Li-SO2 batteries. PMID:24446427

  18. Seasonal and diurnal patterns in the dispersion of SO2 from Mt. Nyiragongo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingwell, Adam; Rutgersson, Anna; Claremar, Björn; Arellano, Santiago; Yalire, Mathieu M.; Galle, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Mt. Nyiragongo is an active volcano located in the Democratic Republic of Congo, close to the border of Rwanda and about 15 km north of the city of Goma (∼ 1,000,000 inhabitants). Gases emitted from Nyiragongo might pose a persistent hazard to local inhabitants and the environment. While both ground- and satellite-based observations of the emissions exist, prior to this study, no detailed analysis of the dispersion of the emissions have been made. We have conducted a dispersion study, using a modelling system to determine the geographical distribution of SO2. A combination of a meteorological model (WRF), a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART-WRF) and flux data based on DOAS measurements from the NOVAC-network is used. Since observations can only be made during the day, we use random sampling of fluxes and ensemble modelling to estimate night-time emissions. Seasonal variations in the dispersion follows the migration of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone. In June-August, the area with the highest surface concentrations is located to the northwest, and in December-February, to the southwest of the source. Diurnal variations in surface concentrations were determined by the development of the planetary boundary layer and the lake-/land breeze cycle around lake Kivu. Both processes contribute to low surface concentrations during the day and high concentrations during the night. However, the strong northerly trade winds in November-March weakened the lake breeze, contributing to higher daytime surface concentrations along the northern shore of Lake Kivu, including the city of Goma. For further analysis and measurements, it is important to include both seasonal and diurnal cycles in order to safely cover periods of high and potentially hazardous concentrations.

  19. OH- Initiated Heterogeneous Oxidation of Saturated Organic Aerosols in the Presence of SO2: Uptake Kinetics and Product Identification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards-Henderson, N. K.; Ward, M.; Goldstein, A. H.; Wilson, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    Gas-phase oxidation mechanisms for organic gases are often used as a starting point to understand heterogeneous oxidation. The reaction of a simple alkane hydrocarbon by OH proceeds through hydrogen abstraction and under ambient conditions leads to peroxy radical (RO2) formation. RO2 can further react to form: (1) smaller molecular weight products (i.e. fragmentation) via alkoxy radical formation and dissociation and/or (2) higher molecular weight products with oxygenated functional groups (i.e. functionalization). The ability to perturb these two pathways (functionalization vs. fragmentation) is critical for understanding the detailed reaction mechanism that control atmospheric aging chemistry of particles. At high temperatures the presence of sulfur dioxide (SO2) during organic-OH gas-phase oxidation enhances the fragmentation pathway leading to increased alkoxy formation. It is unknown if a comparative affect occurs at room temperature during a heterogeneous reaction. We used the heterogeneous reaction of OH radicals with sub-micron squalane particles in the presence and absence of SO2 as a model system to explore changes in individual mechanistic pathways. Detailed kinetic measurements were made in a flow tube reactor using a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization aerosol mass spectrometer and oxidation products are identified from samples collected on quartz filters using thermal desorption two-dimensional chromatographic separation and ionization by either VUV (10.5 eV) or electron impact (70 eV), with detection by high resolution time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-VUV/EI-HRTOFMS). In the presence of SO2 the yields of alcohols were enhanced compared to without SO2, suggesting that the alkoxy formation pathway was dominant. The results from this work will provide an experimentally-confirmed kinetic framework that could be used to model atmospheric aging mechanisms.

  20. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... were not for naturally occurring greenhouse gases, the earth would be too cold to support life as ... the greenhouse effect, the average temperature of the earth would be about -2°F rather than the ...

  1. Validation of OMI Satellite Measurements of SO2 by Ground-based MFDOAS Spectroscopy During the Okmok Volcanic Eruption in July 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinei, E. C.; Carn, S.; Krotkov, N.; Yang, K.; Krueger, A.; Bhartia, P. K.; Mount, G. H.

    2008-12-01

    The Dutch-Finnish Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the NASA Aura satellite measures a suite of trace gases including SO2. Since its launch in July 2004, OMI has made many measurements of SO2 including natural sources such as explosive and effusive volcanic eruptions and volcanic passive degassing, and human sources such as coal power plants, metal smelters, and oil refineries. Validation of these measurements is very difficult because of OMI reduced sensitivity to SO2 in the planetary boundary layer and the transient nature of volcanic plumes. The recent eruption of the Okmok volcano in the Aleutian islands provided a unique opportunity for high quality validation because the plume spent several days moving over a research-grade ground-based spectrometer located in Washington state, the multi-function differential absorption spectroscopy (MFDOAS) instrument. This instrument provided accurate determinations of column abundance of SO2 in the Okmok plume using the direct sun as a source with an estimated accuracy less than 0.2 DU, which is an order of magnitude better than data from the operational Brewer spectrophotometer network. We discuss our instrumentation, data reduction technique and SO2 time series results during 2 days of observations of the Okmok plume over Pullman, WA. Measured SO2 column amount ranged from 0.5 DU to 5DU ( 1 DU, Dobson Unit =2.69*10**16 molecules/cm**2) due to inhomogeneity of the plume. Direct overpass comparison with OMI shows good qualitative agreement with OMI operational low stratospheric SO2 data. Corrections for the OMI field of view, SO2 plume height, and temperature improve agreement further as well as comparisons with the off-line Iterative Spectral Fit (ISF) algorithm. This case study provides critical validation of the volcanic OMI SO2 measurements.

  2. Oxidant gases

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The acute and chronic action of the oxidant gases ozone, nitrogen dioxide and oxygen on the morphological appearance of cells of the alveolar and bronchiolar epithelium is reviewed. Type I cells of the alveolar and ciliated cells of the bronchiolar epithelium appear to be sensitive targets for the oxidant gases. The degree of damage is influenced by age, nutritional status and the development of tolerance.

  3. SO2 flux monitoring at Stromboli with the new permanent INGV SO2 camera system: A comparison with the FLAME network and seismological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, M. R.; Salerno, G. G.; D'Auria, L.; Caltabiano, T.; Murè, F.; Maugeri, R.

    2015-07-01

    We installed a permanent SO2 camera system on Stromboli, Italy, in May 2013, in order to improve our capacity to monitor the SO2 emissions from this volcano. The camera collects images of SO2 concentrations with a period of ~ 10 s, allowing quantification of short-term processes, such as the gas released during the frequent explosions which are synonymous with Stromboli. It also allows quantification of the quiescent gas flux, and therefore comparison with the FLAME network of scanning ultraviolet spectrometers previously installed on the island. Analysis of results from the SO2 camera demonstrated a good agreement with the FLAME network when the plume was blown fully into the field of view of the camera. Permanent volcano monitoring with SO2 cameras is still very much in its infancy, and therefore this finding is a significant step in the use of such cameras for monitoring, whilst also highlighting the requirement of a favourable wind direction and strength. We found that the explosion gas emissions are correlated with seismic events which have a very long period component. There is a variable time lag between event onset time and the increase in gas flux observed by the camera as the explosion gas advects into the field of view of the camera. This variable lag is related to the plume direction, as shown by comparison with the plume location detected with the FLAME network. The correlation between explosion gas emissions and seismic signal amplitude show is consistent with a gas slug-driven mechanism for seismic event production. Comparison of the SO2 camera measurements of the quiescent gas flux shows a fair quantitative agreement with the SO2 flux measured with the FLAME network. Overall, the SO2 camera complements the FLAME network well, as it allows frequent quantification of the explosion gas flux produced by Stromboli, whose signal is in general too brief to be measured with the FLAME network. Further work is required, however, to fully automate the calculation of SO2 flux from the SO2 images captured with the camera, and to adequately account for scattering effects.

  4. Variability of SO2, CO and light hydrocarbons over a megacity in Eastern India: effects of emissions and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, C.; Ghosh, D.; Sarkar, U.; Lal, S.; Venkataramani, S.

    2013-12-01

    Continuous measurements of SO2 during March 2012 - February 2013 along with sampling based measurements of CO, CH4 and C2-C5 NMHCs were made over Kolkata (the world's 16th largest megacity in terms of population) to study emission characteristics over this South Asian megacity. The observed SO2 concentrations are comparable to several Asian sites but higher than American/European sites. Further, C3H8 and C4H10 are substantially higher over the study region compared to many other Asian cities. The mean SO2 and C2H6 concentrations during winter and post-monsoon periods were 5 and 3 times higher compared to pre-monsoon and monsoon. High levels of SO2 during winter (>6 ppbv) are attributed to regional emissions and subsequent trapping of these air masses favored by a stable atmosphere with low ventilation coefficient. Coal burning in industrial areas and power plants in eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) are identified as potential source regions for SO2 during winter. Daytime elevations in SO2 during summer seem to be related to photo-oxidation of RSCs from a nearby landfill region. Early morning enhancements during winter for several trace gases indicate the role of boundary layer dynamics. Interspecies correlations show the dominant influence of LPG leakage and petrochemical industries to local air quality during winter apart from vehicular traffic. Correlation analysis shows that CO is dominated by biofuel combustions. Positive matrix factorization is used to identify different emission sources influencing the air quality over the study region. The concentrations over Kolkata may be interpreted as the end point of anthropogenic inputs to the IGP outflow into the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and subsequently the Indian Ocean during winter. Usefulness of these measurements (e.g. C2H2 to CO ratios) as initial values in calculating photochemical processing of air masses over the BoB will be discussed during the presentation. From the point of view of emission inventories, these measurements over Kolkata can have important implications towards characterizing urban Indian emissions and potentially also represent South Asia.

  5. Hydrophobic task-specific ionic liquids: synthesis, properties and application for the capture of SO2.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shidong; Hou, Yucui; Wu, Weize; Ren, Shuhang; Qian, Jianguo

    2014-08-15

    The capture of SO2 by ionic liquids (ILs) has drawn much attention all over the world. However, ILs can absorb not only SO2 but also water from flue gas. The removal of water from ILs is necessary for reusing the absorbent. In order to reduce the energy costs of removing water, it would be helpful to weaken the interactions between ILs and water. In this work, two kinds of hydrophobic task-specific ILs, 1-(2-diethyl-aminoethyl)-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Et2NEmim] [PF6]) and 1-(2-diethyl-aminoethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium hexafluorophosphate ([Et2NEmpyr][PF6]), were designed and synthesized. Thermal stability and physical properties of the ILs were studied. Furthermore, the application of the ILs for the capture of SO2 and the absorption mechanism were systematically investigated. It has been found that both of the ILs are immiscible with water, and [Et2NEmim][PF6] has much lower viscosity, much higher thermal stability and much higher SO2 absorption rate than [Et2NEmpyr][PF6]. [Et2NEmim][PF6] shows high SO2 absorption capacities up to 2.11 mol SO2 per mole IL (pure SO2) and 0.94 mol SO2 per mole IL (3% SO2) under hydrous conditions at 30 °C. The result suggests that [Et2NEmim][PF6] is a promising recyclable absorbent for the capture of SO2. PMID:24998204

  6. Adsorption characteristics of SO2 on activated carbon prepared from coconut shell with potassium hydroxide activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Whan; Park, Jin-Won; Choung, Jae-Hoon; Choi, Dae-Ki

    2002-03-01

    The adsorption characteristics of SO2 were studied with KOH-impregnated granular activated carbon (K-IAC). To confirm selective SO2 adsorptivity of K-IAC using a fixed bed adsorption column, experiments were conducted on the effects of KOH and of linear velocity, temperature, and concentration. In addition, changes in features before and after adsorption were observed by utilizing FTIR, XRD, ToF-SIMS, and AES/SAM, examining the surface chemistry. K-IAC adsorbed 13.2 times more SO2 than did general activated carbon (GAC). The amount of SO2 adsorbed increased as linear velocity and concentration increased and as temperature decreased. At lower temperature, the dominant reaction between KOH and SO2 produces K2-SO3 and H2O. Any H2O remaining on the surface is converted into H2SO4 as SO2 and O2 are introduced. Then, the KOH and SO2 reaction produces K2SO4 and H2O. The surface characterization results proved that adsorption occurred through chemical reaction between KOH and SO2. The SO2 adsorbed K-IAC exists in the form of stable oxide crystal, K2SO3 and K2SO4, due to potassium. The basic feature given to the surface of activated carbon by KOH impregnation was confirmed to be acting as the main factor in enhancing SO2 adsorptivity. PMID:11917995

  7. Meteorological influence on predicting surface SO2 concentration from satellite remote sensing in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Dan; Yin, Jingyuan

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we explored the potential applications of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite sensor in air pollution research. The OMI planetary boundary layer sulfur dioxide (SO2_PBL) column density and daily average surface SO2 concentration of Shanghai from 2004 to 2012 were analyzed. After several consecutive years of increase, the surface SO2 concentration finally declined in 2007. It was higher in winter than in other seasons. The coefficient between daily average surface SO2 concentration and SO2_PBL was only 0.316. But SO2_PBL was found to be a highly significant predictor of the surface SO2 concentration using the simple regression model. Five meteorological factors were considered in this study, among them, temperature, dew point, relative humidity, and wind speed were negatively correlated with surface SO2 concentration, while pressure was positively correlated. Furthermore, it was found that dew point was a more effective predictor than temperature. When these meteorological factors were used in multiple regression, the determination coefficient reached 0.379. The relationship of the surface SO2 concentration and meteorological factors was seasonally dependent. In summer and autumn, the regression model performed better than in spring and winter. The surface SO2 concentration predicting method proposed in this study can be easily adapted for other regions, especially most useful for those having no operational air pollution forecasting services or having sparse ground monitoring networks. PMID:24362515

  8. Use of plants to monitor contamination of air by SO2 in and around refinery.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A; Yaghi, Basma

    2004-01-01

    The generation of SO2 from a refinery may affect the surrounding environment. Moreover, SO2 and its by-products are phytotoxic as berg. This study aims to investigate plant responses to SO2. The work has been designed with emphasis on using the plants directly in monitoring the contamination of the atmospheric air by SO2. An assessment was made of the impacts of long-term SO2 emissions from an oil refinery on plants located in nearby areas that are likely to be exposed to emission fallout. Three different plant species (Prosopis cineraria. Azadirachta indica, and Phoenix dactilifera) common to the environment of the Arabian Gulf were selected at different distances and directions from the refinery. The analysis of the sulphate contents of these plants were used as bioindicators for monitoring SO2 concentration levels in and around the refinery. The results of this study showed that the three different plant species responsed differently to SO2 in terms of their sulphate contents. Generally, all three species were found to be sensitive to SO2 exposure. Furthermore, the concentration of sulphate was found to be much higher closer to the refinery. On the basis of this study, it can be stated that even though SO2 levels were lower than the permissible limit values, the sulphate contents accumulated in the plants were likely to cause plant injury especially in the vicinity of the source. This suggests that the present environmental guidelines for SO2 may not protect sensitive plant species. PMID:15244337

  9. Efficient fractionation of spruce by SO(2)-ethanol-water treatment: closed mass balances for carbohydrates and sulfur.

    PubMed

    Iakovlev, Mikhail; van Heiningen, Adriaan

    2012-08-01

    SO(2)-ethanol-water (SEW) lignocellulosic fractionation has the potential to overcome the present techno-economic barriers that hinder the commercial implementation of renewable transportation fuel production. In this study, SEW fractionation of spruce wood chips is examined for its ability to separate the main wood components, hemicelluloses, lignin, and cellulose, and the potential to recover SO(2) and ethanol from the spent fractionation liquid. Therefore, overall sulfur and carbohydrate mass balances are established. 95-97 % of the charged SO(2) remains in the liquid and can be fully recovered by distillation. During fractionation, hemicelluloses and lignin are effectively dissolved, whereas cellulose is preserved in the solid (fibre) phase. Hemicelluloses are hydrolysed, producing up to 50 % monomeric sugars, whereas dehydration and oxidation of carbohydrates are insignificant. The latter is proven by the closed carbohydrate material balances as well as by the near absence of corresponding by-products (furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and aldonic acids). In addition, acid methanolysis/GC and acid hydrolysis/high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) methods for the carbohydrate determination are compared. PMID:22740146

  10. The vertical distribution of volcanic SO2 plumes measured by IASI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carboni, Elisa; Grainger, Roy G.; Mather, Tamsin A.; Pyle, David M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; Siddans, Richard; Smith, Andrew J. A.; Dudhia, Anu; Koukouli, Mariliza E.; Balis, Dimitrios

    2016-04-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important atmospheric constituent that plays a crucial role in many atmospheric processes. Volcanic eruptions are a significant source of atmospheric SO2 and its effects and lifetime depend on the SO2 injection altitude. The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the METOP satellite can be used to study volcanic emission of SO2 using high-spectral resolution measurements from 1000 to 1200 and from 1300 to 1410 cm-1 (the 7.3 and 8.7 µm SO2 bands) returning both SO2 amount and altitude data. The scheme described in Carboni et al. (2012) has been applied to measure volcanic SO2 amount and altitude for 14 explosive eruptions from 2008 to 2012. The work includes a comparison with the following independent measurements: (i) the SO2 column amounts from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull plumes have been compared with Brewer ground measurements over Europe; (ii) the SO2 plumes heights, for the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Grimsvötn eruptions, have been compared with CALIPSO backscatter profiles. The results of the comparisons show that IASI SO2 measurements are not affected by underlying cloud and are consistent (within the retrieved errors) with the other measurements. The series of analysed eruptions (2008 to 2012) show that the biggest emitter of volcanic SO2 was Nabro, followed by Kasatochi and Grímsvötn. Our observations also show a tendency for volcanic SO2 to reach the level of the tropopause during many of the moderately explosive eruptions observed. For the eruptions observed, this tendency was independent of the maximum amount of SO2 (e.g. 0.2 Tg for Dalafilla compared with 1.6 Tg for Nabro) and of the volcanic explosive index (between 3 and 5).

  11. Measurements of NO2, SO2, NH3, HNO3 and O3 in West African urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adon, Marcellin; Yoboué, Véronique; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Liousse, Catherine; Diop, Babakar; Doumbia, El Hadji Thierno; Gardrat, Eric; Ndiaye, Seydi Ababacar; Jarnot, Christian

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present the measurements of atmospheric gas concentrations of NO2, SO2, NH3, HNO3, and O3 performed at two traffic sites in the context of the POLCA (Pollution of African Capitals) program. These gases were measured using a passive sampling technique from Jan. 2008 to Dec. 2009 at Dakar and from Jun. 2008 to Dec. 2009 at Bamako. In addition, during these periods there were two intensive measurement campaigns (from 19 Jan. to 2 Feb. 2009 at Bamako and from 30 Nov. to 13 Dec. 2009 at Dakar) where real-time active analysers were used to measure NO2 and SO2. Results show that Dakar has a pollution level for NO2 and SO2 higher than that of Bamako, whereas it is lower for NH3 concentrations. Monthly values of NO2 range between 21.1 and 43.5 ppb in Dakar with an annual mean concentration of 31.7 ppb (59.6 μg/m3). NO2 values in Bamako are 9.4-22.6 ppb with a mean of 16.2 ppb. At Dakar, the mean annual NO2 limit value (21.3 ppb or 40 μg/m3) recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) is widely exceeded. The mean annual concentration of SO2 is 15.9 ppb in Dakar and 3.6 ppb in Bamako. These differences may be explained by different sources of traffic between Bamako (with mainly gasoline vehicles) and Dakar (with mainly diesel vehicles). The annual mean NH3 concentration is about two times higher in Bamako (46.7 ppb) than in Dakar (21.1 ppb). In addition to other possible sources, we assume that the ammonia from domestic fires and uncontrolled garbage incineration may have more influence at Bamako than at Dakar. The mean annual concentrations of HNO3 and O3 are 1.3 ppb and 7.7 ppb in Dakar and 0.6 ppb and 5.1 ppb in Bamako, respectively. Seasonal variation in measured gas concentrations are low in Bamako and more pronounced in Dakar, except for HNO3 and NH3. At Dakar, NO2 and SO2 daily mean concentrations are higher during the weekdays than on weekends, when urban activities are reduced, whereas at Bamako, no significant difference was observed between weekdays and weekends. At Dakar, the daily average concentrations of SO2 in the dry season (11.6-39.6 ppb) widely exceed the WHO air quality guideline (7.6 ppb or 20 μg/m3 as 24-h average). Finally, the spatial distribution of gases at different sites in these two capitals have been investigated and showed higher pollution levels at the traffic sites, especially for NO2, NH3 and SO2, and lower levels in the suburban area, with the exception of ozone.

  12. [Removal of SO2 from flue gas by water vapor DC corona discharge].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming; Wu, Yan

    2006-07-01

    The influence of several factors on removal rate of SO2 from flue gas in unsaturated water vapor DC corona discharge was researched. Furthermore, the experiments of the removal rate of SO2 in pulsed discharge increased by water vapor DC corona discharge plasma were conducted. The experiment system is supplied with multi-nozzle-plate electrodes and the flow of simulated flue gas is under 70 m3/h. The results show that removal rate of SO2 can be improved by increasing the concentration of water vapor, intensity of electric field or decreasing flow of simulated flue gas. In unsaturated water vapor DC corona discharge, removal rate of SO2 can be improved by 10%, when NH3 is added as NH3 and SO2 is in a mole ratio of two to one, it can reach 60%. The removal rate of SO2 can be increased by 5% in pulsed corona discharge and reach above 90%. PMID:16881295

  13. The vertical distribution of volcanic SO2 plumes measured by IASI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carboni, E.; Grainger, R. G.; Mather, T. A.; Pyle, D. M.; Thomas, G.; Siddans, R.; Smith, A.; Dudhia, A.; Koukouli, M. L.; Balis, D.

    2015-09-01

    Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is an important atmospheric constituent that plays a crucial role in many atmospheric processes. Volcanic eruptions are a significant source of atmospheric SO2 and its effects and lifetime depend on the SO2 injection altitude. The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Instrument (IASI) on the Metop satellite can be used to study volcanic emission of SO2 using high-spectral resolution measurements from 1000 to 1200 cm-1 and from 1300 to 1410 (the 7.3 and 8.7 μm SO2 bands). The scheme described in Carboni et al. (2012) has been applied to measure volcanic SO2 amount and altitude for fourteen explosive eruptions from 2008 to 2012. The work includes a comparison with independent measurements: (i) the SO2 column amounts from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull plumes have been compared with Brewer ground measurements over Europe; (ii) the SO2 plumes heights, for the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Grimsvötn eruptions, have been compared with CALIPSO backscatter profiles. The results of the comparisons show that IASI SO2 measurements are not affected by underlying cloud and are consistent (within the retrieved errors) with the other measurements. The series of analysed eruptions (2008 to 2012) show that the biggest emitter of volcanic SO2 was Nabro, followed by Kasatochi and Grímsvötn. Our observations also show a tendency for volcanic SO2 to be injected to the level of the tropopause during many of the moderately explosive eruptions observed. For the eruptions observed, this tendency was independent of the maximum amount of SO2 (e.g. 0.2 Tg for Dalafilla compared with 1.6 Tg for Nabro) and of the volcanic explosive index (between 3 and 5).

  14. Microwave Limb Sounder measurement of stratospheric SO2 from the Mt. Pinatubo volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Read, W. G.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiment on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) began atmospheric measurements on September 19, 1991. Residual SO2 from the Pinatubo eruption was detected immediately after instrument activation. The SO2 was 1ocated in a tropical band with peak mixing ratios of about 15 ppbv near 26 km altitude. The observed decay of SO2 has provided an estimate of the OH concentration in the plume.

  15. Dispersion and Lifetime of the SO2 Cloud from the August 2008 Kasatochi Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotkov, N. A.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Morris, G. A.; Carn, S.; Yang, K.

    2010-01-01

    Hemispherical dispersion of the SO2 cloud from the August 2008 Kasatochi eruption is analyzed using satellite data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Goddard Trajectory Model (GTM). The operational OMI retrievals underestimate the total SO2 mass by 20-30% on 8-11 August, as compared with more accurate offline Extended Iterative Spectral Fit (EISF) retrievals, but the error decreases with time due to plume dispersion and a drop in peak SO2 column densities. The GTM runs were initialized with and compared to the operational OMI SO2 data during early plume dispersion to constrain SO2 plume heights and eruption times. The most probable SO2 heights during initial dispersion are estimated to be 10-12 km, in agreement with direct height retrievals using EISF algorithm and IR measurements. Using these height constraints a forward GTM run was initialized on 11 August to compare with the month-long Kasatochi SO2 cloud dispersion patterns. Predicted volcanic cloud locations generally agree with OMI observations, although some discrepancies were observed. Operational OMI SO2 burdens were refined using GTM-predicted mass-weighted probability density height distributions. The total refined SO2 mass was integrated over the Northern Hemisphere to place empirical constraints on the SO2 chemical decay rate. The resulting lower limit of the Kasatochi SO2 e-folding time is approx.8-9 days. Extrapolation of the exponential decay back in time yields an initial erupted SO2 mass of approx.2.2 Tg on 8 August, twice as much as the measured mass on that day.

  16. The global distribution, abundance, and stability of SO2 on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, Alfred S.; Soderblom, Laurence A.; Johnson, Torrence V.; Matson, Dennis L.

    1988-01-01

    Voyager multispectral mosaics, earth-observed spectra, and photometric characterizations have been used to model and globally map the SO2 distribution and abundances, the bolometric hemispheric albedos, and the passive surface temperatures on Io. The SO2 is noted to be concentrated in the bright equatorial band, while being deficient in the region defined by Pele-type volcanic eruptions and the polar regions. The brightest, locally coldest areas correspond to SO2-rich regions, although many small patches occur elsewhere. These results are found to support the regional cold-trapping model for the surface and atmospheric SO2 of Fanale et al. (1982).

  17. Mechanisms of Heightened Airway Sensitivity and Responses to Inhaled SO2 in Asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Reno, Anita L; Brooks, Edward G; Ameredes, Bill T

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a problematic inhalable air pollutant in areas of widespread industrialization, not only in the United States but also in countries undergoing rapid industrialization, such as China, and it can be a potential trigger factor for asthma exacerbations. It is known that asthmatics are sensitive to the effects of SO2; however, the basis of this enhanced sensitivity remains incompletely understood. A PubMed search was performed over the course of 2014, encompassing the following terms: asthma, airway inflammation, sulfur dioxide, IL-10, mouse studies, and human studies. This search indicated that biomarkers of SO2 exposure, SO2 effects on airway epithelial cell function, and animal model data are useful in our understanding of the body’s response to SO2, as are SO2-associated amplification of allergic inflammation, and potential promotion of neurogenic inflammation due to chemical irritant properties. While definitive answers are still being sought, these areas comprise important foci of consideration regarding asthmatic responses to inhaled SO2. Furthermore, IL-10 deficiency associated with asthma may be another important factor associated with an inability to resolve inflammation and mitigate oxidative stress resulting from SO2 inhalation, supporting the idea that asthmatics are predisposed to SO2 sensitivity, leading to asthma exacerbations and airway dysfunction. PMID:25922579

  18. Adsorption of SO2 on bituminous coal char and activated carbon fiber

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBarr, J.A.; Lizzio, A.A.; Daley, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The SO2 adsorption behaviors of activated carbons produced from Illinois coal and of commercially prepared activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were compared. There was no relation between surface area of coal-based carbons and SO2 adsorption, whereas adsorption of SO2 on the series of ACFs was inversely proportional to N2 BET surface area. Higher surface area ACFs had wider pores and adsorbed less SO2; thus, pore size distribution is thought to play a significant role in SO2 adsorption for these materials. Oxidation with HNO3 and/or H2SO4, followed by heat treatment at 700-925 ??C to remove carbon-oxygen complexes, resulted in increased SO2 adsorption for both coal chars and ACFs. This behavior was explained by an increase in the available number of free sites, previously occupied by oxygen and now available for SO2 adsorption. The use of nitrogen-containing functional groups on ACFs of proper pore size shows promise for further increasing SO2 adsorption capacities. Knowledge of the relationship among the number of free sites, pore size, and surface chemistry on corresponding SO2 adsorption should lead to the development of more efficient adsorbents prepared from either coal or ACFs.

  19. Influence of activated carbon surface oxygen functionalities on SO2 physisorption - Simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furmaniak, Sylwester; Terzyk, Artur P.; Gauden, Piotr A.; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Szymański, Grzegorz S.

    2013-07-01

    The influence of the gradual oxidation of carbons on SO2 physisorption was studied, by comparison of experimental and simulated SO2 adsorption isotherms. The results confirmed a significant impact of surface groups on the SO2 adsorption. The simulations also revealed a similar, to that observed experimentally, effect of the increase in the percentage of the smallest micropores on adsorption isotherms. The isotherms were analysed using the CMMS model. The conclusion is that this model seems to be a good and sensitive tool for studying SO2 physisorption mechanism since a very good qualitative agreement between the experimental and simulated data was observed.

  20. SO2 Over China Detected With EOS Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkov, N. A.; Bhartia, P.; Yang, K.; Carn, S. A.; Krueger, A. J.; Dickerson, R. R.; Hains, J.; Li, C.; Li, Z.; Marufu, L.; Stehr, J.; Levelt, P. F.

    2006-12-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on EOS/Aura offers unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution, coupled with global coverage, for space-based UV measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Publicly released SO2 pollution data are processed with the Band Residual Difference (BRD) algorithm that uses calibrated residuals at SO2 absorption band centers produced by the NASA operational ozone algorithm (OMTO3). By using optimum wavelengths for retrieval of SO2, the retrieval sensitivity is improved over NASA predecessor Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) by factors of 10 to 20, depending on location. The ground footprint of OMI is 8 times smaller than TOMS. These factors produce a two orders of magnitude improvement in the minimum detectable mass of SO2. The improved sensitivity now permits daily global measurement of heavy anthropogenic SO2 pollution. Anthropogenic SO2 emissions have been measured by OMI over known sources of air pollution, such as eastern China, Eastern Europe, and from individual copper smelters in South America and elsewhere. Here we present data from a case study conducted over Shenyang in NE China as part of EAST-AIRE in April 2005. SO2 observations from instrumented aircraft flights are compared with OMI SO2 maps. The OMI SO2 algorithm was improved to account for the known altitude profile of SO2, and the comparison demonstrates that this algorithm can distinguish between background SO2 conditions and heavy pollution on a daily basis. Between 5 and 7 April 2005 a cold front traveled from continental China, over Korea and on to the Sea of Japan. The satellite-derived measurements of SO2 confirm the in situ aircraft observations of high concentrations of SO2 (ca 4 DU) ahead of the front and lower concentrations behind it and provide evidence for a large-scale impact of pollutant emissions. The BRD algorithm sensitivity does not represent the maximum sensitivity theoretically achievable with OMI, and hence future improvements in instrument calibration and the algorithm should allow even weaker SO2 sources to be monitored routinely. Such measurements are essential given the growing concern over the effects of anthropogenically-forced climate change and intercontinental transport of air pollution. http://www.knmi.nl/omi/research/product/so2/introduction.html

  1. Oxidation of SO2 by NO2 and O3 on carbon - Implications to tropospheric chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Schryer, D. R.; Rogowski, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The oxidation of SO2 to sulfate in air at 65 percent relative humidity on carbon particles was investigated gravimetrically in the presence of NO2 and O3. Approximately 1 mg samples of carbon black were exposed to continuously flowing ppbv mixtures of SO2, SO2 + NO2 and SO2 + O3 for prescribed periods of time before desorption into dry N2. Wet chemical analysis of the particles followed desorption. NO2 and O3 were found to have little, if any, effect relative to air on sulfate yields at the concentrations studied.

  2. OMI measurements of SO2 pollution over Eastern China in 2005-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkov, N.; Pickering, K.; Witte, J.; Carn, S.; Yang, K.; Carmichael, G.; Streets, D.; Zhang, Q.; Wei, C.

    2009-05-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA Aura satellite makes global daily measurements of the total column of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a short-lived trace gas produced by fossil fuel combustion, smelting, and volcanoes. OMI seasonal to multi-year average images clearly show the world-highest consistent SO2 pollution in northeast China. China is the world's largest SO2 emitter, mostly due to the burning of high-sulfur coal in its many coal-fired power plants, which lack the technology used in many other countries to remove sulfur from smoke stack emissions. China's government has instituted nationwide measures to control SO2 emissions through the adoption of flue-gas desulfurization technology on new power plants; and even greater measures were adopted in the Beijing area in anticipation of the Olympic Games. To study the environmental effects of the emission controls we compared OMI SO2 time series over eastern China for 2005 through 2008. The time series have been done as 7-day running means of the cloud-free daily observations. By mid-March we started to see substantial periods of lower SO2 values in 2008 compared to 2007, and by mid June the 2008 values were consistently lower than 2007 and prior years. The decline is widespread with highest SO2 typically located to the south and southwest of Beijing in regions with large clusters of power plants and also around Shanghai. The decline also lasted beyond the Olympic season. We do not yet know to what extent the economic downturn in China (and reduced industrial production) contributed to lower SO2 levels in the fall of 2008. We have also compared the observed and modeled fields using University of Iowa STEM model for the period June - September 2008. The model provided SO2 vertical distributions as well as aerosol vertical profiles that were used to correct OMI operational SO2 retrievals and improve the comparisons. The OMI SO2 changes in 2008 have also been compared with the estimated changes in SO2 emissions derived from a bottom-up analysis of the SO2 reduction measures put into place for the Olympics. Finally we present our plans to use the OMI SO2 columns to provide a top-down constraint on SO2 regional emissions.

  3. What have we learned about global SO2 pollution with Aura/OMI data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkov, N.; Yang, K.; Bhartia, P. K.; Carn, S.; Krueger, A.; Dickerson, R.; Li, C.

    2008-05-01

    Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) is a short-lived gas produced by volcanoes, power plants, refineries, metal smelting and general burning of fossil fuels. It is one of five EPA criteria pollutants. Emitted SO2 is soon converted to sulfate aerosol, with climate effects that include direct radiative forcing and aerosol-induced changes in cloud microphysics and the hydrological cycle. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) launched on NASA Aura satellite in July 2004 offers unprecedented spatial resolution, coupled with contiguous daily global coverage, for space- based UV measurements of volcanic and anthropogenic SO2 emissions. Anthropogenic SO2 emissions in the PBL present challenges, because these typically weak signals need to be separated from the noise in the radiances. Plumes from strong surface sources of SO2 (such as smelters and coal burning power plants) and from strong regional pollution can currently be detected in the operational pixel data. Operational data were evaluated with in-situ aircraft SO2 profiles measured in the lower troposphere over China during the East-AIRE campaign in April 2005. This comparison demonstrates that OMI can distinguish between background SO2 conditions and heavy pollutions on a daily basis, suggesting potential of using OMI SO2 data for the regional pollution monitoring. Chinese SO2 pollution lofting above the PBL and long-range transport over Pacific Ocean was first confirmed using OMI data. Quantification of anthropogenic SO2 emissions requires off-line corrections of the average photon path, characterized by the operational air-mass factor (AMF). The AMF corrections in turn require a-priori information about the altitude of the SO2 plume center of mass, the total ozone, and surface albedo. In addition, aerosols and subpixel clouds affect the AMF in different ways depending on their amounts and vertical distribution. Therefore, ancillary cloud, snow and aerosol information available from near simultaneous A-train sensors is valuable in quantification of the OMI SO2 burdens. As an example the analysis of the effect of the major Chinese snow storm on the OMI SO2 data will be presented.Spatial smoothing and/or time averaging allow significant signal to noise enhancements. Applying these techniques, power plant emissions in Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey, and the US Ohio River valley as well emissions from Persian Gulf refineries, and plumes in an industrial complex near Mexico City can be seen in OMI data - several previously unknown sources have been detected. Using long-term averages, anthropogenic SO2 burdens can be compared directly in different parts of the world. On-going algorithm improvements such as spectral fitting will allow enhanced sensitivity to enable monitoring of a greater number of SO2 sources.

  4. Development and testing of a PEM SO2-depolarized electrolyzer and an operating method that prevents sulfur accumulation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Steimke, John L.; Steeper, Timothy J.; Colon-Mercado, Hector R.; Gorensek, Maximilian B.

    2015-09-02

    The hybrid sulfur (HyS) cycle is being developed as a technology to generate hydrogen by splitting water, using heat and electrical power from a nuclear or solar power plant. A key component is the SO2-depolarized electrolysis (SDE) cell, which reacts SO2 and water to form hydrogen and sulfuric acid. SDE could also be used in once-through operation to consume SO2 and generate hydrogen and sulfuric acid for sale. A proton exchange membrane (PEM) SDE cell based on a PEM fuel cell design was fabricated and tested. Measured cell potential as a function of anolyte pressure and flow rate, sulfuric acidmore » concentration, and cell temperature are presented for this cell. Sulfur accumulation was observed inside the cell, which could have been a serious impediment to further development. A method to prevent sulfur formation was subsequently developed. As a result, this was made possible by a testing facility that allowed unattended operation for extended periods.« less

  5. Recovery of SO2 and MgO from By-Products of MgO Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Liyun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quanhai; Guo, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract An industrial demonstration unit using natural gas as a heat source was built to calcine the by-products of MgO wet flue gas desulfurization from power plants; influencing factors on the SO2 content in calciner gas were comprehensively analyzed; and an advantageous recycling condition of MgO and SO2 from by-products was summarized. Results showed that the SO2 content in the calciner gas was increased by more than 10 times under a lower excess air coefficient, a higher feed rate, a lower crystal water in by-products, and a higher feed port position. For the tests conducted under the excess air coefficient above and below one, the effect of the furnace temperature on the SO2 content in the calciner gas was reversed. Results of activity analysis indicate that particles of MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 900–1,000°C had a high activity. In contrast, due to the slight sintering, MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 1,100°C had a low activity. To recycle SO2 as well as MgO, a temperature range of 900–927°C for TE103 is proposed. These studies will prompt the desulfurization market diversification, reduce the sulfur's dependence on imports for making sulfuric acid, be meaningful to balance the usage of the natural resource in China, and be regarded as a reference for the development of this technology for other similar developing countries. PMID:25371652

  6. Recovery of SO2 and MgO from By-Products of MgO Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liyun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quanhai; Guo, Qiang

    2014-11-01

    An industrial demonstration unit using natural gas as a heat source was built to calcine the by-products of MgO wet flue gas desulfurization from power plants; influencing factors on the SO2 content in calciner gas were comprehensively analyzed; and an advantageous recycling condition of MgO and SO2 from by-products was summarized. Results showed that the SO2 content in the calciner gas was increased by more than 10 times under a lower excess air coefficient, a higher feed rate, a lower crystal water in by-products, and a higher feed port position. For the tests conducted under the excess air coefficient above and below one, the effect of the furnace temperature on the SO2 content in the calciner gas was reversed. Results of activity analysis indicate that particles of MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 900-1,000°C had a high activity. In contrast, due to the slight sintering, MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 1,100°C had a low activity. To recycle SO2 as well as MgO, a temperature range of 900-927°C for TE103 is proposed. These studies will prompt the desulfurization market diversification, reduce the sulfur's dependence on imports for making sulfuric acid, be meaningful to balance the usage of the natural resource in China, and be regarded as a reference for the development of this technology for other similar developing countries. PMID:25371652

  7. Measurements of Acetic Acid and its Relationships with Trace Gases on Appledore Island, ME during the ICARTT Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, K. B.; Sive, B. C.; White, M. L.; Russo, R. S.; Ambrose, J. L.; Zhou, Y.; Talbot, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    Acetic acid is ubiquitously present in the ambient atmosphere. Acetic acid, along with formic acid, is the one of the most abundant gas phase organic acids with mixing ratios reaching into the tens of parts per billion by volume (ppbv) range, and can influence the pH of aerosols and precipitation. The magnitude of the sources and sinks of acetic acid in the environment is not well understood (~24 Tg/yr of missing emissions globally), as they are widely dispersed and measurements are relatively challenging to accomplish using established techniques. Here, the application of Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) is explored as a technique for quantification of ambient acetic acid. Direct calibrations of PTR-MS instruments at low ppbv levels show good linearity and fast response, and during the ICARTT campaign, a PTR-MS measured acetic acid and a suite of other volatile organic compounds on Appledore Island, ME over a period of 6 weeks. During the campaign, the average mixing ratio of acetic acid on the island was 607.9 ± 341.8 (1σ) pptv with a median of 530 pptv. Mixing ratios of acetic acid observed on the island showed diurnal variations corresponding land breeze/sea breeze transport, similar to other pollutants including ozone and carbon monoxide, indicating that acetic acid was advected to the sample site, and not a product of local emissions. Additionally, no mixing ratio dependence on wind speed was found, indicating that at this location, loss due to dry deposition to the ocean during transport was minimal. Over the course of the campaign, acetic acid showed complex relationships with a range of other VOCs, indicating a diverse set of sources and further showing the utility of the PTR-MS technique for monitoring acetic acid. Mixing ratios of acetic acid showed correlations with different compounds at different times, indicating a complex source signature comprised of (1) anthropogenic emissions, (2) biomass burning, and (3) photochemical sources. Evidence of anthropogenic sources of acetic acid is shown by correlations with acetaldehyde, ethane, ethyne, dichloroethene, and carbon monoxide. Combustion emissions of carbon monoxide show the possibility of using carbon monoxide as tracer of acetic acid levels, yielding an enhancement ratio of 8.71 ± 0.54 pptv ppbv-1 of carbon monoxide. Acetic acid mixing ratios were also higher when acetonitrile mixing ratios were elevated, indicating contributions from a biomass combustion source. Mixing ratios of alkyl nitrates also trended with acetic acid at times, indicating periods when contributions from photochemical production and transport in aged air masses were likely. Major Funding: NOAA Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research under grant # NA04OAR4600154, and the USGS for the opportunity to present the data.

  8. Calculated rate constants of the chemical reactions involving the main byproducts SO2F, SOF2, SO2F2 of SF6 decomposition in power equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuwei; Rong, Mingzhe; Yang, Kang; Yang, Aijun; Wang, Xiaohua; Gao, Qingqing; Liu, Dingxin; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2016-04-01

    SF6 is widely used in electrical equipment as an insulating gas. In the presence of an electric arc, partial discharge (PD) or spark, SF6 dissociation products (such as SF2, SF3 and SF4) react with the unavoidable gas impurities (such as water vapor and oxygen), electrodes and surrounding solid insulation materials, forming several toxic and corrosive byproducts. The main stable decomposition products are SO2F, SO2F2 and SOF2, which have been confirmed experimentally to have a direct relationship with discharge faults, and are thus expected to be useful in the fault diagnosis of power equipment. Various studies have been performed of the main SF6 decomposition species and their concentrations under different types of faults. However, most of the experiments focused on the qualitative analysis of the relationship between the stable products and discharge faults. Although some theoretical research on the formation of main SF6 derivatives have been carried out using chemical kinetics models, the basic data (chemical reactions and their rate constants) adopted in the model are inaccurate and incomplete. The complex chemical reactions of SF6 with the impurities are ignored in most cases. The rate constants of some reactions obtained at ambient temperature or in a narrow temperature range are adopted in the models over a far greater range, for example up to 12 000 K, due to the difficulty in the experimental measurement and theoretical estimation of rate coefficients, particularly at high temperatures. Therefore, improved theoretical models require not only the consideration of additional SF6 decomposition reactions in the presence of impurities but also on improved values of rate constants. This paper is devoted to determining the rate constants of the chemical reactions relating to the main byproducts of SF6 decomposition in SF6 gas-insulated power equipment: SO2F, SOF2 and SO2F2. Quantum chemistry calculations with density functional theory, conventional transition state theory and Wigner’s tunneling effect correction are employed to estimate the rate constants of four important chemical reactions: F  +  SO2F  →  SO2F2, F2  +  SO2  →  SO2F2, SO2F  +  SF5  →  SF6  +  SO2 and SOF3  +  SF3  →  SF4  +  SOF2. The results are derived for a large temperature range, from 300 to 12 000 K, and finally fitted by a three-parameter Arrhenius equation. This work lays a basis for the further study of the SF6 decomposition mechanism by means of chemical kinetics modelling.

  9. 40 CFR 60.43 - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.43 Section 60.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as provided under paragraph (d) of this section, on and after the...

  10. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test is completed... reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions are limited to 520...

  11. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test is completed... reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions are limited to 520...

  12. 40 CFR 60.43 - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.43 Section 60.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as provided under paragraph (d) of this section, on and after the...

  13. 40 CFR 74.23 - 1985 Allowable SO 2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1985 Allowable SO 2 emissions rate. 74... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.23 1985 Allowable SO 2.... (i) For combustion sources that commenced operation prior to January 1, 1985, the calendar year...

  14. 40 CFR 74.23 - 1985 Allowable SO 2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1985 Allowable SO 2 emissions rate. 74... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.23 1985 Allowable SO 2.... (i) For combustion sources that commenced operation prior to January 1, 1985, the calendar year...

  15. 40 CFR 74.23 - 1985 Allowable SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1985 Allowable SO2 emissions rate. 74... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.23 1985 Allowable SO2.... (i) For combustion sources that commenced operation prior to January 1, 1985, the calendar year...

  16. 40 CFR 74.23 - 1985 Allowable SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1985 Allowable SO2 emissions rate. 74... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.23 1985 Allowable SO2.... (i) For combustion sources that commenced operation prior to January 1, 1985, the calendar year...

  17. 40 CFR 74.23 - 1985 Allowable SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1985 Allowable SO2 emissions rate. 74... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.23 1985 Allowable SO2.... (i) For combustion sources that commenced operation prior to January 1, 1985, the calendar year...

  18. FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF SORBENT CALCINATION AND SULFATION FOR SO2 CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a laboratory-scale investigation of the reactivity of calcium-based sorbents for SO2 capture after calcination at furnace operating temperatures (1200-1950 C). This work was undertaken to provide fundamental information for developing SO2 emission cont...

  19. PHYTOTOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTANTS. EVIDENCE FOR THE PHOTODETOXIFICATION OF SO2 BUT NOT O3

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pisum sativum L. cv Alsweet (garden pea) and Lycopersicon esculentum flacca Mill. (tomato) were used to evaluate the phytotoxicity of SO2 and O3 in the light and dark. Plants were grown in controlled environment chambers and exposed to SO2 or O3 in the light or dark at the same e...

  20. INTERSPECFIC VARIATION IN SO2 FLUX - LEAF SURFACE 'VERSUS' INTERNAL FLUX, AND COMPONENTS OF LEAF CONDUCTANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The object of the study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SO2 air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SO2 and H2O vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea...

  1. 76 FR 19661 - Response to Petition From New Jersey Regarding SO2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ...) with respect to the NAAQS for ozone and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ). See 62 FR 57356 (NO X SIP... NAAQS (75 FR 45210). Among other things, this proposed rule identifies SO 2 and NO X reductions that... States' ability to attain and maintain the PM 2.5 and ozone NAAQS. See 75 FR 45237, 45299. SO 2 and NO...

  2. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... Steam Generating Units § 60.43Da Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which... the percent reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions...

  3. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... Steam Generating Units § 60.43Da Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which... the percent reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions...

  4. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... Steam Generating Units § 60.43Da Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which... the percent reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions...

  5. GROWTH RESPONSE IN SPINACH TO SEQUENTIAL AND SIMULTANEOUS EXPOSURE TO NO2 AND SO2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) was exposed intermittently to NO2 and SO2 (2 hours/week; 0.8 or 1.5ppm) in a simultaneous or sequential fashion over the 42-day growth period. Nighttime simultaneous exposure to NO2 and SO2 reduced growth and altered assimilate partitioning to the root...

  6. 40 CFR 97.260 - Submission of CAIR SO2 allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission of CAIR SO2 allowance transfers. 97.260 Section 97.260 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... representative seeking recordation of a CAIR SO2 allowance transfer shall submit the transfer to...

  7. 40 CFR 97.253 - Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....253 Section 97.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... compliance account any CAIR SO2 allowance allocated to any CAIR SO2 unit at the source for each of the 30... compliance account is established and transferred to the source in accordance with subpart GGG of this...

  8. 40 CFR 97.253 - Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....253 Section 97.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... compliance account any CAIR SO2 allowance allocated to any CAIR SO2 unit at the source for each of the 30... compliance account is established and transferred to the source in accordance with subpart GGG of this...

  9. 40 CFR 96.253 - Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....253 Section 96.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... will record in the compliance account any CAIR SO2 allowance allocated to any CAIR SO2 unit at the... year in which the compliance account is established and transferred to the source in accordance...

  10. 40 CFR 97.253 - Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....253 Section 97.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... compliance account any CAIR SO2 allowance allocated to any CAIR SO2 unit at the source for each of the 30... compliance account is established and transferred to the source in accordance with subpart GGG of this...

  11. 40 CFR 96.253 - Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....253 Section 96.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... will record in the compliance account any CAIR SO2 allowance allocated to any CAIR SO2 unit at the... year in which the compliance account is established and transferred to the source in accordance...

  12. 40 CFR 97.253 - Recordation of CAIR SO2 allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....253 Section 97.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... compliance account any CAIR SO2 allowance allocated to any CAIR SO2 unit at the source for each of the 30... compliance account is established and transferred to the source in accordance with subpart GGG of this...

  13. CALCINATION OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE SORBENT IN THE PRESENCE OF SO2 AND ITS EFFECT ON REACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the calcination of Ca(OH)2 sorbent in the presence of SO2 and its effect on reactivity. When Ca(0H)2 is calcined in an isothermal flow reactor with 300 ppm or less SO2, the structure of the sorbent is characterized by retention of higher pore volumes and surfa...

  14. Next Generation Aura-OMI SO2 Retrieval Algorithm: Introduction and Implementation Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Joiner, Joanna; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce our next generation algorithm to retrieve SO2 using radiance measurements from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). We employ a principal component analysis technique to analyze OMI radiance spectral in 310.5-340 nm acquired over regions with no significant SO2. The resulting principal components (PCs) capture radiance variability caused by both physical processes (e.g., Rayleigh and Raman scattering, and ozone absorption) and measurement artifacts, enabling us to account for these various interferences in SO2 retrievals. By fitting these PCs along with SO2 Jacobians calculated with a radiative transfer model to OMI-measured radiance spectra, we directly estimate SO2 vertical column density in one step. As compared with the previous generation operational OMSO2 PBL (Planetary Boundary Layer) SO2 product, our new algorithm greatly reduces unphysical biases and decreases the noise by a factor of two, providing greater sensitivity to anthropogenic emissions. The new algorithm is fast, eliminates the need for instrument-specific radiance correction schemes, and can be easily adapted to other sensors. These attributes make it a promising technique for producing long-term, consistent SO2 records for air quality and climate research. We have operationally implemented this new algorithm on OMI SIPS for producing the new generation standard OMI SO2 products.

  15. USE OF COAL CLEANING FOR COMPLIANCE WITH SO2 EMISSION REGULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of coal cleaning as a means of controlling SO2 emissions from coal-fired stationary sources. Coal cleaning was examined in the light of various existing and proposed SO2 emissions regulations to determine applications in which the technol...

  16. MODELING OF SO2 REMOVAL IN SPRAY-DRYER FLUE-GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents a comprehensive mathematical model of the SO2 removal process in a spray-dryer flue-gas desulfurization system. Simultaneous evaporation of a sorbent droplet and absorption/reaction of SO2 in the droplet are described by the corresponding heat- and mass-transf...

  17. 40 CFR 74.24 - Current allowable SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... allowable SO2 emissions rate of the combustion source, expressed in lbs/mmBtu, which shall be the most... application. If the allowable SO2 emissions rate is not expressed in lbs/mmBtu, the allowable emissions rate shall be converted to lbs/mmBtu by multiplying the allowable rate by the appropriate factor as...

  18. 40 CFR 74.25 - Current promulgated SO2 emissions limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... promulgated SO2 emissions limit of the combustion source, expressed in lbs/mmBtu, which shall be the most... date. If the promulgated SO2 emissions limit is not expressed in lbs/mmBtu, the limit shall be converted to lbs/mmBtu by multiplying the limit by the appropriate factor as specified in Table 1 of §...

  19. 40 CFR 74.24 - Current allowable SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... allowable SO2 emissions rate of the combustion source, expressed in lbs/mmBtu, which shall be the most... application. If the allowable SO2 emissions rate is not expressed in lbs/mmBtu, the allowable emissions rate shall be converted to lbs/mmBtu by multiplying the allowable rate by the appropriate factor as...

  20. 40 CFR 74.25 - Current promulgated SO2 emissions limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... promulgated SO2 emissions limit of the combustion source, expressed in lbs/mmBtu, which shall be the most... date. If the promulgated SO2 emissions limit is not expressed in lbs/mmBtu, the limit shall be converted to lbs/mmBtu by multiplying the limit by the appropriate factor as specified in Table 1 of §...

  1. 76 FR 30602 - Response To Petition From New Jersey Regarding SO2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... published April 7, 2011, at 76 FR 19662, is extended. Comments must be received on or before June 13, 2011... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 RIN 2060-AQ69 Response To Petition From New Jersey Regarding SO2 Emissions From the... Register our proposed Response to Petition from New Jersey Regarding SO 2 Emissions from the...

  2. LONG-RANGE TRANSPORT AND TRANSFORMATION OF SO2 AND SULFATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technical descriptions and computer programs are presented for two models that calculate long-range transport, diffusion, transformation of SO2 to sulfate, and dry and precipitation deposition of initially emitted SO2. One model treats the mixing layer height as constant; the oth...

  3. 40 CFR 73.19 - Certain units with declining SO 2 rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certain units with declining SO 2 rates. 73.19 Section 73.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Allocations § 73.19 Certain units with declining SO 2 rates. (a) Eligibility. A unit...

  4. 40 CFR 74.24 - Current allowable SO 2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Current allowable SO 2 emissions rate. 74.24 Section 74.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.24 Current allowable SO 2 emissions rate. The...

  5. 40 CFR 73.19 - Certain units with declining SO 2 rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certain units with declining SO 2 rates. 73.19 Section 73.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Allocations § 73.19 Certain units with declining SO 2 rates. (a) Eligibility. A unit...

  6. 40 CFR 74.25 - Current promulgated SO 2 emissions limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Current promulgated SO 2 emissions limit. 74.25 Section 74.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.25 Current promulgated SO 2 emissions limit....

  7. Removal of SO2 from O2-containing flue gas by activated carbon fiber (ACF) impregnated with NH3.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lüsi; Guo, Jia; Jin, Feng; Zeng, Hancai

    2006-02-01

    Adsorption of SO(2) from the O(2)-containing flue gas by granular activated carbons (GACs) and activated carbon fibers (ACFs) impregnated with NH(3) was studied in this technical note. Experimental results showed that the ACFs were high-quality adsorbents due to their unique textural properties. In the presence of moisture, the desulphurization efficiency for the ACFs was improved significantly due to the formation of sulfuric acid. After NH(3) impregnation of ACF samples, nitrogen-containing functional groups (pyridyl C(5)H(4)N- and pyrrolyl C(4)H(4)N-) were detected on the sample surface by using an X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. These functional groups accounted for the enhanced SO(2) adsorption via chemisorption and/or catalytic oxidization. PMID:15982716

  8. Laboratory study of SO2 dry deposition on limestone and marble: Effects of humidity and surface variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spiker, E. C.; Hosker, R.P., Jr.; Weintraub, V.C.; Sherwood, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    The dry deposition of gaseous air pollutants on stone and other materials is influenced by atmospheric processes and the chemical characteristics of the deposited gas species and of the specific receptor material. Previous studies have shown that relative humidity, surface moisture, and acid buffering capability of the receptor surface are very important factors. To better quantify this behavior, a special recirculating wind tunnel/environmental chamber was constructed, in which wind speed, turbulence, air temperature, relative humidity, and concentrations of several pollutants (SO2, O3, nitrogen oxides) can be held constant. An airfoil sample holder holds up to eight stone samples (3.8 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick) in nearly identical exposure conditions. SO2 deposition on limestone was found to increase exponentially with increasing relative humidity (RH). Marble behaves similarly, but with a much lower deposition rate. Trends indicate there is little deposition below 20% RH on clean limestone and below 60% RH on clean marble. This large difference is due to the limestone's greater porosity, surface roughness, and effective surface area. These results indicate surface variables generally limit SO2 deposition below about 70% RH on limestone and below at least 95% RH on marble. Aerodynamic variables generally limit deposition at higher relative humidity or when the surface is wet.The dry deposition of gaseous air pollutants on stone and other materials is influenced by atmospheric processes and the chemical characteristics of the deposited gas species and of the specific receptor material. Previous studies have shown that relative humidity, surface moisture, and acid buffering capability of the receptor surface are very important factors. To better quantify this behavior, a special recirculating wind tunnel/environmental chamber was constructed, in which wind speed, turbulence, air temperature, relative humidity, and concentrations of several pollutants (SO2, O3, nitrogen oxides) can be held constant. An airfoil sample holder holds up to eight stone samples (3.8 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick) in nearly identical exposure conditions. SO2 deposition on limestone was found to increase exponentially with increasing relative humidity (RH). Marble behaves similarly, but with a much lower deposition rate. Trends indicate there is little deposition below 20% RH on clean limestone and below 60% RH on clean marble. This large difference is due to the limestone's greater porosity, surface roughness, and effective surface area. These results indicate surface variables generally limit SO2 deposition below about 70% RH on limestone and below at least 95% RH on marble. Aerodynamic variables generally limit deposition at higher relative humidity or when the surface is wet.

  9. The 2014 Holuhraun volcanic eruption gas emission: a case study of an extreme SO2 concentration event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björk Jónasdóttir, Elín; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Björnsson, Halldór; Pfeffer, Melissa Anne; Barsotti, Sara; Jóhannsson, Þorsteinn; Dürig, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    The ongoing fissure eruption in Holuhraun associated with the volcanic unrest in Bárðarbunga, is unique among recent eruptions in Iceland for its high emission rates of volcanic gases. The plume is relatively ash free, but predominantly a bent over vapour plume and its height depends mainly on the atmospheric conditions at the eruption site. CO2 and SO2 are abundant in the primarily water vapor plume with lower concentrations of H2S, HCl and HF. During the first month and a half the preliminary SO2 flux was ~400 kg/s with some days greater than 1000 kg/s. The gas is dispersed from the eruption and transported by wind, and can lead to high pollution levels in exposed populated areas in Iceland. During high wind events and when nearby weather systems lead to rapid change in wind directions the local population has not been much affected by the emission, as the gas is transported off land and/or the pollution plume is narrow and moves around. However, during certain conditions, usually light winds and low-level temperature inversions, the concentration of gas builds up at the eruption site and then either flows down from the highlands with katabatic wind or is advected from the eruption site when the synoptic situation changes. Depending on the atmospheric conditions, high concentrations of SO2 can be transported in the boundary layer and have been detected at ground level in populated areas. Here we describe one such event, the event of 26 and 27 October 2014, when the village Höfn, in southeast-Iceland, experienced gas concentrations exceeding 14000 µg/m3, a concentration considered hazardous to health. We describe the weather conditions prior and during the event as well as the gas dispersion.

  10. Si-doped graphene: A promising metal-free catalyst for oxidation of SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Saeidi, Nasibeh; Nematollahi, Parisa

    2016-04-01

    This study reports favorable reaction mechanisms of SO2 oxidation by molecular O2 over Si-doped graphene by means of DFT calculations. The SO2 oxidation reaction proceeds through the following elementary steps (a) SO2 + O2 → Oads + SO3 and (b) Oads + SO2 → SO3. It is found that the first and second steps are fulfilled via the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) and Eley-Rideal (ER) mechanisms, with an activation energy of 4.7 and 9.5 kcal/mol, respectively. Results show that the low-cost Si-doped graphene can be used as an efficient catalyst for SO2 oxidation at room temperature.

  11. Carbon catalyzed SO2 oxidation by NO2 and O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Schryer, D. R.; Rogowski, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The oxidation of SO2 to sulfate on carbon particles by trace quantities of NO2 and O3 was studied. Particulate carbon black was either: (1) directly exposed on the pan of a microbalance to various humidified mixtures of SO2 and oxidant gas and the resultant weight gains monitored, or (2) the gas mixtures were bubbled through aqueous suspensions of carbon black and pure water blanks. In each set of experiments the run times were varied appropriately and the yields of sulfate were determined analytically. Conversion of SO2 to sulfate was thus characterized as a function of exposure time and of oxidant gas. Carbon black was determined to be an excellent catalyst for SO2 oxidation to sulfate by both NO2 and O3. No saturation effects were observed in either experimental approach. Conversions of SO2 to sulfate did not appear pH dependent.

  12. SO2 plume height retrieval from direct fitting of GOME-2 backscattered radiance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gent, J.; Spurr, R.; Theys, N.; Lerot, C.; Brenot, H.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2012-04-01

    The use of satellite measurements for SO2 monitoring has become an important aspect in the support of aviation control. Satellite measurements are sometimes the only information available on SO2 concentrations from volcanic eruption events. The detection of SO2 can furthermore serve as a proxy for the presence of volcanic ash that poses a possible hazard to air traffic. In that respect, knowledge of both the total vertical column amount and the effective altitude of the volcanic SO2 plume is valuable information to air traffic control. The Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB) hosts the ESA-funded Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS). This system provides Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) worldwide with near real-time SO2 and volcanic ash data, derived from measurements from space. We present results from our algorithm for the simultaneous retrieval of total vertical columns of O3 and SO2 and effective SO2 plume height from GOME-2 backscattered radiance measurements. The algorithm is an extension to the GODFIT direct fitting algorithm, initially developed at BIRA-IASB for the derivation of improved total ozone columns from satellite data. The algorithm uses parameterized vertical SO2 profiles which allow for the derivation of the peak height of the SO2 plume, along with the trace gas total column amounts. To illustrate the applicability of the method, we present three case studies on recent volcanic eruptions: Merapi (2010), Grímsvotn (2011), and Nabro (2011). The derived SO2 plume altitude values are validated with the trajectory model FLEXPART and with aerosol altitude estimations from the CALIOP instrument on-board the NASA A-train CALIPSO platform. We find that the effective plume height can be obtained with a precision as fine as 1 km for moderate and strong volcanic events. Since this is valuable information for air traffic, we aim at incorporating the plume height information in the SACS system.

  13. Evaluation of tropospheric SO2 retrieved from MAX-DOAS measurements in Xianghe, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ting; Hendrick, Francois; Wang, Pucai; Tang, Guiqian; Clémer, Katrijn; Yu, Huan; Fayt, Caroline; Hermans, Christian; Gielen, Clio; Pinardi, Gaia; Theys, Nicolas; Brenot, Hugues; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Ground-based Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) have been performed at the Xianghe station (39.77°N, 117.0°E) located at ~50 km South-East of Beijing from March 2010 to February 2013. Tropospheric SO2 vertical profiles and corresponding vertical column densities (VCDs), retrieved by applying the Optimal Estimation Method to the MAX-DOAS observations, have been used to study the seasonal and diurnal cycles of SO2, in combination to correlative measurements from in situ instruments, as well as meteorological data. A marked seasonality is observed in both SO2 VCD and surface concentration, with a maximum in winter (February) and a minimum in summer (July). This can be explained by the larger emissions in winter due to the domestic heating and more favorable meteorological conditions for the accumulation of SO2 close to the ground during this period. Wind speed and direction are also found to be two key parameters in controlling the level of the SO2-related pollution at Xianghe. In the case of east or southwest wind, the SO2 concentration rises with the increase of the wind speed, since heavy polluting industries are located to the east and southwest of the station. In contrast, when wind comes from other directions, the stronger the wind, the less SO2 is observed. Regarding the diurnal cycle, the SO2 amount is larger in the early morning and late evening and lower at noon, in line with the diurnal variation of pollutant emissions and atmospheric stability. The observed diurnal cycles of MAX-DOAS SO2 surface concentration are also in very good agreement (correlation coefficient close to 0.9) with those from collocated in-situ data, demonstrating the reliability and robustness of our retrieval.

  14. Evaluation of tropospheric SO2 retrieved from MAX-DOAS measurements in Xianghe, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Hendrick, F.; Wang, P.; Tang, G.; Clémer, K.; Yu, H.; Fayt, C.; Hermans, C.; Gielen, C.; Pinardi, G.; Theys, N.; Brenot, H.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2014-03-01

    Ground-based Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) have been performed at the Xianghe station (39.75° N, 116.96° E) located at ~50 km southeast of Beijing from March 2010 to February 2013. Tropospheric SO2 vertical profiles and corresponding vertical column densities (VCDs), retrieved by applying the Optimal Estimation Method to the MAX-DOAS observations, have been used to study the seasonal and diurnal cycles of SO2, in combination to correlative measurements from in situ instruments, as well as meteorological data. A marked seasonality was observed in both SO2 VCD and surface concentration, with a maximum in winter (February) and a minimum in summer (July). This can be explained by the larger emissions in winter due to the domestic heating and more favorable meteorological conditions for the accumulation of SO2 close to the ground during this period. Wind speed and direction are also found to be two key factors in controlling the level of the SO2-related pollution at Xianghe. In the case of east or southwest wind, the SO2 concentration rises with the increase of the wind speed, since heavy polluting industries are located to the east and southwest of the station. In contrast, when wind comes from other directions, the stronger the wind, the less SO2 is observed. Regarding the diurnal cycle, the SO2 amount is larger in the early morning and late evening and lower at noon, in line with the diurnal variation of pollutant emissions and atmospheric stability. The observed diurnal cycles of MAX-DOAS SO2 surface concentration are also in very good agreement (correlation coefficient close to 0.9) with those from collocated in-situ data, demonstrating the reliability and robustness of our retrieval.

  15. Intercomparison of SO2 camera systems for imaging volcanic gas plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Christoph; Lübcke, Peter; Bobrowski, Nicole; Campion, Robin; Mori, Toshiya; Smekens, Jean-François; Stebel, Kerstin; Tamburello, Giancarlo; Burton, Mike; Platt, Ulrich; Prata, Fred

    2015-07-01

    SO2 camera systems are increasingly being used to image volcanic gas plumes. The ability to derive SO2 emission rates directly from the acquired imagery at high time resolution allows volcanic process studies that incorporate other high time-resolution datasets. Though the general principles behind the SO2 camera have remained the same for a number of years, recent advances in CCD technology and an improved understanding of the physics behind the measurements have driven a continuous evolution of the camera systems. Here we present an intercomparison of seven different SO2 cameras. In the first part of the experiment, the various technical designs are compared and the advantages and drawbacks of individual design options are considered. Though the ideal design was found to be dependent on the specific application, a number of general recommendations are made. Next, a time series of images recorded by all instruments at Stromboli Volcano (Italy) is compared. All instruments were easily able to capture SO2 clouds emitted from the summit vents. Quantitative comparison of the SO2 load in an individual cloud yielded an intra-instrument precision of about 12%. From the imagery, emission rates were then derived according to each group's standard retrieval process. A daily average SO2 emission rate of 61 ± 10 t/d was calculated. Due to differences in spatial integration methods and plume velocity determination, the time-dependent progression of SO2 emissions varied significantly among the individual systems. However, integration over distinct degassing events yielded comparable SO2 masses. Based on the intercomparison data, we find an approximate 1-sigma precision of 20% for the emission rates derived from the various SO2 cameras. Though it may still be improved in the future, this is currently within the typical accuracy of the measurement and is considered sufficient for most applications.

  16. SO2 over Central China: Measurements, Numerical Simulations and the Tropospheric Sulfur Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Hao; Li, Can; Loughner, Christopher P.; Li, Zhangqing; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Yang, Kai; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Youfei; Bao, Xiangdong; Zhao, Guoqiang; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2012-01-01

    SO2 in central China was measured in situ from an aircraft and remotely using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) from the Aura satellite; results were used to develop a numerical tool for evaluating the tropospheric sulfur budget - sources, sinks, transformation and transport. In April 2008, measured ambient SO2 concentrations decreased from approx.7 ppbv near the surface to approx. 1 ppbv at 1800 m altitude (an effective scale height of approx.800 m), but distinct SO2 plumes were observed between 1800 and 4500 m, the aircraft's ceiling. These free tropospheric plumes play a major role in the export of SO2 and in the accuracy of OMI retrievals. The mean SO2 column contents from aircraft measurements (0.73 DU, Dobson Units) and operational OMI SO2 products (0.63+/-0.26 DU) were close. The OMI retrievals were well correlated with in situ measurements (r = 0.84), but showed low bias (slope = 0.54). A new OMI retrieval algorithm was tested and showed improved agreement and bias (r = 0.87, slope = 0.86). The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was used to simulate sulfur chemistry, exhibiting reasonable agreement (r = 0.62, slope = 1.33) with in situ SO2 columns. The mean CMAQ SO2 loading over central and eastern China was 54 kT, approx.30% more than the estimate from OMI SO2 products, 42 kT. These numerical simulations, constrained by observations, indicate that ",50% (35 to 61 %) of the anthropogenic sulfur emissions were transported downwind, and the overall lifetime of tropospheric SO2 was 38+/-7 h.

  17. Spatiotemporal variations of tropospheric SO2 over China by SCIAMACHY observations during 2004-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xingying; van Geffen, Jos; Liao, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Lou, Sijia

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents results of measurements of tropospheric sulphur dioxide (SO2) from satellite over China during 2004-2009. SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT SO2 data products have been validated by ground based remote sensing instrument MAXDOAS in China, and with predictions of the atmospheric model GEOS-Chem. The spatial and temporal distribution of tropospheric SO2 over China is discussed in this study. The result shows that the SO2 load over East China is decreasing since strong control for pollution emission in 2007 for preparation of 2008 Olympic Games in China, while the SO2 load in West China is increasing all the way during 2004-2009, which might reflect that the anthropogenic activity was added to promote the economy development in west of China. Typical seasonal variation with high pollution levels in winter and low in summer is found in the northwest of China, while the inverse seasonal variation is found for the south of China. The characteristics of tropospheric SO2 over the major cities in China were explored and found that tropospheric SO2 was partly under control from 2007 because of the policy from China government for reduction in SO2 emissions in 2006. And the SO2 value shows remarkably decrease in most of the major cities after 2007 because strong control for the pollution emission for 2008 Olympic games. Guangzhou city shows high SO2 pollution levels in summer time, since most of the coal power plants and thermal power industry are located to the south of Guangzhou city and southerly winds dominate during summer time.

  18. Intercomparison of SO2 camera systems for imaging volcanic gas plumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kern, Christoph; Lübcke, Peter; Bobrowski, Nicole; Campion, Robin; Mori, Toshiya; Smekens, Jean-Francois; Stebel, Kerstin; Tamburello, Giancarlo; Burton, Mike; Platt, Ulrich; Prata, Fred

    2015-01-01

    SO2 camera systems are increasingly being used to image volcanic gas plumes. The ability to derive SO2 emission rates directly from the acquired imagery at high time resolution allows volcanic process studies that incorporate other high time-resolution datasets. Though the general principles behind the SO2 camera have remained the same for a number of years, recent advances in CCD technology and an improved understanding of the physics behind the measurements have driven a continuous evolution of the camera systems. Here we present an intercomparison of seven different SO2 cameras. In the first part of the experiment, the various technical designs are compared and the advantages and drawbacks of individual design options are considered. Though the ideal design was found to be dependent on the specific application, a number of general recommendations are made. Next, a time series of images recorded by all instruments at Stromboli Volcano (Italy) is compared. All instruments were easily able to capture SO2 clouds emitted from the summit vents. Quantitative comparison of the SO2 load in an individual cloud yielded an intra-instrument precision of about 12%. From the imagery, emission rates were then derived according to each group's standard retrieval process. A daily average SO2 emission rate of 61 ± 10 t/d was calculated. Due to differences in spatial integration methods and plume velocity determination, the time-dependent progression of SO2 emissions varied significantly among the individual systems. However, integration over distinct degassing events yielded comparable SO2 masses. Based on the intercomparison data, we find an approximate 1-sigma precision of 20% for the emission rates derived from the various SO2 cameras. Though it may still be improved in the future, this is currently within the typical accuracy of the measurement and is considered sufficient for most applications.

  19. Effect of sulfur in natural gas on efficiency of operation of installations for catalytic purification of waste gases from nitric acid production

    SciTech Connect

    Kolomoiskaya, R.M.; Skvortsov, G.A.; Chaika, L.V.

    1982-06-01

    The effect of increased sulfur content in natural gas on the activity of an aluminum-palladium catalyst APK-2 was investigated during high-temperature catalytic purification of waste gases from oxides of nitrogen from a plant for weak nitric acid production under a pressure of 7.3 kgf/cm/sup 2/ at the ''Azot'' Dneprodzerzhinskii plant. It was found that at a sulfur content in the natural gas of more than 40 mg/m/sup 3/ purification of the natural gas from sulfur compounds is required to achieve the required content of nitrogen oxides in the purified gas. It was also found that poisoning of the APK-2 catalyst with sulfur compounds is reversible in nature.

  20. Acidity of vapor plume from cooling tower mixed with flue gases emitted from coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Hlawiczka, Stanislaw; Korszun, Katarzyna; Fudala, Janina

    2016-06-01

    Acidity of products resulting from the reaction of flue gas components emitted from a coal-fired power plant with water contained in a vapor plume from a wet cooling tower was analyzed in a close vicinity of a power plant (710m from the stack and 315m from the cooling tower). Samples of this mixture were collected using a precipitation funnel where components of the mixed plumes were discharged from the atmosphere with the rainfall. To identify situations when the precipitation occurred at the same time as the wind directed the mixed vapor and flue gas plumes above the precipitation funnel, an ultrasound anemometer designed for 3D measurements of the wind field located near the funnel was used. Precipitation samples of extremely high acidity were identified - about 5% of samples collected during 12months showed the acidity below pH=3 and the lowest recorded pH was 1.4. During the measurement period the value of pH characterizing the background acidity of the precipitation was about 6. The main outcome of this study was to demonstrate a very high, and so far completely underestimated, potential of occurrence of episodes of extremely acid depositions in the immediate vicinity of a coal-fired power plant. PMID:26950639

  1. Sulfuric acid vapor and other cloud-related gases in the Venus atmosphere - Abundances inferred from observed radio opacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, P. G.; Eshleman, V. R.

    1982-01-01

    It is suggested that the absorbing characteristics of sulfuric acid vapor appear to reconcile what had been thought to be an inconsistency among measurements and deductions regarding the constituents of the Venus atmosphere and radio occultation, radar reflection, and radio emission measurements of its opacity. Laboratory measurements of sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, water vapor, and carbon dioxide are used to model relative contributions to opacity as a function of height in a way that is consistent with observations of the constituents and absorbing properties of the atmosphere. It is concluded that sulfuric acid vapor is likely to be the principal microwave absorber in the 30-50 km altitude range of the middle atmosphere of Venus.

  2. The vertical distribution of volcanic SO2 plumes measured by IASI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carboni, Elisa; Grainger, Roy; Mather, Tamsin A.; Pyle, David M.; Thomas, Gareth; Siddans, Richard; Smith, Andrew; Dudhia, Anu; Koukouli, MariLiza; Balis, Dimitris

    2015-04-01

    Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is an important atmospheric constituent that plays a crucial role in many atmospheric processes. For example the current hiatus in global warming has been suggested to be caused by low level (< 15 km) volcanic activity (Ridley et al., 2014). Volcanic eruptions are a significant source of atmospheric SO2 and its effects and lifetime depend on the SO2 injection altitude. In the troposphere SO2 injection leads to the acidification of rainfall while in the stratosphere it oxidises to form a stratospheric H2SO4 haze that can affect climate for several years. The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Instrument (IASI) on the Metop satellite can be used to study volcanic emission of SO2 using high-spectral resolution measurements from 1000 to 1200 cm-1 and from 1300 to 1410 cm-1 (the 7.3 and 8.7 μm SO2 bands). The scheme described in Carboni et al. (2012) has been applied to measure volcanic SO2 amount and altitude for 14 explosive eruptions from 2008 to 2012. The work includes a comparison with independent measurements: (i) the SO2 column amounts from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull plumes have been compared with Brewer ground measurements over Europe; (ii) the SO2 plumes heights have been compared with CALIPSO backscatter profile. The results of the comparisons show that IASI SO2 measurements are not affected by underling cloud and are consistent (within the retrieved errors) with the other measurements considered. The series of analysed eruptions (2008 to 2012) show that the biggest contributor of volcanic SO2 was Nabro, followed by Kasatochi and Grímsvötn. Our observations also show a tendency of the volcanic SO2 to be injected to the level of tropopause during many explosive eruptions. For the eruptions observed, this tendency was independent of the maximum amount of SO2 erupted (e.g., 0.2 Tg for Dalafilla compared with 1.6 Tg for Nabro) and of the volcanic explosive index (between 3 and 5).

  3. Regional differences in Chinese SO2 emission control efficiency and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. Q.; Wang, Y.; Ma, Q.; Xie, Y.; He, K.

    2015-02-01

    SO2 emission control has been one of the most important air pollution policies in China since 2000. In this study, we assess regional differences in SO2 emission control efficiencies in China through the modeling analysis of four scenarios of SO2 emissions, all of which aim at reducing the national total SO2 emissions by 8% or 2.3 Tg below the 2010 emissions level, the target set by the current 12th FYP (2011-2015), but differ in the spatial implementation. The GEOS-Chem chemical transport model is used to evaluate the efficiency of each scenario on the basis of three impact metrics: surface sulfate concentration, population-weighted sulfate concentration (PWC), and sulfur export flux from China to the Western Pacific. The efficiency of SO2 control (?) is defined as the relative change of each impact metric to a 1% reduction of SO2 emissions from the 2010 baseline. The S1 scenario, which adopts a spatially uniform reduction of SO2 emissions in China, gives a ? of 0.71, 0.83, and 0.67 for sulfate concentration, PWC, and export flux, respectively. By comparison, the S2 scenario, which implements all the SO2 emissions reduction over North China (NC), is found most effective in reducing national-mean surface sulfate concentrations and sulfur export fluxes, with ? being 0.76 and 0.95 respectively. The S3 scenario of implementing all the SO2 emission reduction over South China (SC) has the highest ? in reducing PWC (? = 0.98) because SC has the highest correlation between population density and sulfate concentration. Reducing SO2 emissions over Southwest China (SWC) is found to be least efficient on the national scale, albeit within-region benefit. The difference in ? by scenario is attributable to regional differences in SO2 oxidation pathways and source-receptor relationships. Among the three regions examined here, NC shows the largest proportion of sulfate formation from gas phase oxidation, which is more sensitive to SO2 emission change than aqueous oxidation. In addition, NC makes the largest contribution to inter-regional transport of sulfur within China and to the transport fluxes to Western Pacific. The policy implication is that China needs to carefully design a regionally specific implementation plan of realizing its SO2 emissions reduction target in order to maximize the resulting air quality benefits not only for China but for the downwind regions, with emphasis on reducing emissions from NC.

  4. Measurements of HNO3, SO2 High Resolution Aerosol SO4 (sup 2-), and Selected Aerosol Species Aboard the NASA DC-8 Aircraft: During the Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific Airborne Mission (TRACE-P)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, Robert W.; Dibb, Jack E.

    2004-01-01

    The UNH investigation during TRACE-P provided measurements of selected acidic gases and aerosol species aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft. Our investigation focused on measuring HNO3, SO2, and fine (less than 2 microns) aerosol SO4(sup 2-) with two minute time resolution in near-real-time. We also quantified mixing ratios of aerosol ionic species, and aerosol (210)Pb and (7)Be collected onto bulk filters at better than 10 minute resolution. This suite of measurements contributed extensively to achieving the principal objectives of TRACE-P. In the context of the full data set collected by experimental teams on the DC-8, our observations provide a solid basis for assessing decadal changes in the chemical composition and source strength of Asian continental outflow. This region of the Pacific should be impacted profoundly by Asian emissions at this time with significant degradation of air quality over the next few decades. Atmospheric measurements in the western Pacific region will provide a valuable time series to help quantify the impact of Asian anthropogenic activities. Our data also provide important insight into the chemical and physical processes transforming Asian outflow during transport over the Pacific, particularly uptake and reactions of soluble gases on aerosol particles. In addition, the TRACE-P data set provide strong constraints for assessing and improving the chemical fields simulated by chemical transport models.

  5. Simultaneous retrieval of volcanic ash and SO2 using MSG-SEVIRI measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prata, A. J.; Kerkmann, J.

    2007-03-01

    Volcanic ash and sulphur dioxide masses from the November 2005 eruption of Karthala volcano, Comoros Islands, are simultaneously retrieved using rapid-scan, multispectral infrared measurements from the Spin Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager on board the Meteosat Second Generation geosynchronous satellite. Retrievals are made every 15 min, which show that the ash and SO2 separate in the vertically sheared atmosphere producing a fast moving upper level (~12 km) SO2 cloud, a slower moving middle level (~8 km) ash cloud and a boundary layer (<3 km) SO2 plume. The total mass of fine ash is 0.1 +/- 0.05 Tg (SiO2), the upper level SO2 mass is 0.19 +/- 0.01 Tg (S) while the boundary layer SO2 mass is 0.009 +/- 0.01 Tg (S). These are the first simultaneous satellite measurements of ash and SO2 from an erupting volcano and confirm previous ideas about vertical separation. We suggest care must be exercised when using SO2 as a tracer for volcanic ash in aviation hazard warning systems.

  6. Studies of proton-irradiated SO2 at low temperatures Implications for Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. H.

    1984-07-01

    The infrared absorption spectrum from 3.3 to 27 microns of SO2 ice films has been measured at 20 and 88 K before and after 1-MeV proton irradiation. The radiation flux was chosen to simulate the estimated flux of Jovian magnetospheric 1-MeV protons incident on Io. After irradiation, SO3 is identified as the dominant molecule synthesized in the SO2 ice. This is also the case after irradiation of composite samples of SO2 with sulfur or disulfites. Darkening was observed in irradiated SO2 ice and in irradiated S8 pellets. Photometric and spectral measurements of the thermoluminescence of irradiated SO2 have been made during warming. The spectrum appears as a broad band with a maximum at 4450 A. Analysis of the luminescence data suggests that at Ionian temperatures irradiated SO2 ice would not be a dominant contributor to posteclipse brightening phenomena. After warming to room temperature, a form of SO3 remains along with a sulfate and S8. Based on these experiments, it is reasonable to propose that small amounts of SO3 may exist on the surface of Io as a result of irradiation synthesis in SO2 frosts.

  7. Simultaneous adsorption of SO2 and NO from flue gas over mesoporous alumina.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Tang, Xiaolong; Yi, Honghong; Li, Kai; Ning, Ping; Huang, Bin; Wang, Fang; Yuan, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous alumina (MA) with a higher ability to simultaneously remove SO2 and NO was prepared by the evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The adsorption capacities of MA are 1.79 and 0.702 mmol/g for SO2 and NO, respectively. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method was used to characterize the adsorbent. Simultaneous adsorption of SO2 and NO from flue gas over MA in different operating conditions had been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The effects of temperature, oxygen concentration and water vapour were investigated. The experimental results showed that the optimum temperature for MA to simultaneously remove SO2 and NO was 90°C. The simultaneous adsorption capacities of SO2 and NO could be enhanced by increasing O2 when its concentration was below 5%. The changes of simultaneous adsorption capacities were not obvious when O2 concentration was above 5%. The increase in relative humidity results in an increase after dropping of SO2 adsorption capacity, whereas the adsorption capacity of NO showed an opposite trend. The results suggest that MA is a great adsorbent for simultaneous removal of SO2 and NO from flue gas. PMID:25189414

  8. Comparison of COSPEC and two miniature ultraviolet spectrometer systems for SO2 measurements using scattered sunlight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, T.; Sutton, A.J.; Oppenheimer, C.; Horton, K.A.; Garbeil, H.; Tsanev, V.; McGonigle, A.J.S.; Williams-Jones, G.

    2006-01-01

    The correlation spectrometer (COSPEC), the principal tool for remote measurements of volcanic SO2, is rapidly being replaced by low-cost, miniature, ultraviolet (UV) spectrometers. We compared two of these new systems with a COSPEC by measuring SO2 column amounts at Ki??lauea Volcano, Hawaii. The two systems, one calibrated using in-situ SO2 cells, and the other using a calibrated laboratory reference spectrum, employ similar spectrometer hardware, but different foreoptics and spectral retrieval algorithms. Accuracy, signal-to-noise, retrieval parameters, and precision were investigated for the two configurations of new miniature spectrometer. Measurements included traverses beneath the plumes from the summit and east rift zone of Ki??lauea, and testing with calibration cells of known SO2 concentration. The results obtained from the different methods were consistent with each other, with <8% difference in estimated SO2 column amounts up to 800 ppm m. A further comparison between the COSPEC and one of the miniature spectrometer configurations, the 'FLYSPEC', spans an eight month period and showed agreement of measured emission rates to within 10% for SO2 column amounts up to 1,600 ppm m. The topic of measuring high SO2 burdens accurately is addressed for the Ki??lauea measurements. In comparing the foreoptics, retrieval methods, and resultant implications for data quality, we aim to consolidate the various experiences to date, and improve the application and development of miniature spectrometer systems. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  9. [Domestication study about desulfuration microorganism from oxidation ditch by low concentration SO2].

    PubMed

    Huang, Bing; Shi, Zhe; Wang, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Shi-Ling

    2010-06-01

    An excellent desulfuration microorganism with a quick growth and propagation, high activation, high efficiency of removing SO2 is obtained from oxidation ditch of a city sewage treatment plant by inductive acclimatization over 6 d with low concentration SO2 gas (100-2 000 mg/m3). The desulfurition microorganism get their energy sources for growth from transforming SO2 (SO3(2-)) to SO4(2-). The predominant bacterium of the desulfuration microorganism has the same characteristic with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans (T. ferrooxidans), which showed that it was Gram negative, short rod bacteria with a single polar flagellum under a microscopic examination, and obtained its nourishment through the oxidation of inorganic compounds. The technology process condition of domestication and desulfuration of microorganism are particular studied, and the results showed that aerating time, SO2 flux and time to provide nutriment contained N, P, K to microorganism were very important. They have an ability with degradation rate of 160g/ (m3 x h) and degradation efficiency over 50% to transform sulfite to sulfate in liquid phase. The bacteria have a 98% of removing efficiency and over 80% of biodegradation efficiency for the 5 500 mg/m3 SO2 gas and the outlet concentration of SO2 is lower than 100 mg/m3, and also have a 95% of removing efficiency for 15 000 mg/m3 SO2 gas in the packed tower reactor with Raschig ring at 3s contact time. PMID:20698284

  10. SO2 removal with coal slurry in a double-stirred vessel.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenshou; Wang, Liang; Liu, Jingchun; Wang, Lichao; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the coal slurry scrubbing process, SO2 can be removed through both the coal pyrite leaching reaction and the oxidation reactions catalysed by Fe2+/Fe3+ produced in situ. In the present study, experiments of SO2 removal with coal slurry (particle size fraction 65-150 microm) were carried out using a double-stirred vessel to investigate the effects of temperature, coal particle size and pulp density on SO2 absorption rate and on the proportion of SO2 removed through the leaching reaction. Results show that the SO2 absorption rate can be increased by decreasing particle size and increasing pulp density, but it is relatively less affected by temperature. Although decreasing coal particle size and pulp density can increase coal pyrite conversion, the effectiveness is limited and the proportion of SO2 removed through the leaching reaction is little affected. Increasing temperature can evidently increase the proportion, but there also exists the problem of energy expenditure; satisfactory coal pyrite conversion during SO2 removal could not be achieved economically by such measures. In addition, the apparent rate constant has a linear relationship with the reciprocal of the coal particle diameter. PMID:24527610

  11. Measurements of dimethyl sulfide and SO2 during GTE/CITE 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferek, Ronald J.; Hegg, Dean A.

    1993-12-01

    As part of NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (GTE/CITE 3) Sulfur Gas Intercomparison, we conducted measurements of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and SO2 using two techniques well suited for sampling from an aircraft due to their simplicity of design. DMS was collected by preconcentration on gold wire preceded by a KOH-impregnated filter oxidant scrubber, and analyzed by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. SO2 was collected on K2CO3/glycerol-impregnated filters and analyzed by ion chromatography. In blind tests, both techniques produced excellent agreement with National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST) standards. For field measurements, the DMS technique produced excellent correlation with the mean of the six different techniques intercompared. For SO2, the five techniques intercompared were rather poorly correlated, but correlations between the three techniques which passed NIST standards tests were somewhat better. Our SO2 filter measurements exhibited rather large uncertainties due to higher than normal variability of the filter blanks, which we believe was caused by extended storage in the field. In measurements conducted off the coast of Natal, Brazil, a diurnal afternoon minimum in DMS concentrations accompanied by a corresponding maximum in SO2 concentrations was observed. However, due to rather large uncertainties in the SO2 measurements, any conclusions about the SO2 trend must be considered tentative.

  12. Measurements of dimethyl sulfide and SO2 during GTE/CITE 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferek, Ronald J.; Hegg, Dean A.

    1993-01-01

    As part of NASA's Tropospheric Experiment Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (GTE/CITE 3) Sulfur Gas Intercomparison, we conducted measurements of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and SO2 using two techniques well suited for sampling from an aircraft due to their simplicity of design. DMS was collected by preconcentration on gold wire preceded by a KOH-impregnated filter oxidant scrubber, and analyzed by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. SO2 was collected on K2CO3/glycerol-impregnated filters and analyzed by ion chromatography. In blind tests, both techniques produced excellent agreement with National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST) standards. For field measurements, the DMS technique produced excellent correlation with the mean of the six different techniques intercompared. For SO2, the five techniques intercompared were rather poorly correlated, but correlations between the three techniques which passed NIST standards tests were somewhat better. Our SO2 filter measurements exhibited rather large uncertainties due to higher than normal variabiltiy of the filter blanks, which we believe was caused by extended storage in the field. In measurements conducted off the coast of Natal, Brazil, a diurnal afternoon minimum in DMS concentrations accompanied by a corresponding maximum in SO2 concentrations was observed. However, due to rather large uncertainties in the SO2 measurements, any conclusions about the SO2 trend must by considered tentative.

  13. Measuring volcanic degassing of SO 2 in the lower troposphere with ASTER band ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campion, Robin; Salerno, Giuseppe Giovanni; Coheur, Pierre-François; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clarisse, Lieven; Kazahaya, Kohei; Burton, Michael; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Clerbaux, Cathy; Bernard, Alain

    2010-07-01

    We present a new method for measuring SO 2 with the data from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance radiometer) orbital sensor. The method consists of adjusting the SO 2 column amount until the ratios of radiance simulated on several ASTER bands match the observations. We present a sensitivity analysis for this method, and two case studies. The sensitivity analysis shows that the selected band ratios depend much less on atmospheric humidity, sulfate aerosols, surface altitude and emissivity than the raw radiances. Measurements with < 25% relative precision are achieved, but only when the thermal contrast between the plume and the underlying surface is higher than 10 K. For the case studies we focused on Miyakejima and Etna, two volcanoes where SO 2 is measured regularly by COSPEC or scanning DOAS. The SO 2 fluxes computed from a series of ten images of Miyakejima over the period 2000-2002 is in agreement with the long term trend of measurement for this volcano. On Etna, we compared SO 2 column amounts measured by ASTER with those acquired simultaneously by ground-based automated scanning DOAS. The column amounts compare quite well, providing a more rigorous validation of the method. The SO 2 maps retrieved with ASTER can provide quantitative insights into the 2D structure of non-eruptive volcanic plumes, their dispersion and their progressive depletion in SO 2.

  14. Mapping the BrO/SO2 ratio in the plume of Popocatépetl, Mexico with Imaging-DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielcke, Johannes; Luebcke, Peter; Vogel, Leif; Bobrowski, Nicole; Platt, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet and visible wavelength region has become a widespread tool, not only to study the chemistry of trace gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2) and halogen oxides (e.g. BrO, OClO) in volcanic plumes. It can also be used for volcano monitoring by observing SO2 fluxes and the molar ratio of BrO to SO2, which is a possible precursor for dynamic changes in the shallow part of a volcanic system like other halogen/sulfur ratios. This acquisition of this ratio is convenient as it can be measured with comparatively simple UV DOAS instruments. Imaging-DOAS (IDOAS) utilizes the push-broom or whisk-broom technique to create a hyperspectral image of a section of the sky, then the DOAS evaluation is applied to each pixel to derive trace gas slant column densities (SCDs). Hereby images of the SO2 and BrO distribution can be created, allowing to study the chemistry in different parts of the plume. This is especially interesting for the case of BrO, which is produced in the atmosphere and not directly emitted by volcanoes. Here we present IDOAS measurements carried out at Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, during April 2010 and 2011. SO2 SCDs of up to 2 - 1018 molecules cm-2 and BrO SCDs of up to 7 - 1013 molecules cm-2 were detected. The determined BrO/SO2 ratios range around 3 - 10-5, comparable to several other volcanoes in the Americas. An increase in the determined BrO/SO2 ratios with distance from the vent, i.e. plume age, can be observed.

  15. A re-evaluation of the 1991 Pinatubo SO{2} emission using TOMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S.; Bluth, G. J.; Watson, I. M.; Rose, W. I.

    2001-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions influence the atmosphere and environment from days to years depending on the amount of sulfur species and ash erupted. Large volcanic eruptions, such as Pinatubo, have much stronger effects on the atmospheric chemistry and global climate change since huge amounts of SO{2} are directly erupted into the stratosphere. The June 1991 Pinatubo eruption is the largest eruption of the satellite era, and accurate retrievals of emitted sulfur and ash species are therefore crucial in understanding its atmospheric impacts. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) is routinely used to map and quantify SO{2} for volcanic eruptions. Column amounts of SO{2} and aerosol indices (AI, which represents the ash and aerosol amount qualitatively) for each pixel can be retrieved and then a total mass of SO{2} within the volcanic cloud can be calculated. The SO{2} cloud from the Pinatubo eruption has been studied by Bluth et al. (GRL, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1992). Uncertainties from missing data, saturation, gaps and overlap between neighboring pixels may bring errors in the estimation of initially erupted SO{2} amounts and SO{2} removal rate. An iterative SO{2} algorithm, which was developed by scientists from NASA, is used for getting a more accurate result of total column SO{2} in each pixel. The gap and overlap problem of neighboring pixels is addressed by resampling the data into grids using a nearest neighbor method. Missing data problems in the TOMS datasets due to periodic transmission interruptions are treated by a variety of interpolation models. We have been analyzing the accuracy of a variety of reconstruction methods. The goals of this project include revised tonnage values for daily cloud images; this information will be used to derive a more accurate emitted sulfur dioxide mass and removal rate. Studies of gas and particle separation in the TOMS UV dataset will be supplemented by and compared to IR data analyses.

  16. Lessons Learned from OMI Observations of Point Source SO2 Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotkov, N.; Fioletov, V.; McLinden, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA Aura satellite makes global daily measurements of the total column of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a short-lived trace gas produced by fossil fuel combustion, smelting, and volcanoes. Although anthropogenic SO2 signals may not be detectable in a single OMI pixel, it is possible to see the source and determine its exact location by averaging a large number of individual measurements. We describe new techniques for spatial and temporal averaging that have been applied to the OMI SO2 data to determine the spatial distributions or "fingerprints" of SO2 burdens from top 100 pollution sources in North America. The technique requires averaging of several years of OMI daily measurements to observe SO2 pollution from typical anthropogenic sources. We found that the largest point sources of SO2 in the U.S. produce elevated SO2 values over a relatively small area - within 20-30 km radius. Therefore, one needs higher than OMI spatial resolution to monitor typical SO2 sources. TROPOMI instrument on the ESA Sentinel 5 precursor mission will have improved ground resolution (approximately 7 km at nadir), but is limited to once a day measurement. A pointable geostationary UVB spectrometer with variable spatial resolution and flexible sampling frequency could potentially achieve the goal of daily monitoring of SO2 point sources and resolve downwind plumes. This concept of taking the measurements at high frequency to enhance weak signals needs to be demonstrated with a GEOCAPE precursor mission before 2020, which will help formulating GEOCAPE measurement requirements.

  17. Toxic gases.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, G.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the widespread use of gases and some volatile solvents in modern society is given. The usual circumstances in which undue exposure may occur are described. The most prominent symptoms and general principles of diagnosis and treatment are given and are followed by more specific information on the commoner, more toxic materials. While acute poisonings constitute the greater part of the paper, some indication of chronic disorders arising from repeated or prolonged exposure is also given. PMID:2687827

  18. Evaluation of tropospheric SO2 retrieved from MAX-DOAS measurements in Xianghe, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Hendrick, F.; Wang, P.; Tang, G.; Clémer, K.; Yu, H.; Fayt, C.; Hermans, C.; Gielen, C.; Müller, J.-F.; Pinardi, G.; Theys, N.; Brenot, H.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2014-10-01

    Ground-based multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) have been performed at the Xianghe station (39.8° N, 117.0° E) located at ~ 50 km southeast of Beijing from March 2010 to February 2013. Tropospheric SO2 vertical profiles and corresponding vertical column densities (VCDs), retrieved by applying the optimal estimation method to the MAX-DOAS observations, have been used to study the seasonal and diurnal cycles of SO2, in combination with correlative measurements from in situ instruments, as well as meteorological data. A marked seasonality was observed in both SO2 VCD and surface concentration, with a maximum in winter (February) and a minimum in summer (July). This can be explained by the larger emissions in winter due to the domestic heating and, in case of surface concentration, by more favorable meteorological conditions for the accumulation of SO2 close to the ground during this period. Wind speed and direction are also found to be two key factors in controlling the level of the SO2-related pollution at Xianghe. In the case of east or southwest wind, the SO2 concentration does not change significantly with the wind speed, since the city of Tangshan and heavy polluting industries are located to the east and southwest of the station, respectively. In contrast, when wind comes from other directions, the stronger the wind, the less SO2 is observed due to a more effective dispersion. Regarding the diurnal cycle, the SO2 amount is larger in the early morning and late evening and lower at noon, in line with the diurnal variation of pollutant emissions and atmospheric stability. A strong correlation with correlation coefficients between 0.6 and 0.9 is also found between SO2 and aerosols in winter, suggesting that anthropogenic SO2, through the formation of sulfate aerosols, contributes significantly to the total aerosol content during this season. The observed diurnal cycles of MAX-DOAS SO2 surface concentration are also in very good agreement (correlation coefficient close to 0.9) with those from collocated in situ data, indicating the good reliability and robustness of our retrieval.

  19. The global distribution, abundance, and stability of SO2 on Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, A.S.; Johnson, T.V.; Matson, D.L.; Soderblom, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide distribution and abundances, bolometric hemispheric albedos, and passive surface temperatures on Io are modeled and mapped globally from Voyager multispectral mosaics, Earth-based spectra, and photometric descriptions. Photometric models indicate global average values for regolith porosity of 75-95% and macroscopic roughness with a mean slope angle of ~30??. Abundances of SO2 suggested by observations at uv-visible wavelengths and at 4.08 ??m are partially reconciled by intimate-mixing models; 30-50% SO2 coverage of the integral disk is indicated. Three major spectral end members, with continuous mixing, are recognized from the Voyager multispectral mosaics; one of these end members is identified as SO2. Intimate-mixing models with the three spectal end members are used to produce abundance maps for the optical surface; ~30% of Io's total optical surface consists of SO2. The SO2 is concentrated in the bright equatorial band and is relatively deficient in the region of Pele-type volcanic reuptions (long 240??-360??) and the polar regions. Temperatures are computed to vary over a 40??K range, at the same illumination angle, according to variations in surface bolometric hemispheric albedo. The brightest (and locally coldest) areas correspond to areas rich in SO2 and are concentrated in an equatorial band (??30?? lat), but many small cold patches occur elsewhere. These cold patches have radiative equilibrium temperatures ???120??K at the subsolar point, resulting in SO2 saturation vapor pressures ???10-8 bar. Midlatitude areas and the region of Pele-type plume eruptions are generally warmer (due to lower albedos). These results for surface temperatures and SO2 abundances and distribution support the regional coldtrapping model for the surface and atmospheric SO2 presented by F.P. Fanale, W.B. Banerdt, L.S. Elson, T.V. Johnson, and R.W. Zurek (1982, In Satellites of Jupiter (D. Morrison, Ed.), pp. 756-781, Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson), although the region of Pele-type volcanic eruptions may be better characterized by the regolith condtrapping/volcanic-venting model of D.L. Matson and D.B. Nash (1983, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 4771-4783). The bright equatorial band is especially effective at slowing the formation of polar caps of SO2, both by reducing the sublimation rate near the subsolar point and by coldtrapping the SO2 in the equatorial region, so that competing processes of sputtering and volcanic resurfacing may prevent the formation of polar SO2 caps.

  20. Measurements of SO2 concentration and atmospheric structure in Delta and Breton wildlife refuges

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, S.A.

    1995-04-01

    A field program designed to measure the ambient concentrations of SO2 as well as pertinent meteorological parameters was conducted during the summer of 1993. Three stations were established in the EPA Class 1 areas of Breton and Delta Wildlife Refuges near the mouth of the Mississippi River. It was found that the SO2 concentration measured throughout the monitoring duration was only 2% of the National maximum allowable once per year. The passage of a weak cold front in September showed that the SO2 concentrations were higher when the wind blew from land to the Gulf than under normal summer conditions when the wind blew from the Gulf toward land.

  1. The Galileo probe Li/SO2 battery: The safest battery on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcoux, L. S.; Dagarin, B. P.

    1983-01-01

    The unique power requirement of NASA's Galileo Jupiter Probe are most readily met by a Li/SO2 battery; however, because this battery system is not space flight proven, extensive effort was required to qualify this device from the stand point of performance and safety. Due to the rather checkered safety record of the Li/SO2 system, safety has been foremost among the design considerations and has been addressed at the cell, battery and system level. The mission requirements which led to the choice of the Li/SO2 battery and the safety engineering which went into the battery and power system design are described.

  2. Validation of satellite SO2 observations in northern Finland during the Icelandic Holuhraun fissure eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ialongo, Iolanda; Hakkarainen, Janne; Kivi, Rigel; Anttila, Pia; Krotkov, Nickolay; Yang, Kai; Li, Can; Tukiainen, Simo; Hassinen, Seppo; Tamminen, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    This paper shows the validation results of the satellite SO2 observations from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and OMPS (Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite) during the Icelandic Holuhraun fissure eruption in September 2014. The volcanic plume reached Finland on several days during the month of September. The SO2 total columns from the Brewer direct sun (DS) measurements in Sodankylä (67.42°N, 26.59°E), northern Finland, are compared to the satellite data. Challenging retrieval conditions at high latitudes (like large solar zenith angle, SZA) are considered in the comparison. The results show that the best agreement can be found for small SZAs, close-to-nadir satellite pixels, cloud fraction below 0.3 and small distance between the station and the centre of the pixel. Under good retrieval conditions, the difference between satellite data and Brewer measurements remains mostly below the uncertainty on the satellite SO2 retrievals (up to about 2 DU at high latitudes). The satellite products assuming a priori profile with SO2 predominantly in the planetary boundary layer give total column values close to the ground-based data, suggesting that the volcanic SO2 plume was located at particularly low altitudes. This is connected to the fact that this was a fissure eruption and most of the SO2 was emitted into the troposphere. The analysis of the SO2 surface concentrations at four air quality stations in northern Finland supports the hypothesis that the volcanic plume coming from Iceland was located very close to the surface. The time evolution of the SO2 concentrations peaks during the same days when large SO2 total column values are measured by the Brewer in Sodankylä and enhanced SO2 signal is visible over northern Finland from the satellite maps. This is an exceptional case because the SO2 volcanic emission directly affect the air quality levels at surface in an otherwise pristine environment like northern Finland. OMI and OMPS SO2 retrievals from direct-broadcast measurements are validated for the first time in this paper.

  3. Validation of satellite SO2 observations in northern Finland during the Icelandic Holuhraun fissure eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ialongo, I.; Hakkarainen, J.; Kivi, R.; Anttila, P.; Krotkov, N. A.; Yang, K.; Li, C.; Tukiainen, S.; Hassinen, S.; Tamminen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows the validation results of the satellite SO2 observations from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and OMPS (Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite) during the Icelandic Holuhraun fissure eruption in September 2014. The volcanic plume reached Finland on several days during the month of September. The SO2 total columns from the Brewer direct sun (DS) measurements in Sodankylä (67.42° N, 26.59° E), northern Finland, are compared to the satellite data. Challenging retrieval conditions at high latitudes (like large solar zenith angle, SZA) are considered in the comparison. The results show that the best agreement can be found for small SZAs, close-to-nadir satellite pixels, cloud fraction below 0.3 and small distance between the station and the centre of the pixel. Under good retrieval conditions, the difference between satellite data and Brewer measurements remains mostly below the uncertainty on the satellite SO2 retrievals (up to about 2 DU at high latitudes). The satellite products assuming a priori profile with SO2 predominantly in the planetary boundary layer give total column values close to the ground-based data, suggesting that the volcanic SO2 plume was located at particularly low altitudes. This is connected to the fact that this was a fissure eruption and most of the SO2 was emitted into the troposphere. The analysis of the SO2 surface concentrations at four air quality stations in northern Finland supports the hypothesis that the volcanic plume coming from Iceland was located very close to the surface. The time evolution of the SO2 concentrations peaks during the same days when large SO2 total column values are measured by the Brewer in Sodankylä and enhanced SO2 signal is visible over northern Finland from the satellite maps. This is an exceptional case because the SO2 volcanic emission directly affect the air quality levels at surface in an otherwise pristine environment like northern Finland. OMI and OMPS SO2 retrievals from direct-broadcast measurements are validated for the first time in this paper.

  4. Regional differences in Chinese SO2 emission control efficiency and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. Q.; Wang, Y.; Ma, Q.; Yao, Y.; Xie, Y.; He, K.

    2015-06-01

    SO2 emission control has been one of the most important air pollution policies in China since 2000. In this study, we assess regional differences in SO2 emission control efficiencies in China through the modeling analysis of four scenarios of SO2 emissions, all of which aim to reduce the national total SO2 emissions by 8% or 2.3 Tg below the 2010 emissions level, the target set by the current twelfth Five-Year Plan (FYP; 2011-2015), but differ in spatial implementation. The GEOS-Chem chemical transport model is used to evaluate the efficiency of each scenario on the basis of four impact metrics: surface SO2 and sulfate concentrations, population-weighted sulfate concentration (PWC), and sulfur export flux from China to the western Pacific. The efficiency of SO2 control (β) is defined as the relative change of each impact metric to a 1% reduction in SO2 emissions from the 2010 baseline. The S1 scenario, which adopts a spatially uniform reduction in SO2 emissions in China, gives a β of 0.99, 0.71, 0.83, and 0.67 for SO2 and sulfate concentrations, PWC, and export flux, respectively. By comparison, the S2 scenario, which implements all the SO2 emissions reduction over North China (NC), is found most effective in reducing national mean surface SO2 and sulfate concentrations and sulfur export fluxes, with β being 1.0, 0.76, and 0.95 respectively. The S3 scenario of implementing all the SO2 emission reduction over South China (SC) has the highest β in reducing PWC (β = 0.98) because SC has the highest correlation between population density and sulfate concentration. Reducing SO2 emissions over Southwest China (SWC) is found to be least efficient on the national scale, albeit with large benefits within the region. The difference in β by scenario is attributable to the regional difference in SO2 oxidation pathways and the source-receptor relationship. Among the three regions examined here, NC shows the largest proportion of sulfate formation through gas-phase oxidation, which is more sensitive to SO2 emissions change than aqueous oxidation. In addition, NC makes the largest contribution to inter-regional transport of sulfur within China and to the transport fluxes to the western Pacific. The policy implication of this is that China needs to carefully design a regionally specific implementation plan of realizing its SO2 emissions reduction target in order to maximize the resulting air quality benefits, not only for China but for the downwind regions, with emphasis on reducing emissions from NC, where SO2 emissions have decreased at a slower rate than national total emissions in the previous FYP period.

  5. Experiments on and mechanism of simultaneous removal of Hg0, SO2 and NO from flus gas using NaClO2 solution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; Ma, Xiaoying; Liu, Songtao; Yao, Jie

    2009-03-01

    Experiments on the simultaneous removal of mercury (Hg0), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitric oxide (NO) from flue gas using sodium chlorite solution (NaClO2) were carried out in a bench-scale bubbling reactor. The effect of initial pH on Hg0 removal efficiency was investigated. The results show that the efficiency of Hg0 removal was higher in acid condition. The effect of the concentrations of SO2 and NO from simulated flue gas on Hg0 removal efficiency with NaClO2 solution was examined. The Hg0 removal efficiency can be significantly improved by adding NO to flue gas, when sufficient NaClO2 solution was available. In the experiment, an amount of NaClO2 was found to be consumed by SO2. The addition of SO2 to simulated flue gas did not significantly affect the efficiency of Hg0 removal. Moreover, under the acid condition, the simultaneous removal of Hg0, SO2 and NO indicated that NaClO2 solution was an excellent absorbent. Finally, the reaction mechanism between Hg0, SO2, NO and NaClO2 is discussed. PMID:19438060

  6. Atmospheric So2 Emissions Since the Late 1800s Change Organic Sulfur Forms in Humic Substance Extracts of Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann,J.; Solomon, D.; Zhao, F.; McGrath, S.

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric SO2 emissions in the UK and globally increased 6- and 20-fold, respectively, from the mid-1800s to the 1960s resulting in increased S deposition, acid rain, and concurrent acidification of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Structural analyses using synchrotron-based X-ray near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) on humic substance extracts of archived samples from the Rothamsted Park Grass Experiment reveal a significant (R2 = -0.58; P < 0.05; N = 7) shift in soil organic sulfur (S) forms, from reduced to more oxidized organic S between 1876 and 1981, even though soil total S contents remained relatively constant. Over the last 30 years, a decrease in emissions and consequent S deposition has again corresponded with a change of organic S structures of humic extractsreverting in the direction of their early industrial composition. However, the observed reversal lagged behind reductions in emissions by 19 years, which was computed using cross correlations between time series data (R2 = 0.66; P = 0.0024; N = 11). Presently, the ratio of oxidized-to-reduced organic S in humic substance extracts is nearly double that of early industrial times at identical SO2 emission loads. The significant and persistent structural changes of organic S in humic substances as a response to SO2 emissions and S deposition may have effects on recuperation of soils and surface waters from acidification.

  7. Atmospheric SO2 emissions since the late 1800s change organic sulfur forms in humic substance extracts of soils.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Johannes; Solomon, Dawit; Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve P

    2008-05-15

    Atmospheric SO2 emissions in the UK and globally increased 6- and 20-fold, respectively, from the mid-1800s to the 1960s resulting in increased S deposition, acid rain, and concurrent acidification of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Structural analyses using synchrotron-based X-ray near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) on humic substance extracts of archived samples from the Rothamsted Park Grass Experiment reveal a significant (R2 = -0.58; P < 0.05; N = 7) shift in soil organic sulfur (S) forms, from reduced to more oxidized organic S between 1876 and 1981, even though soil total S contents remained relatively constant. Over the last 30 years, a decrease in emissions and consequent S deposition has again corresponded with a change of organic S structures of humic extracts-reverting in the direction of their early industrial composition. However, the observed reversal lagged behind reductions in emissions by 19 years, which was computed using cross correlations between time series data (R2 = 0.66; P = 0.0024; N = 11). Presently, the ratio of oxidized-to-reduced organic S in humic substance extracts is nearly double that of early industrial times at identical SO2 emission loads. The significant and persistent structural changes of organic S in humic substances as a response to SO2 emissions and S deposition may have effects on recuperation of soils and surface waters from acidification. PMID:18546688

  8. Particulate sulfate ion concentration and SO2 emission trends in the United States from the early 1990s through 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, J. L.; Schichtel, B. A.; Malm, W. C.; Pitchford, M. L.

    2012-11-01

    We examined particulate sulfate ion concentrations across the United States from the early 1990s through 2010 using remote/rural data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network and from early 2000 through 2010 using data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) urban Chemical Speciation Network (CSN). We also examined measured sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from power plants from 1995 through 2010 from the EPA's Acid Rain Program. The 1992-2010 annual mean sulfate concentrations at long-term rural sites in the United States have decreased significantly and fairly consistently across the United States at a rate of -2.7% yr-1 (p < 0.01). The short-term (2001-2010) annual mean trend at rural sites was -4.6% yr-1 (p < 0.01) and at urban sites (2002-2010) was -6.2% yr-1 (p < 0.01). Annual total SO2 emissions from power plants across the United States have decreased at a similar rate as sulfate concentrations from 2001 to 2010 (-6.2% yr-1, p < 0.01), suggesting a linear relationship between SO2 emissions and average sulfate concentrations. This linearity was strongest in the eastern United States and weakest in the West where power plant SO2 emissions were lowest and sulfate concentrations were more influenced by non-power-plant and perhaps international SO2 emissions. In addition, annual mean, short-term sulfate concentrations decreased more rapidly in the East relative to the West due to differences in seasonal trends at certain regions in the West. Specifically, increased wintertime concentrations in the central and northern Great Plains and increased springtime concentrations in the western United States were observed. These seasonal and regional positive trends could not be explained by changes in known local and regional SO2 emissions, suggesting other contributing influences. This work implies that on an annual mean basis across the United States, air quality mitigation strategies have been successful in reducing the particulate loading of sulfate in the atmosphere; however, for certain seasons and regions, especially in the West, current mitigation strategies appear insufficient.

  9. Particulate sulfate ion concentration and SO2 emission trends in the United States from the early 1990s through 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, J. L.; Schichtel, B. A.; Malm, W. C.; Pitchford, M. L.

    2012-08-01

    We examined particulate sulfate ion concentrations across the United States from the early 1990s through 2010 using remote/rural data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network and from early 2000 through 2010 using data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) urban Chemical Speciation Network (CSN). We also examined measured sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from power plants from 1995 through 2010 from the EPA's Acid Rain Program. The 1992-2010 annual mean sulfate concentrations at long-term sites in the United States have decreased significantly and fairly consistently across the United States at a rate of -2.7% yr-1 (p < 0.01). Short-term annual mean trends at rural and urban sites were -4.6% yr-1 (p < 0.01) from 2001 to 2010 and -6.2% yr-1 (p < 0.01) from 2002 to 2010, respectively. Annual total SO2 emissions from power plants across the United States have decreased at a similar rate as sulfate concentrations from 2000 to 2010 (-4.9% yr-1, p < 0.01), suggesting a linear relationship between SO2 emissions and average sulfate concentrations. This linearity was strongest in the eastern United States and weakest in the West where power plant SO2 emissions were lowest and sulfate concentrations were more influenced by non-power-plant and international SO2 emissions. In addition, annual mean, short-term sulfate concentrations decreased more rapidly in the East relative to the West due to differences in seasonal behavior at certain regions in the West. Specifically, increased wintertime concentrations in the central and northern Great Plains and increased springtime concentrations in the western United States were observed. These seasonal and regional increased concentrations could not be explained by changes in local and regional SO2 emissions, suggesting other contributing influences. This work implies that on an annual mean basis across the United States, air quality mitigation strategies have been successful in reducing the particulate loading of sulfate in the atmosphere; however, for certain seasons and regions, especially in the West, current mitigation strategies appear insufficient.

  10. DETECTION OF SO2 AT HIGH TEMPERATURE WITH ELECTRICALLY BIASED, SOLID-ELECTROLYTE SENSING ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    West, David L; Montgomery, Fred C; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    Design and operation of sensing elements for the detection of sulfur dioxide (SO2) at high temperature (800 900 oC) is described. The sensing elements consisted of three (two oxide and one Pt) electrodes on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates. To operate the elements, a constant current (usually on the order of 0.1 mA) was driven between two of the electrodes and the voltage between one of these electrodes and the third electrode was monitored and used as the sensing signal. In one example, 31 ppm SO2 caused an approximately 40% change in the element output, and 2 ppm of SO2 could be easily detected. The cross-sensitivity to several interferents such as NOx was evaluated and found to be relatively small in comparison to the SO2 response.

  11. FACTORS AFFECTING DRY DEPOSITION OF SO2 ON FORESTS AND GRASSLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deposition velocities for SO2 over forests and grasslands are derived through a mass conservation approach using established empirical relations descriptive of the atmospheric transport of a gaseous contaminant above and within a vegetational canopy. Of particular interest are si...

  12. The SO2 Cycle on Io as Seen by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doute', S.; Lopes-Gautier, R.; Carlson, R. W.; Schmitt, B.; Soderblom, L. A.

    2000-01-01

    Based on the analysis of Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) hyperspectral images of Io that leads to sulfur dioxide distribution maps, we intend to give some insights about different processes occurring throughout the SO2 cycle.

  13. Flue gas treatment for SO2 removal with air-sparged hydrocyclone technology.

    PubMed

    Bokotko, Romuald P; Hupka, Jan; Miller, Jan D

    2005-02-15

    Laboratory results from an initial study on the removal of SO2 from gas mixtures are reported using air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH) technology. Tap water and alkaline solutions were used for absorption, and the influence of gas flow rate, water flow rate, and length of the ASH unit were investigated. The research results indicate thatthe air-sparged hydrocyclone can be used as a highly efficient absorber for SO2 emissions. The ASH allows for 97% SO2 removal using water alone for sulfur dioxide content in the gas phase of 5 g/m3. All SO2 is removed in weakly alkaline solution (0.01 mol NaOH/dm3). PMID:15773494

  14. Plasma-chemical oxidation of SO2 in air by pulsed electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, Y. N.; Mesyats, G. A.; Kuznetsov, D. L.

    2001-04-01

    The results are given of detailed experimental studies of the model flue gas mixture irradiation by pulsed electron beams and electron-beam-initiated non-self-sustained discharges. The effects of the electron beam parameters, the external electric field and the composition of irradiated gas on the process of sulphur dioxide SO2 removal are analysed. We demonstrate the existence of optimum values of the electron beam current density and pulse duration, and of the external electric field strength, at which the energy required to remove one SO2 molecule is minimum. The energy cost and removal rate are given as functions of the concentration of SO2, oxygen and water vapour in the mixture. The concentration limit that divides the chain and radical mechanisms of SO2 removal is determined.

  15. On Io's 2.788-micron band: Origin by SO2 or H2O?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Douglas B.

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory reflectance spectra of SO2 frost and ice and thin H2O frost show that the recently reported band at 2.788 microns in Io's disk-integrated spectrum can be qualitatively explained by the presence of solid SO2 on Io's surface. However, the reported width of the Io band is too great to be explained by SO2 frost or ice alone. Lab spectra presented here, and other data cited here, show clearly that solid SO2 has a strong band at 2.789 microns, and that Io should have such a band. These results do not support the claim of Bregman et al. that H2O is the primary cause of the Io band.

  16. Noble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podosek, F. A.

    2003-12-01

    The noble gases are the group of elements - helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon - in the rightmost column of the periodic table of the elements, those which have "filled" outermost shells of electrons (two for helium, eight for the others). This configuration of electrons results in a neutral atom that has relatively low electron affinity and relatively high ionization energy. In consequence, in most natural circumstances these elements do not form chemical compounds, whence they are called "noble." Similarly, much more so than other elements in most circumstances, they partition strongly into a gas phase (as monatomic gas), so that they are called the "noble gases" (also, "inert gases"). (It should be noted, of course, that there is a sixth noble gas, radon, but all isotopes of radon are radioactive, with maximum half-life a few days, so that radon occurs in nature only because of recent production in the U-Th decay chains. The factors that govern the distribution of radon isotopes are thus quite different from those for the five gases cited. There are interesting stories about radon, but they are very different from those about the first five noble gases, and are thus outside the scope of this chapter.)In the nuclear fires in which the elements are forged, the creation and destruction of a given nuclear species depends on its nuclear properties, not on whether it will have a filled outermost shell when things cool off and nuclei begin to gather electrons. The numerology of nuclear physics is different from that of chemistry, so that in the cosmos at large there is nothing systematically special about the abundances of the noble gases as compared to other elements. We live in a very nonrepresentative part of the cosmos, however. As is discussed elsewhere in this volume, the outstanding generalization about the geo-/cosmochemistry of the terrestrial planets is that at some point thermodynamic conditions dictated phase separation of solids from gases, and that the Earth and the rest of the inner solar were made by collecting the solids, to the rather efficient exclusion of the gases. In this grand separation the noble gases, because they are noble, were partitioned strongly into the gas phase. The resultant generalization is that the noble gases are very scarce in the materials of the inner solar system, whence their common synonym "rare gases."This scarcity is probably the most important single feature to remember about noble-gas cosmochemistry. As illustration of the absolute quantities, for example, a meteorite that contains xenon at a concentration of order 10 -10 cm3STP g -1 (4×10-15 mol g-1) would be considered relatively rich in xenon. Yet this is only 0.6 ppt (part per trillion, fractional abundance 10-12) by mass. In most circumstances, an element would be considered efficiently excluded from some sample if its abundance, relative to cosmic proportions to some convenient reference element, were depleted by "several" orders of magnitude. But a noble gas would be considered to be present in quite high concentration if it were depleted by only four or five orders of magnitude (in the example above, 10-10 cm3STP g-1 of xenon corresponds to depletion by seven orders of magnitude), and one not uncommonly encounters noble-gas depletion of more than 10 orders of magnitude.The second most important feature to note about noble-gas cosmochemistry is that while a good deal of the attention given to noble gases really is about chemistry, traditionally a good deal of attention is also devoted to nuclear phenomena, much more so than for most other elements. This feature is a corollary of the first feature noted above, namely scarcity. A variety of nuclear transmutation processes - decay of natural radionuclides and energetic particle reactions - lead to the production of new nuclei that are often new elements. Most commonly, the quantity of new nuclei originating in nuclear transmutation is very small compared to the quantity already present in the sample in question, metaphorically a drop in the bucket. Thus, they are very difficult or impossible to detect and, therefore, in practical terms, attracting little or no interest. When the bucket is empty, or nearly so, however, the "drop" contributed by nuclear transmutations may become observable or even dominant. Traditionally there are two types of (nearly) empty buckets that are most suitable for revealing the effects of nuclear transmutations: short-lived radionuclides (e.g., 10Be and 26Al) which would be entirely absent except for recent nuclear reactions, and the noble gases, renowned for their scarcity.Emphasis on nuclear processes explains what sometimes seems to be an obsession with isotopes in noble-gas geo- and cosmochemistry. Different nuclear processes will produce different isotopes, singly or in suites with well-defined proportions (i.e., "components"), different from one process to another. Much of the traditional agenda of noble-gas geochemistry, and especially cosmochemistry, thus consists of isotopic analysis, and deconvolution of an observed isotopic spectrum into constituent components. (In most geochemical investigations, noble gases are detected by mass spectrometry, a technique that is inherently sensitive to specific isotopes, not just the chemical element. Isotopic data thus emerge naturally in most studies. Noble-gas mass spectrometry can be a much more sensitive technique than other traditional types of mass spectrometry because the gases are "noble," and therefore relatively easy to separate from other elements, and because they are scarce, so that they can be analyzed in "static"-mode (no pumping during analysis) gas-source spectrometers, permitting relatively high detection efficiency without overwhelming blanks.) In realistic terms, it is very difficult to appreciate noble-gas geo-/cosmochemistry without a basic familiarity with noble-gas isotopes: which isotopes occur in nature (i.e., which are stable), in what approximate abundance they are found, how they relate to non-noble neighbors, and, to some extent, how they are associated with specific nuclear processes. Figure 1 provides assistance in this regard. (6K)Figure 1. A display of the isotopes of the noble gases and neighboring isotopes in the familiar "chart of the nuclides" format. The abscissa is neutron number (N) and the ordinate is proton number (Z). The box corresponding to any pair (Z, N) represents an isotope; an element is represented by a horizontal row. Boxes for stable isotopes are shown with solid outline; for the noble gases, approximate solar (in the case of He, protosolar) isotope ratios are shown at the bottom of each box. Selected unstable isotopes are shown as boxes with broken line edges. The left-superscript isotope label is the atomic weight A (=Z+N). The five panels show regions around the five noble gases (excluding Rn). When the goal is to identify and quantify different noble-gas components that may be present in a sample or group of samples, a common approach to this goal is to try to unmix the components, at least partially, to provide some leverage. One path to this end, of course, is analysis of different samples that may contain the components in different proportions, and thus have different isotopic compositions. Another path, available in addition to or instead of the first, is stepwise heating analysis, which has traditionally been very extensively used in noble-gas studies. Noble gases may be released from solid samples by volume diffusion, or by reaction, recrystallization, melting, or even evaporation of their host phases. If different noble-gas components reside in physically distinct locations within a complex sample, they may be liberated, and thus become available for analysis, at different steps in a time-temperature heating sequence. Differential release of isotopically distinct components will then result in variation of the isotopic composition of gas released in different steps (e.g., see Figures 2 and 4). (12K)Figure 2. A three-isotope diagram illustrating compositional variations in lunar samples and meteorites, as observed in stepwise in vacuo etching and pyrolysis. Since the observed isotopic compositions do not lie on a single straight line, at least three isotopically distinct components must contribute in variable proportions. These data are interpreted as superposition of solar wind (SW), solar energetic particles (SEP), and galactic cosmic ray, i.e., spallation (GCR) Ne components (source Wieler, 1998). A common tool for visualization of isotopic variations is the so-called "three-isotope diagram," in which two isotope ratios, each with the same reference (denominator) isotope, are displayed on abscissa and ordinate (e.g., Figure 2). Two isotopically distinct components will plot at distinct points on a three-isotope diagram, and an often-used feature is that mixtures of the two components will plot on the straight line joining those two points. A lever rule applies: the greater the proportion that one component contributes to a mixture, the closer the point representing the mixture will lie to the point representing that end-member component, and there is a linear relationship between fractional distance from one end-member to the other and the fraction that each component contributes to the mixture (specifically to the reference isotope). If observed isotopic data are variable but the variations in two ratios are correlated, so as to be consistent with a straight line on a three-isotope diagram, it can be inferred that at least two components are present and it will often be hypothesized that only two components are present, in which case their compositions can be constrained to lie on the line, one on either side of the data field. If three components are present, not coincidentally collinear on this diagram, mixtures will occupy the triangular field defined by the three compositions, and conversely if observed data are not consistent with linear correlation it can be inferred that at least three components are contributing to the mix. The concept of the three-isotope diagram is readily generalized. Four isotopes defining three ratios (all with the same reference isotope), for example, will define a three-dimensional space in which mixture of two components will produce compositions lying along a straight line, and mixture of three components will produce compositions lying in a plane, etc. Generalization to more dimensions is mathematically straightforward, even if difficult to envision.

  17. Changes in SO2 flux degassing regime prior to the 2014 Stromboli eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburello, Giancarlo; Delle Donne, Dario; Ripepe, Maurizio; Bitetto, Marcello; Cosenza, Paolo; Giudice, Gaetano; Riccobono, Giuseppe; Aiuppa, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions are often accompanied by release of huge amounts of magmatic SO2. Capturing sizeable precursory SO2 flux variations prior to eruption has revealed far more challenging, instead, in spite of the recent progresses in instrumental gas monitoring. Here, we report on the SO2 fluxes variations we detected at Stromboli volcano prior to the effusive eruption started on the 6th August 2014. The SO2 fluxes were regularly quantified at high-rate (0.5 Hz) using two fully autonomous permanent SO2 camera devices installed - within the framework the ERC-FP7 project "Bridge"- at two sites located at 0.5 km (Roccette) and 1.75 km (Sciara del Fuoco rim) distance from the crater terrace. This system provided sufficient spatial resolution, (~0.4 m) to allow for separate evaluation of gas emissions from the centrals/NE craters (CC and NEC, ~150 t/d on average) and from the northern hornitos (NH, ~15 t/d on average) that was active in summer 2014. Notwithstanding its marginal contribution to the total SO2 flux, the NH was vigorously active before the effusive eruption onset, and produced a large number of ash-free explosions, which individual SO2 output was easily measurable at high sampling rate with the SO2 cameras. From the beginning of June 2014, the NH exhibited a progressive increase of its explosive SO2 release (from ~1 t/d up to ~5 t/d) which culminated in correspondence with a sequence of lava overflows on the beginning of July 2014. A notable correlation between the explosive degassing pattern and co-acquired acoustic pressure and satellite-derived Volcanic Radiative Power was observed. The relative contributions of the individual degassing craters to the total gas emissions varied in response to the displacement of the magma level within the conduits, with the largest SO2 fluxes being observed during lava overflows. Our results here indicate detectable changes in the relative gas contribution from the different craters and in their degassing modes, although in the absence of sizeable pre-eruptive variations of the total SO2 output. Our observations offer new insights for the understanding of degassing dynamics within shallow conduit systems.

  18. Yield response curves of crops exposed to SO 2 time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Male, Larry; Preston, Eric; Neely, Grady

    Six species (alfalfa, onion, lettuce, radish, red clover, Douglas fir) were exposed in field growth chambers to both constant concentration and stochastic SO 2 time series. Yield response curves were generated with median concentrations ranging from 0 to 20 pphm. Constant concentration treatments were found to underestimate yield loss compared with the pollutant time series treatments. An heuristic model of plant assimilation of SO 2 is presented to explain this result.

  19. SO2 in the Fall in the Arctic: Source Identification Using Sulfur Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, A. L.; Seguin, A.; Rempillo, O. T.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic atmosphere, although far from industrial sources, has a large anthropogenic SO2 load. Sulfur dioxide can have other sources including from dimethylsulphide (DMS) oxidation. One way to distinguish between these two types of SO2 is through sulfur isotope apportionment. During the Fall seasons of 2007 and 2008 aerosol sulfate and SO2 were measured at two sites in the Arctic. One site was on board the Canadian Coast Guard Ship, The Amundsen, as it traveled throughout the Arctic and the other site was at Alert, Nunavut, Canada. Sulfur dioxide concentrations at Alert varied between 0.02 and 18 nmol/m3 throughout the study with a median of 0.4 nmol/m3. δ34S values ranged between 0 and +11%. Concentrations and δ34S values aboard the Amundsen were much more diverse with concentrations ranging between 0.09 and 134 nmol/m3 (2007 median = 9.4 nmol/m3; 2008 median = 2.0 nmol/m3) and δ34S values ranging between -15 and +18%. High concentrations of SO2 on board the Amundsen were not directly from the Amundsen itself as there was no correlation with peaks in coincident CO2 measurements. Low concentrations of SO2 may, in a few instances, be associated with DMS oxidation. Negative δ34S values were present for samples collected near the Amundsen Gulf and are consistent with a third source of SO2 in the Arctic. This is likely the local source of SO2 from the Smoking Hills in the North West Territories. Distinguishing between these sources of SO2 in the Arctic and the importance of local verses regional sources will be discussed.

  20. Observations of atmospheric trace gases by MAX-DOAS in the coastal boundary layer over Jiaozhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xianxin; Wang, Zhangjun; Meng, Xiangqian; Zhou, Haijin; Du, Libin; Qu, Junle; Chen, Chao; An, Quan; Wu, Chengxuan; Wang, Xiufen

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric trace gases exist in the atmosphere of the earth rarely. But the atmospheric trace gases play an important role in the global atmospheric environment and ecological balance by participating in the global atmospheric cycle. And many environmental problems are caused by the atmospheric trace gases such as photochemical smog, acid rain, greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, etc. So observations of atmospheric trace gases become very important. Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) developed recently is a kind of promising passive remote sensing technology which can utilize scattered sunlight received from multiple viewing directions to derive vertical column density of lower tropospheric trace gases like ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. It has advantages of simple structure, stable running, passive remote sensing and real-time online monitoring automatically. A MAX-DOAS has been developed at Shandong Academy of Sciences Institute of Oceanographic Instrumentation (SDIOI) for remote measurements of lower tropospheric trace gases (NO2, SO2, and O3). In this paper, we mainly introduce the stucture of the instrument, calibration and results. Detailed performance analysis and calibration of the instrument were made at Qingdao. We present the results of NO2, SO2 and O3 vertical column density measured in the coastal boundary layer over Jiaozhou Bay. The diurnal variation and the daily average value comparison of vertical column density during a long-trem observation are presented. The vertical column density of NO2 and SO2 measured during Qingdao oil pipeline explosion on November 22, 2013 by MAX-DOAS is also presented. The vertical column density of NO2 reached to a high value after the explosion. Finally, the following job and the outlook for future possible improvements are given. Experimental calibration and results show that the developed MAX-DOAS system is reliable and credible.

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