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Sample records for acid hdac inhibitor

  1. HDAC inhibitor valproic acid upregulates CAR in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Pacheco, Blanca; Avalos, Berenice; Rangel, Edgar; Velazquez, Dora; Cabrera, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    Background The presence of CAR in diverse tumor types is heterogeneous with implications in tumor transduction efficiency in the context of adenoviral mediated cancer gene therapy. Preliminary studies suggest that CAR transcriptional regulation is modulated through histone acetylation and not through promoter methylation. Furthermore, it has been documented that the pharmacological induction of CAR using histone deacetylase inhibitor (iHDAC) compounds is a viable strategy to enhance adenoviral mediated gene delivery to cancer cells in vitro. The incorporation of HDAC drugs into the overall scheme in adenoviral based cancer gene therapy clinical trials seems rational. However, reports using compounds with iHDAC properties utilized routinely in the clinic are pending. Valproic acid, a short chained fatty acid extensively used in the clinic for the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder has been recently described as an effective HDAC inhibitor at therapeutic concentrations. Methods We studied the effect of valproic acid on histone H3 and H4 acetylation, CAR mRNA upregulation was studied using semiquantitative PCR and adenoviral transduction on HeLa cervical cancer cells, on MCF-7 breast cancer cells, on T24 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder cells. CAR mRNA was studied using semiquantitative PCR on tumor tissue extracted from patients diagnosed with cervical cancer treated with valproic acid. Results CAR upregulation through HDAC inhibition was observed in the three cancer cell lines with enhancement of adenoviral transduction. CAR upregulation was also observed in tumor samples obtained from patients with cervical cancer treated with therapeutic doses of valproic acid. These results support the addition of the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid to adenoviral mediated cancer gene therapy clinical trials to enhance adenoviral mediated gene delivery to the tumor cells. PMID:17892546

  2. Amidation inhibitors 4-phenyl-3-butenoic acid and 5-(acetylamino)-4-oxo-6-phenyl-2-hexenoic acid methyl ester are novel HDAC inhibitors with anti-tumorigenic properties.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amna; Burns, Timothy J; Lucrezi, Jacob D; May, Sheldon W; Green, George R; Matesic, Diane F

    2015-08-01

    4-Phenyl-3-butenoic acid (PBA) is an inhibitor of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase with anti-inflammatory properties that has been shown to inhibit the growth of ras-mutated epithelial and human lung carcinoma cells. In this report, we show that PBA also increases the acetylation levels of selected histone subtypes in a dose and time dependent manner, an effect that is attributable to the inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes. Comparison studies with the known HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) using high resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels and Western analysis provide evidence that PBA acts as an HDAC inhibitor within cells. PBA and a more potent amidation inhibitor, 5-(acetylamino)-4-oxo-6-phenyl-2-hexenoic acid methyl ester (AOPHA-Me), inhibit HDAC enzymes in vitro at micromolar concentrations, with IC50 values approximately 30 fold lower for AOPHA-Me than PBA for selected HDAC isoforms. Overall, these results indicate that PBA and AOPHA-Me are novel anti-tumorigenic HDAC inhibitors. PMID:26065689

  3. Inside HDACs with more selective HDAC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Roche, Joëlle; Bertrand, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs) are nowadays part of the therapeutic arsenal mainly against cancers, with four compounds approved by the Food and Drug Administration. During the last five years, several groups have made continuous efforts to improve this class of compounds, designing more selective compounds or compounds with multiple capacities. After a survey of the HDAC biology and structures, this review summarizes the results of the chemists working in this field, and highlights when possible the behavior of the molecules inside their targets. PMID:27318122

  4. Structure of 'linkerless' hydroxamic acid inhibitor-HDAC8 complex confirms the formation of an isoform-specific subpocket.

    PubMed

    Tabackman, Alexa A; Frankson, Rochelle; Marsan, Eric S; Perry, Kay; Cole, Kathryn E

    2016-09-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the hydrolysis of acetylated lysine side chains in histone and non-histone proteins, and play a critical role in the regulation of many biological processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, senescence, and apoptosis. Aberrant HDAC activity is associated with cancer, making these enzymes important targets for drug design. In general, HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) block the proliferation of tumor cells by inducing cell differentiation, cell cycle arrest, and/or apoptosis, and comprise some of the leading therapies in cancer treatments. To date, four HDACi have been FDA approved for the treatment of cancers: suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, Vorinostat, Zolinza®), romidepsin (FK228, Istodax®), belinostat (Beleodaq®), and panobinostat (Farydak®). Most current inhibitors are pan-HDACi, and non-selectively target a number of HDAC isoforms. Six previously reported HDACi were rationally designed, however, to target a unique sub-pocket found only in HDAC8. While these inhibitors were indeed potent against HDAC8, and even demonstrated specificity for HDAC8 over HDACs 1 and 6, there were no structural data to confirm the mode of binding. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of Compound 6 complexed with HDAC8 to 1.98Å resolution. We also describe the use of molecular docking studies to explore the binding interactions of the other 5 related HDACi. Our studies confirm that the HDACi induce the formation of and bind in the HDAC8-specific subpocket, offering insights into isoform-specific inhibition. PMID:27374062

  5. Biphenyl-4-yl-acrylohydroxamic acids: Identification of a novel indolyl-substituted HDAC inhibitor with antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Cincinelli, Raffaella; Zwick, Vincent; Musso, Loana; Zuco, Valentina; De Cesare, Michelandrea; Zunino, Franco; Simoes-Pires, Claudia; Nurisso, Alessandra; Giannini, Giuseppe; Cuendet, Muriel; Dallavalle, Sabrina

    2016-04-13

    Modification of the cap group of biphenylacrylohydroxamic acid-based HDAC inhibitors led to the identification of a new derivative (3) characterized by an indolyl-substituted 4-phenylcinnamic skeleton. Molecular docking was used to predict the optimal conformation in the class I HDACs active site. Compound 3 showed HDAC inhibitory activity and antiproliferative activity against a panel of tumor cell lines, in the low μM range. The compound was further tested in vitro for acetylation of histone H4 and other non-histone proteins, and in vivo in a colon carcinoma model, showing significant proapoptotic and antitumor activities. PMID:26890116

  6. Novel cinnamohydroxamic acid derivatives as HDAC inhibitors with anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihui; Bao, Xuefei; Yang, Jingyu; Li, Huahuan; Zhou, Qifan; Jiang, Xiaorui; Li, Meng; Liu, Xing; Yuan, Xiangzhong; Sun, Yuhong; Chen, Junli; Zhang, Jingyuan; Chen, Guoliang; Wu, Chunfu

    2016-04-01

    A novel series of cinnamohydroxamic acid derivatives were synthesized and their biological activities against HDAC were assessed. Our results showed that the compound with more strong inhibitory activity to HDAC would exhibited more significant anti-proliferative effect on tumor cells. Among these compounds, 7e displayed clearly inhibitory effects on HDAC and tumor cell growth. Furthermore, HDAC isoforms enzyme data indicated that, compared to HDAC pan-inhibitor SAHA, 7e owned an enhanced inhibitory effect on HDAC1, 3 and 6 isoforms. Meanwhile, it also significantly suppressed cell growth of lung cancer cells compared to SAHA, but with lower toxicity in normal cells. Mechanistically, 7e prompted acetylation of histone3 and histone4, led to up-regulation of p21, and then mediated cell cycle arrest and pro-apoptosis. Moreover, the in vivo study indicated that compound 7e could retard tumor growth of A549 xenograft models. These findings support the further investigation on the anti-tumor potential of this class of compounds as HDAC inhibitor. PMID:26944433

  7. Quinolone-based HDAC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Gopalan; Kilambi, Narasimhan; Rathinasamy, Suresh; Rajendran, Praveen; Narayanan, Shridhar; Rajagopal, Sridharan

    2014-08-01

    HDAC inhibitors emerged as promising drug candidates in combating wide variety of cancers. At present, two of the compounds SAHA and Romidepsin were approved by FDA for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and many are in various clinical phases. A new quinolone cap structure was explored with hydroxamic acid as zinc-binding group (ZBG). The pan HDAC inhibitory and antiproliferative activities against three human cancer cell lines HCT-116 (colon), NCI-H460 (lung) and U251 (glioblastoma) of the compounds (4a-4w) were evaluated. Introduction of heterocyclic amines in CAP region increased the enzyme inhibitory and antiproliferative activities and few of the compounds tested are metabolically stable in both MLM and HLM. PMID:25019596

  8. Valproic Acid and Other HDAC Inhibitors Induce Microglial Apoptosis and Attenuate Lipopolysaccharide- induced Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po See; Wang, Chao-Chuan; Bortner, Carl D.; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Wu, Xuefei; Pang, Hao; Lu, Ru-Band; Gean, Po-Wu; Chuang, De-Maw; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2009-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a widely prescribed drug for seizures and bipolar disorder, has been shown to be an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC). Our previous study has demonstrated that VPA pretreatment reduces lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced dopaminergic (DA) neurotoxicity through the inhibition of microglia over-activation. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism underlying VPA-induced attenuation of microglia over-activation. Other HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) were compared with VPA for their effects on microglial activity. We found that VPA induced apoptosis of microglia cells in a time and concentration-dependent manner. VPA-treated microglial cells showed typical apoptotic hallmarks including phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Further studies revealed that trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (SB), two structurally dissimilar HDACIs, also induced microglial apoptosis. The apoptosis of microglia was accompanied by the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and the enhancement of acetylation levels of the histone H3 protein. Moreover, pretreatment with SB or TSA caused a robust decrease in LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses and protected DA neurons from damage in mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures. Taken together, our results shed light on a novel mechanism whereby HDACIs induce neuroprotection and underscore the potential utility of HDACIs in preventing inflammation-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. PMID:17850978

  9. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives as HDAC6-specific inhibitors modulating microtubular structure and HSP90α chaperone activity against prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Carole; Schnekenburger, Michael; Mazumder, Aloran; Teiten, Marie-Hélène; Kirsch, Gilbert; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC)6 is a unique isoenzyme targeting specific substrates including α-tubulin and heat shock protein (HSP)90. HDAC6 is involved in protein trafficking and degradation, cell shape and migration. Deregulation of HDAC6 activity is associated with a variety of diseases including cancer leading to a growing interest for developing HDAC6 inhibitors. Here, we identified two new structurally related 4-hydroxybenzoic acids as selective HDAC6 inhibitors reducing proliferation, colony and spheroid formation as well as viability of prostate cancer cells. Both compounds strongly enhanced α-tubulin acetylation leading to remodeling of microtubular organization. Furthermore, 4-hydroxybenzoic acids decreased HSP90α regulation of the human androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells by increasing HSP90α acetylation levels. Collectively, our data support the potential of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives as HDAC6-specific inhibitors with anti-cancer properties. PMID:26549368

  10. In silico modification of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) as potential inhibitor for class II histone deacetylase (HDAC)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer for the woman in the world. It is caused by the oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV). The inhibition activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a potential strategy for cancer therapy. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is widely known as a low toxicity HDAC inhibitor. This research presents in silico SAHA modification by utilizing triazole, in order to obtain a better inhibitor. We conducted docking of the SAHA inhibitor and 12 modified versions to six class II HDAC enzymes, and then proceeded with drug scanning of each one of them. Results The docking results show that the 12 modified inhibitors have much better binding affinity and inhibition potential than SAHA. Based on drug scan analysis, six of the modified inhibitors have robust pharmacological attributes, as revealed by drug likeness, drug score, oral bioavailability, and toxicity levels. Conclusions The binding affinity, free energy and drug scan screening of the best inhibitors have shown that 1c and 2c modified inhibitors are the best ones to inhibit class II HDAC. PMID:22373132

  11. Valproic Acid as a Potential Inhibitor of Plasmodium falciparum Histone Deacetylase 1 (PfHDAC1): An in Silico Approach

    PubMed Central

    Elbadawi, Mohamed A. Abdallah; Awadalla, Mohamed Khalid Alhaj; Abdel Hamid, Muzamil Mahdi; Mohamed, Magdi Awadalla; Awad, Talal Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    A new Plasmodium falciparum histone deacetylase1 (PfHDAC1) homology model was built based on the highest sequence identity available template human histone deacetylase 2 structure. The generated model was carefully evaluated for stereochemical accuracy, folding correctness and overall structure quality. All evaluations were acceptable and consistent. Docking a group of hydroxamic acid histone deacetylase inhibitors and valproic acid has shown binding poses that agree well with inhibitor-bound histone deacetylase-solved structural interactions. Docking affinity dG scores were in agreement with available experimental binding affinities. Further, enzyme-ligand complex stability and reliability were investigated by running 5-nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations. Thorough analysis of the simulation trajectories has shown that enzyme-ligand complexes were stable during the simulation period. Interestingly, the calculated theoretical binding energies of the docked hydroxamic acid inhibitors have shown that the model can discriminate between strong and weaker inhibitors and agrees well with the experimental affinities reported in the literature. The model and the docking methodology can be used in screening virtual libraries for PfHDAC1 inhibitors, since the docking scores have ranked ligands in accordance with experimental binding affinities. Valproic acid calculated theoretical binding energy suggests that it may inhibit PfHDAC1. PMID:25679451

  12. HDAC and HDAC Inhibitor: From Cancer to Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Somy

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are epigenetic regulators that regulate the histone tail, chromatin conformation, protein-DNA interaction, and even transcription. HDACs are also post-transcriptional modifiers that regulate the protein acetylation implicated in several pathophysiologic states. HDAC inhibitors have been highlighted as a novel category of anti-cancer drugs. To date, four HDAC inhibitors, Vorinostat, Romidepsin, Panobinostat, and Belinostat, have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Principally, these HDAC inhibitors are used for hematologic cancers in clinic with less severe side effects. Clinical trials are continuously expanding to address other types of cancer and also nonmalignant diseases. HDAC inhibition also results in beneficial outcomes in various types of neurodegenerative diseases, inflammation disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we will briefly discuss 1) the roles of HDACs in the acquisition of a cancer's phenotype and the general outcome of the HDAC inhibitors in cancer, 2) the functional relevance of HDACs in cardiovascular diseases and the possible therapeutic implications of HDAC inhibitors in cardiovascular disease. PMID:26865995

  13. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid reduces ethanol consumption and ethanol-conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Al Ameri, Mouza; Al Mansouri, Shamma; Al Maamari, Alyazia; Bahi, Amine

    2014-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms such as chromatin modification (specifically histone acetylation) may play a crucial role in the development of addictive behavior. However, little is known about the role of epigenetic modifications in the rewarding properties of ethanol. In the current study, we studied the effects of systemic injection of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA) on ethanol consumption and ethanol-elicited conditioned place preference (CPP). The effect of VPA (300 mg/kg) on voluntary ethanol intake and preference was assessed using continuous two-bottle choice procedure with escalating concentrations of alcohol (2.5-20% v/v escalating over 4 weeks). Taste sensitivity was studies using saccharin (sweet; 0.03% and 0.06%) and quinine (bitter; 20 µM and 40 µM) tastants solutions. Ethanol conditioned reward was investigated using an unbiased CPP model. Blood ethanol concentration (BEC) was also measured. Compared to vehicle, VPA-injected rats displayed significantly lower preference and consumption of ethanol in a two-bottle choice paradigm, with no significant difference observed with saccharin and quinine. More importantly, 0.5 g/kg ethanol-induced-CPP acquisition was blocked following VPA administration. Finally, vehicle- and VPA-treated mice had similar BECs. Taken together, our results implicated HDAC inhibition in the behavioral and reinforcement-related effects of alcohol and raise the question of whether specific drugs that target HDAC could potentially help to tackle alcoholism in humans. PMID:25108044

  14. In silico modification of Zn2+ binding group of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) by organoselenium compounds as Homo sapiens class II HDAC inhibitor of cervical cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumo Friend Tambunan, Usman; Bakri, Ridla; Aditya Parikesit, Arli; Ariyani, Titin; Dyah Puspitasari, Ratih; Kerami, Djati

    2016-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women, and ranks seventh of all cancers worldwide, with 529000 cases in 2008 and more than 85% cases occur in developing countries. One way to treat this cancer is through the inhibition of HDAC enzymes which play a strategic role in the regulation of gene expression. Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA) or Vorinostat is a drug which commercially available to treat the cancer, but still has some side effects. This research present in silico SAHA modification in Zinc Binding Group (ZBG) by organoselenium compound to get ligands which less side effect. From molecular docking simulation, and interaction analysis, there are five best ligands, namely CC27, HA27, HB28, IB25, and KA7. These five ligands have better binding affinity than the standards, and also have interaction with Zn2+ cofactor of inhibited HDAC enzymes. This research is expected to produce more potent HDAC inhibitor as novel drug for cervical cancer treatment.

  15. Identification of HDAC Inhibitors Using a Cell-Based HDAC I/II Assay.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Wen; Shou, David; Huang, Ruili; Khuc, Thai; Dai, Sheng; Zheng, Wei; Klumpp-Thomas, Carleen; Xia, Menghang

    2016-07-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a class of epigenetic enzymes that regulate gene expression by histone deacetylation. Altered HDAC function has been linked to cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, making HDACs popular therapeutic targets. In this study, we describe a screening approach for identification of compounds that inhibit endogenous class I and II HDACs. A homogeneous, luminogenic HDAC I/II assay was optimized in a 1536-well plate format in several human cancer cell lines, including HCT116 and human neural stem cells. The assay confirmed 37 known HDAC inhibitors from two libraries of known epigenetics-active compounds. Using the assay, we identified a group of potential HDAC inhibitors by screening the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) Pharmaceutical Collection of 2527 small-molecule drugs. The selected compounds showed similar HDAC I/II inhibitory potency and efficacy values in both HCT116 and neural stem cells. Several previously unidentified HDAC inhibitors were further evaluated and profiled for their selectivity against a panel of 10 HDAC I/II isoforms using fluorogenic HDAC biochemical assays. In summary, our results show that several novel HDAC inhibitors, including nafamostat and piceatannol, have been identified using the HDAC I/II cell-based assay, and multiple cell types have been validated for high-throughput screening of large chemical libraries. PMID:26858181

  16. Valproic Acid and Other HDAC Inhibitors Upregulate FGF21 Gene Expression and Promote Process Elongation in Glia by Inhibiting HDAC2 and 3

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junyu; Wang, Zhifei; Liao, Hsiao-Mei; Wei, Monica; Leeds, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fibroblast growth factor 21, a novel regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism, has robust protective properties in neurons. However, its expression and function in glia are unknown. Valproic acid, a mood stabilizer and anticonvulsant, is a histone deacetylase inhibitor and a dynamic gene regulator. We investigated whether histone deacetylase inhibition by valproic acid and other inhibitors upregulates fibroblast growth factor 21 expression and, if so, sought to identify the histone deacetylase isoform(s) involved and their role in altering glial cell morphology. Methods: C6 glioma or primary cortical glial cultures were treated with histone deacetylase inhibitors, and fibroblast growth factor 21 levels and length of cell processes were subsequently measured. Histone deacetylase 1, 2, or 3 was also knocked down to detect which isoform was involved in regulating fibroblast growth factor 21 mRNA levels. Finally, knockdown and overexpression of fibroblast growth factor 21 were performed to determine whether it played a role in regulating cell process length. Results: Treatment of C6 cells or primary glial cultures with valproic acid elevated fibroblast growth factor 21 mRNA levels, extended cell process length, and markedly increased acetylated histone-H3 levels. Other histone deacetylase inhibitors including pan- and class I-specific inhibitors, or selective knockdown of histone deacetylase 2 or 3 isoform produced similar effects. Knockdown or overexpression of fibroblast growth factor 21 significantly decreased or increased C6 cell process length, respectively. Conclusions: In glial cell line and primary glia, using pharmacological inhibition and selective gene silencing of histone deacetylases to boost fibroblast growth factor 21 mRNA levels results in elongation of cell processes. Our study provides a new mechanism via which histone deacetylase 2 and 3 participate in upregulating fibroblast growth factor 21 transcription and extending process outgrowth

  17. Potent, Selective, and CNS-Penetrant Tetrasubstituted Cyclopropane Class IIa Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Luckhurst, Christopher A; Breccia, Perla; Stott, Andrew J; Aziz, Omar; Birch, Helen L; Bürli, Roland W; Hughes, Samantha J; Jarvis, Rebecca E; Lamers, Marieke; Leonard, Philip M; Matthews, Kim L; McAllister, George; Pollack, Scott; Saville-Stones, Elizabeth; Wishart, Grant; Yates, Dawn; Dominguez, Celia

    2016-01-14

    Potent and selective class IIa HDAC tetrasubstituted cyclopropane hydroxamic acid inhibitors were identified with high oral bioavailability that exhibited good brain and muscle exposure. Compound 14 displayed suitable properties for assessment of the impact of class IIa HDAC catalytic site inhibition in preclinical disease models. PMID:26819662

  18. Induction of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in human abdominal aortic aneurysm: therapeutic potential of HDAC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Galán, María; Varona, Saray; Orriols, Mar; Rodríguez, José Antonio; Aguiló, Silvia; Dilmé, Jaume; Camacho, Mercedes; Martínez-González, José; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Clinical management of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is currently limited to elective surgical repair because an effective pharmacotherapy is still awaited. Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity could be a promising therapeutic option in cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to characterise HDAC expression in human AAA and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of class I and IIa HDAC inhibitors in the AAA model of angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused apolipoprotein-E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry evidenced an increased expression of HDACs 1, 2 (both class I), 4 and 7 (both class IIa) in abdominal aorta samples from patients undergoing AAA open repair (n=22) compared with those from donors (n=14). Aortic aneurysms from Ang-II-infused ApoE(-/-) mice exhibited a similar HDAC expression profile. In these animals, treatment with a class I HDAC inhibitor (MS-275) or a class IIa inhibitor (MC-1568) improved survival, reduced the incidence and severity of AAA and limited aneurysmal expansion evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography. These beneficial effects were more potent in MC-1568-treated mice. The disorganisation of elastin and collagen fibres and lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration were effectively reduced by both inhibitors. Additionally, HDAC inhibition attenuated the exacerbated expression of pro-inflammatory markers and the increase in metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activity induced by Ang II in this model. Therefore, our data evidence that HDAC expression is deregulated in human AAA and that class-selective HDAC inhibitors limit aneurysm expansion in an AAA mouse model. New-generation HDAC inhibitors represent a promising therapeutic approach to overcome human aneurysm progression. PMID:26989193

  19. Induction of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in human abdominal aortic aneurysm: therapeutic potential of HDAC inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Galán, María; Varona, Saray; Orriols, Mar; Rodríguez, José Antonio; Aguiló, Silvia; Dilmé, Jaume; Camacho, Mercedes; Martínez-González, José; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clinical management of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is currently limited to elective surgical repair because an effective pharmacotherapy is still awaited. Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity could be a promising therapeutic option in cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to characterise HDAC expression in human AAA and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of class I and IIa HDAC inhibitors in the AAA model of angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused apolipoprotein-E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice. Real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry evidenced an increased expression of HDACs 1, 2 (both class I), 4 and 7 (both class IIa) in abdominal aorta samples from patients undergoing AAA open repair (n=22) compared with those from donors (n=14). Aortic aneurysms from Ang-II-infused ApoE−/− mice exhibited a similar HDAC expression profile. In these animals, treatment with a class I HDAC inhibitor (MS-275) or a class IIa inhibitor (MC-1568) improved survival, reduced the incidence and severity of AAA and limited aneurysmal expansion evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography. These beneficial effects were more potent in MC-1568-treated mice. The disorganisation of elastin and collagen fibres and lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration were effectively reduced by both inhibitors. Additionally, HDAC inhibition attenuated the exacerbated expression of pro-inflammatory markers and the increase in metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activity induced by Ang II in this model. Therefore, our data evidence that HDAC expression is deregulated in human AAA and that class-selective HDAC inhibitors limit aneurysm expansion in an AAA mouse model. New-generation HDAC inhibitors represent a promising therapeutic approach to overcome human aneurysm progression. PMID:26989193

  20. Selective inhibition of HDAC8 decreases neuroblastoma growth in vitro and in vivo and enhances retinoic acid-mediated differentiation.

    PubMed

    Rettig, I; Koeneke, E; Trippel, F; Mueller, W C; Burhenne, J; Kopp-Schneider, A; Fabian, J; Schober, A; Fernekorn, U; von Deimling, A; Deubzer, H E; Milde, T; Witt, O; Oehme, I

    2015-01-01

    For differentiation-defective malignancies, compounds that modulate transcription, such as retinoic acid and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, are of particular interest. HDAC inhibitors are currently under investigation for the treatment of a broad spectrum of cancer diseases. However, one clinical drawback is class-specific toxicity of unselective inhibitors, limiting their full anticancer potential. Selective targeting of individual HDAC isozymes in defined tumor entities may therefore be an attractive alternative treatment approach. We have previously identified HDAC family member 8 (HDAC8) as a novel target in childhood neuroblastoma. Using small-molecule inhibitors, we now demonstrate that selective inhibition of HDAC8 exhibits antineuroblastoma activity without toxicity in two xenograft mouse models of MYCN oncogene-amplified neuroblastoma. In contrast, the unselective HDAC inhibitor vorinostat was more toxic in the same models. HDAC8-selective inhibition induced cell cycle arrest and differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Upon combination with retinoic acid, differentiation was significantly enhanced, as demonstrated by elongated neurofilament-positive neurites and upregulation of NTRK1. Additionally, MYCN oncogene expression was downregulated in vitro and tumor cell growth was markedly reduced in vivo. Mechanistic studies suggest that cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) links HDAC8- and retinoic acid-mediated gene transcription. In conclusion, HDAC-selective targeting can be effective in tumors exhibiting HDAC isozyme-dependent tumor growth in vivo and can be combined with differentiation-inducing agents. PMID:25695609

  1. Selective inhibition of HDAC8 decreases neuroblastoma growth in vitro and in vivo and enhances retinoic acid-mediated differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Rettig, I; Koeneke, E; Trippel, F; Mueller, W C; Burhenne, J; Kopp-Schneider, A; Fabian, J; Schober, A; Fernekorn, U; von Deimling, A; Deubzer, H E; Milde, T; Witt, O; Oehme, I

    2015-01-01

    For differentiation-defective malignancies, compounds that modulate transcription, such as retinoic acid and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, are of particular interest. HDAC inhibitors are currently under investigation for the treatment of a broad spectrum of cancer diseases. However, one clinical drawback is class-specific toxicity of unselective inhibitors, limiting their full anticancer potential. Selective targeting of individual HDAC isozymes in defined tumor entities may therefore be an attractive alternative treatment approach. We have previously identified HDAC family member 8 (HDAC8) as a novel target in childhood neuroblastoma. Using small-molecule inhibitors, we now demonstrate that selective inhibition of HDAC8 exhibits antineuroblastoma activity without toxicity in two xenograft mouse models of MYCN oncogene-amplified neuroblastoma. In contrast, the unselective HDAC inhibitor vorinostat was more toxic in the same models. HDAC8-selective inhibition induced cell cycle arrest and differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Upon combination with retinoic acid, differentiation was significantly enhanced, as demonstrated by elongated neurofilament-positive neurites and upregulation of NTRK1. Additionally, MYCN oncogene expression was downregulated in vitro and tumor cell growth was markedly reduced in vivo. Mechanistic studies suggest that cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) links HDAC8- and retinoic acid-mediated gene transcription. In conclusion, HDAC-selective targeting can be effective in tumors exhibiting HDAC isozyme-dependent tumor growth in vivo and can be combined with differentiation-inducing agents. PMID:25695609

  2. The Class I HDAC inhibitor RGFP963 enhances consolidation of cued fear extinction

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Mallory E.; Xia, Bing; Carreiro, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates that broad, nonspecific histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition enhances learning and memory, however, the contribution of the various HDACs to specific forms of learning is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the Class I HDAC inhibitor, RGFP963, enhances consolidation of cued fear extinction. However, RGFP966, a strong inhibitor of HDAC3, does not significantly enhance consolidation of cued fear extinction. These data extend previous evidence that demonstrate the Class I HDACs play a role in the consolidation of long-term memory, suggesting that HDAC1 and/or HDAC2, but less likely HDAC3, may function as negative regulators of extinction retention. The development of specific HDAC inhibitors, such as RGFP963, will further illuminate the role of specific HDACs in various types of learning and memory. Moreover, HDAC inhibitors that enhance cued fear extinction may show translational promise for the treatment of fear-related disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PMID:25776040

  3. Identification of HDAC Inhibitors with Benzoylhydrazide scaffold that Selectively Inhibit Class I HDACs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunfei; Stowe, Ryan L.; Pinello, Christie E.; Tian, Guimei; Madoux, Franck; Li, Dawei; Zhao, Lisa Y.; Li, Jian-Liang; Wang, Yuren; Wang, Yuan; Ma, Haiching; Hodder, Peter; Roush, William R.; Liao, Daiqing

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACi) hold a considerable therapeutic promise as clinical anticancer therapies. However, currently known HDACi exhibit limited isoform specificity, off-target activity, and undesirable pharmaceutical properties. Thus, HDACi with new chemotypes are needed to overcome these limitations. Here, we identify a class of HDACi with a previously undescribed benzoylhydrazide scaffold that is selective for the class I HDACs. These compounds are competitive inhibitors with a fast-on/slow-off HDAC-binding mechanism. We show that the lead compound, UF010, inhibits cancer cell proliferation via class I HDAC inhibition. This causes global changes in protein acetylation and gene expression resulting in activation of tumor suppressor pathways and concurrent inhibition of several oncogenic pathways. The isotype selectivity coupled with interesting biological activities in suppressing tumor cell proliferation support further preclinical development of the UF010 class of compounds for potential therapeutic applications. PMID:25699604

  4. Dual-Mode HDAC Prodrug for Covalent Modification and Subsequent Inhibitor Release

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) target abnormal epigenetic states associated with a variety of pathologies, including cancer. Here, the development of a prodrug of the canonical broad-spectrum HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is described. Although hydroxamic acids are utilized universally in the development of metalloenzyme inhibitors, they are considered to be poor pharmacophores with reduced activity in vivo. We developed a prodrug of SAHA by appending a promoiety, sensitive to thiols, to the hydroxamic acid warhead (termed SAHA-TAP). After incubation of SAHA-TAP with an HDAC, the thiol of a conserved HDAC cysteine residue becomes covalently tagged with the promoiety, initiating a cascade reaction that leads to the release of SAHA. Mass spectrometry and enzyme kinetics experiments validate that the cysteine residue is covalently appended with the TAP promoiety. SAHA-TAP demonstrates cytotoxicity activity against various cancer cell lines. This strategy represents an original prodrug design with a dual mode of action for HDAC inhibition. PMID:25974739

  5. Parallel medicinal chemistry approaches to selective HDAC1/HDAC2 inhibitor (SHI-1:2) optimization.

    PubMed

    Kattar, Solomon D; Surdi, Laura M; Zabierek, Anna; Methot, Joey L; Middleton, Richard E; Hughes, Bethany; Szewczak, Alexander A; Dahlberg, William K; Kral, Astrid M; Ozerova, Nicole; Fleming, Judith C; Wang, Hongmei; Secrist, Paul; Harsch, Andreas; Hamill, Julie E; Cruz, Jonathan C; Kenific, Candia M; Chenard, Melissa; Miller, Thomas A; Berk, Scott C; Tempest, Paul

    2009-02-15

    The successful application of both solid and solution phase library synthesis, combined with tight integration into the medicinal chemistry effort, resulted in the efficient optimization of a novel structural series of selective HDAC1/HDAC2 inhibitors by the MRL-Boston Parallel Medicinal Chemistry group. An initial lead from a small parallel library was found to be potent and selective in biochemical assays. Advanced compounds were the culmination of iterative library design and possess excellent biochemical and cellular potency, as well as acceptable PK and efficacy in animal models. PMID:19138845

  6. In Vivo Screening Using Transgenic Zebrafish Embryos Reveals New Effects of HDAC Inhibitors Trichostatin A and Valproic Acid on Organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Bonneton, François; Tohme, Marie; Bernard, Laure; Chen, Xiao Yong; Laudet, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on reproduction are well known, whereas their developmental effects are much less characterized. However, exposure to endocrine disruptors during organogenesis may lead to deleterious and permanent problems later in life. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) transgenic lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in specific organs and tissues are powerful tools to uncover developmental defects elicited by EDCs. Here, we used seven transgenic lines to visualize in vivo whether a series of EDCs and other pharmaceutical compounds can alter organogenesis in zebrafish. We used transgenic lines expressing GFP in pancreas, liver, blood vessels, inner ear, nervous system, pharyngeal tooth and pectoral fins. This screen revealed that four of the tested chemicals have detectable effects on different organs, which shows that the range of effects elicited by EDCs is wider than anticipated. The endocrine disruptor tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), as well as the three drugs diclofenac, trichostatin A (TSA) and valproic acid (VPA) induced abnormalities in the embryonic vascular system of zebrafish. Moreover, TSA and VPA induced specific alterations during the development of pancreas, an observation that was confirmed by in situ hybridization with specific markers. Developmental delays were also induced by TSA and VPA in the liver and in pharyngeal teeth, resulting in smaller organ size. Our results show that EDCs can induce a large range of developmental alterations during embryogenesis of zebrafish and establish GFP transgenic lines as powerful tools to screen for EDCs effects in vivo. PMID:26900852

  7. In Vivo Screening Using Transgenic Zebrafish Embryos Reveals New Effects of HDAC Inhibitors Trichostatin A and Valproic Acid on Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Bonneton, François; Tohme, Marie; Bernard, Laure; Chen, Xiao Yong; Laudet, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on reproduction are well known, whereas their developmental effects are much less characterized. However, exposure to endocrine disruptors during organogenesis may lead to deleterious and permanent problems later in life. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) transgenic lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in specific organs and tissues are powerful tools to uncover developmental defects elicited by EDCs. Here, we used seven transgenic lines to visualize in vivo whether a series of EDCs and other pharmaceutical compounds can alter organogenesis in zebrafish. We used transgenic lines expressing GFP in pancreas, liver, blood vessels, inner ear, nervous system, pharyngeal tooth and pectoral fins. This screen revealed that four of the tested chemicals have detectable effects on different organs, which shows that the range of effects elicited by EDCs is wider than anticipated. The endocrine disruptor tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), as well as the three drugs diclofenac, trichostatin A (TSA) and valproic acid (VPA) induced abnormalities in the embryonic vascular system of zebrafish. Moreover, TSA and VPA induced specific alterations during the development of pancreas, an observation that was confirmed by in situ hybridization with specific markers. Developmental delays were also induced by TSA and VPA in the liver and in pharyngeal teeth, resulting in smaller organ size. Our results show that EDCs can induce a large range of developmental alterations during embryogenesis of zebrafish and establish GFP transgenic lines as powerful tools to screen for EDCs effects in vivo. PMID:26900852

  8. HDAC inhibitors as cognitive enhancers in fear, anxiety and trauma therapy: where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Whittle, Nigel; Singewald, Nicolas

    2014-04-01

    A novel strategy to treat anxiety and fear-related disorders such as phobias, panic and PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) is combining CBT (cognitive behavioural therapy), including extinction-based exposure therapy, with cognitive enhancers. By targeting and boosting mechanisms underlying learning, drug development in this field aims at designing CBT-augmenting compounds that help to overcome extinction learning deficits, promote long-term fear inhibition and thus support relapse prevention. Progress in revealing the role of epigenetic regulation of specific genes associated with extinction memory generation has opened new avenues in this direction. The present review examines recent evidence from pre-clinical studies showing that increasing histone acetylation, either via genetic or pharmacological inhibition of HDACs (histone deacetylases) by e.g. vorinostat/SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid), entinostat/MS-275, sodium butyrate, TSA (trichostatin A) or VPA (valproic acid), or by targeting HATs (histone acetyltransferases), augments fear extinction and, importantly, generates a long-term extinction memory that can protect from return of fear phenomena. The molecular mechanisms and pathways involved including BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor signalling are just beginning to be revealed. First studies in healthy humans are in support of extinction-facilitating effects of HDAC inhibitors. Very recent evidence that HDAC inhibitors can rescue deficits in extinction-memory-impaired rodents indicates a potential clinical utility of this approach also for exposure therapy-resistant patients. Important future work includes investigation of the long-term safety aspects of HDAC inhibitor treatment, as well as design of isotype(s)-specific inhibitors. Taken together, HDAC inhibitors display promising potential as pharmacological adjuncts to augment the efficacy of exposure-based approaches in anxiety and trauma therapy

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel FK228 analogues as potential isoform selective HDAC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Narita, Koichi; Matsuhara, Keisuke; Itoh, Jun; Akiyama, Yui; Dan, Singo; Yamori, Takao; Ito, Akihiro; Yoshida, Minoru; Katoh, Tadashi

    2016-10-01

    Novel C4- and C7-modified FK228 analogues were efficiently synthesized in a highly convergent and unified manner. This synthesis features the amide condensation of glycine-d-cysteine-containing segments with d-valine-containing segments for the direct assembly of the corresponding seco-acids, which are key precursors of macrolactones. The HDAC inhibition assay and cell-growth inhibition analysis of the synthesized analogues revealed novel aspects of their structure-activity relationship. This study demonstrated that simple modification at the C4 and C7 side chains in FK228 is effective for improving both HDAC inhibitory activity and isoform selectivity; moreover, potent and highly isoform-selective class I HDAC1 inhibitors were identified. PMID:27318982

  10. HDAC Inhibitors as Epigenetic Regulators of the Immune System: Impacts on Cancer Therapy and Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, McKale R.; Leyva, Kathryn J.

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are powerful epigenetic regulators that have enormous therapeutic potential and have pleiotropic effects at the cellular and systemic levels. To date, HDAC inhibitors are used clinically for a wide variety of disorders ranging from hematopoietic malignancies to psychiatric disorders, are known to have anti-inflammatory properties, and are in clinical trials for several other diseases. In addition to influencing gene expression, HDAC enzymes also function as part of large, multisubunit complexes which have many nonhistone targets, alter signaling at the cellular and systemic levels, and result in divergent and cell-type specific effects. Thus, the effects of HDAC inhibitor treatment are too intricate to completely understand with current knowledge but the ability of HDAC inhibitors to modulate the immune system presents intriguing therapeutic possibilities. This review will explore the complexity of HDAC inhibitor treatment at the cellular and systemic levels and suggest strategies for effective use of HDAC inhibitors in biomedical research, focusing on the ability of HDAC inhibitors to modulate the immune system. The possibility of combining the documented anticancer effects and newly emerging immunomodulatory effects of HDAC inhibitors represents a promising new combinatorial therapeutic approach for HDAC inhibitor treatments. PMID:27556043

  11. The Class I HDAC Inhibitor RGFP963 Enhances Consolidation of Cued Fear Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Mallory E.; Xia, Bing; Carreiro, Samantha; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates that broad, nonspecific histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition enhances learning and memory, however, the contribution of the various HDACs to specific forms of learning is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the Class I HDAC inhibitor, RGFP963, enhances consolidation of cued fear extinction. However, RGFP966, a strong…

  12. HDAC inhibitor treatment of hepatoma cells induces both TRAIL-independent apoptosis and restoration of sensitivity to TRAIL.

    PubMed

    Pathil, Anita; Armeanu, Sorin; Venturelli, Sascha; Mascagni, Paolo; Weiss, Thomas S; Gregor, Michael; Lauer, Ulrich M; Bitzer, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) displays a striking resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs or innovative tumor cell apoptosis-inducing agents such as tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Recently, we found 2 histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC-I), valproic acid and ITF2357, exhibiting inherent therapeutic activity against HCC. In TRAIL-sensitive cancer cells, the mechanism of HDAC-I-induced cell death has been identified to be TRAIL-dependent by inducing apoptosis in an autocrine fashion. In contrast, in HCC-derived cells, a prototype of TRAIL-resistant tumor cells, we found a HDAC-I-mediated apoptosis that works independently of TRAIL and upregulation of death receptors or their cognate ligands. Interestingly, TRAIL resistance could be overcome by a combinatorial application of HDAC-I and TRAIL, increasing the fraction of apoptotic cells two- to threefold compared with HDAC-I treatment alone, whereas any premature HDAC-I withdrawal rapidly restored TRAIL resistance. Furthermore, a tumor cell-specific downregulation of the FLICE inhibitory protein (FLIP) was observed, constituting a new mechanism of TRAIL sensitivity restoration by HDAC-I. In contrast, FLIP levels in primary human hepatocytes (PHH) from different donors were upregulated by HDAC-I. Importantly, combination HDAC-I/TRAIL treatment did not induce any cytotoxicity in nonmalignant PHH. In conclusion, HDAC-I compounds, exhibiting a favorable in vivo profile and inherent activity against HCC cells, are able to selectively overcome the resistance of HCC cells toward TRAIL. Specific upregulation of intracellular FLIP protein levels in nonmalignant hepatocytes could enhance the therapeutic window for clinical applications of TRAIL, opening up a highly specific new treatment option for advanced HCC. PMID:16583461

  13. The class-I HDAC inhibitor MGCD0103 induces apoptosis in Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines and synergizes with proteasome inhibitors by an HDAC6-independent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Buglio, Daniela; Mamidipudi, Vidya; Khaskhely, Noor M.; Brady, Helen; Heise, Carla; Besterman, Jeffrey; Martell, Robert E.; MacBeth, Kyle; Younes, Anas

    2011-01-01

    Summary Inhibition of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6)-dependent aggresome function by pan HDAC inhibitors was recently reported to be a key mechanism underlying the synergistic activity between proteasome inhibitors and HDAC inhibitors in a variety of tumour types. Because these combinations induce significant thrombocytopenia in vivo, we examined whether less toxic, isotype-selective HDAC inhibitors may still synergize with proteasome inhibitors, and if so, by what mechanisms. Here, we showed that the class I HDAC inhibitor, MGCD0103, has a potent antiproliferative activity in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cell lines. Furthermore, MGCD0103 induced tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) expression and secretion, which was associated with nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. Selective inhibition of TNF- α expression by short interfering mRNA, or inhibition of MGCD0103-induced NF-kB activation by proteasome inhibitors enhanced MGCD0103-induced cell death. Thus, our results demonstrate that MGCD0103 may synergize with proteasome inhibitors by HDAC6-independent mechanisms, providing mechanistic rationale for exploring this potentially less toxic combination for the treatment of lymphoma. PMID:20880107

  14. The therapeutic hope for HDAC6 inhibitors in malignancy and chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Batchu, Sri N; Brijmohan, Angela S; Advani, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Recent years have witnessed an emergence of a new class of therapeutic agents, termed histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibitors. HDAC6 is one isoform of a family of HDAC enzymes that catalyse the removal of functional acetyl groups from proteins. It stands out from its cousins in almost exclusively deacetylating cytoplasmic proteins, in exerting deacetylation-independent effects and in the success that has been achieved in developing relatively isoform-specific inhibitors of its enzymatic action that have reached clinical trial. HDAC6 plays a pivotal role in the removal of misfolded proteins and it is this role that has been most successfully targeted to date. HDAC6 inhibitors are being investigated for use in combination with proteasome inhibitors for the treatment of lymphoid malignancies, whereby HDAC6-dependent protein disposal currently limits the cytotoxic effectiveness of the latter. Similarly, numerous recent studies have linked altered HDAC6 activity to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases that are characterized by misfolded protein accumulation. It seems likely though that the function of HDAC6 is not limited to malignancy and neurodegeneration, the deacetylase being implicated in a number of other cellular processes and diseases including in cardiovascular disease, inflammation, renal fibrosis and cystogenesis. Here, we review the unique features of HDAC6 that make it so appealing as a drug target and its currently understood role in health and disease. Whether HDAC6 inhibition will ultimately find a clinical niche in the treatment of malignancy or prevalent complex chronic diseases remains to be determined. PMID:27154743

  15. Dietary HDAC inhibitors: time to rethink weak ligands in cancer chemoprevention?

    PubMed Central

    H.Dashwood, Roderick; C.Myzak, Melinda; Ho, Emily

    2008-01-01

    There is growing interest in the various mechanisms that regulate chromatin remodeling, including modulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities. Competitive HDAC inhibitors disrupt the cell cycle and/or induce apoptosis via de-repression of genes such as P21 and BAX, and cancer cells appear to be more sensitive than non-transformed cells to trichostatin A and related HDAC inhibitory compounds. This apparent selectivity of action in cancer cells makes HDAC inhibitors an attractive avenue for drug development. However, in the search for potent HDAC inhibitors with cancer therapeutic potential there has been a tendency to overlook or dismiss weak ligands that could prove effective in cancer prevention, including agents present in the human diet. Recent reports have described butyrate, diallyl disulfide and sulforaphane as HDAC inhibitors, and many other dietary agents will be probably discovered to attenuate HDAC activity. Here we discuss ‘pharmacologic’ agents that potently de-repress gene expression (e.g. during therapeutic intervention) versus dietary HDAC inhibitors that, as weak ligands, might subtly regulate the expression of genes involved in cell growth and apoptosis. An important question is the extent to which dietary HDAC inhibitors, and other dietary agents that affect gene expression via chromatin remodeling, modulate the expression of genes such as P21 and BAX so that cells can respond most effectively to external stimuli and toxic insults. PMID:16267097

  16. Profiling the anti-protozoal activity of anti-cancer HDAC inhibitors against Plasmodium and Trypanosoma parasites.

    PubMed

    Engel, Jessica A; Jones, Amy J; Avery, Vicky M; Sumanadasa, Subathdrage D M; Ng, Susanna S; Fairlie, David P; Adams, Tina S; Andrews, Katherine T

    2015-12-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes work together with histone acetyltransferases (HATs) to reversibly acetylate both histone and non-histone proteins. As a result, these enzymes are involved in regulating chromatin structure and gene expression as well as other important cellular processes. HDACs are validated drug targets for some types of cancer, with four HDAC inhibitors clinically approved. However, they are also showing promise as novel drug targets for other indications, including malaria and other parasitic diseases. In this study the in vitro activity of four anti-cancer HDAC inhibitors was examined against parasites that cause malaria and trypanosomiasis. Three of these inhibitors, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; vorinostat(®)), romidepsin (Istodax(®)) and belinostat (Beleodaq(®)), are clinically approved for the treatment of T-cell lymphoma, while the fourth, panobinostat, has recently been approved for combination therapy use in certain patients with multiple myeloma. All HDAC inhibitors were found to inhibit the growth of asexual-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in the nanomolar range (IC50 10-200 nM), while only romidepsin was active at sub-μM concentrations against bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei brucei parasites (IC50 35 nM). The compounds were found to have some selectivity for malaria parasites compared with mammalian cells, but were not selective for trypanosome parasites versus mammalian cells. All compounds caused hyperacetylation of histone and non-histone proteins in P. falciparum asexual stage parasites and inhibited deacetylase activity in P. falciparum nuclear extracts in addition to recombinant PfHDAC1 activity. P. falciparum histone hyperacetylation data indicate that HDAC inhibitors may differentially affect the acetylation profiles of histone H3 and H4. PMID:26199860

  17. Orally available stilbene derivatives as potent HDAC inhibitors with antiproliferative activities and antitumor effects in human tumor xenografts.

    PubMed

    Kachhadia, Virendra; Rajagopal, Sridharan; Ponpandian, Thanasekaran; Vignesh, Radhakrishnan; Anandhan, Karnambaram; Prabhu, Daivasigamani; Rajendran, Praveen; Nidhyanandan, Saranya; Roy, Anshu Mittal; Ahamed, Fakrudeen Ali; Surendran, Narayanan; Rajagopal, Sriram; Narayanan, Shridhar; Gopalan, Balasubramanian

    2016-01-27

    Herein we report the synthesis and activity of a novel class of HDAC inhibitors based on 2, 3-diphenyl acrylic acid derivatives. The compounds in this series have shown to be potent HDAC inhibitors possessing significant antiproliferative activity. Further compounds in this series were subjected to metabolic stability in human liver microsomes (HLM), mouse liver microsomes (MLM), and exhibits promising stability in both. These efforts culminated with the identification of a developmental candidate (5a), which displayed desirable PK/PD relationships, significant efficacy in the xenograft models and attractive ADME profiles. PMID:26689485

  18. Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors - Emerging Roles in Neuronal Memory, Learning, Synaptic Plasticity and Neural Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad Ganai, Shabir; Ramadoss, Mahalakshmi; Mahadevan, Vijayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of neuronal signalling through histone acetylation dictates transcription programs that govern neuronal memory, plasticity and learning paradigms. Histone Acetyl Transferases (HATs) and Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) are antagonistic enzymes that regulate gene expression through acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins around which DNA is wrapped inside a eukaryotic cell nucleus. The epigenetic control of HDACs and the cellular imbalance between HATs and HDACs dictate disease states and have been implicated in muscular dystrophy, loss of memory, neurodegeneration and autistic disorders. Altering gene expression profiles through inhibition of HDACs is now emerging as a powerful technique in therapy. This review presents evolving applications of HDAC inhibitors as potential drugs in neurological research and therapy. Mechanisms that govern their expression profiles in neuronal signalling, plasticity and learning will be covered. Promising and exciting possibilities of HDAC inhibitors in memory formation, fear conditioning, ischemic stroke and neural regeneration have been detailed. PMID:26487502

  19. Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors - emerging roles in neuronal memory, learning, synaptic plasticity and neural regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ganai, Shabir Ahmad; Ramadoss, Mahalakshmi; Mahadevan, Vijayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of neuronal signalling through histone acetylation dictates transcription programs that govern neuronal memory, plasticity and learning paradigms. Histone Acetyl Transferases (HATs) and Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) are antagonistic enzymes that regulate gene expression through acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins around which DNA is wrapped inside a eukaryotic cell nucleus. The epigenetic control of HDACs and the cellular imbalance between HATs and HDACs dictate disease states and have been implicated in muscular dystrophy, loss of memory, neurodegeneration and autistic disorders. Altering gene expression profiles through inhibition of HDACs is now emerging as a powerful technique in therapy. This review presents evolving applications of HDAC inhibitors as potential drugs in neurological research and therapy. Mechanisms that govern their expression profiles in neuronal signalling, plasticity and learning will be covered. Promising and exciting possibilities of HDAC inhibitors in memory formation, fear conditioning, ischemic stroke and neural regeneration have been detailed. PMID:26487502

  20. Identification of ligand features essential for HDACs inhibitors by pharmacophore modeling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Dong; Jiang, Yong-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Yu, Qing-Sen; You, Qi-Dong

    2008-04-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) enzyme plays a significant role in transcriptional regulation by modifying the core histones of the nucleosome. It has emerged as an important therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. Inhibitors of HDACs become a new class of anticancer agents and have provoked much interest amongst pharmacologists and cancer researchers. To facilitate the discovery of specific HDACs inhibitors, a 3D chemical-feature-based QSAR pharmacophore model was developed and was well consistent with the structure-functional requirements for the binding of the HDAC inhibitors. Using this model, the interactions between the benzamide MS-275 and HDAC were explored. The result showed that the type and spatial location of chemical features encoded in the pharmacophore are in full agreement with the enzyme-inhibitor interaction pattern identified from molecular docking. PMID:18061500

  1. Loss of the deubiquitylase BAP1 alters class I histone deacetylase expression and sensitivity of mesothelioma cells to HDAC inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Joseph J.; Kenyani, Jenna; Butt, Zohra; Carter, Rachel; Chew, Hui Yi; Cheeseman, Liam P.; Darling, Sarah; Denny, Michael; Urbé, Sylvie; Clague, Michael J.; Coulson, Judy M.

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases are important targets for cancer therapeutics, but their regulation is poorly understood. Our data show coordinated transcription of HDAC1 and HDAC2 in lung cancer cell lines, but suggest HDAC2 protein expression is cell-context specific. Through an unbiased siRNA screen we found that BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) regulates their expression, with HDAC2 reduced and HDAC1 increased in BAP1 depleted cells. BAP1 loss-of-function is increasingly reported in cancers including thoracic malignancies, with frequent mutation in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Endogenous HDAC2 directly correlates with BAP1 across a panel of lung cancer cell lines, and is downregulated in mesothelioma cell lines with genetic BAP1 inactivation. We find that BAP1 regulates HDAC2 by increasing transcript abundance, rather than opposing its ubiquitylation. Importantly, although total cellular HDAC activity is unaffected by transient depletion of HDAC2 or of BAP1 due to HDAC1 compensation, this isoenzyme imbalance sensitizes MSTO-211H cells to HDAC inhibitors. However, other established mesothelioma cell lines with low endogenous HDAC2 have adapted to become more resistant to HDAC inhibition. Our work establishes a mechanism by which BAP1 loss alters sensitivity of cancer cells to HDAC inhibitors. Assessment of BAP1 and HDAC expression may ultimately help identify patients likely to respond to HDAC inhibitors. PMID:25970771

  2. The promise and perils of HDAC inhibitors in neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Didonna, Alessandro; Opal, Puneet

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) represent emerging therapeutic targets in the context of neurodegeneration. Indeed, pharmacologic inhibition of HDACs activity in the nervous system has shown beneficial effects in several preclinical models of neurological disorders. However, the translation of such therapeutic approach to clinics has been only marginally successful, mainly due to our still limited knowledge about HDACs physiological role particularly in neurons. Here, we review the potential benefits along with the risks of targeting HDACs in light of what we currently know about HDAC activity in the brain. PMID:25642438

  3. A Rational Approach for the Identification of Non-Hydroxamate HDAC6-Selective Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Goracci, Laura; Deschamps, Nathalie; Randazzo, Giuseppe Marco; Petit, Charlotte; Dos Santos Passos, Carolina; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Simões-Pires, Claudia; Nurisso, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    The human histone deacetylase isoform 6 (HDAC6) has been demonstrated to play a major role in cell motility and aggresome formation, being interesting for the treatment of multiple tumour types and neurodegenerative conditions. Currently, most HDAC inhibitors in preclinical or clinical evaluations are non-selective inhibitors, characterised by a hydroxamate zinc-binding group (ZBG) showing off-target effects and mutagenicity. The identification of selective HDAC6 inhibitors with novel chemical properties has not been successful yet, also because of the absence of crystallographic information that makes the rational design of HDAC6 selective inhibitors difficult. Using HDAC inhibitory data retrieved from the ChEMBL database and ligand-based computational strategies, we identified 8 original new non-hydroxamate HDAC6 inhibitors from the SPECS database, with activity in the low μM range. The most potent and selective compound, bearing a hydrazide ZBG, was shown to increase tubulin acetylation in human cells. No effects on histone H4 acetylation were observed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an HDAC6 selective inhibitor bearing a hydrazide ZBG. Its capability to passively cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), as observed through PAMPA assays, and its low cytotoxicity in vitro, suggested its potential for drug development. PMID:27404291

  4. A Rational Approach for the Identification of Non-Hydroxamate HDAC6-Selective Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Goracci, Laura; Deschamps, Nathalie; Randazzo, Giuseppe Marco; Petit, Charlotte; Dos Santos Passos, Carolina; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Simões-Pires, Claudia; Nurisso, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    The human histone deacetylase isoform 6 (HDAC6) has been demonstrated to play a major role in cell motility and aggresome formation, being interesting for the treatment of multiple tumour types and neurodegenerative conditions. Currently, most HDAC inhibitors in preclinical or clinical evaluations are non-selective inhibitors, characterised by a hydroxamate zinc-binding group (ZBG) showing off-target effects and mutagenicity. The identification of selective HDAC6 inhibitors with novel chemical properties has not been successful yet, also because of the absence of crystallographic information that makes the rational design of HDAC6 selective inhibitors difficult. Using HDAC inhibitory data retrieved from the ChEMBL database and ligand-based computational strategies, we identified 8 original new non-hydroxamate HDAC6 inhibitors from the SPECS database, with activity in the low μM range. The most potent and selective compound, bearing a hydrazide ZBG, was shown to increase tubulin acetylation in human cells. No effects on histone H4 acetylation were observed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an HDAC6 selective inhibitor bearing a hydrazide ZBG. Its capability to passively cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), as observed through PAMPA assays, and its low cytotoxicity in vitro, suggested its potential for drug development. PMID:27404291

  5. A Rational Approach for the Identification of Non-Hydroxamate HDAC6-Selective Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goracci, Laura; Deschamps, Nathalie; Randazzo, Giuseppe Marco; Petit, Charlotte; Dos Santos Passos, Carolina; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Simões-Pires, Claudia; Nurisso, Alessandra

    2016-07-01

    The human histone deacetylase isoform 6 (HDAC6) has been demonstrated to play a major role in cell motility and aggresome formation, being interesting for the treatment of multiple tumour types and neurodegenerative conditions. Currently, most HDAC inhibitors in preclinical or clinical evaluations are non-selective inhibitors, characterised by a hydroxamate zinc-binding group (ZBG) showing off-target effects and mutagenicity. The identification of selective HDAC6 inhibitors with novel chemical properties has not been successful yet, also because of the absence of crystallographic information that makes the rational design of HDAC6 selective inhibitors difficult. Using HDAC inhibitory data retrieved from the ChEMBL database and ligand-based computational strategies, we identified 8 original new non-hydroxamate HDAC6 inhibitors from the SPECS database, with activity in the low μM range. The most potent and selective compound, bearing a hydrazide ZBG, was shown to increase tubulin acetylation in human cells. No effects on histone H4 acetylation were observed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an HDAC6 selective inhibitor bearing a hydrazide ZBG. Its capability to passively cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), as observed through PAMPA assays, and its low cytotoxicity in vitro, suggested its potential for drug development.

  6. The Role of Dietary Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) Inhibitors in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Shalome A.; Barnett, Matthew P. G.

    2014-01-01

    Modification of the histone proteins associated with DNA is an important process in the epigenetic regulation of DNA structure and function. There are several known modifications to histones, including methylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation, and a range of factors influence each of these. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove the acetyl group from lysine residues within a range of proteins, including transcription factors and histones. Whilst this means that their influence on cellular processes is more complex and far-reaching than histone modifications alone, their predominant function appears to relate to histones; through deacetylation of lysine residues they can influence expression of genes encoded by DNA linked to the histone molecule. HDAC inhibitors in turn regulate the activity of HDACs, and have been widely used as therapeutics in psychiatry and neurology, in which a number of adverse outcomes are associated with aberrant HDAC function. More recently, dietary HDAC inhibitors have been shown to have a regulatory effect similar to that of pharmacological HDAC inhibitors without the possible side-effects. Here, we discuss a number of dietary HDAC inhibitors, and how they may have therapeutic potential in the context of a whole food. PMID:25322459

  7. HDAC inhibitors induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Meiying; Lee, Eun Jeoung; Kim, Ki Bae; Kim, Yangmi; Sung, Rohyun; Lee, Sang-Jeon; Kim, Don Soo; Park, Seon Mee

    2015-05-01

    The effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) differ in various types of cancers. We investigated the EMT phenotype in four colon cancer cell lines when challenged with HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and valproic acid (VPA) with or without transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) treatment. Four colon cancer cell lines with different phenotypes in regards to tumorigenicity, microsatellite stability and DNA mutation were used. EMT phenotypes were assessed by the expression of E-cadherin and vimentin using western blot analysis, immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time RT-PCR following treatment with TSA (100 or 200 nM) or VPA (0.5 mM) with or without TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) for 24 h. Biological EMT phenotypes were also evaluated by cell morphology, migration and invasion assays. TSA or VPA induced mesenchymal features in the colon carcinoma cells by a decrease in E-cadherin and an increase in vimentin expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Confocal microscopy revealed membranous attenuation or nuclear translocation of E-cadherin and enhanced expression of vimentin. These responses occurred after 6 h and increased until 24 h. Colon cancer cells changed from a round or rectangular shape to a spindle shape with increased migration and invasion ability following TSA or VPA treatment. The susceptibility to EMT changes induced by TSA or VPA was comparable in microsatellite stable (SW480 and HT29) and microsatellite unstable cells (DLD1 and HCT116). TSA or VPA induced a mesenchymal phenotype in the colon carcinoma cells and these effects were augmented in the presence of TGF-β1. HDAC inhibitors require careful caution before their application as new anticancer drugs for colon cancers. PMID:25813246

  8. HDAC Inhibition Modulates Cardiac PPARs and Fatty Acid Metabolism in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ting-I; Kao, Yu-Hsun; Tsai, Wen-Chin; Chung, Cheng-Chih; Chen, Yao-Chang; Chen, Yi-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate cardiac glucose and lipid homeostasis. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor has anti-inflammatory effects which may play a key role in modulating PPARs and fatty acid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HDAC inhibitor, MPT0E014, can modulate myocardial PPARs, inflammation, and fatty acid metabolism in diabetes mellitus (DM) cardiomyopathy. Electrocardiography, echocardiography, and western blotting were used to evaluate the electrophysiological activity, cardiac structure, fatty acid metabolism, inflammation, and PPAR isoform expressions in the control and streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced DM rats with or without MPT0E014. Compared to control, DM and MPT0E014-treated DM rats had elevated blood glucose levels and lower body weights. However, MPT0E014-treated DM and control rats had smaller left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and shorter QT interval than DM rats. The control and MPT0E014-treated DM rats had greater cardiac PPAR-α and PPAR-δ protein expressions, but less cardiac PPAR-γ than DM rats. Moreover, control and MPT0E014-treated DM rats had lower concentrations of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase 2α, PPAR-γ coactivator 1α, phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase, cluster of differentiation 36, diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), DGAT2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 protein than DM rats. HDAC inhibition significantly attenuated DM cardiomyopathy through modulation of cardiac PPARS, fatty acid metabolism, and proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:27446205

  9. Differential Anti-inflammatory Activity of HDAC Inhibitors in Human Macrophages and Rat Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Rink-Jan; Iyer, Abishek; Fairlie, Thomas J; Cotterell, Adam; Gupta, Praveer; Reid, Robert C; Vesey, David A; Sweet, Matthew J; Fairlie, David P

    2016-02-01

    Vorinostat and other inhibitors of different histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes are currently being sought to modulate a variety of human conditions, including chronic inflammatory diseases. Some HDAC inhibitors are anti-inflammatory in rodent models of arthritis and colitis, usually at cytotoxic doses that may cause side effects. Here, we investigate the dose-dependent pro- and anti-inflammatory efficacy of two known inhibitors of multiple HDACs, vorinostat and BML281, in human macrophages and in a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis by monitoring effects on disease progression, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. Both HDAC inhibitors differentially modulated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine release from human macrophages, suppressing release of some inflammatory mediators (IL12p40, IL6) at low concentrations (<3 µM) but amplifying production of others (TNF, IL1β) at higher concentration (>3 μΜ). This trend translated in vivo to rat arthritis, with anti-inflammatory activity inversely correlating with dose. Both compounds were efficacious only at a low dose (1 mg⋅kg(-1)⋅day(-1) s.c.), whereas a higher dose (5 mg⋅kg(-1)⋅day(-1) s.c.) showed no positive effects on reducing pathology, even showing signs of exacerbating disease. These striking effects suggest a smaller therapeutic window than previously reported for HDAC inhibition in experimental arthritis. The findings support new investigations into repurposing HDAC inhibitors for anti-inflammatory therapeutic applications. However, HDAC inhibitors should be reinvestigated at lower, rather than higher, doses for enhanced efficacy in chronic diseases that require long-term treatment, with careful management of efficacy and long-term safety. PMID:26660228

  10. Combination therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: Additive preclinical efficacy of the HDAC inhibitor panobinostat with sorafenib

    PubMed Central

    Lachenmayer, Anja; Toffanin, Sara; Cabellos, Laia; Alsinet, Clara; Hoshida, Yujin; Villanueva, Augusto; Minguez, Beatriz; Tsai, Hung-Wen; Ward, Stephen C.; Thung, Swan; Friedman, Scott L.; Llovet, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous cancer in which sorafenib is the only approved systemic therapy. Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are commonly dysregulated in cancer and therefore represent promising targets for therapies, however their role in HCC pathogenesis is still unknown. We analyzed the expression of 11 HDACs in human HCCs and assessed the efficacy of the pan-HDAC inhibitor panobinostat alone and in combination with sorafenib in preclinical models of liver cancer. Methods Gene expression and copy number changes were analyzed in a cohort of 334 human HCCs, while the effects of panobinostat and sorafenib were evaluated in 3 liver cancer cell lines and a murine xenograft model. Results Aberrant HDAC expression was identified and validated in 91 and 243 HCCs, respectively. Upregulation of HDAC3 and 5 mRNAs were significantly correlated with DNA copy number gains. Inhibiting HDACs with panobinostat led to strong anti-tumoral effects in vitro and vivo, enhanced by the addition of sorafenib. Cell viability and proliferation declined, while apoptosis and autophagy increased. Panobinostat increased Histone H3 and HSP90 acetylation, downregulated BIRC5 (survivin) and upregulated CDH1. Combination therapy with panobinostat and sorafenib significantly decreased vessel density, and most significantly decreased tumor volume and increased survival in HCC xenografts. Conclusions Aberrant expression of several HDACs and copy number gains of HDAC3 and HDAC5 occur in HCC. Treatment with panobinostat combined with sorafenib demonstrated the highest preclinical efficacy in HCC models, providing the rationale for clinical studies with this novel combination. PMID:22322234

  11. HDAC-inhibitor (S)-8 disrupts HDAC6-PP1 complex prompting A375 melanoma cell growth arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Balliu, Manjola; Guandalini, Luca; Romanelli, Maria Novella; D'Amico, Massimo; Paoletti, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are agents capable of inducing growth arrest and apoptosis in different tumour cell types. Previously, we reported a series of novel HDACi obtained by hybridizing SAHA or oxamflatin with 1,4-benzodiazepines. Some of these hybrids proved effective against haematological and solid cancer cells and, above all, compound (S)-8 has emerged for its activities in various biological systems. Here, we describe the effectiveness of (S)-8 against highly metastatic human A375 melanoma cells by using normal PIG1 melanocytes as control. (S)-8 prompted: acetylation of histones H3/H4 and α-tubulin; G0 /G1 and G2 /M cell cycle arrest by rising p21 and hypophos-phorylated RB levels; apoptosis involving the cleavage of PARP and caspase 9, BAD protein augmentation and cytochrome c release; decrease in cell motility, invasiveness and pro-angiogenic potential as shown by results of wound-healing assay, down-regulation of MMP-2 and VEGF-A/VEGF-R2, besides TIMP-1/TIMP-2 up-regulation; and also intracellular accumulation of melanin and neutral lipids. The pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk, but not the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine, contrasted these events. Mechanistically, (S)-8 allows the disruption of cytoplasmic HDAC6-protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) complex in A375 cells thus releasing the active PP1 that dephosphorylates AKT and blocks its downstream pro-survival signalling. This view is consistent with results obtained by: inhibiting PP1 with Calyculin A; using PPP1R2-transfected cells with impaired PP1 activity; monitoring drug-induced HDAC6-PP1 complex re-shuffling; and, abrogating HDAC6 expression with specific siRNA. Altogether, (S)-8 proved very effective against melanoma A375 cells, but not normal melanocytes, and safe to normal mice thus offering attractive clinical prospects for treating this aggressive malignancy. PMID:25376115

  12. Histone modifiers and marks define heterogeneous groups of colorectal carcinomas and affect responses to HDAC inhibitors in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Lisa; Fitzner, Ingrid Coutiño; Ahrens, Theresa; Geißler, Anna-Lena; Makowiec, Frank; Hopt, Ulrich T; Bogatyreva, Lioudmila; Hauschke, Dieter; Werner, Martin; Lassmann, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about histone modifiers and histone marks in colorectal cancers (CRC). The present study therefore addressed the role of histone acetylation and histone deacetylases (HDAC) in CRCs in situ and in vitro. Immunohistochemistry of primary CRCs (n=47) revealed that selected histone marks were frequently present (H3K4me3: 100%; H3K9me3: 77%; H3K9ac: 75%), partially displayed intratumoral heterogeneity (H3K9me3; H3K9ac) and were significantly linked to higher pT category (H3K9me3: p=0.023; H3K9ac: p=0.028). Furthermore, also HDAC1 (62%), HDAC2 (100%) and HDAC3 (72%) expression was frequent, revealing four CRC types: cases expressing 1) HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC3 (49%), 2) HDAC2 and HDAC3 (30%), 3) HDAC1 and HDAC2 (10.5%) and 4) exclusively HDAC2 (10.5%). Correlation to clinico-pathological parameters (pT, pN, G, MSI status) revealed that heterogeneous HDAC1 expression correlated with lymph node status (p=0.012). HDAC expression in situ was partially reflected by six CRC cell lines, with similar expression of all three HDACs (DLD1, LS174T), preferential HDAC2 and HDAC3 expression (SW480, Caco2) or lower HDAC2 and HDAC3 expression (HCT116, HT29). HDAC activity was variably higher in HCT116, HT29, DLD1 and SW480 compared to LS174T and Caco2 cells. Treatment with broad (SAHA) and specific (MS-275; FK228) HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) caused loss of cell viability in predominantly MSIpositive CRC cells (HCT116, LS174T, DLD1; SAHA, MS-275 and in part FK228). In contrast, MSI-negative CRC cells (Caco2, HT29, SW480) were resistant, except for high doses of FK228 (Caco2, HT29). Cell viability patterns were not linked to different efficacies of HDACi on reduction of HDAC activity or histone acetylation, p21 expression and/or induction of DNA damage (γH2A-X levels). In summary, this study reveals inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity of histone marks and HDAC expression in CRCs. This is reflected by diverse HDACi responses in vitro, which do not follow known modes of action

  13. Histone modifiers and marks define heterogeneous groups of colorectal carcinomas and affect responses to HDAC inhibitors in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Lisa; Fitzner, Ingrid Coutiño; Ahrens, Theresa; Geißler, Anna-Lena; Makowiec, Frank; Hopt, Ulrich T; Bogatyreva, Lioudmila; Hauschke, Dieter; Werner, Martin; Lassmann, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about histone modifiers and histone marks in colorectal cancers (CRC). The present study therefore addressed the role of histone acetylation and histone deacetylases (HDAC) in CRCs in situ and in vitro. Immunohistochemistry of primary CRCs (n=47) revealed that selected histone marks were frequently present (H3K4me3: 100%; H3K9me3: 77%; H3K9ac: 75%), partially displayed intratumoral heterogeneity (H3K9me3; H3K9ac) and were significantly linked to higher pT category (H3K9me3: p=0.023; H3K9ac: p=0.028). Furthermore, also HDAC1 (62%), HDAC2 (100%) and HDAC3 (72%) expression was frequent, revealing four CRC types: cases expressing 1) HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC3 (49%), 2) HDAC2 and HDAC3 (30%), 3) HDAC1 and HDAC2 (10.5%) and 4) exclusively HDAC2 (10.5%). Correlation to clinico-pathological parameters (pT, pN, G, MSI status) revealed that heterogeneous HDAC1 expression correlated with lymph node status (p=0.012). HDAC expression in situ was partially reflected by six CRC cell lines, with similar expression of all three HDACs (DLD1, LS174T), preferential HDAC2 and HDAC3 expression (SW480, Caco2) or lower HDAC2 and HDAC3 expression (HCT116, HT29). HDAC activity was variably higher in HCT116, HT29, DLD1 and SW480 compared to LS174T and Caco2 cells. Treatment with broad (SAHA) and specific (MS-275; FK228) HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) caused loss of cell viability in predominantly MSIpositive CRC cells (HCT116, LS174T, DLD1; SAHA, MS-275 and in part FK228). In contrast, MSI-negative CRC cells (Caco2, HT29, SW480) were resistant, except for high doses of FK228 (Caco2, HT29). Cell viability patterns were not linked to different efficacies of HDACi on reduction of HDAC activity or histone acetylation, p21 expression and/or induction of DNA damage (γH2A-X levels). In summary, this study reveals inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity of histone marks and HDAC expression in CRCs. This is reflected by diverse HDACi responses in vitro, which do not follow known modes of action

  14. The SCFA butyrate stimulates the epithelial production of retinoic acid via inhibition of epithelial HDAC.

    PubMed

    Schilderink, Ronald; Verseijden, Caroline; Seppen, Jurgen; Muncan, Vanesa; van den Brink, Gijs R; Lambers, Tim T; van Tol, Eric A; de Jonge, Wouter J

    2016-06-01

    In the intestinal mucosa, retinoic acid (RA) is a critical signaling molecule. RA is derived from dietary vitamin A (retinol) through conversion by aldehyde dehydrogenases (aldh). Reduced levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are associated with pathological microbial dysbiosis, inflammatory disease, and allergy. We hypothesized that SCFAs contribute to mucosal homeostasis by enhancing RA production in intestinal epithelia. With the use of human and mouse epithelial cell lines and primary enteroids, we studied the effect of SCFAs on the production of RA. Functional RA conversion was analyzed by Adlefluor activity assays. Butyrate (0-20 mM), in contrast to other SCFAs, dose dependently induced aldh1a1 or aldh1a3 transcript expression and increased RA conversion in human and mouse epithelial cells. Epithelial cell line data were replicated in intestinal organoids. In these organoids, butyrate (2-5 mM) upregulated aldh1a3 expression (36-fold over control), whereas aldh1a1 was not significantly affected. Butyrate enhanced maturation markers (Mucin-2 and villin) but did not consistently affect stemness markers or other Wnt target genes (lgr5, olfm4, ascl2, cdkn1). In enteroids, the stimulation of RA production by SCFA was mimicked by inhibitors of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) but not by HDAC1/2 inhibitors nor by agonists of butyrate receptors G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR)43 or GPR109A, indicating that butyrate stimulates RA production via HDAC3 inhibition. We conclude that the SCFA butyrate inhibits HDAC3 and thereby supports epithelial RA production. PMID:27151945

  15. Dissecting structure-activity-relationships of crebinostat: Brain penetrant HDAC inhibitors for neuroepigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Balaram; Zhao, Wen-Ning; Reis, Surya A; Patnaik, Debasis; Fass, Daniel M; Tsai, Li-Huei; Mazitschek, Ralph; Haggarty, Stephen J

    2016-02-15

    Targeting chromatin-mediated epigenetic regulation has emerged as a potential avenue for developing novel therapeutics for a wide range of central nervous system disorders, including cognitive disorders and depression. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been pursued as cognitive enhancers that impact the regulation of gene expression and other mechanisms integral to neuroplasticity. Through systematic modification of the structure of crebinostat, a previously discovered cognitive enhancer that affects genes critical to memory and enhances synaptogenesis, combined with biochemical and neuronal cell-based screening, we identified a novel hydroxamate-based HDAC inhibitor, here named neurinostat, with increased potency compared to crebinostat in inducing neuronal histone acetylation. In addition, neurinostat was found to have a pharmacokinetic profile in mouse brain modestly improved over that of crebinostat. This discovery of neurinostat and demonstration of its effects on neuronal HDACs adds to the available pharmacological toolkit for dissecting the molecular and cellular mechanisms of neuroepigenetic regulation in health and disease. PMID:26804233

  16. Metabolic Effects of Known and Novel HDAC and SIRT Inhibitors in Glioblastomas Independently or Combined with Temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Cuperlovic-Culf, Miroslava; Touaibia, Mohamed; St-Coeur, Patrick-Denis; Poitras, Julie; Morin, Pier Jr; Culf, Adrian S.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of protein deacetylation enzymes, alone or in combination with standard chemotherapies, is an exciting addition to cancer therapy. We have investigated the effect of deacetylase inhibition on the metabolism of glioblastoma cells. 1H NMR metabolomics analysis was used to determine the major metabolic changes following treatment of two distinct glioblastoma cell lines, U373 and LN229, with five different histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, as well as one inhibitor of NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases (SIRT). The addition of the standard glioblastoma chemotherapy agent, temozolomide, to the HDAC and SIRT treatments led to a reduction in cell survival, suggesting a possibility for combined treatment. This study shows that distinct glioblastoma cell lines, with different metabolic profiles and gene expression, experience dissimilar changes following treatment with protein deacetylase inhibitors. The observed effects of inhibitors on mitochondrial metabolism, glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis suggest possible roles of protein deacetylases in metabolism regulation. Metabolic markers of the effectiveness of anti-protein deacetylase treatments have been explored. In addition to known deacetylation inhibitors, three novel inhibitors have been introduced and tested. Finally, 1H NMR analysis of cellular metabolism is shown to be a fast, inexpensive method for testing drug effects. PMID:25222834

  17. HC toxin (a HDAC inhibitor) enhances IRS1-Akt signalling and metabolism in mouse myotubes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hayden Weng Siong; Sim, Arthur Yi Loong; Huang, Su Ling; Leng, Ying; Long, Yun Chau

    2015-12-01

    Exercise enhances numerous signalling pathways and activates substrate metabolism in skeletal muscle. Small molecule compounds that activate these cellular responses have been shown to recapitulate the metabolic benefits of exercise. In this study, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, HC toxin, was investigated as a small molecule compound that activates exercise-induced adaptations. In C2C12 myotubes, HC toxin treatment activated two exercise-stimulated pathways: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Akt pathways. HC toxin increased the protein content and phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 as well as the activation of downstream Akt signalling. The effects of HC toxin on IRS1-Akt signalling were PI3K-dependent as wortmannin abolishes its effects on IRS1 protein accumulation and Akt phosphorylation. HC toxin-induced Akt activation was sufficient to enhance downstream mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling including p70S6K and S6, which were consistently abolished by PI3K inhibition. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, glycolysis, mitochondrial respiration and fatty acid oxidation were also enhanced in HC toxin-treated myotubes. When myotubes were challenged with serum starvation for the induction of atrophy, HC toxin treatment prevented the induction of genes that are involved in autophagy and proteasomal proteolysis. Conversely, IRS1-Akt signalling was not induced by HC toxin in several hepatoma cell lines, providing evidence for a favourable safety profile of this small molecule. These data highlight the potential of HDAC inhibitors as a novel class of small molecules for the induction of exercise-like signalling pathways and metabolism. PMID:26373795

  18. HDAC Inhibition Modulates Cardiac PPARs and Fatty Acid Metabolism in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ting-I; Tsai, Wen-Chin; Chung, Cheng-Chih; Chen, Yao-Chang; Chen, Yi-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate cardiac glucose and lipid homeostasis. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor has anti-inflammatory effects which may play a key role in modulating PPARs and fatty acid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HDAC inhibitor, MPT0E014, can modulate myocardial PPARs, inflammation, and fatty acid metabolism in diabetes mellitus (DM) cardiomyopathy. Electrocardiography, echocardiography, and western blotting were used to evaluate the electrophysiological activity, cardiac structure, fatty acid metabolism, inflammation, and PPAR isoform expressions in the control and streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced DM rats with or without MPT0E014. Compared to control, DM and MPT0E014-treated DM rats had elevated blood glucose levels and lower body weights. However, MPT0E014-treated DM and control rats had smaller left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and shorter QT interval than DM rats. The control and MPT0E014-treated DM rats had greater cardiac PPAR-α and PPAR-δ protein expressions, but less cardiac PPAR-γ than DM rats. Moreover, control and MPT0E014-treated DM rats had lower concentrations of 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase 2α, PPAR-γ coactivator 1α, phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase, cluster of differentiation 36, diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), DGAT2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 protein than DM rats. HDAC inhibition significantly attenuated DM cardiomyopathy through modulation of cardiac PPARS, fatty acid metabolism, and proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:27446205

  19. Chemistry and biology of chromatin remodeling agents: state of art and future perspectives of HDAC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rodriquez, Manuela; Aquino, Maurizio; Bruno, Ines; De Martino, Giovanni; Taddei, Maurizio; Gomez-Paloma, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    Chromatin remodeling is a fundamental phenomenon in the life of eukaryotic cells, bearing implications to numerous physiological and pathological phenomena. This review outlines the chemistry of natural and synthetic agents endowed with the ability to interfere with such biological function, with a particular emphasis on histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Other aspects covered in this article comprise structure activity relationships (SAR) and modes of action at molecular level, including the description of crystal structures of enzyme-inhibitor complexes. PMID:16719774

  20. Involvement of HDAC1 and the PI3K/PKC signaling pathways in NF-{kappa}B activation by the HDAC inhibitor apicidin

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong Kee . E-mail: yksnbk@kwandong.ac.kr; Seo, Dong-Wan; Kang, Dong-Won; Lee, Hoi Young; Han, Jeung-Whan; Kim, Su-Nam . E-mail: snkim@kist.re.kr

    2006-09-08

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are appreciated as one of promising anticancer drugs, but they exert differential responses depending on the cell type. We recently reported the critical role of NF-{kappa}B as a modulator in determining cell fate for apoptosis in response to an HDAC inhibitor. In this study, we investigate a possible signaling pathway required for NF-{kappa}B activation in response to the HDAC inhibitor apicidin. Treatment of HeLa cells with apicidin leads to an increase in transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B and the expression of its target genes, IL-8 and TNF-{alpha}. TNF-{alpha} expression by apicidin is induced at earlier time points than NF-{kappa}B activation or IL-8 expression. In addition, our data show that the early expression of TNF-{alpha} does not lead to activation of NF-{kappa}B, because disruption of TNF-{alpha} activity by a neutralizing antibody does not affect nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B, I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation or reporter gene activation by apicidin. However, this activation of NF-{kappa}B requires the PI3K and PKC signaling pathways, but not ERK or JNK. Furthermore, apicidin activation of NF-{kappa}B seems to result from HDAC1 inhibition, as evidenced by the observation that overexpression of HDAC1, but not HDAC2, 3 or 4, dramatically inhibits NF-{kappa}B reporter gene activity. Collectively, our results suggest that activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling by apicidin requires both the PI3K/PKC signaling pathways and HDAC1, and functions as a critical modulator in determining the cellular effect of apicidin.

  1. Combining BET and HDAC inhibitors synergistically induces apoptosis of melanoma and suppresses AKT and YAP signaling

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Anja; Cullinane, Carleen; De Paoli-Iseppi, Ricardo; Wilmott, James S.; Gunatilake, Dilini; Madore, Jason; Strbenac, Dario; Yang, Jean Y.; Gowrishankar, Kavitha; Tiffen, Jessamy C.; Prinjha, Rab K.; Smithers, Nicholas; McArthur, Grant A.; Hersey, Peter; Gallagher, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Histone acetylation marks have an important role in controlling gene expression and are removed by histone deacetylases (HDACs). These marks are read by bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins and novel inhibitiors of these proteins are currently in clinical development. Inhibitors of HDAC and BET proteins have individually been shown to cause apoptosis and reduce growth of melanoma cells. Here we show that combining the HDAC inhibitor LBH589 and BET inhibitor I-BET151 synergistically induce apoptosis of melanoma cells but not of melanocytes. Induction of apoptosis proceeded through the mitochondrial pathway, was caspase dependent and involved upregulation of the BH3 pro-apoptotic protein BIM. Analysis of signal pathways in melanoma cell lines resistant to BRAF inhibitors revealed that treatment with the combination strongly downregulated anti-apoptotic proteins and proteins in the AKT and Hippo/YAP signaling pathways. Xenograft studies showed that the combination of inhibitors was more effective than single drug treatment and confirmed upregulation of BIM and downregulation of XIAP as seen in vitro. These results support the combination of these two classes of epigenetic regulators in treatment of melanoma including those resistant to BRAF inhibitors. PMID:26087189

  2. Mechanism of Action of 2-Aminobenzamide HDAC Inhibitors in Reversing Gene Silencing in Friedreich’s Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Soragni, Elisabetta; Chou, C. James; Rusche, James R.; Gottesfeld, Joel M.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic defect in Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA) is the hyperexpansion of a GAA•TTC triplet in the first intron of the FXN gene, encoding the essential mitochondrial protein frataxin. Histone post-translational modifications near the expanded repeats are consistent with heterochromatin formation and consequent FXN gene silencing. Using a newly developed human neuronal cell model, derived from patient-induced pluripotent stem cells, we find that 2-aminobenzamide histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors increase FXN mRNA levels and frataxin protein in FRDA neuronal cells. However, only compounds targeting the class I HDACs 1 and 3 are active in increasing FXN mRNA in these cells. Structural analogs of the active HDAC inhibitors that selectively target either HDAC1 or HDAC3 do not show similar increases in FXN mRNA levels. To understand the mechanism of action of these compounds, we probed the kinetic properties of the active and inactive inhibitors, and found that only compounds that target HDACs 1 and 3 exhibited a slow-on/slow-off mechanism of action for the HDAC enzymes. HDAC1- and HDAC3-selective compounds did not show this activity. Using siRNA methods in the FRDA neuronal cells, we show increases in FXN mRNA upon silencing of either HDACs 1 or 3, suggesting the possibility that inhibition of each of these class I HDACs is necessary for activation of FXN mRNA synthesis, as there appears to be redundancy in the silencing mechanism caused by the GAA•TTC repeats. Moreover, inhibitors must have a long residence time on their target enzymes for this activity. By interrogating microarray data from neuronal cells treated with inhibitors of different specificity, we selected two genes encoding histone macroH2A (H2AFY2) and Polycomb group ring finger 2 (PCGF2) that were specifically down-regulated by the inhibitors targeting HDACs1 and 3 versus the more selective inhibitors for further investigation. Both genes are involved in transcriptional repression and we

  3. Domain-selective small-molecule inhibitor of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6)-mediated tubulin deacetylation

    PubMed Central

    Haggarty, Stephen J.; Koeller, Kathryn M.; Wong, Jason C.; Grozinger, Christina M.; Schreiber, Stuart L.

    2003-01-01

    Protein acetylation, especially histone acetylation, is the subject of both research and clinical investigation. At least four small-molecule histone deacetylase inhibitors are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. These and other inhibitors also affect microtubule acetylation. A multidimensional, chemical genetic screen of 7,392 small molecules was used to discover “tubacin,” which inhibits α-tubulin deacetylation in mammalian cells. Tubacin does not affect the level of histone acetylation, gene-expression patterns, or cell-cycle progression. We provide evidence that class II histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is the intracellular target of tubacin. Only one of the two catalytic domains of HDAC6 possesses tubulin deacetylase activity, and only this domain is bound by tubacin. Tubacin treatment did not affect the stability of microtubules but did decrease cell motility. HDAC6 overexpression disrupted the localization of p58, a protein that mediates binding of Golgi elements to microtubules. Our results highlight the role of α-tubulin acetylation in mediating the localization of microtubule-associated proteins. They also suggest that small molecules that selectively inhibit HDAC6-mediated α-tubulin deacetylation, a first example of which is tubacin, might have therapeutic applications as antimetastatic and antiangiogenic agents. PMID:12677000

  4. Promiscuous Actions of Small Molecule Inhibitors of the Protein Kinase D-Class IIa HDAC Axis in Striated Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Douglas D.; Harrison, Brooke C.; Horn, Todd R.; Stratton, Matthew S.; Ferguson, Bradley S.; Wempe, Michael F.; McKinsey, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    PKD-mediated phosphorylation of class IIa HDACs frees the MEF2 transcription factor to activate genes that govern muscle differentiation and growth. Studies of the regulation and function of this signaling axis have involved MC1568 and Gö-6976, which are small molecule inhibitors of class IIa HDAC and PKD catalytic activity, respectively. We describe unanticipated effects of these compounds. MC1568 failed to inhibit class IIa HDAC catalytic activity in vitro, and exerted divergent effects on skeletal muscle differentiation compared to a bona fide inhibitor of these HDACs. In cardiomyocytes, Gö-6976 triggered calcium signaling and activated stress-inducible kinases. Based on these findings, caution is warranted when employing MC1568 and Gö-6976 as pharmacological tool compounds to assess functions of class IIa HDACs and PKD. PMID:25816750

  5. Reversal of glucose intolerance in rat offspring exposed to ethanol before birth through reduction of nuclear skeletal muscle HDAC expression by the bile acid TUDCA

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xing‐Hai; Nguyen, Khanh H.; Nyomba, B. L. Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Prenatal ethanol exposure causes cellular stress, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance in adult offspring, with increased gluconeogenesis and reduced muscle glucose transporter‐4 (glut4) expression. Impaired insulin activation of Akt and nuclear translocation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the liver partly explain increased gluconeogenesis. The mechanism for the reduced glut4 is unknown. Pregnant rats were gavaged with ethanol over the last week of gestation and adult female offspring were studied. Some ethanol exposed offspring was treated with tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) for 3 weeks. All these rats underwent intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests. The expression of glut4, HDACs, and markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response (XBP1, CHOP, ATF6) was examined in the gastrocnemius muscle fractions, and in C2C12 muscle cells cultured with ethanol, TUDCA, and HDAC inhibitors. Non‐TUDCA‐treated rats exposed to prenatal ethanol were insulin resistant and glucose intolerant with reduced muscle glut4 expression, increased ER marker expression, and increased nuclear HDACs, whereas TUDCA‐treated rats had normal insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance with normal glut4 expression, ER marker expression, and HDAC levels. In C2C12 cells, ethanol reduced glut4 expression, but increased ER makers. While TUDCA restored glut4 and ER markers to control levels and HDAC inhibition rescued glut4 expression, HDAC inhibition had no effect on ER markers. The increase in nuclear HDAC levels consequent to prenatal ethanol exposure reduces glut4 expression in adult rat offspring, and this HDAC effect is independent of ER unfolded protein response. HDAC inhibition by TUDCA restores glut4 expression, with improvement in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. PMID:25538147

  6. Fragment based G-QSAR and molecular dynamics based mechanistic simulations into hydroxamic-based HDAC inhibitors against spinocerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Siddharth; Tyagi, Chetna; Goyal, Sukriti; Jamal, Salma; Somvanshi, Pallavi; Grover, Abhinav

    2016-10-01

    Expansion of polyglutamine (CAG) triplets within the coding gene ataxin 2 results in transcriptional repression, forming the molecular basis of the neurodegenerative disorder named spinocerebellar ataxia type-2 (SCA2). HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) have been elements of great interest in polyglutamine disorders such as Huntington's and Ataxia's. In this study, we have selected hydroxamic acid derivatives as HDACi and performed fragment-based G-QSAR, molecular docking studies and molecular dynamics simulations for elucidating the dynamic mode of action of HDACi with His-Asp catalytic dyad of HDAC4. The model was statistically validated to establish its predictive robustness. The model was statistically significant with r(2) value of .6297, cross-validated co-relation coefficient q(2) value of .5905 and pred_r(2) (predicted square co-relation coefficient) value of .85. An F-test value of 56.11 confirms absolute robustness of the model. Two combinatorial libraries comprising of 3180 compounds were created with hydroxamate moiety as the template and their pIC50 activities were predicted based on the G-QSAR model. The combinatorial library created was screened on the basis of predicted activity (pIC50), with two resultant top scoring compounds, HIC and DHC. The interaction of the compounds with His-Asp dyad in terms of H-bond interactions with His802, Asp840, Pro942, and Gly975 residues of HDAC4 was evaluated by docking and 20 ns long molecular dynamics simulations. This study provides valuable leads for structural substitutions required for hydroxamate moiety to exhibit enhanced inhibitory activity against HDAC4. The reported compounds demonstrated good binding and thus can be considered as potent therapeutic leads against ataxia. PMID:26510381

  7. Targeting HDAC with a novel inhibitor effectively reverses paclitaxel resistance in non-small cell lung cancer via multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L; Li, H; Ren, Y; Zou, S; Fang, W; Jiang, X; Jia, L; Li, M; Liu, X; Yuan, X; Chen, G; Yang, J; Wu, C

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy paclitaxel yields significant reductions in tumor burden in the majority of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, acquired resistance limits its clinical use. Here we demonstrated that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) was activated in paclitaxel-resistant NSCLC cells, and its activation promoted proliferation and tumorigenesis of paclitaxel-resistant NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo. By contrast, knockdown of HDAC1, a primary isoform of HDAC, sensitized resistant cells to paclitaxel in vitro. Furthermore, we observed that overexpression of HDAC1 was associated with the downregulation of p21, a known HDAC target, in advanced NSCLC patients with paclitaxel treatment, and predicted chemotherapy resistance and bad outcome. In addition, we also identified a novel HDACs inhibitor, SNOH-3, which inhibited HDAC expression and activity, induced cell apoptosis, and suppressed cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis. Notably, co-treatment with SNOH-3 and paclitaxel overcome paclitaxel resistance through inhibiting HDAC activity, leading to the induction of apoptosis and suppression of angiogenesis in vitro and in preclinical model. In summary, our data demonstrate a role of HDAC in paclitaxel-resistant NSCLC and provide a promising therapeutic strategy to overcome paclitaxel-acquired resistance. PMID:26794658

  8. Pharmacologic suppression of MITF expression via HDAC inhibitors in the melanocyte lineage

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Feige, Erez; Poling, Laura L.; Levy, Carmit; Widlund, Hans R.; Khaled, Mehdi; Kung, Andrew L.; Fisher, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Melanoma incidence continues to rise at an alarming rate while effective systemic therapies remain very limited. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is required for development of melanocytes and is an amplified oncogene in a fraction of human melanomas. MITF also plays an oncogenic role in human clear cell sarcomas, which typically exhibit melanoma-like features. Although pharmacologic suppression of MITF is of potential interest in a variety of clinical settings, it is not known to contain intrinsic catalytic activity capable of direct small molecule inhibition. An alternative drug-targeting strategy is to identify and interfere with lineage-restricted mechanisms required for its expression. Here, we report that multiple HDAC-inhibitor drugs potently suppress MITF expression in melanocytes, melanoma and clear cell sarcoma cells. Although HDAC inhibitors may affect numerous cellular targets, we observed suppression of skin pigmentation by topical drug application as well as evidence of anti-melanoma efficacy in vitro and in mouse xenografts. Consequently, HDAC inhibitor drugs are candidates to play therapeutic roles in targeting conditions affecting the melanocyte lineage. PMID:18627530

  9. Kinetic and structural insights into the binding of histone deacetylase 1 and 2 (HDAC1, 2) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Florence F; Weïwer, Michel; Steinbacher, Stefan; Schomburg, Adrian; Reinemer, Peter; Gale, Jennifer P; Campbell, Arthur J; Fisher, Stewart L; Zhao, Wen-Ning; Reis, Surya A; Hennig, Krista M; Thomas, Méryl; Müller, Peter; Jefson, Martin R; Fass, Daniel M; Haggarty, Stephen J; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Holson, Edward B

    2016-09-15

    The structure-activity and structure-kinetic relationships of a series of novel and selective ortho-aminoanilide inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs) 1 and 2 are described. Different kinetic and thermodynamic selectivity profiles were obtained by varying the moiety occupying an 11Å channel leading to the Zn(2+) catalytic pocket of HDACs 1 and 2, two paralogs with a high degree of structural similarity. The design of these novel inhibitors was informed by two ligand-bound crystal structures of truncated hHDAC2. BRD4884 and BRD7232 possess kinetic selectivity for HDAC1 versus HDAC2. We demonstrate that the binding kinetics of HDAC inhibitors can be tuned for individual isoforms in order to modulate target residence time while retaining functional activity and increased histone H4K12 and H3K9 acetylation in primary mouse neuronal cell culture assays. These chromatin modifiers, with tuned binding kinetic profiles, can be used to define the relation between target engagement requirements and the pharmacodynamic response of HDACs in different disease applications. PMID:27377864

  10. The levels of HDAC1 and thioredoxin1 are related to the death of mesothelioma cells by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid.

    PubMed

    You, Bo Ra; Park, Woo Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Mesothelioma is an aggressive tumor which is mainly derived from the pleura of lung. In the present study, we evaluated the anticancer effect of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor on human mesothelioma cells in relation to the levels of HDAC1, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thioredoxin (Trx). While 1 µM SAHA inhibited cell growth in Phi and ROB cells at 24 h, it did not affect the growth in ADA and Mill cells. Notably, the level of HDAC1 was relatively overexpressed among Phi, REN and ROB cells. SAHA induced necrosis and apoptosis, which was accompanied by the cleavages of PARP and caspase-3 in Phi cells. This agent also increased the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm) in Phi cells. All the tested caspase inhibitors attenuated apoptosis in SAHA-treated Phi cells whereas HDAC1 siRNA enhanced the apoptotic cell death. SAHA increased intracellular ROS levels including O2•- in Phi cells. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and vitamin C (Vit.C) significantly reduced the growth inhibition and death of Phi cells caused by SAHA. This drug decreased the mRNA and protein levels of Trx1 in Phi and ROB cells. Furthermore, Trx1 siRNA increased cell death and O2•- level in SAHA-treated Phi cells. In conclusion, SAHA selectively inhibited the growth of Phi and ROB mesothelioma cells, which showed the higher basal level of HDAC1. SAHA-induced Phi cell death was related to oxidative stress and Trx1 levels. PMID:26936390

  11. Targeting epigenetic reader and eraser: Rational design, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of dimethylisoxazoles derivatives as BRD4/HDAC dual inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhimin; Hou, Shaohua; Chen, Hongli; Ran, Ting; Jiang, Fei; Bian, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Dewei; Zhi, Yanle; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Li; Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Yanmin; Tang, Weifang; Lu, Tao; Chen, Yadong

    2016-06-15

    The bromodomain protein module and histone deacetylase (HDAC), which recognize and remove acetylated lysine, respectively, have emerged as important epigenetic therapeutic targets in cancer treatments. Herein we presented a novel design approach for cancer drug development by combination of bromodomain and HDAC inhibitory activity in one molecule. The designed compounds were synthesized which showed inhibitory activity against bromodomain 4 and HDAC1. The representative dual bromodomain/HDAC inhibitors, compound 11 and 12, showed potent antiproliferative activities against human leukaemia cell line K562 and MV4-11 in cellular assays. This work may lay the foundation for developing dual bromodomain/HDAC inhibitors as potential anticancer therapeutics. PMID:27142751

  12. Structural Requirements of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors: SAHA Analogs Modified on the Hydroxamic Acid.

    PubMed

    Bieliauskas, Anton V; Weerasinghe, Sujith V W; Negmeldin, Ahmed T; Pflum, Mary Kay H

    2016-05-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins have emerged as targets for anti-cancer therapeutics, with several inhibitors used in the clinic, including suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, vorinostat). Because SAHA and many other inhibitors target all or most of the 11 human HDAC proteins, the creation of selective inhibitors has been studied intensely. Recently, inhibitors selective for HDAC1 and HDAC2 were reported where selectivity was attributed to interactions between substituents on the metal binding moiety of the inhibitor and residues in the 14-Å internal cavity of the HDAC enzyme structure. Based on this earlier work, we synthesized and tested SAHA analogs with substituents on the hydroxamic acid metal binding moiety. The N-substituted SAHA analogs displayed reduced potency and solubility, but greater selectivity, compared to SAHA. Docking studies suggested that the N-substituent accesses the 14-Å internal cavity to impart preferential inhibition of HDAC1. These studies with N-substituted SAHA analogs are consistent with the strategy exploiting the 14-Å internal cavity of HDAC proteins to create HDAC1/2 selective inhibitors. PMID:27062198

  13. Modulation of Activity Profiles for Largazole-Based HDAC Inhibitors through Alteration of Prodrug Properties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Largazole is a potent and class I-selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor purified from marine cyanobacteria and was demonstrated to possess antitumor activity. Largazole employs a unique prodrug strategy, via a thioester moiety, to liberate the bioactive species largazole thiol. Here we report alternate prodrug strategies to modulate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics profiles of new largazole-based compounds. The in vitro effects of largazole analogues on cancer cell proliferation and enzymatic activities of purified HDACs were comparable to the natural product. However, in vitro and in vivo histone hyperacetylation in HCT116 cells and implanted tumors, respectively, showed differences, particularly in the onset of action and oral bioavailability. These results indicate that, by employing a different approach to disguise the “warhead” moiety, the functional consequence of these prodrugs can be significantly modulated. Our data corroborate the role of the pharmacokinetic properties of this class of compounds to elicit the desired and timely functional response. PMID:25147612

  14. HDAC inhibitors induce global changes in histone lysine and arginine methylation and alter expression of lysine demethylases.

    PubMed

    Lillico, Ryan; Sobral, Marina Gomez; Stesco, Nicholas; Lakowski, Ted M

    2016-02-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are cancer treatments that inhibit the removal of the epigenetic modification acetyllysine on histones, resulting in altered gene expression. Such changes in expression may influence other histone epigenetic modifications. We describe a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify lysine acetylation and methylation and arginine methylation on histones extracted from cultured cells treated with HDAC inhibitors. The HDAC inhibitors vorinostat, mocetinostat and entinostat induced 400-600% hyperacetylation in HEK 293 and K562 cells. All HDAC inhibitors decreased histone methylarginines in HEK 293 cells but entinostat produced dose dependent reductions in asymmetric dimethylarginine, not observed in K562 cells. Vorinostat produced increases in histone lysine methylation and decreased expression of some lysine demethylases (KDM), measured by quantitative PCR. Entinostat had variable effects on lysine methylation and decreased expression of some KDM while increasing expression of others. Mocetinostat produced dose dependent increases in histone lysine methylation by LC-MS/MS. This was corroborated with a multiplex colorimetric assay showing increases in histone H3 lysine 4, 9, 27, 36 and 79 methylation. Increases in lysine methylation were correlated with dose dependent decreases in the expression of seven KDM. Mocetinostat functions as an HDAC inhibitor and a de facto KDM inhibitor. PMID:26721445

  15. Effect of HDAC Inhibitors on Corneal Keratocyte Mechanical Phenotypes in 3-D Collagen Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Koppaka, Vindhya; Lakshman, Neema

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC) have been shown to inhibit the TGFβ-induced myofibroblast transformation of corneal fibroblasts in 2-D culture. However, the effect of HDAC inhibitors on keratocyte spreading, contraction, and matrix remodeling in 3-D culture has not been directly assessed. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of the HDAC inhibitors Trichostatin A (TSA) and Vorinostat (SAHA) on corneal keratocyte mechanical phenotypes in 3-D culture using defined serum-free culture conditions. Methods: Rabbit corneal keratocytes were plated within standard rat tail type I collagen matrices (2.5 mg/ml) or compressed collagen matrices (~100 mg/ml) and cultured for up to 4 days in serum-free media, PDGF BB, TGFβ1, and either 50 nM TSA, 10 μM SAHA, or vehicle (DMSO). F-actin, α-SM-actin, and collagen fibrils were imaged using confocal microscopy. Cell morphology and global matrix contraction were quantified digitally. The expression of α-SM-actin was assessed using western blotting. Results: Corneal keratocytes in 3-D matrices had a quiescent mechanical phenotype, as indicated by a dendritic morphology, a lack of stress fibers, and minimal cell-induced matrix remodeling. This phenotype was generally maintained following the addition of TSA or SAHA. TGFβ1 induced a contractile phenotype, as indicated by a loss of dendritic cell processes, the development of stress fibers, and significant matrix compaction. In contrast, cells cultured in TGFβ1 plus TSA or SAHA remained dendritic and did not form stress fibers or induce ECM compaction. Western blotting showed that the expression of α-SM actin after treatment with TGFβ1 was inhibited by TSA and SAHA. PDGF BB stimulated the elongation of keratocytes and the extension of dendritic processes within 3-D matrices without inducing stress fiber formation or collagen reorganization. This spreading response was maintained in the presence of TSA or SAHA. Conclusions: Overall, HDAC inhibitors

  16. Design, synthesis and antiproliferative activities of novel benzamides derivatives as HDAC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyang; Wang, Yongzhen; Xie, Ning; Xu, Ming; Qian, Pengyu; Zhao, Yanjin; Li, Shuxin

    2015-07-15

    Guided by the principle of nonclassical electronic isosterism and structural optimization, a series of novel HDAC inhibitors bearing a bicyclic heterocycle moiety were designed and synthesized based on the lead compound of MS-275. All the prepared compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative activities against HCT-116, MCF-7 and A549 human cancer cell lines, all compounds exerted excellent antitumor activities. Moreover, the compound 4a exhibited an acceptable pharmacokinetic profile with bio-availability in rat of 76% and could be considered as a candidate compound for further development. PMID:26140961

  17. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of N-phenylquinazolin-4-amine hybrids as dual inhibitors of VEGFR-2 and HDAC.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fan-Wei; Xuan, Ji; Wu, Ting-Ting; Xue, Jia-Yu; Ren, Zi-Wei; Liu, Da-Ke; Wang, Xiu-Qi; Chen, Xin-Hang; Zhang, Jia-Wei; Xu, Yun-Gen; Shi, Lei

    2016-02-15

    A single agent that simultaneously inhibits multiple targets may offer greater therapeutic benefits in cancer than single-acting agents through interference with multiple pathways and potential synergistic action. In this work, a series of hybrids bearing N-phenylquinazolin-4-amine and hydroxamic acid moieties were designed and identified as dual VEGFR-2/HDAC inhibitors. Compound 6fd exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against HDAC with IC50 of 2.2 nM and strong inhibitory effect against VEGFR-2 with IC50 of 74 nM. It also showed the most potent inhibitory activity against a human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 with IC50 of 0.85 μM. Docking simulation supported the initial pharmacophoric hypothesis and suggested a common mode of interaction at the active binding sites of VEGFR-2 and HDLP ((Histone Deacetylase-Like Protein), which demonstrates that compound 6fd is a potential agent for cancer therapy deserving further researching. PMID:26741358

  18. HDAC2 blockade by nitric oxide and histone deacetylase inhibitors reveals a common target in Duchenne muscular dystrophy treatment.

    PubMed

    Colussi, Claudia; Mozzetta, Chiara; Gurtner, Aymone; Illi, Barbara; Rosati, Jessica; Straino, Stefania; Ragone, Gianluca; Pescatori, Mario; Zaccagnini, Germana; Antonini, Annalisa; Minetti, Giulia; Martelli, Fabio; Piaggio, Giulia; Gallinari, Paola; Steinkuhler, Christian; Steinkulher, Christian; Clementi, Emilio; Dell'Aversana, Carmela; Altucci, Lucia; Mai, Antonello; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Gaetano, Carlo

    2008-12-01

    The overlapping histological and biochemical features underlying the beneficial effect of deacetylase inhibitors and NO donors in dystrophic muscles suggest an unanticipated molecular link among dystrophin, NO signaling, and the histone deacetylases (HDACs). Higher global deacetylase activity and selective increased expression of the class I histone deacetylase HDAC2 were detected in muscles of dystrophin-deficient MDX mice. In vitro and in vivo siRNA-mediated down-regulation of HDAC2 in dystrophic muscles was sufficient to replicate the morphological and functional benefits observed with deacetylase inhibitors and NO donors. We found that restoration of NO signaling in vivo, by adenoviral-mediated expression of a constitutively active endothelial NOS mutant in MDX muscles, and in vitro, by exposing MDX-derived satellite cells to NO donors, resulted in HDAC2 blockade by cysteine S-nitrosylation. These data reveal a special contribution of HDAC2 in the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and indicate that HDAC2 inhibition by NO-dependent S-nitrosylation is important for the therapeutic response to NO donors in MDX mice. They also define a common target for independent pharmacological interventions in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:19047631

  19. HDAC2 blockade by nitric oxide and histone deacetylase inhibitors reveals a common target in Duchenne muscular dystrophy treatment

    PubMed Central

    Colussi, Claudia; Mozzetta, Chiara; Gurtner, Aymone; Illi, Barbara; Rosati, Jessica; Straino, Stefania; Ragone, Gianluca; Pescatori, Mario; Zaccagnini, Germana; Antonini, Annalisa; Minetti, Giulia; Martelli, Fabio; Piaggio, Giulia; Gallinari, Paola; Steinkuhler, Christian; Clementi, Emilio; Dell'Aversana, Carmela; Altucci, Lucia; Mai, Antonello; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Gaetano, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The overlapping histological and biochemical features underlying the beneficial effect of deacetylase inhibitors and NO donors in dystrophic muscles suggest an unanticipated molecular link among dystrophin, NO signaling, and the histone deacetylases (HDACs). Higher global deacetylase activity and selective increased expression of the class I histone deacetylase HDAC2 were detected in muscles of dystrophin-deficient MDX mice. In vitro and in vivo siRNA-mediated down-regulation of HDAC2 in dystrophic muscles was sufficient to replicate the morphological and functional benefits observed with deacetylase inhibitors and NO donors. We found that restoration of NO signaling in vivo, by adenoviral-mediated expression of a constitutively active endothelial NOS mutant in MDX muscles, and in vitro, by exposing MDX-derived satellite cells to NO donors, resulted in HDAC2 blockade by cysteine S-nitrosylation. These data reveal a special contribution of HDAC2 in the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and indicate that HDAC2 inhibition by NO-dependent S-nitrosylation is important for the therapeutic response to NO donors in MDX mice. They also define a common target for independent pharmacological interventions in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:19047631

  20. MuLV IN Mutants Responsive to HDAC Inhibitors Enhance Transcription from Unintegrated Retroviral DNA

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, William M.; Wu, Dai-tze; Amin, Vaibhav; Aiyer, Sriram; Roth, Monica J.

    2012-01-01

    For Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV), sustained viral infections require expression from an integrated provirus. For many applications, non-integrating retroviral vectors have been utilized to avoid the unwanted effects of integration, however, the level of expression from unintegrated DNA is significantly less than that of integrated provirus. We find that unintegrated DNA expression can be increased in the presence of HDAC inhibitors, such as TSA, when applied in combination with integrase (IN) mutations. These mutants include an active site mutation as well as catalytically active INs bearing mutations of K376 in the MuLV C-terminal domain of IN. MuLV IN K376 is homologous to K266 in HIV-1 IN, a known substrate for acetylation. The MuLV IN protein is acetylated by p300 in vitro, however, the effect of HDAC inhibitors on gene expression from unintegrated DNA is not dependent on the acetylation state of MuLV IN K376. PMID:22365328

  1. Selective inhibition of esophageal cancer cells by combination of HDAC inhibitors and Azacytidine

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Theresa D; Timme, Sylvia; Hoeppner, Jens; Ostendorp, Jenny; Hembach, Sina; Follo, Marie; Hopt, Ulrich T; Werner, Martin; Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Lassmann, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancers are highly aggressive tumors with poor prognosis despite some recent advances in surgical and radiochemotherapy treatment options. This study addressed the feasibility of drugs targeting epigenetic modifiers in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) cells. We tested inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) by SAHA, MS-275, and FK228, inhibition of DNA methyltransferases by Azacytidine (AZA) and Decitabine (DAC), and the effect of combination treatment using both types of drugs. The drug targets, HDAC1/2/3 and DNMT1, were expressed in normal esophageal epithelium and tumor cells of ESCC or EAC tissue specimens, as well as in non-neoplastic esophageal epithelial (Het-1A), ESCC (OE21, Kyse-270, Kyse-410), and EAC (OE33, SK-GT-4) cell lines. In vitro, HDAC activity, histone acetylation, and p21 expression were similarly affected in non-neoplastic, ESCC, and EAC cell lines post inhibitor treatment. Combined MS-275/AZA treatment, however, selectively targeted esophageal cancer cell lines by inducing DNA damage, cell viability loss, and apoptosis, and by decreasing cell migration. Non-neoplastic Het-1A cells were protected against HDACi (MS-275)/AZA treatment. RNA transcriptome analyses post MS-275 and/or AZA treatment identified novel regulated candidate genes (up: BCL6, Hes2; down: FAIM, MLKL), which were specifically associated with the treatment responses of esophageal cancer cells. In summary, combined HDACi/AZA treatment is efficient and selective for the targeting of esophageal cancer cells, despite similar target expression of normal and esophageal cancer epithelium, in vitro and in human esophageal carcinomas. The precise mechanisms of action of treatment responses involve novel candidate genes regulated by HDACi/AZA in esophageal cancer cells. Together, targeting of epigenetic modifiers in esophageal cancers may represent a potential future therapeutic approach. PMID:25923331

  2. Structure-Based Design and Synthesis of Novel Inhibitors Targeting HDAC8 from Schistosoma mansoni for the Treatment of Schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Heimburg, Tino; Chakrabarti, Alokta; Lancelot, Julien; Marek, Martin; Melesina, Jelena; Hauser, Alexander-Thomas; Shaik, Tajith B; Duclaud, Sylvie; Robaa, Dina; Erdmann, Frank; Schmidt, Matthias; Romier, Christophe; Pierce, Raymond J; Jung, Manfred; Sippl, Wolfgang

    2016-03-24

    Schistosomiasis is a major neglected parasitic disease that affects more than 265 million people worldwide and for which the control strategy consists of mass treatment with the only available drug, praziquantel. In this study, a series of new benzohydroxamates were prepared as potent inhibitors of Schistosoma mansoni histone deacetylase 8 (smHDAC8). Crystallographic analysis provided insights into the inhibition mode of smHDAC8 activity by these 3-amidobenzohydroxamates. The newly designed inhibitors were evaluated in screens for enzyme inhibitory activity against schistosome and human HDACs. Twenty-seven compounds were found to be active in the nanomolar range, and some of them showed selectivity toward smHDAC8 over the major human HDACs (1 and 6). The active benzohydroxamates were additionally screened for lethality against the schistosome larval stage using a fluorescence-based assay. Four of these showed significant dose-dependent killing of the schistosome larvae and markedly impaired egg laying of adult worm pairs maintained in culture. PMID:26937828

  3. Eradication of metastatic melanoma through cooperative expression of RNA-based HDAC1 inhibitor and p73 by oncolytic adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Schipper, Holger; Alla, Vijay; Meier, Claudia; Nettelbeck, Dirk M; Herchenröder, Ottmar; Pützer, Brigitte M

    2014-08-15

    Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive cancer that retains functional p53 and p73, and drug unresponsiveness largely depends on defects in death pathways after epigenetic gene silencing in conjunction with an imbalanced p73/DNp73 ratio. We constructed oncolytic viruses armed with an inhibitor of deacetylation and/or p73 to specifically target metastatic cancer. Arming of the viruses is aimed at lifting epigenetic blockage and re-opening apoptotic programs in a staggered manner enabling both, efficient virus replication and balanced destruction of target cells through apoptosis. Our results showed that cooperative expression of shHDAC1 and p73 efficiently enhances apoptosis induction and autophagy of infected cells which reinforces progeny production. In vitro analyses revealed 100% cytotoxicity after infecting cells with OV.shHDAC1.p73 at a lower virus dose compared to control viruses. Intriguingly, OV.shHDAC1.p73 acts as a potent inhibitor of highly metastatic xenograft tumors in vivo. Tumor expansion was significantly reduced after intratumoral injection of 3 x 10⁸ PFU of either OV.shHDAC1 or OV.p73 and, most important, complete regression could be achieved in 100 % of tumors treated with OV.shHDAC1.p73. Our results point out that the combination of high replication capacity and simultaneous restoration of cell death routes significantly enhance antitumor activity. PMID:25071017

  4. 4-(1-Ethyl-4-anisyl-imidazol-5-yl)-N-hydroxycinnamide – A new pleiotropic HDAC inhibitor targeting cancer cell signalling and cytoskeletal organisation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahal, Katharina; Kahlen, Philip; Biersack, Bernhard; Schobert, Rainer

    2015-08-15

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) which play a crucial role in cancer cell proliferation are promising drug targets. However, HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) modelled on natural hydroxamic acids such as trichostatin A frequently lead to resistance or even an increased agressiveness of tumours. As a workaround we developed 4-(1-ethyl-4-anisyl-imidazol-5-yl)-N-hydroxycinnamide (etacrox), a hydroxamic acid that combines HDAC inhibition with synergistic effects of the 4,5-diarylimidazole residue. Etacrox proved highly cytotoxic against a panel of metastatic and resistant cancer cell lines while showing greater specificity for cancer over non-malignant cells when compared to the approved HDACi vorinostat. Like the latter, etacrox and the closely related imidazoles bimacroxam and animacroxam acted as pan-HDACi yet showed some specificity for HDAC6. Akt signalling and interference with nuclear beta-catenin localisation were elicited by etacrox at lower concentrations when compared to vorinostat. Moreover, etacrox disrupted the microtubule and focal adhesion dynamics of cancer cells and inhibited the proteolytic activity of prometastatic and proangiogenic matrix metalloproteinases. As a consequence, etacrox acted strongly antimigratory and antiinvasive against various cancer cell lines in three-dimensional transwell invasion assays and also antiangiogenic in vivo with respect to blood vessel formation in the chorioallantoic membrane assay. These pleiotropic effects and its water-solubility and tolerance by mice render etacrox a promising new HDACi candidate. - Graphical abstract: A novel histone deacetylase inhibitor with pleiotropic anticancer effects. - Highlights: • Etacrox is a new HDACi with cytotoxic, antiangiogenic and antiinvasive activity. • Etacrox causes aberrant cancer cell signalling and cytoskeletal reorganisation. • Pro-metastatic and angiogenic matrix metalloproteinases are inhibited by etacrox. • Etacrox impairs blood vessel maturation in vivo and cancer cell

  5. Identification of new quinic acid derivatives as histone deacetylase inhibitors by fluorescence-based cellular assay.

    PubMed

    Son, Dohyun; Kim, Chung Sub; Lee, Kang Ro; Park, Hyun-Ju

    2016-05-01

    A fluorescence-based cellular assay system was established to identify potential epigenetic modulator ligands. This assay method is to detect the de-repression of an EGFP reporter in cancer cells by the treatment of HDAC (histone deacetylase) or DNMT (DNA methyltransferase) inhibitor. Using this system, we conducted a preliminary screening of in-house natural product library containing extracts and pure compounds, and identified several active compounds. Among them, novel quinic acid derivatives were recognized as excellent HDAC inhibitors by both enzymatic and cell-based HDAC assays. PMID:26996372

  6. Design, synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of indoline-2,3-dione derivatives as novel HDAC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kang; Li, Shanshan; Li, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xuechen

    2015-08-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are zinc-dependent or NAD(+) dependent enzymes and play a critical role in the process of tumor development. Herein a series of indoline-2,3-dione derivatives have been designed and synthesized as potential HDACs inhibitors. The preliminary biological evaluation showed that most compounds synthesized have exhibited moderate Hela cell nuclear extract inhibitory activities, among which compound 25a (IC50=10.13 nM) has shown the best efficacy. The anti-proliferative activities of some of these compounds were also discussed. PMID:26100440

  7. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors Preserve White Matter Structure and Function During Ischemia by Conserving ATP and Reducing Excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Baltan, Selva; Murphy, Sean P.; Danilov, Camelia A.; Bachleda, Amelia; Morrison, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of white matter (WM) injury to stroke pathology has been underestimated in experimental animal models and this may have contributed to the failure to translate potential therapeutics into the stroke clinic. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are neuroprotective and also promote neurogenesis. These properties make them ideal candidates for stroke therapy. In a pure WM tract (isolated mouse optic nerve) we show that pan- and Class I specific HDAC inhibitors, administered before or after a period of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), promote functional recovery of axons and preserve WM cellular architecture. This protection correlates with the up-regulation of an astrocyte glutamate transporter, delayed and reduced glutamate accumulation during OGD, preservation of axonal mitochondria and oligodendrocytes, and maintenance of ATP levels. Interestingly, the expression of HDACs 1, 2 and 3 is localized to astrocytes, suggesting that changes in glial cell gene transcription and/or protein acetylation may confer protection to axons. Our findings suggest that a therapeutic opportunity exists for the use of HDAC inhibitors, targeting mitochondrial energy regulation and excitotoxicity in ischemic WM injury. PMID:21411642

  8. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of hydroxamic acid-based molecular probes for in vivo imaging of histone deacetylase (HDAC) in brain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changning; Eessalu, Thomas E; Barth, Vanessa N; Mitch, Charles H; Wagner, Florence F; Hong, Yijia; Neelamegam, Ramesh; Schroeder, Frederick A; Holson, Edward B; Haggarty, Stephen J; Hooker, Jacob M

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxamic acid-based histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are a class of molecules with therapeutic potential currently reflected in the use of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; Vorinostat) to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL). HDACis may have utility beyond cancer therapy, as preclinical studies have ascribed HDAC inhibition as beneficial in areas such as heart disease, diabetes, depression, neurodegeneration, and other disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). However, little is known about the pharmacokinetics (PK) of hydroxamates, particularly with respect to CNS-penetration, distribution, and retention. To explore the rodent and non-human primate (NHP) brain permeability of hydroxamic acid-based HDAC inhibitors using positron emission tomography (PET), we modified the structures of belinostat (PXD101) and panobinostat (LBH-589) to incorporate carbon-11. We also labeled PCI 34051 through carbon isotope substitution. After characterizing the in vitro affinity and efficacy of these compounds across nine recombinant HDAC isoforms spanning Class I and Class II family members, we determined the brain uptake of each inhibitor. Each labeled compound has low uptake in brain tissue when administered intravenously to rodents and NHPs. In rodent studies, we observed that brain accumulation of the radiotracers were unaffected by the pre-administration of unlabeled inhibitors. Knowing that CNS-penetration may be desirable for both imaging applications and therapy, we explored whether a liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method to predict brain penetrance would be an appropriate method to pre-screen compounds (hydroxamic acid-based HDACi) prior to PET radiolabeling. LC-MS-MS data were indeed useful in identifying additional lead molecules to explore as PET imaging agents to visualize HDAC enzymes in vivo. However, HDACi brain penetrance predicted by LC-MS-MS did not strongly correlate with PET imaging results. This underscores the

  9. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of hydroxamic acid-based molecular probes for in vivo imaging of histone deacetylase (HDAC) in brain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changning; Eessalu, Thomas E; Barth, Vanessa N; Mitch, Charles H; Wagner, Florence F; Hong, Yijia; Neelamegam, Ramesh; Schroeder, Frederick A; Holson, Edward B; Haggarty, Stephen J; Hooker, Jacob M

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxamic acid-based histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are a class of molecules with therapeutic potential currently reflected in the use of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; Vorinostat) to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL). HDACis may have utility beyond cancer therapy, as preclinical studies have ascribed HDAC inhibition as beneficial in areas such as heart disease, diabetes, depression, neurodegeneration, and other disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). However, little is known about the pharmacokinetics (PK) of hydroxamates, particularly with respect to CNS-penetration, distribution, and retention. To explore the rodent and non-human primate (NHP) brain permeability of hydroxamic acid-based HDAC inhibitors using positron emission tomography (PET), we modified the structures of belinostat (PXD101) and panobinostat (LBH-589) to incorporate carbon-11. We also labeled PCI 34051 through carbon isotope substitution. After characterizing the in vitro affinity and efficacy of these compounds across nine recombinant HDAC isoforms spanning Class I and Class II family members, we determined the brain uptake of each inhibitor. Each labeled compound has low uptake in brain tissue when administered intravenously to rodents and NHPs. In rodent studies, we observed that brain accumulation of the radiotracers were unaffected by the pre-administration of unlabeled inhibitors. Knowing that CNS-penetration may be desirable for both imaging applications and therapy, we explored whether a liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method to predict brain penetrance would be an appropriate method to pre-screen compounds (hydroxamic acid-based HDACi) prior to PET radiolabeling. LC-MS-MS data were indeed useful in identifying additional lead molecules to explore as PET imaging agents to visualize HDAC enzymes in vivo. However, HDACi brain penetrance predicted by LC-MS-MS did not strongly correlate with PET imaging results. This underscores the

  10. The NAE inhibitor pevonedistat interacts with the HDAC inhibitor belinostat to target AML cells by disrupting the DDR.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Chen, Shuang; Zhang, Yu; Kmieciak, Maciej; Leng, Yun; Li, Lihong; Lin, Hui; Rizzo, Kathryn A; Dumur, Catherine I; Ferreira-Gonzalez, Andrea; Rahmani, Mohamed; Povirk, Lawrence; Chalasani, Sri; Berger, Allison J; Dai, Yun; Grant, Steven

    2016-05-01

    Two classes of novel agents, NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, have shown single-agent activity in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Here we examined mechanisms underlying interactions between the NAE inhibitor pevonedistat (MLN4924) and the approved HDAC inhibitor belinostat in AML/MDS cells. MLN4924/belinostat coadministration synergistically induced AML cell apoptosis with or without p53 deficiency or FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD), whereas p53 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown or enforced FLT3-ITD expression significantly sensitized cells to the regimen. MLN4924 blocked belinostat-induced antiapoptotic gene expression through nuclear factor-κB inactivation. Each agent upregulated Bim, and Bim knockdown significantly attenuated apoptosis. Microarrays revealed distinct DNA damage response (DDR) genetic profiles between individual vs combined MLN4924/belinostat exposure. Whereas belinostat abrogated the MLN4924-activated intra-S checkpoint through Chk1 and Wee1 inhibition/downregulation, cotreatment downregulated multiple homologous recombination and nonhomologous end-joining repair proteins, triggering robust double-stranded breaks, chromatin pulverization, and apoptosis. Consistently, Chk1 or Wee1 shRNA knockdown significantly sensitized AML cells to MLN4924. MLN4924/belinostat displayed activity against primary AML or MDS cells, including those carrying next-generation sequencing-defined poor-prognostic cancer hotspot mutations, and CD34(+)/CD38(-)/CD123(+) populations, but not normal CD34(+) progenitors. Finally, combined treatment markedly reduced tumor burden and significantly prolonged animal survival (P < .0001) in AML xenograft models with negligible toxicity, accompanied by pharmacodynamic effects observed in vitro. Collectively, these findings argue that MLN4924 and belinostat interact synergistically by reciprocally disabling the DDR in AML/MDS cells. This strategy

  11. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) promotes the epithelial mesenchymal transition of triple negative breast cancer cells via HDAC8/FOXA1 signals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shao; Luo, Zhi; Yu, Peng-Jiu; Xie, Hui; He, Yu-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACIs) have great therapeutic value for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. Interestingly, our present study reveals that suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), one of the most advanced pan-HDAC inhibitor, can obviously promote in vitro motility of MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 cells via induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). SAHA treatment significantly down-regulates the expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin (E-Cad) while up-regulates the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin (N-Cad), vimentin (Vim) and fibronectin (FN). However, SAHA has no effect on the expression and nuclear translocation of EMT related transcription factors including Snail, Slug, Twist and ZEB. While SAHA treatment down-regulates the protein and mRNA expression of FOXA1 and then decreases its nuclear translocation. Over-expression of FOXA1 markedly attenuates SAHA induced EMT of TNBC cells. Further, silence of HDAC8, while not HDAC6, alleviates the down-regulation of FOXA1 and up-regulation of N-Cad and Vim in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with SAHA. Collectively, our present study reveals that SAHA can promote EMT of TNBC cells via HDAC8/FOXA1 signals, which suggests that more attention should be paid when SAHA is used as anti-cancer agent for cancer treatment. PMID:26431101

  12. Overcoming Barriers in Oncolytic Virotherapy with HDAC Inhibitors and Immune Checkpoint Blockade.

    PubMed

    Marchini, Antonio; Scott, Eleanor M; Rommelaere, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) target and destroy cancer cells while sparing their normal counterparts. These viruses have been evaluated in numerous studies at both pre-clinical and clinical levels and the recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of an oncolytic herpesvirus-based treatment raises optimism that OVs will become a therapeutic option for cancer patients. However, to improve clinical outcome, there is a need to increase OV efficacy. In addition to killing cancer cells directly through lysis, OVs can stimulate the induction of anti-tumour immune responses. The host immune system thus represents a "double-edged sword" for oncolytic virotherapy: on the one hand, a robust anti-viral response will limit OV replication and spread; on the other hand, the immune-mediated component of OV therapy may be its most important anti-cancer mechanism. Although the relative contribution of direct viral oncolysis and indirect, immune-mediated oncosuppression to overall OV efficacy is unclear, it is likely that an initial period of vigorous OV multiplication and lytic activity will most optimally set the stage for subsequent adaptive anti-tumour immunity. In this review, we consider the use of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as a means of boosting virus replication and lessening the negative impact of innate immunity on the direct oncolytic effect. We also discuss an alternative approach, aimed at potentiating OV-elicited anti-tumour immunity through the blockade of immune checkpoints. We conclude by proposing a two-phase combinatorial strategy in which initial OV replication and spread is maximised through transient HDAC inhibition, with anti-tumour immune responses subsequently enhanced by immune checkpoint blockade. PMID:26751469

  13. Overcoming Barriers in Oncolytic Virotherapy with HDAC Inhibitors and Immune Checkpoint Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Marchini, Antonio; Scott, Eleanor M.; Rommelaere, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) target and destroy cancer cells while sparing their normal counterparts. These viruses have been evaluated in numerous studies at both pre-clinical and clinical levels and the recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of an oncolytic herpesvirus-based treatment raises optimism that OVs will become a therapeutic option for cancer patients. However, to improve clinical outcome, there is a need to increase OV efficacy. In addition to killing cancer cells directly through lysis, OVs can stimulate the induction of anti-tumour immune responses. The host immune system thus represents a “double-edged sword” for oncolytic virotherapy: on the one hand, a robust anti-viral response will limit OV replication and spread; on the other hand, the immune-mediated component of OV therapy may be its most important anti-cancer mechanism. Although the relative contribution of direct viral oncolysis and indirect, immune-mediated oncosuppression to overall OV efficacy is unclear, it is likely that an initial period of vigorous OV multiplication and lytic activity will most optimally set the stage for subsequent adaptive anti-tumour immunity. In this review, we consider the use of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as a means of boosting virus replication and lessening the negative impact of innate immunity on the direct oncolytic effect. We also discuss an alternative approach, aimed at potentiating OV-elicited anti-tumour immunity through the blockade of immune checkpoints. We conclude by proposing a two-phase combinatorial strategy in which initial OV replication and spread is maximised through transient HDAC inhibition, with anti-tumour immune responses subsequently enhanced by immune checkpoint blockade. PMID:26751469

  14. Chemoresistance to Valproate Treatment of Bovine Leukemia Virus-Infected Sheep; Identification of Improved HDAC Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gillet, Nicolas; Vandermeers, Fabian; de Brogniez, Alix; Florins, Arnaud; Nigro, Annamaria; François, Carole; Bouzar, Amel-Baya; Verlaeten, Olivier; Stern, Eric; Lambert, Didier M.; Wouters, Johan; Willems, Luc

    2012-01-01

    We previously proved that a histone deacetylase inhibitor (valproate, VPA) decreases the number of leukemic cells in bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected sheep. Here, we characterize the mechanisms initiated upon interruption of treatment. We observed that VPA treatment is followed by a decrease of the B cell counts and proviral loads (copies per blood volume). However, all sheep eventually relapsed after different periods of time and became refractory to further VPA treatment. Sheep remained persistently infected with BLV. B lymphocytes isolated throughout treatment and relapse were responsive to VPA-induced apoptosis in cell culture. B cell proliferation is only marginally affected by VPA ex vivo. Interestingly, in four out of five sheep, ex vivo viral expression was nearly undetectable at the time of relapse. In two sheep, a new tumoral clone arose, most likely revealing a selection process exerted by VPA in vivo. We conclude that the interruption of VPA treatment leads to the resurgence of the leukemia in BLV-infected sheep and hypothesize that resistance to further treatment might be due to the failure of viral expression induction. The development of more potent HDAC inhibitors and/or the combination with other compounds can overcome chemoresistance. These observations in the BLV model may be important for therapies against the related Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1. PMID:25436765

  15. Reversal of deficits in dendritic spines, BDNF and Arc expression in the amygdala during alcohol dependence by HDAC inhibitor treatment.

    PubMed

    You, Chang; Zhang, Huaibo; Sakharkar, Amul J; Teppen, Tara; Pandey, Subhash C

    2014-02-01

    Development of anxiety-like behaviours during ethanol withdrawal has been correlated with increased histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) gene expression in the amygdala. Furthermore, HDAC-mediated histone modifications play a role in synaptic plasticity. In this study we used the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) to determine whether HDAC inhibition could prevent ethanol withdrawal-induced deficits in dendritic spine density (DSD), BDNF or Arc expression in the amygdala of rats. It was found that decreased BDNF and Arc expression in the central (CeA) and medial nucleus of amygdala (MeA), observed during withdrawal after chronic ethanol exposure, were normalized following acute TSA treatment. TSA treatment was also able to attenuate anxiety-like behaviours during ethanol withdrawal and correct the observed decrease in DSD in the CeA and MeA of ethanol-withdrawn rats. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that correcting the deficits in histone acetylation through TSA treatment also amends downstream synaptic plasticity-related deficits such as BDNF and Arc expression, and DSD in the CeA and MeA as well as attenuates anxiety-like behaviours in rats during withdrawal after chronic ethanol exposure. PMID:24103311

  16. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition with Valproic Acid Downregulates Osteocalcin Gene Expression in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Osteoblasts: Evidence for HDAC2 Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Paino, Francesca; la Noce, Marcel; Tirino, Virginia; Naddeo, Pasqualina; Desiderio, Vincenzo; Pirozzi, Giuseppe; De Rosa, Alfredo; Laino, Luigi; Altucci, Lucia; Papaccio, Gianpaolo

    2014-01-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells, such as dental pulp stem cells, are of great interest for cell-based tissue engineering strategies because they can differentiate into a variety of tissue-specific cells, above all, into osteoblasts. In recent years, epigenetic studies on stem cells have indicated that specific histone alterations and modifying enzymes play essential roles in cell differentiation. However, although several studies have reported that valproic acid (VPA)—a selective inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDAC)—enhances osteoblast differentiation, data on osteocalcin expression—a late-stage marker of differentiation—are limited. We therefore decided to study the effect of VPA on dental pulp stem cell differentiation. A low concentration of VPA did not reduce cell viability, proliferation, or cell cycle profile. However, it was sufficient to significantly enhance matrix mineralization by increasing osteopontin and bone sialoprotein expression. In contrast, osteocalcin levels were decreased, an effect induced at the transcriptional level, and were strongly correlated with inhibition of HDAC2. In fact, HDAC2 silencing with shRNA produced a similar effect to that of VPA treatment on the expression of osteoblast-related markers. We conclude that VPA does not induce terminal differentiation of osteoblasts, but stimulates the generation of less mature cells. Moreover, specific suppression of an individual HDAC by RNA interference could enhance only a single aspect of osteoblast differentiation, and thus produce selective effects. PMID:24105979

  17. HDAC inhibitor misprocesses bantam oncomiRNA, but stimulates hid induced apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bhadra, Utpal; Mondal, Tanmoy; Bag, Indira; Mukhopadhyay, Debasmita; Das, Paromita; Parida, Bibhuti B.; Mainkar, Prathama S.; Reddy, Chada Raji; Bhadra, Manika Pal

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is critical for embryogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Uncontrolled apoptosis leads to different human disorders including immunodeficiency, autoimmune disorder and cancer. Several small molecules that control apoptosis have been identified. Here, we have shown the functional role of triazole derivative (DCPTN-PT) that acts as a potent HDAC inhibitor and mis-express proto onco microRNA (miRNA) bantam. To further understanding the mechanism of action of the molecule in apoptotic pathway, a series of experiments were also performed in Drosophila, a well known model organism in which the nature of human apoptosis is very analogous. DCPTN-PT mis processes bantam microRNA and alters its down regulatory target hid function and cleavage of Caspase-3 which in turn influence components of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in Drosophila. However regulatory microRNAs in other pro-apoptotic genes are not altered. Simultaneously, treatment of same molecule also affects the mitochondrial regulatory pathway in human tumour cell lines suggesting its conservative nature between fly and human. It is reasonable to propose that triazole derivative (DCPTN-PT) controls bantam oncomiRNA and increases hid induced apoptosis and is also able to influence mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:26442596

  18. The HDAC Inhibitor Vorinostat Diminishes the In Vitro Metastatic Behavior of Osteosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Xiaodong; Brynien, Daniel; Weiss, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of bone and affects patients in the first two decades of life. The greatest determinant of survival is the presence of pulmonary metastatic disease. The role of epigenetic regulation in OS, specifically the biology of metastases, is unknown. Our previous study with the murine OS cell populations K7M2 and K12 demonstrated a significant correlation of metastatic potential with the DNA methylation level of tumor suppressor genes. In the current study, we investigated if the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, vorinostat, could regulate the metastatic potential of highly metastatic OS cells. Our results revealed that vorinostat treatment of highly metastatic K7M2 OS cells was able to greatly reduce the proliferation and metastatic potential of the cells. Morphological features related to cell motility and invasion were changed by vorinostat treatment. In addition, the gene expressions of mTOR, ALDH1, and PGC-1 were downregulated by vorinostat treatment. These data suggest that vorinostat may be an effective modulator of OS cell metastatic potential and should be studied in preclinical models of metastatic OS. PMID:25785263

  19. Profile of Class I Histone Deacetylases (HDAC) by Human Dendritic Cells after Alcohol Consumption and In Vitro Alcohol Treatment and Their Implication in Oxidative Stress: Role of HDAC Inhibitors Trichostatin A and Mocetinostat

    PubMed Central

    Yndart, Adriana; Muñoz, Karla; Atluri, Venkata; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Nair, Madhavan P.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms have been shown to play a role in alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and may prove to be valuable therapeutic targets. However, the involvement of histone deacetylases (HDACs) on alcohol-induced oxidative stress of human primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) has not been elucidated. In the current study, we took a novel approach combining ex vivo, in vitro and in silico analyses to elucidate the mechanisms of alcohol-induced oxidative stress and role of HDACs in the periphery. ex vivo and in vitro analyses of alcohol-modulation of class I HDACs and activity by MDDCs from self-reported alcohol users and non-alcohol users was performed. Additionally, MDDCs treated with alcohol were assessed using qRT-PCR, western blot, and fluorometric assay. The functional effects of alcohol-induce oxidative stress were measured in vitro using PCR array and in silico using gene expression network analysis. Our findings show, for the first time, that MDDCs from self-reported alcohol users have higher levels of class I HDACs compare to controls and alcohol treatment in vitro differentially modulates HDACs expression. Further, HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) blocked alcohol-induction of class I HDACs and modulated alcohol-induced oxidative stress related genes expressed by MDDCs. In silico analysis revealed new target genes and pathways on the mode of action of alcohol and HDACi. Findings elucidating the ability of alcohol to modulate class I HDACs may be useful for the treatment of alcohol-induced oxidative damage and may delineate new potential immune-modulatory mechanisms. PMID:27249803

  20. CD1d induction in solid tumor cells by histone deacetylase inhibitors through inhibition of HDAC1/2 and activation of Sp1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei-Ming; Lin, Pei-Jie; Chen, Ching-Chow

    2012-04-01

    CD1d is a MHC class-like molecule that presents glycolipids to natural killer T (NKT) cells, then regulates innate and adaptive immunity. The regulation of CD1d gene expression in solid tumors is still largely unknown. Gene expression can be epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation and histone acetylation. We found that histone deacetylase inhibitors, trichostatin A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), induced CD1d gene expression in human (A549 and NCI-H292) and mouse (TC-1 and B16/F0) cancer cells. Simultaneous knockdown of HDAC1 and 2 induced CD1d gene expression. Sp1 inhibitor mitramycin A (MTM) blocked TSA- and SAHA-induced CD1d mRNA expression and Sp1 luciferase activity. Co-transfection of GAL4-Sp1 and Fc-luciferase reporters demonstrated that TSA and SAHA induced Sp1 luciferase reporter activity by enhancing Sp1 transactivation activity. The binding of Sp1 to CD1d promoter and histone H3 acetylation on Sp1 sites were increased by TSA and SAHA. These results indicate that TSA and SAHA could up-regulate CD1d expression in tumor cells through inhibition of HDAC1/2 and activation of Sp1. PMID:22419072

  1. Effects of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Valproic Acid on Human Pericytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Friman, Tomas; Dencker, Lennart; Sundberg, Christian; Scholz, Birger

    2011-01-01

    Microvascular pericytes are of key importance in neoformation of blood vessels, in stabilization of newly formed vessels as well as maintenance of angiostasis in resting tissues. Furthermore, pericytes are capable of differentiating into pro-fibrotic collagen type I producing fibroblasts. The present study investigates the effects of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on pericyte proliferation, cell viability, migration and differentiation. The results show that HDAC inhibition through exposure of pericytes to VPA in vitro causes the inhibition of pericyte proliferation and migration with no effect on cell viability. Pericyte exposure to the potent HDAC inhibitor Trichostatin A caused similar effects on pericyte proliferation, migration and cell viability. HDAC inhibition also inhibited pericyte differentiation into collagen type I producing fibroblasts. Given the importance of pericytes in blood vessel biology a qPCR array focusing on the expression of mRNAs coding for proteins that regulate angiogenesis was performed. The results showed that HDAC inhibition promoted transcription of genes involved in vessel stabilization/maturation in human microvascular pericytes. The present in vitro study demonstrates that VPA influences several aspects of microvascular pericyte biology and suggests an alternative mechanism by which HDAC inhibition affects blood vessels. The results raise the possibility that HDAC inhibition inhibits angiogenesis partly through promoting a pericyte phenotype associated with stabilization/maturation of blood vessels. PMID:21966390

  2. Efficiently functionalized oxacalix[4]arenes: Synthesis, characterization and exploration of their biological profile as novel HDAC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Viren; Athar, Mohd; Jha, P C; Panchal, Manthan; Modi, Krunal; Jain, V K

    2016-02-01

    A series of novel substituted oxacalix[4]arene has been synthesized and explored for their biological profile by evaluating anticancer, antifungal and antibacterial properties. The derivatives have been characterized by various spectroscopic techniques such as IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and Mass spectrometry. Many compounds showed strong inhibition (MIC) in the range of ∼0-50 μM with interesting cytotoxic activities against Hela cells in particular. The compounds were theoretically evaluated by docking studies as potential histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi). The study indicates that compounds bound adequately with HDAC, and hence complemented the experimental findings. PMID:26725026

  3. Intensified antineoplastic effect by combining an HDAC-inhibitor, an mTOR-inhibitor and low dosed interferon alpha in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tsaur, Igor; Hudak, Lukasz; Makarević, Jasmina; Juengel, Eva; Mani, Jens; Borgmann, Hendrik; Gust, Kilian M; Schilling, David; Bartsch, Georg; Nelson, Karen; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A

    2015-08-01

    A significant proportion of men diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) eventually develop metastatic disease, which progresses to castration resistance, despite initial response to androgen deprivation. As anticancer therapy has become increasingly effective, acquired drug resistance has emerged, limiting efficacy. Combination treatment, utilizing different drug classes, exemplifies a possible strategy to foil resistance development. The effects of the triple application of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA), the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus and low dosed interferon alpha (IFNα) on PCa cell growth and dissemination capacity were investigated. For that purpose, the human PCa cell lines, PC-3, DU-145 and LNCaP were treated with the combined regimen or separate single agents. Cell growth was investigated by the MTT dye reduction assay. Flow cytometry served to analyse cell cycle progression. Adhesion to vascular endothelium or immobilized collagen, fibronectin and laminin was quantified. Migration and invasion characteristics were determined by the modified Boyden chamber assay. Integrin α and β subtypes were investigated by flow cytometry, western blotting and RT-PCR. Integrin related signalling, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFr), Akt, p70S6kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 activation were also assessed. The triple application of VPA, everolimus and low dosed IFNα blocked tumour cell growth and dissemination significantly better than any agent alone. Antitumour effects were associated with pronounced alteration in the cell cycle machinery, intracellular signalling and integrin expression profile. Combining VPA, everolimus and low dosed IFNα might be a promising option to counteract resistance development and improve outcome in PCa patients. PMID:25808196

  4. The combination of HDAC and aminopeptidase inhibitors is highly synergistic in myeloma and leads to disruption of the NFκB signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Smith, Emma M; Zhang, Lei; Walker, Brian A; Davenport, Emma L; Aronson, Lauren I; Krige, David; Hooftman, Leon; Drummond, Alan H; Morgan, Gareth J; Davies, Faith E

    2015-07-10

    There is a growing body of evidence supporting the use of epigenetic therapies in the treatment of multiple myeloma. We show the novel HDAC inhibitor CHR-3996 induces apoptosis in myeloma cells at concentrations in the nanomolar range and with apoptosis mediated by p53 and caspase pathways. In addition, HDAC inhibitors are highly synergistic, both in vitro and in vivo, with the aminopeptidase inhibitor tosedostat (CHR-2797). We demonstrate that the basis for this synergy is a consequence of changes in the levels of NFκB regulators BIRC3/cIAP2, A20, CYLD, and IκB, which were markedly affected by the combination. When co-administered the HDAC and aminopeptidase inhibitors caused rapid nuclear translocation of NFκB family members p65 and p52, following activation of both canonical and non-canonical NFκB signalling pathways. The subsequent up-regulation of inhibitors of NFκB activation (most significantly BIRC3/cIAP2) turned off the cytoprotective effects of the NFκB signalling response in a negative feedback loop. These results provide a rationale for combining HDAC and aminopeptidase inhibitors clinically for the treatment of myeloma patients and support the disruption of the NFκB signalling pathway as a therapeutic strategy. PMID:26015393

  5. ZEB1-associated drug resistance in cancer cells is reversed by the class I HDAC inhibitor mocetinostat

    PubMed Central

    Meidhof, Simone; Brabletz, Simone; Lehmann, Waltraut; Preca, Bogdan-Tiberius; Mock, Kerstin; Ruh, Manuel; Schüler, Julia; Berthold, Maria; Weber, Anika; Burk, Ulrike; Lübbert, Michael; Puhr, Martin; Culig, Zoran; Wellner, Ulrich; Keck, Tobias; Bronsert, Peter; Küsters, Simon; Hopt, Ulrich T; Stemmler, Marc P; Brabletz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Therapy resistance is a major clinical problem in cancer medicine and crucial for disease relapse and progression. Therefore, the clinical need to overcome it, particularly for aggressive tumors such as pancreatic cancer, is very high. Aberrant activation of an epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and an associated cancer stem cell phenotype are considered a major cause of therapy resistance. Particularly, the EMT-activator ZEB1 was shown to confer stemness and resistance. We applied a systematic, stepwise strategy to interfere with ZEB1 function, aiming to overcome drug resistance. This led to the identification of both its target gene miR-203 as a major drug sensitizer and subsequently the class I HDAC inhibitor mocetinostat as epigenetic drug to interfere with ZEB1 function, restore miR-203 expression, repress stemness properties, and induce sensitivity against chemotherapy. Thereby, mocetinostat turned out to be more effective than other HDAC inhibitors, such as SAHA, indicating the relevance of the screening strategy. Our data encourage the application of mechanism-based combinations of selected epigenetic drugs with standard chemotherapy for the rational treatment of aggressive solid tumors, such as pancreatic cancer. PMID:25872941

  6. Molecular and cellular effects of a novel hydroxamate-based HDAC inhibitor - belinostat - in glioblastoma cell lines: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Kusaczuk, Magdalena; Krętowski, Rafał; Stypułkowska, Anna; Cechowska-Pasko, Marzanna

    2016-10-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are now intensively investigated as potential cytostatic agents in many malignancies. Here, we provide novel information concerning the influence of belinostat (Bel), a hydroxamate-based pan-HDAC inhibitor, on glioblastoma LN-229 and LN-18 cells. We found that LN-229 cells stimulated with 2 μmol/L of Bel for 48 h resulted in 70 % apoptosis, while equivalent treatment of LN-18 cells resulted in only 28 % apoptosis. In LN-229 cells this effect was followed by up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes including Puma, Bim, Chop and p21. In treated LN-18 cells only p21 was markedly overexpressed. Simultaneously, LN-229 cells treated with 2 μmol/L of Bel for 48 h exhibited down-regulation of molecular chaperones GRP78 and GRP94 at the protein level. In contrast, in LN-18 cells Western blot analysis did not show any marked changes in GRP78 nor GRP94 expression. Despite noticeable overexpression of p21, there were no signs of evident G1 nor G2/M cell cycle arrest, however, the reduction in number of the S phase cells was observed in both cell lines. These results collectively suggest that Bel can be considered as potential anti-glioblastoma agent. To our knowledge this is the first report presenting the effects of belinostat treatment in glioblastoma cell lines. PMID:27468826

  7. Activation of mPTP-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway by a novel pan HDAC inhibitor resminostat in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Meili; Shi, Wenhong; Li, Zhengling; Liu, Haiyan

    2016-09-01

    Over-expression and aberrant activation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) are often associated with poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we evaluated the potential anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell activity by resminostat, a novel pan HDAC inhibitor (HDACi). We demonstrated that resminostat induced potent cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activity against established HCC cell lines (HepG2, HepB3, SMMC-7721) and patient-derived primary HCC cells. Further, resminostat treatment in HCC cells activated mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP)-dependent apoptosis pathway, which was evidenced by physical association of cyclophilin-D and adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (ANT-1), mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome C release and caspase-9 activation. Intriguingly, the mPTP blockers (sanglifehrin A and cyclosporine A), shRNA knockdown of cyclophilin-D or the caspase-9 inhibitor dramatically attenuated resminostat-induced HCC cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity. Reversely, HCC cells with exogenous cyclophilin-D over-expression were hyper-sensitive to resminostat. Intriguingly, a low concentration of resminostat remarkably potentiated sorafenib-induced mitochondrial apoptosis pathway activation, leading to a profound cytotoxicity in HCC cells. The results of this preclinical study indicate that resminostat (or plus sorafenib) could be further investigated as a valuable anti-HCC strategy. PMID:27144317

  8. HDAC8 and STAT3 repress BMF gene activity in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y; Nian, H; Rajendran, P; Kim, E; Dashwood, W M; Pinto, J T; Boardman, L A; Thibodeau, S N; Limburg, P J; Löhr, C V; Bisson, W H; Williams, D E; Ho, E; Dashwood, R H

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are undergoing clinical trials as anticancer agents, but some exhibit resistance mechanisms linked to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 functions, such as BH3-only protein silencing. HDAC inhibitors that reactivate BH3-only family members might offer an improved therapeutic approach. We show here that a novel seleno-α-keto acid triggers global histone acetylation in human colon cancer cells and activates apoptosis in a p21-independent manner. Profiling of multiple survival factors identified a critical role for the BH3-only member Bcl-2-modifying factor (Bmf). On the corresponding BMF gene promoter, loss of HDAC8 was associated with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/specificity protein 3 (Sp3) transcription factor exchange and recruitment of p300. Treatment with a p300 inhibitor or transient overexpression of exogenous HDAC8 interfered with BMF induction, whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of STAT3 activated the target gene. This is the first report to identify a direct target gene of HDAC8 repression, namely, BMF. Interestingly, the repressive role of HDAC8 could be uncoupled from HDAC1 to trigger Bmf-mediated apoptosis. These findings have implications for the development of HDAC8-selective inhibitors as therapeutic agents, beyond the reported involvement of HDAC8 in childhood malignancy. PMID:25321483

  9. HDAC8 and STAT3 repress BMF gene activity in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Y; Nian, H; Rajendran, P; Kim, E; Dashwood, W M; Pinto, J T; Boardman, L A; Thibodeau, S N; Limburg, P J; Löhr, C V; Bisson, W H; Williams, D E; Ho, E; Dashwood, R H

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are undergoing clinical trials as anticancer agents, but some exhibit resistance mechanisms linked to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 functions, such as BH3-only protein silencing. HDAC inhibitors that reactivate BH3-only family members might offer an improved therapeutic approach. We show here that a novel seleno-α-keto acid triggers global histone acetylation in human colon cancer cells and activates apoptosis in a p21-independent manner. Profiling of multiple survival factors identified a critical role for the BH3-only member Bcl-2-modifying factor (Bmf). On the corresponding BMF gene promoter, loss of HDAC8 was associated with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/specificity protein 3 (Sp3) transcription factor exchange and recruitment of p300. Treatment with a p300 inhibitor or transient overexpression of exogenous HDAC8 interfered with BMF induction, whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of STAT3 activated the target gene. This is the first report to identify a direct target gene of HDAC8 repression, namely, BMF. Interestingly, the repressive role of HDAC8 could be uncoupled from HDAC1 to trigger Bmf-mediated apoptosis. These findings have implications for the development of HDAC8-selective inhibitors as therapeutic agents, beyond the reported involvement of HDAC8 in childhood malignancy. PMID:25321483

  10. HDAC inhibitors, MS-275 and salermide, potentiates the anticancer effect of EF24 in human pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yar Saglam, Atiye Seda; Yilmaz, Akin; Onen, Hacer Ilke; Alp, Ebru; Kayhan, Handan; Ekmekci, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a major role in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression by changing acetylation status of histone and non-histone proteins. MS-275 (entinostat, MS) is a well-known benzamide-based HDACI and Salermide (SAL), a reverse amide compound HDACI, have antiproliferative effects on several human cancer cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of HDACIs (MS and SAL) alone and/or combined use with EF24 (EF), a novel synthetic curcumin analog, on human pancreatic cancer cell line (BxPC-3). In vitro, BxPC-3 cells were exposed to varying concentrations of MS, SAL with or without EF, and their effects on cell viability, acetylated Histone H3 and H4 levels, cytotoxicity, and cleaved caspase 3 levels, and cell cycle distribution were measured. The viability of BxPC-3 cells decreased significantly after treatment with EF, MS and SAL treatments. MS and SAL treatment increased the acetylation of histone H3 and H4 in a dose dependent manner. MS and SAL alone or combined with EF were increased the number of cells in G1 phase. In addition, treatment with agents significantly decreased the ratio of cell in G2/M phase. There were significant dose-dependent increases at cleaved Caspase 3 levels after MS treatment but not after SAL treatment. Our results showed that HDAC inhibitors (MS and SAL), when combined with EF, may effectively reduce pancreatic cancer cell (BxPC-3) progression and stop the cell cycle at G1 phase. Further molecular analyses are needed to understand the fundamental molecular consequences of HDAC inhibition in pancreas cancer cells. PMID:27330528

  11. HDAC inhibitor entinostat restores responsiveness of letrozole resistant MCF-7Ca xenografts to AIs through modulation of Her-2

    PubMed Central

    Sabnis, Gauri J.; Goloubeva, Olga G.; Kazi, Armina A.; Shah, Preeti; Brodie, Angela H.

    2013-01-01

    We previously showed that in innately resistant tumors, silencing of the estrogen receptor (ER) could be reversed by treatment with a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor entinostat (ENT). Tumors were then responsive to aromatase inhibitor (AIs) letrozole. Here, we investigated whether ER in the acquired letrozole resistant tumors could be restored with ENT. Ovariectomized athymic mice were inoculated with MCF-7Ca cells, supplemented with androstenedione (Δ4A), the aromatizable substrate. When the tumors reached ~300mm3, the mice were treated with letrozole. After initial response to letrozole, the tumors eventually became resistant (doubled their initial volume). The mice then were grouped to receive letrozole, exemestane (250μg/day), ENT (50μg/day) or the combination of ENT with letrozole or exemestane for 26 weeks. The growth rates of tumors of mice treated with the combination of ENT with letrozole or exemestane were significantly slower than with the single agent (p<0.05). Analysis of the letrozole resistant tumors showed ENT increased ERα expression and aromatase activity but downregulated Her-2, p-Her-2, p-MAPK and p-Akt. However, the mechanism of action of ENT in reversing acquired resistance did not involve epigenetic silencing, but rather included post-translational as well as transcriptional modulation of Her-2. ENT treatment reduced the association of the Her-2 protein with HSP-90, possibly by reducing the stability of Her-2 protein. In addition, ENT also reduced Her-2 mRNA levels and its stability. Our results suggest that the HDAC inhibitor may reverse letrozole resistance in cells and tumors by modulating Her-2 expression and activity. PMID:24092810

  12. A MEK/PI3K/HDAC inhibitor combination therapy for KRAS mutant pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ischenko, Irene; Petrenko, Oleksi; Hayman, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly aggressive, metastatic disease with limited treatment options. Factors contributing to the metastatic predisposition and therapy resistance in pancreatic cancer are not well understood. Here, we used a mouse model of KRAS-driven pancreatic carcinogenesis to define distinct subtypes of PDAC metastasis: epithelial, mesenchymal and quasi-mesenchymal. We examined pro-survival signals in these cells and the therapeutic response differences between them. Our data indicate that the initiation and maintenance of the transformed state are separable, and that KRAS dependency is not a fundamental constant of KRAS-initiated tumors. Moreover, some cancer cells can shuttle between the KRAS dependent (drug-sensitive) and independent (drug-tolerant) states and thus escape extinction. We further demonstrate that inhibition of KRAS signaling alone via co-targeting the MAPK and PI3K pathways fails to induce extensive tumor cell death and, therefore, has limited efficacy against PDAC. However, the addition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors greatly improves outcomes, reduces the self-renewal of cancer cells, and blocks cancer metastasis in vivo. Our results suggest that targeting HDACs in combination with KRAS or its effector pathways provides an effective strategy for the treatment of PDAC. PMID:26158412

  13. 2-Benzazolyl-4-Piperazin-1-Ylsulfonylbenzenecarbohydroxamic Acids as Novel Selective Histone Deacetylase-6 Inhibitors with Antiproliferative Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Kofler, Marina; Brosch, Gerald; Melesina, Jelena; Sippl, Wolfgang; Martinez, Elisabeth D.; Easmon, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    We have screened our compound collection in an established cell based assay that measures the derepression of an epigenetically silenced transgene, the locus derepression assay. The screen led to the identification of 4-[4-(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl]sulfonylbenzenecarbohydroxamic acid (9b) as an active which was found to inhibit HDAC1. In initial structure activity relationships study, the 1-methylbenzimidazole ring was replaced by the isosteric heterocycles benzimidazole, benzoxazole, and benzothiazole and the position of the hydroxamic acid substituent on the phenyl ring was varied. Whereas compounds bearing a para substituted hydroxamic acid (9a-d) were active HDAC inhibitors, the meta substituted analogues (8a-d) were appreciably inactive. Compounds 9a-d selectively inhibited HDAC6 (IC50 = 0.1–1.0μM) over HDAC1 (IC50 = 0.9–6μM) and moreover, also selectively inhibited the growth of lung cancer cells vs. patient matched normal cells. The compounds induce a cell cycle arrest in the S-phase while induction of apoptosis is neglible as compared to controls. Molecular modeling studies uncovered that the MM-GBSA energy for interaction of 9a-d with HDAC6 was higher than for HDAC1 providing structural rationale for the HDAC6 selectivity. PMID:26698121

  14. HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate augments the MEF2C enhancement of Nampt expression under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shao-Fei; You, Hong-Jie; Xing, Tian-Yu; Zhang, Chen-Guang; Ding, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (Nampt) is the rate-limiting enzyme for the salvage biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Although elevated level of Nampt expression has been observed in various cancers, the involvement of Nampt promoter regulation was not well understood. We have identified a cluster of MEF2 recognition sites upstream of the functional hypoxia response elements (HREs) within the human Nampt promoter, and demonstrated that the two MEF2 sites at -1272 and -1200 were functional to upregulate the promoter activity by luciferase reporter assays. The Nampt promoter was able to be activated cooperatively following hypoxic stimulation by CoCl₂ treatment with associated MEF2C overexpression. During the investigation on MEF2C regulation of endogenous Nampt expression in HeLa cells, the most significant enhancement of Nampt expression observed was by overexpression of MEF2C in combination with sodium butyrate exposure. By chromatin immunoprecipitation with a MEF2C anti-body, we found that MEF2C indeed interacted with endogenous Nampt promoter. The requirement of HDAC inhibition for the MEF2C enhancement of Nampt transcription was verified by RNAi of HDAC. Our results were in support of reports indicating that MEF2 family transcription factors interacted with HDACs and regulated downstream gene expression at the epigenetic levels. Our study provided important evidence to demonstrate the sophisticated mechanism of endogenous Nampt promoter regulation, and therefore, will help to better understand the Nampt overexpression in cancer progression, especially in the context of MEF2C upregulation which frequently occurred in cancer development and drug resistance. PMID:23888946

  15. A sub-milligram-synthesis protocol for in vitro screening of HDAC11 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yinping; Jin, Jin; Wang, Congying; Lv, Wenhui; Li, Xuewei; Che, Xiaona; Gong, Yanchao; Li, Yanjun; Li, Quanli; Hou, Jingli; Wang, Peng G; Shen, Jie

    2016-05-15

    This work demonstrated the high efficiency of a sub-milligram-synthesis based medicinal chemistry method. Totally 72 compounds, consisting a tri-substituted pyrrolidine core, were prepared. Around 0.1mg of each compound was solid-phase synthesized. Based on the additive property of UV absorptions of unconjugated chromophores of a molecule, these compounds were quantified by UV measurement. A hit, whose IC50 value was 1.2μM in HDAC11 inhibition assays, highlights the applicability of the approach reported here in future optimization works. PMID:27055940

  16. Prolonged treatment with pimelic o-aminobenzamide HDAC inhibitors ameliorates the disease phenotype of a Friedreich ataxia mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Sandi, Chiranjeevi; Pinto, Ricardo Mouro; Al-Mahdawi, Sahar; Ezzatizadeh, Vahid; Barnes, Glenn; Jones, Steve; Rusche, James R.; Gottesfeld, Joel M.; Pook, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by GAA repeat expansion within the FXN gene, leading to epigenetic changes and heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing that result in a frataxin protein deficit. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, including pimelic o-aminobenzamide compounds 106, 109 and 136, have previously been shown to reverse FXN gene silencing in short-term studies of FRDA patient cells and a knock-in mouse model, but the functional consequences of such therapeutic intervention have thus far not been described. We have now investigated the long-term therapeutic effects of 106, 109 and 136 in our GAA repeat expansion mutation-containing YG8R FRDA mouse model. We show that there is no overt toxicity up to 5 months of treatment and there is amelioration of the FRDA-like disease phenotype. Thus, while the neurological deficits of this model are mild, 109 and 106 both produced an improvement of motor coordination, whereas 109 and 136 produced increased locomotor activity. All three compounds increased global histone H3 and H4 acetylation of brain tissue, but only 109 significantly increased acetylation of specific histone residues at the FXN locus. Effects on FXN mRNA expression in CNS tissues were modest, but 109 significantly increased frataxin protein expression in brain tissue. 109 also produced significant increases in brain aconitase enzyme activity, together with reduction of neuronal pathology of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Overall, these results support further assessment of HDAC inhibitors for treatment of Friedreich ataxia. PMID:21397024

  17. Investigation on the ZBG-functionality of phenyl-4-yl-acrylohydroxamic acid derivatives as histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Musso, Loana; Cincinelli, Raffaella; Zuco, Valentina; Zunino, Franco; Nurisso, Alessandra; Cuendet, Muriel; Giannini, Giuseppe; Vesci, Loredana; Pisano, Claudio; Dallavalle, Sabrina

    2015-10-15

    A series of alternative Zn-binding groups were explored in the design of phenyl-4-yl-acrylohydroxamic acid derivatives as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Most of the synthesized compounds were less effective than the parent hydroxamic acid. However, the profile of activity shown by the analog bearing a hydroxyurea head group, makes this derivative promising for further investigation. PMID:26376355

  18. The novel HDAC inhibitor AR-42-induced anti-colon cancer cell activity is associated with ceramide production

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Weihong; Xu, Bin; Yao, Yiting; Yu, Xiaoling; Shen, Jie

    2015-08-07

    In the current study, we investigated the potential activity of AR-42, a novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, against colon cancer cells. Our in vitro results showed that AR-42 induced ceramide production, exerted potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities in established (SW-620 and HCT-116 lines) and primary human colon cancer cells. Exogenously-added sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) suppressed AR-42-induced activity, yet a cell-permeable ceramide (C4) facilitated AR-42-induced cytotoxicity against colon cancer cells. In addition, AR-42-induced ceramide production and anti-colon cancer cell activity were inhibited by the ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1, but were exacerbated by PDMP, which is a ceramide glucosylation inhibitor. In vivo, oral administration of a single dose of AR-42 dramatically inhibited SW-620 xenograft growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, without inducing overt toxicities. Together, these results show that AR-42 dramatically inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, and ceramide production might be the key mechanism responsible for its actions. - Highlights: • AR-42 is anti-proliferative against primary/established colon cancer cells. • AR-42 induces significant apoptotic death in primary/established colon cancer cells. • Ceramide production mediates AR-42-induced cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells. • AR-42 oral administration potently inhibits SW-620 xenograft growth in SCID mice.

  19. The seminoma cell line TCam-2 is sensitive to HDAC inhibitor depsipeptide but tolerates various other chemotherapeutic drugs and loss of NANOG expression.

    PubMed

    Nettersheim, Daniel; Gillis, Ad; Biermann, Katharina; Looijenga, Leendert H J; Schorle, Hubert

    2011-12-01

    Seminomas and embryonal carcinomas (EC) are both type II germ cell tumor (GCT) entities and develop from the same precursor lesion (carcinoma-in situ, CIS). However, they show significant differences in growth behavior, differentiation potential, and gene expression. Although ECs are prone to differentiate into all three germ layers and give rise to the non-seminomatous GCT entities teratoma, choriocarcinoma, and yolk-sac tumor, differentiation of seminomas to these entities is only rarely observed. This might reflect the ability of seminomas to actively inhibit differentiation processes evoked by environmental cues. Also, it is not known why CIS gives rise to seminoma in some patients and to non-seminoma in the others. Here, we treated the seminoma-like cell line TCam-2 with the HDAC-inhibitor Depsipeptide, the global demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deocycytidine, all-trans retinoic acid and the monaminooxidase inhibitor Tranylcipromine and also used knock down approaches to reduce expression of the pluripotency marker NANOG and/or the inhibitor of primordial germ cell differentiation TFAP2C. We found that TCam-2 cells induce apoptosis when treated with Depsipeptide (> 10 nM) but are resistant to treatments with 5-aza-2'-deocycytidine, all-trans retinoic acid and Tranylcipromine, highlighting Depsi as a treatment option for seminomas. We show that TCam-2 cells up-regulate endoderm- and throphectoderm-associated genes after down-regulation of NANOG expression; however, morphologically no indications of differentiation could be found. Instead, we observed up-regulation of OCT3/4 and SOX17 in TCam-2-NANOG knockdown and speculate that this compensates for the loss of the NANOG protein. Hence, NANOG is not a primary target gene responsible for the inhibition of differentiation in seminomas. PMID:21987446

  20. Inactivation of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) but not HDAC2 is required for the glucocorticoid-dependent CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) expression and preadipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kuzmochka, Claire; Abdou, Houssein-Salem; Haché, Robert J G; Atlas, Ella

    2014-12-01

    Several drugs currently used in the management of mood disorders, epilepsy (ie, valproic acid), or the control of inflammation (ie, corticosteroids) have been shown to promote visceral obesity in humans by increasing the number of newly formed adipocytes. Valproic acid is classified as a nonspecific histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, along with trichostatin A and butyric acid. In vitro experiments have demonstrated that such molecules greatly enhance the rate of preadipocyte differentiation, similarly to the effect of corticosteroids. The glucocorticoid receptor stimulates adipogenesis in part by enhancing the transcription of C/ebpa through the titration, and subsequent degradation, of HDAC1 from the C/ebpα promoter. There is, however, controversy in the literature as to the role of HDACs during adipogenesis. In this study, we sought to demonstrate, using 2 different strategies, the definite role of HDAC1 in adipogenesis. By using small interference RNA-mediated knockdown of HDAC1 and by generating an enzymatically inactive HDAC1D181A by site-directed mutagenesis, we were able to show that HDAC1, but not HDAC2, suppresses glucocorticoid receptor-potentiated preadipocyte differentiation by decreasing CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/ebp)α and Pparγ expression levels at the onset of differentiation. Finally, we demonstrate that HDAC1D181A acts as a dominant negative mutant of HDAC1 during adipogenesis by modulating C/EBPβ transcriptional activity on the C/ebpα promoter. PMID:25203139

  1. Metabolism-related liabilities of a potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and relevance of the route of administration on its metabolic fate.

    PubMed

    Fonsi, M; Fiore, F; Jones, P; Kinzel, O; Laufer, R; Rowley, M; Monteagudo, E

    2009-10-01

    Compound A [1-methyl-N-{(1S)-1-[5-(2-naphthyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-7-oxooctyl}piperidine-4-carboxamide is a potent class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that demonstrated good antiproliferative activity against human tumour cell lines of different origin. This compound showed high in vivo clearance in rats (160 ml min(-1) kg(-1)) due to metabolism. The main metabolite detected in urine after intravenous dosing was characterized as a dihydrohydroxy S-mercapturic acid conjugate. Following oral dosing, however, the mercapturic acid derivative was no longer the main metabolite but the major metabolites were mono- and di-glucuronide conjugates of oxidized species having a mass shift of +34 m/z with respect to the parent. Comparison of plasma concentration after intra-arterial infusion and intravenous infusion and incubation with microsomes from different tissues (liver, kidney, small intestine and lung) in the presence of beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) indicated that the compound was highly cleared by the lung. Oxidation of the naphthalene moiety was demonstrated to be the cause of the high in vivo clearance of compound A and the potential for bioactivation of this group was flagged. PMID:19569735

  2. Can Small Chemical Modifications of Natural Pan-inhibitors Modulate the Biological Selectivity? The Case of Curcumin Prenylated Derivatives Acting as HDAC or mPGES-1 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Chini, Maria Giovanna; Masullo, Milena; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Javidnia, Azita; Chitsazian Yazdi, Mahsa; Pergola, Carlo; Koeberle, Andreas; Werz, Oliver; Pizza, Cosimo; Terracciano, Stefania; Piacente, Sonia; Bifulco, Giuseppe

    2015-12-24

    Curcumin, or diferuloylmethane, a polyphenolic molecule isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, is reported to modulate multiple molecular targets involved in cancer and inflammatory processes. On the basis of its pan-inhibitory characteristics, here we show that simple chemical modifications of the curcumin scaffold can regulate its biological selectivity. In particular, the curcumin scaffold was modified with three types of substituents at positions C-1, C-8, and/or C-8' [C5 (isopentenyl, 5-8), C10 (geranyl, 9-12), and C15 (farnesyl, 13, 14)] in order to make these molecules more selective than the parent compound toward two specific targets: histone deacetylase (HDAC) and microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1). From combined in silico and in vitro analyses, three selective inhibitors by proper substitution at position 8 were revealed. Compound 13 has improved HDAC inhibitory activity and selectivity with respect to the parent compound, while 5 and 9 block the mPGES-1 enzyme. We hypothesize about the covalent interaction of curcumin, 5, and 9 with the mPGES-1 binding site. PMID:26588603

  3. Hybrids from 4-anilinoquinazoline and hydroxamic acid as dual inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and histone deacetylase.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fan-Wei; Wu, Ting-Ting; Ren, Zi-Wei; Xue, Jia-Yu; Shi, Lei

    2015-11-15

    A series of hybrids derived from 4-anilinoquinazoline and hydroxamic acid were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as dual inhibitors of vascular endothelia growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) tyrosine kinase and histone deacetylase (HDAC). Most of these compounds exhibited potent HDAC inhibition and moderate VEGFR-2 inhibition. Among them, compound 6l exhibited the most potent inhibitory activities against VEGFR-2 (IC50=84 nM) and HDAC (IC50=2.8 nM). It also showed the most potent antiproliferative ability against MCF-7, a human breast cancer line, with IC50 of 1.2 μM. Docking simulation supported the initial pharmacophoric hypothesis and suggested a common mode of interaction of compound 6l at the active binding sites of VEGFR-2 and HDAC. PMID:26475519

  4. Protective role of sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor on beta-cell proliferation, function and glucose homeostasis through modulation of p38/ERK MAPK and apoptotic pathways: study in juvenile diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Khan, S; Jena, G B

    2014-04-25

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) also known as juvenile diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disorder that precipitates in genetically susceptible individuals by environmental factors particularly during early age. Both genetic and epigenetic factors are implicated in the beta-cell development, proliferation, differentiation and function. Recent evidences suggested that there is a link between diabetes and histone deacetylases (HDACs), because HDAC inhibitors promote beta-cell development, proliferation and function as well as improve glucose homeostasis. Sodium butyrate (NaB) is a short chain fatty acid having HDAC inhibition activity. The present study was aimed to investigate the protective role of NaB treatment on the beta-cell proliferation, function and glucose homeostasis as well as apoptosis in juvenile diabetic rat. Diabetes was induced by single injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) in chilled citrate buffer, while NaB (500 mg/kg/day) was administrated by i.p. route for 21 days as pre- and post-treatment schedule. Plasma glucose and insulin levels, HbA1c, glucose tolerance, apoptosis, and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p38, p53, caspase-3, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2), forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) as well as histone acetylation were evaluated. NaB treatment decreased plasma glucose, HbA1c, beta-cell apoptosis and improved plasma insulin level and glucose homeostasis through HDAC inhibition and histone acetylation in diabetic animal as compared to control. NaB treatment improved the beta-cell proliferation, function and glucose homeostasis as well as reduced beta-cell apoptosis in juvenile diabetic rat by the modulation of p38/ERK MAPK and apoptotic pathway. PMID:24530320

  5. HDAC 3-selective inhibitor RGFP966 demonstrates anti-inflammatory properties in RAW 264.7 macrophages and mouse precision-cut lung slices by attenuating NF-κB p65 transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Leus, Niek G.J.; van der Wouden, Petra E.; van den Bosch, Thea; Hooghiemstra, Wouter T.R.; Ourailidou, Maria E.; Kistemaker, Loes E.M.; Bischoff, Rainer; Gosens, Reinoud; Haisma, Hidde J.; Dekker, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a major and increasing health problem. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches are needed. Class I HDACs 1, 2 and 3 play key roles in the regulation of inflammatory gene expression with a particular pro-inflammatory role for HDAC 3. HDAC 3 has been reported to be an important player in inflammation by deacetylating NF-κB p65, which has been implicated in the pathology of COPD. Here, we applied the pharmacological HDAC 3-selective inhibitor RGFP966, which attenuated pro-inflammatory gene expression in models for inflammatory lung diseases. Consistent with this, a robust decrease of the transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65 was observed. HDAC 3 inhibition affected neither the acetylation status of NF-κB p65 nor histone H3 or histone H4. This indicates that HDAC 3 inhibition does not inhibit NF-κB p65 transcriptional activity by affecting its deacetylation but rather by inhibiting enzymatic activity of HDAC 3. Taken together, our findings indicate that pharmacological HDAC 3-selective inhibition by inhibitors such as RGFP966 may provide a novel and effective approach toward development of therapeutics for inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:26993378

  6. HDAC 3-selective inhibitor RGFP966 demonstrates anti-inflammatory properties in RAW 264.7 macrophages and mouse precision-cut lung slices by attenuating NF-κB p65 transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Leus, Niek G J; van der Wouden, Petra E; van den Bosch, Thea; Hooghiemstra, Wouter T R; Ourailidou, Maria E; Kistemaker, Loes E M; Bischoff, Rainer; Gosens, Reinoud; Haisma, Hidde J; Dekker, Frank J

    2016-05-15

    The increasing number of patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a major and increasing health problem. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches are needed. Class I HDACs 1, 2 and 3 play key roles in the regulation of inflammatory gene expression with a particular pro-inflammatory role for HDAC 3. HDAC 3 has been reported to be an important player in inflammation by deacetylating NF-κB p65, which has been implicated in the pathology of COPD. Here, we applied the pharmacological HDAC 3-selective inhibitor RGFP966, which attenuated pro-inflammatory gene expression in models for inflammatory lung diseases. Consistent with this, a robust decrease of the transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65 was observed. HDAC 3 inhibition affected neither the acetylation status of NF-κB p65 nor histone H3 or histone H4. This indicates that HDAC 3 inhibition does not inhibit NF-κB p65 transcriptional activity by affecting its deacetylation but rather by inhibiting enzymatic activity of HDAC 3. Taken together, our findings indicate that pharmacological HDAC 3-selective inhibition by inhibitors such as RGFP966 may provide a novel and effective approach toward development of therapeutics for inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:26993378

  7. Differential Response of Human Hepatocyte Chromatin to HDAC Inhibitors as a Function of Microenvironmental Glucose Level.

    PubMed

    Felisbino, Marina Barreto; Alves da Costa, Thiago; Gatti, Maria Silvia Viccari; Mello, Maria Luiza Silveira

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes is a complex multifactorial disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to impaired insulin secretion. Recent observations suggest that the complexity of the disease cannot be entirely accounted for genetic predisposition and a compelling argument for an epigenetic component is rapidly emerging. The use of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) in clinical setting is an emerging area of investigation. In this study, we have aimed to understand and compare the response of hepatocyte chromatin to valproic acid (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA) treatments under normoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions to expand our knowledge about the consequences of HDACi treatment in a diabetes cell model. Under normoglycemic conditions, these treatments promoted chromatin remodeling, as assessed by image analysis and H3K9ac and H3K9me2 abundance. Simultaneously, H3K9ac marks shifted to the nuclear periphery accompanied by HP1 dissociation from the heterochromatin and a G1 cell cycle arrest. More striking changes in the cell cycle progression and mitotic ratios required drastic treatment. Under hyperglycemic conditions, high glucose per se promoted chromatin changes similar to those promoted by VPA and TSA. Nonetheless, these results were not intensified in cells treated with HDACis under hyperglycemic conditions. Despite the absence of morphological changes being promoted, HDACi treatment seems to confer a physiological meaning, ameliorating the cellular hyperglycemic state through reduction of glucose production. These observations allow us to conclude that the glucose level to which the hepatocytes are subjected affects how chromatin responds to HDACi and their action under high-glucose environment might not reflect on chromatin remodeling. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2257-2265, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26888775

  8. Tubastatin A, an HDAC6 inhibitor, alleviates stroke-induced brain infarction and functional deficits: potential roles of α-tubulin acetylation and FGF-21 up-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifei; Leng, Yan; Wang, Junyu; Liao, Hsiao-Mei; Bergman, Joel; Leeds, Peter; Kozikowski, Alan; Chuang, De-Maw

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) 6 exists exclusively in cytoplasm and deacetylates cytoplasmic proteins such as α-tubulin. HDAC6 dysfunction is associated with several pathological conditions in the central nervous system. This study investigated the beneficial effects of tubastatin A (TubA), a novel specific HDAC6 inhibitor, in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and an in vitro model of excitotoxicity. Post-ischemic TubA treatment robustly improved functional outcomes, reduced brain infarction, and ameliorated neuronal cell death in MCAO rats. These beneficial effects lasted at least three days after MCAO. Notably, when given at 24 hours after MCAO, TubA still exhibited significant protection. Levels of acetylated α-tubulin were decreased in the ischemic hemisphere on Days 1 and 3 after MCAO, and were significantly restored by TubA. MCAO markedly downregulated fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) and TubA significantly reversed this downregulation. TubA also mitigated impaired FGF-21 signaling in the ischemic hemisphere, including up-regulating β-Klotho, and activating ERK and Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathways. In addition, both TubA and exogenous FGF-21 conferred neuroprotection and restored mitochondrial trafficking in rat cortical neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Our findings suggest that the neuroprotective effects of TubA likely involve HDAC6 inhibition and the subsequent up-regulation of acetylated α-tubulin and FGF-21. PMID:26790818

  9. Identification of a novel synergistic induction of cell death by Smac mimetic and HDAC inhibitors in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Steinwascher, Sofie; Nugues, Anne-Lucie; Schoeneberger, Hannah; Fulda, Simone

    2015-09-28

    Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins are expressed at high levels in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and contribute to resistance to programmed cell death. Here, we report that inhibition of IAP proteins by the small-molecule Smac mimetic BV6 acts together with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACIs) such as MS275 or SAHA to trigger cell death in AML cell lines in a synergistic manner, as underscored by calculation of combination index (CI). Also, BV6 and HDACIs cooperate to trigger DNA fragmentation, a marker of apoptotic cell death, and to suppress long-term clonogenic survival of AML cells. In contrast, equimolar concentrations of BV6 and MS275 or SAHA do not synergize to elicit cell death in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), emphasizing some tumor cell selectivity of this combination treatment. Addition of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-blocking antibody Enbrel significantly reduces BV6/MS275-induced cell death in the majority of AML cell lines, indicating that autocrine/paracrine TNFα signaling contributes to cell death. Remarkably, the broad-range caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD.fmk) fails to rescue MV4-11, Molm13 and OCI-AML3 cells and even enhances BV6/MS275-mediated cell death, whereas zVAD.fmk reduces BV6/MS275-induced cell death in NB4 cells. Annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining reveals that BV6/MS275 cotreatment predominately increases the percentage of double-positive cells. Of note, the Receptor-Interacting Protein (RIP)1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) or the Mixed Lineage Kinase Domain-Like protein (MLKL) inhibitor necrosulfonamide (NSA) significantly reduce BV6/MS275-induced cell death in the presence of zVAD.fmk, suggesting that BV6/MS275 cotreatment triggers necroptosis when caspases are inhibited. Thus, BV6 acts in concert with HDACIs to induce cell death in AML cells and can bypass apoptosis resistance, at least in several AML cell lines, by engaging necroptosis as an

  10. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of HDAC inhibitor Apicidin in pancreatic carcinoma cells subsequent time and dose dependent treatment.

    PubMed

    Bauden, Monika; Tassidis, Helena; Ansari, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Apicidin is a potent histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) that selectively binds to histone deacetylases (HDACs) class I and interferes with the deacetylation process, which results in modification of acetylation level of cellular proteins. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential time and dose dependent cytotoxicity of the test compound, Apicidin, in pancreatic cancer cells Capan-1 and Panc-1 as well as estimate maximal tolerable dose (MTD) of the test agent and determine EC50 using four complementary colorimetric cytotoxicity or viability assays. The cells were treated with increasing concentrations of Apicidin (0-5000nM) for 2, 4 and 6h (short term exposure) or 24, 48 and 72h (long term exposure) before conducting cytotoxic analyses with lactate dehydrogenase assay or viability analyses with sulforhodamine B (SRB), methyl tetrazolium (MTT) and crystal violet (CV) assays. In order to investigate whether Apicidin irreversibly affects the cells already during the short term exposure, the medium containing Apicidin was removed and replaced with fresh culturing medium after 6h of treatment. The cells were then incubated for additional 24, 48 or 72h before carrying out the analysis. The results obtained from cytotoxicity and viability assays indicated, that Apicidin was well tolerated by both cell lines at concentrations below 100nM at any given time point and at all applied concentrations during the short term (6h or less) treatment. Continuous prolonged term exposures (48h or greater) of the cells to Apicidin with concentration exceeding 100nM resulted in significantly increasing cytotoxicity and sustained significant loss of cell viability. Moreover, long term exposure of pancreatic cancer cells Capan-1 and Panc-1 to Apicidin concentrations exceeding 100nM showed an initial anti-proliferative effect before cytotoxicity onset. In summary, MTD was exposure time dependent and estimated to 100nM for long term treatment and to at least 5000nM for treatment

  11. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Kopelovich, Levy; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-01-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 μM) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ► Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ► Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ► Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ► Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  12. KE108-conjugated unimolecular micelles loaded with a novel HDAC inhibitor thailandepsin-A for targeted neuroendocrine cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guojun; Jaskula-Sztul, Renata; Harrison, April; Dammalapati, Ajitha; Xu, Wenjin; Cheng, Yiqiang; Chen, Herbert; Gong, Shaoqin

    2016-08-01

    Neuroendocrine (NE) cancers can cause significant patient morbidity. Besides surgery, there are no curative treatments for NE cancers and their metastases, emphasizing the need for the development of other forms of therapy. In this study, multifunctional unimolecular micelles were developed for targeted NE cancer therapy. The unimolecular micelles were formed by multi-arm star amphiphilic block copolymer poly(amidoamine)-poly(valerolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) conjugated with KE108 peptide and Cy5 dye (abbreviated as PAMAM-PVL-PEG-KE108/Cy5). The unimolecular micelles with a spherical core-shell structure exhibited a uniform size distribution and excellent stability. The hydrophobic drug thailandepsin-A (TDP-A), a recently discovered HDAC inhibitor, was physically encapsulated into the hydrophobic core of the micelles. KE108 peptide, a somatostatin analog possessing high affinity for all five subtypes of somatostatin receptors (SSTR 1-5), commonly overexpressed in NE cancer cells, was used for the first time as an NE cancer targeting ligand. KE108 exhibited superior targeting abilities compared to other common somatostatin analogs, such as octreotide, in NE cancer cell lines. The in vitro assays demonstrated that the TDP-A-loaded, KE108-targeted micelles exhibited the best capabilities in suppressing NE cancer cell growth. Moreover, the in vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging on NE-tumor-bearing nude mice showed that KE108-conjugated micelles exhibited the greatest tumor accumulation due to their passive targeting and active targeting capabilities. Finally, TDP-A-loaded and KE108-conjugated micelles possessed the best anticancer efficacy without detectable systemic toxicity. Thus, these novel TDP-A-loaded and KE108-conjugated unimolecular micelles offer a promising approach for targeted NE cancer therapy. PMID:27156249

  13. The acetylome regulators Hdac1 and Hdac2 differently modulate intestinal epithelial cell dependent homeostatic responses in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, Naomie; Gagné, Julie Moore; Blais, Mylène; Gendron, Fernand-Pierre; Boudreau, François; Asselin, Claude

    2014-04-01

    Histone deacetylases (Hdac) remove acetyl groups from proteins, influencing global and specific gene expression. Hdacs control inflammation, as shown by Hdac inhibitor-dependent protection from dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced murine colitis. Although tissue-specific Hdac knockouts show redundant and specific functions, little is known of their intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) role. We have shown previously that dual Hdac1/Hdac2 IEC-specific loss disrupts cell proliferation and determination, with decreased secretory cell numbers and altered barrier function. We thus investigated how compound Hdac1/Hdac2 or Hdac2 IEC-specific deficiency alters the inflammatory response. Floxed Hdac1 and Hdac2 and villin-Cre mice were interbred. Compound Hdac1/Hdac2 IEC-deficient mice showed chronic basal inflammation, with increased basal disease activity index (DAI) and deregulated Reg gene colonic expression. DSS-treated dual Hdac1/Hdac2 IEC-deficient mice displayed increased DAI, histological score, intestinal permeability, and inflammatory gene expression. In contrast to double knockouts, Hdac2 IEC-specific loss did not affect IEC determination and growth, nor result in chronic inflammation. However, Hdac2 disruption protected against DSS colitis, as shown by decreased DAI, intestinal permeability and caspase-3 cleavage. Hdac2 IEC-specific deficient mice displayed increased expression of IEC gene subsets, such as colonic antimicrobial Reg3b and Reg3g mRNAs, and decreased expression of immune cell function-related genes. Our data show that Hdac1 and Hdac2 are essential IEC homeostasis regulators. IEC-specific Hdac1 and Hdac2 may act as epigenetic sensors and transmitters of environmental cues and regulate IEC-mediated mucosal homeostatic and inflammatory responses. Different levels of IEC Hdac activity may lead to positive or negative outcomes on intestinal homeostasis during inflammation. PMID:24525021

  14. HDAC inhibitor AR-42 decreases CD44 expression and sensitizes myeloma cells to lenalidomide

    PubMed Central

    Sborov, Douglas W.; Cascione, Luciano; Radomska, Hanna S.; Smith, Emily; Stiff, Andrew; Consiglio, Jessica; Caserta, Enrico; Rizzotto, Lara; Zanesi, Nicola; Stefano, Volinia; Kaur, Balveen; Mo, Xiaokui; Byrd, John C.; Efebera, Yvonne A.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy of plasma cells in the bone marrow. Despite multiple treatment options, MM is inevitably associated with drug resistance and poor outcomes. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi's) are promising novel chemotherapeutics undergoing evaluation in clinical trials for the potential treatment of patients with MM. Although in preclinical studies HDACi's have proven anti-myeloma activity, but in the clinic single-agent HDACi treatments have been limited due to low tolerability. Improved clinical outcomes were reported only when HDACi's were combined with other drugs. Here, we show that a novel pan-HDACi AR-42 downregulates CD44, a glycoprotein that has been associated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone resistance in myeloma both in vitro and in vivo. We also show that this CD44 downregulation is in part mediated by miR-9–5p, targeting insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3), which directly binds to CD44 mRNA and increases its stability. Importantly, we also demonstrate that AR-42 enhances anti-myeloma activity of lenalidomide in primary MM cells isolated from lenalidomide resistant patients and in in vivo MM mouse model. Thus, our findings shed light on potential novel combinatorial therapeutic approaches modulating CD44 expression, which may help overcome lenalidomide resistance in myeloma patients. PMID:26429859

  15. HDAC1 regulates fear extinction in mice.

    PubMed

    Bahari-Javan, Sanaz; Maddalena, Andrea; Kerimoglu, Cemil; Wittnam, Jessica; Held, Torsten; Bähr, Mathias; Burkhardt, Susanne; Delalle, Ivanna; Kügler, Sebastian; Fischer, Andre; Sananbenesi, Farahnaz

    2012-04-11

    Histone acetylation has been implicated with the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders and targeting histone deacetylases (HDACs) using HDAC inhibitors was shown to be neuroprotective and to initiate neuroregenerative processes. However, little is known about the role of individual HDAC proteins during the pathogenesis of brain diseases. HDAC1 was found to be upregulated in patients suffering from neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we show that virus-mediated overexpression of neuronal HDAC1 in the adult mouse hippocampus specifically affects the extinction of contextual fear memories, while other cognitive abilities were unaffected. In subsequent experiments we show that under physiological conditions, hippocampal HDAC1 is required for extinction learning via a mechanism that involves H3K9 deacetylation and subsequent trimethylation of target genes. In conclusion, our data show that hippocampal HDAC1 has a specific role in memory function. PMID:22496552

  16. DNA damage response and anti-apoptotic proteins predict radiosensitization efficacy of HDAC inhibitors SAHA and LBH589 in patient-derived glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pont, Lotte M E Berghauser; Naipal, Kishan; Kloezeman, Jenneke J; Venkatesan, Subramanian; van den Bent, Martin; van Gent, Dik C; Dirven, Clemens M F; Kanaar, Roland; Lamfers, Martine L M; Leenstra, Sieger

    2015-01-28

    HDAC inhibitors have radiosensitizing effects in established cancer cell lines. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of SAHA, LBH589, Valproic Acid (VPA), MS275 and Scriptaid in the patient-derived glioblastoma model. In more detail, SAHA and LBH589 were evaluated to determine predictors of response. Acetylated-histone-H3, γH2AX/53BP1, (p)Chek2/ATM, Bcl-2/Bcl-XL, p21(CIP1/WAF1) and caspase-3/7 were studied in relation to response. SAHA sensitized 50% of cultures, LBH589 45%, VPA and Scriptaid 40% and MS275 60%. Differences after treatment with SAHA/RTx or LBH589/RTx in a sensitive and resistant culture were increased acetylated-H3, caspase-3/7 and prolonged DNA damage repair γH2AX/53BP1 foci. pChek2 was found to be associated with both SAHA/RTx and LBH589/RTx response with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 90%. Bcl-XL had a PPV of 100% for LBH589/RTx response. Incubation with HDACi 24 and 48 hours pre-RTx resulted in the best efficacy of combination treatment. In conclusion a subset of patient-derived glioblastoma cultures were sensitive to HDACi/RTx. For SAHA and LBH589 responses were strongly associated with pChek2 and Bcl-XL, which warrant further clinical exploration. Additional information on responsiveness was obtained by DNA damage response markers and apoptosis related proteins. PMID:25305451

  17. The HDAC inhibitor SAHA improves depressive-like behavior of CRTC1-deficient mice: Possible relevance for treatment-resistant depression.

    PubMed

    Meylan, Elsa M; Halfon, Olivier; Magistretti, Pierre J; Cardinaux, Jean-René

    2016-08-01

    Major depression is a highly complex disabling psychiatric disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. Despite the availability of several classes of antidepressants, a substantial percentage of patients are unresponsive to these medications. A better understanding of the neurobiology of depression and the mechanisms underlying antidepressant response is thus critically needed. We previously reported that mice lacking CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) exhibit a depressive-like phenotype and a blunted antidepressant response to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. In this study, we similarly show that Crtc1(-/-) mice are resistant to the antidepressant effect of chronic desipramine in a behavioral despair paradigm. Supporting the blunted response to this tricyclic antidepressant, we found that desipramine does not significantly increase the expression of Bdnf and Nr4a1-3 in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of Crtc1(-/-) mice. Epigenetic regulation of neuroplasticity gene expression has been associated with depression and antidepressant response, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been shown to have antidepressant-like properties. Here, we show that unlike conventional antidepressants, chronic systemic administration of the HDAC inhibitor SAHA partially rescues the depressive-like behavior of Crtc1(-/-) mice. This behavioral effect is accompanied by an increased expression of Bdnf, but not Nr4a1-3, in the prefrontal cortex of these mice, suggesting that this epigenetic intervention restores the expression of a subset of genes by acting downstream of CRTC1. These findings suggest that CRTC1 alterations may be associated with treatment-resistant depression, and support the interesting possibility that targeting HDACs may be a useful therapeutic strategy in antidepressant development. PMID:26970016

  18. IN VITRO AND IN VIVO INTERACTIONS BETWEEN THE HDAC6 INHIBITOR RICOLINOSTAT (ACY1215) AND THE IRREVERSIBLE PROTEASOME INHIBITOR CARFILZOMIB IN NON-HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Dasmahapatra, Girija; Patel, Hiral; Friedberg, Johnathan; Quayle, Steven N; Jones, Simon S; Grant, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between the HDAC6 inhibitor ricolinostat (ACY1215) and the irreversible proteasome inhibitor Carfilzomib (CFZ) were examined in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma models, including diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL), mantle cell (MCL) and double-hit lymphoma cells. Marked in vitro synergism was observed in multiple cell types associated with activation of cellular stress pathways (e.g., JNK1/2, ERK1/2, and p38) accompanied by increases in DNA damage (γH2A.X), G2M arrest, and the pronounced induction of mitochondrial injury and apoptosis. Combination treatment with CFZ and ricolinostat increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), while the antioxidant TBAP attenuated DNA damage, JNK activation, and cell death. Similar interactions occurred in bortezomib-resistant and double-hit DLBCL, MCL, and primary DLBCL cells, but not in normal CD34+ cells. However, ricolinostat did not potentiate inhibition of chymotryptic activity by CFZ. shRNA knock-down of JNK1 (but not MEK1/2), or pharmacologic inhibition of p38, significantly reduced CFZ/ricolinostat lethality, indicating a functional contribution of these stress pathways to apoptosis. Combined exposure to CFZ and ricolinostat also markedly down-regulated the cargo-loading protein HR23B. Moreover, HR23B knock-down significantly increased CFZ- and ricolinostat-mediated lethality, suggesting a role for this event in cell death. Finally, combined in vivo treatment with CFZ and ricolinostat was well tolerated and significantly suppressed tumor growth and increased survival in an MCL xenograft model. Collectively, these findings indicate that CFZ and ricolinostat interact synergistically in NHL cells through multiple stress-related mechanisms, and suggest that this strategy warrants further consideration in NHL. PMID:25239935

  19. Mercaptoacetamide-based class II HDAC inhibitor lowers Aβ levels and improves learning and memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Sung, You Me; Lee, Taehee; Yoon, Hyejin; DiBattista, Amanda Marie; Song, JungMin; Sohn, Yoojin; Moffat, Emily Isabella; Turner, R. Scott; Jung, Mira; Kim, Jungsu; Hoe, Hyang-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) alter gene expression epigenetically by interfering with the normal functions of HDAC. Given their ability to decrease Aβ levels, HDACIs area potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is unclear how HDACIs alter Aβ levels. We developed two novel HDAC inhibitors with improved pharmacological properties, such as a longer half-life and greater penetration of the blood-brain barrier: mercaptoacetamide-based class II HDACI (coded as W2) and hydroxamide-based class I and IIHDACI (coded as I2) and investigated how they affect Aβ levels and cognition. HDACI W2 decreased Aβ40 and Aβ42 in vitro. HDACI I2 also decreased Aβ40, but not Aβ42. We systematically examined the molecular mechanisms by which HDACIs W2 and I2 can decrease Aβ levels. HDACI W2 decreased gene expression of γ-secretase components and increased the Aβ degradation enzyme Mmp2. Similarly, HDACI I2 decreased expression of β- and γ-secretase components and increased mRNA levels of Aβ degradation enzymes. HDACI W2 also significantly decreased Aβ levels and rescued learning and memory deficits in aged hAPP 3x Tg AD mice. Furthermore, we found that the novel HDACI W2 decreased tau phosphorylation at Thr181, an effect previously unknown for HDACIs. Collectively, these data suggest that class II HDACls may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for AD. PMID:23063601

  20. (7-Diethylaminocoumarin-4-yl)methyl ester of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid as a caged inhibitor for photocontrol of histone deacetylase activity.

    PubMed

    Ieda, Naoya; Yamada, Sota; Kawaguchi, Mitsuyasu; Miyata, Naoki; Nakagawa, Hidehiko

    2016-06-15

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in epigenetic control of the expression of various genes by catalyzing deacetylation of ε-acetylated lysine residues. Here, we report the design, synthesis and evaluation of the (7-diethylaminocoumarin-4-yl)methyl ester of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (AC-SAHA) as a caged HDAC inhibitor, which releases the known pan-HDAC inhibitor SAHA upon cleavage of the photolabile (7-diethylaminocoumarin-4-yl)methyl protecting group in response to photoirradiation. A key advantage of AC-SAHA is that the caged derivative itself shows essentially no HDAC-inhibitory activity. Upon photoirradiation, AC-SAHA decomposes to SAHA and a 7-diethylaminocoumarin derivative, together with some minor products. We confirmed that AC-SAHA inhibits HDAC in response to photoirradiation in vitro by means of chemiluminescence assay. AC-SAHA also showed photoinduced inhibition of proliferation of human colon cancer cell line HCT116, as determined by MTT assay. Thus, AC-SAHA should be a useful tool for spatiotemporally controlled inhibition of HDAC activity, as well as a candidate chemotherapeutic reagent for human colon cancer. PMID:27143132

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibitor m-carboxycinnamic acid bis-hydroxamide attenuates plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in human pleural mesothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chi-Li; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Chen, Wei-Lin; Chou, Yung-Chen; Hsiao, Che-Jen; Hsiao, Shih-Hsin; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Cheng, Yu-Wen; Hsiao, George

    2012-04-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), primarily up-regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, is essential in the development of fibrosis. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) was shown to modulate gene expression and fibrogenesis in various tissues. However, the implications of HDAC in terms of PAI-1 expression and pleural fibrosis remain unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of m-carboxycinnamic acid bis-hydroxamide (CBHA), a hybrid-polar HDAC inhibitor, on the TGF-β1-induced expression of PAI-1 in a human pleural mesothelial cell line (MeT-5A). MeT-5A cells were treated with TGF-β1 in the presence or absence of CBHA. We assayed the expression and stability of PAI-1 mRNA and protein, PAI-1 promoter activity, the activation of Smad signaling, the protein-protein interactions of Smads with transcriptional cofactors Sp1 and coactivator p300, and the expression of the mRNA-stabilizing protein nucleolin. The results indicate that CBHA significantly inhibited TGF-β1-induced PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression, and attenuated PAI-1 promoter activity in MeT-5A cells. CBHA abrogated TGF-β1-induced Smad4 nuclear translocation, but not Smad2/3 activation. Furthermore, the association of Smad4 with p300, but not with Sp1, was disrupted by CBHA. Alternatively, CBHA suppressed TGF-β1-induced nucleolin expression, and thereby destabilized PAI-1 mRNA and decreased PAI-1 protein concentrations. These findings suggest that the inhibition of HDAC activity by CBHA may attenuate PAI-1 expression through the modulation of cellular signaling at multiple levels. Given the down-regulating effect of CBHA on PAI-1 expression, HDAC inhibitors should be tested further in animal models as potential therapeutic agents for pleural fibrosis. PMID:22033265

  2. Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A and valproic acid on hair cell regeneration in zebrafish lateral line neuromasts

    PubMed Central

    He, Yingzi; Cai, Chengfu; Tang, Dongmei; Sun, Shan; Li, Huawei

    2014-01-01

    In humans, auditory hair cells are not replaced when injured. Thus, cochlear hair cell loss causes progressive and permanent hearing loss. Conversely, non-mammalian vertebrates are capable of regenerating lost sensory hair cells. The zebrafish lateral line has numerous qualities that make it well-suited for studying hair cell development and regeneration. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been shown to have an important role in regenerative processes in vertebrates, but its function in hair cell regeneration in vivo is not fully understood. Here, we have examined the role of HDAC activity in hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line. We eliminated lateral line hair cells of 5-day post-fertilization larvae using neomycin and then treated the larvae with HDAC inhibitors. To assess hair cell regeneration, we used 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in zebrafish larvae to label mitotic cells after hair cell loss. We found that pharmacological inhibition of HDACs using trichostatin A (TSA) or valproic acid (VPA) increased histone acetylation in the regenerated neuromasts following neomycin-induced damage. We also showed that treatment with TSA or VPA decreased the number of supporting cells and regenerated hair cells in response to hair cell damage. Additionally, BrdU immunostaining and western blot analysis showed that TSA or VPA treatment caused a significant decrease in the percentage of S-phase cells and induced p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression, both of which are likely to explain the decrease in the amount of newly regenerated hair cells in treated embryos. Finally, we showed that HDAC inhibitors induced no observable cell death in neuromasts as measured by cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HDAC activity has an important role in the regeneration of hair cells in the lateral line. PMID:25431550

  3. The safety profile of vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid) in hematologic malignancies: A review of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Duvic, Madeleine; Dimopoulos, Meletios

    2016-02-01

    Histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs) are multifunctional enzymes that posttranslationally modify both histone and nonhistone acetylation sites, affecting a broad range of cellular processes (e.g., cell cycle, apoptosis, and protein folding) often dysregulated in cancer. HDAC inhibitors are small molecules that directly interact with HDAC catalytic sites preventing the removal of acetyl groups, thereby counteracting the effects of HDACs. Since the first HDAC inhibitor, valproic acid, was investigated as a potential antitumor agent, there have been a number of other HDAC inhibitors developed to improve efficacy and safety. Despite significant progress in the management of patients with hematologic malignancies, overall survival is still poor. The discovery that HDACs may play a role in hematologic malignancies and preclinical studies showing promising activity with HDAC inhibitors in various tumor types, led to clinical evaluation of HDAC inhibitors as potential treatment options for patients with advanced hematologic malignancies. The Food and Drug Administration has approved two HDAC inhibitors, vorinostat (2006) and romidepsin (2009), for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. This review highlights the safety of HDAC inhibitors currently approved or being investigated for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, with a specific focus on the safety experience with vorinostat in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. PMID:26827693

  4. Complex structure of a bacterial class 2 histone deacetylase homologue with a trifluoromethylketone inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Tine Kragh; Hildmann, Christian; Riester, Daniel; Wegener, Dennis; Schwienhorst, Andreas; Ficner, Ralf

    2007-04-01

    The crystal structure of HDAH FB188 in complex with a trifluoromethylketone at 2.2 Å resolution is reported and compared to a previously determined inhibitor complex. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have emerged as attractive targets in anticancer drug development. To date, a number of HDAC inhibitors have been developed and most of them are hydroxamic acid derivatives, typified by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Not surprisingly, structural information that can greatly enhance the design of novel HDAC inhibitors is so far only available for hydroxamic acids in complex with HDAC or HDAC-like enzymes. Here, the first structure of an enzyme complex with a nonhydroxamate HDAC inhibitor is presented. The structure of the trifluoromethyl ketone inhibitor 9,9,9-trifluoro-8-oxo-N-phenylnonanamide in complex with bacterial FB188 HDAH (histone deacetylase-like amidohydrolase from Bordetella/Alcaligenes strain FB188) has been determined. HDAH reveals high sequential and functional homology to human class 2 HDACs and a high structural homology to human class 1 HDACs. Comparison with the structure of HDAH in complex with SAHA reveals that the two inhibitors superimpose well. However, significant differences in binding to the active site of HDAH were observed. In the presented structure the O atom of the trifluoromethyl ketone moiety is within binding distance of the Zn atom of the enzyme and the F atoms participate in interactions with the enzyme, thereby involving more amino acids in enzyme–inhibitor binding.

  5. HDAC1 and HDAC2 independently predict mortality in hepatocellular carcinoma by a competing risk regression model in a Southeast Asian population

    PubMed Central

    LER, SER YENG; LEUNG, CAROL HO WING; KHIN, LAY WAI; LU, GUO-DONG; SALTO-TELLEZ, MANUEL; HARTMAN, MIKAEL; IAU, PHILIP TSAU CHOONG; YAP, CELESTIAL T.; HOOI, SHING CHUAN

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes involved in transcriptional repression. We aimed to examine the significance of HDAC1 and HDAC2 gene expression in the prediction of recurrence and survival in 156 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among a South East Asian population who underwent curative surgical resection in Singapore. We found that HDAC1 and HDAC2 were upregulated in the majority of HCC tissues. The presence of HDAC1 in tumor tissues was correlated with poor tumor differentiation. Notably, HDAC1 expression in adjacent non-tumor hepatic tissues was correlated with the presence of satellite nodules and multiple lesions, suggesting that HDAC1 upregulation within the field of HCC may contribute to tumor spread. Using competing risk regression analysis, we found that increased cancer-specific mortality was significantly associated with HDAC2 expression. Mortality was also increased with high HDAC1 expression. In the liver cancer cell lines, HEP3B, HEPG2, PLC5, and a colorectal cancer cell line, HCT116, the combined knockdown of HDAC1 and HDAC2 increased cell death and reduced cell proliferation as well as colony formation. In contrast, knockdown of either HDAC1 or HDAC2 alone had minimal effects on cell death and proliferation. Taken together, our study suggests that both HDAC1 and HDAC2 exert pro-survival effects in HCC cells, and the combination of isoform-specific HDAC inhibitors against both HDACs may be effective in targeting HCC to reduce mortality. PMID:26352599

  6. Plant HDAC inhibitor chrysin arrest cell growth and induce p21WAF1 by altering chromatin of STAT response element in A375 cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chrysin and its analogues, belongs to flavonoid family and possess potential anti-tumour activity. The aim of this study is to determine the molecular mechanism by which chrysin controls cell growth and induce apoptosis in A375 cells. Methods Effect of chrysin and its analogues on cell viability and cell cycle analysis was determined by MTT assay and flowcytometry. A series of Western blots was performed to determine the effect of chrysin on important cell cycle regulatory proteins (Cdk2, cyclin D1, p53, p21, p27). The fluorimetry and calorimetry based assays was conducted for characterization of chrysin as HDAC inhibitor. The changes in histone tail modification such as acetylation and methylation was studied after chrysin treatment was estimated by immuno-fluorescence and western blot analysis. The expression of Bcl-xL, survivin and caspase-3 was estimated in chrysin treated cells. The effect of chrysin on p21 promoter activity was studied by luciferase and ChIP assays. Results Chrysin cause G1 cell cycle arrest and found to inhibit HDAC-2 and HDAC-8. Chrysin treated cells have shown increase in the levels of H3acK14, H4acK12, H4acK16 and decrease in H3me2K9 methylation. The p21 induction by chrysin treatment was found to be independent of p53 status. The chromatin remodelling at p21WAF1 promoter induces p21 activity, increased STAT-1 expression and epigenetic modifications that are responsible for ultimate cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion Chrysin shows in vitro anti-cancer activity that is correlated with induction of histone hyperacetylation and possible recruitment of STAT-1, 3, 5 proteins at STAT (−692 to −684) region of p21 promoter. Our results also support an unexpected action of chrysin on the chromatin organization of p21WAF1 promoter through histone methylation and hyper-acetylation. It proposes previously unknown sequence specific chromatin modulations in the STAT responsive elements for regulating cell cycle progression

  7. NBM-T-BBX-OS01, Semisynthesized from Osthole, Induced G1 Growth Arrest through HDAC6 Inhibition in Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Pai, Jih-Tung; Hsu, Chia-Yun; Hua, Kuo-Tai; Yu, Sheng-Yung; Huang, Chung-Yang; Chen, Chia-Nan; Liao, Chiung-Ho; Weng, Meng-Shih

    2015-01-01

    Disrupting lung tumor growth via histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibition is a strategy for cancer therapy or prevention. Targeting HDAC6 may disturb the maturation of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) mediated cell cycle regulation. In this study, we demonstrated the effects of semisynthesized NBM-T-BBX-OS01 (TBBX) from osthole on HDAC6-mediated growth arrest in lung cancer cells. The results exhibited that the anti-proliferative activity of TBBX in numerous lung cancer cells was more potent than suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a clinically approved pan-HDAC inhibitor, and the growth inhibitory effect has been mediated through G1 growth arrest. Furthermore, the protein levels of cyclin D1, CDK2 and CDK4 were reduced while cyclin E and CDK inhibitor, p21Waf1/Cip1, were up-regulated in TBBX-treated H1299 cells. The results also displayed that TBBX inhibited HDAC6 activity via down-regulation HDAC6 protein expression. TBBX induced Hsp90 hyper-acetylation and led to the disruption of cyclin D1/Hsp90 and CDK4/Hsp90 association following the degradation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 proteins through proteasome. Ectopic expression of HDAC6 rescued TBBX-induced G1 arrest in H1299 cells. Conclusively, the data suggested that TBBX induced G1 growth arrest may mediate HDAC6-caused Hsp90 hyper-acetylation and consequently increased the degradation of cyclin D1 and CDK4. PMID:25946558

  8. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) in XPC gene silencing and bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies and causes hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide each year. Bladder cancer is strongly associated with exposure to environmental carcinogens. It is believed that DNA damage generated by environmental carcinogens and their metabolites causes development of bladder cancer. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the major DNA repair pathway for repairing bulk DNA damage generated by most environmental carcinogens, and XPC is a DNA damage recognition protein required for initiation of the NER process. Recent studies demonstrate reduced levels of XPC protein in tumors for a majority of bladder cancer patients. In this work we investigated the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in XPC gene silencing and bladder cancer development. The results of our HDAC inhibition study revealed that the treatment of HTB4 and HTB9 bladder cancer cells with the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) caused an increase in transcription of the XPC gene in these cells. The results of our chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies indicated that the VPA treatment caused increased binding of both CREB1 and Sp1 transcription factors at the promoter region of the XPC gene for both HTB4 and HTB9 cells. The results of our immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining studies further revealed a strong correlation between the over-expression of HDAC4 and increased bladder cancer occurrence (p < 0.001) as well as a marginal significance of increasing incidence of HDAC4 positivity seen with an increase in severity of bladder cancer (p = 0.08). In addition, the results of our caspase 3 activation studies demonstrated that prior treatment with VPA increased the anticancer drug cisplatin-induced activation of caspase 3 in both HTB4 and HTB9 cells. All of these results suggest that the HDACs negatively regulate transcription of the XPC gene in bladder cancer cells and contribute to the severity of bladder tumors. PMID:21507255

  9. Chemical tools for probing histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity.

    PubMed

    Minoshima, Masafumi; Kikuchi, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) enzymes are responsible for removing epigenetic markers on histone proteins, which results in chromatin inactivation and gene repression. An evaluation of HDAC activity is essential for not only determining the physiological function of HDACs, but also for developing HDAC-targeting drugs. This review focuses on the chemical tools used to detect HDAC activity. We highlight activity-based probes and positron emission tomography probes based on the chemical structure of the inhibitors. We also summarize fluorogenic probes used in single-step methods for HDAC detection. These fluorogenic probes are designed based on the nucleophilicity of the amino group, aggregation via electrostatic interactions, and changes in the DNA binding properties. These fluorogenic systems may enable facile and rapid screening to evaluate HDAC inhibitors, which will contribute to the development of epigenetic drugs. PMID:25864671

  10. Two New Pimelic Diphenylamide HDAC Inhibitors Induce Sustained Frataxin Upregulation in Cells from Friedreich's Ataxia Patients and in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Myriam; Soragni, Elisabetta; Chou, C. James; Barnes, Glenn; Jones, Steve; Rusche, James R.; Gottesfeld, Joel M.; Pandolfo, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Background Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), the most common recessive ataxia in Caucasians, is due to severely reduced levels of frataxin, a highly conserved protein, that result from a large GAA triplet repeat expansion within the first intron of the frataxin gene (FXN). Typical marks of heterochromatin are found near the expanded GAA repeat in FRDA patient cells and mouse models. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) with a pimelic diphenylamide structure and HDAC3 specificity can decondense the chromatin structure at the FXN gene and restore frataxin levels in cells from FRDA patients and in a GAA repeat based FRDA mouse model, KIKI, providing an appealing approach for FRDA therapeutics. Methodology/Principal Findings In an effort to further improve the pharmacological profile of pimelic diphenylamide HDACIs as potential therapeutics for FRDA, we synthesized additional compounds with this basic structure and screened them for HDAC3 specificity. We characterized two of these compounds, 136 and 109, in FRDA patients' peripheral blood lymphocytes and in the KIKI mouse model. We tested their ability to upregulate frataxin at a range of concentrations in order to determine a minimal effective dose. We then determined in both systems the duration of effect of these drugs on frataxin mRNA and protein, and on total and local histone acetylation. The effects of these compounds exceeded the time of direct exposure in both systems. Conclusions/Significance Our results support the pre-clinical development of a therapeutic approach based on pimelic diphenylamide HDACIs for FRDA and provide information for the design of future human trials of these drugs, suggesting an intermittent administration of the drug. PMID:20098685

  11. HR23b expression is a potential predictive biomarker for HDAC inhibitor treatment in mesenchymal tumours and is associated with response to vorinostat.

    PubMed

    Angelika Ihle, Michaela; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Bauer, Sebastian; Ratner, Nancy; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Nishio, Jun; Larsson, Olle; Åman, Pierre; Pedeutour, Florence; Taguchi, Takahiro; Wardelmann, Eva; Buettner, Reinhard; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are key players in epigenetic regulation of gene expression and HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) treatment seems to be a promising anticancer therapy in many human tumours, including soft tissue sarcomas. HR23b has been shown to be a potential biomarker for sensitivity to HDACi therapy in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. We aimed to evaluate HR23b as a candidate biomarker for HDACi response in sarcomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST). Therefore, HR23b expression was analysed comprehensively by western blot in sarcoma and GIST cell lines covering all major clinically relevant subtypes. MTT assay and ApoTox-Glo(TM) Triplex assay were performed after treatment with vorinostat, belinostat, mocetinostat and entinostat. HR23b protein expression was measured under HDACi treatment. Furthermore, HR23b expression levels were immunohistochemically determined in a large set of 523 clinical samples from sarcoma and GIST patients. Western blot analyses showed that sarcomas differ significantly in their expression of HR23b protein. All HDACi were able to regulate proliferation and apoptosis in vitro. Sensitivity to vorinostat correlated significantly with HR23b protein expression. Immunohistochemical prevalence screening in clinical samples of relevant adult-type tumours revealed that 12.5% of sarcomas (among them malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours, pleomorphic liposarcomas, leiomyosarcomas, dedifferentiated liposarcomas, synovial sarcomas and angiosarcomas) and 23.2% of GIST show high HR23b expression. Therefore, HDACi have antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in sarcomas depending on the expression level of HR23b. These findings suggest that HR23b represents a candidate biomarker for HDACi sensitivity in certain sarcoma types and in GIST. PMID:27499916

  12. HR23b expression is a potential predictive biomarker for HDAC inhibitor treatment in mesenchymal tumours and is associated with response to vorinostat

    PubMed Central

    Angelika Ihle, Michaela; Merkelbach‐Bruse, Sabine; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Bauer, Sebastian; Ratner, Nancy; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Nishio, Jun; Larsson, Olle; Åman, Pierre; Pedeutour, Florence; Taguchi, Takahiro; Wardelmann, Eva; Buettner, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are key players in epigenetic regulation of gene expression and HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) treatment seems to be a promising anticancer therapy in many human tumours, including soft tissue sarcomas. HR23b has been shown to be a potential biomarker for sensitivity to HDACi therapy in cutaneous T‐cell lymphoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. We aimed to evaluate HR23b as a candidate biomarker for HDACi response in sarcomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST). Therefore, HR23b expression was analysed comprehensively by western blot in sarcoma and GIST cell lines covering all major clinically relevant subtypes. MTT assay and ApoTox‐GloTM Triplex assay were performed after treatment with vorinostat, belinostat, mocetinostat and entinostat. HR23b protein expression was measured under HDACi treatment. Furthermore, HR23b expression levels were immunohistochemically determined in a large set of 523 clinical samples from sarcoma and GIST patients. Western blot analyses showed that sarcomas differ significantly in their expression of HR23b protein. All HDACi were able to regulate proliferation and apoptosis in vitro. Sensitivity to vorinostat correlated significantly with HR23b protein expression. Immunohistochemical prevalence screening in clinical samples of relevant adult‐type tumours revealed that 12.5% of sarcomas (among them malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours, pleomorphic liposarcomas, leiomyosarcomas, dedifferentiated liposarcomas, synovial sarcomas and angiosarcomas) and 23.2% of GIST show high HR23b expression. Therefore, HDACi have antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in sarcomas depending on the expression level of HR23b. These findings suggest that HR23b represents a candidate biomarker for HDACi sensitivity in certain sarcoma types and in GIST. PMID:27499916

  13. The Effects of Pharmacological Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in Huntington’s Disease Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Haiqun; Wang, Ying; Morris, Charles D.; Jacques, Vincent; Gottesfeld, Joel M.; Rusche, James R.; Thomas, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    An important epigenetic modification in Huntington’s disease (HD) research is histone acetylation, which is regulated by histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes. HDAC inhibitors have proven effective in HD model systems, and recent work is now focused on functional dissection of the individual HDAC enzymes in these effects. Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), a member of the class I subfamily of HDACs, has previously been implicated in neuronal toxicity and huntingtin-induced cell death. Hence, we tested the effects of RGFP966 ((E)-N-(2-amino-4-fluorophenyl)-3-(1-cinnamyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)acrylamide), a benzamide-type HDAC inhibitor that selectively targets HDAC3, in the N171-82Q transgenic mouse model of HD. We found that RGFP966 at doses of 10 and 25 mg/kg improves motor deficits on rotarod and in open field exploration, accompanied by neuroprotective effects on striatal volume. In light of previous studies implicating HDAC3 in immune function, we measured gene expression changes for 84 immune-related genes elicited by RGFP966 using quantitative PCR arrays. RGFP966 treatment did not cause widespread changes in cytokine/chemokine gene expression patterns, but did significantly alter the striatal expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (Mif), a hormone immune modulator associated with glial cell activation, in N171-82Q transgenic mice, but not WT mice. Accordingly, RGFP966-treated mice showed decreased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity, a marker of astrocyte activation, in the striatum of N171-82Q transgenic mice compared to vehicle-treated mice. These findings suggest that the beneficial actions of HDAC3 inhibition could be related, in part, with lowered Mif levels and its associated downstream effects. PMID:27031333

  14. Pharmacological modulation of HDAC1 and HDAC6 in vivo in a zebrafish model: Therapeutic implications for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Brígida R; Reis, Sara D; Guedes-Dias, Pedro; Leitão-Rocha, Ana; Quintas, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Santos, Miguel M; Oliveira, Jorge M A

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are key epigenetic enzymes and emerging drug targets in cancer and neurodegeneration. Pan-HDAC inhibitors provided neuroprotection in Parkinson's Disease (PD) models, however, the HDAC isoforms with highest neuroprotective potential remain unknown. Zebrafish larvae (powerful pharmacological testing tools bridging cellular and in vivo studies) have thus far been used in PD modelling with limited phenotypic characterization. Here we characterize the behavioural and metabolic phenotypes of a zebrafish PD model induced with MPP(+), assess the feasibility of targeting zebrafish HDAC1 and HDAC6 isoforms, and test the in vivo effects of their selective inhibitors MS-275 and tubastatin A, respectively. MPP(+) induced a concentration-dependent decrease in metabolic activity and sensorimotor reflexes, and induced locomotor impairments rescuable by the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine. Zebrafish HDAC1 and HDAC6 isoforms show high sequence identity with mammalian homologues at the deacetylase active sites, and pharmacological inhibition increased acetylation of their respective histone and tubulin targets. MS-275 and tubastatin rescued the MPP(+)-induced decrease in diencephalic tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence and in whole-larvae metabolic activity, without modifying mitochondrial complex activity or biogenesis. MS-275 or tubastatin alone modulated spontaneous locomotion. When combined with MPP(+), however, neither MS-275 nor tubastatin rescued locomotor impairments, although tubastatin did ameliorate the head-reflex impairment. This study demonstrates the feasibility of pharmacologically targeting the zebrafish HDAC1 and HDAC6 isoforms, and indicates that their inhibition can rescue cellular metabolism in a PD model. Absence of improvement in locomotion, however, suggests that monotherapy with either HDAC1 or HDAC6 inhibitors is unlikely to provide strong benefits in PD. This study highlights parameters dependent on the integrity of

  15. Class III-specific HDAC inhibitor Tenovin-6 induces apoptosis, suppresses migration and eliminates cancer stem cells in uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wei; Zhou, Jingfeng; Jin, Bei; Pan, Jingxuan

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular malignancy in adults. Despite improvements in surgical, radiation and chemotherapy treatments, the overall survival of UM and prognosis remain poor. In the present study, we hypothesized that Sirtuin 1 and 2 (SIRT1/2), class III histone deacetylases (HDACs), were critical in controlling the destiny of bulk tumor cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs) of UM. We testified this hypothesis in four lines of UM cells (92.1, Mel 270, Omm 1 and Omm 2.3). Our results showed that inhibition of SIRT1/2 by Tenovin-6 induced apoptosis in UM cells by activating the expression of tumor suppressor genes such as p53 and elevating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Tenovin-6 inhibited the growth of UM cells. Tenovin-6 and vinblastine was synergistic in inducing apoptosis of UM cell line 92.1 and Mel 270. Furthermore, Tenovin-6 eliminated cancer stem cells in 92.1 and Mel 270 cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that Tenovin-6 may be a promising agent to kill UM bulk tumor cells and CSCs. PMID:26940009

  16. Heterocyclics as corrosion inhibitors for acid media

    SciTech Connect

    Ajmal, M.; Khan, M.A.W.; Ahmad, S.; Quraishi, M.A.

    1996-12-01

    The available literature on the use of heterocyclic compounds as corrosion inhibitors in acid media has been reviewed. It has been noted that the workers in this field have either used sulfur or nitrogen containing heterocyclic compounds for studying inhibition action. The authors have synthesized compounds containing sulfur and nitrogen both in the same ring and studied their inhibition action in acid media. These compounds were found to be better inhibitors than those containing either atoms alone.

  17. Utilization of Boron Compounds for the Modification of Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid as Inhibitor of Histone Deacetylase Class II Homo sapiens

    PubMed Central

    Bakri, Ridla; Parikesit, Arli Aditya; Satriyanto, Cipta Prio; Kerami, Djati; Tambunan, Usman Sumo Friend

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) has a critical function in regulating gene expression. The inhibition of HDAC has developed as an interesting anticancer research area that targets biological processes such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell differentiation. In this study, an HDAC inhibitor that is available commercially, suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), has been modified to improve its efficacy and reduce the side effects of the compound. Hydrophobic cap and zinc-binding group of these compounds were substituted with boron-based compounds, whereas the linker region was substituted with p-aminobenzoic acid. The molecular docking analysis resulted in 8 ligands with ΔGbinding value more negative than the standards, SAHA and trichostatin A (TSA). That ligands were analyzed based on the nature of QSAR, pharmacological properties, and ADME-Tox. It is conducted to obtain a potent inhibitor of HDAC class II Homo sapiens. The screening process result gave one best ligand, Nova2 (513246-99-6), which was then further studied by molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:25214833

  18. Fibroadipogenic progenitors mediate the ability of HDAC inhibitors to promote regeneration in dystrophic muscles of young, but not old Mdx mice

    PubMed Central

    Mozzetta, Chiara; Consalvi, Silvia; Saccone, Valentina; Tierney, Matthew; Diamantini, Adamo; Mitchell, Kathryn J; Marazzi, Giovanna; Borsellino, Giovanna; Battistini, Luca; Sassoon, David; Sacco, Alessandra; Puri, Pier Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) exert beneficial effects in mdx mice, by promoting endogenous regeneration; however, the cellular determinants of HDACi activity on dystrophic muscles have not been determined. We show that fibroadipogenic progenitors (FAP) influence the regeneration potential of satellite cells during disease progression in mdx mice and mediate HDACi ability to selectively promote regeneration at early stages of disease. FAPs from young mdx mice promote, while FAPs from old mdx mice repress, satellite cell-mediated formation of myotubes. In young mdx mice HDACi inhibited FAP adipogenic potential, while enhancing their ability to promote differentiation of adjacent satellite cells, through upregulation of the soluble factor follistatin. By contrast, FAPs from old mdx mice were resistant to HDACi-mediated inhibition of adipogenesis and constitutively repressed satellite cell-mediated formation of myotubes. We show that transplantation of FAPs from regenerating young muscles restored HDACi ability to increase myofibre size in old mdx mice. These results reveal that FAPs are key cellular determinants of disease progression in mdx mice and mediate a previously unappreciated stage-specific beneficial effect of HDACi in dystrophic muscles. PMID:23505062

  19. High-throughput screening uncovers a compound that activates latent HIV-1 and acts cooperatively with a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Micheva-Viteva, Sofiya; Kobayashi, Yoshifumi; Edelstein, Leonard C; Pacchia, Annmarie L; Lee, Hui-Ling Rose; Graci, Jason D; Breslin, Jamie; Phelan, Bradley D; Miller, Leia K; Colacino, Joseph M; Gu, Zhengxian; Ron, Yacov; Peltz, Stuart W; Dougherty, Joseph P

    2011-06-17

    Current antiretroviral therapy (ART) provides potent suppression of HIV-1 replication. However, ART does not target latent viral reservoirs, so persistent infection remains a challenge. Small molecules with pharmacological properties that allow them to reach and activate viral reservoirs could potentially be utilized to eliminate the latent arm of the infection when used in combination with ART. Here we describe a cell-based system modeling HIV-1 latency that was utilized in a high-throughput screen to identify small molecule antagonists of HIV-1 latency. A more detailed analysis is provided for one of the hit compounds, antiviral 6 (AV6), which required nuclear factor of activated T cells for early mRNA expression while exhibiting RNA-stabilizing activity. It was found that AV6 reproducibly activated latent provirus from different lymphocyte-based clonal cell lines as well as from latently infected primary resting CD4(+) T cells without causing general T cell proliferation or activation. Moreover, AV6 complemented the latency antagonist activity of a previously described histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. This is a proof of concept showing that a high-throughput screen employing a cell-based model of HIV-1 latency can be utilized to identify new classes of compounds that can be used in concert with other persistent antagonists with the aim of viral clearance. PMID:21498519

  20. Complementary effects of HDAC inhibitor 4-PB on gap junction communication and cellular export mechanisms support restoration of chemosensitivity of PDAC cells

    PubMed Central

    Ammerpohl, O; Trauzold, A; Schniewind, B; Griep, U; Pilarsky, C; Grutzmann, R; Saeger, H-D; Janssen, O; Sipos, B; Kloppel, G; Kalthoff, H

    2006-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a fatal disease and one of the cancer entities with the lowest life expectancy. Beside surgical therapy, no effective therapeutic options are available yet. Here, we show that 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PB), a known and well-tolerable inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDAC), induces up to 70% apoptosis in all cell lines tested (Panc 1, T4M-4, COLO 357, BxPc3). In contrast, it leads to cell cycle arrest in only half of the cell lines tested. This drug increases gap junction communication between adjacent T3M-4 cells in a concentration-dependent manner and efficiently inhibits cellular export mechanisms in Panc 1, T4M-4, COLO 357 and BxPc3 cells. Consequently, in combination with gemcitabine 4-PB shows an overadditive effect on induction of apoptosis in BxPc3 and T3M-4 cells (up to 4.5-fold compared to single drug treatment) with accompanied activation of Caspase 8, BH3 interacting domain death agonist (Bid) and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 1 (PARP) cleavage. Although the inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase-pathway has no influence on fulminant induction of apoptosis, the inhibition of the JNK-pathway by SP600125 completely abolishes the overadditive effect induced by the combined application of both drugs, firstly reported by this study. PMID:17164759

  1. Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) as a novel therapeutic target in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Jiro; Suzuki, Rikio; Mazitschek, Ralph; Gorgun, Gullu; Ghosh, Balaram; Cirstea, Diana; Hu, Yiguo; Mimura, Naoya; Ohguchi, Hiroto; Cottini, Francesca; Jakubikova, Jana; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Haggarty, Stephen J.; Richardson, Paul G.; Hideshima, Teru; Anderson, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) represent novel molecular targets for the treatment of various types of cancers, including multiple myeloma (MM). Many HDAC inhibitors have already shown remarkable anti-tumor activities in the preclinical setting; however, their clinical utility is limited due to unfavorable toxicities associated with their broad range HDAC inhibitory effects. Isoform-selective HDAC inhibition may allow for MM cytotoxicity without attendant side effects. In this study, we demonstrated that HDAC3 knockdown and a small molecule HDAC3 inhibitor BG45 trigger significant MM cell growth inhibition via apoptosis, evidenced by caspase and PARP cleavage. Importantly, HDAC3 inhibition downregulates phosphorylation (tyrosine 705 and serine 727) of STAT3. Neither IL-6 nor bone marrow stromal cells overcome this inhibitory effect of HDAC3 inhibition on p-STAT3 and MM cell growth. Moreover, HDAC3 inhibition also triggers hyperacetylation of STAT3, suggesting crosstalk signaling between phosphorylation and acetylation of STAT3. Importantly, inhibition of HDAC3, but not HDAC1 or HDAC2, significantly enhances bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity. Finally, we confirm that BG45 alone and in combination with bortezomib trigger significant tumor growth inhibition in vivo in a murine xenograft model of human MM. Our results indicate that HDAC3 represents a promising therapeutic target, and validate a prototype novel HDAC3 inhibitor BG45 in MM. PMID:23913134

  2. Search for novel histone deacetylase inhibitors. Part II: design and synthesis of novel isoferulic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Tao; Dong, Jinyun; Gao, Hongping; Su, Ping; Shi, Yaling; Zhang, Jie

    2014-05-01

    Previously, we described the discovery of potent ferulic acid-based histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) with halogeno-acetanilide as novel surface recognition moiety (SRM). In order to improve the affinity and activity of these HDACIs, twenty seven isoferulic acid derivatives were described herein. The majority of title compounds displayed potent HDAC inhibitory activity. In particular, IF5 and IF6 exhibited significant enzymatic inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 0.73 ± 0.08 and 0.57 ± 0.16 μM, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds showed moderate antiproliferative activity against human cancer cells. Especially, IF6 displayed promising profile as an antitumor candidate with IC50 value of 3.91 ± 0.97 μM against HeLa cells. The results indicated that these isoferulic acid derivatives could serve as promising lead compounds for further optimization. PMID:24702857

  3. Development of novel ferulic acid derivatives as potent histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Lu, Wen; Zhang, Tao; Dong, Jinyun; Gao, Hongping; Li, Pengfei; Wang, Sicen; Zhang, Jie

    2013-11-15

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) offer a promising strategy for cancer therapy. The discovery of potent ferulic acid-based HDACIs with hydroxamic acid or 2-aminobenzamide group as zinc binding group was reported. The halogeno-acetanilide was introduced as novel surface recognition moiety (SRM). The majority of title compounds displayed potent HDAC inhibitory activity. In particular, FA6 and FA16 exhibited significant enzymatic inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 3.94 and 2.82 μM, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds showed moderate antiproliferative activity against a panel of human cancer cells. FA17 displayed promising profile as an antitumor candidate. The results indicated that these ferulic acid derivatives could serve as promising lead compounds for further optimization. PMID:24095016

  4. Inhibition of HDAC2 Protects the Retina From Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jie; Alsarraf, Oday; Dahrouj, Mohammad; Platt, Kenneth A.; Chou, C. James; Rice, Dennis S.; Crosson, Craig E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Protein acetylation is an essential mechanism in regulating transcriptional and inflammatory events. Studies have shown that nonselective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors can protect the retina from ischemic injury in rats. However, the role of specific HDAC isoforms in retinal degenerative processes remains obscure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of HDAC2 isoform in a mouse model of ischemic retinal injury. Methods. Localization of HDAC2 in mice retinas was evaluated by immunohistochemical analyses. To investigate whether selective reduction in HDAC2 activity can protect the retina from ischemic injury, Hdac2+/− mice were utilized. Electroretinographic (ERG) and morphometric analyses were used to assess retinal function and morphology. Results. Our results demonstrated that HDAC2 is primarily localized in nuclei in inner nuclear and retinal ganglion cell layers, and HDAC2 activity accounted for approximately 35% of the total activities of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 6 in the retina. In wild-type mice, ERG a- and b-waves from ischemic eyes were significantly reduced when compared to pre-ischemia baseline values. Morphometric examination of these eyes revealed significant degeneration of inner retinal layers. In Hdac2+/− mice, ERG a- and b-waves from ischemic eyes were significantly greater than those measured in ischemic eyes from wild-type mice. Morphologic measurements demonstrated that Hdac2+/− mice exhibit significantly less retinal degeneration than wild-type mice. Conclusions. This study demonstrated that suppressing HDAC2 expression can effectively reduce ischemic retinal injury. Our results support the idea that the development of selective HDAC2 inhibitors may provide an efficacious treatment for ischemic retinal injury. PMID:23696608

  5. Functional-genetic dissection of HDAC dependencies in mouse lymphoid and myeloid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Geoffrey M; Mehdipour, Parinaz; Cluse, Leonie A; Falkenberg, Katrina J; Wang, Eric; Roth, Mareike; Santoro, Fabio; Vidacs, Eva; Stanley, Kym; House, Colin M; Rusche, James R; Vakoc, Christopher R; Zuber, Johannes; Minucci, Saverio; Johnstone, Ricky W

    2015-11-19

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACis) have demonstrated activity in hematological and solid malignancies. Vorinostat, romidepsin, belinostat, and panobinostat are Food and Drug Administration-approved for hematological malignancies and inhibit class II and/or class I HDACs, including HDAC1, 2, 3, and 6. We combined genetic and pharmacological approaches to investigate whether suppression of individual or multiple Hdacs phenocopied broad-acting HDACis in 3 genetically distinct leukemias and lymphomas. Individual Hdacs were depleted in murine acute myeloid leukemias (MLL-AF9;Nras(G12D); PML-RARα acute promyelocytic leukemia [APL] cells) and Eµ-Myc lymphoma in vitro and in vivo. Strikingly, Hdac3-depleted cells were selected against in competitive assays for all 3 tumor types. Decreased proliferation following Hdac3 knockdown was not prevented by BCL-2 overexpression, caspase inhibition, or knockout of Cdkn1a in Eµ-Myc lymphoma, and depletion of Hdac3 in vivo significantly reduced tumor burden. Interestingly, APL cells depleted of Hdac3 demonstrated a more differentiated phenotype. Consistent with these genetic studies, the HDAC3 inhibitor RGFP966 reduced proliferation of Eµ-Myc lymphoma and induced differentiation in APL. Genetic codepletion of Hdac1 with Hdac2 was pro-apoptotic in Eµ-Myc lymphoma in vitro and in vivo and was phenocopied by the HDAC1/2-specific agent RGFP233. This study demonstrates the importance of HDAC3 for the proliferation of leukemia and lymphoma cells, suggesting that HDAC3-selective inhibitors could prove useful for the treatment of hematological malignancies. Moreover, our results demonstrate that codepletion of Hdac1 with Hdac2 mediates a robust pro-apoptotic response. Our integrated genetic and pharmacological approach provides important insights into the individual or combinations of HDACs that could be prioritized for targeting in a range of hematological malignancies. PMID:26447190

  6. Synthesis of N-hydroxycinnamides capped with a naturally occurring moiety as inhibitors of histone deacetylase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Jan; Chen, Ching-Chow; Chao, Shi-Wei; Lee, Shoei-Sheng; Hsu, Fen-Lin; Lu, Yeh-Lin; Hung, Ming-Fang; Chang, Chung-I

    2010-04-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are regarded as promising therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. All reported HDAC inhibitors contain three pharmacophoric features: a zinc-chelating group, a hydrophobic linker, and a hydrophobic cap for surface recognition. In this study we investigated the effectiveness of osthole, a hydrophobic Chinese herbal compound, as the surface recognition cap in hydroxamate-based compounds as inhibitors of HDAC. Nine novel osthole-based N-hydroxycinnamides were synthesized and screened for enzyme inhibition activity. Compounds 9 d, 9 e, 9 g exhibited inhibitory activities (IC(50)=24.5, 20.0, 19.6 nM) against nuclear HDACs in HeLa cells comparable to that of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; IC(50)=24.5 nM), a potent inhibitor clinically used for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). While compounds 9 d and 9 e showed SAHA-like activity towards HDAC1 and HDAC6, compound 9 g was more selective for HDAC1. Compound 9 d exhibited the best cellular effect, which was comparable to that of SAHA, of enhancing acetylation of either alpha-tubulin or histone H3. Molecular docking analysis showed that the osthole moiety of compound 9 d may interact with the same hydrophobic surface pocket exploited by SAHA and it may be modified to provide class-specific selectivity. These results suggest that osthole is an effective hydrophobic cap when incorporated into N-hydroxycinnamide-derived HDAC inhibitors. PMID:20209563

  7. ΔNp63/DGCR8-Dependent MicroRNAs Mediate Therapeutic Efficacy of HDAC Inhibitors in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Marco; Venkatanarayan, Avinashnarayan; Raulji, Payal; Meyers, Brooke A; Norton, William; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Sood, Anil K; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Vin, Harina; Duvic, Madeleine; Tetzlaff, Michael B; Curry, Jonathan L; Rook, Alain H; Abbas, Hussein A; Coarfa, Cristian; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Tsai, Kenneth Y; Flores, Elsa R

    2016-06-13

    ΔNp63 is an oncogenic member of the p53 family and acts to inhibit the tumor-suppressive activities of the p53 family. By performing a chemical library screen, we identified histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) as agents reducing ΔNp63 protein stability through the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Fbw7. ΔNp63 inhibition decreases the levels of its transcriptional target, DGCR8, and the maturation of let-7d and miR-128, which we found to be critical for HDACi function in vitro and in vivo. Our work identified Fbw7 as a predictive marker for HDACi response in squamous cell carcinomas and lymphomas, and unveiled let-7d and miR-128 as specific targets to bypass tumor resistance to HDACi treatment. PMID:27300436

  8. Epigenetic bivalent marking is permissive to the synergy of HDAC and PARP inhibitors on TXNIP expression in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Baldan, Federica; Mio, Catia; Lavarone, Elisa; Di Loreto, Carla; Puglisi, Fabio; Damante, Giuseppe; Puppin, Cinzia

    2015-05-01

    Studies on stem cell differentiation led to the identification of paused genes, characterized by the contemporary presence of both activator and repressor epigenetic markers (bivalent marking). TXNIP is an oncosuppressor gene the expression of which was reduced in breast cancer. In the present study, we evaluated whether the concept of epigenetic bivalent marking can be applied to TXNIP gene in breast cancer cells. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), three histone modifications were investigated: two associated with transcriptional activation, lysines 9-14 acetylation of H3 histone (H3K9K14ac) and lysine 4 trimethylation of H3 histone (H3K4me3), and one associated with transcriptional silencing, lysine 27 trimethylation of H3 histone (H3K27me3). According to the bivalent marking model, TXNIP gene appears to be paused in MDA157 cells (markers of active and repressed transcription are present), but are definitively silenced in MDA468 cells (presence of only markers of transcription repression). This was proven by evaluating TXNIP mRNA and protein levels after the treatment of cell lines with a histone deacetylase inhibitor (SAHA) and a poly-ADP-ribose polymerases inhibitor (PJ34). In MDA157 cells, SAHA and PJ34 showed a synergistic effect: a large increment was observed in TXNIP mRNA and protein levels. By contrast, in MDA468 cells, synergy between the two compounds was not observed. Therefore, the pausing epigenetic signature was permissive for synergy between SAHA and PJ34 on TXNIP gene expression. The synergy between SAHA and PJ34 on TXNIP expression was associated with variation in cell viability and apoptosis. In MDA157 cells, but not in MDA468 cells, combined treatment of SAHA and PJ34 induced a decrease in cell viability and an increase of apoptosis. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that TXNIP is an effective target for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25812606

  9. Enhancement of human sodium iodide symporter gene therapy for breast cancer by HDAC inhibitor mediated transcriptional modulation

    PubMed Central

    Kelkar, Madhura G.; Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Jadhav, Smita; Gupta, Sudeep; Ahn, Beyong-Cheol; De, Abhijit

    2016-01-01

    The aberrant expression of human sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in breast cancer (BC) has raised the possibility of using targeted radioiodide therapy. Here we investigate modulation of endogenous, functional NIS expression by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) in vitro and in vivo. Luciferase reporter based initial screening of six different HDACi shows 2–10 fold enhancement of NIS promoter activity in majority of the cell types tested. As a result of drug treatment, endogenous NIS transcript and protein shows profound induction in BC cells. To get an insight on the mechanism of such transcriptional activation, role of Stat4, CREB and other transcription factors are revealed by transcription factor profiling array. Further, NIS-mediated intracellular iodide uptake also enhances substantially (p < 0.05) signifying functional relevance of the transcriptional modulation strategy. Gamma camera imaging confirms 30% higher uptake in VPA or NaB treated BC tumor xenograft. Corroborating with such functional impact of NIS, significant reduction in cell survival (p < 0.005) is observed in VPA, NaB or CI994 drug and 131I combination treatment in vivo indicating effective radioablation. Thus, for the first time this study reveals the mechanistic basis and demonstrates functional relevance of HDACi pre-treatment strategy in elevating NIS gene therapy approach for BC management in clinic. PMID:26777440

  10. Epigenetic Modulation with HDAC Inhibitor CG200745 Induces Anti-Proliferation in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Sung-Min; Lee, Ji-Young; Choi, Jene; Lee, Je-Hwan; Hwang, Jung Jin; Kim, Chung-Soo; Suh, Young-Ah; Jang, Se Jin

    2015-01-01

    Histone modification plays a pivotal role on gene regulation, as regarded as global epigenetic markers, especially in tumor related genes. Hence, chemical approaches targeting histone-modifying enzymes have emerged onto the main stage of anticancer drug discovery. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potentials and mechanistic roles of the recently developed histone deacetylase inhibitor, CG200745, in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Treatment with CG200745 increased the global level of histone acetylation, resulting in the inhibition of cell proliferation. ChIP-on-chip analysis with an H4K16ac antibody showed altered H4K16 acetylation on genes critical for cell growth inhibition, although decreased at the transcription start site of a subset of genes. Altered H4K16ac was associated with changes in mRNA expression of the corresponding genes, which were further validated in quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting assays. Our results demonstrated that CG200745 causes NSCLC cell growth inhibition through epigenetic modification of critical genes in cancer cell survival, providing pivotal clues as a promising chemotherapeutics against lung cancer. PMID:25781604

  11. The thioacetate-ω(γ-lactam carboxamide) HDAC inhibitor ST7612AA1 as HIV-1 latency reactivation agent.

    PubMed

    Badia, Roger; Grau, Judith; Riveira-Muñoz, Eva; Ballana, Ester; Giannini, Giuseppe; Esté, José A

    2015-11-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unable to cure HIV infection. The ability of HIV to establish a subset of latent infected CD4(+) T cells, which remain undetectable to the immune system, becomes a major roadblock to achieve viral eradication. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been shown to potently induce the reactivation of latent HIV. Here, we show that a new thiol-based HDACi, the thioacetate-ω(γ-lactam carboxamide) derivative ST7612AA1, is a potent inducer of HIV reactivation. We evaluated HIV reactivation activity of ST7612AA1 compared to panobinostat (PNB), romidepsin (RMD) and vorinostat (VOR) in cell culture models of HIV-1 latency, in latently infected primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes and in PBMCs from HIV(+) patients. ST7612AA1 potently induced HIV-1 reactivation at submicromolar concentrations with comparable potency to panobinostat or superior to vorinostat. The presence of known antiretrovirals did not affect ST7612AA1-induced reactivation and their activity was not affected by ST7612AA1. Cell proliferation and cell activation were not affected by ST7612AA1, or any other HDACi used. In conclusion, our results indicate that ST7612AA1 is a potent activator of latent HIV and that reactivation activity of ST7612AA1 is exerted without activation or proliferation of CD4(+) T cells. ST7612AA1 is a suitable candidate for further studies of HIV reactivation strategies and potential new therapies to eradicate the viral reservoirs. PMID:26348004

  12. Protective Effects of Valproic Acid, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, against Hyperoxic Lung Injury in a Neonatal Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Cetinkaya, Merih; Cansev, Mehmet; Cekmez, Ferhat; Tayman, Cuneyt; Canpolat, Fuat Emre; Kafa, Ilker Mustafa; Yaylagul, Esra Orenlili; Kramer, Boris W.; Sarici, Serdar Umit

    2015-01-01

    Objective Histone acetylation and deacetylation may play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases. We evaluated the preventive effect of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, on neonatal hyperoxic lung injury. Methods Forty newborn rat pups were randomized in normoxia, normoxia+VPA, hyperoxia and hyperoxia+VPA groups. Pups in the normoxia and normoxia+VPA groups were kept in room air and received daily saline and VPA (30 mg/kg) injections, respectively, while those in hyperoxia and hyperoxia+VPA groups were exposed to 95% O2 and received daily saline and VPA (30 mg/kg) injections for 10 days, respectively. Growth, histopathological, biochemical and molecular biological indicators of lung injury, apoptosis, inflammation, fibrosis and histone acetylation were evaluated. Results VPA treatment during hyperoxia significantly improved weight gain, histopathologic grade, radial alveolar count and lamellar body membrane protein expression, while it decreased number of TUNEL(+) cells and active Caspase-3 expression. Expressions of TGFβ3 and phospho-SMAD2 proteins and levels of tissue proinflammatory cytokines as well as lipid peroxidation biomarkers were reduced, while anti-oxidative enzyme activities were enhanced by VPA treatment. VPA administration also reduced HDAC activity while increasing acetylated H3 and H4 protein expressions. Conclusions The present study shows for the first time that VPA treatment ameliorates lung damage in a neonatal rat model of hyperoxic lung injury. The preventive effect of VPA involves HDAC inhibition. PMID:25938838

  13. AKT activation controls cell survival in response to HDAC6 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kaliszczak, M; Trousil, S; Ali, T; Aboagye, E O

    2016-01-01

    HDAC6 is emerging as an important therapeutic target for cancer. We investigated mechanisms responsible for survival of tumor cells treated with a HDAC6 inhibitor. Expression of the 20 000 genes examined did not change following HDAC6 treatment in vivo. We found that HDAC6 inhibition led to an increase of AKT activation (P-AKT) in vitro, and genetic knockdown of HDAC6 phenocopied drug-induced AKT activation. The activation of AKT was not observed in PTEN null cells; otherwise, PTEN/PIK3CA expression per se did not predict HDAC6 inhibitor sensitivity. Interestingly, HDAC6 inhibitor treatment led to inactivating phosphorylation of PTEN (P-PTEN Ser380), which likely led to the increased P-AKT in cells that express PTEN. Synergy was observed with phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinases (PI3K) inhibitor treatment in vitro, accompanied by increased caspase 3/7 activity. Furthermore, combination of HDAC6 inhibitor with a PI3K inhibitor caused substantial tumor growth inhibition in vivo compared with either treatment alone, also detectable by Ki-67 immunostaining and (18)F-FLT positron emission tomography (PET). In aggregate AKT activation appears to be a key survival mechanism for HDAC6 inhibitor treatment. Our findings indicate that dual inhibition of HDAC6 and P-AKT may be necessary to substantially inhibit growth of solid tumors. PMID:27362804

  14. PP2A Regulates HDAC4 Nuclear Import

    PubMed Central

    Paroni, Gabriela; Cernotta, Nadia; Dello Russo, Claudio; Gallinari, Paola; Pallaoro, Michele; Foti, Carmela; Talamo, Fabio; Orsatti, Laura; Steinkühler, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Different signal-regulated serine/threonine kinases phosphorylate class II histone deacetylases (HDACs) to promote nuclear export, cytosolic accumulation, and activation of gene transcription. However, little is known about mechanisms operating in the opposite direction, which, possibly through phosphatases, should promote class II HDACs nuclear entry and subsequent gene repression. Here we show that HDAC4 forms a complex with the PP2A holoenzyme Cα, Aα, B/PR55α. In vitro and in vivo binding studies demonstrate that the N-terminus of HDAC4 interacts with the catalytic subunit of PP2A. HDAC4 is dephosphorylated by PP2A and experiments using okadaic acid or RNA interference have revealed that PP2A controls HDAC4 nuclear import. Moreover, we identified serine 298 as a putative phosphorylation site important for HDAC4 nuclear import. The HDAC4 mutant mimicking phosphorylation of serine 298 is defective in nuclear import. Mutation of serine 298 to alanine partially rescues the defect in HDAC4 nuclear import observed in cells with down-regulated PP2A. These observations suggest that PP2A, via the dephosphorylation of multiple serines including the 14-3-3 binding sites and serine 298, controls HDAC4 nuclear import. PMID:18045992

  15. Role of 5′TG3′-interacting factors (TGIFs) in Vorinostat (HDAC inhibitor)-mediated Corneal Fibrosis Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ajay; Sinha, Nishant R.; Siddiqui, Saad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We have previously reported that vorinostat, an FDA-approved, clinically used histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, attenuates corneal fibrosis in vivo in rabbits by blocking transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). The 5′TG3′-interacting factors (TGIFs) are transcriptional repressors of TGFβ1 signaling via the Smad pathway. The present study was designed to explore the expression of TGIFs in human corneal fibroblasts and to investigate their role in mediating the antifibrotic effect of vorinostat. Methods Human corneal fibroblast cultures were generated from donor corneas. RNA isolation, cDNA preparation, and PCR were performed to detect the presence of TGIF1 and TGIF2 transcripts. The cultures were exposed to vorinostat (2.5 µM) to test its effect on TGIF mRNA and protein levels using qPCR and immunoblotting. Myofibroblast formation was induced with TGFβ1 (5 ng/ml) treatment under serum-free conditions. The changes in fibrosis parameters were quantified by measuring fibrosis marker α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) mRNA and protein levels with qPCR, immunostaining, and immunoblotting. Smad2/3/4 and TGIF knockdowns were performed using pre-validated RNAi/siRNAs and a commercially available transfection reagent. Results Human corneal fibroblasts showed the expression of TGIF1 and TGIF2. Vorinostat (2.5 µM) caused a 2.8–3.3-fold increase in TGIF1 and TGIF2 mRNA levels and a 1.4–1.8-fold increase in TGIF1 and TGIF2 protein levels. Vorinostat treatment also caused a significant increase in acetylhistone H3 and acetylhistone H4. Vorinostat-induced increases in TGIF1 and TGIF2 were accompanied by a concurrent decrease in corneal fibrosis, as indicated by a decrease in αSMA mRNA by 83±7.7% and protein levels by 97±5%. The RNAi-mediated knockdown of Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 markedly attenuated TGFβ1-evoked transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of TGIF1 and TGIF2 neutralized vorinostat-evoked decreases in

  16. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Computer-Aided Drug Designing of New Derivatives of Hyperactive Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song; Huang, Weibin; Li, Xiaonan; Yang, Zhicheng; Feng, Binghong

    2015-10-01

    The synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of compounds based on suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) had been designed as potential histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis). Molecular docking studies indicated that our derivatives had better fitting in the binding sites of HDAC8 than SAHA. Compounds 1-5 were synthesized through the synthetic routes. In biological test, compounds also showed good inhibitory activity in HDAC enzyme assay and more potent growth inhibition in human glioma cell lines (MGR2, U251, and U373). A representative compound, N3F, exhibited better inhibitory effect (HDAC, IC50  = 0.1187 μm; U251, IC50  = 0.8949 μm) and lower toxicity for human normal cells (LO2, IC50  = 172.5 μm and MRC5, IC50  = 213.6 μm) compared with SAHA (HDAC, IC50  = 0.8717 μm; U251, IC50  = 8.938 μm; LO2, IC50  = 86.52 μm and MRC5, IC50  = 81.02 μm). In addition, N3F obviously increased Beclin-1 and Caspase-3 and 9 as well as inhibited Bcl-2 in U251 cells. All of our results indicated that these SAHA cap derivatives could serve as potential lead compounds for further optimization. In addition, N3F and N2E both displayed promising profile as antitumor candidates for the treatment of human glioma. PMID:25763653

  17. Suppression of IL-12p40-related regulatory cytokines by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid an inhibitor of histone deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Dobreva, Zlatka Georgieva; Grigorov, Boncho Grigorov; Stanilova, Spaska Angelova

    2016-08-01

    Small molecule inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a new class drugs used in clinical trials for the treatment of various malignancies. Emerging evidence suggest that HDAC inhibitors may also have anti-inflammatory properties, although the molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. Our study investigates the effect of the HDACs inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) on the expression of IL-12p40-related cytokines. For this purpose, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated with LPS and C3bgp with or without SAHA. IL-12p40, IL-12p35 and IL-23p19 mRNA was determined at 6 h by qRT-PCR. Cytokine levels were determined in culture supernatants at 6 and 24 h, by ELISA. SAHA significantly inhibited IL-12p40 and IL-23p19 mRNA synthesis and did not change IL-12p35 mRNA transcription. Early at 6 h, we detected significantly decreased IL-12p40 and IL-23, but not IL-12p70 protein production in cultures treated with SAHA. Results also showed that the suppression of IL-12p40-related cytokines was clearly defined at 24 h. However, this suppression was less pronounced regarding IL-12p70. The present study showed that SAHA suppressed the gene expression of IL-23p19 stronger than the expression of IL-12p35, as well as the synthesis of IL-23 compared to that of IL-12p70. We suggest that this inhibitory effect of SAHA may be beneficial during treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases mediated by Th17 immune response. PMID:27240992

  18. Probing the structure-activity relationship of endogenous histone deacetylase complexes with immobilized peptide-inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sindlinger, Julia; Bierlmeier, Jan; Geiger, Lydia-Christina; Kramer, Katharina; Finkemeier, Iris; Schwarzer, Dirk

    2016-05-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are key regulators of numerous cellular proteins by removing acetylation marks from modified lysine residues. Peptide-based HDAC probes containing α-aminosuberic acid ω-hydroxamate have been established as useful tools for investigating substrate selectivity and composition of endogenous HDAC complexes in cellular lysates. Here we report a structure-activity study of potential HDAC-probes containing derivatives of the hydroxamate moieties. While most of these probes did not recruit significant amounts of endogenous HDACs from cellular lysates, peptides containing Nε-acetyl-Nε-hydroxy-L-lysine served as HDAC probe. The recruitment efficiency varied between HDACs and was generally lower than that of α-aminosuberic acid ω-hydroxamate probes, but showed a similar global interaction profile. These findings indicate that Nε-acetyl-Nε-hydroxy-L-lysine might be a useful tool for investigations on HDAC complexes and the development of HDAC inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27071932

  19. Inhibitors of histone deacetylase as antitumor agents: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Manal, Mohammed; Chandrasekar, M J N; Gomathi Priya, Jeyapal; Nanjan, M J

    2016-08-01

    Histone deacetylase (EC 3.5.1.98 - HDAC) is an amidohydrolase involved in deacetylating the histone lysine residues for chromatin remodeling and thus plays a vital role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Due to its aberrant activity and over expression in several forms of cancer, HDAC is considered as a potential anticancer drug target. HDAC inhibitors alter the acetylation status of histone and non-histone proteins to regulate various cellular events such as cell survival, differentiation and apoptosis in tumor cells and thus exhibit anticancer activity. Till date, four drugs, namely Vorinostat (SAHA), Romidepsin (FK-228), Belinostat (PXD-101) and Panobinostat (LBH-589) have been granted FDA approval for cancer and several HDAC inhibitors are currently in various phases of clinical trials, either as monotherapy and/or in combination with existing/novel anticancer agents. Regardless of this, today scientific efforts have fortified the quest for newer and novel HDAC inhibitors that show isoform selectivity. This review focuses on the chemistry of the molecules of two classes of HDAC inhibitors, namely short chain fatty acids and hydroxamic acids, investigated so far as novel therapeutic agents for cancer. PMID:27239721

  20. The pan-HDAC inhibitor vorinostat potentiates the activity of the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib in human DLBCL cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dasmahapatra, Girija; Lembersky, Dmitry; Kramer, Lora; Fisher, Richard I; Friedberg, Jonathan; Dent, Paul; Grant, Steven

    2010-06-01

    Interactions between histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) and the novel proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib (CFZ) were investigated in GC- and activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) cells. Coadministration of subtoxic or minimally toxic concentrations of CFZ) with marginally lethal concentrations of HDACIs (vorinostat, SNDX-275, or SBHA) synergistically increased mitochondrial injury, caspase activation, and apoptosis in both GC- and ABC-DLBCL cells. These events were associated with Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38MAPK activation, abrogation of HDACI-mediated nuclear factor-kappaB activation, AKT inactivation, Ku70 acetylation, and induction of gammaH2A.X. Genetic or pharmacologic JNK inhibition significantly diminished CFZ/vorinostat lethality. CFZ/vorinostat induced pronounced lethality in 3 primary DLBCL specimens but minimally affected normal CD34(+) hematopoietic cells. Bortezomib-resistant GC (SUDHL16) and ABC (OCI-LY10) cells exhibited partial cross-resistance to CFZ. However, CFZ/vorinostat dramatically induced resistant cell apoptosis, accompanied by increased JNK activation and gammaH2A.X expression. Finally, subeffective vorinostat doses markedly increased CFZ-mediated tumor growth suppression and apoptosis in a murine xenograft OCI-LY10 model. These findings indicate that HDACIs increase CFZ activity in GC- and ABC-DLBCL cells sensitive or resistant to bortezomib through a JNK-dependent mechanism in association with DNA damage and inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB activation. Together, they support further investigation of strategies combining CFZ and HDACIs in DLBCL. PMID:20233973

  1. The pan-HDAC inhibitor vorinostat potentiates the activity of the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib in human DLBCL cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dasmahapatra, Girija; Lembersky, Dmitry; Kramer, Lora; Fisher, Richard I.; Friedberg, Jonathan; Dent, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Interactions between histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) and the novel proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib (CFZ) were investigated in GC- and activated B-cell–like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) cells. Coadministration of subtoxic or minimally toxic concentrations of CFZ) with marginally lethal concentrations of HDACIs (vorinostat, SNDX-275, or SBHA) synergistically increased mitochondrial injury, caspase activation, and apoptosis in both GC- and ABC-DLBCL cells. These events were associated with Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38MAPK activation, abrogation of HDACI-mediated nuclear factor-κB activation, AKT inactivation, Ku70 acetylation, and induction of γH2A.X. Genetic or pharmacologic JNK inhibition significantly diminished CFZ/vorinostat lethality. CFZ/vorinostat induced pronounced lethality in 3 primary DLBCL specimens but minimally affected normal CD34+ hematopoietic cells. Bortezomib-resistant GC (SUDHL16) and ABC (OCI-LY10) cells exhibited partial cross-resistance to CFZ. However, CFZ/vorinostat dramatically induced resistant cell apoptosis, accompanied by increased JNK activation and γH2A.X expression. Finally, subeffective vorinostat doses markedly increased CFZ-mediated tumor growth suppression and apoptosis in a murine xenograft OCI-LY10 model. These findings indicate that HDACIs increase CFZ activity in GC- and ABC-DLBCL cells sensitive or resistant to bortezomib through a JNK-dependent mechanism in association with DNA damage and inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation. Together, they support further investigation of strategies combining CFZ and HDACIs in DLBCL. PMID:20233973

  2. HDAC6 promotes cell proliferation and confers resistance to temozolomide in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihao; Hu, Pengchao; Tang, Fang; Lian, Haiwei; Chen, Xiong; Zhang, Yingying; He, Xiaohua; Liu, Wanhong; Xie, Conghua

    2016-08-28

    Histone deacetylases are considered to be among the most promising targets in drug development for cancer therapy. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a unique cytoplasmic enzyme that regulates many biological processes involved in tumorigenesis through its deacetylase and ubiquitin-binding activities. Here, we report that HDAC6 is overexpressed in glioblastoma tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of HDAC6 promotes the proliferation and spheroid formation of glioblastoma cells. HDAC6 overexpression confers resistance to temozolomide (TMZ) mediated cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction. Conversely, knockdown of HDAC6 inhibits cell proliferation, impairs spheroid formation and sensitizes glioblastoma cells to TMZ. The inhibition of HDAC6 deacetylase activity by selective inhibitors inhibits the proliferation of glioblastoma cells and induces apoptosis. HDAC6 selective inhibitors can sensitize glioblastoma cells to TMZ. Moreover, we showed that HDAC6 mediated EGFR stabilization might partly account for its oncogenic role in glioblastoma. TMZ resistant glioblastoma cells showed higher expression of HDAC6 and more activation of EGFR. HDAC6 inhibitors decrease EGFR protein levels and impair the activation of the EGFR pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that the inhibition of HDAC6 may be a promising strategy for the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:27267806

  3. Antimalarial Activity of the Anticancer Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor SB939

    PubMed Central

    Sumanadasa, Subathdrage D. M.; Goodman, Christopher D.; Lucke, Andrew J.; Skinner-Adams, Tina; Sahama, Ishani; Haque, Ashraful; Do, Tram Anh; McFadden, Geoffrey I.; Fairlie, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes posttranslationally modify lysines on histone and nonhistone proteins and play crucial roles in epigenetic regulation and other important cellular processes. HDAC inhibitors (e.g., suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid [SAHA; also known as vorinostat]) are used clinically to treat some cancers and are under investigation for use against many other diseases. Development of new HDAC inhibitors for noncancer indications has the potential to be accelerated by piggybacking onto cancer studies, as several HDAC inhibitors have undergone or are undergoing clinical trials. One such compound, SB939, is a new orally active hydroxamate-based HDAC inhibitor with an improved pharmacokinetic profile compared to that of SAHA. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activities of SB939 were investigated. SB939 was found to be a potent inhibitor of the growth of Plasmodium falciparum asexual-stage parasites in vitro (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 100 to 200 nM), causing hyperacetylation of parasite histone and nonhistone proteins. In combination with the aspartic protease inhibitor lopinavir, SB939 displayed additive activity. SB939 also potently inhibited the in vitro growth of exoerythrocytic-stage Plasmodium parasites in liver cells (IC50, ∼150 nM), suggesting that inhibitor targeting to multiple malaria parasite life cycle stages may be possible. In an experimental in vivo murine model of cerebral malaria, orally administered SB939 significantly inhibited P. berghei ANKA parasite growth, preventing development of cerebral malaria-like symptoms. These results identify SB939 as a potent new antimalarial HDAC inhibitor and underscore the potential of investigating next-generation anticancer HDAC inhibitors as prospective new drug leads for treatment of malaria. PMID:22508312

  4. Oncogenic K-ras confers SAHA resistance by up-regulating HDAC6 and c-myc expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Tan, Zhiping; Su, Bing; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) represent a new class of anticancer drugs. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), the first HDI approved for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL), is currently being tested in clinical trials for other cancers. However, SAHA has been ineffective against solid tumors in many clinical trials. A better understanding of molecular mechanisms of SAHA resistance may provide the basis for improved patient selection and the enhancement of clinical efficacy. Here we demonstrate that oncogenic K-ras contributes to SAHA resistance by upregulating HDAC6 and c-myc expression. We find that the high levels of HDAC6 expression are associated with activated K-ras mutant in colon cancer patients. And expressions of HDAC6 and c-myc are increased in fibroblasts transformed with activated K-ras. Surprisingly, we find that activated K-ras transformed cells are more resistant to SAHA inhibition on cell growth and anchorage-independent colony formation. We show that a K-ras inhibitor sensitizes K-ras mutated lung cancer cells to SAHA induced growth inhibition. We also find that mutant K-ras induces HDAC6 expression by a MAP kinase dependent pathway. Our study suggests that combined treatment with SAHA and K-ras inhibitors may represent an effective strategy to overcome SAHA resistance. PMID:26848526

  5. Oncogenic K-ras confers SAHA resistance by up-regulating HDAC6 and c-myc expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qun; Tan, Rong; Zhu, Xin; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Zhiping; Su, Bing; Li, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) represent a new class of anticancer drugs. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), the first HDI approved for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL), is currently being tested in clinical trials for other cancers. However, SAHA has been ineffective against solid tumors in many clinical trials. A better understanding of molecular mechanisms of SAHA resistance may provide the basis for improved patient selection and the enhancement of clinical efficacy. Here we demonstrate that oncogenic K-ras contributes to SAHA resistance by upregulating HDAC6 and c-myc expression. We find that the high levels of HDAC6 expression are associated with activated K-ras mutant in colon cancer patients. And expressions of HDAC6 and c-myc are increased in fibroblasts transformed with activated K-ras. Surprisingly, we find that activated K-ras transformed cells are more resistant to SAHA inhibition on cell growth and anchorage-independent colony formation. We show that a K-ras inhibitor sensitizes K-ras mutated lung cancer cells to SAHA induced growth inhibition. We also find that mutant K-ras induces HDAC6 expression by a MAP kinase dependent pathway. Our study suggests that combined treatment with SAHA and K-ras inhibitors may represent an effective strategy to overcome SAHA resistance. PMID:26848526

  6. Optimization of a series of potent and selective ketone histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pescatore, Giovanna; Kinzel, Olaf; Attenni, Barbara; Cecchetti, Ottavia; Fiore, Fabrizio; Fonsi, Massimiliano; Rowley, Michael; Schultz-Fademrecht, Carsten; Serafini, Sergio; Steinkühler, Christian; Jones, Philip

    2008-10-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors offer a promising strategy for cancer therapy and the first generation HDAC inhibitors are currently in the clinic. Herein we describe the optimization of a series of ketone small molecule HDAC inhibitors leading to potent and selective class I HDAC inhibitors with good dog PK. PMID:18809328

  7. HDAC8, A Potential Therapeutic Target for the Treatment of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors (MPNST)

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Gonzalo; Bill, Kate Lynn J.; Bid, Hemant Kumar; Braggio, Danielle; Constantino, Dylan; Prudner, Bethany; Zewdu, Abeba; Batte, Kara; Lev, Dina; Pollock, Raphael E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HDAC isoform-specific inhibitors may improve the therapeutic window while limiting toxicities. Developing inhibitors against class I isoforms poses difficulties as they share high homology among their catalytic sites; however, HDAC8 is structurally unique compared to other class I isoforms. HDAC8 inhibitors are novel compounds and have affinity for class I HDAC isoforms demonstrating anti-cancer effects; little is known about their activity in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). Recently, we demonstrated anti-MPNST efficacy of HDAC8i in human and murine-derived MPNST pre-clinical models; we now seek to consider the potential therapeutic inhibition of HDAC8 in MPNST. Methods Four Human MPNST cell lines, a murine-derived MPNST cell line, and two HDAC8 inhibitors (PCI-34051, PCI-48012; Pharmacyclics, Inc. Sunnyvale, CA) were studied. Proliferation was determined using MTS and clonogenic assays. Effects on cell cycle were determined via PI FACS analysis; effects on apoptosis were determined using Annexin V-PI FACS analysis and cleaved caspase 3 expression. In vivo growth effects of HDAC8i were evaluated using MPNST xenograft models. 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to identify potential HDAC8 deacetylation substrates. Results HDAC8i induced cell growth inhibition and marked S-phase cell cycle arrest in human and murine-derived MPNST cells. Relative to control, HDAC8i induced apoptosis in both human and murine-derived MPNST cells. HDAC8i exhibited significant effects on MPNST xenograft growth (p=0.001) and tumor weight (p=0.02). Four potential HDAC8 substrate targets were identified using a proteomic approach: PARK7, HMGB1, PGAM1, PRDX6. Conclusions MPNST is an aggressive sarcoma that is notoriously therapy-resistant, hence the urgent need for improved anti-MPNST therapies. HDAC8 inhibition may be useful for MPNST by improving efficacy while limiting toxicities as compared to pan-HDACis. PMID:26200462

  8. Class IIa HDAC inhibition enhances ER stress-mediated cell death in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, S; Suzuki, R; Ohguchi, H; Yoshida, Y; Lu, D; Cottini, F; Jakubikova, J; Bianchi, G; Harada, T; Gorgun, G; Tai, Y-T; Richardson, P G; Hideshima, T; Anderson, K C

    2015-09-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been extensively investigated as therapeutic agents in cancer. However, the biological role of class IIa HDACs (HDAC4, 5, 7 and 9) in cancer cells, including multiple myeloma (MM), remains unclear. Recent studies show HDAC4 interacts with activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and inhibits activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated proapoptotic transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). In this study, we hypothesized that HDAC4 knockdown and/or inhibition could enhance apoptosis in MM cells under ER stress condition by upregulating ATF4, followed by CHOP. HDAC4 knockdown showed modest cell growth inhibition; however, it markedly enhanced cytotoxicity induced by either tunicamycin or carfilzomib (CFZ), associated with upregulating ATF4 and CHOP. For pharmacological inhibition of HDAC4, we employed a novel and selective class IIa HDAC inhibitor TMP269, alone and in combination with CFZ. As with HDAC4 knockdown, TMP269 significantly enhanced cytotoxicity induced by CFZ in MM cell lines, upregulating ATF4 and CHOP and inducing apoptosis. Conversely, enhanced cytotoxicity was abrogated by ATF4 knockdown, confirming that ATF4 has a pivotal role mediating cytotoxicity in this setting. These results provide the rationale for novel treatment strategies combining class IIa HDAC inhibitors with ER stressors, including proteasome inhibitors, to improve patient outcome in MM. PMID:25801913

  9. The Role of HDACs as Leukemia Therapy Targets using HDI

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadzadeh, Ahmad; Khodadi, Elahe; Shahjahani, Mohammad; Bertacchini, Jessika; Vosoughi, Tina; Saki, Najmaldin

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are the enzymes causing deacetylation of histone and non-histone substrates. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) are a family of drugs eliminating the effect of HDACs in malignant cells via inhibition of HDACs. Due to extensive effects upon gene expression through interference with fusion genes and transcription factors, HDACs cause proliferation and migration of malignant cells, inhibiting apoptosis in these cells via tumor suppressor genes. Over expression evaluation of HDACs in leukemias may be a new approach for diagnosis of leukemia, which can present new targets for leukemia therapy. HDIs inhibit HDACs, increase acetylation in histones, cause up- or down regulation in some genes and result in differentiation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction in malignant cells via cytotoxic effects. Progress in identification of new HDIs capable of tracking several targets in the cell can result in novel achievements in treatment and increase survival in patients. In this review, we examine the role of HDACs as therapeutic targets in various types of leukemia as well as the role of HDIs in inhibition of HDACs for treatment of these malignancies. PMID:26865932

  10. Effects of downregulated HDAC6 expression on the proliferation of lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kamemura, Kazuo; Ito, Akihiro Shimazu, Tadahiro; Matsuyama, Akihisa; Maeda, Satoko; Yao, Tso-Pang; Horinouchi, Sueharu; Khochbin, Saadi; Yoshida, Minoru

    2008-09-12

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a multifunctional, cytosolic protein deacetylase that primarily acts on {alpha}-tubulin. Here we report that stable knockdown of HDAC6 expression causes a decrease in the steady-state level of receptor tyrosine kinases, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor {alpha}, in A549 lung cancer cells. The decreased levels of in EGFR in HDAC6-knockdown cells, which correlated with increased acetylation of microtubules, were due to increased turnover of EGFR protein. Despite the decrease in EGFR levels, A549 cells lacking functional HDAC6 appeared to grow normally, probably due to increased expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. Indeed, HDAC6-knockdown cells were more sensitive than control cells to the MEK inhibitor U0126. These results suggest that HDAC6 inhibitors combined with inhibitors of growth factor signaling may be useful as cancer therapy.

  11. PLGA-PEG Nanoparticles Coated with Anti-CD45RO and Loaded with HDAC Plus Protease Inhibitors Activate Latent HIV and Inhibit Viral Spread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaolong; Liang, Yong; Liu, Xinkuang; Zhou, Shuping; Liu, Liang; Zhang, Fujina; Xie, Chunmei; Cai, Shuyu; Wei, Jia; Zhu, Yongqiang; Hou, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Activating HIV-1 proviruses in latent reservoirs combined with inhibiting viral spread might be an effective anti-HIV therapeutic strategy. Active specific delivery of therapeutic drugs into cells harboring latent HIV, without the use of viral vectors, is a critical challenge to this objective. In this study, nanoparticles of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-polyethylene glycol diblock copolymers conjugated with anti-CD45RO antibody and loaded with the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and/or protease inhibitor nelfinavir (Nel) were tested for activity against latent virus in vitro. Nanoparticles loaded with SAHA, Nel, and SAHA + Nel were characterized in terms of size, surface morphology, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, drug release, and toxicity to ACH-2 cells. We show that SAHA- and SAHA + Nel-loaded nanoparticles can target latently infected CD4+ T-cells and stimulate virus production. Moreover, nanoparticles loaded with SAHA + NEL were capable of both activating latent virus and inhibiting viral spread. Taken together, these data demonstrate the potential of this novel reagent for targeting and eliminating latent HIV reservoirs.

  12. Blocking TH17-polarizing cytokines by histone deacetylase inhibitors in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bosisio, Daniela; Vulcano, Marisa; Del Prete, Annalisa; Sironi, Marina; Salvi, Valentina; Salogni, Laura; Riboldi, Elena; Leoni, Flavio; Dinarello, Charles A.; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Sozzani, Silvano

    2008-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are small molecules inducing cell-cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis, currently undergoing clinical trials as anticancer drugs. In addition, emerging evidence suggests HDAC inhibitors may have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties as well, although the molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. Given the central role of dendritic cells (DC) in the induction and maintenance of the inflammatory and immune response, we investigated the effects of HDAC inhibitors on the maturation and activation of human monocyte-derived DC in the presence of LPS and IFN-γ. Our results show that the production of TH1- and TH17-inducing cytokines, namely IL-12 and IL-23, was inhibited by trichostatin A (72% and 52%, respectively) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (86% and 83%). Strikingly, HDAC inhibitors were effective if added simultaneously as well as after the proinflammatory challenge, and their effect was not associated to a reduction of expression or function of LPS/IFN-γ receptors. These findings were confirmed in two different murine models. In addition, HDAC inhibitors selectively blocked the production of TH1-attracting chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. The reduction of TH1- and TH17-inducing cytokines as well as TH1-attracting chemokines may represent relevant mechanisms through which HDAC inhibitors at nonproapoptotic doses exert their immunomodulatory properties. PMID:18780875

  13. Combined autophagy and HDAC inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, Devalingam; Mita, Monica; Sarantopoulos, John; Wood, Leslie; Amaravadi, Ravi K; Davis, Lisa E; Mita, Alain C; Curiel, Tyler J; Espitia, Claudia M; Nawrocki, Steffan T; Giles, Francis J; Carew, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that inhibition of autophagy significantly augmented the anticancer activity of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat (VOR) through a cathepsin D-mediated mechanism. We thus conducted a first-in-human study to investigate the safety, preliminary efficacy, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of the combination of the autophagy inhibitor hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and VOR in patients with advanced solid tumors. Of 27 patients treated in the study, 24 were considered fully evaluable for study assessments and toxicity. Patients were treated orally with escalating doses of HCQ daily (QD) (d 2 to 21 of a 21-d cycle) in combination with 400 mg VOR QD (d one to 21). Treatment-related adverse events (AE) included grade 1 to 2 nausea, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, anemia, and elevated creatinine. Grade 3 fatigue and/or myelosuppression were observed in a minority of patients. Fatigue and gastrointestinal AE were dose-limiting toxicities. Six-hundred milligrams HCQ and 400 mg VOR was established as the maximum tolerated dose and recommended phase II regimen. One patient with renal cell carcinoma had a confirmed durable partial response and 2 patients with colorectal cancer had prolonged stable disease. The addition of HCQ did not significantly impact the PK profile of VOR. Treatment-related increases in the expression of CDKN1A and CTSD were more pronounced in tumor biopsies than peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Based on the safety and preliminary efficacy of this combination, additional clinical studies are currently being planned to further investigate autophagy inhibition as a new approach to increase the efficacy of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:24991835

  14. c-Fos Protects Neurons Through a Noncanonical Mechanism Involving HDAC3 Interaction: Identification of a 21-Amino Acid Fragment with Neuroprotective Activity.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Varun; Goux, Warren; Piechaczyk, Marc; D'Mello, Santosh R

    2016-03-01

    Proteins belonging to the AP-1 family of transcription factors are known to be involved in the regulation of neuronal viability. While strides have been made to elucidate the mechanisms of how individual members regulate cell death, much remains unknown. We find that the expression of one AP-1 member, c-Fos, is reduced in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) induced to die by low potassium (LK) treatment. Restoration and increase of this expression protect CGNs against LK-induced death, whereas knockdown induces death of otherwise healthy neurons. Furthermore, forced expression can protect cortical neurons against homocysteic acid (HCA)-induced toxicity. Taken together, this suggests that c-Fos is necessary for neuronal survival and that elevating c-Fos expression has a neuroprotective effect. Consistent with this idea is the finding that c-Fos expression is reduced selectively in the striatum in two separate mouse models of Huntington's disease and forced expression protects against neuronal death resulting from mutant huntingtin (mut-Htt) expression. Interestingly, neuroprotection by c-Fos does not require its DNA-binding, transcriptional, or heteromerization domains. However, this protective activity can be inhibited by pharmacological inhibition of c-Abl, CK-I, and MEK-ERK signaling. Additionally, expression of point mutant forms of this protein has identified that mutation of a tyrosine residue, Tyr345, can convert c-Fos from neuroprotective to neurotoxic. We show that c-Fos interacts with histone deacetylase-3 (HDAC3), a protein that contributes to mut-Htt neurotoxicity and whose overexpression is sufficient to promote neuronal death. When co-expressed, c-Fos can protect against HDAC3 neurotoxicity. Finally, our study identifies a 21-amino acid region at the C-terminus of c-Fos that is sufficient to protect neurons against death induced by LK, HCA treatment, or mut-Htt expression when expressed via a plasmid transfection or as a cell-permeable peptide. This cell

  15. p21 Downregulation is an important component of PAX3/FKHR oncogenicity and its reactivation by HDAC inhibitors enhances combination treatment.

    PubMed

    Hecker, R M; Amstutz, R A; Wachtel, M; Walter, D; Niggli, F K; Schäfer, B W

    2010-07-01

    A number of drugs developed against cancer-specific molecular targets have been shown to offer survival benefits alone or in combination with standard treatments, especially for those cases in which tumor pathogenesis is dominated by a single molecular abnormality. One example for such a tumor type is alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (aRMS), which is characterized by a specific translocation creating the oncogenic PAX3/FKHR transcription factor, believed to be the molecular basis of the disease. Recently, we were able to show that the small molecule inhibitor PKC412 (midostaurin) shows strong antitumor activity against aRMS by reducing the transcriptional activity of PAX3/FKHR. In this study, we screened for combination strategies that are superior to PKC412-only treatment and found that the combination of PKC412 with histone deacetylase inhibitors like valproic acid (VPA) synergistically induced apoptosis resulting in suppressed aRMS tumor growth in vivo. We provide evidence that the antitumor effect on combination treatment is achieved by VPA-induced reactivation of p21, which is downregulated in aRMS cells by destabilization of the transcriptional regulator EGR1 by PAX3/FKHR. Our study highlights a possible mechanism behind the increased efficacy and indicates that different arms of PAX3/FKHR oncogenicity can be exploited therapeutically by the specific combination of drugs to increase their therapeutic potential. PMID:20453878

  16. HDAC3 regulates stability of estrogen receptor α mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Oie, Shohei; Matsuzaki, Kazuya; Yokoyama, Wataru; Murayama, Akiko; Yanagisawa, Junn

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► HDAC inhibitors decrease the stability of ERα mRNA in MCF-7 cells. ► HDAC3 is involved in maintaining ERα mRNA stability in MCF-7 cells. ► ERα mRNA instability by knockdown of HDAC3 reduces the estrogen-dependent proliferation of ERα-positive MCF-7 cells. ► HDAC3 specific inhibitor will be one of new drugs for ERα-positive breast cancers. -- Abstract: Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) expression is a risk factor for breast cancer. HDAC inhibitors have been demonstrated to down-regulate ERα expression in ERα-positive breast cancer cell lines, but the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we showed that HDAC inhibitors decrease the stability of ERα mRNA, and that knockdown of HDAC3 decreases the stability of ERα mRNA and suppresses estrogen-dependent proliferation of ERα-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In the Oncomine database, expression levels of HDAC3 in ERα-positive tumors are higher than those in ERα-negative tumors, thus suggesting that HDAC3 is necessary for ERα mRNA stability, and is involved in the estrogen-dependent proliferation of ERα-positive tumors.

  17. Combined HDAC1 and HDAC2 Depletion Promotes Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival After Injury Through Reduction of p53 Target Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Ueli

    2015-01-01

    Histones deacetylases (HDACs), besides their function as epigenetic regulators, deacetylate and critically regulate the activity of nonhistone targets. In particular, HDACs control partially the proapoptotic activity of p53 by balancing its acetylation state. HDAC inhibitors have revealed neuroprotective properties in different models, but the exact mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. We have generated a conditional knockout mouse model targeting retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to investigate specifically the functional role of HDAC1 and HDAC2 in an acute model of optic nerve injury. Our results demonstrate that combined HDAC1 and HDAC2 ablation promotes survival of axotomized RGCs. Based on global gene expression analyses, we identified the p53-PUMA apoptosis-inducing axis to be strongly activated in axotomized mouse RGCs. Specific HDAC1/2 ablation inhibited this apoptotic pathway by impairing the crucial acetylation status of p53 and reducing PUMA expression, thereby contributing to the ensuing enhanced neuroprotection due to HDAC1/2 depletion. HDAC1/2 inhibition and the affected downstream signaling components emerge as specific targets for developing therapeutic strategies in neuroprotection. PMID:26129908

  18. Valproic Acid Neuroprotection in the 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson's Disease Is Possibly Related to Its Anti-Inflammatory and HDAC Inhibitory Properties.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, José Christian Machado; Neves, Kelly Rose Tavares; Leal, Luzia Kalyne A M; do Carmo, Marta Regina Santos; Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria da Graça; Cavalheiro, Ésper Abrão; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder where the main hallmark is the dopaminergic neuronal loss. Besides motor symptoms, PD also causes cognitive decline. Although current therapies focus on the restoration of dopamine levels in the striatum, prevention or disease-modifying therapies are urgently needed. Valproic acid (VA) is a wide spectrum antiepileptic drug, exerting many biochemical and physiological effects. It has been shown to inhibit histone deacetylase which seems to be associated with the drug neuroprotective action. The objectives were to study the neuroprotective properties of VA in a model of Parkinson's disease, consisting in the unilateral striatal injection of the neurotoxin 6-OHDA. For that, male Wistar rats (250 g) were divided into the groups: sham-operated (SO), untreated 6-OHDA-lesioned, and 6-OHDA-lesioned treated with VA (25 or 50 mg/kg). Oral treatments started 24 h after the stereotaxic surgery and continued daily for 2 weeks, when the animals were subjected to behavioral evaluations (apomorphine-induced rotations and open-field tests). Then, they were sacrificed and had their mesencephalon, striatum, and hippocampus dissected for neurochemical (DA and DOPAC determinations), histological (Fluoro-Jade staining), and immunohistochemistry evaluations (TH, OX-42, GFAP, TNF-alpha, and HDAC). The results showed that VA partly reversed behavioral and neurochemical alterations observed in the untreated 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Besides, VA also decreased neuron degeneration in the striatum and reversed the TH depletion observed in the mesencephalon of the untreated 6-OHDA groups. This neurotoxin increased the OX-42 and GFAP immunoreactivities in the mesencephalon, indicating increased microglia and astrocyte reactivities, respectively, which were reversed by VA. In addition, the immunostainings for TNF-alpha and HDAC demonstrated in the untreated 6-OHDA-lesioned rats were also decreased after VA treatments. These results were

  19. Valproic Acid Neuroprotection in the 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson's Disease Is Possibly Related to Its Anti-Inflammatory and HDAC Inhibitory Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ximenes, José Christian Machado; Neves, Kelly Rose Tavares; Leal, Luzia Kalyne A. M.; do Carmo, Marta Regina Santos; Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria da Graça; Cavalheiro, Ésper Abrão; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder where the main hallmark is the dopaminergic neuronal loss. Besides motor symptoms, PD also causes cognitive decline. Although current therapies focus on the restoration of dopamine levels in the striatum, prevention or disease-modifying therapies are urgently needed. Valproic acid (VA) is a wide spectrum antiepileptic drug, exerting many biochemical and physiological effects. It has been shown to inhibit histone deacetylase which seems to be associated with the drug neuroprotective action. The objectives were to study the neuroprotective properties of VA in a model of Parkinson's disease, consisting in the unilateral striatal injection of the neurotoxin 6-OHDA. For that, male Wistar rats (250 g) were divided into the groups: sham-operated (SO), untreated 6-OHDA-lesioned, and 6-OHDA-lesioned treated with VA (25 or 50 mg/kg). Oral treatments started 24 h after the stereotaxic surgery and continued daily for 2 weeks, when the animals were subjected to behavioral evaluations (apomorphine-induced rotations and open-field tests). Then, they were sacrificed and had their mesencephalon, striatum, and hippocampus dissected for neurochemical (DA and DOPAC determinations), histological (Fluoro-Jade staining), and immunohistochemistry evaluations (TH, OX-42, GFAP, TNF-alpha, and HDAC). The results showed that VA partly reversed behavioral and neurochemical alterations observed in the untreated 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Besides, VA also decreased neuron degeneration in the striatum and reversed the TH depletion observed in the mesencephalon of the untreated 6-OHDA groups. This neurotoxin increased the OX-42 and GFAP immunoreactivities in the mesencephalon, indicating increased microglia and astrocyte reactivities, respectively, which were reversed by VA. In addition, the immunostainings for TNF-alpha and HDAC demonstrated in the untreated 6-OHDA-lesioned rats were also decreased after VA treatments. These results were

  20. Deacetylase-Independent Function of HDAC3 in Transcription and Metabolism Requires Nuclear Receptor Corepressor

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zheng; Feng, Dan; Fang, Bin; Mullican, Shannon E.; You, Seo-Hee; Lim, Hee-Woong; Everett, Logan J.; Nabel, Christopher S.; Li, Yun; Selvakumaran, Vignesh; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Lazar, Mitchell A.

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are believed to regulate gene transcription by catalyzing deacetylation reactions. HDAC3 depletion in mouse liver upregulates lipogenic genes and results in severe hepatosteatosis. Here we show that pharmacologic HDAC inhibition in primary hepatocytes causes histone hyperacetylation but does not upregulate expression of HDAC3 target genes. Meanwhile, deacetylase-dead HDAC3 mutants can rescue hepatosteatosis and repress lipogenic genes expression in HDAC3-depleted mouse liver, demonstrating that histone acetylation is insufficient to activate gene transcription. Mutations abolishing interactions with the nuclear receptor corepressor (NCOR or SMRT) render HDAC3 nonfunctional in vivo. Additionally, liver-specific knockout of NCOR, but not SMRT, causes metabolic and transcriptomal alterations resembling those of mice without hepatic HDAC3, demonstrating that interaction with NCOR is essential for deacetylase-independent function of HDAC3. These findings highlight non-enzymatic roles of a major HDAC in transcriptional regulation in vivo and warrant reconsideration of the mechanism of action of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:24268577

  1. Clinacanthus nutans Protects Cortical Neurons Against Hypoxia-Induced Toxicity by Downregulating HDAC1/6.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsin-Da; Wu, Jui-Sheng; Kao, Mei-Han; Chen, Jin-Jer; Sun, Grace Y; Ong, Wei-Yi; Lin, Teng-Nan

    2016-09-01

    Many population-based epidemiological studies have unveiled an inverse correlation between intake of herbal plants and incidence of stroke. C. nutans is a traditional herbal medicine widely used for snake bite, viral infection and cancer in Asian countries. However, its role in protecting stroke damage remains to be studied. Despite of growing evidence to support epigenetic regulation in the pathogenesis and recovery of stroke, a clear understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is still lacking. In the present study, primary cortical neurons were subjected to in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-reoxygenation and hypoxic neuronal death was used to investigate the interaction between C. nutans and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Using pharmacological agents (HDAC inhibitor/activator), loss-of-function (HDAC siRNA) and gain-of-function (HDAC plasmid) approaches, we demonstrated an early induction of HDAC1/2/3/8 and HDAC6 in neurons after OGD insult. C. nutans extract selectively inhibited HDAC1 and HDAC6 expression and attenuated neuronal death. Results of reporter analysis further revealed that C. nutans suppressed HDAC1 and HDAC6 transcription. Besides ameliorating neuronal death, C. nutans also protected astrocytes and endothelial cells from hypoxic-induced cell death. In summary, results support ability for C. nutans to suppress post-hypoxic HDACs activation and mitigate against OGD-induced neuronal death. This study further opens a new avenue for the use of herbal medicines to regulate epigenetic control of brain injury. PMID:27165113

  2. Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC 3) as emerging drug target in NF-κB-mediated inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Leus, Niek G.J.; Zwinderman, Martijn R.H.; Dekker, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of inflammatory gene expression is regulated, among other factors, by post-translational modifications of histone proteins. The most investigated type of histone modifications are lysine acetylations. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove acetylations from lysines, thereby influencing (inflammatory) gene expression. Intriguingly, apart from histones, HDACs also target non-histone proteins. The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway is an important regulator in the expression of numerous inflammatory genes, and acetylation plays a crucial role in regulating its responses. Several studies have shed more light on the role of HDAC 1-3 in inflammation with a particular pro-inflammatory role for HDAC 3. Nevertheless, the HDAC-NF-κB interactions in inflammatory signalling have not been fully understood. An important challenge in targeting the regulatory role of HDACs in the NF-κB pathway is the development of highly potent small molecules that selectively target HDAC iso-enzymes. This review focuses on the role of HDAC 3 in (NF-κB-mediated) inflammation and NF-κB lysine acetylation. In addition, we address the application of frequently used small molecule HDAC inhibitors as an approach to attenuate inflammatory responses, and their potential as novel therapeutics. Finally, recent progress and future directions in medicinal chemistry efforts aimed at HDAC 3-selective inhibitors are discussed. PMID:27371876

  3. A Potent HDAC Inhibitor, 1-Alaninechlamydocin, from a Tolypocladium sp. Induces G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in MIA PaCa-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The cyclic tetrapeptide 1-alaninechlamydocin was purified from a Great Lakes-derived fungal isolate identified as a Tolypocladium sp. Although the planar structure was previously described, a detailed analysis of its spectroscopic data and biological activity are reported here for the first time. Its absolute configuration was determined using a combination of spectroscopic (1H–1H ROESY, ECD, and X-ray diffraction) and chemical (Marfey’s analysis) methods. 1-Alaninechlamydocin showed potent antiproliferative/cytotoxic activities in a human pancreatic cancer cell line (MIA PaCa-2) at low-nanomolar concentrations (GI50 5.3 nM, TGI 8.8 nM, LC50 22 nM). Further analysis revealed that 1-alaninechlamydocin induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Similar to other cyclic epoxytetrapeptides, the inhibitory effects of 1-alaninechlamydocin are proposed to be produced primarily via inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. PMID:24999749

  4. Human HDAC7 Harbors a Class IIa Histone Deacetylase-specific Zinc Binding Motif and Cryptic Deacetylase Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Schuetz, Anja; Min, Jinrong; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Schapira, Matthieu; Shuen, Michael; Loppnau, Peter; Mazitschek, Ralph; Kwiatkowski, Nick P.; Lewis, Timothy A.; Maglathin, Rebecca L.; McLean, Thomas H.; Bochkarev, Alexey; Plotnikov, Alexander N.; Vedadi, Masoud; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.

    2010-10-18

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are protein deacetylases that play a role in repression of gene transcription and are emerging targets in cancer therapy. Here, we characterize the structure and enzymatic activity of the catalytic domain of human HDAC7 (cdHDAC7). Although HDAC7 normally exists as part of a multiprotein complex, we show that cdHDAC7 has a low level of deacetylase activity which can be inhibited by known HDAC inhibitors. The crystal structures of human cdHDAC7 and its complexes with two hydroxamate inhibitors are the first structures of the catalytic domain of class IIa HDACs and demonstrate significant differences with previously reported class I and class IIb-like HDAC structures. We show that cdHDAC7 has an additional class IIa HDAC-specific zinc binding motif adjacent to the active site which is likely to participate in substrate recognition and protein-protein interaction and may provide a site for modulation of activity. Furthermore, a different active site topology results in modified catalytic properties and in an enlarged active site pocket. Our studies provide mechanistic insights into class IIa HDACs and facilitate the design of specific modulators.

  5. HDAC6 Regulates Mitochondrial Transport in Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sigeng; Owens, Geoffrey C.; Makarenkova, Helen; Edelman, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Tubulin is a major substrate of the cytoplasmic class II histone deacetylase HDAC6. Inhibition of HDAC6 results in higher levels of acetylated tubulin and enhanced binding of the motor protein kinesin-1 to tubulin, which promotes transport of cargoes along microtubules. Microtubule-dependent intracellular trafficking may therefore be regulated by modulating the activity of HDAC6. We have shown previously that the neuromodulator serotonin increases mitochondrial movement in hippocampal neurons via the Akt-GSK3β signaling pathway. Here, we demonstrate a role for HDAC6 in this signaling pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings We found that the presence of tubacin, a specific HDAC6 inhibitor, dramatically enhanced mitochondrial movement in hippocampal neurons, whereas niltubacin, an inactive tubacin analog, had no effect. Compared to control cultures, higher levels of acetylated tubulin were found in neurons treated with tubacin, and more kinesin-1 was associated with mitochondria isolated from these neurons. Inhibition of GSK3β decreased cytoplasmic deacetylase activity and increased tubulin acetylation, whereas blockade of Akt, which phosphorylates and down-regulates GSK3β, increased cytoplasmic deacetylase activity and decreased tubulin acetylation. Concordantly, the administration of 5-HT, 8-OH-DPAT (a specific 5-HT1A receptor agonist), or fluoxetine (a 5-HT reuptake inhibitor) increased tubulin acetylation. GSK3β was found to co-localize with HDAC6 in hippocampal neurons, and inhibition of GSK3β resulted in decreased binding of antibody to phosphoserine-22, a potential GSK3β phosphorylation site in HDAC6. GSK3β may therefore regulate HDAC6 activity by phosphorylation. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that HDAC6 plays an important role in the modulation of mitochondrial transport. The link between HDAC6 and GSK3β, established here, has important implications for our understanding of neurodegenerative disorders. In particular

  6. Hdac1 and Hdac2 act redundantly to control p63 and p53 functions in epidermal progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    LeBoeuf, Matthew; Terrell, Anne; Trivedi, Sohum; Sinha, Satrajit; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Olson, Eric N.; Morrisey, Edward E.; Millar, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Epidermal and hair follicle development from surface ectodermal progenitor cells require coordinated changes in gene expression. Histone deacetylases alter gene expression programs through modification of chromatin and transcription factors. We find that deletion of ectodermal Hdac1 and Hdac2 results in dramatic failure of hair follicle specification and epidermal proliferation and stratification, phenocopying loss of the key ectodermal transcription factor p63. While expression of p63 and its positively regulated basal cell targets is maintained in Hdac1/2 deficient ectoderm, targets of p63-mediated repression, including p21, 14-3-3σ and p16/INK4a, are ectopically expressed, and HDACs bind and are active at their promoter regions in normal undifferentiated keratinocytes. Mutant embryos display increased levels of acetylated p53, which opposes p63 functions, and p53 is required for HDAC inhibitor-mediated p21 expression in keratinocytes. Our data identify critical requirements for HDAC1/2 in epidermal development, and indicate that HDAC1/2 directly mediate repressive functions of p63, and suppress p53 activity. PMID:21093383

  7. HDAC inhibitors suppress c-Jun/Fra-1-mediated proliferation through transcriptionally downregulating MKK7 and Raf1 in neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaomei; Xia, Yong; He, Guozhen; Min, Zhiqun; Li, Chun; Xiong, Shiqiu; Shi, Zhi; Lu, Yongjian; Yuan, Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a transcriptional factor composed of the dimeric members of bZIP proteins, which are frequently deregulated in human cancer cells. In this study, we aimed to identify an oncogenic AP-1 dimer critical for the proliferation of neuroblastoma cells and to investigate whether histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs), a new generation of anticancer agents, could target the AP-1 dimer. We report here that HDACIs including trichostatin A, suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid, valproic acid and M344 can transcriptionally suppress both c-Jun and Fra-1, preceding their inhibition of cell growth. c-Jun preferentially interacting with Fra-1 as a heterodimer is responsible for AP-1 activity and critical for cell growth. Mechanistically, HDACIs suppress Fra-1 expression through transcriptionally downregulating Raf1 and subsequently decreasing MEK1/2-ERK1/2 activity. Unexpectedly, HDACI treatment caused MKK7 downregulation at both the protein and mRNA levels. Deletion analysis of the 5′-flanking sequence of the MKK7 gene revealed that a major element responsible for the downregulation by HDACI is located at −149 to −3 relative to the transcriptional start site. Knockdown of MKK7 but not MKK4 remarkably decreased JNK/c-Jun activity and proliferation, whereas ectopic MKK7-JNK1 reversed HDACI-induced c-Jun suppression. Furthermore, suppression of both MKK-7/c-Jun and Raf-1/Fra-1 activities was involved in the tumor growth inhibitory effects induced by SAHA in SH-SY5Y xenograft mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that c-Jun/Fra-1 dimer is critical for neuroblastoma cell growth and that HDACIs act as effective suppressors of the two oncogenes through transcriptionally downregulating MKK7 and Raf1. PMID:26734995

  8. Melatonin relieves neuropathic allodynia through spinal MT2-enhanced PP2Ac and downstream HDAC4 shuttling-dependent epigenetic modification of hmgb1 transcription.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzer-Bin; Hsieh, Ming-Chun; Lai, Cheng-Yuan; Cheng, Jen-Kun; Wang, Hsueh-Hsiao; Chau, Yat-Pang; Chen, Gin-Den; Peng, Hsien-Yu

    2016-04-01

    Melatonin (MLT; N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) exhibits analgesic properties in chronic pain conditions. While researches linking MLT to epigenetic mechanisms have grown exponentially over recent years, very few studies have investigated the contribution of MLT-associated epigenetic modification to pain states. Here, we report that together with behavioral allodynia, spinal nerve ligation (SNL) induced a decrease in the expression of catalytic subunit of phosphatase 2A (PP2Ac) and enhanced histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) phosphorylation and cytoplasmic accumulation, which epigenetically alleviated HDAC4-suppressed hmgb1 gene transcription, resulting in increased high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) expression selectively in the ipsilateral dorsal horn of rats. Focal knock-down of spinal PP2Ac expression also resulted in behavioral allodynia in association with similar protein expression as observed with SNL. Notably, intrathecal administration with MLT increased PP2Ac expression, HDAC4 dephosphorylation and nuclear accumulation, restored HDAC4-mediated hmgb1 suppression and relieved SNL-sensitized behavioral pain; these effects were all inhibited by spinal injection of 4P-PDOT (a MT2 receptor antagonist, 30 minutes before MLT) and okadaic acid (OA, a PP2A inhibitor, 3 hr after MLT). Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which MLT ameliorates neuropathic allodynia via epigenetic modification. This MLT-exhibited anti-allodynia is mediated by MT2-enhanced PP2Ac expression that couples PP2Ac with HDAC4 to induce HDAC4 dephosphorylation and nuclear import, herein increases HDAC4 binding to the promoter of hmgb1 gene and upregulates HMGB1 expression in dorsal horn neurons. PMID:26732138

  9. Disruption of the Class IIa HDAC Corepressor Complex Increases Energy Expenditure and Lipid Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Vidhi; Connor, Timothy; Sanigorski, Andrew; Martin, Sheree D; Bruce, Clinton R; Henstridge, Darren C; Bond, Simon T; McEwen, Kevin A; Kerr-Bayles, Lyndal; Ashton, Trent D; Fleming, Cassandra; Wu, Min; Pike Winer, Lisa S; Chen, Denise; Hudson, Gregg M; Schwabe, John W R; Baar, Keith; Febbraio, Mark A; Gregorevic, Paul; Pfeffer, Frederick M; Walder, Ken R; Hargreaves, Mark; McGee, Sean L

    2016-09-13

    Drugs that recapitulate aspects of the exercise adaptive response have the potential to provide better treatment for diseases associated with physical inactivity. We previously observed reduced skeletal muscle class IIa HDAC (histone deacetylase) transcriptional repressive activity during exercise. Here, we find that exercise-like adaptations are induced by skeletal muscle expression of class IIa HDAC mutants that cannot form a corepressor complex. Adaptations include increased metabolic gene expression, mitochondrial capacity, and lipid oxidation. An existing HDAC inhibitor, Scriptaid, had similar phenotypic effects through disruption of the class IIa HDAC corepressor complex. Acute Scriptaid administration to mice increased the expression of metabolic genes, which required an intact class IIa HDAC corepressor complex. Chronic Scriptaid administration increased exercise capacity, whole-body energy expenditure and lipid oxidation, and reduced fasting blood lipids and glucose. Therefore, compounds that disrupt class IIa HDAC function could be used to enhance metabolic health in chronic diseases driven by physical inactivity. PMID:27626651

  10. Anacardic acid, a histone acetyltransferase inhibitor, modulates LPS-induced IL-8 expression in a human alveolar epithelial cell line A549

    PubMed Central

    Takizawa, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Objective and design: The histone acetylation processes, which are believed to play a critical role in the regulation of many inflammatory genes, are reversible and regulated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs), which promote acetylation, and histone deacetylases (HDACs), which promote deacetylation. We studied the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on histone acetylation and its role in the regulation of interleukin (IL)-8 expression.  Material: A human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 was used in vitro. Methods: Histone H4 acetylation at the IL-8 promoter region was assessed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. The expression and production of IL-8 were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and specific immunoassay. Effects of a HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), and a HAT inhibitor, anacardic acid, were assessed.  Results: Escherichia coli-derived LPS showed a dose- and time-dependent stimulatory effect on IL-8 protein production and mRNA expression in A549 cells in vitro. LPS showed a significant stimulatory effect on histone H4 acetylation at the IL-8 promoter region by ChIP assay. Pretreatment with TSA showed a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on IL-8 release from A549 cells as compared to LPS alone. Conversely, pretreatment with anacardic acid inhibited IL-8 production and expression in A549 cells.  Conclusion: These data suggest that LPS-mediated proinflammatory responses in the lungs might be modulated via changing chromatin remodeling by HAT inhibition. PMID:24627774

  11. HDAC6 promotes cell proliferation and confers resistance to gefitinib in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihao; Tang, Fang; Hu, Pengchao; Wang, Ying; Gong, Jun; Sun, Shaoxing; Xie, Conghua

    2016-07-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are promising targets for cancer therapy, and first-generation HDAC inhibitors are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer patients. HDAC6, which is a key regulator of many signaling pathways that are linked to cancer, has recently emerged as an attractive target for the treatment of cancer. In the present study, HDAC6 was found to be overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and was negatively correlated with the prognosis of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Overexpression of HDAC6 promoted the proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma cells in a deacetylase activity-dependent manner. HDAC6 overexpression conferred resistance to gefitinib via the stabilization of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The inhibition of HDAC6 by CAY10603, a potent and selective inhibitor of HDAC6, inhibited the proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma cells and induced apoptosis. CAY10603 downregulated the levels of EGFR protein, which in turn inhibited activation of the EGFR signaling pathway. Moreover, CAY10603 synergized with gefitinib to induce apoptosis of the lung adenocarcinoma cell lines via the destabilization of EGFR. Taken together, our results suggest that the inhibition of HDAC6 may be a promising strategy for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27221381

  12. Pyridoxine hydroxamic acids as novel HIV-integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Stranix, Brent R; Wu, Jinzi J; Milot, Guy; Beaulieu, Françis; Bouchard, Jean-Emanuel; Gouveia, Kristine; Forte, André; Garde, Seema; Wang, Zhigang; Mouscadet, Jean-François; Delelis, Olivier; Xiao, Yong

    2016-02-15

    A series of pyridoxine hydroxamic acid analog bearing a 5-aryl-spacers were synthesized. Evaluation of these novel HIV integrase complex inhibitors revealed compounds with high potency against wild-type HIV virus. PMID:26826732

  13. Improved Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors as Therapeutics for the Neurodegenerative Disease Friedreich's Ataxia: A New Synthetic Route

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chunping; Soragni, Elisabetta; Jacques, Vincent; Rusche, James R.; Gottesfeld, Joel M.

    2011-01-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is caused by transcriptional repression of the nuclear FXN gene encoding the essential mitochondrial protein frataxin. Based on the hypothesis that the acetylation state of the histone proteins is responsible for gene silencing in FRDA, previous work in our lab identified a first generation of HDAC inhibitors (pimelic o-aminobenzamides), which increase FXN mRNA in lymphocytes from FRDA patients. Importantly, these compounds also function in a FRDA mouse model to increase FXN mRNA levels in the brain and heart. While the first generation of HDAC inhibitors hold promise as potential therapeutics for FRDA, they have two potential problems: less than optimal brain penetration and metabolic instability in acidic conditions. Extensive optimization focusing on modifying the left benzene ring, linker and the right benzene ring lead to a novel class of HDAC inhibitors that have optimized pharmacological properties (increased brain penetration and acid stability) compared to the previous HDAC inhibitors. This article will describe the chemical synthesis and pharmacological properties of these new HDAC inhibitors.

  14. A potential adjuvant chemotherapeutics, 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, inhibits renal tubular epithelial cells apoptosis via enhancing BMP-7 epigenetically through targeting HDAC2

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Taotao; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yilong; Ji, Shuai; Li, Jun; Ye, Min; Liang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin, a highly effective and widely used chemotherapeutic agent, has a major limitation for its nephrotoxicity. We recently identified a novel strategy for attenuating its nephrotoxicity in chemotherapy by an effective adjuvant via epigenetic modification through targeting HDAC2. Molecular docking and SPR assay firstly reported that 18βGA, major metabolite of GA, could directly bind to HDAC2 and inhibit the activity of HDAC2. The effects and mechanisms of GA and 18βGA were assessed in CP-induced AKI in C57BL/6 mice, and in CP-treated HK-2 and mTEC cells lines. TUNEL and FCM results confirmed that GA and 18βGA could inhibit apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells induced by CP in vivo and in vitro. Western blot and immunofluorescence results demonstrated that the expression of BMP-7 was clearly induced by 18βGA in AKI models while siRNA BMP-7 could reduce the inhibitory effect of 18βGA on apoptosis. Results of current study indicated that 18βGA inhibited apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells via enhancing the level of BMP-7 epigenetically through targeting HDAC2, therefore protecting against CP-induced AKI. These available evidence, which led to an improved understanding of molecular recognition, suggested that 18βGA could serve as a potential clinical adjuvant in chemotherapy. PMID:27145860

  15. Non-epigenetic function of HDAC8 in regulating breast cancer stem cells by maintaining Notch1 protein stability

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Min-Wu; Chu, Po-Chen; Chuang, Hsiao-Ching; Shen, Fang-Hsiu; Chou, Chih-Chien; Hsu, En-Chi; Himmel, Lauren E.; Huang, Han-Li; Tu, Huang-Ju; Kulp, Samuel K.; Teng, Che-Ming; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a novel non-epigenetic function of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 8 in activating cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties in breast cancer cells by enhancing the stability of Notch1 protein. The pan-HDAC inhibitors AR-42 and SAHA, and the class I HDAC inhibitor depsipeptide, suppressed mammosphere formation and other CSC markers by reducing Notch1 expression in MDA-MB-231 and SUM-159 cells. Interrogation of individual class I isoforms (HDAC1–3 and 8) using si/shRNA-mediated knockdown, ectopic expression and/or pharmacological inhibition revealed HDAC8 to be the primary mediator of this drug effect. This suppression of Notch1 in response to HDAC8 inhibition was abrogated by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and siRNA-induced silencing of Fbwx7, indicating Notch1 suppression occurred through proteasomal degradation. However, co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that HDAC8 did not form complexes with Notch1 and HDAC inhibition had no effect on Notch1 acetylation. In a xenograft tumor model, the tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells was decreased by HDAC8 knockdown. These findings suggest the therapeutic potential of HDAC8 inhibition to suppress Notch1 signaling in breast cancer. PMID:26625202

  16. Hyposensitivity to gamma-aminobutyric acid in the ventral tegmental area during alcohol withdrawal: reversal by histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Arora, Devinder S; Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Teppen, Tara L; McElvain, Maureen A; Sakharkar, Amul J; You, Chang; Pandey, Subhash C; Brodie, Mark S

    2013-08-01

    Putative dopaminergic (pDAergic) ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons have an important role in alcohol addiction. Acute ethanol increases the activity of pDAergic neurons, and withdrawal from repeated ethanol administration produces a decreased sensitivity of pDAergic VTA neurons to GABA. Recent studies show that behavioral changes induced by chronic alcohol are reversed by inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Whether HDAC-induced histone modifications regulate changes in GABA sensitivity of VTA pDAergic neurons during withdrawal is unknown. Here, we investigated modulation of withdrawal-induced changes in GABA sensitivity of pDAergic VTA neurons by HDAC inhibitors (HDACi), and also measured the levels of HDAC2, histone (H3-K9) acetylation, and GABA-Aα1 receptor (GABA (A-α1) R) subunit in VTA during ethanol withdrawal. Mice were injected intraperitoneally (ip) with either ethanol (3.5 g/kg) or saline twice daily for 3 weeks. In recordings from pDAergic VTA neurons in brain slices from ethanol-withdrawn mice, sensitivity to GABA (50-500 μM) was reduced. In brain slices from ethanol-withdrawn mice incubated with the HDACi SAHA (vorinostat) or trichostatin A (TSA) for 2 h, the hyposensitivity of pDAergic VTA neurons to GABA was significantly attenuated. There was no effect of TSA or SAHA on GABA sensitivity of pDAergic VTA neurons from saline-treated mice. In addition, ethanol withdrawal was associated with an increase in levels of HDAC2 and a decrease in histone (H3-K9) acetylation and levels of GABA (A-α1) R subunits in the VTA. Therefore, blockade of upregulation of HDAC2 by HDACi normalizes GABA hyposensitivity of pDAergic neurons developed during withdrawal after chronic ethanol treatment, which suggests the possibility that inhibition of HDACs can reverse ethanol-induced neuroadaptational changes in reward circuitry. PMID:23474591

  17. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Antagonize Distinct Pathways to Suppress Tumorigenesis of Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Vleeshouwer-Neumann, Terra; Phelps, Michael; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Jenkins, Isaac; Chen, Eleanor Y.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) is the most common soft tissue cancer in children. The prognosis of patients with relapsed or metastatic disease remains poor. ERMS genomes show few recurrent mutations, suggesting that other molecular mechanisms such as epigenetic regulation might play a major role in driving ERMS tumor biology. In this study, we have demonstrated the diverse roles of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the pathogenesis of ERMS by characterizing effects of HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; also known as vorinostat) in vitro and in vivo. TSA and SAHA suppress ERMS tumor growth and progression by inducing myogenic differentiation as well as reducing the self-renewal and migratory capacity of ERMS cells. Differential expression profiling and pathway analysis revealed downregulation of key oncogenic pathways upon HDAC inhibitor treatment. By gain-of-function, loss-of-function, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies, we show that Notch1- and EphrinB1-mediated pathways are regulated by HDACs to inhibit differentiation and enhance migratory capacity of ERMS cells, respectively. Our study demonstrates that aberrant HDAC activity plays a major role in ERMS pathogenesis. Druggable targets in the molecular pathways affected by HDAC inhibitors represent novel therapeutic options for ERMS patients. PMID:26636678

  18. Histone deacetylase inhibitors valproic acid and depsipeptide sensitize retinoblastoma cells to radiotherapy by increasing H2AX phosphorylation and p53 acetylation-phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Takeshi; Akiyama, Masaharu; Agawa-Ohta, Miyuki; Mikami-Terao, Yoko; Iwase, Satsuki; Yanagisawa, Takaaki; Ida, Hiroyuki; Agata, Naoki; Yamada, Hisashi

    2010-10-01

    Although p53 is intact in most cases of retinoblastoma, it is largely inactivated by the ubiqutin-proteasome system through interaction with murine double minute 2 (MDM2) and murine double minute X (MDMX). The present study showed that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors valproic acid (VPA) and depsipeptide (FK228) synergistically enhanced ionizing radiation (IR)-induced apoptosis, associated with activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in Y79 and WER1-Rb1 human retinoblastoma cells. Both VPA and FK228 enhanced IR-induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX on Ser139 preceding apoptosis. Exposure of cells to IR in the presence of VPA or FK228 induced the accumulation of p53 acetylated at Lys382 and phosphorylated at Ser46 through the reduction of binding affinity with MDM2 and MDMX. These results suggest that acetylation of p53 by HDAC inhibitors is a promising new therapeutic target in refractory retinoblastoma. PMID:20811699

  19. Mechanical stimulation orchestrates the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells by regulating HDAC1.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Wang, C D; Zhang, N; Tong, W X; Zhang, Y F; Shan, S Z; Zhang, X L; Li, Q F

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation and histone deacetylases (HDACs) have essential roles in regulating the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and bone formation. However, little is known regarding what regulates HDAC expression and therefore the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs during osteogenesis. In this study, we investigated whether mechanical loading regulates HDAC expression directly and examined the role of HDACs in mechanical loading-triggered osteogenic differentiation and bone formation. We first studied the microarrays of samples from patients with osteoporosis and found that the NOTCH pathway and skeletal development gene sets were downregulated in the BMSCs of patients with osteoporosis. Then we demonstrated that mechanical stimuli can regulate osteogenesis and bone formation both in vivo and in vitro. NOTCH signaling was upregulated during cyclic mechanical stretch (CMS)-induced osteogenic differentiation, whereas HDAC1 protein expression was downregulated. The perturbation of HDAC1 expression also had a significant effect on matrix mineralization and JAG1-mediated Notch signaling, suggesting that HDAC1 acts as an endogenous attenuator of Notch signaling in the mechanotransduction of BMSCs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay results suggest that HDAC1 modulates the CMS-induced histone H3 acetylation level at the JAG1 promoter. More importantly, we found an inhibitory role of Hdac1 in regulating bone formation in response to hindlimb unloading in mice, and pretreatment with an HDAC1 inhibitor partly rescued the osteoporosis caused by mechanical unloading. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that mechanical stimulation orchestrates genes expression involved in the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs via the direct regulation of HDAC1, and the therapeutic inhibition of HDAC1 may be an efficient strategy for enhancing bone formation under mechanical stimulation. PMID:27171263

  20. Mechanical stimulation orchestrates the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells by regulating HDAC1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J; Wang, C D; Zhang, N; Tong, W X; Zhang, Y F; Shan, S Z; Zhang, X L; Li, Q F

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation and histone deacetylases (HDACs) have essential roles in regulating the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and bone formation. However, little is known regarding what regulates HDAC expression and therefore the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs during osteogenesis. In this study, we investigated whether mechanical loading regulates HDAC expression directly and examined the role of HDACs in mechanical loading-triggered osteogenic differentiation and bone formation. We first studied the microarrays of samples from patients with osteoporosis and found that the NOTCH pathway and skeletal development gene sets were downregulated in the BMSCs of patients with osteoporosis. Then we demonstrated that mechanical stimuli can regulate osteogenesis and bone formation both in vivo and in vitro. NOTCH signaling was upregulated during cyclic mechanical stretch (CMS)-induced osteogenic differentiation, whereas HDAC1 protein expression was downregulated. The perturbation of HDAC1 expression also had a significant effect on matrix mineralization and JAG1-mediated Notch signaling, suggesting that HDAC1 acts as an endogenous attenuator of Notch signaling in the mechanotransduction of BMSCs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay results suggest that HDAC1 modulates the CMS-induced histone H3 acetylation level at the JAG1 promoter. More importantly, we found an inhibitory role of Hdac1 in regulating bone formation in response to hindlimb unloading in mice, and pretreatment with an HDAC1 inhibitor partly rescued the osteoporosis caused by mechanical unloading. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that mechanical stimulation orchestrates genes expression involved in the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs via the direct regulation of HDAC1, and the therapeutic inhibition of HDAC1 may be an efficient strategy for enhancing bone formation under mechanical stimulation. PMID:27171263

  1. The role of class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) on gluconeogenesis in liver

    SciTech Connect

    Oiso, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Noboru; Suefuji, Mihoshi; Shimoda, Seiya; Ito, Akihiro; Furumai, Ryohei; Nakagawa, Junichi; Yoshida, Minoru; Nishino, Norikazu; Araki, Eiichi

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} A novel class I HDAC inhibitor decreased hepatic PEPCK mRNA and gluconeogenesis. {yields} Inhibition of HDAC decreased PEPCK by reducing HNF4{alpha} expression and FoxO1 activity. {yields} siRNA knockdown of HDAC1 in HepG2 cells reduced the expression of PEPCK and HNF4{alpha}. {yields} Inhibition of class I HDAC improves glucose homeostasis in HFD mice. -- Abstract: Hepatic gluconeogenesis is crucial for glucose homeostasis. Although sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is implicated in the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the liver, the effects of other histone deacetylases (HDAC) on gluconeogenesis are unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the role of class I HDACs in hepatic gluconeogenesis. In HepG2 cells and the liver of mice, the expressions of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha} (HNF4{alpha}) were significantly decreased by treatment with a newly designed class I HDAC inhibitor, Ky-2. SiRNA knockdown of HDAC1 expression, but not of HDAC2 or HDAC3, in HepG2 cells decreased PEPCK and HNF4{alpha} expression. In HepG2 cells, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and forkhead box O 1 (FoxO1) was increased by Ky-2. Pyruvate tolerance tests in Ky-2-treated high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice showed a marked reduction in blood glucose compared with vehicle-treated HFD mice. These data suggest that class I HDACs increase HNF4{alpha} protein expression and the transcriptional activity of FoxO1, followed by the induction of PEPCK mRNA expression and gluconeogenesis in liver.

  2. Effects of prenatal Poly I:C exposure on global histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Pujol Lopez, Yara; Kenis, Gunter; Stettinger, Waldtraud; Neumeier, Karin; de Jonge, Sylvia; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Zill, Peter; van den Hove, Daniel L A; Myint, Aye M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the brain-specific epigenetic effects on global enzymatic histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity after prenatal exposure to maternal immune challenge by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) at gestational day (GD) 17 in C57BL/6JRccHsd mouse offspring. Pregnant mice were randomly divided into 2 groups, receiving either 5 mg/kg Poly I:C or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) intravenously at GD 17. Subsequently, the effects on whole brain enzymatic HDAC and DNMT activity and the protein levels of various HDAC isoforms were assessed in the offspring. Overall, a significant sex × treatment interaction effect was observed after prenatal exposure to maternal immune challenge by Poly I:C, indicative of increased global HDAC activity particularly in female offspring from mothers injected with Poly I:C when compared to controls. Results on the levels of specific HDAC isoforms suggested that neither differences in the levels of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, HDAC4 or HDAC6 could explain the increased global HDAC activity observed in female Poly I:C offspring. In conclusion, we show that Poly I:C administration to pregnant mice alters global brain HDAC, but not DNMT activity in adult offspring, whereas it is still unclear which specific HDAC(s) mediate(s) this effect. These results indicate the necessity for further research on the epigenetic effects of Poly I:C. PMID:27216537

  3. Converting maslinic acid into an effective inhibitor of acylcholinesterases.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Stefan; Loesche, Anne; Lucas, Susana Dias; Sommerwerk, Sven; Serbian, Immo; Siewert, Bianka; Pianowski, Elke; Csuk, René

    2015-10-20

    During the last decade, maslinic acid has been evaluated for many biological properties, e.g. as an anti-tumor or an anti-viral agent but also as a nutraceutical. The potential of maslinic acid and related derivatives to act as inhibitors of acetyl- or butyryl-cholinesterase was examined in this communication in more detail. Cholinesterases do still represent an interesting group of target enzymes with respect to the investigation and treatment of the Alzheimer's disease and other dementia illnesses as well. Although other triterpenoic acids have successfully been tested for their ability to act as inhibitors of cholinesterases, up to now maslinic acid has not been part of such studies. For this reason, three series of maslinic acid derivatives possessing modifications at different centers were synthesized and subjected to Ellman's assay to determine their inhibitory strength and type of inhibitory action. While parent compound maslinic acid was no inhibitor in these assays, some of the compounds exhibited an inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in the single-digit micro-molar range. Two compounds were identified as inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase showing inhibition constants comparable to those of galantamine, a drug often used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, additional selectivity as well as cytotoxicity studies were performed underlining the potential of several derivatives and qualifying them for further investigations. Docking studies revealed that the different kinetic behavior within the same compound series may be explained by the ability of the compounds to enter the active site gorge of AChE. PMID:26383128

  4. Histone and Non-Histone Targets of Dietary Deacetylase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunah; Bisson, William H; Löhr, Christiane V; Williams, David E; Ho, Emily; Dashwood, Roderick H; Rajendran, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Acetylation is an important, reversible post-translational modification affecting histone and non-histone proteins with critical roles in gene transcription, DNA replication, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. Key regulatory enzymes include histone deacetylase (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases (HATs). Overexpressed HDACs have been identified in many human cancers, resulting in repressed chromatin states that interfere with vital tumor suppressor functions. Inhibition of HDAC activity has been pursued as a mechanism for re-activating repressed genes in cancers, with some HDAC inhibitors showing promise in the clinical setting. Dietary compounds and their metabolites also have been shown to modulate HDAC activity or expression. Out of this body of research, attention increasingly has shifted towards non-histone targets of HDACs and HATs, such as transcriptions factors, hormone receptors, DNA repair proteins, and cytoskeletal components. These aspects are covered in present review, along with the possible clinical significance. Where such data are available, examples are cited from the literature of studies with short chain fatty acids, polyphenols, isoflavones, indoles, organosulfur compounds, organoselenium compounds, sesquiterpene lactones, isoflavones, and various miscellaneous agents. By virtue of their effects on both histone and non-histone proteins, dietary chemopreventive agents modulate the cellular acetylome in ways that are only now becoming apparent. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms will likely enhance the potential to more effectively combat diseases harboring altered epigenetic landscapes and dysregulated protein signaling. PMID:26303421

  5. Dual Inhibitors Against Topoisomerases and Histone Deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young Ho

    2015-01-01

    Topoisomerases and histone deacetylases (HDACs) are considered as important therapeutic targets for a wide range of cancers, due to their association with the initiation, proliferation and survival of cancer cells. Topoisomerases are involved in the cleavage and religation processes of DNA, while HDACs regulate a dynamic epigenetic modification of the lysine amino acid on various proteins. Extensive studies have been undertaken to discover small molecule inhibitor of each protein and thereby, several drugs have been transpired from this effort and successfully approved for clinical use. However, the inherent heterogeneity and multiple genetic abnormalities of cancers challenge the clinical application of these single targeted drugs. In order to overcome the limitations of a single target approach, a novel approach, simultaneously targeting topoisomerases and HDACs with a single molecule has been recently employed and attracted much attention of medicinal chemists in drug discovery. This review highlights the current studies on the discovery of dual inhibitors against topoisomerases and HDACs, provides their pharmacological aspects and advantages, and discusses the challenges and promise of the dual inhibitors. PMID:26151040

  6. Class I HDAC inhibitor mocetinostat induces apoptosis by activation of miR-31 expression and suppression of E2F6

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Q; Sun, M; Zhou, S; Guo, B

    2016-01-01

    The class I selective inhibitor of the histone deacetylases, mocetinostat, has promising antitumor activities in both preclinical studies and the clinical trials. To understand how mocetinostat induces apoptosis, we examined the effects of mocetinostat on miR-31, a proapoptotic microRNA that was previously found to be epigenetically silenced in prostate cancer. We found that miR-31 was significantly upregulated by mocetinostat in prostate cancer cells. Antiapoptotic protein E2F6, the target of miR-31, was decreased by mocetinostat treatment. When miR-31 was blocked with an inhibitor, the ability of mocetinostat to induce apoptosis was reduced. We further demonstrated that mocetinostat enhanced the activity of docetaxel in apoptosis induction. While siRNA knockdown of E2F6 sensitized cancer cells to mocetinostat-induced apoptosis, overexpression of E2F6 blocked mocetinostat-induced apoptosis. In an orthotopic xenograft model, we demonstrated that mocetinostat activated miR-31, decreased E2F6, induced apoptosis, and significantly reduced prostate cancer growth. Importantly, we found that mocetinostat also increased miR-31 expression, decreased E2F6, and induced apoptosis in the primary prostate cancer stem cells. Thus, activation of miR-31 and downregulation of E2F6 constitute an important mechanism in mocetinostat-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer. PMID:27551526

  7. HDAC1 and HDAC2 in mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos: Specificity versus compensation.

    PubMed

    Ma, P; Schultz, R M

    2016-07-01

    Oocyte and preimplantation embryo development entail dynamic changes in chromatin structure and gene expression, which are regulated by a number of maternal and zygotic epigenetic factors. Histone deacetylases (HDACs), which tighten chromatin structure, repress transcription and gene expression by removing acetyl groups from histone or non-histone proteins. HDAC1 and HDAC2 are two highly homologous Class I HDACs and display compensatory or specific roles in different cell types or in response to different stimuli and signaling pathways. We summarize here the current knowledge about the functions of HDAC1 and HDAC2 in regulating histone modifications, transcription, DNA methylation, chromosome segregation, and cell cycle during oocyte and preimplantation embryo development. What emerges from these studies is that although HDAC1 and HDAC2 are highly homologous, HDAC2 is more critical than HDAC1 for oocyte development and reciprocally, HDAC1 is more critical than HDAC2 for preimplantation development. PMID:27082454

  8. HDAC3 mediates smoking-induced pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Edderkaoui, Mouad; Xu, Shiping; Chheda, Chintan; Morvaridi, Susan; Hu, Robert W.; Grippo, Paul J.; Mascariñas, Emman; Principe, Daniel R.; Knudsen, Beatrice; Xue, Jing; Habtezion, Aida; Uyeminami, Dale; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for developing pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC); however, little is known about the mechanisms involved. Here we employed a genetic animal model of early stages of PDAC that overexpresses oncogenic Kras in the pancreas to investigate the mechanisms of smoking-induced promotion of the disease in vivo. We confirmed the regulation of the interactions between the tumor microenvironment cells using in vitro cellular systems. Aerial exposure to cigarette smoke stimulated development of pancreatic intraepithelial neaoplasia (PanIN) lesions associated with a tumor microenvironment-containing features of human PDAC including fibrosis, activated stellate cells, M2-macrophages and markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The pro-cancer effects of smoking were prevented by Histone Deacetylase HDAC I/II inhibitor Saha. Smoking decreased histone acetylation associated with recruitment of and phenotypic changes in macrophages; which in turn, stimulated survival and induction of EMT of the pre-cancer and cancer cells. The interaction between the cancer cells and macrophages is mediated by IL-6 produced under the regulation of HDAC3 translocation to the nucleus in the cancer cells. Pharmacological and molecular inhibitions of HDAC3 decreased IL-6 levels in cancer cells. IL-6 stimulated the macrophage phenotype change through regulation of the IL-4 receptor level of the macrophage. This study demonstrates a novel pathway of interaction between cancer cells and tumor promoting macrophages involving HDAC3 and IL-6. It further demonstrates that targeting HDAC3 prevents progression of the disease and could provide a strategy for treating the disease considering that the HDAC inhibitor we used is FDA approved for a different disease. PMID:26745602

  9. The HDAC Inhibitor FK228 Enhances Adenoviral Transgene Expression by a Transduction-Independent Mechanism but Does Not Increase Adenovirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, Angelika; Dzojic, Helena; Rashkova, Victoria; Cheng, Wing-Shing; Essand, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    The histone deacetylase inhibitor FK228 has previously been shown to enhance adenoviral transgene expression when cells are pre-incubated with the drug. Upregulation of the coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR), leading to increased viral transduction, has been proposed as the main mechanism. In the present study, we found that the highest increase in transgene expression was achieved when non-toxic concentrations of FK228 were added immediately after transduction, demonstrating that the main effect by which FK228 enhances transgene expression is transduction-independent. FK228 had positive effects both on Ad5 and Ad5/f35 vectors with a variety of transgenes and promoters, indicating that FK228 works mainly by increasing transgene expression at the transcriptional level. In some cases, the effects were dramatic, as demonstrated by an increase in CD40L expression by FK228 from 0.3% to 62% when the murine prostate cancer cell line TRAMP-C2 was transduced with Ad[CD40L]. One unexpected finding was that FK228 decreased the transgene expression of an adenoviral vector with the prostate cell-specific PPT promoter in the human prostate adenocarcinoma cell lines LNCaP and PC-346C. This is probably a consequence of alteration of the adenocarcinoma cell lines towards a neuroendocrine differentiation after FK228 treatment. The observations in this study indicate that FK228 enhances adenoviral therapy by a transduction-independent mechanism. Furthermore, since histone deacetylase inhibitors may affect the differentiation of cells, it is important to keep in mind that the activity and specificity of tissue- and tumor-specific promoters may also be affected. PMID:21379379

  10. Neurorestoration induced by the HDAC inhibitor sodium valproate in the lactacystin model of Parkinson’s is associated with histone acetylation and up-regulation of neurotrophic factors

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Ian F; Crum, William R; Vernon, Anthony C; Dexter, David T

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Histone hypoacetylation is associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), due possibly to an imbalance in the activities of enzymes responsible for histone (de)acetylation; correction of which may be neuroprotective/neurorestorative. This hypothesis was tested using the anti-epileptic drug sodium valproate, a known histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI), utilizing a delayed-start study design in the lactacystin rat model of PD. Experimental Approach The irreversible proteasome inhibitor lactacystin was unilaterally injected into the substantia nigra of Sprague–Dawley rats that subsequently received valproate for 28 days starting 7 days after lactacystin lesioning. Longitudinal motor behavioural testing, structural MRI and post-mortem assessment of nigrostriatal integrity were used to track changes in this model of PD and quantify neuroprotection/restoration. Subsequent cellular and molecular analyses were performed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying valproate's effects. Key Results Despite producing a distinct pattern of structural re-modelling in the healthy and lactacystin-lesioned brain, delayed-start valproate administration induced dose-dependent neuroprotection/restoration against lactacystin neurotoxicity, characterized by motor deficit alleviation, attenuation of morphological brain changes and restoration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Molecular analyses revealed that valproate alleviated lactacystin-induced histone hypoacetylation and induced up-regulation of brain neurotrophic/neuroprotective factors. Conclusions and Implications The histone acetylation and up-regulation of neurotrophic/neuroprotective factors associated with valproate treatment culminate in a neuroprotective and neurorestorative phenotype in this animal model of PD. As valproate induced structural re-modelling of the brain, further research is required to determine whether valproate represents a viable candidate for disease treatment; however

  11. Inhibitors of Histone Deacetylases Attenuate Noise-Induced Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Hill, Kayla; Sha, Su-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Loss of auditory sensory hair cells is the major pathological feature of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Currently, no established clinical therapies for prevention or amelioration of NIHL are available. The absence of treatments is due to our lack of a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying noise-induced damage. Our previous study indicates that epigenetic modification of histones alters hair cell survival. In this study, we investigated the effect of noise exposure on histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac) in the inner ear of adult CBA/J mice and determined if inhibition of histone deacetylases by systemic administration of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) could attenuate NIHL. Our results showed that H3K9ac was decreased in the nuclei of outer hair cells (OHCs) and marginal cells of the stria vascularis in the basal region after exposure to a traumatic noise paradigm known to induce permanent threshold shifts (PTS). Consistent with these results, levels of histone deacetylases 1, 2, and 3 (HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC3) were increased predominately in the nuclei of cochlear cells. Silencing of HDAC1, HDAC2, or HDAC3 with siRNA reduced the expression of the target HDAC in OHCs, but did not attenuate noise-induced PTS, whereas treatment with the pan-HDAC inhibitor SAHA, also named vorinostat, reduced OHC loss, and attenuated PTS. These findings suggest that histone acetylation is involved in the pathogenesis of noise-induced OHC death and hearing loss. Pharmacological targeting of histone deacetylases may afford a strategy for protection against NIHL. PMID:27095478

  12. Discovery of 1-hydroxypyridine-2-thiones as selective histone deacetylase inhibitors and their potential application for treating leukemia.

    PubMed

    Muthyala, Ramaiah; Shin, Woo Shik; Xie, Jiashu; Sham, Yuk Yin

    2015-10-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a validated target for pursuing anticancer agents. However, obtaining a selective inhibitor against a given HDAC member remains a significant challenge. We report here the use of 1-hydroxypyridine-2-thione (1HPT) as a key pharmacophore for zinc-binding can result in highly selective HDAC inhibitors. 1HPT-6-carboxylic acid exhibits selective inhibition of HDAC6 with an IC50 of 150 nM that corresponds to a remarkable 0.9 ligand efficiency. Two analogs with simple amino acids shows nearly 600-fold selectivity among the eleven zinc-dependent HDACs. At low micromolar concentration these compounds inhibit the growth of HDAC8-overexpressing chronic myelogenous leukemia cells and specific form of acute myelogenous leukemia cells. Their potential mode of binding was examined by molecular docking and their stability was assessed in mouse and human plasma. Together the results suggest 1HPT analogs exhibit promising therapeutic potential for further development as anticancer agents to treat leukemia. PMID:26264503

  13. HDAC8 Substrates: Histones and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, Noah A.; Pitcairn, Carol Ann; Fierke, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    The lysine deacetylase family of enzymes (HDACs) was first demonstrated to catalyze deacetylation of acetyllysine residues on histones. In subsequent years, HDACs have been shown to recognize a large pool of acetylated non-histone proteins as substrates. Recently, thousands of acetylated proteins have been discovered, yet in most cases, the HDAC that catalyzes deacetylation in vivo has not been identified. This gap has created the need for better in vivo, in vitro, and in silico approaches for determining HDAC substrates. While HDAC8 is the best kinetically and structurally characterized HDAC, few efficient substrates have yet been substantiated in vivo. In this review we delineate factors that may be important for determining HDAC8 substrate recognition and catalytic activity, including structure, complex formation, and post-translational modifications. This summary provides insight into the challenges of identifying in vivo substrates for HDAC8, and provides a good vantage point for understanding the variables important for predicting HDAC substrate recognition. PMID:23175386

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibitors stimulate the susceptibility of A549 cells to a plasma-activated medium treatment.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Tetsuo; Kano, Ayame; Nonomura, Saho; Kamiya, Tetsuro; Hara, Hirokazu

    2016-09-15

    The number of potential applications of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) discharges in medicine, particularly in cancer therapy, has increased in recent years. NTAPP has been shown to affect cells not only by direct irradiation, but also by an indirect treatment with previously prepared plasma-activated medium (PAM). Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have the potential to enhance susceptibility to anticancer drugs and radiation. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the advantage of the combined application of PAM and HDAC inhibitors on A549 cancer cell survival and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Cell death with DNA breaks in the nucleus was greater using combined regimens of PAM and HDAC inhibitors such as trichostatin A (TSA) and valproic acid (VPA) than a single PAM treatment and was accompanied by the activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), depletion of ATP, and elevations in intracellular calcium levels. Moreover, the expression of Rad 51, a DNA repair factor in homologous recombination pathways, was significantly suppressed by the treatment with HDAC inhibitors. These results demonstrate that HDAC inhibitors may synergistically induce the sensitivity of cancer cells to PAM components. PMID:27470189

  15. Chronic administration of an HDAC inhibitor treats both neurological and systemic Niemann-Pick type C disease in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Suhail; Getz, Michelle; Haldar, Kasturi

    2016-02-17

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are approved for treating rare cancers and are of interest as potential therapies for neurodegenerative disorders. We evaluated a triple combination formulation (TCF) comprising the pan-HDACi vorinostat, the caging agent 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) for treating a mouse model (the Npc1(nmf164) mouse) of Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease, a difficult-to-treat cerebellar disorder. Vorinostat alone showed activity in cultured primary cells derived from Npc1(nmf164) mice but did not improve animal survival. However, low-dose, once-weekly intraperitoneal injections of the TCF containing vorinostat increased histone acetylation in the mouse brain, preserved neurites and Purkinje cells, delayed symptoms of neurodegeneration, and extended mouse life span from 4 to almost 9 months. We demonstrate that the TCF boosted the ability of HDACi to cross the blood-brain barrier and was not toxic even when used long term. Further, the TCF enabled dose reduction, which has been a major challenge in HDACi therapy. TCF simultaneously treats neurodegenerative and systemic symptoms of Niemann-Pick type C disease in a mouse model. PMID:26888431

  16. Overexpressed HDAC4 is associated with poor survival and promotes tumor progression in esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Shi-Juan; Wang, Meng-He; Zhang, Mei-Yin; Zheng, X.F. Steven; Wang, Hui-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) mediate histone deacetylation, leading to transcriptional repression, which is involved in many diseases, including age-related tissue degeneration, heart failure and cancer. In this study, we were aimed to investigate the expression, clinical significance and biological function of HDAC4 in esophageal carcinoma (EC). We found that HDAC4 mRNA and protein are overexpressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues and cell lines. HDAC4 overexpression is associated with higher tumor grade, advanced clinical stage and poor survival. Mechanistically, HDAC4 promotes proliferation and G1/S cell cycle progression in EC cells by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21 and p27 and up-regulating CDK2/4 and CDK-dependent Rb phosphorylation. HDAC4 also enhances ESCC cell migration. Furthermore, HDAC4 positively regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by increasing the expression of Vimentin and decreasing the expression of E-Cadherin/α-Catenin. Together, our study shows that HDAC4 overexpression is important for the oncogenesis of EC, which may serve as a useful prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for this malignancy. PMID:27295551

  17. Requirement of HDAC6 for Transforming Growth Factor-β1-induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition*

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Bin; Yao, Tso-pang; Nguyen, Hong T.; Zhuo, Ying; Levy, Dawn R.; Klingsberg, Ross C.; Tao, Hui; Palmer, Michael L.; Holder, Kevin N.; Lasky, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    The aberrant expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in the tumor microenvironment and fibrotic lesions plays a critical role in tumor progression and tissue fibrosis by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT promotes tumor cell motility and invasiveness. How EMT affects motility and invasion is not well understood. Here we report that HDAC6 is a novel modulator of TGF-β1-induced EMT. HDAC6 is a microtubule-associated deacetylase that predominantly deacetylates nonhistone proteins, including α-tubulin, and regulates cell motility. We showed that TGF-β1-induced EMT is accompanied by HDAC6-dependent deacetylation of α-tubulin. Importantly, inhibition of HDAC6 by small interfering RNA or the small molecule inhibitor tubacin attenuated the TGF-β1-induced EMT markers, such as the aberrant expression of epithelial and mesenchymal peptides, as well as the formation of stress fibers. Reduced expression of HDAC6 also impaired the activation of SMAD3 in response to TGF-β1. Conversely, inhibition of SMAD3 activation substantially impaired HDAC6-dependent deacetylation of α-tubulin as well as the expression of EMT markers. These findings reveal a novel function of HDAC6 in EMT by intercepting the TGF-β-SMAD3 signaling cascade. Our results identify HDAC6 as a critical regulator of EMT and a potential therapeutic target against pathological EMT, a key event for tumor progression and fibrogenesis. PMID:18499657

  18. HDAC2 deregulation in tumorigenesis is causally connected to repression of immune modulation and defense escape.

    PubMed

    Conte, Mariarosaria; Dell'Aversana, Carmela; Benedetti, Rosaria; Petraglia, Francesca; Carissimo, Annamaria; Petrizzi, Valeria Belsito; D'Arco, Alfonso Maria; Abbondanza, Ciro; Nebbioso, Angela; Altucci, Lucia

    2015-01-20

    Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) is overexpressed or mutated in several disorders such as hematological cancers, and plays a critical role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental processes. Here, we performed comparative transcriptome analyses in acute myeloid leukemia to investigate the biological implications of HDAC2 silencing versus its enzymatic inhibition using epigenetic-based drug(s). By gene expression analysis of HDAC2-silenced vs wild-type cells, we found that HDAC2 has a specific role in leukemogenesis. Gene expression profiling of U937 cell line with or without treatment of the well-known HDAC inhibitor vorinostat (SAHA) identifies and characterizes several gene clusters where inhibition of HDAC2 'mimics' its silencing, as well as those where HDAC2 is selectively and exclusively regulated by HDAC2 protein expression levels. These findings may represent an important tool for better understanding the mechanisms underpinning immune regulation, particularly in the study of major histocompatibility complex class II genes. PMID:25473896

  19. HDAC2 deregulation in tumorigenesis is causally connected to repression of immune modulation and defense escape

    PubMed Central

    Conte, Mariarosaria; Dell'Aversana, Carmela; Benedetti, Rosaria; Petraglia, Francesca; Carissimo, Annamaria; Petrizzi, Valeria Belsito; D'Arco, Alfonso Maria; Abbondanza, Ciro; Nebbioso, Angela; Altucci, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) is overexpressed or mutated in several disorders such as hematological cancers, and plays a critical role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental processes. Here, we performed comparative transcriptome analyses in acute myeloid leukemia to investigate the biological implications of HDAC2 silencing versus its enzymatic inhibition using epigenetic-based drug(s). By gene expression analysis of HDAC2-silenced vs wild-type cells, we found that HDAC2 has a specific role in leukemogenesis. Gene expression profiling of U937 cell line with or without treatment of the well-known HDAC inhibitor vorinostat (SAHA) identifies and characterizes several gene clusters where inhibition of HDAC2 ‘mimics’ its silencing, as well as those where HDAC2 is selectively and exclusively regulated by HDAC2 protein expression levels. These findings may represent an important tool for better understanding the mechanisms underpinning immune regulation, particularly in the study of major histocompatibility complex class II genes. PMID:25473896

  20. Interaction of silicic acid with sulfurous acid scale inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, D.L.

    1997-12-31

    The solubility of amorphous silica and the inhibition of silica polymerization in the presence of sulfurous acid and sulfite salts has been investigated to 260{degrees}C. Investigations of inhibition of silica scaling from geothermal brines by sulfurous acid have produced unusual results. Bisulfite/sulfite increases amorphous silica solubility by {open_quotes}salting in{close_quotes} effects resulting from apparent complexation. Silica-sulfite complexes are postulated to form via hydrogen bonding, and appear to be much stronger than silica-sulfate complexes. Treatment of brines with sulfurous acid inhibits silica scaling by (1) retarding the kinetics of silicic acid polymerization, and (2) forming soluble sulfito-silicate complexes. Sulfurous acid offers several advantages over sulfuric acid in controlling scale deposition-reduced corrosion potential, reduced by-product scale formation potential, oxygen scavenging and inhibition of certain metal silicate scales.

  1. Boric acid inhibits embryonic histone deacetylases: A suggested mechanism to explain boric acid-related teratogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Di Renzo, Francesca; Cappelletti, Graziella; Broccia, Maria L.; Giavini, Erminio; Menegola, Elena . E-mail: elena.menegola@unimi.it

    2007-04-15

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) control gene expression by changing histonic as well as non histonic protein conformation. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) are considered to be among the most promising drugs for epigenetic treatment for cancer. Recently a strict relationship between histone hyperacetylation in specific tissues of mouse embryos exposed to two HDACi (valproic acid and trichostatin A) and specific axial skeleton malformations has been demonstrated. The aim of this study is to verify if boric acid (BA), that induces in rodents malformations similar to those valproic acid and trichostatin A-related, acts through similar mechanisms: HDAC inhibition and histone hyperacetylation. Pregnant mice were treated intraperitoneally with a teratogenic dose of BA (1000 mg/kg, day 8 of gestation). Western blot analysis and immunostaining were performed with anti hyperacetylated histone 4 (H4) antibody on embryos explanted 1, 3 or 4 h after treatment and revealed H4 hyperacetylation at the level of somites. HDAC enzyme assay was performed on embryonic nuclear extracts. A significant HDAC inhibition activity (compatible with a mixed type partial inhibition mechanism) was evident with BA. Kinetic analyses indicate that BA modifies substrate affinity by a factor {alpha} = 0.51 and maximum velocity by a factor {beta} = 0.70. This work provides the first evidence for HDAC inhibition by BA and suggests such a molecular mechanism for the induction of BA-related malformations.

  2. Inhibition of HDAC3- and HDAC6-Promoted Survivin Expression Plays an Important Role in SAHA-Induced Autophagy and Viability Reduction in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane Ying-Chieh; Kuo, Ching-Wen; Tsai, Shing-Ling; Cheng, Siao Muk; Chen, Shang-Hung; Chan, Hsiu-Han; Lin, Chun-Hui; Lin, Kun-Yuan; Li, Chien-Feng; Kanwar, Jagat R.; Leung, Euphemia Y.; Cheung, Carlos Chun Ho; Huang, Wei-Jan; Wang, Yi-Ching; Cheung, Chun Hei Antonio

    2016-01-01

    SAHA is a class I HDAC/HDAC6 co-inhibitor and an autophagy inducer currently undergoing clinical investigations in breast cancer patients. However, the molecular mechanism of action of SAHA in breast cancer cells remains unclear. In this study, we found that SAHA is equally effective in targeting cells of different breast cancer subtypes and tamoxifen sensitivity. Importantly, we found that down-regulation of survivin plays an important role in SAHA-induced autophagy and cell viability reduction in human breast cancer cells. SAHA decreased survivin and XIAP gene transcription, induced survivin protein acetylation and early nuclear translocation in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. It also reduced survivin and XIAP protein stability in part through modulating the expression and activation of the 26S proteasome and heat-shock protein 90. Interestingly, targeting HDAC3 and HDAC6, but not other HDAC isoforms, by siRNA/pharmacological inhibitors mimicked the effects of SAHA in modulating the acetylation, expression, and nuclear translocation of survivin and induced autophagy in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. Targeting HDAC3 also mimicked the effect of SAHA in up-regulating the expression and activity of proteasome, which might lead to the reduced protein stability of survivin in breast cancer cells. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into SAHA's molecular mechanism of actions in breast cancer cells. Our findings emphasize the complexity of the regulatory roles in different HDAC isoforms and potentially assist in predicting the mechanism of novel HDAC inhibitors in targeted or combinational therapies in the future. PMID:27065869

  3. Polyamines are Inhibitors of Gastric Acid Secretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Tushar K.; Nandi, Jyotirmoy; Pidhorodeckyj, Nykolai; Meng-Ai, Zhou

    1982-03-01

    The naturally occurring organic polycations such as spermine and spermidine inhibit histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion by bullfrog gastric mucosa in vitro; spermine is much more potent than spermidine. Unlike the H2 receptor antagonists, the polyamines are completely ineffective from the nutrient side and are effective only from the secretory side of the chambered mucosa. The polyamine effects could be reversed by increasing K+ concentration in the secretory solution. Studies with isolated gastric microsomal vesicles demonstrate that the polyamines do not inhibit the gastric H+,K+-ATPase but greatly decrease the ATPase-mediated uptake of H+ under appropriate conditions. For the latter effects the presence of polyamine within the vesicle interior was found to be essential. Our data strongly suggest an uncoupling of the gastric H+,K+-ATPase system by the polyamines. The therapeutic potential of these and similar compounds in the treatment of hyperacidity and peptic ulcer is discussed.

  4. MDM2 E3 ligase-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of HDAC1 in vascular calcification

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Duk-Hwa; Eom, Gwang Hyeon; Ko, Jeong Hyeon; Shin, Sera; Joung, Hosouk; Choe, Nakwon; Nam, Yoon Seok; Min, Hyun-Ki; Kook, Taewon; Yoon, Somy; Kang, Wanseok; Kim, Yong Sook; Kim, Hyung Seok; Choi, Hyuck; Koh, Jeong-Tae; Kim, Nacksung; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Hyun-Jai; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Dong Ho; Suk, Kyoungho; Seo, Sang Beom; Wissing, Erin R.; Mendrysa, Susan M.; Nam, Kwang-Il; Kook, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms linking VC to these diseases have yet to be elucidated. Here we report that MDM2-induced ubiquitination of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) mediates VC. Loss of HDAC1 activity via either chemical inhibitor or genetic ablation enhances VC. HDAC1 protein, but not mRNA, is reduced in cell and animal calcification models and in human calcified coronary artery. Under calcification-inducing conditions, proteasomal degradation of HDAC1 precedes VC and it is mediated by MDM2 E3 ubiquitin ligase that initiates HDAC1 K74 ubiquitination. Overexpression of MDM2 enhances VC, whereas loss of MDM2 blunts it. Decoy peptide spanning HDAC1 K74 and RG 7112, an MDM2 inhibitor, prevent VC in vivo and in vitro. These results uncover a previously unappreciated ubiquitination pathway and suggest MDM2-mediated HDAC1 ubiquitination as a new therapeutic target in VC. PMID:26832969

  5. Requirement of HDAC6 for activation of Notch1 by TGF-β1.

    PubMed

    Deskin, Brian; Lasky, Joseph; Zhuang, Yan; Shan, Bin

    2016-01-01

    TGF-β1 is enriched in the tumor microenvironment and acts as a key inducer of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer. The NOTCH signaling pathway is conserved across species and is an essential pathway for development, cell differentiation, and cancer biology. Dysregulation of Notch signaling is a common feature of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and is correlated with poor prognosis. Crosstalk exists between the NOTCH and TGF-β signaling pathways in EMT. Herein we report that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) modulates TGF-β1-mediated activation of the Notch pathway. HDAC6, a primarily cytoplasmic deacetylase, mediates TGF-β1-induced EMT in human lung cancer cells. Inhibition of HDAC6 with a small molecule inhibitor, namely tubacin or with siRNA attenuated TGF-β1-induced Notch-1 signaling. We show that TGFβ-1-induced EMT is accompanied by rapid HDAC6-dependent deacetylation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). Consistently, inhibition of HSP90 with its small molecule inhibitor 17AAG attenuated expression of TGF-β1-induced Notch-1 target genes, HEY-1 and HES-1. These findings reveal a novel function of HDAC6 in EMT via mediating the TGF-β-Notch signaling cascade, and support HDAC6 as a key regulator of TGFβ-induced EMT in NSCLC. This work suggests that HDAC6 may be an attractive therapeutic target against tumor progression and metastasis. PMID:27499032

  6. Requirement of HDAC6 for activation of Notch1 by TGF-β1

    PubMed Central

    Deskin, Brian; Lasky, Joseph; Zhuang, Yan; Shan, Bin

    2016-01-01

    TGF-β1 is enriched in the tumor microenvironment and acts as a key inducer of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer. The NOTCH signaling pathway is conserved across species and is an essential pathway for development, cell differentiation, and cancer biology. Dysregulation of Notch signaling is a common feature of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and is correlated with poor prognosis. Crosstalk exists between the NOTCH and TGF-β signaling pathways in EMT. Herein we report that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) modulates TGF-β1-mediated activation of the Notch pathway. HDAC6, a primarily cytoplasmic deacetylase, mediates TGF-β1-induced EMT in human lung cancer cells. Inhibition of HDAC6 with a small molecule inhibitor, namely tubacin or with siRNA attenuated TGF-β1-induced Notch-1 signaling. We show that TGFβ-1-induced EMT is accompanied by rapid HDAC6-dependent deacetylation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). Consistently, inhibition of HSP90 with its small molecule inhibitor 17AAG attenuated expression of TGF-β1-induced Notch-1 target genes, HEY-1 and HES-1. These findings reveal a novel function of HDAC6 in EMT via mediating the TGF-β-Notch signaling cascade, and support HDAC6 as a key regulator of TGFβ-induced EMT in NSCLC. This work suggests that HDAC6 may be an attractive therapeutic target against tumor progression and metastasis. PMID:27499032

  7. MDM2 E3 ligase-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of HDAC1 in vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Duk-Hwa; Eom, Gwang Hyeon; Ko, Jeong Hyeon; Shin, Sera; Joung, Hosouk; Choe, Nakwon; Nam, Yoon Seok; Min, Hyun-Ki; Kook, Taewon; Yoon, Somy; Kang, Wanseok; Kim, Yong Sook; Kim, Hyung Seok; Choi, Hyuck; Koh, Jeong-Tae; Kim, Nacksung; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Hyun-Jai; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Dong Ho; Suk, Kyoungho; Seo, Sang Beom; Wissing, Erin R; Mendrysa, Susan M; Nam, Kwang-Il; Kook, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms linking VC to these diseases have yet to be elucidated. Here we report that MDM2-induced ubiquitination of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) mediates VC. Loss of HDAC1 activity via either chemical inhibitor or genetic ablation enhances VC. HDAC1 protein, but not mRNA, is reduced in cell and animal calcification models and in human calcified coronary artery. Under calcification-inducing conditions, proteasomal degradation of HDAC1 precedes VC and it is mediated by MDM2 E3 ubiquitin ligase that initiates HDAC1 K74 ubiquitination. Overexpression of MDM2 enhances VC, whereas loss of MDM2 blunts it. Decoy peptide spanning HDAC1 K74 and RG 7112, an MDM2 inhibitor, prevent VC in vivo and in vitro. These results uncover a previously unappreciated ubiquitination pathway and suggest MDM2-mediated HDAC1 ubiquitination as a new therapeutic target in VC. PMID:26832969

  8. Design and synthesis of boronic acid inhibitors of endothelial lipase.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Daniel P; LeBlanc, Daniel F; Cromley, Debra; Billheimer, Jeffrey; Rader, Daniel J; Bachovchin, William W

    2012-02-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) are homologous lipases that act on plasma lipoproteins. EL is predominantly a phospholipase and appears to be a key regulator of plasma HDL-C. LPL is mainly a triglyceride lipase regulating (V)LDL levels. The existing biological data indicate that inhibitors selective for EL over LPL should have anti-atherogenic activity, mainly through increasing plasma HDL-C levels. We report here the synthesis of alkyl, aryl, or acyl-substituted phenylboronic acids that inhibit EL. Many of the inhibitors evaluated proved to be nearly equally potent against both EL and LPL, but several exhibited moderate to good selectivity for EL. PMID:22225633

  9. HDAC6 inhibition restores ciliary expression and decreases tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Gradilone, Sergio A; Radtke, Brynn N; Bogert, Pamela S; Huang, Bing Q; Gajdos, Gabriella B; LaRusso, Nicholas F

    2013-01-01

    Primary cilia are multisensory organelles recently found to be absent in some tumor cells, but the mechanisms of deciliation and the role of cilia in tumor biology remain unclear. Cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells lining the biliary tree, normally express primary cilia and their interaction with bile components regulates multiple processes, including proliferation and transport. Utilizing cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) as a model, we found primary cilia are reduced in CCA by a mechanism involving histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6). The experimental deciliation of normal cholangiocyte cells increased the proliferation rate and induced anchorage-independent growth. Furthermore, deciliation induced the activation of MAPK and Hedgehog signaling, two important pathways involved in CCA development. We found HDAC6 is overexpressed in CCA and overexpression of HDAC6 in normal cholangiocytes induced deciliation, and increased both proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. To evaluate the effect of cilia restoration on tumor cells, we targeted HDAC6 by shRNA or by the pharmacologic inhibitor, tubastatin-A. Both approaches restored the expression of primary cilia in CCA cell lines and decreased cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. The effects of tubastatin-A were abolished when CCA cells were rendered unable to regenerate cilia by stable transfection of IFT88-shRNA. Finally, inhibition of HDAC6 by tubastatin-A also induced a significant decrease in tumor growth in a CCA animal model. Our data support a key role for primary cilia in malignant transformation, provide a plausible mechanism for their involvement, and suggest that restoration of primary cilia in tumor cells by HDAC6 targeting may be a potential therapeutic approach for CCA. PMID:23370327

  10. Discovery of potent wall teichoic acid early stage inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Labroli, Marc A; Caldwell, John P; Yang, Christine; Lee, Sang Ho; Wang, Hao; Koseoglu, Sandra; Mann, Paul; Yang, Shu-Wei; Xiao, Jing; Garlisi, Charles G; Tan, Christopher; Roemer, Terry; Su, Jing

    2016-08-15

    The widespread emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has dramatically eroded the efficacy of current β-lactam antibiotics and created an urgent need for novel treatment options. Using an S. aureus phenotypic screening strategy, we have identified small molecule early stage wall teichoic acid (WTA) pathway-specific inhibitors predicted to be chemically synergistic with β-lactams. These previously disclosed inhibitors, termed tarocins, demonstrate by genetic and biochemical means inhibition of TarO, the first step in WTA biosynthesis. Tarocins demonstrate potent bactericidal synergy in combination with broad spectrum β-lactam antibiotics across diverse clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci. The synthesis and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of a tarocin series will be detailed. Tarocins and other WTA inhibitors may provide a rational strategy to develop Gram-positive bactericidal β-lactam combination agents active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococci. PMID:27436582

  11. HDAC inhibition radiosensitizes human normal tissue cells and reduces DNA Double-Strand Break repair capacity.

    PubMed

    Purrucker, Jan C; Fricke, Andreas; Ong, Mei Fang; Rübe, Christian; Rübe, Claudia E; Mahlknecht, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) are gaining increasing attention in the treatment of cancer, particularly in view of their therapeutic effectiveness and assumed mild toxicity profile. While numerous studies have investigated the role of HDACi in tumor cells, little is known about their effects on normal tissue cells. We studied the effect of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), MS275, sodium-butyrate and valproic acid in healthy human fibroblasts and found HDACi-treatment to go along with increased radiosensitivity and reduced DSB repair capacity. In view of the potential genotoxic effects of HDACi-treatment, particularly when being administered long-term for chronic disease or when given to children, to women of childbearing age or their partners or in combination with radiotherapy, an extensive education of patients and prescribing physicians as well as a stringent definition of clinical indications is urgently required. PMID:19956891

  12. Comparison of trichostatin A and valproic acid treatment regimens in a mouse model of kidney fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Beneden, Katrien; Geers, Caroline; Pauwels, Marina; Mannaerts, Inge; Wissing, Karl M.; Van den Branden, Christiane; Grunsven, Leo A. van

    2013-09-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising new compounds for the therapy of fibrotic diseases. In this study we compared the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and valproic acid, in an experimental model of kidney fibrosis. In mice, doxorubicin (adriamycin) can cause nephropathy characterized by chronic proteinuria, glomerular damage and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, as seen in human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Two treatment regimens were applied, treatment was either started prior to the doxorubicin insult or delayed until a significant degree of proteinuria and fibrosis was present. Pre-treatment of trichostatin A significantly hampered glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as did the pre-treatment with valproic acid. In contrast, the development of proteinuria was only completely inhibited in the pre-treated valproic acid group, and not in the pre-treated trichostatin A animals. In the postponed treatment with valproic acid, a complete resolution of established doxorubicin-induced proteinuria was achieved within three days, whereas trichostatin A could not correct proteinuria in such a treatment regimen. However, both postponed regimens have comparable efficacy in maintaining the kidney fibrosis to the level reached at the start of the treatments. Moreover, not only the process of fibrosis, but also renal inflammation was attenuated by both HDAC inhibitors. Our data confirm a role for HDACs in renal fibrogenesis and point towards a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors. The effect on renal disease progression and manifestation can however be different for individual HDAC inhibitors. - Highlights: • Valproic acid is a potent antiproteinuric drug, whereas trichostatin A is not. • Trichostatin A and valproic acid reduce kidney fibrosis in doxorubicin nephropathy. • Both valproic acid and trichostatin A attenuate renal inflammation.

  13. Evaluation of functional groups on amino acids in cyclic tetrapeptides in histone deacetylase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Bhuiyan, Mohammed P I; Islam, Md Nurul; Nsiama, Tienabe Kipassa; Oishi, Naoto; Kato, Tamaki; Nishino, Norikazu; Ito, Akihiro; Yoshida, Minoru

    2012-06-01

    The naturally occurring cyclic tetrapeptide, chlamydocin, originally isolated from fungus Diheterospora chlamydosphoria, consists of α-aminoisobutyric acid, L-phenylalanine, D-proline and an unusual amino acid (S)-2-amino-8-((S)-oxiran-2-yl)-8-oxooctanoic acid (Aoe) and inhibits the histone deacetylases (HDACs), a class of regulatory enzymes. The epoxyketone moiety of Aoe is the key functional group for inhibition. The cyclic tetrapeptide scaffold is supposed to play important role for effective binding to the surface of enzymes. In place of the epoxyketone group, hydroxamic acid and sulfhydryl group have been applied to design inhibitor ligands to zinc atom in catalytic site of HDACs. In the research for more potent HDAC inhibitors, we replaced the epoxyketone moiety of Aoe with different functional groups and synthesized a series of chlamydocin analogs as HDAC inhibitors. Among the functional groups, methoxymethylketone moiety showed as potent inhibition as the hydroxamic acid. On the contrary, we confirmed that borate, trifruoromethylketone, and 2-aminoanilide are almost inactive in HDAC inhibition. PMID:21638021

  14. Salicylic Acid Inhibits Synthesis of Proteinase Inhibitors in Tomato Leaves Induced by Systemin and Jasmonic Acid.

    PubMed Central

    Doares, S. H.; Narvaez-Vasquez, J.; Conconi, A.; Ryan, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), previously shown to inhibit proteinase inhibitor synthesis induced by wounding, oligouronides (H.M. Doherty, R.R. Selvendran, D.J. Bowles [1988] Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 33: 377-384), and linolenic acid (H. Pena-Cortes, T. Albrecht, S. Prat, E.W. Weiler, L. Willmitzer [1993] Planta 191: 123-128), are shown here to be potent inhibitors of systemin-induced and jasmonic acid (JA)-induced synthesis of proteinase inhibitor mRNAs and proteins. The inhibition by SA and ASA of proteinase inhibitor synthesis induced by systemin and JA, as well as by wounding and oligosaccharide elicitors, provides further evidence that both oligosaccharide and polypeptide inducer molecules utilize the octadecanoid pathway to signal the activation of proteinase inhibitor genes. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) leaves were pulse labeled with [35S]methionine, followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the inhibitory effects of SA are shown to be specific for the synthesis of a small number of JA-inducible proteins that includes the proteinase inhibitors. Previous results have shown that SA inhibits the conversion of 13S-hydroperoxy linolenic acid to 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, thereby inhibiting the signaling pathway by blocking synthesis of JA. Here we report that the inhibition of synthesis of proteinase inhibitor proteins and mRNAs by SA in both light and darkness also occurs at a step in the signal transduction pathway, after JA synthesis but preceding transcription of the inhibitor genes. PMID:12228577

  15. Treatment of chronic kidney diseases with histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Zhuang, Shougang

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) induce deacetylation of both histone and non-histone proteins and play a critical role in the modulation of physiological and pathological gene expression. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC has been reported to attenuate progression of renal fibrogenesis in obstructed kidney and reduce cyst formation in polycystic kidney disease. HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) are also able to ameliorate renal lesions in diabetes nephropathy, lupus nephritis, aristolochic acid nephropathy, and transplant nephropathy. The beneficial effects of HDACis are associated with their anti-fibrosis, anti-inflammation, and immunosuppressant effects. In this review, we summarize recent advances on the treatment of various chronic kidney diseases with HDACis in pre-clinical models. PMID:25972812

  16. Tanzawaic Acids, a Chemically Novel Set of Bacterial Conjugation Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Getino, María; Fernández-López, Raúl; Palencia-Gándara, Carolina; Campos-Gómez, Javier; Sánchez-López, Jose M.; Martínez, Marta; Fernández, Antonio; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial conjugation is the main mechanism for the dissemination of multiple antibiotic resistance in human pathogens. This dissemination could be controlled by molecules that interfere with the conjugation process. A search for conjugation inhibitors among a collection of 1,632 natural compounds, identified tanzawaic acids A and B as best hits. They specially inhibited IncW and IncFII conjugative systems, including plasmids mobilized by them. Plasmids belonging to IncFI, IncI, IncL/M, IncX and IncH incompatibility groups were targeted to a lesser extent, whereas IncN and IncP plasmids were unaffected. Tanzawaic acids showed reduced toxicity in bacterial, fungal or human cells, when compared to synthetic conjugation inhibitors, opening the possibility of their deployment in complex environments, including natural settings relevant for antibiotic resistance dissemination. PMID:26812051

  17. Structural insights into HDAC6 tubulin deacetylation and its selective inhibition.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yasuyuki; Keusch, Jeremy J; Wang, Longlong; Saito, Makoto; Hess, Daniel; Wang, Xiaoning; Melancon, Bruce J; Helquist, Paul; Gut, Heinz; Matthias, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    We report crystal structures of zebrafish histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) catalytic domains in tandem or as single domains in complex with the (R) and (S) enantiomers of trichostatin A (TSA) or with the HDAC6-specific inhibitor nexturastat A. The tandem domains formed, together with the inter-domain linker, an ellipsoid-shaped complex with pseudo-twofold symmetry. We identified important active site differences between both catalytic domains and revealed the binding mode of HDAC6 selective inhibitors. HDAC inhibition assays with (R)- and (S)-TSA showed that (R)-TSA was a broad-range inhibitor, whereas (S)-TSA had moderate selectivity for HDAC6. We identified a uniquely positioned α-helix and a flexible tryptophan residue in the loop joining α-helices H20 to H21 as critical for deacetylation of the physiologic substrate tubulin. Using single-molecule measurements and biochemical assays we demonstrated that HDAC6 catalytic domain 2 deacetylated α-tubulin lysine 40 in the lumen of microtubules, but that its preferred substrate was unpolymerized tubulin. PMID:27454931

  18. Exploring inhibitor release pathways in histone deacetylases using random acceleration molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Kalyaanamoorthy, Subha; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe

    2012-02-27

    Molecular channel exploration perseveres to be the prominent solution for eliciting structure and accessibility of active site and other internal spaces of macromolecules. The volume and silhouette characterization of these channels provides answers for the issues of substrate access and ligand swapping between the obscured active site and the exterior of the protein. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are metal-dependent enzymes that are involved in the cell growth, cell cycle regulation, and progression, and their deregulations have been linked with different types of cancers. Hence HDACs, especially the class I family, are widely recognized as the important cancer targets, and the characterizations of their structures and functions have been of special interest in cancer drug discovery. The class I HDACs are known to possess two different protein channels, an 11 Å and a 14 Å (named channels A and B1, respectively), of which the former is a ligand or substrate occupying tunnel that leads to the buried active site zinc ion and the latter is speculated to be involved in product release. In this work, we have carried out random acceleration molecular dynamics (RAMD) simulations coupled with the classical molecular dynamics to explore the release of the ligand, N-(2-aminophenyl) benzamide (LLX) from the active sites of the recently solved X-ray crystal structure of HDAC2 and the computationally modeled HDAC1 proteins. The RAMD simulations identified significant structural and dynamic features of the HDAC channels, especially the key 'gate-keeping' amino acid residues that control these channels and the ligand release events. Further, this study identified a novel and unique channel B2, a subchannel from channel B1, in the HDAC1 protein structure. The roles of water molecules in the LLX release from the HDAC1 and HDAC2 enzymes are also discussed. Such structural and dynamic properties of the HDAC protein channels that govern the ligand escape reactions will provide

  19. Dietary phytochemicals, HDAC inhibition, and DNA damage/repair defects in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Genomic instability is a common feature of cancer etiology. This provides an avenue for therapeutic intervention, since cancer cells are more susceptible than normal cells to DNA damaging agents. However, there is growing evidence that the epigenetic mechanisms that impact DNA methylation and histone status also contribute to genomic instability. The DNA damage response, for example, is modulated by the acetylation status of histone and non-histone proteins, and by the opposing activities of histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes. Many HDACs overexpressed in cancer cells have been implicated in protecting such cells from genotoxic insults. Thus, HDAC inhibitors, in addition to unsilencing tumor suppressor genes, also can silence DNA repair pathways, inactivate non-histone proteins that are required for DNA stability, and induce reactive oxygen species and DNA double-strand breaks. This review summarizes how dietary phytochemicals that affect the epigenome also can trigger DNA damage and repair mechanisms. Where such data is available, examples are cited from studies in vitro and in vivo of polyphenols, organosulfur/organoselenium compounds, indoles, sesquiterpene lactones, and miscellaneous agents such as anacardic acid. Finally, by virtue of their genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, cancer chemopreventive agents are being redefined as chemo- or radio-sensitizers. A sustained DNA damage response coupled with insufficient repair may be a pivotal mechanism for apoptosis induction in cancer cells exposed to dietary phytochemicals. Future research, including appropriate clinical investigation, should clarify these emerging concepts in the context of both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms dysregulated in cancer, and the pros and cons of specific dietary intervention strategies. PMID:22247744

  20. AR-42 induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via HDAC5 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingming; Pan, Yida; Dorfman, Robert G.; Chen, Zhaogui; Liu, Fuchen; Zhou, Qian; Huang, Shan; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Dongqin; Liu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play critical roles in apoptosis and contribute to the proliferation of cancer cells. AR-42 is a novel Class I and II HDAC inhibitor that shows cytotoxicity against various human cancer cell lines. The present study aims to identify the target of AR-42 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as well as evaluate its therapeutic efficacy. We found that HDAC5 was upregulated in HCC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues, and this was correlated with reduced patient survival. CCK8 and colony-formation assays showed that HDAC5 overexpression promotes proliferation in HCC cell lines. Treatment with AR-42 decreased HCC cell growth and increased caspase-dependent apoptosis, and this was rescued by HDAC5 overexpression. We demonstrated that AR-42 can inhibit the deacetylation activity of HDAC5 and its downstream targets in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that AR-42 targets HDAC5 and induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. AR-42 therefore shows potential as a new drug candidate for HCC therapy. PMID:26993777

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibitors enhance phosphorylation of histone H2AX after ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yubin; Adachi, Masaaki . E-mail: adachi@sapmed.ac.jp; Zou Huichao; Hareyama, Masato; Imai, Kohzoh; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2006-07-01

    Purpose Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are believed to be promising radiosensitizers. To explore their effects on ionizing radiation (IR), we examined whether the HDAC inhibitors m-carboxycinnamic acid bis-hydroxamide (CBHA) and depsipeptide FK228 affect H2AX phosphorylation ({gamma}-H2AX), a landmark of DNA double-strand breaks after IR exposure. Methods and Materials We evaluated the effects of the HDAC inhibitors on clonogenic assay in human lung carcinoma A549 cells and progression of A549 xenograft tumors. IR-induced DNA damage was evaluated by histone {gamma}-H2AX. Histone hyperacetylation was induced by overexpression of histone acetyltransferase p300 and evaluated by Western blots. Results M-carboxycinnamic acid bishydroxyamide pretreatment radiosensitized A549 cells and strongly inhibited A549 xenograft tumor progression. CBHA and FK228, but not 5-fluorouracil, enhanced IR-induced {gamma}-H2AX in A549 and other cancer cell lines. Overexpression of p300 similarly augmented IR-induced {gamma}-H2AX. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that HDAC inhibitors enhance IR-induced {gamma}-H2AX, most likely through histone hyperacetylation, and radiosensitize various cancers.

  2. Development of Purine-Based Hydroxamic Acid Derivatives: Potent Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors with Marked in Vitro and in Vivo Antitumor Activities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xiang, Wei; He, Lin; Tang, Minghai; Wang, Fang; Wang, Taijin; Yang, Zhuang; Yi, Yuyao; Wang, Hairong; Niu, Ting; Zheng, Li; Lei, Lei; Li, Xiaobin; Song, Hang; Chen, Lijuan

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, a series of novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors using the morpholinopurine as the capping group were designed and synthesized. Several compounds demonstrated significant HDAC inhibitory activities and antiproliferative effects against diverse human tumor cell lines. Among them, compound 10o was identified as a potent class I and class IIb HDAC inhibitor with good pharmaceutical profile and druglike properties. Western blot analysis further confirmed that 10o more effectively increased acetylated histone H3 than panobinostat (LBH-589) and vorinostat (SAHA) at the same concentration in vitro. In in vivo efficacy evaluations of HCT116, MV4-11, Ramos, and MM1S xenograft models, 10o showed higher efficacy than SAHA or LBH-589 without causing significant loss of body weight and toxicity. All the results indicated that 10o could be a suitable candidate for treatment of both solid and hematological cancer. PMID:27186676

  3. Insights into the activation mechanism of class I HDAC complexes by inositol phosphates

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Peter J.; Millard, Christopher J.; Riley, Andrew M.; Robertson, Naomi S.; Wright, Lyndsey C.; Godage, Himali Y.; Cowley, Shaun M.; Jamieson, Andrew G.; Potter, Barry V. L.; Schwabe, John W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) 1, 2 and 3 form the catalytic subunit of several large transcriptional repression complexes. Unexpectedly, the enzymatic activity of HDACs in these complexes has been shown to be regulated by inositol phosphates, which bind in a pocket sandwiched between the HDAC and co-repressor proteins. However, the actual mechanism of activation remains poorly understood. Here we have elucidated the stereochemical requirements for binding and activation by inositol phosphates, demonstrating that activation requires three adjacent phosphate groups and that other positions on the inositol ring can tolerate bulky substituents. We also demonstrate that there is allosteric communication between the inositol-binding site and the active site. The crystal structure of the HDAC1:MTA1 complex bound to a novel peptide-based inhibitor and to inositol hexaphosphate suggests a molecular basis of substrate recognition, and an entropically driven allosteric mechanism of activation. PMID:27109927

  4. Long-Term Culture of Porcine Induced Pluripotent Stem-Like Cells Under Feeder-Free Conditions in the Presence of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Petkov, Stoyan; Glage, Silke; Nowak-Imialek, Monika; Niemann, Heiner

    2016-03-01

    The reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is a complex process that involves significant epigenetic alterations in the reprogrammed cells. Epigenetic modifiers such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been shown to increase the efficiency of derivation of iPSCs in humans and mice. In this study, we used three HDAC inhibitors, valproic acid, sodium butyrate, and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, together with ascorbic acid, for derivation and long-term feeder-free culture of porcine iPS-like cells. In the absence of exogenous growth factors and/or small molecules, these inhibitors were able to maintain the expression of key pluripotency markers, including genes known to be specific for naive pluripotent state in mouse stem cells, for over 60 passages under feeder-free conditions. Surprisingly, the cells became dependent on HDAC inhibitors for the maintenance of proliferation. Moreover, despite showing successful integration into blastocysts upon injection, the cells were unable to undergo normal differentiation in vitro and in vivo in the form of teratomas. Our results suggest that HDAC inhibitors maintain pluripotency gene expression of porcine iPSC-like cells in long-term culture, but prevent lineage specification, requiring further optimization of culture conditions for porcine iPSC derivation. PMID:26691930

  5. Nitroaromatic amino acids as inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Cowart, M; Kowaluk, E A; Daanen, J F; Kohlhaas, K L; Alexander, K M; Wagenaar, F L; Kerwin, J F

    1998-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO.) is an important biomodulator of many physiological processes. The inhibition of inappropriate production of NO. by the isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been proposed as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of stroke, inflammation, and other processes. In this study, certain 2-nitroaryl-substituted amino acid analogues were discovered to inhibit NOS. Analogues bearing a 5-methyl substituent on the aromatic ring demonstrated maximal inhibitory potency. For two selected inhibitors, investigation of the kinetics of the enzyme showed the inhibition to be competitive with l-arginine. Additionally, functional NOS inhibition in tissue preparations was demonstrated. PMID:9651169

  6. Mechanisms of corrosion inhibitors used in acidizing wells

    SciTech Connect

    Frenier, W.W.; Growcock, F.B.; Lopp, V.R. )

    1988-11-01

    Two model compounds, n-dodecylpyridinium bromide (n-DDPB) and 1-octyn-3-ol, were tested in HCL acid as inhibitors for J55 oilfield steel. This paper describes the kinetic and chemical analyses conducted to arrive at inhibition mechanisms for these model compounds. These studies show that the pyridinium forms a weak bond with the chloride-covered surface and is sensitive to temperature and (HCl). Octynol, however, chemisorbs and produces a film that contains a reaction product of the acetylenic alcohol. This film is quite insensitive to changes in temperature and (HCl).

  7. Amino derivatives of glycyrrhetinic acid as potential inhibitors of cholinesterases.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Stefan; Lucas, Susana Dias; Sommerwerk, Sven; Csuk, René

    2014-07-01

    The development of remedies against the Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the biggest challenges in medicinal chemistry nowadays. Although not completely understood, there are several strategies fighting this disease or at least bringing some relief. During the progress of AD, the level of acetylcholine (ACh) decreases; hence, a therapy using inhibitors should be of some benefit to the patients. Drugs presently used for the treatment of AD inhibit the two ACh controlling enzymes, acetylcholinesterase as well as butyrylcholinesterase; hence, the design of selective inhibitors is called for. Glycyrrhetinic acid seems to be an interesting starting point for the development of selective inhibitors. Although its glycon, glycyrrhetinic acid is known for being an AChE activator, several derivatives, altered in position C-3 and C-30, exhibited remarkable inhibition constants in micro-molar range. Furthermore, five representative compounds were subjected to three more enzyme assays (on carbonic anhydrase II, papain and the lipase from Candida antarctica) to gain information about the selectivity of the compounds in comparison to other enzymes. In addition, photometric sulforhodamine B assays using murine embryonic fibroblasts (NiH 3T3) were performed to study the cytotoxicity of these compounds. Two derivatives, bearing either a 1,3-diaminopropyl or a 1H-benzotriazolyl residue, showed a BChE selective inhibition in the single-digit micro-molar range without being cytotoxic up to 30μM. In silico molecular docking studies on the active sites of AChE and BChE were performed to gain a molecular insight into the mode of action of these compounds and to explain the pronounced selectivity for BChE. PMID:24853320

  8. HDAC3 Is Required for the Downregulation of RORγt during Thymocyte Positive Selection.

    PubMed

    Philips, Rachael L; Chen, Meibo W; McWilliams, Douglas C; Belmonte, Paul J; Constans, Megan M; Shapiro, Virginia Smith

    2016-07-15

    To generate functional peripheral T cells, proper gene regulation during T cell development is critical. In this study, we found that histone deacetylase (HDAC) 3 is required for T cell development. T cell development in CD2-icre HDAC3 conditional knockout (cKO) mice (HDAC3-cKO) was blocked at positive selection, resulting in few CD4 and CD8 T cells, and it could not be rescued by a TCR transgene. These single-positive thymocytes failed to upregulate Bcl-2, leading to increased apoptosis. HDAC3-cKO mice failed to downregulate retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (ROR) γt during positive selection, similar to the block in positive selection in RORγt transgenic mice. In the absence of HDAC3, the RORC promoter was hyperacetylated. In the periphery, the few CD4 T cells present were skewed toward RORγt(+) IL-17-producing Th17 cells, leading to inflammatory bowel disease. Positive selection of CD8 single-positive thymocytes was restored in RORγt-KO Bcl-xL transgenic HDAC3-cKO mice, demonstrating that HDAC3 is required at positive selection to downregulate RORγt. PMID:27279370

  9. Total synthesis of the squalene synthase inhibitor zaragozic acid C.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Seiichi

    2005-01-01

    Zaragozic acids and squalestatins were documented by Merck, Glaxo, and Tokyo Noko University/Mitsubishi Kasei Corporation as part of a program aimed at identifying novel inhibitors of squalene synthase, as well as farnesyl transferase. These natural products have attracted considerable attention from numerous synthetic chemists because of their therapeutic potential and novel architecture. This review highlights our total syntheses of zaragozic acid C by two convergent strategies. The key steps in our first-generation synthesis involve 1) simultaneous creation of the C4 and C5 quaternary stereocenters through the Sn(OTf)2-promoted aldol coupling reaction between the alpha-keto ester and silyl ketene thioacetal derived from L- and D-tartaric acids, respectively; and 2) construction of the bicyclic core structure via acid-catalyzed internal ketalization under kinetically controlled conditions. The second-generation strategy relies on a tandem carbonyl ylide formation/1,3-dipolar cycloaddition approach and features elongation of the C1 alkyl side chain through an olefin cross-metathesis as well as high convergency and flexibility. PMID:15635219

  10. cis-Cinnamic acid selective suppressors distinct from auxin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Katsuhiro; Nishikawa, Keisuke; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Shindo, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    The activity of cis-cinnamic acid (cis-CA), one of the allelochemicals, in plants is very similar to that of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a natural auxin, and thus cis-CA has long been believed to be an analog of auxin. We have reported some structure-activity relationships studies by synthesizing over 250 cis-CA derivatives and estimating their inhibitory activities on root growth inhibition in lettuce. In this study, the compounds that showed low- or no-activity on root growth inhibition were recruited as candidates suppressors against cis-CA and/or auxin and tested for their activity. In the presence of cis-CA, lettuce root growth was inhibited; however, the addition of some cis-CA derivatives restored control-level root growth. Four compounds, (Z)-3-(4-isopropylphenyl)acrylic acid, (Z)-3-(3-butoxyphenyl)acrylic acid, (Z)-3-[3-(pentyloxy)phenyl]acrylic acid, and (Z)-3-(naphthalen-1-yl)acrylic acid were selected as candidates for a cis-CA selective suppressor they allowed the recovery of root growth from inhibition by cis-CA treatment without any effects on the IAA-induced effect or elongating activity by themselves. Three candidates significantly ameliorated the root shortening by the potent inhibitor derived from cis-CA. In brief, we have found some cis-CA selective suppressors which have never been reported from inactive cis-CA derivatives for root growth inhibition. cis-CA selective suppressors will play an important role in elucidating the mechanism of plant growth regulation. PMID:24881667

  11. Loss of HDAC6, a novel CHIP substrate, alleviates abnormal tau accumulation.

    PubMed

    Cook, Casey; Gendron, Tania F; Scheffel, Kristyn; Carlomagno, Yari; Dunmore, Judy; DeTure, Michael; Petrucelli, Leonard

    2012-07-01

    The abnormal accumulation of the microtubule-binding protein tau is associated with a number of neurodegenerative conditions, and correlates with cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. The ubiquitin ligase carboxy terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) and the molecular chaperone Hsp90 are implicated in protein triage decisions involving tau, and have consequently been targeted for therapeutic approaches aimed at decreasing tau burden. Here, we present evidence that CHIP binds, ubiquitinates and regulates expression of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6). As the deacetylase for Hsp90, HDAC6 modulates Hsp90 function and determines the favorability of refolding versus degradation of Hsp90 client proteins. Moreover, we demonstrate that HDAC6 levels positively correlate with tau burden, while a decrease in HDAC6 activity or expression promotes tau clearance. Consistent with previous research on Hsp90 clients in cancer, we provide evidence that a loss of HDAC6 activity augments the efficacy of an Hsp90 inhibitor and drives client degradation, in this case tau. Therefore, our current findings not only identify HDAC6 as a critical factor for the regulation of tau levels, but also indicate that a multi-faceted treatment approach could more effectively arrest tau accumulation in disease. PMID:22492994

  12. Drug inhibition of HDAC3 and epigenetic control of differentiation in Apicomplexa parasites

    PubMed Central

    Bougdour, Alexandre; Maubon, Danièle; Baldacci, Patricia; Ortet, Philippe; Bastien, Olivier; Bouillon, Anthony; Barale, Jean-Christophe; Pelloux, Hervé; Ménard, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Plasmodium and Toxoplasma are parasites of major medical importance that belong to the Apicomplexa phylum of protozoa. These parasites transform into various stages during their life cycle and express a specific set of proteins at each stage. Although little is yet known of how gene expression is controlled in Apicomplexa, histone modifications, particularly acetylation, are emerging as key regulators of parasite differentiation and stage conversion. We investigated the anti-Apicomplexa effect of FR235222, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi). We show that FR235222 is active against a variety of Apicomplexa genera, including Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, and is more potent than other HDACi's such as trichostatin A and the clinically relevant compound pyrimethamine. We identify T. gondii HDAC3 (TgHDAC3) as the target of FR235222 in Toxoplasma tachyzoites and demonstrate the crucial role of the conserved and Apicomplexa HDAC-specific residue TgHDAC3 T99 in the inhibitory activity of the drug. We also show that FR235222 induces differentiation of the tachyzoite (replicative) into the bradyzoite (nonreplicative) stage. Additionally, via its anti-TgHDAC3 activity, FR235222 influences the expression of ∼370 genes, a third of which are stage-specifically expressed. These results identify FR235222 as a potent HDACi of Apicomplexa, and establish HDAC3 as a central regulator of gene expression and stage conversion in Toxoplasma and, likely, other Apicomplexa. PMID:19349466

  13. Molecular assembly for high-performance bivalent nucleic acid inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmi; Cao, Zehui; Tan, Weihong

    2008-04-15

    It is theorized that multivalent interaction can result in better affinity and selectivity than monovalent interaction in the design of high-performance ligands. Accordingly, biomolecular engineers are increasingly taking advantage of multivalent interactions to fabricate novel molecular assemblies, resulting in new functions for ligands or enhanced performance of existing ligands. Substantial efforts have been expended in using small molecules or epitopes of antibodies for designing multifunctional or better-performing ligands. However, few attempts to use nucleic acid aptamers as functional domains have been reported. In this study, we explore the design of bivalent nucleic acid ligands by using thrombin and its aptamers as the model by which to evaluate its functions. By assembling two thrombin-binding aptamers with optimized design parameters, this assembly has resulted in the successful development of a nucleic acid-based high-performance bivalent protein inhibitor. Our experimentation proved (i) that the simultaneous binding of two aptamers after linkage achieved 16.6-fold better inhibition efficiency than binding of the monovalent ligand and (ii) that such an improvement originated from changes in the kinetics of the binding interactions, with a k(off) rate approximately 1/50 as fast. In addition, the newly generated aptamer assembly is an excellent anticoagulant reagent when tested with different samples. Because this optimized ligand design offers a simple and noninvasive means of accomplishing higher performance from known functional aptamers, it holds promise as a potent antithrombin agent in the treatment of various diseases related to abnormal thrombin activities. PMID:18398007

  14. Computational design of a time-dependent histone deacetylase 2 selective inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingwei; Li, Min; Chen, Nanhao; Wang, Shenglong; Luo, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Yingkai; Wu, Ruibo

    2015-03-20

    Development of isoform-selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors is of great biological and medical interest. Among 11 zinc-dependent HDAC isoforms, it is particularly challenging to achieve isoform inhibition selectivity between HDAC1 and HDAC2 due to their very high structural similarities. In this work, by developing and applying a novel de novo reaction-mechanism-based inhibitor design strategy to exploit the reactivity difference, we have discovered the first HDAC2-selective inhibitor, β-hydroxymethyl chalcone. Our bioassay experiments show that this new compound has a unique time-dependent selective inhibition on HDAC2, leading to about 20-fold isoform-selectivity against HDAC1. Furthermore, our ab initio QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations, a state-of-the-art approach to study reactions in biological systems, have elucidated how the β-hydroxymethyl chalcone can achieve the distinct time-dependent inhibition toward HDAC2. PMID:25546141

  15. HDAC Inhibition Elicits Myocardial Protective Effect through Modulation of MKK3/Akt-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ting C.; Du, Jianfeng; Zhuang, Shugang; Liu, Paul; Zhang, Ling X.

    2013-01-01

    We and others have demonstrated that HDAC inhibition protects the heart against myocardial injury. It is known that Akt-1 and MAP kinase play an essential role in modulation of myocardial protection and cardiac preconditioning. Our recent observations have shown that Akt-1 was activated in post-myocardial infarction following HDAC inhibition. However, it remains unknown whether MKK3 and Akt-1 are involved in HDAC inhibition-induced myocardial protection in acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. We sought to investigate whether the genetic disruption of Akt-1 and MKK3 eliminate cardioprotection elicited by HDAC inhibition and whether Akt-1 is associated with MKK3 to ultimately achieve protective effects. Adult wild type and MKK3−/−, Akt-1−/− mice received intraperitoneal injections of trichostatin A (0.1mg/kg), a potent inhibitor of HDACs. The hearts were subjected to 30 min myocardial ischemia/30 min reperfusion in the Langendorff perfused heart after twenty four hours to elicit pharmacologic preconditioning. Left ventricular function was measured, and infarct size was determined. Acetylation and phosphorylation of MKK3 were detected and disruption of Akt-1 abolished both acetylation and phosphorylation of MKK3. HDAC inhibition produces an improvement in left ventricular functional recovery, but these effects were abrogated by disruption of either Akt-1 or MKK3. Disruption of Akt-1 or MKK3 abolished the effects of HDAC inhibition-induced reduction of infarct size. Trichostatin A treatment resulted in an increase in MKK3 phosphorylation or acetylation in myocardium. Taken together, these results indicate that stimulation of the MKK3 and Akt-1 pathway is a novel approach to HDAC inhibition -induced cardioprotection. PMID:23762381

  16. Identification of Bidentate Salicylic Acid Inhibitors of PTP1B.

    PubMed

    Haftchenary, Sina; Jouk, Andriana O; Aubry, Isabelle; Lewis, Andrew M; Landry, Melissa; Ball, Daniel P; Shouksmith, Andrew E; Collins, Catherine V; Tremblay, Michel L; Gunning, Patrick T

    2015-09-10

    PTP1B is a master regulator in the insulin and leptin metabolic pathways. Hyper-activated PTP1B results in insulin resistance and is viewed as a key factor in the onset of type II diabetes and obesity. Moreover, inhibition of PTP1B expression in cancer cells dramatically inhibits cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we report the computationally guided optimization of a salicylic acid-based PTP1B inhibitor 6, identifying new and more potent bidentate PTP1B inhibitors, such as 20h, which exhibited a > 4-fold improvement in activity. In CHO-IR cells, 20f, 20h, and 20j suppressed PTP1B activity and restored insulin receptor phosphorylation levels. Notably, 20f, which displayed a 5-fold selectivity for PTP1B over the closely related PTPσ protein, showed no inhibition of PTP-LAR, PRL2 A/S, MKPX, or papain. Finally, 20i and 20j displayed nanomolar inhibition of PTPσ, representing interesting lead compounds for further investigation. PMID:26396684

  17. Sulfonyl fluoride inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Alapafuja, Shakiru O; Nikas, Spyros P; Bharathan, Indu T; Shukla, Vidyanand G; Nasr, Mahmoud L; Bowman, Anna L; Zvonok, Nikolai; Li, Jing; Shi, Xiaomeng; Engen, John R; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2012-11-26

    Sulfonyl fluorides are known to inhibit esterases. Early work from our laboratory has identified hexadecyl sulfonylfluoride (AM374) as a potent in vitro and in vivo inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). We now report on later generation sulfonyl fluoride analogs that exhibit potent and selective inhibition of FAAH. Using recombinant rat and human FAAH, we show that 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)pentanesulfonyl fluoride (AM3506) has similar inhibitory activity for both the rat and the human enzyme, while rapid dilution assays and mass spectrometry analysis suggest that the compound is a covalent modifier for FAAH and inhibits its action in an irreversible manner. Our SAR results are highlighted by molecular docking of key analogs. PMID:23083016

  18. Combined PDGFR and HDAC Inhibition Overcomes PTEN Disruption in Chordoma

    PubMed Central

    Kassam, Amin B.; Park, Myung-Jin; Gardner, Paul; Prevedello, Daniel; Henry, Stephanie; Horbinski, Craig; Beumer, Jan H.; Tawbi, Hussein; Williams, Brian J.; Shaffrey, Mark E.; Egorin, Merrill J.; Abounader, Roger; Park, Deric M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The majority of chordomas show activation of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR). Based on in vitro intertumoral variation in response to recombinant PDGF protein and PDGFR inhibition, and variable tumor response to imatinib, we hypothesized that chordomas resistant to PDGFR inhibition may possess downstream activation of the pathway. Methods Molecular profiling was performed on 23 consecutive chordoma primary tissue specimens. Primary cultures established from 20 of the 23 specimens, and chordoma cell lines, UCH-1 and UCH-2, were used for in vitro experiments. Results Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) locus was observed in 6 specimens (26%). PTEN disruption statistically correlated with increased Ki-67 proliferation index, an established marker of poor outcome for chordoma. Compared to wild type, PTEN deficient chordomas displayed increased proliferative rate, and responded less favorably to PDGFR inhibition. PTEN gene restoration abrogated this growth advantage. Chordomas are characterized by intratumoral hypoxia and local invasion, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are capable of attenuating both hypoxic signaling and cell migration. The combination of PDGFR and HDAC inhibition effectively disrupted growth and invasion of PTEN deficient chordoma cells. Conclusions Loss of heterozygosity of the PTEN gene seen in a subset of chordomas is associated with aggressive in vitro behavior and strongly correlates with increased Ki-67 proliferative index. Combined inhibition of PDGFR and HDAC attenuates proliferation and invasion in chordoma cells deficient for PTEN. PMID:26247786

  19. Inhibition of HDAC increases the senescence induced by natural polyphenols in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Vargas, José E; Filippi-Chiela, Eduardo C; Suhre, Tais; Kipper, Franciele C; Bonatto, Diego; Lenz, Guido

    2014-08-01

    Cellular senescence is an irreversible block of cellular division, and induction of senescence is being considered for treatment of many cancer types, mainly those resistant to classical pro-apoptotic therapies. Resveratrol (Rsv) and quercetin (Quer), two natural polyphenols, are able to induce senescence in different cancer models, including gliomas, the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor. These polyphenols modulate the activity of several proteins involved in cell growth and death in cancer cells, including histone deacetylases (HDAC), but the role of HDAC in senescence induced by Rsv and Quer is unclear. The HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaB) potentiated the pro-senescent effect of Rsv and Quer in human and rat glioma cell lines but not in normal rat astrocytes. Furthermore, the increment of Quer-induced senescence by NaB was accompanied by an increase of reactive oxygen species levels and an increment of the number of cells with nuclear abnormalities. Altogether, these data support a positive role of HDAC inhibition on the senescence induced by these polyphenols, and therefore co-treatment of HDAC inhibitors and polyphenols emerges as a potential alternative for gliomas. PMID:25070040

  20. Identification of novel functional inhibitors of acid sphingomyelinase.

    PubMed

    Kornhuber, Johannes; Muehlbacher, Markus; Trapp, Stefan; Pechmann, Stefanie; Friedl, Astrid; Reichel, Martin; Mühle, Christiane; Terfloth, Lothar; Groemer, Teja W; Spitzer, Gudrun M; Liedl, Klaus R; Gulbins, Erich; Tripal, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    We describe a hitherto unknown feature for 27 small drug-like molecules, namely functional inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). These entities named FIASMAs (Functional Inhibitors of Acid SphingoMyelinAse), therefore, can be potentially used to treat diseases associated with enhanced activity of ASM, such as Alzheimer's disease, major depression, radiation- and chemotherapy-induced apoptosis and endotoxic shock syndrome. Residual activity of ASM measured in the presence of 10 µM drug concentration shows a bimodal distribution; thus the tested drugs can be classified into two groups with lower and higher inhibitory activity. All FIASMAs share distinct physicochemical properties in showing lipophilic and weakly basic properties. Hierarchical clustering of Tanimoto coefficients revealed that FIASMAs occur among drugs of various chemical scaffolds. Moreover, FIASMAs more frequently violate Lipinski's Rule-of-Five than compounds without effect on ASM. Inhibition of ASM appears to be associated with good permeability across the blood-brain barrier. In the present investigation, we developed a novel structure-property-activity relationship by using a random forest-based binary classification learner. Virtual screening revealed that only six out of 768 (0.78%) compounds of natural products functionally inhibit ASM, whereas this inhibitory activity occurs in 135 out of 2028 (6.66%) drugs licensed for medical use in humans. PMID:21909365

  1. Identification of Novel Functional Inhibitors of Acid Sphingomyelinase

    PubMed Central

    Trapp, Stefan; Pechmann, Stefanie; Friedl, Astrid; Reichel, Martin; Mühle, Christiane; Terfloth, Lothar; Groemer, Teja W.; Spitzer, Gudrun M.; Liedl, Klaus R.; Gulbins, Erich; Tripal, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    We describe a hitherto unknown feature for 27 small drug-like molecules, namely functional inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). These entities named FIASMAs (Functional Inhibitors of Acid SphingoMyelinAse), therefore, can be potentially used to treat diseases associated with enhanced activity of ASM, such as Alzheimer's disease, major depression, radiation- and chemotherapy-induced apoptosis and endotoxic shock syndrome. Residual activity of ASM measured in the presence of 10 µM drug concentration shows a bimodal distribution; thus the tested drugs can be classified into two groups with lower and higher inhibitory activity. All FIASMAs share distinct physicochemical properties in showing lipophilic and weakly basic properties. Hierarchical clustering of Tanimoto coefficients revealed that FIASMAs occur among drugs of various chemical scaffolds. Moreover, FIASMAs more frequently violate Lipinski's Rule-of-Five than compounds without effect on ASM. Inhibition of ASM appears to be associated with good permeability across the blood-brain barrier. In the present investigation, we developed a novel structure-property-activity relationship by using a random forest-based binary classification learner. Virtual screening revealed that only six out of 768 (0.78%) compounds of natural products functionally inhibit ASM, whereas this inhibitory activity occurs in 135 out of 2028 (6.66%) drugs licensed for medical use in humans. PMID:21909365

  2. Cyclopentanedi- and tricarboxylic acids as squalene synthase inhibitors: syntheses and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shen, W; Garvey, D S; Cohen, J; Stein, H; Rosenberg, S H

    1998-04-21

    Based on earlier lead squalene synthase inhibitor A-87049 (3) and zaragozic acids, a series of cyclopentanedi- and tricarboxylic acids were synthesized and evaluated against the enzyme. Some exhibited good potency and SAR revealed the importance of conformation and substitution pattern of these synthetic inhibitors. PMID:9871507

  3. Development and testing of a low toxicity acid corrosion inhibitor for industrial cleaning applications

    SciTech Connect

    Frenier, W.W.

    1997-02-01

    A low toxicity corrosion inhibitor used in hydrochloric acid cleaning formulations has been developed. This formulation does not contain formaldehyde. It contains cinnamaldehyde, quaternary nitrogen salts, and a nonionic surfactant, none of which are currently known or suspected to be carcinogens. In laboratory tests, corrosion protection values were equivalent to those provided by current commercial acid inhibitors. Field tests using the low toxicity inhibitor were conducted.

  4. HIV-1 Tat Upregulates Expression of Histone Deacetylase-2 (HDAC2) in Human Neurons: Implication for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND)

    PubMed Central

    Saiyed, Zainulabedin M.; Gandhi, Nimisha; Agudelo, Marisela; Napuri, Jessica; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Reddy, Pichili VB; Khatavkar, Pradnya; Yndart, Adriana; Saxena, Shailendra K.; Nair, Madhavan P.N.

    2011-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a pivotal role in epigenetic regulation of transcription and homeostasis of protein acetylation in histones and other proteins involved in chromatin remodeling. Histone hypoacetylation and transcriptional dysfunction have been shown to be associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. More recently, neuron specific overexpression of HDAC2 has been shown to modulate synaptic plasticity and learning behavior in mice. However, the role of HDAC2 in development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is not reported. Herein we report that HIV-1 Tat protein upregulate HDAC2 expression in neuronal cells leading to transcriptional repression of genes involved in synaptic plasticity and neuronal function thereby contributing to the progression of HAND. Our results indicate upregulation of HDAC2 by Tat treatment in dose and time dependant manner by human neuroblastoma SK-N-MC cells and primary human neurons. Further, HDAC2 overexpression was associated with concomitant downregulation in CREB and CaMKIIa genes that are known to regulate neuronal activity. These observed effects were completely blocked by HDAC2 inhibition. These results for the first time suggest the possible role of HDAC2 in development of HAND. Therefore, use of HDAC2 specific inhibitor in combination with HAART may be of therapeutic value in treatment of neurocognitive disorders observed in HIV-1 infected individuals. PMID:21315782

  5. Epigenetic targets of HDAC inhibition in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ted; Zukin, R Suzanne

    2008-02-01

    Epigenetic chromatin remodeling and modifications of DNA represent central mechanisms for regulation of gene expression during brain development and in memory formation. Emerging evidence implicates epigenetic modifications in disorders of synaptic plasticity and cognition. This review focuses on recent findings that HDAC inhibitors can ameliorate deficits in synaptic plasticity, cognition, and stress-related behaviors in a wide range of neurologic and psychiatric disorders including Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, anxiety and mood disorders, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, and Rett syndrome. These agents may prove useful in the clinic for the treatment of the cognitive impairments that are central elements of many neurodevelopmental, neurological, and psychiatric disorders. PMID:18206423

  6. The class I histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 prevents pancreatic beta cell death induced by palmitate.

    PubMed

    Plaisance, Valérie; Rolland, Laure; Gmyr, Valéry; Annicotte, Jean-Sébastien; Kerr-Conte, Julie; Pattou, François; Abderrahmani, Amar

    2014-01-01

    Elevation of the dietary saturated fatty acid palmitate contributes to the reduction of functional beta cell mass in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The diabetogenic effect of palmitate is achieved by increasing beta cell death through induction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers including activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) and CAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein-10 (Chop). In this study, we investigated whether treatment of beta cells with the MS-275, a HDAC1 and HDAC3 activity inhibitor which prevents beta cell death elicited by cytokines, is beneficial for combating beta cell dysfunction caused by palmitate. We show that culture of isolated human islets and MIN6 cells with MS-275 reduced apoptosis evoked by palmitate. The protective effect of MS-275 was associated with the attenuation of the expression of Atf3 and Chop. Silencing of HDAC3, but not of HDAC1, mimicked the effects of MS-275 on the expression of the two ER stress markers and apoptosis. These data point to HDAC3 as a potential drug target for preserving beta cells against lipotoxicity in diabetes. PMID:25610877

  7. The Class I Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor MS-275 Prevents Pancreatic Beta Cell Death Induced by Palmitate

    PubMed Central

    Plaisance, Valérie; Rolland, Laure; Gmyr, Valéry; Annicotte, Jean-Sébastien; Kerr-Conte, Julie; Pattou, François; Abderrahmani, Amar

    2014-01-01

    Elevation of the dietary saturated fatty acid palmitate contributes to the reduction of functional beta cell mass in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The diabetogenic effect of palmitate is achieved by increasing beta cell death through induction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers including activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) and CAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein-10 (Chop). In this study, we investigated whether treatment of beta cells with the MS-275, a HDAC1 and HDAC3 activity inhibitor which prevents beta cell death elicited by cytokines, is beneficial for combating beta cell dysfunction caused by palmitate. We show that culture of isolated human islets and MIN6 cells with MS-275 reduced apoptosis evoked by palmitate. The protective effect of MS-275 was associated with the attenuation of the expression of Atf3 and Chop. Silencing of HDAC3, but not of HDAC1, mimicked the effects of MS-275 on the expression of the two ER stress markers and apoptosis. These data point to HDAC3 as a potential drug target for preserving beta cells against lipotoxicity in diabetes. PMID:25610877

  8. Synthesis and Structure Activity Relationship of 3-Hydroxypyridin-2-thione Based Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sodji, Quaovi H.; Patil, Vishal; Kornacki, James R.; Mrksich, Milan; Oyelere, Adegboyega K.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously identified 3-hydroxypyridin-2-thione (3HPT) as a novel zinc binding group for histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition. Early structure activity relationship (SAR) studies led to various small molecules possessing selective inhibitory activity against HDAC6 or HDAC8 but are devoid of HDAC1 inhibition. To further delineate the depth of the SAR of 3HPT-derived HDAC inhibitors (HDACi), we have extended the SAR studies to include the linker region and the surface recognition group to optimize the HDAC inhibition. The current efforts resulted in the identification of two lead compounds 10d and 14e with potent HDAC6 and HDAC8 activities, but that are inactive against HDAC1. These new HDACi possess anti-cancer activities against various cancer cell lines including Jurkat J-γ1 against which SAHA and the previously disclosed 3HPT-derived HDACi were inactive. PMID:24304348

  9. Class I HDACs Affect DNA Replication, Repair, and Chromatin Structure: Implications for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Kristy R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The contribution of epigenetic alterations to cancer development and progression is becoming increasingly clear, prompting the development of epigenetic therapies. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) represent one of the first classes of such therapy. Two HDIs, Vorinostat and Romidepsin, are broad-spectrum inhibitors that target multiple histone deacetylases (HDACs) and are FDA approved for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. However, the mechanism of action and the basis for the cancer-selective effects of these inhibitors are still unclear. Recent Advances: While the anti-tumor effects of HDIs have traditionally been attributed to their ability to modify gene expression after the accumulation of histone acetylation, recent studies have identified the effects of HDACs on DNA replication, DNA repair, and genome stability. In addition, the HDIs available in the clinic target multiple HDACs, making it difficult to assign either their anti-tumor effects or their associated toxicities to the inhibition of a single protein. However, recent studies in mouse models provide insights into the tissue-specific functions of individual HDACs and their involvement in mediating the effects of HDI therapy. Critical Issues: Here, we describe how altered replication contributes to the efficacy of HDAC-targeted therapies as well as discuss what knowledge mouse models have provided to our understanding of the specific functions of class I HDACs, their potential involvement in tumorigenesis, and how their disruption may contribute to toxicities associated with HDI treatment. Future Directions: Impairment of DNA replication by HDIs has important therapeutic implications. Future studies should assess how best to exploit these findings for therapeutic gain. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 51–65. PMID:24730655

  10. Feedback Activation of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor Limits Response to Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hanlin; Qu, Jia; Jin, Nan; Xu, Jun; Lin, Chenchu; Chen, Yi; Yang, Xinying; He, Xiang; Tang, Shuai; Lan, Xiaojing; Yang, Xiaotong; Chen, Ziqi; Huang, Min; Ding, Jian; Geng, Meiyu

    2016-09-12

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have demonstrated clinical benefits in subtypes of hematological malignancies. However, the efficacy of HDAC inhibitors in solid tumors remains uncertain. This study takes breast cancer as a model to understand mechanisms accounting for limited response of HDAC inhibitors in solid tumors and to seek combination solutions. We discover that feedback activation of leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) signaling in breast cancer limits the response to HDAC inhibition. Mechanistically, HDAC inhibition increases histone acetylation at the LIFR gene promoter, which recruits bromodomain protein BRD4, upregulates LIFR expression, and activates JAK1-STAT3 signaling. Importantly, JAK1 or BRD4 inhibition sensitizes breast cancer to HDAC inhibitors, implicating combination inhibition of HDAC with JAK1 or BRD4 as potential therapies for breast cancer. PMID:27622335

  11. Inhibition of HDAC6 modifies tau inclusion body formation and impairs autophagic clearance.

    PubMed

    Leyk, Janina; Goldbaum, Olaf; Noack, Monika; Richter-Landsberg, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    Proteinaceous inclusions in nerve cells and glia are a defining neuropathological hallmark in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Their occurrence may be related to malfunctions of the proteolytic degradation systems. In cultured oligodendrocytes, proteasomal inhibition leads to protein aggregate formation resembling coiled bodies, which are characteristic for PSP and CBD. Large protein aggregates are excluded from the proteasome and can only be degraded by autophagy, a lysosomal pathway. Autophagy is a highly selective process, which requires a variety of receptor proteins for ubiquitinated proteins, such as p62 and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6). HDAC6 is mainly localized in the cytoplasm, and alpha-tubulin is its major substrate. HDAC6 is considered as a sensor of proteasomal stress; it is involved in the autophagosomal pathway and can mediate the retrograde transport of ubiquitinated proteins along the microtubules. As we have shown recently, HDAC6 is present in oligodendrocytes and its inhibition leads to morphological alterations, microtubule bundling, modulation of acetylation, and phosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether HDAC6 is involved in protein aggregate formation in oligodendrocytes and whether its inhibition modifies the consequences of MG-132-induced inhibition of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). The data show that HDAC6 and acetylated tau are recruited to protein aggregates after proteasomal inhibition. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC6 by the selective inhibitor tubastatin A (TST) and its small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated downregulation alters the assembly of MG-132-induced compact protein aggregates. After TST treatment, they appear more diffusely dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. This is not a protective means but promotes the onset

  12. Rational therapeutic combinations with histone deacetylase inhibitors for the treatment of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thurn, K Ted; Thomas, Scott; Moore, Amy; Munster, Pamela N

    2011-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate the acetylation of a variety of histone and nonhistone proteins, controlling the transcription and regulation of genes involved in cell cycle control, proliferation, survival, DNA repair and differentiation. Unsurprisingly, HDAC expression is frequently altered in hematologic and solid tumor malignancies. Two HDAC inhibitors (vorinostat and romidepsin) have been approved by the US FDA for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. As single agents, treatment with HDAC inhibitors has demonstrated limited clinical benefit for patients with solid tumors, prompting the investigation of novel treatment combinations with other cancer therapeutics. In this article, the rationales and clinical progress of several combinations with HDAC inhibitors are presented, including DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents, radiotherapy, hormonal therapies, DNA methyltransferase inhibitors and various small-molecule inhibitors. The future application of HDAC inhibitors as a treatment for cancer is discussed, examining current hurdles to overcome before realizing the potential of this new approach. PMID:21345145

  13. Histone deacetylases in monocyte/macrophage development, activation and metabolism: refining HDAC targets for inflammatory and infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Das Gupta, Kaustav; Shakespear, Melanie R; Iyer, Abishek; Fairlie, David P; Sweet, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages have central roles in danger detection, inflammation and host defense, and consequently, these cells are intimately linked to most disease processes. Major advances in our understanding of the development and function of macrophages have recently come to light. For example, it is now clear that tissue-resident macrophages can be derived from either blood monocytes or through local proliferation of phagocytes that are originally seeded during embryonic development. Metabolic state has also emerged as a major control point for macrophage activation phenotypes. Herein, we review recent literature linking the histone deacetylase (HDAC) family of enzymes to macrophage development and activation, particularly in relation to these recent developments. There has been considerable interest in potential therapeutic applications for small molecule inhibitors of HDACs (HDACi), not only for cancer, but also for inflammatory and infectious diseases. However, the enormous range of molecular and cellular processes that are controlled by different HDAC enzymes presents a potential stumbling block to clinical development. We therefore present examples of how classical HDACs control macrophage functions, roles of specific HDACs in these processes and approaches for selective targeting of drugs, such as HDACi, to macrophages. Development of selective inhibitors of macrophage-expressed HDACs and/or selective delivery of pan HDACi to macrophages may provide avenues for enhancing efficacy of HDACi in therapeutic applications, while limiting unwanted side effects. PMID:26900475

  14. VARIABLE ACTIVE SITE LOOP CONFORMATIONS ACCOMMODATE THE BINDING OF MACROCYCLIC LARGAZOLE ANALOGUES TO HDAC8

    PubMed Central

    Decroos, Christophe; Clausen, Dane J.; Haines, Brandon E.; Wiest, Olaf; Williams, Robert M.; Christianson, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The macrocyclic depsipeptide Largazole is a potent inhibitor of metal-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs), some of which are drug targets for cancer chemotherapy. Indeed, Largazole partially resembles Romidepsin (FK228), a macrocyclic depsipeptide already approved for clinical use. Each inhibitor contains a pendant side chain thiol that coordinates to the active site Zn2+ ion, as observed in the X-ray crystal structure of the HDAC8–Largazole complex [Cole, K. E.; Dowling, D. P.; Boone, M. A.; Phillips, A. J.; Christianson, D. W. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 12474]. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structures of HDAC8 complexed with three synthetic analogues of Largazole in which the depsipeptide ester is replaced with a rigid amide linkage. In two of these analogues, a 6-membered pyridine ring is also substituted (with two different orientations) for the 5-membered thiazole ring in the macrocycle skeleton. The side chain thiol group of each analogue coordinates to the active site Zn2+ ion with nearly ideal geometry, thereby preserving the hallmark structural feature of inhibition by Largazole. Surprisingly, in comparison with the binding of Largazole, these analogues trigger alternative conformational changes in the L1 and L2 loops flanking the active site. However, despite these structural differences, inhibitory potency is generally comparable to, or just moderately less than, the inhibitory potency of Largazole. Thus, this study reveals important new structure-affinity relationships for the binding of macrocyclic inhibitors to HDAC8. PMID:25793284

  15. Histone Deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) Participates in the Down-Regulation of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Gene (crh) Expression

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lydia; Foradori, Chad D.; Lalmansingh, Avin S.; Sharma, Dharmendra; Handa, Robert J.; Uht, Rosalie M.

    2011-01-01

    The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) plays a central role in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Medial parvocellular neurons of the PVH (mpPVH) integrate sensory and humoral inputs to maintain homeostasis. Humeral inputs include glucocorticoids secreted by the adrenals, which down-regulate HPA activation. A primary glucocorticoid target is the population of mpPVH neurons that synthesize and secrete corticotropin-releasing factors, the most potent of which is corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Although CRH gene (crh) expression is known to be down-regulated by glucocorticoids, the mechanisms by which this process occurs are still poorly understood. To begin this study we postulated that glucocorticoid repression of crh involves HDAC recruitment to the region of the crh proximal promoter. To evaluate this hypothesis, we treated hypothalamic cells that express CRH with the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). As predicted, treatment with TSA led to increased CRH mRNA levels and crh promoter activity. Although co-treatment with Dex (10−7 M) reduced the TSA effect on mRNA levels, it failed to reduce promoter activity; however co-transfection of HDAC1 but not 3 restored Dex inhibition. A distinction between HDAC1 and 3 was also apparent with respect to crh promoter occupancy. Dex led to increased HDAC1 but not HDAC3 occupancy. In vivo studies revealed that CRH-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons contained HDAC1- and HDAC3-ir. Collectively, these data point to a role for HDAC1 in the physiologic regulation of crh. PMID:21463644

  16. Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) participates in the down-regulation of corticotropin releasing hormone gene (crh) expression.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lydia; Foradori, Chad D; Lalmansingh, Avin S; Sharma, Dharmendra; Handa, Robert J; Uht, Rosalie M

    2011-08-01

    The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) plays a central role in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Medial parvocellular neurons of the PVH (mpPVH) integrate sensory and humoral inputs to maintain homeostasis. Humoral inputs include glucocorticoids secreted by the adrenals, which down-regulate HPA activation. A primary glucocorticoid target is the population of mpPVH neurons that synthesize and secrete corticotropin-releasing factors, the most potent of which is corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Although CRH gene (crh) expression is known to be down-regulated by glucocorticoids, the mechanisms by which this process occurs are still poorly understood. To begin this study we postulated that glucocorticoid repression of crh involves HDAC recruitment to the region of the crh proximal promoter. To evaluate this hypothesis, we treated hypothalamic cells that express CRH with the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). As predicted, treatment with TSA led to increased CRH mRNA levels and crh promoter activity. Although co-treatment with Dex (10(-7)M) reduced the TSA effect on mRNA levels, it failed to reduce promoter activity; however co-transfection of HDAC1 but not 3 restored Dex inhibition. A distinction between HDAC1 and 3 was also apparent with respect to crh promoter occupancy. Dex led to increased HDAC1 but not HDAC3 occupancy. In vivo studies revealed that CRH-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons contained HDAC1- and HDAC3-ir. Collectively, these data point to a role for HDAC1 in the physiologic regulation of crh. PMID:21463644

  17. RFX family proteins differentially interact with HDACs to repress collagen alpha 2(I) gene (COL1A2) expression

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Y.; Sengupta, P.K.; Seto, E.; Smith, B.D.

    2006-01-01

    Our studies indicate that regulatory factor for X-box (RFX) family proteins repress collagen alpha2(I) gene (COL1A2) expression (1,2). In the present investigation, we examine the mechanism(s) underlying the repression of collagen gene by RFX proteins. Two members of the RFX family, RFX1 and RFX5, associate with distinct sets of co-repressors on the collagen transcription start site in vitro. RFX5 specifically interacts with histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and the mammalian transcriptional repressor (mSin3B) whereas RFX1 preferably interacts with HDAC1 and mSin3A. HDAC2 cooperates with RFX5 to down-regulate collagen promoter activity while HDAC1 enhances inhibition of collagen promoter activity by RFX1. IFN-γ promotes the recruitment of RFX5/HDAC2/mSin3B to the collagen transcription start site but decreases the occupancy by RFX1/mSin3A as manifested by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. RFX1 binds to methylated collagen sequence with much higher affinity than unmethylated sequence, recruiting more HDAC1 and mSin3A. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (aza-dC), that inhibits DNA methylation, reduces RFX1/HDAC1 binding to the collagen transcription start site in ChIP assays. Finally, both RFX1 and RFX5 are acetylated in vivo. TSA stimulates the acetylation of RFX proteins and activates the collagen promoter activity. Collectively, our data strongly indicate two separate pathways for RFX proteins to repress collagen gene expression: one for RFX5/HDAC2 in IFN-γ mediated repression, the other for RFX1/HDAC1 in methylation mediated collagen silencing. PMID:16464847

  18. Enhanced efficacy of combined HDAC and PARP targeting in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Rikke D; Gajjar, Madhavsai K; Jensen, Kamilla E; Hamerlik, Petra

    2016-05-01

    Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that targeting chromatin remodeling factors is as a promising strategy for the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM). We and others have shown constitutive activation of DNA damage response (DDR) pathways in gliomas and suggested that targeting the DDR may improve the currently grim prognosis for patients. Based on our previous findings that inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) increases radio-sensitivity of the notoriously radio-resistant GBM cells, we hypothesized that epigenetic down-regulation of the DDR responses and induction of oxidative stress via HDAC inhibition would contribute to more efficient targeting of this deadly disease. Our data show that SAHA, an HDAC class I + II inhibitor, in combination with olaparib (PARP inhibitor): i) enhanced inhibition of GBM cell survival, ii) induced apoptosis, and iii) impaired cell cycle progression. These results provide a pre-clinical rationale for combined administration of SAHA and olaparib, which are already individually in clinical trials. PMID:26794465

  19. Synergistic effects of combined treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and TRAIL on human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Weiqiang; Feng, Xiuyan; Han Han; Guo, Shanchun; Wang, Guangdi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that either histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors or tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can induce apoptosis in tumor cells including breast cancer. However, the underling mechanisms of combining HDAC inhibitors with TRAIL in the treatment of breast cancer are poorly understood. In this study, we determined the ability of SAHA and TRAIL as single agents or in combination to inhibit the growth and survival of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Our results demonstrate that the distinct effects of SAHA or TRAIL individually and in combination on the proliferation, cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, and morphological changes of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. We further determined the different effects of SAHA or TRAIL alone and combining SAHA with TRAIL on the expression of a number of apoptosis-related molecules, cell cycle, growth factors and their receptors in cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that the combinatorial treatment of SAHA and TRAIL may target multiple pathways and serve as an effective therapeutic strategy against breast cancer. An improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms may facilitate either SAHA or TRAIL targeted use and the selection of suitable combinations. PMID:27292433

  20. Purification, characterization, and complete amino acid sequence of a trypsin inhibitor from amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Valdes-Rodriguez, S; Segura-Nieto, M; Chagolla-Lopez, A; Verver y Vargas-Cortina, A; Martinez-Gallardo, N; Blanco-Labra, A

    1993-01-01

    A protein proteinase inhibitor was purified from a seed extract of amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) by precipitation with (NH4)2SO4, gel-filtration chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. It is a 69-amino acid protein with a high content of valine, arginine, and glutamic acid, but lacking in methionine. The inhibitor has a relative molecular weight of 7400 and an isoelectric point of 7.5. It is a serine proteinase inhibitor that recognizes chymotrypsin, trypsin, and trypsin-like proteinase activities extracted from larvae of the insect Prostephanus truncatus. This inhibitor belongs to the potato-I inhibitor family, showing the closest homology (59.5%) with the Lycopersicum peruvianum trypsin inhibitor, and (51%) with the proteinase inhibitor 5 extracted from the seeds of Cucurbita maxima. The position of the lysine-aspartic acid residues present in the active site of the amaranth inhibitor are found in almost the same relative position as in the inhibitor from C. maxima. PMID:8290633

  1. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Clinical Studies as Templates for New Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Mottamal, Madhusoodanan; Zheng, Shilong; Huang, Tien L.; Wang, Guangdi

    2015-01-01

    Histone dacetylases (HDACs) are a group of enzymes that remove acetyl groups from histones and regulate expression of tumor suppressor genes. They are implicated in many human diseases, especially cancer, making them a promising therapeutic target for treatment of the latter by developing a wide variety of inhibitors. HDAC inhibitors interfere with HDAC activity and regulate biological events, such as cell cycle, differentiation and apoptosis in cancer cells. As a result, HDAC inhibitor-based therapies have gained much attention for cancer treatment. To date, the FDA has approved three HDAC inhibitors for cutaneous/peripheral T-cell lymphoma and many more HDAC inhibitors are in different stages of clinical development for the treatment of hematological malignancies as well as solid tumors. In the intensifying efforts to discover new, hopefully more therapeutically efficacious HDAC inhibitors, molecular modeling-based rational drug design has played an important role in identifying potential inhibitors that vary in molecular structures and properties. In this review, we summarize four major structural classes of HDAC inhibitors that are in clinical trials and different computer modeling tools available for their structural modifications as a guide to discover additional HDAC inhibitors with greater therapeutic utility. PMID:25738536

  2. Discovery of Novel Multiacting Topoisomerase I/II and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Designing multitarget drugs remains a significant challenge in current antitumor drug discovery. Because of the synergistic effect between topoisomerase and HDAC inhibitors, the present study reported the first-in-class triple inhibitors of topoisomerase I/II and HDAC. On the basis of 3-amino-10-hydroxylevodiamine and SAHA, a series of hybrid molecules was successfully designed and synthesized. In particular, compound 8c was proven to be a potent inhibitor of topoisomerase I/II and HDAC with good antiproliferative and apoptotic activities. This proof-of-concept study also validated the effectiveness of discovering triple topoisomerase I/II and HDAC inhibitors as novel antitumor agents. PMID:25815139

  3. The bZIP repressor proteins, c-Jun dimerization protein 2 and activating transcription factor 3, recruit multiple HDAC members to the ATF3 promoter.

    PubMed

    Darlyuk-Saadon, Ilona; Weidenfeld-Baranboim, Keren; Yokoyama, Kazunari K; Hai, Tsonwin; Aronheim, Ami

    2012-01-01

    JDP2, is a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein displaying a high degree of homology with the stress inducible transcription factor, ATF3. Both proteins bind to cAMP and TPA response elements and repress transcription by multiple mechanisms. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a key role in gene inactivation by deacetylating lysine residues on histones. Here we describe the association of JDP2 and ATF3 with HDACs 1, 2-6 and 10. Association of HDAC3 and HDAC6 with JDP2 and ATF3 occurs via direct protein-protein interactions. Only part of the N-terminal bZIP motif of JDP2 and ATF3 basic domain is necessary and sufficient for the interaction with HDACs in a manner that is independent of coiled-coil dimerization. Class I HDACs associate with the bZIP repressors via the DAC conserved domain whereas the Class IIb HDAC6 associates through its C-terminal unique binder of ubiquitin Zn finger domain. Both JDP2 and ATF3 are known to bind and repress the ATF3 promoter. MEF cells treated with histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA) display enhanced ATF3 transcription. ATF3 enhanced transcription is significantly reduced in MEF cells lacking both ATF3 and JDP2. Collectively, we propose that the recruitment of multiple HDAC members to JDP2 and ATF3 is part of their transcription repression mechanism. PMID:22989952

  4. Induction of truncated form of tenascin-X (XB-S) through dissociation of HDAC1 from SP-1/HDAC1 complex in response to hypoxic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Akari; Endo, Toshiya; Abiko, Shun; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Matsumoto, Ken-ichi

    2008-08-15

    ABSTRACT: XB-S is an amino-terminal truncated protein of tenascin-X (TNX) in humans. The levels of the XB-S transcript, but not those of TNX transcripts, were increased upon hypoxia. We identified a critical hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) localized to a GT-rich element positioned from - 1410 to - 1368 in the XB-S promoter. Using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), we found that the HRE forms a DNA-protein complex with Sp1 and that GG positioned in - 1379 and - 1378 is essential for the binding of the nuclear complex. Transfection experiments in SL2 cells, an Sp1-deficient model system, with an Sp1 expression vector demonstrated that the region from - 1380 to - 1371, an HRE, is sufficient for efficient activation of the XB-S promoter upon hypoxia. The EMSA and a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed that Sp1 together with the transcriptional repressor histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) binds to the HRE of the XB-S promoter under normoxia and that hypoxia causes dissociation of HDAC1 from the Sp1/HDAC1 complex. The HRE promoter activity was induced in the presence of a histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, even under normoxia. Our results indicate that the hypoxia-induced activation of the XB-S promoter is regulated through dissociation of HDAC1 from an Sp1-binding HRE site.

  5. HDAC1 regulates the proliferation of radial glial cells in the developing Xenopus tectum.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yi; Ruan, Hangze; Guo, Xia; Li, Lixin; Shen, Wanhua

    2015-01-01

    In the developing central nervous system (CNS), progenitor cells differentiate into progeny to form functional neural circuits. Radial glial cells (RGs) are a transient progenitor cell type that is present during neurogenesis. It is thought that a combination of neural trophic factors, neurotransmitters and electrical activity regulates the proliferation and differentiation of RGs. However, it is less clear how epigenetic modulation changes RG proliferation. We sought to explore the effect of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity on the proliferation of RGs in the visual optic tectum of Xenopus laevis. We found that the number of BrdU-labeled precursor cells along the ventricular layer of the tectum decrease developmentally from stage 46 to stage 49. The co-labeling of BrdU-positive cells with brain lipid-binding protein (BLBP), a radial glia marker, showed that the majority of BrdU-labeled cells along the tectal midline are RGs. BLBP-positive cells are also developmentally decreased with the maturation of the brain. Furthermore, HDAC1 expression is developmentally down-regulated in tectal cells, especially in the ventricular layer of the tectum. Pharmacological blockade of HDACs using Trichostatin A (TSA) or Valproic acid (VPA) decreased the number of BrdU-positive, BLBP-positive and co-labeling cells. Specific knockdown of HDAC1 by a morpholino (HDAC1-MO) decreased the number of BrdU- and BLBP-labeled cells and increased the acetylation level of histone H4 at lysine 12 (H4K12). The visual deprivation-induced increase in BrdU- and BLBP-positive cells was blocked by HDAC1 knockdown at stage 49 tadpoles. These data demonstrate that HDAC1 regulates radial glia cell proliferation in the developing optical tectum of Xenopus laevis. PMID:25789466

  6. Peptides inhibitors of acid-sensing ion channels.

    PubMed

    Diochot, S; Salinas, M; Baron, A; Escoubas, P; Lazdunski, M

    2007-02-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) channels are proton-gated cationic channels mainly expressed in central and peripheric nervous system and related to the epithelial amiloride-sensitive Na(+) channels and to the degenerin family of ion channels. ASICs comprise four proteins forming functional channel subunits (ASIC1a, ASIC1b, ASIC2a, and ASIC3) and two proteins (ASIC2b and ASIC4) without yet known activators. Functional channels are activated by external pH variations ranging from pH(0.5) 6.8 to 4.0 and currents are characterized by either rapid kinetics of inactivation (ASIC1a, ASIC1b, ASIC3) or slow kinetics of inactivation (ASIC2a) and sometimes the presence of a plateau phase (ASIC3). ASIC1a and ASIC3, which are expressed in nociceptive neurons, have been implicated in inflammation and knockout mice studies support the role of ASIC3 in various pain processes. ASIC1a seems more related to synaptic plasticity, memory, learning and fear conditioning in the CNS. ASIC2a contributes to hearing in the cochlea, sour taste sensation, and visual transduction in the retina. The pharmacology of ASICs is limited to rather nonselective drugs such as amiloride, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, and neuropeptides. Recently, two peptides, PcTx1 and APETx2, isolated from a spider and a sea anemone, have been characterized as selective and high-affinity inhibitors for ASIC1a and ASIC3 channels, respectively. PcTx1 inhibits ASIC1a homomers with an affinity of 0.7 nM (IC(50)) without any effect on ASIC1a containing heteromers and thus helped to characterize ASIC1a homomeric channels in peripheric and central neurons. PcTx1 acts as a gating modifier since it shifts the channel from the resting to an inactivated state by increasing its affinity for H(+). APETx2 is less selective since it inhibits several ASIC3-containing channels (IC(50) from 63 nM to 2 microM) and to date its mode of action is unknown. Nevertheless, APETx2 structure is related to other sea anemone peptides, which

  7. [Effect of proteolysis inhibitors on the incorporation of labelled amino acids into proteins].

    PubMed

    Konikova, A S; Korotkina, R N

    1975-01-01

    Role of peptide bond breaks in the incorporation of amino acids into proteins in a "protein--amino acid" system is investigated. For this purpose the incorporation of labelled amino acids into trypsin under the inhibition of its autolysis by a specific inhibitor from soybean and epsilon-amino-caproic acid is studied. The trypsin inhibitor from soybean is found to suppress considerably the incorporation of 14C-glycine, 14C-lysine and 14C-methionine into crystal trypsin and not to affect the incorporation of labelled amino acids into chomotrypsin, papain and carboxypeptidase. Epsilon-Aminocaproic acid inhibited 14C-glycine incorporation into crystal trypsin by 40% and did not change its incorporation level into serum albumin. The dependency of amino acid incorporation level into trypsin on the activity of autolysis in the "protein--amino acid" system is demonstrated. PMID:1212456

  8. MS-275 inhibits aroclor 1254-induced SH-SY5Y neuronal cell toxicity by preventing the formation of the HDAC3/REST complex on the synapsin-1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Formisano, Luigi; Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy; Mascolo, Luigi; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Canzoniero, Lorella M T

    2015-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and dementia. Neuronal death elicited by the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 (A1254) has been attributed to an increase in RE-1-silencing transcription factor (REST), which, in turn, correlates with a decrease in the synapsin-1 promoter gene. Although histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are known to be neuroprotective in several neurologic disorders, the core mechanisms governing this effect are not yet understood. Here, to examine how HDAC class I [N-(2-aminophenyl)-4-[N-(pyridin-3-yl-methoxycarbonyl)aminomethyl]-benzamide (MS-275)] and HDAC class II [3-[5-(3-(3-fluorophenyl)-3-oxopropen-1-yl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-N-hydroxy-2-propenamide (MC-1568)] inhibitors prevent A1254-induced neuronal cell death, we exposed SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells to A1254. Exposure to A1254 (30.6 μM) for 24 and 48 hours resulted in a time-dependent cell death. Indeed, after 48 hours, MS-275, but not MC-1568, reverted A1254-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, A1254 significantly increased HDAC3, but not HDAC1 or HDAC2. Interestingly, REST physically interacted with HDAC3 after A1254 exposure. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that MS-275 reverted the increased levels of HDAC3 binding and decreased acetylation of histone H3 within the synapsin-1 promoter region, thus reverting synapsin-1 mRNA reduction. Moreover, REST knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented HDAC3 from binding to the synapsin-1 promoter. Likewise, HDAC3 siRNA significantly reduced A1254-induced cell toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and cortical neurons. Hence, this study demonstrates that inhibition of HDAC class I attenuates A1254-induced neuronal cell death by preventing HDAC3 binding and histone deacetylation within the synapsin-1 promoter region. PMID:25467131

  9. Comparative acid tolerances and inhibitor sensitivities of isolated F-ATPases of oral lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Sturr, M G; Marquis, R E

    1992-01-01

    pH activity profiles and inhibitor sensitivities were compared for membrane ATPases isolated from three oral lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus casei ATCC 4646, Streptococcus mutans GS-5, and Streptococcus sanguis NCTC 10904, with, respectively, high, moderate, and low levels of acid tolerance. Membranes containing F1F0 ATPases were isolated by means of salt lysis of cells treated with muralytic enzymes. Membrane-free F1F0 complexes were then isolated from membranes by detergent extraction with Triton X-100 or octylglucoside. Finally, F1 complexes free of the proton-conducting F0 sector were obtained by washing membranes with buffers of low ionic strength. The pH activity profiles of the membrane-associated enzymes reflected the general acid tolerances of the organisms from which they were isolated; for example, pH optima were approximately 5.5, 6.0, and 7.0, respectively, for enzymes from L. casei, S. mutans, and S. sanguis. Roughly similar profiles were found for membrane-free F1F0 complexes, which were stabilized by phospholipids against loss of activity during storage. However, profiles for F1 enzymes were distinctly narrower, indicating that association with F0 and possibly other membrane components enhanced tolerance to both acid and alkaline media. All of the enzymes were found to have similar sensitivities to Al-F complexes, but only F1F0 enzymes were highly sensitive to dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. The procedures described for isolation of membrane-free F1F0 forms of the enzymes from oral lactic acid bacteria will be of use in future studies of the characteristics of the enzymes, especially in studies with liposomes. PMID:1386211

  10. Arsenic toxicity induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia: Pharmacological interdiction by histone deacetylase and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Bhupesh Sharma, P.M.

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic toxicity has been reported to damage all the major organs including the brain and vasculature. Dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are posing greater risk to the world population as it is now increasing at a faster rate. We have investigated the role of sodium butyrate, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in pharmacological interdiction of arsenic toxicity induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and dementia in rats. Arsenic toxicity was done by administering arsenic drinking water to rats. Morris water-maze (MWM) test was used for assessment of learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed using student physiograph. Oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, brain glutathione) and nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) were also measured. Arsenic treated rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate and brain GSH levels along with increase in serum and brain TBARS. Sodium butyrate as well as aminoguanidine significantly convalesce arsenic induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction and dementia, whereas, sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor as well as aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of arsenic induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia. - Highlights: • As has induced endothelial dysfunction (Edf) and vascular dementia (VaD). • As has increased oxidative stress, AChE activity and decreased serum NO. • Inhibitors of HDAC and iNOS have attenuated As induced Edf and VaD. • Both the inhibitors have attenuated As induced biochemical changes. • Inhibitor of HDAC and iNOS has shown good potential in

  11. 2-Aminoimidazole Amino Acids as Inhibitors of the Binuclear Manganese Metalloenzyme Human Arginase I

    SciTech Connect

    Ilies, M.; Di Costanzo, L; North, M; Scott, J; Christianson, D

    2010-01-01

    Arginase, a key metalloenzyme of the urea cycle that converts L-arginine into L-ornithine and urea, is presently considered a pharmaceutical target for the management of diseases associated with aberrant L-arginine homeostasis, such as asthma, cardiovascular diseases, and erectile dysfunction. We now report the design, synthesis, and evaluation of a series of 2-aminoimidazole amino acid inhibitors in which the 2-aminoimidazole moiety serves as a guanidine mimetic. These compounds represent a new class of arginase inhibitors. The most potent inhibitor identified in this study, 2-(S)-amino-5-(2-aminoimidazol-1-yl)pentanoic acid (A1P, 10), binds to human arginase I with K{sub d} = 2 {micro}M and significantly attenuates airways hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of allergic airways inflammation. These findings suggest that 2-aminoimidazole amino acids represent new leads for the development of arginase inhibitors with promising pharmacological profiles.

  12. 2-Aminoimidazole Amino Acids as Inhibitors of the Binuclear Manganese Metalloenzyme Human Arginase I

    PubMed Central

    Ilies, Monica; Di Costanzo, Luigi; North, Michelle L.; Scott, Jeremy A.; Christianson, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Arginase, a key metalloenzyme of the urea cycle that converts L-arginine into L-ornithine and urea, is presently considered a pharmaceutical target for the management of diseases associated with aberrant L-arginine homeostasis, such as asthma, cardiovascular diseases, and erectile dysfunction. We now report the design, synthesis, and evaluation of a series of 2-aminoimidazole amino acids inhibitors in which the 2-aminoimidazole moiety serves as a guanidine mimetic. These compounds represent a new class of arginase inhibitors. The most potent inhibitor identified in this study, 2-(S)-amino-5-(2-aminoimidazol-1-yl)-pentanoic acid (A1P, 10), binds to human arginase I with Kd = 2 μM and significantly attenuates airways hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of allergic airways inflammation. These findings suggest that 2-aminoimidazole amino acids represent new leads for the development of arginase inhibitors with promising pharmacological profiles. PMID:20441173

  13. HDAC6-mediated EGFR stabilization and activation restrict cell response to sorafenib in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihao; Hu, Pengchao; Tang, Fang; Xie, Conghua

    2016-05-01

    Sorafenib is a multi-targeted kinase inhibitor and has been the subject of extensive clinical research in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, sorafenib fails to improve overall survival of patients with advanced NSCLC. The molecular mechanisms that account for this phenomenon are unclear. Here we show that sorafenib treatment stabilizes epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and activates EGFR pathway. Moreover, this is partly mediated by stabilization of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), which has been shown to regulate EGFR endocytic trafficking and degradation. Overexpression of HDAC6 confers resistance to sorafenib in NSCLC cells. Inhibition of HDAC6 with selective inhibitors synergizes with sorafenib to kill NSCLC cells via inhibition of sorafenib-mediated EGFR pathway activation. Taken together, our findings might partly explain the failure of Phase III trial of sorafenib in improving overall survival of advanced NSCLC patients and bear possible implications for the improvement on the efficacy of sorafenib in treatment of NSCLC. PMID:27090797

  14. HDAC6 regulates GR signaling in serotonin pathways with critical impact on stress resilience

    PubMed Central

    Espallergues, Julie; Teegarden, Sarah L.; Veerakumar, Avin; Boulden, Janette; Challis, Collin; Jochems, Jeanine; Chan, Michael; Petersen, Tess; Deneris, Evan; Matthias, Patrick; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Lucki, Irwin; Beck, Sheryl G.; Berton, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variations in certain components of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) chaperone complex have been associated with the development of stress-related affective disorders and individual variability in therapeutic responses to antidepressants. Mechanisms that link GR chaperoning and stress susceptibility are not well understood. Here, we show that the effects of glucocorticoid hormones on socioaffective behaviors are critically regulated via reversible acetylation of Hsp90, a key component of the GR chaperone complex. We provide pharmacological and genetic evidence indicating that the cytoplasmic lysine deacetylase HDAC6 controls Hsp90 acetylation in the brain, and thereby modulates Hsp90-GR protein-protein interactions, as well as hormone- and stress-induced GR translocation, with a critical impact on GR downstream signaling and behavior. Pet1-Cre driven deletion of HDAC6 in serotonin neurons, the densest HDAC6-expressing cell group in the mouse brain, dramatically reduced acute anxiogenic effects of the glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone in the open field, elevated plus maze, and social interaction tests. Serotonin-selective depletion of HDAC6 also blocked the expression of social avoidance in mice exposed to chronic social defeat and concurrently prevented the electrophysiological and morphological changes induced, in serotonin neurons, by this murine model of traumatic stress. Together, these results identify HDAC6 inhibition as a potential new strategy for pro-resilience and antidepressant interventions through regulation of the Hsp90-GR heterocomplex and focal prevention of GR signaling in serotonin pathways. Our data thus uncover an alternate mechanism by which pan-HDAC inhibitors may regulate stress-related behaviors independently of their action on histones. PMID:22457490

  15. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase and Monoacylglycerol Lipase: New Targets for Future Antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shintaro; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis and analogs of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol have been used for therapeutic purposes, but their therapeutic use remains limited because of various adverse effects. Endogenous cannabinoids have been discovered, and dysregulation of endocannabinoid signaling is implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Recently, endocannabinoid hydrolytic enzymes such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) have become new therapeutic targets in the treatment of MDD. Several FAAH or MAGL inhibitors are reported to have no cannabimimetic side effects and, therefore, are new potential therapeutic options for patients with MDD who are resistant to first-line antidepressants (selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors). In this review, we focus on the possible relationships between MDD and the endocannabinoid system as well as the inhibitors' therapeutic potential. MAGL inhibitors may reduce inflammatory responses through activation of cannabinoid receptor type 2. In the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, repeated FAAH inhibitor administration may be beneficial for reducing circulating glucocorticoid levels. Both FAAH and MAGL inhibitors may contribute to dopaminergic system regulation. Recently, several new inhibitors have been developed with strong potency and selectivity. FAAH inhibitor, MAGL inhibitor, or dual blocker use would be promising new treatments for MDD. Further pre-clinical studies and clinical trials using these inhibitors are warranted. PMID:26630956

  16. Tcf1 and Lef1 transcription factors establish CD8(+) T cell identity through intrinsic HDAC activity.

    PubMed

    Xing, Shaojun; Li, Fengyin; Zeng, Zhouhao; Zhao, Yunjie; Yu, Shuyang; Shan, Qiang; Li, Yalan; Phillips, Farrah C; Maina, Peterson K; Qi, Hank H; Liu, Chengyu; Zhu, Jun; Pope, R Marshall; Musselman, Catherine A; Zeng, Chen; Peng, Weiqun; Xue, Hai-Hui

    2016-06-01

    The CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell dichotomy is essential for effective cellular immunity. How individual T cell identity is established remains poorly understood. Here we show that the high-mobility group (HMG) transcription factors Tcf1 and Lef1 are essential for repressing CD4(+) lineage-associated genes including Cd4, Foxp3 and Rorc in CD8(+) T cells. Tcf1- and Lef1-deficient CD8(+) T cells exhibit histone hyperacetylation, which can be ascribed to intrinsic histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in Tcf1 and Lef1. Mutation of five conserved amino acids in the Tcf1 HDAC domain diminishes HDAC activity and the ability to suppress CD4(+) lineage genes in CD8(+) T cells. These findings reveal that sequence-specific transcription factors can utilize intrinsic HDAC activity to guard cell identity by repressing lineage-inappropriate genes. PMID:27111144

  17. The Hyaluronic Acid–HDAC3–miRNA Network in Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngmi; Eom, Sangkyung; Park, Deokbum; Kim, Hyuna; Jeoung, Dooil

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported the anti-allergic effect of high molecular weight form of hyaluronic acid (HMW-HA). In doing so, HA targets CD44 and inhibits FcεRI signaling and cross-talk between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and FcεRI. We previously reported the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in allergic inflammation and allergic inflammation-promoted enhanced tumorigenic potential. We reported regulatory role of HA in the expression of HDAC3. In this review, we will discuss molecular mechanisms associated with anti-allergic effect of HA in relation with HDACs. The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in allergic inflammation has been reported. We will also discuss the role of miRNAs in allergic inflammation in relation with HA-mediated anti-allergic effects. PMID:25983734

  18. A New alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitor, 10-Hydroxy-8(E)-Octadecenoic Acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our continuous effort to screen natural products for their anti-microbial and enzyme inhibitor activities, we found that 10-Hydroxy-8(E)-Octadecenoic acid (HOD) exhibited strong anti- a-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) activity. HOD is an intermediate in the bioconversion of oleic acid to 7,10-dihydrox...

  19. [The clinical evaluation of the hypocholesterolemic effects of an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis: mevalonic acid].

    PubMed

    Del Nero, E; Aloe, N; Augeri, C; Avola, F; Carta, G; Cavagnaro, A; De Grandi, R; Gianfreda, M; Magro, G P; Mazzarello, G P

    1992-07-01

    Twenty eight patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia were treated with mevalonic acid (an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis) for 45 days. Patients received a daily dose of 750 to 1500 mg mevalonic acid depending on plasma cholesterol levels. Results showed a significant reduction in cholesterol values whereas no significant difference was observed in HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. PMID:1505176

  20. COMPARATIVE PATHOGENESIS OF HALOACETIC ACID AND PROTEIN KINASE INHIBITOR EMBRYOTOXICITY IN MOUSE WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative pathogenesis of haloacetic acid and protein kinase inhibitor embryotoxicity in mouse whole embryo culture.

    Ward KW, Rogers EH, Hunter ES 3rd.

    Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599-7270, USA.

    Haloacetic acids ...

  1. Fam65b is important for formation of the HDAC6-dysferlin protein complex during myogenic cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Kawahara, Genri; Gupta, Vandana A; Rozkalne, Anete; Beauvais, Ariane; Kunkel, Louis M; Gussoni, Emanuela

    2014-07-01

    Previously, we identified family with sequence similarity 65, member B (Fam65b), as a protein transiently up-regulated during differentiation and fusion of human myogenic cells. Silencing of Fam65b expression results in severe reduction of myogenin expression and consequent lack of myoblast fusion. The molecular function of Fam65b and whether misregulation of its expression could be causative of muscle diseases are unknown. Protein pulldowns were used to identify Fam65b-interacting proteins in differentiating human muscle cells and regenerating muscle tissue. In vitro, human muscle cells were treated with histone-deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, and expression of Fam65b and interacting proteins was studied. Nontreated cells were used as controls. In vivo, expression of Fam65b was down-regulated in developing zebrafish to determine the effects on muscle development. Fam65b binds to HDAC6 and dysferlin, the protein mutated in limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2B. The tricomplex Fam65b-HDAC6-dysferlin is transient, and Fam65b expression is necessary for the complex to form. Treatment of myogenic cells with pan-HDAC or HDAC6-specific inhibitors alters Fam65b expression, while dysferlin expression does not change. Inhibition of Fam65b expression in developing zebrafish results in abnormal muscle, with low birefringence, tears at the myosepta, and increased embryo lethality. Fam65b is an essential component of the HDAC6-dysferlin complex. Down-regulation of Fam65b in developing muscle causes changes consistent with muscle disease.-Balasubramanian, A., Kawahara, G., Gupta, V. A., Rozkalne, A., Beauvais, A., Kunkel, L. M., Gussoni, E. Fam65b is important for formation of the HDAC6-dysferlin protein complex during myogenic cell differentiation. PMID:24687993

  2. The Use of Ascorbate as an Oxidation Inhibitor in Prebiotic Amino Acid Synthesis: A Cautionary Note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Hideharu; Eto, Midori; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Kurihara, Hironari; Kaneko, Takeo; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Kensei

    2012-12-01

    It is generally thought that the terrestrial atmosphere at the time of the origin of life was CO2-rich and that organic compounds such as amino acids would not have been efficiently formed abiotically under such conditions. It has been pointed out, however, that the previously reported low yields of amino acids may have been partially due to oxidation by nitrite/nitrate during acid hydrolysis. Specifically, the yield of amino acids was found to have increased significantly (by a factor of several hundred) after acid hydrolysis with ascorbic acid as an oxidation inhibitor. However, it has not been shown that CO2 was the carbon source for the formation of the amino acids detected after acid hydrolysis with ascorbic acid. We therefore reinvestigated the prebiotic synthesis of amino acids in a CO2-rich atmosphere using an isotope labeling experiment. Herein, we report that ascorbic acid does not behave as an appropriate oxidation inhibitor, because it contributes amino acid contaminants as a consequence of its reactions with the nitrogen containing species and formic acid produced during the spark discharge experiment. Thus, amino acids are not efficiently formed from a CO2-rich atmosphere under the conditions studied.

  3. HISTONE DEACETYLASE 7 (HDAC7) REGULATES MYOCYTE MIGRATION AND DIFFERENTIATION

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chengzhuo; Liu, Yu; Lam, Minh; Kao, Hung-Ying

    2010-01-01

    Summary Class IIa HDACs including HDAC7 play a role in gene expression, cell differentiation, and animal development through their association with transcription factors such as myogenic enhancer factors 2 (MEF2s). In this study, we show that endogenous HDAC7 localizes to both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of C2C12 myoblasts, but is exclusively retained in the cytoplasm of myotubes after completion of differentiation process. To elucidate the role of differential distribution of HDAC7 during myogenesis, we examined the effects of stably expressed HDAC7 mutants on myogenesis. Expression of nuclear-retained HDAC7 mutants significantly inhibits myogenesis in C2C12 cells and reduces the expression of muscle-specific myosin heavy chain (MHC) and myogenin. The inhibition in myocyte differentiation can be partially relieved by introduction of a mutation disrupting HDAC7:MEF2 interaction. Since phosphorylation of HDAC7 plays an important role in its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, we further investigated the expression and distribution of phosphorylated HDAC7. To our surprise, the phosphorylation levels of HDAC7 at S344 and S479 were slightly decreased upon differentiation, whereas the phosphorylation of S178 was unchanged. Interestingly, a significant fraction of pS344- and/or pS479-HDAC7 localizes to plasma membrane of myotubes. In addition, Ser178-phosphorylated (pS178) HDAC7 shows a predominant actin filament-like staining prior to muscle differentiation and cytoplasmic and plasma membrane staining after differentiation. Consistent with this notion, HDAC7 partially co-localizes with actin filaments; in particular, pS178-HDAC7 largely colocalizes with actin filaments as indicated by phalloidin counter staining in myocytes. Furthermore, C2C12 cells expressing nuclear-retained HDAC7 display defects in migration. Our results provide novel insight into the mechanisms that regulate myocyte differentiation and migration by controlling the subcellular distribution of HDAC7 in

  4. Essential role of HDAC6 in the regulation of PD-L1 in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Lienlaf, M; Perez-Villarroel, P; Knox, T; Pabon, M; Sahakian, E; Powers, J; Woan, K V; Lee, C; Cheng, F; Deng, S; Smalley, K S M; Montecino, M; Kozikowski, A; Pinilla-Ibarz, J; Sarnaik, A; Seto, E; Weber, J; Sotomayor, E M; Villagra, A

    2016-05-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs), originally described as histone modifiers, have more recently been demonstrated to target a variety of other proteins unrelated to the chromatin environment. In this context, our present work demonstrates that the pharmacological or genetic abrogation of HDAC6 in primary melanoma samples and cell lines, down-regulates the expression of PD-L1, an important co-stimulatory molecule expressed in cancer cells, which activates the inhibitory regulatory pathway PD-1 in T-cells. Our data suggests that this novel mechanism of PD-L1 regulation is mainly mediated by the influence of HDAC6 over the recruitment and activation of STAT3. Additionally, we observed that selective HDAC6 inhibitors impairs tumor growth and reduce the in vivo expression of several inhibitory check-point molecules and other regulatory pathways involved in immunosurveillance. Most importantly, these results provide a key pre-clinical rationale and justification to further study isotype selective HDAC6 inhibitors as potential immuno-modulatory agents in cancer. PMID:26775640

  5. Snake venoms. The amino-acid sequence of trypsin inhibitor E of Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (Black Mamba) venom.

    PubMed

    Joubert, F J; Strydom, D J

    1978-06-01

    Trypsin inhibitor E from black mamba venom comprises 59 amino acid residues in a single polypeptide chain, cross-linked by three intrachain disulphide bridges. The complete primary structure of inhibitor E was elucidated. The sequence is homologous with trypsin inhibitors from different sources. Unique among this homologous series of proteinase inhibitors, inhibitor E has an affinity for transition metal ions, exemplified here by Cu2 and Co2+. PMID:668688

  6. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase and Monoacylglycerol Lipase: New Targets for Future Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Shintaro; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis and analogs of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol have been used for therapeutic purposes, but their therapeutic use remains limited because of various adverse effects. Endogenous cannabinoids have been discovered, and dysregulation of endocannabinoid signaling is implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Recently, endocannabinoid hydrolytic enzymes such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) have become new therapeutic targets in the treatment of MDD. Several FAAH or MAGL inhibitors are reported to have no cannabimimetic side effects and, therefore, are new potential therapeutic options for patients with MDD who are resistant to first-line antidepressants (selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors). In this review, we focus on the possible relationships between MDD and the endocannabinoid system as well as the inhibitors’ therapeutic potential. MAGL inhibitors may reduce inflammatory responses through activation of cannabinoid receptor type 2. In the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, repeated FAAH inhibitor administration may be beneficial for reducing circulating glucocorticoid levels. Both FAAH and MAGL inhibitors may contribute to dopaminergic system regulation. Recently, several new inhibitors have been developed with strong potency and selectivity. FAAH inhibitor, MAGL inhibitor, or dual blocker use would be promising new treatments for MDD. Further pre-clinical studies and clinical trials using these inhibitors are warranted. PMID:26630956

  7. Role of HDACs in optic nerve damage-induced nuclear atrophy of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Heather M; Schlamp, Cassandra L; Nickells, Robert W

    2016-06-20

    Optic neuropathies are characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death, resulting in the loss of vision. In glaucoma, the most common optic neuropathy, RGC death is initiated by axonal damage, and can be modeled by inducing acute axonal trauma through procedures such as optic nerve crush (ONC) or optic nerve axotomy. One of the early events of RGC death is nuclear atrophy, and is comprised of RGC-specific gene silencing, histone deacetylation, heterochromatin formation, and nuclear shrinkage. These early events appear to be principally regulated by epigenetic mechanisms involving histone deacetylation. Class I histone deacetylases HDACs 1, 2, and 3 are known to play important roles in the process of early nuclear atrophy in RGCs, and studies using both inhibitors and genetic ablation of Hdacs also reveal a critical role in the cell death process. Select inhibitors, such as those being developed for cancer therapy, may also provide a viable secondary treatment option for optic neuropathies. PMID:26733303

  8. Distinct Roles for Intestinal Epithelial Cell-Specific Hdac1 and Hdac2 in the Regulation of Murine Intestinal Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Gonneaud, Alexis; Turgeon, Naomie; Boudreau, François; Perreault, Nathalie; Rivard, Nathalie; Asselin, Claude

    2016-02-01

    The intestinal epithelium responds to and transmits signals from the microbiota and the mucosal immune system to insure intestinal homeostasis. These interactions are in part conveyed by epigenetic modifications, which respond to environmental changes. Protein acetylation is an epigenetic signal regulated by histone deacetylases, including Hdac1 and Hdac2. We have previously shown that villin-Cre-inducible intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific Hdac1 and Hdac2 deletions disturb intestinal homeostasis. To determine the role of Hdac1 and Hdac2 in the regulation of IEC function and the establishment of the dual knockout phenotype, we have generated villin-Cre murine models expressing one Hdac1 allele without Hdac2, or one Hdac2 allele without Hdac1. We have also investigated the effect of short-term deletion of both genes in naphtoflavone-inducible Ah-Cre and tamoxifen-inducible villin-Cre(ER) mice. Mice with one Hdac1 allele displayed normal tissue architecture, but increased sensitivity to DSS-induced colitis. In contrast, mice with one Hdac2 allele displayed intestinal architecture defects, increased proliferation, decreased goblet cell numbers as opposed to Paneth cells, increased immune cell infiltration associated with fibrosis, and increased sensitivity to DSS-induced colitis. In comparison to dual knockout mice, intermediary activation of Notch, mTOR, and Stat3 signaling pathways was observed. While villin-Cre(ER) Hdac1 and Hdac2 deletions led to an impaired epithelium and differentiation defects, Ah-Cre-mediated deletion resulted in blunted proliferation associated with the induction of a DNA damage response. Our results suggest that IEC determination and intestinal homeostasis are highly dependent on Hdac1 and Hdac2 activity levels, and that changes in the IEC acetylome may alter the mucosal environment. PMID:26174178

  9. Chitosan as a green inhibitor for copper corrosion in acidic medium.

    PubMed

    El-Haddad, Mahmoud N

    2013-04-01

    The behavior of copper in 0.5 M HCl acid containing different concentrations of chitosan has been studied by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) measurements. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements show that the chitosan acts essentially as a mixed-type inhibitor. EFM can be used as a rapid and non destructive technique for corrosion rate measurements without prior knowledge of Tafel constants. The results of EIS indicate that the value of CPEs tends to decrease and both charge transfer resistance and inhibition efficiency tend to increase by increasing the inhibitor concentration. The investigated inhibitor has shown good inhibition efficiency in 0.5 M HCl. The adsorption of inhibitor on the copper surface obeys Langmuir's isotherm. Metal surface characterization was performed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Also, the relationship between quantum chemical calculations and experimental inhibition efficiency of the inhibitor was discussed. PMID:23298849

  10. Synthesis of potent inhibitors of anthrax toxin based on poly-L-glutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Amit; Saraph, Arundhati; Poon, Vincent; Mogridge, Jeremy; Kane, Ravi S

    2006-01-01

    We report the synthesis of biodegradable polyvalent inhibitors of anthrax toxin based on poly-L-glutamic acid (PLGA). These biocompatible polyvalent inhibitors are at least 4 orders of magnitude more potent than the corresponding monovalent peptides in vitro and are comparable in potency to polyacrylamide-based inhibitors of anthrax toxin assembly. We have elucidated the influence of peptide density on inhibitory potency and demonstrated that these inhibitory potencies are limited by kinetics, with even higher activities seen when the inhibitors are preincubated with the heptameric receptor-binding subunit of anthrax toxin prior to exposure to cells. These polyvalent inhibitors are also effective at neutralizing anthrax toxin in vivo and represent attractive leads for designing biocompatible anthrax therapeutics. PMID:16984137

  11. Pyrazole phenylcyclohexylcarbamates as inhibitors of human fatty acid amide hydrolases (FAAH).

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh Tabrizi, Mojgan; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Ruggiero, Emanuela; Saponaro, Giulia; Baraldi, Stefania; Romagnoli, Romeo; Martinelli, Adriano; Tuccinardi, Tiziano

    2015-06-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors have gained attention as potential therapeutic targets in the management of neuropathic pain. Here, we report a series of pyrazole phenylcyclohexylcarbamate derivatives standing on the known carbamoyl FAAH inhibitor URB597. Structural modifications led to the recognition of compound 22 that inhibited human recombinant FAAH (hrFAAH) in the low nanomolar range (IC50 = 11 nM). The most active compounds of this series showed significant selectivity toward monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) enzyme. In addition, molecular modeling and reversibility behavior of the new class of FAAH inhibitors are presented in this article. PMID:26002335

  12. Natural fatty acid synthase inhibitors as potent therapeutic agents for cancers: A review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Sui; Lei, Jie-Ping; Wei, Guo-Qing; Chen, Hui; Ma, Chao-Ying; Jiang, He-Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Context Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is the only mammalian enzyme to catalyse the synthesis of fatty acid. The expression level of FAS is related to cancer progression, aggressiveness and metastasis. In recent years, research on natural FAS inhibitors with significant bioactivities and low side effects has increasingly become a new trend. Herein, we present recent research progress on natural fatty acid synthase inhibitors as potent therapeutic agents. Objective This paper is a mini overview of the typical natural FAS inhibitors and their possible mechanism of action in the past 10 years (2004-2014). Method The information was collected and compiled through major databases including Web of Science, PubMed, and CNKI. Results Many natural products induce cancer cells apoptosis by inhibiting FAS expression, with fewer side effects than synthetic inhibitors. Conclusion Natural FAS inhibitors are widely distributed in plants (especially in herbs and foods). Some natural products (mainly phenolics) possessing potent biological activities and stable structures are available as lead compounds to synthesise promising FAS inhibitors. PMID:26864638

  13. Inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis in sunflower seeds.

    PubMed

    Pleite, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael

    2006-09-01

    During de novo fatty acid synthesis in sunflower seeds, saturated fatty acid production is influenced by the competition between the enzymes of the principal pathways and the saturated acyl-ACP thioesterases. Genetic backgrounds with more efficient saturated acyl-ACP thioesterase alleles only express their phenotypic effects when the alleles for the enzymes in the main pathway are less efficient. For this reason, we studied the incorporation of [2-(14)C]acetate into the lipids of developing sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus L.) from several mutant lines in vivo. The labelling of different triacylglycerol fatty acids in different oilseed mutants reflects the fatty acid composition of the seed and supports the channelling theory of fatty acid biosynthesis. Incubation with methyl viologen diminished the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyl-ACP in vivo through a decrease in the available reductant power. In turn, this led to the accumulation of stearoyl-ACP to the levels detected in seeds from high stearic acid mutants. The concomitant reduction of oleoyl-ACP content inside the plastid allowed us to study the activity of acyl-ACP thioesterases on saturated fatty acids. In these mutants, we verified that the accumulation of saturated fatty acids requires efficient thioesterase activity on saturated-ACPs. By studying the effects of cerulenin on the in vivo incorporation of [2-(14)C]acetate into lipids and on the in vitro activity of beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II, we found that elongation to very long chain fatty acids can occur both inside and outside of the plastid in sunflower seeds. PMID:16500723

  14. Ferulic acid in combination with PARP inhibitor sensitizes breast cancer cells as chemotherapeutic strategy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Eun; Park, Eunmi

    2015-03-13

    Homologous-recombination (HR)-dependent repair defective cells are hypersensitive to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Combinations of defective HR pathway and PARP inhibitors have been an effective chemotherapeutic modality. We previously showed that knockdown of the WD40-repeat containing protein, Uaf1, causes an HR repair defect in mouse embryo fibroblast cells and therefore, increases sensitivity to PARP inhibitor, ABT-888. Similarly, here, we show that ferulic acid reduces HR repair, inhibits RAD 51 foci formation, and accumulates γ-H2AX in breast cancer cells. Moreover, ferulic acid, when combined with ABT-888, renders breast cancer cells become hypersensitive to ABT-888. Our study indicates that ferulic acid in combination with ABT-888 treatment may serve as an effective combination chemotherapeutic agent as a natural bioactive compound. PMID:25677620

  15. Association of downregulated HDAC 2 with the impaired mitochondrial function and cytokine secretion in the monocytes/macrophages from gestational diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xin; Yu, Hongna; Jia, Bei; Yu, Xiaoyan; Cui, Qing; Liu, Zhifen; Sun, Chengming; Chu, Yongli

    2016-06-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases in later life, yet with underlying mechanisms unclear. The present study was to explore the association of upregulated histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC 2) with the impaired mitochondrial function and the cytokine secretion in the monocytes/macrophages from GDM patients. In this study, we examined the mitochondrial function, proinflamatory cytokine secretion and the HDAC 2 level in the serum or in the monocytes/macrophages from GDM patients, investigated the influence by HDAC 2 inhibitor, AR-42 (N-hydroxy-4-[[(2S)-3-methyl-2-phenylbutanoyl]amino]benzamide), on the mitochondrial function and cytokine secretion in the isolated GDM monocytes/macrophages. Results demonstrated an increased mitochondria size, mitochondrial superoxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and an undermined mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) in the GDM monocytes/macrophages. And the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6 were also markedly higher in the GDM pregnancies, while the expression and activity of HDAC 2 was downregulated. Moreover, AR-42-mediated HDAC 2 inhibition in vitro contributed to the impaired mitochondrial function and the proinflamatory cytokine secretion. In conclusion, this study suggests an association of the impaired mitochondrial function and the promoted proinflamatory cytokine secretion with the reduced HDAC 2 activity in GDM. These findings may present HDAC 2 as a target for GDM treatment. PMID:26936353

  16. Inhibition of Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) Expression by Anthrax Lethal Toxin (LeTx) Is Reversed by Histone Deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) Inhibition in Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ha, Soon-Duck; Reid, Chantelle; Meshkibaf, Shahab; Kim, Sung Ouk

    2016-04-15

    Many pathogenic microbes often release toxins that subvert the host's immune responses to render the environment suitable for their survival and proliferation. LeTx is one of the toxins causing immune paralysis by cleaving and inactivating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases (MEKs). Here, we show that inhibition of the histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) by either the HDAC8-specific inhibitor PCI-34051 or small interference (si)RNAs rendered LeTx-exposed murine macrophages responsive to LPS in pro-IL-1β production. HDAC8 selectively targeted acetylated histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27Ac), which is known to associate with active enhancers. LeTx induced HDAC8 expression, in part through inhibiting p38 MAPK, which resulted in a decrease of H3K27Ac levels. Inhibition of HDAC8 increased H3K27Ac levels and enhanced NF-κB-mediated pro-IL-1β enhancer and messenger RNA production in LeTx-exposed macrophages. Collectively, this study demonstrates a novel role of HDAC8 in LeTx immunotoxicity and regulation of pro-IL-1β production likely through eRNAs. Targeting HDAC8 could be a strategy for enhancing immune responses in macrophages exposed to LeTx or other toxins that inhibit MAPKs. PMID:26912657

  17. Optimization of amino acid thioesters as inhibitors of metallo-β-lactamase L1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Long; Yang, Ke-Wu; Zhang, Yue-Juan; Ge, Ying; Xiang, Yang; Chang, Ya-Nan; Oelschlaeger, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance caused by metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs) is a global public health problem. Recently, we found amino acid thioesters to be a highly promising scaffold for inhibitors of the MβL L1. In order to optimize this series of inhibitors, nine new amino acid thioesters were developed by modifying the substituents on the N-terminus of the thioesters and the groups representing the amino acid side chain. Biological activity assays indicate that all of them are very potent inhibitors of L1 with an IC50 value range of 20-600nM, lower than those of most of the previously reported inhibitors of this scaffold. Analysis of structure-activity relationship reveals that big hydrophobic substituents on the N-terminus and a methionine amino acid side chain improves inhibitory activity of the thioesters. All these inhibitors are able to restore antibacterial activity of a β-lactam antibiotic against Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells producing L1 to that against E. coli cells lacking a β-lactamase. Docking studies reveal that a large N-terminal hydrophobic group results in a slightly different binding mode than smaller hydrophobic groups at the same position. PMID:27595424

  18. Zaragozic acids: a family of fungal metabolites that are picomolar competitive inhibitors of squalene synthase.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, J D; Kurtz, M M; Rew, D J; Amend, A M; Karkas, J D; Bostedor, R G; Bansal, V S; Dufresne, C; VanMiddlesworth, F L; Hensens, O D

    1993-01-01

    Three closely related fungal metabolites, zaragozic acids A, B, and C, that are potent inhibitors of squalene synthase have been isolated and characterized. Zaragozic acids A, B, and C were produced from an unidentified sterile fungal culture, Sporormiella intermedia, and Leptodontium elatius, respectively. The structures of the zaragozic acids and their trimethyl esters were determined by a combination of physical and chemical techniques. The zaragozic acids are characterized by a novel 2,8-dioxobicyclo[3.2.1]octane-4,6,7- trihydroxyl-3,4,5-tricarboxylic acid core and differ from each other in the structures of the 6-acyl and 1-alkyl side chains. They were found to be potent competitive inhibitors of rat liver squalene synthase with apparent Ki values of 78 pM, 29 pM, and 45 pM, respectively. They inhibited cholesterol synthesis in Hep G2 cells, and zaragozic acid A was an inhibitor of acute hepatic cholesterol synthesis in the mouse (50% inhibitory dose of 200 micrograms/kg of body weight). Inhibition of squalene synthase in cells and in vivo was accompanied by an accumulation of label from [3H]mevalonate into farnesyl diphosphate, farnesol, and organic acids. These data indicate that the zaragozic acids are a previously unreported class of therapeutic agents with potential for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:8419946

  19. Inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Community Counts Blood Safety Inhibitors Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Videos Starting the Conversation Playing it Safe A Look at Hemophilia Joint Range of Motion My Story Links to Other Websites ...

  20. Complete amino acid sequence of the lentil trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor LCI-1.7 and a discussion of atypical binding sites of Bowman-Birk inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Weder, Jürgen K P; Hinkers, Sabine C

    2004-06-30

    The complete primary structure of the lentil (Lens culinaris) trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor LCI-1.7 was determined by conventional methods in order to find relationships between partial sequences and the difference in action against human and bovine chymotrypsin. As other Bowman-Birk type inhibitors, LCI-1.7 contained 68 amino acid residues, seven disulfide bridges, and two reactive sites, Arg16-Ser17 for trypsin and Tyr42-Ser43 for chymotrypsin. Evaluation of sequence homologies showed that it belonged to the group III Bowman-Birk inhibitors. The atypical additional binding site of LCI-1.7 for human chymotrypsin was discussed and compared with such binding sites of two other Bowman-Birk inhibitors, the Bowman-Birk soybean proteinase inhibitor BBI, and the lima bean proteinase inhibitor LBI I, for human and bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin. A concept to reduce the action of these inhibitors against human enzymes by genetic engineering was proposed. PMID:15212472

  1. Scoparic acid A, a beta-glucuronidase inhibitor from Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Kawasaki, M; Okamura, K; Tamada, Y; Morita, N; Tezuka, Y; Kikuchi, T; Miwa, Y; Taga, T

    1992-12-01

    The 70% EtOH extract of Scoparia dulcis showed inhibitory activity against beta-glucuronidase from bovine liver. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the active extract led to the isolation of three labdane-type diterpene acids, scoparic acid A [1] [6-benzoyl-12-hydroxy-labda-8(17), 13-dien-18-oic acid], scoparic acid B [2] [6-benzoyl-14,15-dinor-13-oxo-8(17)-labden-18-oic acid], and scoparic acid C [3] [6-benzoyl-15-nor-14-oxo-8(17)-labden-18-oic acid], the structures of which were established by spectral means, including X-ray analysis. Scoparic acid A was found to be a potent beta-glucuronidase inhibitor. PMID:1294695

  2. Histone deacetylase inhibitors as cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Clawson, Gary A

    2016-08-01

    Cancer cells contain significant alterations in their epigenomic landscape, which several enzyme families reversibly contribute to. One class of epigenetic modifying enzymes is that of histone deacetylases (HDAC), which are receiving considerable scrutiny clinically as a therapeutic target in many cancers. The underlying rationale is that inhibiting HDACs will reverse dysregulated target gene expression by modulating functional histone (or other) acetylation marks. This perspective will discuss a recent paper by Markozashvili and co-workers which appeared in Gene, which indicates that the mechanisms by which HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) alter the epigenetic landscape include widespread alternative effects beyond simply controlling regional epigenetic marks. HDACs are involved in many processes/diseases, and it is not surprising that HDACis have considerable off-target effects, and thus a major effort is being directed toward identification of inhibitors which are selective for HDAC isoforms often uniquely implicated in various cancers. This Perspective will also discuss some representative work with inhibitors targeting individual HDAC classes or isoforms. At present, it is not really clear that isoform-specific HDACis will avoid non-selective effects on other unrecognized activities of HDACs. PMID:27568481

  3. Histone deacetylase inhibitors as cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells contain significant alterations in their epigenomic landscape, which several enzyme families reversibly contribute to. One class of epigenetic modifying enzymes is that of histone deacetylases (HDAC), which are receiving considerable scrutiny clinically as a therapeutic target in many cancers. The underlying rationale is that inhibiting HDACs will reverse dysregulated target gene expression by modulating functional histone (or other) acetylation marks. This perspective will discuss a recent paper by Markozashvili and co-workers which appeared in Gene, which indicates that the mechanisms by which HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) alter the epigenetic landscape include widespread alternative effects beyond simply controlling regional epigenetic marks. HDACs are involved in many processes/diseases, and it is not surprising that HDACis have considerable off-target effects, and thus a major effort is being directed toward identification of inhibitors which are selective for HDAC isoforms often uniquely implicated in various cancers. This Perspective will also discuss some representative work with inhibitors targeting individual HDAC classes or isoforms. At present, it is not really clear that isoform-specific HDACis will avoid non-selective effects on other unrecognized activities of HDACs. PMID:27568481

  4. Advances in the discovery of N-acylethanolamine acid amidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bandiera, Tiziano; Ponzano, Stefano; Piomelli, Daniele

    2014-08-01

    N-Acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA) is a cysteine amidase that hydrolyzes saturated or monounsaturated fatty acid ethanolamides, such as palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA). PEA has been shown to exert analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects by engaging peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α. Like other fatty acid ethanolamides, PEA is not stored in cells, but produced on demand from cell membrane precursors, and its actions are terminated by intracellular hydrolysis by either fatty acid amide hydrolase or NAAA. Endogenous levels of PEA and OEA have been shown to decrease during inflammation. Modulation of the tissue levels of PEA by inhibition of enzymes responsible for the breakdown of this lipid mediator may represent therefore a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pain and inflammation. While a large number of inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase have been discovered, few compounds have been reported to inhibit NAAA activity. Here, we describe the most representative NAAA inhibitors and briefly highlight their pharmacological profile. A recent study has shown that a NAAA inhibitor attenuated heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia caused by local inflammation or nerve damage in animal models of pain and inflammation. This finding encourages further exploration of the pharmacology of NAAA inhibitors. PMID:24798679

  5. Histone deacetylase 9 regulates breast cancer cell proliferation and the response to histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lapierre, Marion; Linares, Aurélien; Dalvai, Mathieu; Duraffourd, Céline; Bonnet, Sandrine; Boulahtouf, Abdelhay; Rodriguez, Carmen; Jalaguier, Stéphan; Assou, Said; Orsetti, Beatrice; Balaguer, Patrick; Maudelonde, Thierry; Blache, Philippe; Bystricky, Kerstin; Boulle, Nathalie; Cavaillès, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Histone lysine acetylation is an epigenetic mark regulated by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDAC) which plays an important role in tumorigenesis. In this study, we observed a strong overexpression of class IIa HDAC9, at the mRNA and protein levels, in the most aggressive human breast cancer cell lines (i.e. in basal breast cancer cells vs luminal ones or in malignant vs begnin MCF10A breast epithelial cell lines). HDAC9 overexpression was associated with higher rates of gene transcription and increased epigenetic marks on the HDAC9 promoter. Ectopic expression of HDAC9 in MCF7 luminal breast cancer cells led to an increase in cell proliferation and to a decrease in apoptosis. These effects were associated with a deregulated expression of several genes controlled by HDAC inhibitors such as CDKN1A, BAX and TNFRSF10A. Inversely, knock-down of HDAC9 expression in MDA-MB436 basal breast cancer cells reduced cell proliferation. Moreover, high HDAC9 expression decreased the efficacy of HDAC inhibitors to reduce cell proliferation and to regulate CDKN1A gene expression. Interestingly, the gene encoding the transcription factor SOX9 was identified by a global transcriptomic approach as an HDAC9 target gene. In stably transfected MCF7 cells, SOX9 silencing significantly decreased HDAC9 mitogenic activity. Finally, in a large panel of breast cancer biopsies, HDAC9 expression was significantly increased in tumors of the basal subtype, correlated with SOX9 expression and associated with poor prognosis. Altogether, these results indicate that HDAC9 is a key factor involved in mammary carcinogenesis and in the response to HDAC inhibitors. PMID:26930713

  6. Hydroxamic acid derivatives of mycophenolic acid inhibit histone deacetylase at the cellular level.

    PubMed

    Batovska, Daniela I; Kim, Dong Hoon; Mitsuhashi, Shinya; Cho, Yoon Sun; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Ubukata, Makoto

    2008-10-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA, 1), an inhibitor of IMP-dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and a latent PPARgamma agonist, is used as an effective immunosuppressant for clinical transplantation and recently entered clinical trials in advanced multiple myeloma patients. On the other hand, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a non-specific histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has been approved for treating cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. MPA seemed to bear a cap, a linker, and a weak metal-binding site as a latent inhibitor of HDAC. Therefore, the hydroxamic acid derivatives of mycophenolic acid having an effective metal-binding site, mycophenolic hydroxamic acid (MPHA, 2), 7-O-acetyl mycophenolic acid (7-O-Ac MPHA, 3), and 7-O-lauroyl mycophenolic hydroxamic acid (7-O-L MPHA, 4) were designed and synthesized. All these compounds inhibited histone deacetylase with IC50 values of 1, 0.9 and 0.5 microM, and cell proliferation at concentrations of 2, 1.5 and 1 microM, respectively. PMID:18838793

  7. Impacts of lignocellulose-derived inhibitors on L-lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Yang, Shang-Tian; Ouyang, Jia; Yu, Shiyuan

    2016-03-01

    Inhibitors generated in the pretreatment and hydrolysis of corn stover and corn cob were identified. In general, they inhibited cell growth, lactate dehydrogenase, and lactic acid production but with less or no adverse effect on alcohol dehydrogenase and ethanol production in batch fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. Furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) were highly toxic at 0.5-1 g L(-1), while formic and acetic acids at less than 4 g L(-1) and levulinic acid at 10 g L(-1) were not toxic. Among the phenolic compounds at 1 g L(-1), trans-cinnamic acid and syringaldehyde had the highest toxicity while syringic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were not toxic. Although these inhibitors were present at concentrations much lower than their separately identified toxic levels, lactic acid fermentation with the hydrolysates showed much inferior performance compared to the control without inhibitor, suggesting synergistic or compounded effects of the lignocellulose-degraded compounds on inhibiting lactic acid fermentation. PMID:26724548

  8. Soraphen A, an inhibitor of acetyl CoA carboxylase activity, interferes with fatty acid elongation

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B.; Torres-Gonzalez, Moises; Olson, L. Karl

    2010-01-01

    Acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC1 & ACC2) generates malonyl CoA, a substrate for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and an inhibitor of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO). Malonyl CoA is also a substrate for microsomal fatty acid elongation, an important pathway for saturated (SFA), mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthesis. Despite the interest in ACC as a target for obesity and cancer therapy, little attention has been given to the role ACC plays in long chain fatty acid synthesis. This report examines the effect of pharmacological inhibition of ACC on DNL & palmitate (16:0) and linoleate (18:2,n-6) metabolism in HepG2 and LnCap cells. The ACC inhibitor, soraphen A, lowers cellular malonyl CoA, attenuates DNL and the formation of fatty acid elongation products derived from exogenous fatty acids, i.e., 16:0 & 18:2,n-6; IC50 ~ 5 nM. Elevated expression of fatty acid elongases (Elovl5, Elovl6) or desaturases (FADS1, FADS2) failed to override the soraphen A effect on SFA, MUFA or PUFA synthesis. Inhibition of fatty acid elongation leads to the accumulation of 16- and 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acids derived from 16:0 and 18:2,n-6, respectively. Pharmacological inhibition of ACC activity will not only attenuate DNL and induce FAO, but will also attenuate the synthesis of very long chain saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:21184748

  9. Massive production of farnesol-derived dicarboxylic acids in mice treated with the squalene synthase inhibitor zaragozic acid A.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, S; Bostedor, R; Kurtz, M M; Bergstrom, J D; Bansal, V S

    1998-07-01

    The zaragozic acids are potent inhibitors of squalene synthase. In vivo studies in mice confirmed our earlier observations that inhibition of squalene synthase by zaragozic acid A was accompanied by an increase in the incorporation of label from [3H]mevalonate into farnesyl-diphosphate (FPP)-derived isoprenoic acids (J. D. Bergstrom et al., 1993, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 80-84). Farnesyl-diphosphate-derived metabolites appear transiently in the liver. We were unable to detect any farnesol formation in the zaragozic acid-treated animals which indicates that FPP is readily converted to farnesoic acid and dicarboxylic acids in the liver. These metabolites were found to be produced only in the liver and not in the kidney. trans-3,7-Dimethyl-2-octaen-1,8-dioic acid and 3, 7-dimethyloctan-1,8-dioic acid were identified as the major end products of farnesyl-diphosphate metabolism in the urine of mice treated with zaragozic acid A. Quantitative analysis of these FPP-derived dicarboxylic acids by gas-liquid chromatography revealed that approximately 11 mg of total dicarboxylic acids is excreted per day into the urine of a mouse after 3 days of treatment with zaragozic acid A. PMID:9647670

  10. Binding of [alpha, alpha]-Disubstituted Amino Acids to Arginase Suggests New Avenues for Inhibitor Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ilies, Monica; Di Costanzo, Luigi; Dowling, Daniel P.; Thorn, Katherine J.; Christianson, David W.

    2011-10-21

    Arginase is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that hydrolyzes L-arginine to form L-ornithine and urea, and aberrant arginase activity is implicated in various diseases such as erectile dysfunction, asthma, atherosclerosis, and cerebral malaria. Accordingly, arginase inhibitors may be therapeutically useful. Continuing our efforts to expand the chemical space of arginase inhibitor design and inspired by the binding of 2-(difluoromethyl)-L-ornithine to human arginase I, we now report the first study of the binding of {alpha},{alpha}-disubstituted amino acids to arginase. Specifically, we report the design, synthesis, and assay of racemic 2-amino-6-borono-2-methylhexanoic acid and racemic 2-amino-6-borono-2-(difluoromethyl)hexanoic acid. X-ray crystal structures of human arginase I and Plasmodium falciparum arginase complexed with these inhibitors reveal the exclusive binding of the L-stereoisomer; the additional {alpha}-substituent of each inhibitor is readily accommodated and makes new intermolecular interactions in the outer active site of each enzyme. Therefore, this work highlights a new region of the protein surface that can be targeted for additional affinity interactions, as well as the first comparative structural insights on inhibitor discrimination between a human and a parasitic arginase.

  11. miR-335 Targets SIAH2 and Confers Sensitivity to Anti-Cancer Drugs by Increasing the Expression of HDAC3

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngmi; Kim, Hyuna; Park, Deokbum; Jeoung, Dooil

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported the role of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in response to anti-cancer drugs. The decreased expression of HDAC3 in anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell line is responsible for the resistance to anti-cancer drugs. In this study, we investigated molecular mechanisms associated with regulation of HDAC3 expression. MG132, an inhibitor of proteasomal degradation, induced the expression of HDAC3 in various anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell lines. Ubiquitination of HDAC3 was observed in various anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell lines. HDAC3 showed an interaction with SIAH2, an ubiquitin E3 ligase, that has increased expression in various anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell lines. miRNA array analysis showed the decreased expression of miR-335 in these cells. Targetscan analysis predicted the binding of miR-335 to the 3′-UTR of SIAH2. miR-335-mediated increased sensitivity to anti-cancer drugs was associated with its effect on HDAC3 and SIAH2 expression. miR-335 exerted apoptotic effects and inhibited ubiquitination of HDAC3 in anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell lines. miR-335 negatively regulated the invasion, migration, and growth rate of cancer cells. The mouse xenograft model showed that miR-335 negatively regulated the tumorigenic potential of cancer cells. The down-regulation of SIAH2 conferred sensitivity to anti-cancer drugs. The results of the study indicated that the miR-335/SIAH2/HDAC3 axis regulates the response to anti-cancer drugs. PMID:25997740

  12. Curcumin Derivatives as Green Corrosion Inhibitors for α-Brass in Nitric Acid Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouda, A. S.; Elattar, K. M.

    2012-11-01

    1,7- Bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-hepta-1,6-diene-4-arylazo-3,5-dione I-V have been investigated as corrosion inhibitors for α-brass in 2 M nitric acid solution using weight-loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques. The efficiency of the inhibitors increases with the increase in the inhibitor concentration but decreases with a rise in temperature. The conjoint effect of the curcumin derivatives and KSCN has also been studied. The apparent activation energy ( E a*) and other thermodynamic parameters for the corrosion process have also been calculated. The galvanostatic polarization data indicated that the inhibitors were of mixed-type, but the cathode is more polarized than the anode. The slopes of the cathodic and anodic Tafel lines ( b c and b a) are maintained approximately equal for various inhibitor concentrations. However, the value of the Tafel slopes increases together as inhibitor concentration increases. The adsorption of these compounds on α-brass surface has been found to obey the Frumkin's adsorption isotherm. The mechanism of inhibition was discussed in the light of the chemical structure of the undertaken inhibitors.

  13. Therapeutic Targeting of miR-29b/HDAC4 Epigenetic Loop in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Amodio, Nicola; Stamato, Maria Angelica; Gullà, Anna Maria; Morelli, Eugenio; Romeo, Enrica; Raimondi, Lavinia; Pitari, Maria Rita; Ferrandino, Ida; Misso, Gabriella; Caraglia, Michele; Perrotta, Ida; Neri, Antonino; Fulciniti, Mariateresa; Rolfo, Christian; Anderson, Kenneth C; Munshi, Nikhil C; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Tassone, Pierfrancesco

    2016-06-01

    Epigenetic abnormalities are common in hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma, and their effects can be efficiently counteracted by a class of tumor suppressor miRNAs, named epi-miRNAs. Given the oncogenic role of histone deacetylases (HDAC) in multiple myeloma, we investigated whether their activity could be antagonized by miR-29b, a well-established epi-miRNA. We demonstrated here that miR-29b specifically targets HDAC4 and highlighted that both molecules are involved in a functional loop. In fact, silencing of HDAC4 by shRNAs inhibited multiple myeloma cell survival and migration and triggered apoptosis and autophagy, along with the induction of miR-29b expression by promoter hyperacetylation, leading to the downregulation of prosurvival miR-29b targets (SP1, MCL-1). Moreover, treatment with the pan-HDAC inhibitor SAHA upregulated miR-29b, overcoming the negative control exerted by HDAC4. Importantly, overexpression or inhibition of miR-29b, respectively, potentiated or antagonized SAHA activity on multiple myeloma cells, as also shown in vivo by a strong synergism between miR-29b synthetic mimics and SAHA in a murine xenograft model of human multiple myeloma. Altogether, our results shed light on a novel epigenetic circuitry regulating multiple myeloma cell growth and survival and open new avenues for miR-29b-based epi-therapeutic approaches in the treatment of this malignancy. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(6); 1364-75. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27196750

  14. Self-consistent synthesis of the squalene synthase inhibitor zaragozic acid C via controlled oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Nicewicz, David A; Satterfield, Andrew D; Schmitt, Daniel C; Johnson, Jeffrey S

    2008-12-24

    Despite the prevalence of repeating subunits in chiral natural products, stereocontrolled oligomerization is a largely unexplored strategy for construction of carbon skeletal frameworks. This report describes the use of silyl glyoxylates as dipolar glycolic acid synthons in a controlled oligomerization reaction for the efficient construction of the squalene synthase inhibitor zaragozic acid C. This new methodology allows rapid, stereocontrolled formation of the carbon skeleton with a desirable protecting group scheme while minimizing functional group repair and oxidation state manipulations. PMID:19053214

  15. Benzoxazolone Carboxamides as Potent Acid Ceramidase Inhibitors: Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) Studies.

    PubMed

    Bach, Anders; Pizzirani, Daniela; Realini, Natalia; Vozella, Valentina; Russo, Debora; Penna, Ilaria; Melzig, Laurin; Scarpelli, Rita; Piomelli, Daniele

    2015-12-10

    Ceramides are lipid-derived intracellular messengers involved in the control of senescence, inflammation, and apoptosis. The cysteine amidase, acid ceramidase (AC), hydrolyzes these substances into sphingosine and fatty acid and, by doing so, regulates their signaling activity. AC inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of pathological conditions, such as cancer, in which ceramide levels are abnormally reduced. Here, we present a systematic SAR investigation of the benzoxazolone carboxamides, a recently described class of AC inhibitors that display high potency and systemic activity in mice. We examined a diverse series of substitutions on both benzoxazolone ring and carboxamide side chain. Several modifications enhanced potency and stability, and one key compound with a balanced activity-stability profile (14) was found to inhibit AC activity in mouse lungs and cerebral cortex after systemic administration. The results expand our arsenal of AC inhibitors, thereby facilitating the use of these compounds as pharmacological tools and their potential development as drug leads. PMID:26560855

  16. Bis(aminomethyl)phosphinic Acid, a Highly Promising Scaffold for the Development of Bacterial Urease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of bacterial ureases are considered to be promising compounds in the treatment of infections caused by Helicobacter pylori in the gastric tract and/or by urealytic bacteria (e.g., Proteus species) in the urinary tract. A new, extended transition state scaffold, bis(aminomethyl)phosphinic acid, was successfully explored for the construction of effective enzyme inhibitors. A reliable methodology for the synthesis of phosphinate analogues in a three-component Mannich-type reaction was elaborated. The obtained molecules were assayed against ureases purified from Sporosarcina pasteurii and Proteus mirabilis, and aminomethyl(N-n-hexylaminomethyl)phosphinic acid was found to be the most potent inhibitor, with a Ki = 108 nM against the S. pasteurii enzyme. PMID:25699141

  17. Bis(aminomethyl)phosphinic Acid, a Highly Promising Scaffold for the Development of Bacterial Urease Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Macegoniuk, Katarzyna; Dziełak, Anna; Mucha, Artur; Berlicki, Łukasz

    2015-02-12

    Inhibitors of bacterial ureases are considered to be promising compounds in the treatment of infections caused by Helicobacter pylori in the gastric tract and/or by urealytic bacteria (e.g., Proteus species) in the urinary tract. A new, extended transition state scaffold, bis(aminomethyl)phosphinic acid, was successfully explored for the construction of effective enzyme inhibitors. A reliable methodology for the synthesis of phosphinate analogues in a three-component Mannich-type reaction was elaborated. The obtained molecules were assayed against ureases purified from Sporosarcina pasteurii and Proteus mirabilis, and aminomethyl(N-n-hexylaminomethyl)phosphinic acid was found to be the most potent inhibitor, with a K i = 108 nM against the S. pasteurii enzyme. PMID:25699141

  18. Beyond gastric acid reduction: Proton pump inhibitors induce heme oxygenase-1 in gastric and endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Jan C. . E-mail: beckeja@uni-muenster.de; Grosser, Nina; Waltke, Christian; Schulz, Stephanie; Erdmann, Kati; Domschke, Wolfram; Schroeder, Henning; Pohle, Thorsten

    2006-07-07

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been demonstrated to prevent gastric mucosal injury by mechanisms independent of acid inhibition. Here we demonstrate that both omeprazole and lansoprazole protect human gastric epithelial and endothelial cells against oxidative stress. This effect was abrogated in the presence of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor ZnBG. Exposure to either PPI resulted in a strong induction of HO-1 expression on mRNA and protein level, and led to an increased activity of this enzyme. Expression of cyclooxygenase isoforms 1 and 2 remained unaffected, and COX-inhibitors did not antagonize HO-1 induction by PPIs. Our results suggest that the antioxidant defense protein HO-1 is a target of PPIs in both endothelial and gastric epithelial cells. HO-1 induction might account for the gastroprotective effects of PPIs independently of acid inhibition, especially in NSAID gastropathy. Moreover, our findings provide additional perspectives for a possible but yet unexplored use of PPIs in vasoprotection.

  19. Trypsin inhibitors from ridged gourd (Luffa acutangula Linn.) seeds: purification, properties, and amino acid sequences.

    PubMed

    Haldar, U C; Saha, S K; Beavis, R C; Sinha, N K

    1996-02-01

    Two trypsin inhibitors, LA-1 and LA-2, have been isolated from ridged gourd (Luffa acutangula Linn.) seeds and purified to homogeneity by gel filtration followed by ion-exchange chromatography. The isoelectric point is at pH 4.55 for LA-1 and at pH 5.85 for LA-2. The Stokes radius of each inhibitor is 11.4 A. The fluorescence emission spectrum of each inhibitor is similar to that of the free tyrosine. The biomolecular rate constant of acrylamide quenching is 1.0 x 10(9) M-1 sec-1 for LA-1 and 0.8 x 10(9) M-1 sec-1 for LA-2 and that of K2HPO4 quenching is 1.6 x 10(11) M-1 sec-1 for LA-1 and 1.2 x 10(11) M-1 sec-1 for LA-2. Analysis of the circular dichroic spectra yields 40% alpha-helix and 60% beta-turn for La-1 and 45% alpha-helix and 55% beta-turn for LA-2. Inhibitors LA-1 and LA-2 consist of 28 and 29 amino acid residues, respectively. They lack threonine, alanine, valine, and tryptophan. Both inhibitors strongly inhibit trypsin by forming enzyme-inhibitor complexes at a molar ratio of unity. A chemical modification study suggests the involvement of arginine of LA-1 and lysine of LA-2 in their reactive sites. The inhibitors are very similar in their amino acid sequences, and show sequence homology with other squash family inhibitors. PMID:8924202

  20. Zeb2 recruits HDAC-NuRD to inhibit Notch and controls Schwann cell differentiation and remyelination.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lai Man Natalie; Wang, Jincheng; Conidi, Andrea; Zhao, Chuntao; Wang, Haibo; Ford, Zachary; Zhang, Liguo; Zweier, Christiane; Ayee, Brian G; Maurel, Patrice; Zwijsen, An; Chan, Jonah R; Jankowski, Michael P; Huylebroeck, Danny; Lu, Q Richard

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms that coordinate and balance a complex network of opposing regulators to control Schwann cell (SC) differentiation remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that zinc-finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 (Zeb2, also called Sip1) transcription factor is a critical intrinsic timer that controls the onset of SC differentiation by recruiting histone deacetylases HDAC 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2) and nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase complex (NuRD) co-repressor complexes in mice. Zeb2 deletion arrests SCs at an undifferentiated state during peripheral nerve development and inhibits remyelination after injury. Zeb2 antagonizes inhibitory effectors including Notch and Sox2. Importantly, genome-wide transcriptome analysis reveals a Zeb2 target gene encoding the Notch effector Hey2 as a potent inhibitor for Schwann cell differentiation. Strikingly, a genetic Zeb2 variant associated with Mowat-Wilson syndrome disrupts the interaction with HDAC1/2-NuRD and abolishes Zeb2 activity for SC differentiation. Therefore, Zeb2 controls SC maturation by recruiting HDAC1/2-NuRD complexes and inhibiting a Notch-Hey2 signaling axis, pointing to the critical role of HDAC1/2-NuRD activity in peripheral neuropathies caused by ZEB2 mutations. PMID:27294509

  1. Synergism of antifungal activity between mitochondrial respiration inhibitors and kojic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Co-application of certain types of compounds with conventional antimicrobial drugs results in the enhancement of efficacy of drugs through a mechanism termed chemosensitization. We show that kojic acid (KA), a natural product, is a potent chemosensitizer to complex III inhibitors of mitochondrial re...

  2. The identification and optimization of 2,4-diketobutyric acids as flap endonuclease 1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tumey, L Nathan; Huck, Bayard; Gleason, Elizabeth; Wang, Jianmin; Silver, Daniel; Brunden, Kurt; Boozer, Sherry; Rundlett, Stephen; Sherf, Bruce; Murphy, Steven; Bailey, Andrew; Dent, Tom; Leventhal, Christina; Harrington, John; Bennani, Youssef L

    2004-10-01

    There have been several recent reports of chemopotentiation via inhibition of DNA repair processes. Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) is a key enzyme involved in base excision repair (BER), a primary pathway utilized by mammalian cells to repair DNA damage. In this report, we describe the identification and SAR of a series of 2,4-diketobutyric acid FEN1 inhibitors. PMID:15341951

  3. HALOACETIC ACIDS AND KINASE INHIBITORS PERTURB MOUSE NEURAL CREST CELLS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUNTER, E.S.1, J. SMITH2, J. ANDREWS1. 1 Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park and 2 Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Haloacetic acids and kinase inhibitors perturb mouse neural crest cells in vi...

  4. Hydroxyindole Carboxylic Acid-Based Inhibitors for Receptor-Type Protein Tyrosine Protein Phosphatase Beta

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Li-Fan; Zhang, Ruo-Yu; Bai, Yunpeng; Wu, Li; Gunawan, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play an important role in regulating a wide range of cellular processes. Understanding the role of PTPs within these processes has been hampered by a lack of potent and selective PTP inhibitors. Generating potent and selective probes for PTPs remains a significant challenge because of the highly conserved and positively charged PTP active site that also harbors a redox-sensitive Cys residue. Results: We describe a facile method that uses an appropriate hydroxyindole carboxylic acid to anchor the inhibitor to the PTP active site and relies on the secondary binding elements introduced through an amide-focused library to enhance binding affinity for the target PTP and to impart selectivity against off-target phosphatases. Here, we disclose a novel series of hydroxyindole carboxylic acid-based inhibitors for receptor-type tyrosine protein phosphatase beta (RPTPβ), a potential target that is implicated in blood vessel development. The representative RPTPβ inhibitor 8b-1 (L87B44) has an IC50 of 0.38 μM and at least 14-fold selectivity for RPTPβ over a large panel of PTPs. Moreover, 8b-1 also exhibits excellent cellular activity and augments growth factor signaling in HEK293, MDA-MB-468, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Innovation: The bicyclic salicylic acid pharmacophore-based focused library approach may provide a potential solution to overcome the bioavailability issue that has plagued the PTP drug discovery field for many years. Conclusion: A novel method is described for the development of bioavailable PTP inhibitors that utilizes bicyclic salicylic acid to anchor the inhibitors to the active site and peripheral site interactions to enhance binding affinity and selectivity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2130–2140. PMID:24180557

  5. Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors confer anti-invasive and antimetastatic effects on lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Katrin; Ramer, Robert; Dithmer, Sophie; Ivanov, Igor; Merkord, Jutta; Hinz, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of endocannabinoid degradation has been suggested as tool for activation of endogenous tumor defense. One of these strategies lies in blockade of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) which catalyzes the degradation of endocannabinoids (anandamide [AEA], 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG]) and endocannabinoid-like substances (N-oleoylethanolamine [OEA], N-palmitoylethanolamine [PEA]). This study addressed the impact of two FAAH inhibitors (arachidonoyl serotonin [AA-5HT], URB597) on A549 lung cancer cell metastasis and invasion. LC-MS analyses revealed increased levels of FAAH substrates (AEA, 2-AG, OEA, PEA) in cells incubated with either FAAH inhibitor. In athymic nude mice FAAH inhibitors were shown to elicit a dose-dependent antimetastatic action yielding a 67% and 62% inhibition of metastatic lung nodules following repeated administration of 15 mg/kg AA-5HT and 5 mg/kg URB597, respectively. In vitro, a concentration-dependent anti-invasive action of either FAAH inhibitor was demonstrated, accompanied with upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). Using siRNA approaches, a causal link between the TIMP-1-upregulating and anti-invasive action of FAAH inhibitors was confirmed. Moreover, knockdown of FAAH by siRNA was shown to confer decreased cancer cell invasiveness and increased TIMP-1 expression. Inhibitor experiments point toward a role of CB2 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in conferring anti-invasive effects of FAAH inhibitors and FAAH siRNA. Finally, antimetastatic and anti-invasive effects were confirmed for all FAAH substrates with AEA and OEA causing a TIMP-1-dependent anti-invasive action. Collectively, the present study provides first-time proof for an antimetastatic action of FAAH inhibitors. As mechanism of its anti-invasive properties an upregulation of TIMP-1 was identified. PMID:26930716

  6. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of colchicine derivatives as novel tubulin and histone deacetylase dual inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Kong, Yannan; Zhang, Jie; Su, Mingbo; Zhou, Yubo; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Chen, Yi; Fang, Yanfen; Zhang, Xiongwen; Lu, Wei

    2015-05-01

    A new class of colchicine derivatives were designed and synthesized as tubulin-HDAC dual inhibitors. Biological evaluations of these hybrids included the inhibitory activity of HDAC, tubulin polymerization analysis, in vitro cell cycle analysis in HCT-116 cells and cytotoxicity against different cancer cell lines. Hybrid 6d behaved as potent HDAC-tubulin dual inhibitor and showed comparable cytotoxicity with colchicine. Compound 11a exhibited powerful tubulin inhibitory activity, moderate anti-HDAC activity and the most potent cytotoxicity (IC50 = 2-105 nM). PMID:25805446

  7. Development of the pan-DAC inhibitor panobinostat (LBH589): successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Atadja, Peter

    2009-08-01

    The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are emerging as a highly useful class of anticancer agents that inhibit the enzyme HDAC involved in the deacetylation of histone and non-histone cellular proteins. The HDAC inhibitor, panobinostat (LBH589, Novartis Pharmaceuticals), achieves potent inhibition of all HDAC enzymes implicated in cancer and has demonstrated potent anti-tumor activity in preclinical models and promising clinical efficacy in cancer patients. In this review we discuss the successes and challenges surrounding the development of panobinostat, focusing on its proposed mechanism of action, preclinical anti-tumor activity, and early clinical efficacy in hematologic and solid tumors. PMID:19344997

  8. Penta- and hexadienoic acid derivatives: a novel series of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Malleron, J L; Roussel, G; Gueremy, G; Ponsinet, G; Robin, J L; Terlain, B; Tissieres, J M

    1990-10-01

    The synthesis of a series of pentadienoic and hexadienoic acid derivatives is reported. These compounds were tested as inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase (5 LO) and cyclooxygenase (CO) in vitro and as inhibitors of arachidonic acid (AA) induced ear edema in mice in vivo. Their potency is compared with that of the standard inhibitors nafazatrom, BW 755C, NDGA, KME4, quercetine, and L 652,243. The most potent compound in vivo, diethyl 2-hydroxy-5-(ethylthio)-2(Z),4(Z)-hexadienedioate (20) inhibited AA-induced ear edema when administered topically or orally, with an ED50 value of 0.01 mg/ear and 20 mg/kg, respectively. Among the standard compounds tested, L 652,243 was the most active compound in this test with an ED50 value of 0.01 mg/ear and 1 mg/kg po, but unlike this compound, 20 is a selective inhibitor of 5-LO (IC50 = 2 microM) without any significant activity against CO (IC50 greater than 50 microM). Most of the other compounds in this series are also selective 5-LO inhibitors. PMID:2213827

  9. Structure-Based Design of Non-Natural Amino Acid Inhibitors of Amyloid Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Sievers, Stuart A.; Karanicolas, John; Chang, Howard W.; Zhao, Anni; Jiang, Lin; Zirafi, Onofrio; Stevens, Jason T.; Münch, Jan; Baker, David; Eisenberg, David

    2014-01-01

    Many globular and natively disordered proteins can convert into amyloid fibers. These fibers are associated with numerous pathologies1 as well as with normal cellular functions2,3, and frequently form during protein denaturation4,5. Inhibitors of pathological amyloid fibers could serve as leads for therapeutics, provided the inhibitors were specific enough to avoid interfering with normal processes. Here we show that computer-aided, structure-based design can yield highly specific peptide inhibitors of amyloid formation. Using known atomic structures of segments of amyloid fibers as templates, we have designed and characterized an all D-amino acid inhibitor of fibrillation of the tau protein found in Alzheimer’s disease, and a non-natural L-amino acid inhibitor of an amyloid fiber that enhances sexual transmission of HIV. Our results indicate that peptides from structure-based designs can disrupt the fibrillation of full-length proteins, including those like tau that lack fully ordered native structures. PMID:21677644

  10. Structure-based design of non-natural amino-acid inhibitors of amyloid fibril formation

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, Stuart A.; Karanicolas, John; Chang, Howard W.; Zhao, Anni; Jiang, Lin; Zirafi, Onofrio; Stevens, Jason T.; Münch, Jan; Baker, David; Eisenberg, David

    2011-09-20

    Many globular and natively disordered proteins can convert into amyloid fibrils. These fibrils are associated with numerous pathologies as well as with normal cellular functions, and frequently form during protein denaturation. Inhibitors of pathological amyloid fibril formation could be useful in the development of therapeutics, provided that the inhibitors were specific enough to avoid interfering with normal processes. Here we show that computer-aided, structure-based design can yield highly specific peptide inhibitors of amyloid formation. Using known atomic structures of segments of amyloid fibrils as templates, we have designed and characterized an all-D-amino-acid inhibitor of the fibril formation of the tau protein associated with Alzheimer's disease, and a non-natural L-amino-acid inhibitor of an amyloid fibril that enhances sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Our results indicate that peptides from structure-based designs can disrupt the fibril formation of full-length proteins, including those, such as tau protein, that lack fully ordered native structures. Because the inhibiting peptides have been designed on structures of dual-{beta}-sheet 'steric zippers', the successful inhibition of amyloid fibril formation strengthens the hypothesis that amyloid spines contain steric zippers.

  11. An Isochemogenic Set of Inhibitors To Define the Therapeutic Potential of Histone Deacetylases in β-Cell Protection.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Florence F; Lundh, Morten; Kaya, Taner; McCarren, Patrick; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Chattopadhyay, Shrikanta; Gale, Jennifer P; Galbo, Thomas; Fisher, Stewart L; Meier, Bennett C; Vetere, Amedeo; Richardson, Sarah; Morgan, Noel G; Christensen, Dan Ploug; Gilbert, Tamara J; Hooker, Jacob M; Leroy, Mélanie; Walpita, Deepika; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Wagner, Bridget K; Holson, Edward B

    2016-02-19

    Modulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been implicated as a potential therapeutic strategy for multiple diseases. However, it has been difficult to dissect the role of individual HDACs due to a lack of selective small-molecule inhibitors. Here, we report the synthesis of a series of highly potent and isoform-selective class I HDAC inhibitors, rationally designed by exploiting minimal structural changes to the clinically experienced HDAC inhibitor CI-994. We used this toolkit of isochemogenic or chemically matched inhibitors to probe the role of class I HDACs in β-cell pathobiology and demonstrate for the first time that selective inhibition of an individual HDAC isoform retains beneficial biological activity and mitigates mechanism-based toxicities. The highly selective HDAC3 inhibitor BRD3308 suppressed pancreatic β-cell apoptosis induced by inflammatory cytokines, as expected, or now glucolipotoxic stress, and increased functional insulin release. In addition, BRD3308 had no effect on human megakaryocyte differentiation, while inhibitors of HDAC1 and 2 were toxic. Our findings demonstrate that the selective inhibition of HDAC3 represents a potential path forward as a therapy to protect pancreatic β-cells from inflammatory cytokines and nutrient overload in diabetes. PMID:26640968

  12. Compression regulates gene expression of chondrocytes through HDAC4 nuclear relocation via PP2A-dependent HDAC4 dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chongwei; Wei, Xiaochun; Wang, Shaowei; Jiao, Qiang; Zhang, Yang; Du, Guoqing; Wang, Xiaohu; Wei, Fangyuan; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wei, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Biomechanics plays a critical role in the modulation of chondrocyte function. The mechanisms by which mechanical loading is transduced into intracellular signals that regulate chondrocyte gene expression remain largely unknown. Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is specifically expressed in chondrocytes. Mice lacking HDAC4 display chondrocyte hypertrophy, ectopic and premature ossification, and die early during the perinatal period. HDAC4 has a remarkable ability to translocate between the cell's cytoplasm and nucleus. It has been established that subcellular relocation of HDAC4 plays a critical role in chondrocyte differentiation and proliferation. However, it remains unclear whether subcellular relocation of HDAC4 in chondrocytes can be induced by mechanical loading. In this study, we first report that compressive loading induces HDAC4 relocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of chondrocytes via stimulation of Ser/Thr-phosphoprotein phosphatases 2A (PP2A) activity, which results in dephosphorylation of HDAC4. Dephosphorylated HDAC4 relocates to the nucleus to achieve transcriptional repression of Runx2 and regulates chondrocyte gene expression in response to compression. Our results elucidate the mechanism by which mechanical compression regulates chondrocyte gene expression through HDAC4 relocation from the cell's cytoplasm to the nucleus via PP2A-dependent HDAC4 dephosphorylation. PMID:27106144

  13. Peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and inhibitors of the mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Skorin, C; Necochea, C; Johow, V; Soto, U; Grau, A M; Bremer, J; Leighton, F

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid oxidation was studied in the presence of inhibitors of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I), in normal and in peroxisome-proliferated rat hepatocytes. The oxidation decreased in mitochondria, as expected, but in peroxisomes it increased. These two effects were seen, in variable proportions, with (+)-decanoylcarnitine, 2-tetradecylglycidic acid (TDGA) and etomoxir. The decrease in mitochondrial oxidation (ketogenesis) affected saturated fatty acids with 12 or more carbon atoms, whereas the increase in peroxisomal oxidation (H2O2 production) affected saturated fatty acids with 8 or more carbon atoms. The peroxisomal increase was sensitive to chlorpromazine, a peroxisomal inhibitor. To study possible mechanisms, palmitoyl-, octanoyl- and acetyl-carnitine acyltransferase activities were measured, in homogenates and in subcellular fractions from control and TDGA-treated cells. The palmitoylcarnitine acyltransferase was inhibited, as expected, but the octanoyltransferase activity also decreased. The CoA derivative of TDGA was synthesized and tentatively identified as being responsible for inhibition of the octanoylcarnitine acyltransferase. These results show that inhibitors of the mitochondrial CPT I may also inhibit the peroxisomal octanoyl transferase; they also support the hypothesis that the octanoyltransferase has the capacity to control or regulate peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. PMID:1736904

  14. Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitor C75 Ameliorates Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Shingo; Yang, Weng-Lang; Aziz, Monowar; Kameoka, Shingo; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities of lipid metabolism through overexpression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), which catalyzes the formation of long-chain fatty acids, are associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). C75 is a synthetic α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone compound that inhibits FASN activity. We hypothesized that C75 treatment could effectively reduce the severity of experimental colitis. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed 4% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for 7 d. C75 (5 mg/kg body weight) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (vehicle) was administered intraperitoneally from d 2 to 6. Clinical parameters were monitored daily. Mice were euthanized on d 8 for histological evaluation and measurements of colon length, chemokine, cytokine and inflammatory mediator expression. C75 significantly reduced body weight loss from 23% to 15% on d 8, compared with the vehicle group. The fecal bleeding, diarrhea and colon histological damage scores in the C75-treated group were significantly lower than scores in the vehicle animals. Colon shortening was significantly improved after C75 treatment. C75 protected colon tissues from DSS-induced apoptosis by inhibiting caspase-3 activity. Macrophage inflammatory protein 2, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, myeloperoxidase activity and proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-1β and IL-6) in the colon were significantly downregulated in the C75-treated group, compared with the vehicle group. Treatment with C75 in colitis mice inhibited the elevation of FASN, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression as well as IκB degradation in colon tissues. C75 administration alleviates the severity of colon damage and inhibits the activation of inflammatory pathways in DSS-induced colitis. Thus, inhibition of FASN may represent an attractive therapeutic potential for treating IBD. PMID:24306512

  15. mTOR kinase inhibitors synergize with histone deacetylase inhibitors to kill B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Beagle, Brandon R; Nguyen, Duc M; Mallya, Sharmila; Tang, Sarah S; Lu, Mengrou; Zeng, Zhihong; Konopleva, Marina; Vo, Thanh-Trang; Fruman, David A

    2015-02-10

    High activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is associated with poor prognosis in pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), suggesting that inhibiting mTOR might be clinically useful. However, emerging data indicate that mTOR inhibitors are most effective when combined with other target agents. One strategy is to combine with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, since B-ALL is often characterized by epigenetic changes that silence the expression of pro-apoptotic factors. Here we tested combinations of mTOR and pan-HDAC inhibitors on B-ALL cells, including both Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) and non-Ph cell lines. We found that mTOR kinase inhibitors (TOR-KIs) synergize with HDAC inhibitors to cause apoptosis in B-ALL cells and the effect is greater when compared to rapamycin plus HDAC inhibitors. The combination of TOR-KIs with the clinically approved HDAC inhibitor vorinostat increased apoptosis in primary pediatric B-ALL cells in vitro. Mechanistically, TOR-KI and HDAC inhibitor combinations increased expression of pro-death genes, including targets of the Forkhead Box O (FOXO) transcription factors, and increased sensitivity to apoptotic triggers at the mitochondria. These findings suggest that targeting epigenetic factors can unmask the cytotoxic potential of TOR-KIs towards B-ALL cells. PMID:25576920

  16. Discovery and molecular basis of potent noncovalent inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)

    PubMed Central

    Min, Xiaoshan; Thibault, Stephen T.; Porter, Amy C.; Gustin, Darin J.; Carlson, Timothy J.; Xu, Haoda; Lindstrom, Michelle; Xu, Guifen; Uyeda, Craig; Ma, Zhihua; Li, Yihong; Kayser, Frank; Walker, Nigel P. C.; Wang, Zhulun

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an amidase-signature family member, is an integral membrane enzyme that degrades lipid amides including the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide and the sleep-inducing molecule oleamide. Both genetic knock out and pharmacological administration of FAAH inhibitors in rodent models result in analgesic, anxiolytic, and antiinflammatory phenotypes. Targeting FAAH activity, therefore, presents a promising new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pain and other neurological-related or inflammatory disorders. Nearly all FAAH inhibitors known to date attain their binding potency through a reversible or irreversible covalent modification of the nucleophile Ser241 in the unusual Ser-Ser-Lys catalytic triad. Here, we report the discovery and mechanism of action of a series of ketobenzimidazoles as unique and potent noncovalent FAAH inhibitors. Compound 2, a representative of these ketobenzimidazoles, was designed from a series of ureas that were identified from high-throughput screening. While urea compound 1 is characterized as an irreversible covalent inhibitor, the cocrystal structure of FAAH complexed with compound 2 reveals that these ketobenzimidazoles, though containing a carbonyl moiety, do not covalently modify Ser241. These inhibitors achieve potent inhibition of FAAH activity primarily from shape complementarity to the active site and through numerous hydrophobic interactions. These noncovalent compounds exhibit excellent selectivity and good pharmacokinetic properties. The discovery of this distinctive class of inhibitors opens a new avenue for modulating FAAH activity through nonmechanism-based inhibition. PMID:21502526

  17. Structure–Activity Relationships of α-Keto Oxazole Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Hardouin, Christophe; Kelso, Michael J.; Romero, F. Anthony; Rayl, Thomas J.; Leung, Donmienne; Hwang, Inkyu; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Boger, Dale L.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study of the structure–activity relationships (SAR) of 2b (OL-135), a potent inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is detailed targeting the C2 acyl side chain. A series of aryl replacements or substituents for the terminal phenyl group provided effective inhibitors (e.g., 5c, aryl = 1-napthyl, Ki = 2.6 nM) with 5hh (aryl = 3-Cl-Ph, Ki = 900 pM) being 5-fold more potent than 2b. Conformationally-restricted C2 side chains were examined and many provided exceptionally potent inhibitors of which 11j (ethylbiphenyl side chain) was established to be a 750 pM inhibitor. A systematic series of heteroatoms (O, NMe, S), electron-withdrawing groups (SO, SO2), and amides positioned within and hydroxyl substitutions on the linking side chain were investigated which typically led to a loss in potency. The most tolerant positions provided effective inhibitors (12p, 6-position S, Ki = 3 nM or 13d, 2-position OH, Ki = 8 nM) comparable in potency to 2b. Proteomic-wide screening of selected inhibitors from the systematic series of >100 candidates prepared revealed that they are selective for FAAH over all other mammalian serine proteases. PMID:17559203

  18. Cathepsin D-mediated yolk protein degradation is blocked by acid phosphatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fialho, Eliane; Nakamura, Angelica; Juliano, Luiz; Masuda, Hatisaburo; Silva-Neto, Mário A C

    2005-04-15

    Vitellin (VT) is a lipoglycophosphoprotein stored inside the eggs of every oviparous organism during oogenesis. In the blood-sucking bug Rhodnius prolixus, VT is deposited inside growing oocytes together with two acid hydrolases: acid phosphatase (AP) and cathepsin D (CD). Egg fertilization triggers AP activity and VT proteolysis in vivo [Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2002 (32) 847]. Here, we show that CD is the main protease targeting VT proteolysis during egg development. CD activity in total egg homogenates is blocked by the classical aspartyl protease inhibitor, pepstatin A. Surprisingly, AP inhibitors such as NaF, Na+/K+ tartrate, and inorganic phosphate also block VT proteolysis, whereas this effect is not observed when tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors such as vanadate and phenylarsine oxide or an inhibitor of alkaline phosphatases such as levamisole are used in a VT proteolysis assay. NaF concentrations that block isolated AP activity do not affect the activity of partially purified CD. Therefore, a specific repressor of VT proteolysis must be dephosphorylated by AP in vivo. In conclusion, these results demonstrate for the first time that acid hydrolases act cooperatively to promote yolk degradation during egg development in arthropods. PMID:15797237

  19. Aurora-B and HDAC synergistically regulate survival and proliferation of lymphoma cell via AKT, mTOR and Notch pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Chen, Jing; Cao, Weijie; Sun, Ling; Sun, Hui; Liu, Yanfang

    2016-05-15

    Aurora-B is a protein kinase that functions mainly in the attachment of the mitotic spindle to the centromere. Overexpression of Aurora-B causes unequal distribution of genetic information, creating aneuploidy cells, a hallmark of cancer. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a class of enzymes that remove acetyl groups from a ε-N-acetyl lysine amino acid on a histone, allowing the histones to wrap the DNA more tightly, thus globally regulating gene transcription. Additionally, these HDACs can also modify non-histone proteins. Inhibition of HDACs is a potent strategy for cancer treatment. Here, we report that inhibition of Aurora-B and HDAC exerts similar tumor suppressive effects in cells. Knockdown of Aurora-B or inhibition of HDAC achieved the same effect on repression of cell proliferation. Furthermore, we found that the tumor suppressive effect of Aurora-B and HDAC inhibition is due to the induction of cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that Aurora-B and HDAC can cooperatively regulate AKT, mTOR and Notch pathways. PMID:26638998

  20. Triacontanol negatively modulates the jasmonic acid-stimulated proteinase inhibitors in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Ramanarayan, Krishnamurthy; Swamy, Gangadharamurthy Sivakumar

    2004-04-01

    Triacontanol (TRIA), a long chain aliphatic alcohol (C30H61OH) reverses the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) in inducing proteinase inhibitors (PIs) in tomato leaves. Porcine pancreas trypsin and Spodoptera litura gut proteinases were inhibited in the presence of leaf proteins treated with JA, and TRIA partially reverses this effect. Spodoptera litura larvae fed with tomato leaves treated with JA were reduced in body weight and TRIA is able to partially reverse this JA-induced effect. These results reflect the partial reversal effect of TRIA in down regulating the JA-induced production of proteinase inhibitors. PMID:15128037

  1. 3-Cyano-3-aza-β-amino Acid Derivatives as Inhibitors of Human Cysteine Cathepsins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nitrile-type inhibitors are known to interact with cysteine proteases in a covalent-reversible manner. The chemotype of 3-cyano-3-aza-β-amino acid derivatives was designed in which the N-cyano group is centrally arranged in the molecule to allow for interactions with the nonprimed and primed binding regions of the target enzymes. These compounds were evaluated as inhibitors of the human cysteine cathepsins K, S, B, and L. They exhibited slow-binding behavior and were found to be exceptionally potent, in particular toward cathepsin K, with second-order rate constants up to 52 900 × 103 M–1 s–1. PMID:25313316

  2. Resistance of horse alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor to perchloric acid denaturation and a simplified purification procedure resulting therefrom.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, A; Hägeli, G; von Fellenberg, R

    1986-11-21

    Addition of perchloric acid (6.4% w/v final concentration) to horse alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor or to horse plasma neither precipitated nor inactivated alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor. None of the isoinhibitors of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor was altered by dilute perchloric acid. This unexpected behavior led to a simplified procedure for the purification of horse alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor, consisting of removal of the bulk of plasma proteins, by perchloric acid precipitation and by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and G-200. The resulting preparations of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor were immunogenically pure. The simplified purification procedure permitted the immunochemical comparison of the isoinhibitors of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor, which proved to be immunologically identical. PMID:3022814

  3. A dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase protects against kainic acid-induced brain injury.

    PubMed

    Minutoli, Letteria; Marini, Herbert; Rinaldi, Mariagrazia; Bitto, Alessandra; Irrera, Natasha; Pizzino, Gabriele; Pallio, Giovanni; Calò, Margherita; Adamo, Elena Bianca; Trichilo, Vincenzo; Interdonato, Monica; Galfo, Federica; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica

    2015-06-01

    Systemic administration of kainic acid causes inflammation and apoptosis in the brain, resulting in neuronal loss. Dual cyclooxygenase/5-lipoxygenase (COX/5-LOX) inhibitors could represent a possible neuroprotective approach in preventing glutamate excitotoxicity. Consequently, we investigated the effects of a dual inhibitor of COX/5-LOX following intraperitoneal administration of kainic acid (KA, 10 mg/kg) in rats. Animals were randomized to receive either the dual inhibitor of COX/5-LOX (flavocoxid, 20 mg/kg i.p.) or its vehicle (1 ml/kg i.p.) 30 min after KA administration. Sham brain injury rats were used as controls. We evaluated protein expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK1/2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in the hippocampus. Animals were also observed for monitoring behavioral changes according to Racine Scale. Finally, histological analysis and brain edema evaluation were carried out. Treatment with the dual inhibitor of COX/5-LOX decreased protein expression of p-ERK1/2 and TNF-α in hippocampus, markedly reduced MDA, LTB4 and PGE2 hippocampal levels, and also ameliorated brain edema. Histological analysis showed a reduction in cell damage in rats treated with the dual inhibitor of COX/5-LOX, particularly in hippocampal subregion CA3c. Moreover, flavocoxid significantly improved behavioral signs following kainic acid administration. Our results suggest that dual inhibition of COX/5-LOX by flavocoxid has neuroprotective effects during kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity. PMID:25893744

  4. Formation of 10-Formylfolic Acid, a Potent Inhibitor of Dihydrofolate Reductase, in Rat Liver Slices Incubated with Folic Acid

    PubMed Central

    d'Urso-Scott, M.; Uhoch, J.; Bertino, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    During investigation of folate polyglutamate biosynthesis in rat liver slices utilizing [2-14C]folic acid, a folate compound that behaved like a polyglutamate form in the Sephadex G-15 gel filtration system was found to accumulate. Subsequent chromatographic, spectral, chemical, and enzymic studies have indicated that the compound formed in liver slices incubated with [14C]folic acid with and without methotrexate was 10-formyl folate. This folate is of interest in that it is the most potent natural inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase known and may be capable of serving a regulatory function within the cell. PMID:4527808

  5. Identification of ellagic acid as potent inhibitor of protein kinase CK2: a successful example of a virtual screening application.

    PubMed

    Cozza, Giorgio; Bonvini, Paolo; Zorzi, Elisa; Poletto, Giorgia; Pagano, Mario A; Sarno, Stefania; Donella-Deana, Arianna; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Rosolen, Angelo; Pinna, Lorenzo A; Meggio, Flavio; Moro, Stefano

    2006-04-20

    Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a ubiquitous, essential, and highly pleiotropic protein kinase whose abnormally high constitutive activity is suspected to underlie its pathogenic potential in neoplasia and other diseases. Using a virtual screening approach, we have identified the ellagic acid, a naturally occurring tannic acid derivative, as a novel potent CK2 inhibitor. At present, ellagic acid represents the most potent known CK2 inhibitor (K(i) = 20 nM). PMID:16610779

  6. Anticolon Cancer Activity of Largazole, a Marine-Derived Tunable Histone Deacetylase InhibitorS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanxia; Salvador, Lilibeth A.; Byeon, Seongrim; Ying, Yongcheng; Kwan, Jason C.; Law, Brian K.; Hong, Jiyong

    2010-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are validated targets for anticancer therapy as attested by the approval of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and romidepsin (FK228) for treating cutaneous T cell lymphoma. We recently described the bioassay-guided isolation, structure determination, synthesis, and target identification of largazole, a marine-derived antiproliferative natural product that is a prodrug that releases a potent HDAC inhibitor, largazole thiol. Here, we characterize the anticancer activity of largazole by using in vitro and in vivo cancer models. Screening against the National Cancer Institute's 60 cell lines revealed that largazole is particularly active against several colon cancer cell types. Consequently, we tested largazole, along with several synthetic analogs, for HDAC inhibition in human HCT116 colon cancer cells. Enzyme inhibition strongly correlated with the growth inhibitory effects, and differential activity of largazole analogs was rationalized by molecular docking to an HDAC1 homology model. Comparative genomewide transcript profiling revealed a close overlap of genes that are regulated by largazole, FK228, and SAHA. Several of these genes can be related to largazole's ability to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Stability studies suggested reasonable bioavailability of the active species, largazole thiol. We established that largazole inhibits HDACs in tumor tissue in vivo by using a human HCT116 xenograft mouse model. Largazole strongly stimulated histone hyperacetylation in the tumor, showed efficacy in inhibiting tumor growth, and induced apoptosis in the tumor. This effect probably is mediated by the modulation of levels of cell cycle regulators, antagonism of the AKT pathway through insulin receptor substrate 1 down-regulation, and reduction of epidermal growth factor receptor levels. PMID:20739454

  7. Discovery, biosynthesis, and mechanism of action of the zaragozic acids: potent inhibitors of squalene synthase.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, J D; Dufresne, C; Bills, G F; Nallin-Omstead, M; Byrne, K

    1995-01-01

    The zaragozic acids (ZAs), a family of fungal metabolites containing a novel 4,6,7-trihydroxy-2,8-dioxobicyclo[3.2.1]octane-3,4,5-tricarboxylic acid core, were discovered independently by two separate groups screening natural product sources to discover inhibitors of squalene synthase. This family of compounds all contain the same core but differ in their 1-alkyl and their 6-acyl side chains. Production of the ZAs is distributed over an extensive taxonomic range of Ascomycotina or their anamorphic states. The zaragozic acids are very potent inhibitors of squalene synthase that inhibit cholesterol synthesis and lower plasma cholesterol levels in primates. They also inhibit fungal ergosterol synthesis and are potent fungicidal compounds. The biosynthesis of the zaragozic acids appears to proceed through alkyl citrate intermediates and new members of the family have been produced through directed biosynthesis. These potent natural product based inhibitors of squalene synthase have potential to be developed either as cholesterol lowering agents and/or as antifungal agents. PMID:8561474

  8. Antitumor effects of tyropeptin-boronic acid derivatives: New proteasome inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Momose, Isao; Abe, Hikaru; Watanabe, Takumi; Ohba, Shun-ichi; Yamazaki, Kanami; Dan, Shingo; Yamori, Takao; Masuda, Tohru; Nomoto, Akio

    2014-01-01

    The proteasome degrades numerous regulatory proteins that are critical for tumor growth. Thus, proteasome inhibitors are promising antitumor agents. New proteasome inhibitors, such as tyropeptins and tyropeptin-boronic acid derivatives, have a potent inhibitory activity. Here we report the antitumor effects of two new tyropeptin-boronic acid derivatives, AS-06 and AS-29. AS-06 and AS-29 significantly suppress the degradation of the proteasome-sensitive fluorescent proteins in HEK293PS cells, and induce the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in human multiple myeloma cells. We show that these derivatives also suppress the degradation of the NF-κB inhibitor IκB-α and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in multiple myeloma cells, resulting in the inhibition of NF-κB activation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AS-06 and AS-29 induce apoptosis through the caspase-8 and caspase-9 cascades. In a xenograft mouse model, i.v. administration of tyropeptin-boronic acid derivatives inhibits proteasome in tumors and clearly suppresses tumor growth in mice bearing human multiple myeloma. Our results indicate that tyropeptin-boronic acid derivatives could be lead therapeutic agents against human multiple myeloma. PMID:25251038

  9. FERRITIN H INDUCTION BY HISTONE DEACETYLASE INHIBITORS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Di, Xiumin; Torti, Suzy V.; Torti, Frank M.

    2010-01-01

    Because both iron deficiency and iron excess are deleterious to normal cell function, the intracellular level of iron must be tightly controlled. Ferritin, an iron binding protein, regulates iron balance by storing iron in a bioavailable but non-toxic form. Ferritin protein comprises two subunits: ferritin H, which contains ferroxidase activity, and ferritin L. Here we demonstrate that ferritin H mRNA and protein are induced by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors), a promising class of anti-cancer drugs, in cultured human cancer cells. Deletion analysis and EMSA assays reveal that the induction of ferritin H occurs at a transcriptional level via Sp1 and NF-Y binding sites near the transcriptional start site of the human ferritin H promoter. Classically, HDAC inhibitors modulate gene expression by increasing histone acetylation. However, ChIP assays demonstrate that HDAC inhibitors induce ferritin H transcription by increasing NF-Y binding to the ferritin H promoter without changes in histone acetylation. These results identify ferritin H as a new target of HDAC inhibitors, and recruitment of NF-Y as a novel mechanism of action of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:20385107

  10. N-Benzyl-indolo carboxylic acids: Design and synthesis of potent and selective adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (A-FABP) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Barf, Tjeerd; Lehmann, Fredrik; Hammer, Kristin; Haile, Saba; Axen, Eva; Medina, Carmen; Uppenberg, Jonas; Svensson, Stefan; Rondahl, Lena; Lundbäck, Thomas

    2009-03-15

    Small molecule inhibitors of adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (A-FABP) have gained renewed interest following the recent publication of pharmacologically beneficial effects of such inhibitors. Despite the potential utility of selective A-FABP inhibitors within the fields of metabolic disease, inflammation and atherosclerosis, there are few examples of useful A-FABP inhibitors in the public domain. Herein, we describe the optimization of N-benzyl-tetrahydrocarbazole derivatives through the use of co-crystal structure guided medicinal chemistry efforts. This led to the identification of a potent and selective class of A-FABP inhibitors as illustrated by N-benzyl-hexahydrocyclohepta[b]indole 30. PMID:19217286

  11. Antitumor Action of a Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, YF479, in Breast Cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Yihua; Li, Jingjie; Yang, Feifei; Wu, Haigang; Dai, Fujun; Hu, Meichun; Lu, Xiaoling; Peng, Yi; Liu, Mingyao; Zhao, Yongxiang; Yi, Zhengfang

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence demonstrates important roles for histone deacetylase in tumorigenesis (HDACs), highlighting them as attractive targets for antitumor drug development. Histone deactylase inhibitors (HDACIs), which have shown favorable anti-tumor activity with low toxicity in clinical investigations, are a promising class of anticancer therapeutics. Here, we screened our compound library to explore small molecules that possess anti-HDAC activity and identified a novel HDACI, YF479. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), which was the first approved HDAC inhibitor for clinical treatment by the FDA, was as positive control in our experiments. We further demonstrated YF479 abated cell viability, suppressed colony formation and tumor cell motility in vitro. To investigate YF479 with superior pharmacodynamic properties, we developed spontaneous and experimental breast cancer animal models. Our results showed YF479 significantly inhibited breast tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Further study indicated YF479 suppressed both early and end stages of metastatic progression. Subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy animal experiment revealed the elimination of local-regional recurrence (LRR) and distant metastasis by YF479. More important, YF479 remarkably prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Intriguingly, YF479 displayed more potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo compared with SAHA. Together, our results suggest that YF479, a novel HDACI, inhibits breast tumor growth, metastasis and recurrence. In light of these results, YF479 may be an effective therapeutic option in clinical trials for patients burdened by breast cancer. PMID:25220594

  12. Synthesis of 4-substituted nipecotic acid derivatives and their evaluation as potential GABA uptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hellenbrand, Tim; Höfner, Georg; Wein, Thomas; Wanner, Klaus T

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we disclose the design and synthesis of novel 4-susbtituted nipecotic acid derivatives as inhibitors of the GABA transporter mGAT1. Based on molecular modeling studies the compounds are assumed to adopt a binding pose similar to that of the potent mGAT1 inhibitor nipecotic acid. As substitution in 4-position should not cause an energetically unfavorable orientation of nipecotic acid as it is the case for N-substituted derivatives this is expected to lead to highly potent binders. For the synthesis of novel 4-substituted nipecotic acid derivatives a linear synthetic strategy was employed. As a key step, palladium catalyzed cross coupling reactions were used to attach the required biaryl moieties to the ω-position of the alkenyl- or alkynyl spacers of varying length in the 4-position of the nipecotic acid scaffold. The resulting amino acids were characterized with respect to their binding affinities and inhibitory potencies at mGAT1. Though the biological activities found were generally insignificant to poor, two compounds, one of which possesses a reasonable binding affinity for mGAT1, rac-57, the other a notable inhibitory potency at mGAT4, rac-84, both displaying a slight subtype selectivity for the individual transporters, could be identified. PMID:27039250

  13. Lichen secondary metabolite evernic acid as potential quorum sensing inhibitor against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Gökalsın, Barış; Sesal, Nüzhet Cenk

    2016-09-01

    Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disease and it affects the respiratory and digestive systems. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in Cystic Fibrosis are presented as the main cause for high mortality and morbidity rates. Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations can regulate their virulence gene expressions via the bacterial communication system: quorum sensing. Inhibition of quorum sensing by employing quorum sensing inhibitors can leave the bacteria vulnerable. Therefore, determining natural sources to obtain potential quorum sensing inhibitors is essential. Lichens have ethnobotanical value for their medicinal properties and it is possible that their secondary metabolites have quorum sensing inhibitor properties. This study aims to investigate an alternative treatment approach by utilizing lichen secondary metabolite evernic acid to reduce the expressions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factors by inhibiting quorum sensing. For this purpose, fluorescent monitor strains were utilized for quorum sensing inhibitor screens and quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR analyses were conducted for comparison. Results indicate that evernic acid is capable of inhibiting Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing systems. PMID:27465850

  14. Computer-aided identification of new histone deacetylase 6 selective inhibitor with anti-sepsis activity.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jakyung; Kim, So-Jin; Son, Dohyun; Seo, Heewon; Baek, Seung Yeop; Maeng, Cheol-Young; Lee, Changsik; Kim, In Su; Jung, Young Hoon; Lee, Sun-Mee; Park, Hyun-Ju

    2016-06-30

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been recognized as promising approaches to the treatment of various human diseases including cancer, inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, and metabolic disorders. Several pan-HDAC inhibitors are currently approved only as anticancer drugs. Interestingly, SAHA (vorinostat), one of clinically available pan-HDAC inhibitors, shows an anti-inflammatory effect at concentrations lower than those required for inhibition of tumor cell growth. It was also reported that HDAC6 selective inhibitor tubastatin A has anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic effect. In our efforts to develop novel HDAC inhibitors, we rationally designed various HDAC inhibitors based on the structures of two hit compounds identified by virtual screening of chemical database. Among them, 9a ((E)-N-hydroxy-4-(2-styrylthiazol-4-yl)butanamide) was identified as a HDAC6 selective inhibitor (IC50 values of 0.199 μM for HDAC6 versus 13.8 μM for HDAC1), and it did not show significant cytotoxicity against HeLa cells. In vivo biological evaluation of 9a was conducted on a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse model of sepsis. The compound 9a significantly improved 40% survival rate (P = 0.0483), and suppressed the LPS-induced increase of TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression in the liver of mice. Our study identified novel HDAC6 selective inhibitor 9a, which may serve as a potential lead for the development of anti-inflammatory or anti-sepsis agents. PMID:27060764

  15. Products of the Black Sea alga Phyllophora nervosa as corrosion inhibitor for steel in acids

    SciTech Connect

    Popelyukh, G.M.; Andrianov, A.M.; Burtnenko, L.M.; Gazha, P.A.; Talavira, L.I.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have investigated the inhibiting properties of the processing products of the Black Sea red seaweed Phyllophora nervosa on specimens of steel St3 in phosphoric and hydrochloric acids of various concentrations at temperatures in the range from 30 to 95 /sup 0/C. They have studied how the concentrations of urotropin, sodium chloride, and Fe/sup 3 +/ ions influence the protective properties of the seaweed inhibitor. They have made preliminary investigations of the mechanisms of the protective action.

  16. The gyrase inhibitor albicidin consists of p-aminobenzoic acids and cyanoalanine.

    PubMed

    Cociancich, Stéphane; Pesic, Alexander; Petras, Daniel; Uhlmann, Stefanie; Kretz, Julian; Schubert, Vivien; Vieweg, Laura; Duplan, Sandrine; Marguerettaz, Mélanie; Noëll, Julie; Pieretti, Isabelle; Hügelland, Manuela; Kemper, Sebastian; Mainz, Andi; Rott, Philippe; Royer, Monique; Süssmuth, Roderich D

    2015-03-01

    Albicidin is a potent DNA gyrase inhibitor produced by the sugarcane pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas albilineans. Here we report the elucidation of the hitherto unknown structure of albicidin, revealing a unique polyaromatic oligopeptide mainly composed of p-aminobenzoic acids. In vitro studies provide further insights into the biosynthetic machinery of albicidin. These findings will enable structural investigations on the inhibition mechanism of albicidin and its assessment as a highly effective antibacterial drug. PMID:25599532

  17. How polyamine synthesis inhibitors and cinnamic acid affect tropane alkaloid production.

    PubMed

    Marconi, Patricia L; Alvarez, María A; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra I

    2007-01-01

    Hairy roots of Brugmansia candida produce the tropane alkaloids scopolamine and hyoscyamine. In an attempt to divert the carbon flux from competing pathways and thus enhance productivity, the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors cyclohexylamine (CHA) and methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone (MGBG) and the phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase inhibitor cinnamic acid were used. CHA decreased the specific productivity of both alkaloids but increased significantly the release of scopolamine (approx 500%) when it was added in the mid-exponential phase. However, when CHA was added for only 48 h during the exponential phase, the specific productivity of both alkaloids increased (approx 200%), favoring scopolamine. Treatment with MGBG was detrimental to growth but promoted release into the medium of both alkaloids. However, when it was added for 48 h during the exponential phase, MGBG increased the specific productivity (approx 200%) and release (250- 1800%) of both alkaloids. Cinnamic acid alone also favored release but not specific productivity. When a combination of CHA or MGBG with cinnamic acid was used, the results obtained were approximately the same as with each polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor alone, although to a lesser extent. Regarding root morphology, CHA inhibited growth of primary roots and ramification. However, it had a positive effect on elongation of lateral roots. PMID:17416978

  18. Corrosion damage of the surface of high-speed tool steel in acid-inhibitor pickling

    SciTech Connect

    Mindyuk, A.K.; Sholok, V.I.; Shvets, V.V. Gural', V.M.

    1988-01-01

    Profilograms were recorded of the surface of 20-mm-diameter 1.5-mm-thick specimens prepared from hardened and tempered R6M5 high-speed tool steel (62 HRC) and also of similar specimens subjected to the action of pure hydrochloric acid etching solution and of the same solutions with additions of KhOSP-10, KhOSP-10D, and urotropin inhibitors at 30, 60, and 90/sup 0/C for 4.0, 2.0, and 0.5 h, respectively. The analysis of corrosion damage and determination of the surface finish of the steel made it possible to develop the optimum method of acid-inhibitor pickling specifying the addition to the acid of 1.5 g/liter KhOSP-10 inhibitor and a temperature of 30/sup 0/C. This suppressed the corrosion rate, hydrogen impregnation and embrittlement, decarburization of the steel, and sensitivity to crack formation, and reduced the number of scrapped parts.

  19. Plasmin inhibitors with hydrophobic amino acid-based linker between hydantoin moiety and benzimidazole scaffold enhance inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Teno, Naoki; Gohda, Keigo; Yamashita, Yukiko; Otsubo, Tadamune; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Wanaka, Keiko; Tsuda, Yuko

    2016-05-01

    In this letter we report the design and synthesis of a series of plasmin inhibitors, which share the amino acid-based linker with limited free rotation between the hydantoin moiety and the benzimidazole scaffold. Our studies led to potent plasmin inhibitors and yielded important new insights into their structure-activity relationship for binding to the active site of plasmin. PMID:27009905

  20. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid Restores Estrogen Reduced-cTnI Expression in Neonatal Hearts of Mice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chang; Luo, Xiaomei; Xing, Qianlu; Sun, Huichao; Huang, Xupei

    2016-10-01

    Diastolic cardiac dysfunction can be caused by abnormality in cTnI expression during cardiogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of estrogen on the abnormal expression of cTnI in the hearts of neonatal mice and its potential epigenetic mechanisms. We then evaluated suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a HDAC inhibitor, as a new target treatment of diastolic cardiac dysfunction. Postnatal day 0.5 C57BL/6 mice were injected with estrogen for 1 week, then the hearts of 7-day-old neonatal mice were retrieved for examination. The activities of HDAC and HAT were assayed by colorimetry, and the interaction of cTnI with HDAC5 in mice hearts were examined using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. The expression of cTnI was tested by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. Estrogen treated groups displayed a significantly increased HDAC activity in the hearts of neonatal mice while HAT activity remained unchanged. Additionally, HDAC5 was higher at the cTnI promoter, as compared to the saline treated control groups. The acetylation of histone H3K9ac on cTnI promoter significantly decreased in the hearts of neonatal mice treated with estrogen, and the expression of cTnI at transcriptional and protein levels also decreased. SAHA was shown to increase the acetylation of histone H3K9ac and upregulate the expression of cTnI. The data demonstrated that SAHA can correct cTnI expression abnormality caused by estrogen through inhibiting the binding of HDAC5 to the promoter of cTnI. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2377-2384, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27379430

  1. Suppression of asymmetric acid efflux and gravitropism in maize roots treated with auxin transport inhibitors of sodium orthovanadate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulkey, T. J.; Evans, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    In gravitropically stimulated roots of maize (Zea mays L., hybrid WF9 x 38MS), there is more acid efflux on the rapidly growing upper side than on the slowly growing lower side. In light of the Cholodny/Went hypothesis of gravitropism which states that gravitropic curvature results from lateral redistribution of auxin, the effects of auxin transport inhibitors on the development of acid efflux asymmetry and curvature in gravistimulated roots were examined. All the transport inhibitors tested prevented both gravitropism and the development of asymmetric acid efflux in gravistimulated roots. The results indicate that auxin redistribution may cause the asymmetry of acid efflux, a finding consistent with the Cholodny/Went hypothesis of gravitropism. As further evidence that auxin-induced acid efflux asymmetry may mediate gravitropic curvature, sodium orthovanadate, an inhibitor of auxin-induced H+ efflux was found to prevent both gravitropism and the development of asymmetric acid efflux in gravistimulated roots.

  2. Discovery of novel, non-acidic mPGES-1 inhibitors by virtual screening with a multistep protocol

    PubMed Central

    Noha, Stefan M.; Fischer, Katrin; Koeberle, Andreas; Garscha, Ulrike; Werz, Oliver; Schuster, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1) inhibitors are considered as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of inflammatory pain and certain types of cancer. So far, several series of acidic as well as non-acidic inhibitors of mPGES-1 have been discovered. Acidic inhibitors, however, may have issues, such as loss of potency in human whole blood and in vivo, stressing the importance of the design and identification of novel, non-acidic chemical scaffolds of mPGES-1 inhibitors. Using a multistep virtual screening protocol, the Vitas-M compound library (∼1.3 million entries) was filtered and 16 predicted compounds were experimentally evaluated in a biological assay in vitro. This approach yielded two molecules active in the low micromolar range (IC50 values: 4.5 and 3.8 μM, respectively). PMID:26088337

  3. Natural indoles, indole-3-carbinol and 3,3′-diindolymethane, inhibit T cell activation by staphylococcal enterotoxin B through epigenetic regulation involving HDAC expression

    SciTech Connect

    Busbee, Philip B.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a potent exotoxin produced by the Staphylococcus aureus. This toxin is classified as a superantigen because of its ability to directly bind with MHC-II class molecules followed by activation of a large proportion of T cells bearing specific Vβ-T cell receptors. Commonly associated with classic food poisoning, SEB has also been shown to induce toxic shock syndrome, and is also considered to be a potential biological warfare agent because it is easily aerosolized. In the present study, we assessed the ability of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and one of its byproducts, 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM), found in cruciferous vegetables, to counteract the effects of SEB-induced activation of T cells in mice. Both I3C and DIM were found to decrease the activation, proliferation, and cytokine production by SEB-activated Vβ8{sup +} T cells in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, inhibitors of histone deacetylase class I (HDAC-I), but not class II (HDAC-II), showed significant decrease in SEB-induced T cell activation and cytokine production, thereby suggesting that epigenetic modulation plays a critical role in the regulation of SEB-induced inflammation. In addition, I3C and DIM caused a decrease in HDAC-I but not HDAC-II in SEB-activated T cells, thereby suggesting that I3C and DIM may inhibit SEB-mediated T cell activation by acting as HDAC-I inhibitors. These studies not only suggest for the first time that plant-derived indoles are potent suppressors of SEB-induced T cell activation and cytokine storm but also that they may mediate these effects by acting as HDAC inhibitors. - Highlights: • I3C and DIM reduce SEB-induced T cell activation and inflammatory cytokines. • Inhibiting class I HDACs reduces T cell activation and inflammatory cytokines. • Inhibiting class II HDACs increases T cell activation and inflammatory cytokines. • I3C and DIM selectively reduce mRNA expression of class I HDACs. • Novel use and mechanism to counteract

  4. The potential use of histone deacetylase inhibitors in the treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Fuchikami, Manabu; Yamamoto, Shigeto; Morinobu, Shigeru; Okada, Satoshi; Yamawaki, Yosuke; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2016-01-01

    Numerous preclinical studies demonstrate that changes in gene expression in the brain occur in animal models of depression using exposure to stress, such as social defeat and leaned helplessness, and that repeated administration of antidepressants ameliorates these stress-induced changes in gene expression. These findings suggest that alteration in gene transcription in the central nervous system in response to stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of depression. Recent advances in epigenetics have led to the realization that chromatin remodeling mediated by histone deacetylase (HDAC) is closely involved in the regulation of gene transcription. In this context, we first review several preclinical studies demonstrating the antidepressant-like efficacy of HDAC inhibitors. We then suggest the efficacy of HDAC inhibitors in treatment-resistant depression based on the mechanism of action of HDAC. Finally, we discuss the possibility of using HDAC inhibitors in patients with treatment-resistant depression. PMID:25818247

  5. Chemical Genetics Uncovers Novel Inhibitors of Lignification, Including p-Iodobenzoic Acid Targeting CINNAMATE-4-HYDROXYLASE.

    PubMed

    Van de Wouwer, Dorien; Vanholme, Ruben; Decou, Raphaël; Goeminne, Geert; Audenaert, Dominique; Nguyen, Long; Höfer, René; Pesquet, Edouard; Vanholme, Bartel; Boerjan, Wout

    2016-09-01

    Plant secondary-thickened cell walls are characterized by the presence of lignin, a recalcitrant and hydrophobic polymer that provides mechanical strength and ensures long-distance water transport. Exactly the recalcitrance and hydrophobicity of lignin put a burden on the industrial processing efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass. Both forward and reverse genetic strategies have been used intensively to unravel the molecular mechanism of lignin deposition. As an alternative strategy, we introduce here a forward chemical genetic approach to find candidate inhibitors of lignification. A high-throughput assay to assess lignification in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings was developed and used to screen a 10-k library of structurally diverse, synthetic molecules. Of the 73 compounds that reduced lignin deposition, 39 that had a major impact were retained and classified into five clusters based on the shift they induced in the phenolic profile of Arabidopsis seedlings. One representative compound of each cluster was selected for further lignin-specific assays, leading to the identification of an aromatic compound that is processed in the plant into two fragments, both having inhibitory activity against lignification. One fragment, p-iodobenzoic acid, was further characterized as a new inhibitor of CINNAMATE 4-HYDROXYLASE, a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway synthesizing the building blocks of the lignin polymer. As such, we provide proof of concept of this chemical biology approach to screen for inhibitors of lignification and present a broad array of putative inhibitors of lignin deposition for further characterization. PMID:27485881

  6. Effect of carbonyl inhibitors and their H₂O₂ detoxification on lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Caiqing; Tu, Maobing; Han, Pingping; Wu, Yonnie

    2015-04-01

    Biomass degradation compounds significantly inhibit biochemical conversion of biomass prehydrolysates to biofuels and chemicals, such as lactic acid. To characterize the structure-activity relationship of carbonyl inhibition on lactic acid fermentation, we examined effects of eight carbonyl compounds (furfural, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, vanillin, syringaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, phthalaldehyde, benzoic acid, and pyrogallol aldehyde) and creosol on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Pyrogallol aldehyde reduced the cell growth rate by 35 % at 1.0 mM and inhibited lactic acid production completely at 2.0 mM. By correlating the molecular descriptors to the inhibition constants in lactic acid fermentation, we found a good relationship between the hydrophobicity (Log P) of aldehydes and their inhibition constants in fermentation. The inhibitory effect of carbonyl inhibitors appeared to correlate with their thiol reactivity as well. In addition, we found that H2O2 detoxified pyrogallol aldehyde and phthalaldehyde inhibitory activity. H2O2 detoxification was applied to real biomass prehydrolysates in lactic acid fermentation. PMID:25666370

  7. Select microtubule inhibitors increase lysosome acidity and promote lysosomal disruption in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Dannie; Gebbia, Marinella; Prabha, Swayam; Gronda, Marcela; MacLean, Neil; Wang, Xiaoming; Hurren, Rose; Sukhai, Mahadeo A; Cho, Eunice E; Manolson, Morris F; Datti, Alessandro; Wrana, Jeffrey; Minden, Mark D; Al-Awar, Rima; Aman, Ahmed; Nislow, Corey; Giaever, Guri; Schimmer, Aaron D

    2015-07-01

    To identify new biological vulnerabilities in acute myeloid leukemia, we screened a library of natural products for compounds cytotoxic to TEX leukemia cells. This screen identified the novel small molecule Deoxysappanone B 7,4' dimethyl ether (Deox B 7,4), which possessed nanomolar anti-leukemic activity. To determine the anti-leukemic mechanism of action of Deox B 7,4, we conducted a genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identified enrichment of genes related to mitotic cell cycle as well as vacuolar acidification, therefore pointing to microtubules and vacuolar (V)-ATPase as potential drug targets. Further investigations into the mechanisms of action of Deox B 7,4 and a related analogue revealed that these compounds were reversible microtubule inhibitors that bound near the colchicine site. In addition, Deox B 7,4 and its analogue increased lysosomal V-ATPase activity and lysosome acidity. The effects on microtubules and lysosomes were functionally important for the anti-leukemic effects of these drugs. The lysosomal effects were characteristic of select microtubule inhibitors as only the Deox compounds and nocodazole, but not colchicine, vinca alkaloids or paclitaxel, altered lysosome acidity and induced lysosomal disruption. Thus, our data highlight a new mechanism of action of select microtubule inhibitors on lysosomal function. PMID:25832785

  8. N-substituted aminomethanephosphonic and aminomethane-P-methylphosphinic acids as inhibitors of ureases.

    PubMed

    Berlicki, Lukasz; Bochno, Marta; Grabowiecka, Agnieszka; Białas, Arkadiusz; Kosikowska, Paulina; Kafarski, Paweł

    2012-05-01

    Small unextended molecules based on the diamidophosphate structure with a covalent carbon-to-phosphorus bond to improve hydrolytic stability were developed as a novel group of inhibitors to control microbial urea decomposition. Applying a structure-based inhibitor design approach using available crystal structures of bacterial urease, N-substituted derivatives of aminomethylphosphonic and P-methyl-aminomethylphosphinic acids were designed and synthesized. In inhibition studies using urease from Bacillus pasteurii and Canavalia ensiformis, the N,N-dimethyl derivatives of both lead structures were most effective with dissociation constants in the low micromolar range (Ki=13±0.8 and 0.62±0.09 μM, respectively). Whole-cell studies on a ureolytic strain of Proteus mirabilis showed the high efficiency of N,N-dimethyl and N-methyl derivatives of aminomethane-P-methylphosphinic acids for urease inhibition in pathogenic bacteria. The high hydrolytic stability of selected inhibitors was confirmed over a period of 30 days using NMR technique. PMID:21559954

  9. Largazole, a class I histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhances TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Salahuddin; Riegsecker, Sharayah; Beamer, Maria; Rahman, Ayesha; Bellini, Joseph V.; Bhansali, Pravin; Tillekeratne, L.M. Viranga

    2013-07-15

    In the present study, we evaluated the effect of largazole (LAR), a marine-derived class I HDAC inhibitor, on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity. LAR (1–5 μM) had no adverse effect on the viability of RA synovial fibroblasts. Among the different class I HDACs screened, LAR (0.5–5 μM) inhibited the constitutive expression of HDAC1 (0–30%). Surprisingly, LAR increased class II HDAC [HDAC6] by ∼ 220% with a concomitant decrease in HDAC5 [30–58%] expression in RA synovial fibroblasts. SAHA (5 μM), a pan-HDAC inhibitor, also induced HDAC6 expression in RA synovial fibroblasts. Pretreatment of RA synovial fibroblasts with LAR further enhanced TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. However, LAR inhibited TNF-α-induced MMP-2 activity in RA synovial fibroblasts by 35% when compared to the TNF-α-treated group. Further, the addition of HDAC6 specific inhibitor Tubastatin A with LAR suppressed TNF-α + LAR-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression and completely blocked MMP-2 activity, suggesting a role of HDAC6 in LAR-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. LAR also enhanced TNF-α-induced phospho-p38 and phospho-AKT expression, but inhibited the expression of phospho-JNK and nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65 in RA synovial fibroblasts. These results suggest that LAR activates p38 and Akt pathways and influences class II HDACs, in particular HDAC6, to enhance some of the detrimental effects of TNF-α in RA synovial fibroblasts. Understanding the exact role of different HDAC isoenzymes in RA pathogenesis is extremely important in order to develop highly effective HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of RA. - Highlights: • Largazole enhances TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. • Largazole upregulates class II HDAC (HDAC6) in RA synovial fibroblasts. • Largazole also induces the expression of phospho-p38

  10. HDAC2 deficiency sensitizes colon cancer cells to TNFalpha-induced apoptosis through inhibition of NF-kappaB activity.

    PubMed

    Kaler, Pawan; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Augenlicht, Leonard; Klampfer, Lidija

    2008-04-15

    HDAC inhibitors exert potent anti-tumorigenic and anti-inflammatory activity. Their effects are selective for transformed cells, and we recently demonstrated that transformation of epithelial cells with k-Ras sensitizes cells to HDACi induced apoptosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the ability of HDACi to modulate signaling by a major pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNFalpha, is also restricted to cells that harbor mutant k-Ras. We used the system of two isogenic cell lines that differ by the presence of mutant k-Ras, HCT116 and Hke3 cells. Treatment of cells with TNFalpha alone did not induce apoptosis; however HDACi potentiated TNFalpha-induced apoptosis in both HCT116 and Hke3 cells. Thus, the ability of HDACi to sensitize cells to TNFalpha-induced apoptosis appears to be k-Ras independent. We demonstrated that HDACi inhibited TNFalpha-induced NF-kappaB transcriptional and DNA binding activity in both cell lines, underlying the increased apoptosis in cells treated with both agents. We showed that overexpression of HDAC2 enhanced TNFalpha-induced NF-kappaB activity and that silencing of HDAC2 decreased NF-kappaB activity. Finally, silencing of HDAC2 expression was sufficient to sensitize colon cancer cells to TNFalpha-induced apoptosis. The ability of HDACi to interfere with NF-kappaB activity is likely to contribute to their potent anti-tumorigenic and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:18314102

  11. Discovery of the First N-Hydroxycinnamamide-Based Histone Deacetylase 1/3 Dual Inhibitors with Potent Oral Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, we designed and synthesized a novel series of N-hydroxycinnamamide-based HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs), among which the representative compound 14a exhibited promising HDACs inhibition and antitumor activity. In this current study, we report the development of a more potent class of N-hydroxycinnamamide-based HDACIs, using 14a as lead, among which, compound 11r gave IC50 values of 11.8, 498.1, 3.9, 2000.8, 5700.4, 308.2, and 900.4 nM for the inhibition of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, HDAC8, HDAC4, HDAC6, and HDAC11, exhibiting dual HDAC1/3 selectivity. Compounds 11e, 11r, 11w, and 11y showed excellent growth inhibition in multiple tumor cell lines. In vivo antitumor assay in U937 xenograft model identified compound 11r as a potent, orally active HDACI. To the best of our knowledge, this work constitutes the first report of oral active N-hydroxycinnamamide-based HDACIs with dual HDAC1/3 selectivity. PMID:24694055

  12. Discovery of arjunolic acid as a novel non-zinc binding carbonic anhydrase II inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kalyanavenkataraman, Subhalakshmi; Nanjan, Pandurangan; Banerji, Asoke; Nair, Bipin G; Kumar, Geetha B

    2016-06-01

    Elevated levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) have been shown to be associated with cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Although arjunolic acid (AA) has a diverse range of therapeutic applications including cardio-protection, there have been no reports on the effect of AA on CA II. The present study describes for the first time, the novel zinc independent inhibition of CA II by AA. The molecular docking studies of AA indicated that the hydroxyl group at C2 of the A-ring, which hydrogen bonds with the catalytic site residues (His64, Asn62 and Asn67), along with the gem-dimethyl group at C20 of the E-ring, greatly influences the inhibitory activity, independent of the catalytic zinc, unlike the inhibition observed with most CA II inhibitors. Among the triterpenoids tested viz. arjunolic acid, arjunic acid, asiatic acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, AA was the most potent in inhibiting CA II in vitro with an IC50 of 9μM. It was interesting to note, that in spite of exhibiting very little differences in their structures, these triterpenoids exhibited vast differences in their inhibitory activities, with IC50 values ranging from 9μM to as high as 333μM. Furthermore, AA also inhibited the cytosolic activity of CA in H9c2 cardiomyocytes, as reflected by the decrease in acidification of the intracellular pH (pHi). The decreased acidification reduced the intracellular calcium levels, which further prevented the mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Thus, these studies provide a better understanding for establishing the novel molecular mechanism involved in CA II inhibition by the non-zinc binding inhibitor AA. PMID:27038848

  13. Potent inhibitors of HCV-NS3 protease derived from boronic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatraman, Srikanth; Wu, Wanli; Prongay, Andrew; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor; Njoroge, F. George

    2009-07-23

    Chronic hepatitis C infection is the leading causes for cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma, leading to liver failure and liver transplantation. The etiological agent, HCV virus produces a single positive strand of RNA that is processed with the help of serine protease NS3 to produce mature virus. Inhibition of NS3 protease can be potentially used to develop effective drugs for HCV infections. Numerous efforts are now underway to develop potent inhibitors of HCV protease that contain ketoamides as serine traps. Herein we report the synthesis of a series of potent inhibitors that contain a boronic acid as a serine trap. The activity of these compounds were optimized to 200 pM. X-ray structure of compound 17 bound to NS3 protease is also discussed.

  14. Regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial function by MEF2 and HDAC5

    PubMed Central

    Czubryt, Michael P.; McAnally, John; Fishman, Glenn I.; Olson, Eric N.

    2003-01-01

    The myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) transcription factor regulates muscle development and calcium-dependent gene expression. MEF2 activity is repressed by class II histone deacetylases (HDACs), which dissociate from MEF2 when phosphorylated on two serine residues in response to calcium signaling. To explore the potential importance of MEF2/HDAC interactions in the heart, we generated transgenic mice expressing a signal-resistant form of HDAC5 under cardiac-specific and doxycycline-inducible regulation. Transgene expression resulted in sudden death in male mice accompanied by loss and morphologic changes of cardiac mitochondria and down-regulation of mitochondrial enzymes. The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α, a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation, was also down-regulated in response to HDAC5 expression. Examination of the PGC-1α promoter revealed two MEF2-binding sites that mediate transcriptional activation by MEF2 and repression by HDAC5. These findings identify PGC-1α as a key target of the MEF2/HDAC regulatory pathway and demonstrate this pathway's importance in maintenance of cardiac mitochondrial function. PMID:12578979

  15. Synthesis and characterization of phosphocitric acid, a potent inhibitor of hydroxylapatite crystal growth.

    PubMed

    Tew, W P; Mahle, C; Benavides, J; Howard, J E; Lehninger, A L

    1980-04-29

    Human urine and extracts of rat liver mitochondria contain apparently identical agents capable of inhibiting the precipitation or crystallization of calcium phosphate. Its general properties, as well as 1H NMR and mass spectra, have suggested that the agent is phosphocitric acid. This paper reports the synthesis of phosphocitric acid via the phosphorylation of triethyl citrate with o-phenylene phosphochloridate, hydrogenolysis of the product to yield triethyl phosphocitrate, hydrolytic removal of the blocking ethyl groups and also chromatographic purification. An enzymatic assay of phosphocitrate is described. Synthetic phosphocitrate was found to be an exceedingly potent inhibitor of the growth of hydroxylapatite seed crystals in a medium supersaturated with respect to Ca2+ and phosphate. Comparative assays showed phosphocitrate to be much more potent than the most active precipitation-crystallization inhibitors previously reported, which include pyrophosphate and ATP. 14C-Labeled phosphocitrate was bound very tightly to hydroxylapatite crystals. Such binding appeared to be essential for its inhibitory activity on crystal growth. Citrate added before but not after, phosphocitrate greatly enhanced the inhibitory potency of the latter. This enhancement effect was not given by other tricarboxylic acids. The monoethyl ester of phosphocitrate had no inhibitory effect on hydroxylapatite crystal growth. PMID:7378389

  16. Inhibition of Pig Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Isoenzymes by 3-Mercaptopicolinic Acid and Novel Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Jorge; Latorre, Pedro; Carrodeguas, José Alberto; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Sancho, Javier; López-Buesa, Pascual

    2016-01-01

    There exist two isoforms of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) in pig populations that differ in a single amino acid (Met139Leu). The isoenzymes have different kinetic properties, affecting more strongly the Km and Vmax of nucleotides. They are associated to different phenotypes modifying traits of considerable economic interest. In this work we use inhibitors of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity to search for further differences between these isoenzymes. On the one hand we have used the well-known inhibitor 3-mercaptopicolinic acid. Its inhibition patterns were the same for both isoenzymes: a three-fold decrease of the Ki values for GTP in 139Met and 139Leu (273 and 873 μM, respectively). On the other hand, through screening of a chemical library we have found two novel compounds with inhibitory effects of a similar magnitude to that of 3-mercaptopicolinic acid but with less solubility and specificity. One of these novel compounds, (N'1-({5-[1-methyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]-2-thienyl}methylidene)-2,4-dichlorobenzene-1-carbohydrazide), exhibited significantly different inhibitory effects on either isoenzyme: it enhanced threefold the apparent Km value for GTP in 139Met, whereas in 139Leu, it reduced it from 99 to 69 μM. The finding of those significant differences in the binding of GTP reinforces the hypothesis that the Met139Leu substitution affects strongly the nucleotide binding site of PEPCK-C. PMID:27391465

  17. Inhibition of Pig Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Isoenzymes by 3-Mercaptopicolinic Acid and Novel Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Jorge; Latorre, Pedro; Carrodeguas, José Alberto; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Sancho, Javier; López-Buesa, Pascual

    2016-01-01

    There exist two isoforms of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) in pig populations that differ in a single amino acid (Met139Leu). The isoenzymes have different kinetic properties, affecting more strongly the Km and Vmax of nucleotides. They are associated to different phenotypes modifying traits of considerable economic interest. In this work we use inhibitors of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity to search for further differences between these isoenzymes. On the one hand we have used the well-known inhibitor 3-mercaptopicolinic acid. Its inhibition patterns were the same for both isoenzymes: a three-fold decrease of the Ki values for GTP in 139Met and 139Leu (273 and 873 μM, respectively). On the other hand, through screening of a chemical library we have found two novel compounds with inhibitory effects of a similar magnitude to that of 3-mercaptopicolinic acid but with less solubility and specificity. One of these novel compounds, (N'1-({5-[1-methyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]-2-thienyl}methylidene)-2,4-dichlorobenzene-1-carbohydrazide), exhibited significantly different inhibitory effects on either isoenzyme: it enhanced threefold the apparent Km value for GTP in 139Met, whereas in 139Leu, it reduced it from 99 to 69 μM. The finding of those significant differences in the binding of GTP reinforces the hypothesis that the Met139Leu substitution affects strongly the nucleotide binding site of PEPCK-C. PMID:27391465

  18. HDAC6 is a Bruchpilot deacetylase that facilitates neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Miskiewicz, Katarzyna; Jose, Liya E; Yeshaw, Wondwossen M; Valadas, Jorge S; Swerts, Jef; Munck, Sebastian; Feiguin, Fabian; Dermaut, Bart; Verstreken, Patrik

    2014-07-10

    Presynaptic densities are specialized structures involved in synaptic vesicle tethering and neurotransmission; however, the mechanisms regulating their function remain understudied. In Drosophila, Bruchpilot is a major constituent of the presynaptic density that tethers vesicles. Here, we show that HDAC6 is necessary and sufficient for deacetylation of Bruchpilot. HDAC6 expression is also controlled by TDP-43, an RNA-binding protein deregulated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Animals expressing TDP-43 harboring pathogenic mutations show increased HDAC6 expression, decreased Bruchpilot acetylation, larger vesicle-tethering sites, and increased neurotransmission, defects similar to those seen upon expression of HDAC6 and opposite to hdac6 null mutants. Consequently, reduced levels of HDAC6 or increased levels of ELP3, a Bruchpilot acetyltransferase, rescue the presynaptic density defects in TDP-43-expressing flies as well as the decreased adult locomotion. Our work identifies HDAC6 as a Bruchpilot deacetylase and indicates that regulating acetylation of a presynaptic release-site protein is critical for maintaining normal neurotransmission. PMID:24981865

  19. C-3 benzoic acid derivatives of C-3 deoxybetulinic acid and deoxybetulin as HIV-1 maturation inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Swidorski, Jacob J; Nowicka-Sans, Beata; Terry, Brian; Protack, Tricia; Lin, Zeyu; Samanta, Himadri; Zhang, Sharon; Li, Zhufang; Parker, Dawn D; Rahematpura, Sandhya; Jenkins, Susan; Beno, Brett R; Krystal, Mark; Meanwell, Nicholas A; Dicker, Ira B; Regueiro-Ren, Alicia

    2016-04-15

    A series of C-3 phenyl- and heterocycle-substituted derivatives of C-3 deoxybetulinic acid and C-3 deoxybetulin was designed and synthesized as HIV-1 maturation inhibitors (MIs) and evaluated for their antiviral activity and cytotoxicity in cell culture. A 4-subsituted benzoic acid moiety was identified as an advantageous replacement for the 3'3'-dimethylsuccinate moiety present in previously disclosed MIs that illuminates new aspects of the topography of the pharmacophore. The new analogs exhibit excellent in vitro antiviral activity against wild-type (wt) virus and a lower serum shift when compared with the prototypical HIV-1 MI bevirimat (1, BVM), the first MI to be evaluated in clinical studies. Compound 9a exhibits comparable cell culture potency toward wt virus as 1 (WT EC50=16nM for 9a compared to 10nM for 1). However, the potency of 9a is less affected by the presence of human serum, while the compound displays a similar pharmacokinetic profile in rats to 1. Hence 9a, the 4-benzoic acid derivative of deoxybetulinic acid, represents a new starting point from which to explore the design of a 2nd generation MI. PMID:26968652

  20. Benzimidazole as corrosion inhibitor for heat treated 6061 Al- SiCp composite in acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacko, Melby; Nayak, Jagannath

    2015-06-01

    6061 Al-SiCpcomposite was solutionizedat 350 °C for 30 minutes and water quenched. It was then underaged at 140 °C (T6 treatment). The aging behaviour of the composite was studied using Rockwell B hardness measurement. Corrosion behaviour of the underaged sample was studied in different concentrations of acetic acid and at different temperatures. Benzimidazole at different concentrations was used for the inhibition studies. Inhibition efficiency of benzimidazole was calculated for different experimental conditions. Thermodynamic parameters were found out which suggested benzimidazole is an efficient inhibitor and it adsorbed on to the surface of composite by mixed adsorption where chemisorption is predominant.

  1. Effect of acid-corrosion inhibitors on the pickling of scale from steels

    SciTech Connect

    Podobaev, N.I.

    1988-07-01

    This article examines features of the dissolution of scale and its component oxides in contact with steel in acids. It also looks at possible kinetic mechanisms of the dissolution of iron oxides, the effect of inhibitors and other additives on the dissolution of the metal and scale, and methods of measuring the dynamics of pickling. A distinction is made between high-temperature scale formed on plain-carbon and low-alloy steels above 570-800/degree/C and low-temperature scale formed below 570/degree/C.

  2. Reduced food intake and body weight in mice treated with fatty acid synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Loftus, T M; Jaworsky, D E; Frehywot, G L; Townsend, C A; Ronnett, G V; Lane, M D; Kuhajda, F P

    2000-06-30

    With the escalation of obesity-related disease, there is great interest in defining the mechanisms that control appetite and body weight. We have identified a link between anabolic energy metabolism and appetite control. Both systemic and intracerebroventricular treatment of mice with fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitors (cerulenin and a synthetic compound C75) led to inhibition of feeding and dramatic weight loss. C75 inhibited expression of the prophagic signal neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus and acted in a leptin-independent manner that appears to be mediated by malonyl-coenzyme A. Thus, FAS may represent an important link in feeding regulation and may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:10875926

  3. Inhibition of SRC-3 enhances sensitivity of human cancer cells to histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhengzhi; Luo, Xiaoyong; Nie, Peipei; Wu, Baoyan; Zhang, Tao; Wei, Yanchun; Wang, Wenyi; Geng, Guojun; Jiang, Jie; Mi, Yanjun

    2016-09-01

    SRC-3 is widely expressed in multiple tumor types and involved in cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising antitumor drugs. However, the poor efficacy of HDAC inhibitors in solid tumors has restricted its further clinical application. Here, we reported the novel finding that depletion of SRC-3 enhanced sensitivity of breast and lung cancer cells to HDAC inhibitors (SAHA and romidepsin). In contrast, overexpression of SRC-3 decreased SAHA-induced cancer cell apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that SRC-3 inhibitor bufalin increased cancer cell apoptosis induced by HDAC inhibitors. The combination of bufalin and SAHA was particular efficient in attenuating AKT activation and reducing Bcl-2 levels. Taken together, these accumulating data might guide development of new breast and lung cancer therapies. PMID:27425252

  4. Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-dependent Reversible Lysine Acetylation of Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms Modulates Their Enzymatic and Motor Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Samant, Sadhana A.; Pillai, Vinodkumar B.; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R.; Shroff, Sanjeev G.; Gupta, Mahesh P.

    2015-01-01

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, p300/CREB-binding protein-associated factor, associate with cardiac sarcomeres and that a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to A-band of sarcomeres and capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac α- and β-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the Km for the actin-activated ATPase activity of MHC isoforms. By in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin-sliding velocity of α-myosin by 20% and β-myosin by 36% compared with their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli independently of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms. PMID:25911107

  5. Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-dependent Reversible Lysine Acetylation of Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms Modulates Their Enzymatic and Motor Activity.

    PubMed

    Samant, Sadhana A; Pillai, Vinodkumar B; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R; Shroff, Sanjeev G; Gupta, Mahesh P

    2015-06-19

    Reversible lysine acetylation is a widespread post-translational modification controlling the activity of proteins in different subcellular compartments. We previously demonstrated that a class II histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, and a histone acetyltransferase, p300/CREB-binding protein-associated factor, associate with cardiac sarcomeres and that a class I and II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A, enhances contractile activity of myofilaments. In this study we show that a class I HDAC, HDAC3, is also present at cardiac sarcomeres. By immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses, we found that HDAC3 was localized to A-band of sarcomeres and capable of deacetylating myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. The motor domains of both cardiac α- and β-MHC isoforms were found to be reversibly acetylated. Biomechanical studies revealed that lysine acetylation significantly decreased the Km for the actin-activated ATPase activity of MHC isoforms. By in vitro motility assay, we found that lysine acetylation increased the actin-sliding velocity of α-myosin by 20% and β-myosin by 36% compared with their respective non-acetylated isoforms. Moreover, myosin acetylation was found to be sensitive to cardiac stress. During induction of hypertrophy, myosin isoform acetylation increased progressively with duration of stress stimuli independently of isoform shift, suggesting that lysine acetylation of myosin could be an early response of myofilaments to increase contractile performance of the heart. These studies provide the first evidence for localization of HDAC3 at myofilaments and uncover a novel mechanism modulating the motor activity of cardiac MHC isoforms. PMID:25911107

  6. Repeated treatment with electroconvulsive seizures induces HDAC2 expression and down-regulation of NMDA receptor-related genes through histone deacetylation in the rat frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Park, Hong Geun; Yu, Hyun Sook; Park, Soyoung; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik; Kim, Se Hyun

    2014-09-01

    The enzymatic activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs) leads to a histone deacetylation-mediated condensed chromatic structure, resulting in transcriptional repression, which has been implicated in the modifications of neural circuits and behaviors. Repeated treatment with electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) induces changes in histone acetylation, expression of various genes, and intrabrain cellular changes, including neurogenesis. In this study, we examined the effects of repeated ECS on the expression of class I HDACs and related changes in histone modifications and gene expression in the rat frontal cortex. Ten days of repeated ECS treatments (E10X) up-regulated HDAC2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in the rat frontal cortex compared with sham-treated controls; this was evident in the nuclei of neuronal cells in the prefrontal, cingulate, orbital, and insular cortices. Among the known HDAC2 target genes, mRNA expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signaling-related genes, including early growth response-1 (Egr1), c-Fos, glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl d-aspartate 2A (Nr2a), Nr2b, neuritin1 (Nrn1), and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (Camk2α), were decreased, and the histone acetylation of H3 and/or H4 proteins was also reduced by E10X. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that HDAC2 occupancy in the promoters of down-regulated genes was increased significantly. Moreover, administration of sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor, during the course of E10X ameliorated the ECS-induced down-regulation of genes in the rat frontal cortex. These findings suggest that induction of HDAC2 by repeated ECS treatment could play an important role in the down-regulation of NMDA receptor signaling-related genes in the rat frontal cortex through histone modification. PMID:24606669

  7. Zaragozic acids D and D2: potent inhibitors of squalene synthase and of Ras farnesyl-protein transferase.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, C; Wilson, K E; Singh, S B; Zink, D L; Bergstrom, J D; Rew, D; Polishook, J D; Meinz, M; Huang, L; Silverman, K C

    1993-11-01

    Two new zaragozic acids, D and D2, have been isolated from the keratinophilic fungus Amauroascus niger. Zaragozic acids D [4] and D2 [5] are related to the previously described zaragozic acids A [1], B [2], and C [3] and are potent inhibitors of squalene synthase. Furthermore, all the zaragozic acids (A, B, C, D, and D2) are also active against farnesyl transferase. Zaragozic acids D and D2 inhibit farnesyl transferase with IC50 values of 100 nM, while zaragozic acids A and B are less potent. PMID:8289063

  8. Isolated etioplasts as test system for inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaler, H.K.; Kobek, K. )

    1989-04-01

    Isolated intact chloroplasts of mono- and dicotyledonous plants possess the capacity for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, starting from {sup 14}C-acetate. These can be taken as test system for herbicides affecting fatty acid biosynthesis as shown earlier in our laboratory. The incorporation rates of acetate into the total fatty acids depend on the photosynthetic cofactors ATP and NADPH and amount in the light to 33 kBq (oat) and 39 kBq (pea) per mg chlorophyll x h, whereas in the dark only ca. 10% of these rates are obtained. In order to establish a test system, which is fully independent of light, we isolated and characterized etioplast fractions from oat and pea seedlings with a very high capacity of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis (500 and 400 kBq per mg carotenoids in a 20 min period). This activity was blocked by herbicides such as cycloxydim, sethoxydim and diclofop in a dose-dependent manner. This new test system has the great advantage that one can verify whether inhibitors of photosynthesis affect fatty acid biosynthesis.

  9. Synthesis of water soluble glycosides of pentacyclic dihydroxytriterpene carboxylic acids as inhibitors of α-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiancong; Nie, Xuliang; Hong, Yanping; Jiang, Yan; Wu, Guoqiang; Yin, Xiaoli; Wang, Chunrong; Wang, Xiaoqiang

    2016-04-01

    A series of compounds were synthesized by glycosylation of maslinic acid (MA) and corosolic acid (CA) with monosaccharides and disaccharides, and the structures of the derivatives were elucidated by standard spectroscopic methods including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and HRMS. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of all the novel compounds were evaluated in vitro. The solubility and inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase assays showed that the bis-disaccharide glycosides of triterpene acids possessed higher water solubility and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities than the bis-monosaccharide glycosides. Among these compounds, maslinic acid bis-lactoside (8e, IC50 = 684 µM) and corosolic acid bis-lactoside (9e, IC50 = 428 µM) had the best water solubility, and 9e exhibited a better inhibitory activity than acarbose (IC50 = 478 µM). However, most of glycosylated derivatives possessed lower inhibitory activities than the parent compounds, although their water solubility was enhanced obviously. Moreover, the kinetic inhibition studies indicated that 9e was a non-competitive inhibitor, and structure-activity relationships of the derivatives are also discussed. PMID:26974355

  10. Enhancement of stress resilience through Hdac6-mediated regulation of glucocorticoid receptor chaperone dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jochems, Jeanine; Teegarden, Sarah L; Chen, Yong; Boulden, Janette; Challis, Collin; Ben-Dor, Gabriel A; Kim, Sangwon F; Berton, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Background Acetylation of Hsp90 regulates downstream hormone signaling via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), but the role of this molecular mechanism in stress homeostasis remains poorly understood. We tested whether acetylation of Hsp90 in the brain predicts and modulates the behavioral sequelae of a mouse model of social stress. Methods Mice subjected to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) were stratified into resilient and vulnerable subpopulations. HPA axis function was probed using a DEX/CRF test. Hsp90 acetylation, Hsp90-GR interactions and GR translocation were measured in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). To manipulate Hsp90 acetylation, we pharmacologically inhibited Hdac6, a known deacetylase of Hsp90 or overexpressed a point-mutant that mimics the hyperacetylated state of Hsp90 at lysine K294 Results Lower acetylated Hsp90, higher GR-Hsp90 association and enhanced GR translocation were observed in DRN of vulnerable mice after CSDS. Administration of ACY-738, an Hdac6-selective inhibitor, led to Hsp90 hyperacetylation in brain and in neuronal culture. In cell-based assays, ACY-738 increased the relative association of Hsp90 with FKBP51 versus FKBP52 and inhibited hormone-induced GR translocation. This effect was replicated by overexpressing the acetylation-mimic point-mutant of Hsp90. In vivo, ACY-738 promoted resilience to CSDS and serotonin-selective viral overexpression of the acetylation-mimic mutant of Hsp90 in raphe neurons reproduced the behaviroral effect of ACY-738. Conclusions Hyperacetylation of Hsp90 is a predictor and causal molecular determinant of stress resilience in mice. Brain-penetrant Hdac6 inhibitors increase Hsp90 acetylation and modulate GR chaperone dynamics offering a promising strategy to curtail deleterious socioaffective effects of stress and glucocorticoids. PMID:25442004

  11. Isoprenoid biosynthesis as a target for antibacterial and antiparasitic drugs: phosphonohydroxamic acids as inhibitors of deoxyxylulose phosphate reducto-isomerase

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Isoprenoid biosynthesis via the methylerythritol phosphate pathway is a target against pathogenic bacteria and the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. 4-(Hydroxyamino)-4-oxobutylphosphonic acid and 4-[hydroxy(methyl)amino]-4-oxobutyl phosphonic acid, two novel inhibitors of DXR (1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reducto-isomerase), the second enzyme of the pathway, have been synthesized and compared with fosmidomycin, the best known inhibitor of this enzyme. The latter phosphonohydroxamic acid showed a high inhibitory activity towards DXR, much like fosmidomycin, as well as significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli in tests on Petri dishes. PMID:15473867

  12. Epigenetic suppression of the antitumor cytotoxicity of NK cells by histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiumin; Li, Min; Cui, Meizi; Niu, Chao; Xu, Jianting; Zhou, Lei; Li, Wei; Gao, Yushun; Kong, Weisheng; Cui, Jiuwei; Hu, Jifan; Jin, Haofan

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play an essential role in the fight against tumor development. The therapeutic use of autologous NK cells has been exploited to treat human malignancies, yet only limited antitumor activity is observed in cancer patients. In this study, we sought to augment the antitumor activity of NK cells using epigenetic approaches. Four small molecules that have been known to promote epigenetic reprogramming were tested for their ability to enhance the activity of NK cells. Using a tumor cell lysis assay, we found that the DNA demethylating agent 5-azacytidine and vitamin C did not significantly affect the tumor killing ability of NK cells. The thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) slightly increased the activity of NK cells. The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA), however, inhibited NK cell lytic activity against leukemic cells in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment using VPA reduced IFNγ secretion, impaired CD107a degranulation, and induced apoptosis by activating the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway. VPA downregulated the expression of the activating receptor NKG2D (natural-killer group 2, member D) by inducing histone K9 hypermethylation and DNA methylation in the gene promoter. Histone deacetylase inhibitors have been developed as anticancer agents for use as monotherapies or in combination with other anticancer therapies. Our data suggest that the activity of histone deacetylase inhibitors on NK cell activity should be considered in drug development. PMID:27152238

  13. Snake venoms. The amino acid sequences of two proteinase inhibitor homologues from Dendroaspis angusticeps venom.

    PubMed

    Joubert, F J; Taljaard, N

    1980-05-01

    Toxins C13S1C3 and C13S2C3 from D. angusticeps venom were purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Whereas C13S1C3 contains 57 amino acids, C13S2C3 contains 59 but each include six half-cystine residues. The complete primary structure of the low toxicity proteins have been elucidated. The sequences and the invariant residues of toxins C13S1C3 and C13S2C3 from D. angusticeps venom resemble, respectively, those of the proteinase inhibitor homologues K and I from D. polylepis polylepis venom and they are also homologous to the active proteinase inhibitors from various sources. In C13S1C3 and K the active site lysyl residue of active bovine pancreatic proteinase inhibitor is conserved but the site residue alanine, is replaced by lysine. In C13S2C3 and I the active site residue is replaced by tyrosine. PMID:7429422

  14. A pharmaceutical product as corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in acidic environments.

    PubMed

    Samide, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    A pharmaceutical product, Trimethoprim (TMP), IUPAC name: 5-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine was investigated, as inhibitor to prevent carbon steel corrosion in acidic environments. The study was performed using weight loss and electrochemical measurements, in temperatures ranging between 25-55°C. The surface morphology before and after corrosion of carbon steel in 1.0 M HCl solution in the presence and absence of TMP was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The inhibition efficiency (IE) increased with the increasing of the inhibitor concentration, reaching a maximum value of 92% at 25°C and 0.9 mM TMP, and decreased with increasing temperature. The inhibition of carbon steel corrosion by TMP can be attributed to the adsorption ability of inhibitor molecules onto the reactive sites of the metal surface. The adsorption is spontaneous and it is best described by the Langmuir isotherm. The apparent activation energy (E(a)) for the corrosion process in the absence and presence of TMP was evaluated from Arrhenius equation, to elucidate its inhibitive properties. PMID:23043337

  15. Reciprocal regulation of RORγt acetylation and function by p300 and HDAC1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qingsi; Nie, Jia; Gao, Yayi; Xu, Peng; Sun, Qijuan; Yang, Jing; Han, Lei; Chen, Zuojia; Wang, Xiuwen; Lv, Ling; Tsun, Andy; Shen, Jijia; Li, Bin

    2015-01-01

    T helper 17 (Th17) cells not only play critical roles in protecting against bacterial and fungal infections but are also involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. The retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (RORγt) is a key transcription factor involved in Th17 cell differentiation through direct transcriptional activation of interleukin 17(A) (IL-17). How RORγt itself is regulated remains unclear. Here, we report that p300, which has histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, interacts with and acetylates RORγt at its K81 residue. Knockdown of p300 downregulates RORγt protein and RORγt-mediated gene expression in Th17 cells. In addition, p300 can promote RORγt-mediated transcriptional activation. Interestingly, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) HDAC1 can also interact with RORγt and reduce its acetylation level. In summary, our data reveal previously unappreciated posttranslational regulation of RORγt, uncovering the underlying mechanism by which the histone acetyltransferase p300 and the histone deacetylase HDAC1 reciprocally regulate the RORγt-mediated transcriptional activation of IL-17. PMID:26549310

  16. Hydrophobic amino acids as a new class of kinetic inhibitors for gas hydrate formation.

    PubMed

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Lee, Bo Ram; Park, Da-Hye; Han, Kunwoo; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2013-01-01

    As the foundation of energy industry moves towards gas, flow assurance technology preventing pipelines from hydrate blockages becomes increasingly significant. However, the principle of hydrate inhibition is still poorly understood. Here, we examined natural hydrophobic amino acids as novel kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs), and investigated hydrate inhibition phenomena by using them as a model system. Amino acids with lower hydrophobicity were found to be better KHIs to delay nucleation and retard growth, working by disrupting the water hydrogen bond network, while those with higher hydrophobicity strengthened the local water structure. It was found that perturbation of the water structure around KHIs plays a critical role in hydrate inhibition. This suggestion of a new class of KHIs will aid development of KHIs with enhanced biodegradability, and the present findings will accelerate the improved control of hydrate formation for natural gas exploitation and the utilization of hydrates as next-generation gas capture media. PMID:23938301

  17. Hydrophobic amino acids as a new class of kinetic inhibitors for gas hydrate formation

    PubMed Central

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Lee, Bo Ram; Park, Da-Hye; Han, Kunwoo; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2013-01-01

    As the foundation of energy industry moves towards gas, flow assurance technology preventing pipelines from hydrate blockages becomes increasingly significant. However, the principle of hydrate inhibition is still poorly understood. Here, we examined natural hydrophobic amino acids as novel kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs), and investigated hydrate inhibition phenomena by using them as a model system. Amino acids with lower hydrophobicity were found to be better KHIs to delay nucleation and retard growth, working by disrupting the water hydrogen bond network, while those with higher hydrophobicity strengthened the local water structure. It was found that perturbation of the water structure around KHIs plays a critical role in hydrate inhibition. This suggestion of a new class of KHIs will aid development of KHIs with enhanced biodegradability, and the present findings will accelerate the improved control of hydrate formation for natural gas exploitation and the utilization of hydrates as next-generation gas capture media. PMID:23938301

  18. Hydrophobic amino acids as a new class of kinetic inhibitors for gas hydrate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Lee, Bo Ram; Park, Da-Hye; Han, Kunwoo; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2013-08-01

    As the foundation of energy industry moves towards gas, flow assurance technology preventing pipelines from hydrate blockages becomes increasingly significant. However, the principle of hydrate inhibition is still poorly understood. Here, we examined natural hydrophobic amino acids as novel kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs), and investigated hydrate inhibition phenomena by using them as a model system. Amino acids with lower hydrophobicity were found to be better KHIs to delay nucleation and retard growth, working by disrupting the water hydrogen bond network, while those with higher hydrophobicity strengthened the local water structure. It was found that perturbation of the water structure around KHIs plays a critical role in hydrate inhibition. This suggestion of a new class of KHIs will aid development of KHIs with enhanced biodegradability, and the present findings will accelerate the improved control of hydrate formation for natural gas exploitation and the utilization of hydrates as next-generation gas capture media.

  19. Adsorptive removal of fermentation inhibitors from concentrated acid hydrolyzates of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Sainio, Tuomo; Turku, Irina; Heinonen, Jari

    2011-05-01

    Adsorptive purification of concentrated acid hydrolyzate of lignocellulose was investigated. Cation exchange resin (CS16GC), neutral polymer adsorbent (XAD-16), and granulated activated carbon (GAC) were studied to remove furfural, HMF, and acetic acid from a synthetic hydrolyzate containing 20 wt.% H(2)SO(4). Adsorption isotherms were determined experimentally. Loading and regeneration were investigated in a laboratory scale column. GAC has the highest adsorption capacity, but regeneration with water was not feasible. XAD-16 and CS16GC had lower adsorption capacities but also shorter cycle times due to easier regeneration. Productivity increased when regenerating with 50 wt.% EtOH(aq) solution. To compare adsorbents, process performance was quantified by productivity and fraction of inhibitors removed. GAC yields highest performance when high purity is required and ethanol can be used in regeneration. For lower purities, XAD-16 and GAC yield approximately equal performance. When using ethanol must be avoided, CS16GC offers highest productivity. PMID:21441022

  20. Human THAP7 is a chromatin-associated, histone tail-binding protein that represses transcription via recruitment of HDAC3 and nuclear hormone receptor corepressor.

    PubMed

    Macfarlan, Todd; Kutney, Sara; Altman, Brian; Montross, Rebecca; Yu, Jiujiu; Chakravarti, Debabrata

    2005-02-25

    The identities of signal transducer proteins that integrate histone hypoacetylation and transcriptional repression are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that THAP7, an uncharacterized member of the recently identified THAP (Thanatos-associated protein) family of proteins, is ubiquitously expressed, associates with chromatin, and represses transcription. THAP7 binds preferentially to hypoacetylated (un-, mono-, and diacetylated) histone H4 tails in vitro via its C-terminal 77 amino acids. Deletion of this domain, or treatment of cells with the histone deacetylase inhibitor TSA, which leads to histone hyperacetylation, partially disrupts THAP7/chromatin association in living cells. THAP7 coimmunoprecipitates with histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) and the nuclear hormone receptor corepressor (NCoR) and represses transcription as a Gal4 fusion protein. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that these corepressors are recruited to promoters in a THAP7 dependent manner and promote histone H3 hypoacetylation. The conserved THAP domain is a key determinant for full HDAC3 association in vitro, and both the THAP domain and the histone interaction domain are important for the repressive properties of THAP7. Full repression mediated by THAP7 is also dependent on NCoR expression. We hypothesize that THAP7 is a dual function repressor protein that actively targets deacetylation of histone H3 necessary to establish transcriptional repression and functions as a signal transducer of the repressive mark of hypoacetylated histone H4. This is the first demonstration of the transcriptional regulatory properties of a human THAP domain protein, and a critical identification of a potential transducer of the repressive signal of hypoacetylated histone H4 in higher eukaryotes. PMID:15561719

  1. Adaptive laboratory evolution of ethanologenic Zymomonas mobilis strain tolerant to furfural and acetic acid inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shui, Zong-Xia; Qin, Han; Wu, Bo; Ruan, Zhi-yong; Wang, Lu-shang; Tan, Fu-Rong; Wang, Jing-Li; Tang, Xiao-Yu; Dai, Li-Chun; Hu, Guo-Quan; He, Ming-Xiong

    2015-07-01

    Furfural and acetic acid from lignocellulosic hydrolysates are the prevalent inhibitors to Zymomonas mobilis during cellulosic ethanol production. Developing a strain tolerant to furfural or acetic acid inhibitors is difficul by using rational engineering strategies due to poor understanding of their underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, strategy of adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) was used for development of a furfural and acetic acid-tolerant strain. After three round evolution, four evolved mutants (ZMA7-2, ZMA7-3, ZMF3-2, and ZMF3-3) that showed higher growth capacity were successfully obtained via ALE method. Based on the results of profiling of cell growth, glucose utilization, ethanol yield, and activity of key enzymes, two desired strains, ZMA7-2 and ZMF3-3, were achieved, which showed higher tolerance under 7 g/l acetic acid and 3 g/l furfural stress condition. Especially, it is the first report of Z. mobilis strain that could tolerate higher furfural. The best strain, Z. mobilis ZMF3-3, has showed 94.84% theoretical ethanol yield under 3-g/l furfural stress condition, and the theoretical ethanol yield of ZM4 is only 9.89%. Our study also demonstrated that ALE method might also be used as a powerful metabolic engineering tool for metabolic engineering in Z. mobilis. Furthermore, the two best strains could be used as novel host for further metabolic engineering in cellulosic ethanol or future biorefinery. Importantly, the two strains may also be used as novel-tolerant model organisms for the genetic mechanism on the "omics" level, which will provide some useful information for inverse metabolic engineering. PMID:25935346

  2. Design, synthesis, and antitumor evaluation of histone deacetylase inhibitors with l-phenylglycine scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingjie; Li, Xiaoguang; Hou, Jinning; Huang, Yongxue; Xu, Wenfang

    2015-01-01

    In our previous research, a novel series of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors with l-phenylglycine scaffold were designed and synthesized, among which amides D3 and D7 and ureido D18 were far superior to the positive control (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid [SAHA]) in HDAC inhibition, but were only comparable to SAHA in antiproliferation on tumor cell lines. Herein, further structural derivation of lead compounds D3, D7, and D18 was carried out to improve their cellular activities. Most of our newly synthesized compounds exhibited more potent HDAC inhibitory activities than the positive control SAHA, and several derivatives were even better than their parent compounds. However, compared with SAHA and our lead compounds, only secondary amine series compounds exhibited improved antiproliferative activities, likely due to their appropriate topological polar surface area values and cell permeabilities. In a human histiocytic lymphoma (U937) xenograft model, the most potent secondary amine 9d exhibited similar in vivo antitumor activity to that of SAHA. PMID:26504374

  3. Histone deacetylase inhibitors and transforming growth factor-beta induce 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tong, Min; Ding, Yunfei; Tai, Hsin-Hsiung

    2006-09-14

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been actively exploited as potential anticancer agents. To identify gene targets of HDAC inhibitors, we found that HDAC inhibitors such as sodium butyrate, scriptaid, apicidin and oxamflatin induced the expression of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), a potential cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) antagonist and tumor suppressor, in a time and concentration dependent manner in A549 and H1435 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Detailed analyses indicated that HDAC inhibitors activated the 15-PGDH promoter-luciferase reporter construct in transfected A549 cells. A representative HDAC inhibitor, scriptaid, and its negative structural analog control, nullscript, were further evaluated at the chromatin level. Scriptaid but not nullscript induced a significant accumulation of acetylated histones H3 and H4 which were associated with the 15-PGDH promoter as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) also induced the expression of 15-PGDH in a time and concentration dependent manner in A549 and H1435 cells. Induction of 15-PGDH expression by TGF-beta1 was synergistically stimulated by the addition of Wnt3A which was inactive by itself. However, combination of TGF-beta and an HDAC inhibitor, scriptaid, only resulted in an additive effect. Together, our results indicate that 15-PGDH is one of the target genes that HDAC inhibitors and TGF-beta may induce to exhibit tumor suppressive effects. PMID:16844092

  4. Click Chemistry in Lead Optimization of Boronic Acids as β-Lactamase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Emilia; Romagnoli, Chiara; Vahabi, Roza; Taracila, Magdalena A; Bonomo, Robert A; Prati, Fabio

    2015-07-23

    Boronic acid transition-state inhibitors (BATSIs) represent one of the most promising classes of β-lactamase inhibitors. Here we describe a new class of BATSIs, namely, 1-amido-2-triazolylethaneboronic acids, which were synthesized by combining the asymmetric homologation of boronates with copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition for the stereoselective insertion of the amido group and the regioselective formation of the 1,4-disubstituted triazole, respectively. This synthetic pathway, which avoids intermediate purifications, proved to be flexible and efficient, affording in good yields a panel of 14 BATSIs bearing three different R1 amide side chains (acetamido, benzylamido, and 2-thienylacetamido) and several R substituents on the triazole. This small library was tested against two clinically relevant class C β-lactamases from Enterobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The K(i) value of the best compound (13a) was as low as 4 nM with significant reduction of bacterial resistance to the combination of cefotaxime/13a. PMID:26102369

  5. Integrase Inhibitor Prodrugs: Approaches to Enhancing the Anti-HIV Activity of β-Diketo Acids.

    PubMed

    Nair, Vasu; Okello, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    HIV integrase, encoded at the 3'-end of the HIV pol gene, is essential for HIV replication. This enzyme catalyzes the incorporation of HIV DNA into human DNA, which represents the point of "no-return" in HIV infection. Integrase is a significant target in anti-HIV drug discovery. This review article focuses largely on the design of integrase inhibitors that are β-diketo acids constructed on pyridinone scaffolds. Methodologies for synthesis of these compounds are discussed. Integrase inhibition data for the strand transfer (ST) step are compared with in vitro anti-HIV data. The review also examines the issue of the lack of correlation between the ST enzymology data and anti-HIV assay results. Because this disconnect appeared to be a problem associated with permeability, prodrugs of these inhibitors were designed and synthesized. Prodrugs dramatically improved the anti-HIV activity data. For example, for compound, 96, the anti-HIV activity (EC50) improved from 500 nM for this diketo acid to 9 nM for its prodrug 116. In addition, there was excellent correlation between the IC50 and IC90 ST enzymology data for 96 (6 nM and 97 nM, respectively) and the EC50 and EC90 anti-HIV data for its prodrug 116 (9 nM and 94 nM, respectively). Finally, it was confirmed that the prodrug 116 was rapidly hydrolyzed in cells to the active compound 96. PMID:26184144

  6. Design, synthesis, crystal structures and antimicrobial activity of sulfonamide boronic acids as β-lactamase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Eidam, Oliv; Romagnoli, Chiara; Caselli, Emilia; Babaoglu, Kerim; Pohlhaus, Denise Teotico; Karpiak, Joel; Bonnet, Richard; Shoichet, Brian K.; Prati, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    We investigated a series of sulfonamide boronic acids that resulted from the merging of two unrelated AmpC β-lactamase inhibitor series. The new boronic acids differed in the replacement of the canonical carboxamide, found in all penicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics, with a sulfonamide. Surprisingly, these sulfonamides had a highly distinct structure-activity relationship from the previously explored carboxamides, high ligand efficiencies (up to 0.91), Ki values down to 25 nM and up to 23 times better for smaller analogs. Conversely, Ki values were 10 to 20 times worse for larger molecules than in the carboxamide congener series. X-ray crystal structures (1.6–1.8 Å) of AmpC with three of the new sulfonamides suggest that this altered structure-activity relationship results from the different geometry and polarity of the sulfonamide versus the carboxamide. The most potent inhibitor reversed β-lactamase-mediated resistance to third generation cephalosporins, lowering their minimum inhibitory concentrations up to 32-fold in cell culture. PMID:20945905

  7. Pharmacodynamic effects of antibiotics and acid pump inhibitors on Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Sörberg, M; Hanberger, H; Nilsson, M; Nilsson, L E

    1997-01-01

    Pharmacodynamic studies of Helicobacter pylori exposed to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, omeprazole, and lansoprazole were performed with microscopy, viable count determination, and bioluminescence assay of intracellular ATP. The pharmacodynamic parameters determined were change in morphology, change in cell density, postantibiotic effect (PAE), and control-related effective regrowth time (CERT). The PAE is delayed regrowth after brief exposure to antibiotics or acid pump inhibitors. CERT was defined as the time required for the bacteria to resume logarithmic growth and return to the pre-exposure inoculum in the test culture minus the corresponding time for the control culture. CERT measures the combined effect of initial killing and PAE. There was a good concordance between the bioluminescence assay and viable counts for determining CERT, which makes this parameter useful for pharmacodynamic studies of the effects of antibiotics and acid pump inhibitors on H. pylori. Amoxicillin and metronidazole produced a strong, concentration-dependent initial decrease in CFU per milliliter, but there was a less prominent initial change in intracellular ATP in these cultures. Amoxicillin caused a long PAE when assayed by the bioluminescence assay but no PAE or a negative PAE when assayed by viable count determination. However, amoxicillin showed similar long CERTs with both methods. The pharmacodynamic effects of amoxicillin were concentration dependent up to a maximum response, indicating that concentrations above this level do not increase the antibiotic effect. The PAEs and CERTs of clarithromycin and metronidazole were concentration dependent with no maximum response. With omeprazole and lanzoprazole, there was no PAE or CERT. PMID:9333051

  8. The myeloperoxidase product hypochlorous acid generates irreversible high-density lipoprotein receptor inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Veronika; Ljubojevic, Senka; Haybaeck, Johannes; Holzer, Michael; El-Gamal, Dalia; Schicho, Rudolf; Pieske, Burkert; Heinemann, Akos; Marsche, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    Objective Elevated levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) have been described in several chronic inflammatory diseases, like chronic renal insufficiency, rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis. Recent findings revealed that AOPPs are inhibitors of the major high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor, scavenger receptor class B, type 1 (SR-BI). Here we investigated what oxidation induced structural alterations convert plasma albumin into an HDL-receptor inhibitor. Approach and Results Exposure of albumin to the physiological oxidant, hypochlorous acid, generated high affinity SR-BI ligands. Protection of albumin lysine-residues prior exposure to hypochlorous acid as well as regeneration of N-chloramines after oxidation of albumin completely prevented binding of oxidized albumin to SR-BI, indicating that modification of albumin lysine-residues is required to generate SR-BI ligands. Of particular interest, N-chloramines within oxidized albumin promoted irreversible binding to SR-BI, resulting in permanent receptor blockade. We observed that the SR-BI inhibitory activity of albumin isolated from chronic kidney disease patients correlated with the content of the myeloperoxidase-specific oxidation product 3-chlorotyrosine and was associated with alterations in the composition of HDL. Conclusion Given that several potential atheroprotective activities of HDL are mediated by SR-BI, the present results raise the possibility that oxidized plasma albumin, through permanent SR-BI blockade, contributes to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23493288

  9. Herbicidal inhibitors of amino acid biosynthesis and herbicide-tolerant crops.

    PubMed

    Tan, S; Evans, R; Singh, B

    2006-03-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) inhibitors interfere with branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis by inhibiting AHAS. Glyphosate affects aromatic amino acid biosynthesis by inhibiting 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). Glufosinate inhibits glutamine synthetase and blocks biosynthesis of glutamine. AHAS gene variants that confer tolerance to AHAS inhibitors have been discovered in plants through selection or mutagenesis. Imidazolinone-tolerant crops have been commercialized based on these AHAS gene variants. A modified maize EPSPS gene and CP4-EPSPS gene from Agrobacterium sp. have been used to transform plants for target-based tolerance to glyphosate. A gox gene isolated from Ochrobactrum anthropi has also been employed to encode glyphosate oxidoreductase to detoxify glyphosate in plants. Glyphosate-tolerant crops with EPSPS transgene alone or both EPSPS and gox transgenes have been commercialized. Similarly, bar and pat genes isolated from Streptomyces hygroscopicus and S. viridochromogenes, respectively, have been inserted into plants to encode phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase to detoxify glufosinate. Glufosinate-tolerant crops have been commercialized using one of these two transgenes. PMID:16547651

  10. HDAC8 Inhibition Blocks SMC3 Deacetylation and Delays Cell Cycle Progression without Affecting Cohesin-dependent Transcription in MCF7 Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Tanushree; Antony, Jisha; Braithwaite, Antony W; Horsfield, Julia A

    2016-06-10

    Cohesin, a multi-subunit protein complex involved in chromosome organization, is frequently mutated or aberrantly expressed in cancer. Multiple functions of cohesin, including cell division and gene expression, highlight its potential as a novel therapeutic target. The SMC3 subunit of cohesin is acetylated (ac) during S phase to establish cohesion between replicated chromosomes. Following anaphase, ac-SMC3 is deacetylated by HDAC8. Reversal of SMC3 acetylation is imperative for recycling cohesin so that it can be reloaded in interphase for both non-mitotic and mitotic functions. We blocked deacetylation of ac-SMC3 using an HDAC8-specific inhibitor PCI-34051 in MCF7 breast cancer cells, and examined the effects on transcription of cohesin-dependent genes that respond to estrogen. HDAC8 inhibition led to accumulation of ac-SMC3 as expected, but surprisingly, had no influence on the transcription of estrogen-responsive genes that are altered by siRNA targeting of RAD21 or SMC3. Knockdown of RAD21 altered estrogen receptor α (ER) recruitment at SOX4 and IL20, and affected transcription of these genes, while HDAC8 inhibition did not. Rather, inhibition of HDAC8 delayed cell cycle progression, suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that HDAC8 inhibition does not change the estrogen-specific transcriptional role of cohesin in MCF7 cells, but instead, compromises cell cycle progression and cell survival. Our results argue that candidate inhibitors of cohesin function may differ in their effects depending on the cellular genotype and should be thoroughly tested for predicted effects on cohesin's mechanistic roles. PMID:27072133

  11. Amino acid amides of piperic acid (PA) and 4-ethylpiperic acid (EPA) as NorA efflux pump inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Wani, Naiem Ahmad; Singh, Samsher; Farooq, Saleem; Shankar, Sudha; Koul, Surrinder; Khan, Inshad Ali; Rai, Rajkishor

    2016-09-01

    A total of eighteen piperic acid (PA) and 4-ethylpiperic acid (EPA) amides (C1-C18) with α-, β- and γ-amino acids were synthesized, characterized and evaluated for their efflux pump inhibitory activity against ciprofloxacin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The amides were screened against NorA overexpressing S. aureus SA-1199B and wild type S. aureus SA-1199 using ethidium bromide as NorA efflux pump substrate. EPI C6 was found to be most potent and reduced the MIC of ciprofloxacin by 16 fold followed by C18 which showed 4 fold reduction of MIC. Ethidium bromide efflux inhibition and accumulation assay proved these compounds as NorA inhibitors. PMID:27503686

  12. Theoretical study of inhibition efficiencies of some amino acids on corrosion of carbon steel in acidic media: green corrosion inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dehdab, Maryam; Shahraki, Mehdi; Habibi-Khorassani, Sayyed Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition efficiencies of three amino acids [tryptophan (B), tyrosine (c), and serine (A)] have been studied as green corrosion inhibitors on corrosion of carbon steel using density functional theory (DFT) method in gas and aqueous phases. Quantum chemical parameters such as EH OMO (highest occupied molecular orbital energy), E LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy), hardness (η), polarizability ([Formula: see text]), total negative charges on atoms (TNC), molecular volume (MV) and total energy (TE) have been calculated at the B3LYP level of theory with 6-311++G** basis set. Consistent with experimental data, theoretical results showed that the order of inhibition efficiency is tryptophan (B) > tyrosine (C) > serine (A). In order to determine the possible sites of nucleophilic and electrophilic attacks, local reactivity has been evaluated through Fukui indices. PMID:26347374

  13. Substitution of the phosphonic acid and hydroxamic acid functionalities of the DXR inhibitor FR900098: an attempt to improve the activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Andaloussi, Mounir; Lindh, Martin; Björkelid, Christofer; Suresh, Surisetti; Wieckowska, Anna; Iyer, Harini; Karlén, Anders; Larhed, Mats

    2011-09-15

    Two series of FR900098/fosmidomycin analogs were synthesized and evaluated for MtDXR inhibition and Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole-cell activity. The design rationale of these compounds involved the exchange of either the phosphonic acid or the hydroxamic acid part for alternative acidic and metal-coordinating functionalities. The best inhibitors provided IC(50) values in the micromolar range, with a best value of 41 μM. PMID:21824775

  14. The heat shock protein 90 inhibitor SNX5422 has a synergistic activity with histone deacetylase inhibitors in induction of death of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Si Hyoung; Kang, Jun Goo; Kim, Chul Sik; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Lee, Seong Jin

    2016-02-01

    The influence of the heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) inhibitor SNX5422 alone or in combination with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors PXD101, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), and trichostatin A (TSA) on survival of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) cells was investigated. In 8505C and CAL62 cells, SNX5422 caused cell death with concomitant changes in the expression of hsp90 client proteins. After treatment of both SNX5422 and PXD101, SAHA and TSA, compared with treatment of SNX5422 alone, cell viability was diminished, whereas inhibition rate and cytotoxic activity were enhanced. All of the combination index values were lower than 1.0, suggesting the synergism between SNX5422 and PXD101, SAHA and TSA in induction of cell death. In cells treated with both SNX5422 and PXD101, SAHA and TSA, compared with cells treated with SNX5422 alone, the protein levels of Akt, phospho-4EBP1, phospho-S6 K, and survivin were diminished, while those of γH2AX, acetyl. histone H3, acetyl. histone H4, cleaved PARP, and cleaved caspase-3 were enhanced. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that SNX5422 has a cytotoxic activity in conjunction with alterations in the expression of hsp90 client proteins in ATC cells. Moreover, SNX5422 synergizes with HDAC inhibitors in induction of cytotoxicity accompanied by the suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and survivin, and the overexpression of DNA damage-related proteins in ATC cells. PMID:26219406

  15. HDAC inhibition overcomes acute resistance to MEK inhibition in BRAF mutant colorectal cancer by down-regulation of c-FLIPL

    PubMed Central

    Fenning, Cathy; Javadi, Arman; Crawford, Nyree; Carbonell, Lucia Perez; Lawler, Mark; Longley, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Activating mutations in the BRAF oncogene are found in 8-15% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and have been associated with poor survival. In contrast to BRAF mutant (MT) melanoma, inhibition of the MAPK pathway is ineffective in the majority of BRAFMT CRC patients. Therefore, identification of novel therapies for BRAFMT CRC is urgently needed. Experimental Design BRAFMT and WT CRC models were assessed in vitro and in vivo. Small molecule inhibitors of MEK1/2, MET and HDAC were employed, over-expression and siRNA approaches were applied, and cell death was assessed by flow cytometry, Western blotting, cell viability and caspase activity assays. Results Increased c-MET-STAT3 signalling was identified as a novel adaptive resistance mechanism to MEK inhibitors (MEKi) in BRAFMT CRC models in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, MEKi treatment resulted in acute increases in transcription of the endogenous caspase-8 inhibitor c-FLIPL in BRAFMT cells, but not in BRAFWT cells, and inhibition of STAT3 activity abrogated MEKi-induced c-FLIPL expression. In addition, treatment with c-FLIP-specific siRNA or HDAC inhibitors abrogated MEKi-induced upregulation of c-FLIPL expression and resulted in significant increases in MEKi-induced cell death in BRAFMT CRC cells. Notably, combined HDAC inhibitor/MEKi treatment resulted in dramatically attenuated tumor growth in BRAFMT xenografts. Conclusions Our findings indicate that c-MET/STAT3-dependent upregulation of c-FLIPL expression is an important escape mechanism following MEKi treatment in BRAFMT CRC. Thus, combinations of MEKi with inhibitors of c-MET or c-FLIP (eg. HDAC inhibitors) could be potential novel treatment strategies for BRAFMT CRC. PMID:25813020