Ventura, Frank; Hoskin, Michael
The unique Neolithic temples of Malta have a distinctive orientation toward the range SE-SSW (except for the Mnajdra South Temple which faces E). However, the motive for this preferred direction is not clear. If the motive was astronomical, then the builders could have targeted the bright stars of the Southern Cross and Centaurus. If the opposite direction is taken, then the target could have been the temple builders' ancestral home in Sicily and the surrounding islands. The orientation of the Mnajdra South Temple is remarkable and suggests an alignment with either sunrise midway between the solstices or the heliacal rising of the Pleiades around 3000 BC. The evidence for these alternatives is discussed.
The author believes that any effort to promote a curriculum focused on traditional values in today's academic culture will be promptly and thoroughly sabotaged by those assigned to teach it--which is why she thinks the best bet for traditionalists is to refocus on the Enlightenment inspired "temple of science" vision of a university, which at…
Escacena Carrasco, José Luis
The orientation of Phoenician temples has revealed some of the astronomical knowledge of their builders. What we now know on this topic is complemented by other archaeological documents from Syrio-Palestinian cities and their colonies. The astral aspects of Phoenician religion are a direct legacy from the Canaanite traditions 1,000 years earlier and display connections with Mesopotamia and Egypt.
Proposes the establishment of a Buddhist temple that would unite Zen practice and alternative education through the teaching of the six paramitas: giving, ethical discipline, patience, effort, meditation, and wisdom. Children and adults would work together on social action projects, responsible use of material resources, noncoercive teaching and…
Whether the positioning of ancient Greek temples was deliberate and facilitated astronomical observations has been a concern for scholars since the nineteenth century. Twenty-first-century research on Greek archaeoastronomy has identified the shortcomings of earlier approaches and has built on a new methodology which integrates archaeological, epigraphical, and literary evidence on the astronomical observations, in order to create interpretations that improve our narrative, understanding, and reconstruction of the role of astronomy in ancient Greek cult practice.
Wang, Honghui; Pan, Jiachuan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Jie; Li, Qiang; Wang, Dan; Zhou, Xiaohua
Succinic acid (1,4-butanedioic acid) is identified as one of important building-block chemicals. Xylose mother liquor is an abundant industrial residue in xylitol biorefining industry. In this study, xylose mother liquor was utilized to produce succinic acid by recombinant Escherichia coli strain SD121, and the response surface methodology was used to optimize the fermentation media. The optimal conditions of succinic acid fermentation were as follows: 82.62 g L−1 total initial sugars, 42.27 g L−1 MgCO3 and 17.84 g L−1 yeast extract. The maximum production of succinic acid was 52.09 ± 0.21 g L−1 after 84 h with a yield of 0.63 ± 0.03 g g−1 total sugar, approaching the predicted value (53.18 g L−1). It was 1.78-fold of the production of that obtained with the basic medium. This was the first report on succinic acid production from xylose mother liquor by recombinant E. coli strains with media optimization using response surface methodology. This work suggested that the xylose mother liquor could be an alternative substrate for the economical production of succinic acid by recombinant E. coli strains. PMID:26019590
Prue, Christine E; Flores, Alina L; Panissidi, Paula; Lira, Andrea
Each year, approximately 3000 pregnancies in the United States are affected by neural tube defects (NTDs), serious birth defects of the brain and spine. Daily periconceptional consumption of folic acid can reduce the incidence of NTDs by 50%-70%. This study was designed to understand Latina mothers' folic acid awareness, knowledge, and behaviors and to capture their reactions to advertising concepts and draft educational materials. The goal of the materials was to increase folic acid consumption through the use of a daily multivitamin. This study presents three phases of research that led to the development of Spanish language print advertisements, posters, a brochure, and radio ads that promote folic acid consumption in a manner that addresses the needs of Latina mothers. PMID:18752460
Salt, Alun M.
Despite its appearing to be a simple question to answer, there has been no consensus as to whether or not the alignments of ancient Greek temples reflect astronomical intentions. Here I present the results of a survey of archaic and classical Greek temples in Sicily and compare them with temples in Greece. Using a binomial test I show strong evidence that there is a preference for solar orientations. I then speculate that differences in alignment patterns between Sicily and Greece reflect differing pressures in the expression of ethnic identity. PMID:19936239
Roy, Susmita; Dhar, Pubali; Ghosh, Santinath
This study investigated the fatty acid composition of lipid present in breast milk of mothers residing in urban and suburban regions of West Bengal with special emphasis on n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which played a crucial role in the growth and development of neonates. Milk samples collected from 135 mothers of middle income group (average monthly income around 'Rs 10,000/-') were analysed by gas liquid chromatography after extraction and transmethylation to determine fatty acid composition. Information about the dietary intake of individual mothers was obtained through food frequency questionnaire. The fractions of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids available in milk of urban mothers were 13.59 ± 0.94 and 3.65 ± 0.49, respectively, and in suburban mothers 12.74 ± 0.89 and 4.36 ± 0.39, respectively. The green leafy vegetables, fishes and vegetable oils were the major sources of essential fatty acids in the diet of the experimental groups of Bengali mothers. This study revealed a relationship between the alimentary habits of mothers and the concentration of essential fatty acids in breast milk of Bengali mothers. PMID:22575018
Kocol, Cleo Fellers
This article chronicles events surrounding the pro-ERA/anti-Mormon civil involvement demonstration by 21 feminists in Bellevue, Washington, on the occasion of the dedication of the Bellevue Mormon Temple. (DB)
Mondal, Debapriya; Weldon, Rosana Hernandez; Armstrong, Ben G.; Gibson, Lorna J.; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Shin, Hyeong-Moo
Background: The presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in breast milk has been documented, but their lactational transfer has been rarely studied. Determination of the elimination rates of these chemicals during breastfeeding is important and critical for assessing exposure in mothers and infants. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association between breastfeeding and maternal serum concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS). For a subset of the population, for whom we also have their infants’ measurements, we investigated associations of breastfeeding with infant serum PFAA concentrations. Methods: The present analysis included 633 women from the C8 Science Panel Study who had a child < 3.5 years of age and who provided blood samples and reported detailed information on breastfeeding at the time of survey. PFAA serum concentrations were available for all mothers and 8% (n = 49) of the infants. Maternal and infant serum concentrations were regressed on duration of breastfeeding. Results: Each month of breastfeeding was associated with lower maternal serum concentrations of PFOA (–3%; 95% CI: –5, –2%), PFOS (–3%; 95% CI: –3, –2%), PFNA (–2%; 95% CI: –2, –1%), and PFHxS (–1%; 95% CI: –2, 0%). The infant PFOA and PFOS serum concentrations were 6% (95% CI: 1, 10%) and 4% (95% CI: 1, 7%) higher per month of breastfeeding. Conclusions: Breast milk is the optimal food for infants, but is also a PFAA excretion route for lactating mothers and exposure route for nursing infants. Citation: Mondal D, Weldon RH, Armstrong BG, Gibson LJ, Lopez-Espinosa MJ, Shin HM, Fletcher T. 2014. Breastfeeding: a potential excretion route for mothers and implications for infant exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids. Environ Health Perspect 122:187–192; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306613 PMID:24280536
Mickelson, M. E.; Higbie, C.
The canonical opinion about the placement of Greek temples is that they are oriented east-west (Dinsmoor 1975). Major exceptions, such as the temple of Apollo at Bassae which faces approximately north-south, are noted in the literature, but many other temples are scattered across the Greek landscape in a variety of orientations but predominately (about 80 Although no surviving ancient author ever discusses the criteria for placing or orienting temples, we may assume from scattered remarks that Greeks had reasons for choosing the sites and orientations. In the last century, archaeologists and architects such as Nissen (1896), Penrose (1893) and Dinsmoor (1939), have measured the alignments of Greek temples on the Greek mainland, the west coast of Turkey, and the Aegean islands. Their data have varying degrees of precision and accuracy, as a recent paper by Papathanassiou (1994) makes clear. Parallel work done in Italy on Etruscan, Roman and Greek temples by Aveni and Romano (1994) provides further stimulus to re-investigate Greek temples. We have undertaken three field seasons in Greece in order to check previously reported alignments. Where possible, in addition to determining the orientation of foundations, we have attempted to determine the, location of doorways and other openings, placement of cult statues, horizon altitudes etc. In this preliminary study we hope to be able to discover patterns in the orientation of these temples which relate solar observations to temple ritual and thus extend Dinmoor's hypothesis. For some of these questions, we are dependent on literary and inscriptional evidence. This paper describes the preliminary measurements made over our three field seasons in Greece. Field methods and analysis of the data will be presented along with possible application. 1. Dinsmoor, W.B., The Architecture of Ancient Greece, 3rd ed. Rev. New York, 1975. 2. Nissen, H.,Das Templum,Antiquarische Untesuchungon (Berlin, 1896). 3. Penrose, F.C., Trans. Roy
Plan of the entresol (third floor) of the Masonic Temple, ca. 1872, showing the original layout of the Asylum of the Knights Templar and the original Grand Staircase ceiling design - Masonic Temple, 1 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Ahmed, N. K.; Saied, M. H.; Abbady, A.; El-Kamel, A. H.
The natural radioactivities inside Dandara temple are studied by using a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer. The variation of these activities with location is investigated. Average values of the identified radionuclides inside the halls, sanctuary and crypt of the temple are examined. It is estimated that the mean value lies in the range 37.9-90.1 for 212Pb, 70.0-36.0 for 214Bi, 52.6-76.2 for 228Ac, 1.6-5.9 for 208Tl, while for 40K it is 169.3-286.6.
Liberal education has been disappearing, and what remains is diminished and compromised. At Temple University, the largest department in the college of liberal arts is criminal justice. The second largest is counseling psychology, and the humanities disciplines have become left-veering sociology. While islands of traditional learning survive, the…
Ruby, Jay; Chalfen, Richard
The exploration of nonverbal forms of culture and communication has led to the development of visual anthropology courses within the anthropology department at Temple University. Visual anthropology is conceptualized as the study of human nonlinguistic forms of communication involving film making for data collecting and analysis. Several areas of…
Belmonte, Juan Antonio
Archaeoastronomy has never been a favored discipline within Egyptology. As a consequence, important questions such as the orientation of Egyptian temples and the relevance of astronomy in this respect had not been treated with the requisite seriousness and depth. This situation is changing, however, and over the past decade, there have been several serious attempts to perform an extensive analysis of the orientation of Egyptian monuments. The orientations of approximately 400 temples have been measured in the Nile Valley, the Delta, the Oases, and the Sinai, with the aim of providing a clear answer to the question of whether the ancient Egyptian sacred constructions were astronomically aligned or not. This impressive set of data seems to answer this question in the affirmative.
Liritzis, Ioannis; Vassiliou, Helen
Two ancient Greek temples of Apollo at Bassae (Phigaleia, western Peloponnese, Greece), and Thermon at Aetolia, (Aetoloacarnania, western central Greece), have a north-south orientation of their main entrances. This is a rather rare alignment of temples in general and specifically of Apollo in classical Greece, where most of them have broadly an east-west orientation. Based on historical and mythological accounts, as well as astronomical orientation measurements, the northern direction orientation of these constructions may relate to the rare, albeit impressive, occurrence of aurorae borealis, the northern lights. These strong lights are attributed to god Apollo by the epithet ``hyperborean'', meaning to the northern lands. Attribution is supported by archaeomagnetic directional data accompanied by auroral occurrence during those times.
Schucht, Kathrin; Schröder, Josef; Siegmund, Heiko; Grafe, Claudia; Schreml, Stephan
A 52-year-old woman presented with a large partially yellow and erythematous tumor on her right temple. She reported that it had grown over the last 4 years. Regional lymph nodes were impalpable. A punch biopsy showed eosinophilic material in the dermis and subcutis. Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for kappa and lambda light chains. Electron microscopy showed the typical amyloid fibrils (7-10 nm in diameter). There was no evidence of systemic amyloidosis, paraproteinemia or underlying plasmacytoma. The tumor was completely removed via curettage. At follow-up, the patient presented in good health with no signs of relapse. PMID:27504090
Schucht, Kathrin; Schröder, Josef; Siegmund, Heiko; Grafe, Claudia; Schreml, Stephan
A 52-year-old woman presented with a large partially yellow and erythematous tumor on her right temple. She reported that it had grown over the last 4 years. Regional lymph nodes were impalpable. A punch biopsy showed eosinophilic material in the dermis and subcutis. Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for kappa and lambda light chains. Electron microscopy showed the typical amyloid fibrils (7–10 nm in diameter). There was no evidence of systemic amyloidosis, paraproteinemia or underlying plasmacytoma. The tumor was completely removed via curettage. At follow-up, the patient presented in good health with no signs of relapse. PMID:27504090
Perspective rendering of the Masonic Temple by James H. Windrim showing the abandoned intermediate design of the Broad Street facade with architectural details and allegorical figures selected to represent symbolic Masonry, 1868 - Masonic Temple, 1 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
Estiú, Maria C; Monte, Maria J; Rivas, Laura; Moirón, Maria; Gomez-Rodriguez, Laura; Rodriguez-Bravo, Tomas; Marin, Jose JG; Macias, Rocio IR
Aim Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is characterized by pruritus and elevated bile acid concentrations in maternal serum. This is accompanied by an enhanced risk of intra-uterine and perinatal complications. High concentrations of sulphated progesterone metabolites (PMS) have been suggested to be involved in the multifactorial aetiopathogenesis of ICP. The aim of this study was to investigate further the mechanism accounting for the beneficial effect of oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), which is the standard treatment, regarding bile acid and PMS homeostasis in the mother-placenta-foetus trio. Method Using HPLC-MS/MS bile acids and PMS were determined in maternal and foetal serum and placenta. The expression of ABC proteins in placenta was determined by real time quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR) and immunofluorescence. Results In ICP, markedly increased concentrations of bile acids (tauroconjugates > glycoconjugates >> unconjugated), progesterone and PMS in placenta and maternal serum were accompanied by enhanced concentrations in foetal serum of bile acids, but not of PMS. UDCA treatment reduced bile acid accumulation in the mother-placenta-foetus trio, but had no significant effect on progesterone and PMS concentrations. ABCG2 mRNA abundance was increased in placentas from ICP patients vs. controls and remained stable following UDCA treatment, despite an apparent further increase in ABCG2. Conclusion UDCA administration partially reduces ICP-induced bile acid accumulation in mothers and foetuses despite the lack of effect on concentrations of progesterone and PMS in maternal serum. Up-regulation of placental ABCG2 may play an important role in protecting the foetus from high concentrations of bile acids and PMS during ICP. PMID:25099365
Smith, Harry D.
The invention is a band hinge for flexibly connecting the temple member to the lens frame thereby preventing damage from inadvertent pressure or cyclic wear. A distinguishing feature of the invention is the use of a band hinge that holds together the temple member and the lens frame without the use of a pin or screw hinging mechanism. The invention allows for a high degree of freedom of movement for the temple member with respect to the lens frame which will prevent most forms of damages to the glasses from these types of events.
Aller, Alba; Belmonte, Juan Antonio
The great diversity of religions that have been followed in India for over 3000 years is the reason why there are hundreds of temples built to worship dozens of different divinities. In this work, more than one hundred temples geographically distributed over the whole Indian land have been analyzed, obtaining remarkable results. For this purpose, a deep analysis of the main deities who are worshipped in each of them, as well as of the different dynasties (or cultures) who built them has also been conducted. As a result, we have found that the main axes of the temples dedicated to Shiva seem to be oriented to the east cardinal point while those temples dedicated to Vishnu would be oriented to both the east and west cardinal points. To explain these cardinal directions we propose to look back to the origins of Hinduism. Besides these cardinal orientations, clear solar orientations have also been found, especially at the equinoctial declination.
DETAIL VIEW, ENGAGED TEMPLE FRONT ON THE NORTH ELEVATION. (NOTE THE INFILLED OPENINGS TO THE LEFT AND RIGHT OF THIS SECTION ON THE FIRST AND SECOND STORIES - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA
This tool is a GIS based interactive and graphical user interface tool, which locates the major Sikh temples of USA on a map. This tool is using Java programming language along with MOJO (Map Object Java Object) provided by ESRI that is the organization that provides the GIS software. It also includes some of the integration with Google's API's like Google Translator API. This application will tell users about the origin of Sikhism in India and USA, the major Sikh temples in each state of USA, location, name and detail information through their website. The primary purpose of this application is to make people aware about this religion and culture. This tool will also measure the distance between two temple points in a map and display the result in miles and kilometers. Also, there is an added support to convert each temple's website language from English to Punjabi or any other language using a language convertor tool so that people from different nationalities can understand their culture. By clicking on each point on a map, a new window will pop up showing the picture of the temple and a hyperlink that will redirect to the website of that particular temple .It will also contain links to their dance, music, history, and also a help menu to guide the users to use the software efficiently.
Lin, Y. C.; Wu, T. C.; Hsu, M. F.
Caisson is one of the important representations of the Minnan (southern Fujian) temple architecture craft techniques and decorative aesthetics. The special component design and group building method present the architectural thinking and personal characteristics of great carpenters of Minnan temple architecture. In late Qing Dynasty, the appearance and style of caissons of famous temples in Taiwan apparently presented the building techniques of the great carpenters. However, as the years went by, the caisson design and craft techniques were not fully inherited, which has been a great loss of cultural assets. Accordingly, with the caisson of Fulong temple, a work by the well-known great carpenter in Tainan as an example, this study obtained the thinking principles of the original design and the design method at initial period of construction through interview records and the step of redrawing the "Tng-Ko" (traditional design, stakeout and construction tool). We obtained the 3D point cloud model of the caisson of Fulong temple using 3D laser scanning technology, and established the 3D digital model of each component of the caisson. Based on the caisson component procedure obtained from interview records, this study conducted the digital simulation of the caisson component to completely recode and present the caisson design, construction and completion procedure. This model of preserving the craft techniques for Minnan temple caisson by using digital technology makes specific contribution to the heritage of the craft techniques while providing an important reference for the digital preservation of human cultural assets.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Temple and Tomb: Prehistoric Malta... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Temple and Tomb: Prehistoric Malta,''...
Ruggles, Clive L. N.
In 2002 I began a collaboration with Pat Kirch (Berkeley) to survey the temple sites (heiau) in the Kahikinui and Kaupo districts of southern Maui, and study their orientations and potential astronomical significance. Our investigations of over 70 temples in the area were completed in 2011 and are due for publication in 2016. Pat Kirch will present some of our main conclusions in his keynote talk within FM2. In this paper I propose to concentrate on issues of field methodology and procedure that have wider implications for developments in method and practice within archaeoastronomy. Methodologically, temple sites in the Hawaiian Islands constitute a "halfway house" between prehistoric monuments in Europe, where the only evidence is archaeological and studies of orientations tend to follow formal, "data-driven" or statistical, approaches, and Mesoamerica, where the existence of pre-conquest written records and inscriptions and post-conquest ethnohistory relegate "alignment studies" to a secondary role. In Hawai‘i, cultural data, including oral histories recorded after conquest, provide a finer balance between historical accounts and the physical evidence. Selection issues at the Maui temple sites include distinguishing marginal temple sites from house sites and identifying the intended direction of orientation at complex structures. Initial analyses of the principal orientations identified clusterings in orientation which were interpreted as relating to different gods, and particular the war-god Ku and the god of dryland agriculture, Lono. Later, more comprehensive surveys revealed evidence of observing platforms and foresights at some of the Lono temples, suggesting that systematic observations were made of the Pleiades, known from the ethnohistory to be of particular calendrical significance. This type of alignment evidence is too subjective to be sustained on the basis of a formal analysis alone but, given the historical context, provides a more robust cultural
Temple College (TC) is a comprehensive community college located in Temple, Texas. Temple also is home to Scott & White Hospital, Central Texas Veterans Health Care System, King's Daughters Hospital, and Texas A&M University College of Medicine's clinical campus. In the summer of 2001, TC's health-sciences programs were scattered across three…
... transaction is expected to be consummated on or after March 7, 2012. Applicant and Nicholas B. Temple directly... within the State of Washington.\\2\\ \\1\\ Applicant states that Nicholas B. Temple and he each have a 50% ownership interest in CBRW and a 45% ownership interest in CWA. \\2\\ See Nicholas B. Temple, Eric...
... line. That notice was served and published in the Federal Register on December 10, 2010 (75 FR 77,044... Surface Transportation Board City of Temple, Tex.--Acquisition Exemption--Georgetown Railroad Company.... SUMMARY: On December 15, 2010, the City of Temple, Tex. (Temple), a noncarrier, filed a petition under...
Mortimer, Kenneth P.; Ross, Naomi V.
This document reports on a survey of faculty voting behavior. The survey was months after a second election was held to determine whether or not faculty and support professionals at Temple University would be represented by a collective bargaining agent. The survey focused on the relationship between voting behavior and two potential sources of…
Xi, X.; Wang, C.; Wan, Y. P.; Khuon, K. N.
Ta Keo temple is one of the very famous temple complex of Angkor Wat in northwestern Cambodia. It has been suffering massive collapse and other serious damages in recent years. Nowadays, Terrestrial Laser Scanning(TLS) technology is considered as a wellestablished resource for heritage documentation and protection (Lerma et al, 2008; Reshetyuk, 2009). This paper used TLS to reconstruct Ta Keo Temple. Firstly, we acquired 71 scanning stations of points cloud data with high density and high accuracy, and over one thousand images with high spatial resolution about the temple. Secondly, the raw points cloud data were denoised, reduced and managed efficiently, and registrated using an adjusted ICP algorithm. Thirdly, a triangulation method was used to model most objects. At last, we mapped the texture data into the digital model and a 3-D model of Ta Keo with high accuracy was achieved. The authors focus on large object reconstruction by TLS technology, and pay much attention to the scanning design, multi-station data and the whole project's data registration, and texture mapping and so on. The research result will be useful for Ta Keo restoration, reconstruction and protection. Also, it is a good reference source for large complex buildings reconstruction when using terrestrial laser scanning technology.
Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Kosińska, Ida; Jamioł, Dominika; Gutowska, Izabela; Prokopowicz, Adam; Rębacz-Maron, Ewa; Goschorska, Marta; Olszowski, Tomasz; Chlubek, Dariusz
Significant progress in understanding the effects of the neurotoxic action of lead (Pb) in young organisms had led to reduction of "safe" level in the blood (Pb-B) to 5 μg/dL in children and pregnant women. Prolonged exposure to relatively low levels of Pb, generally asymptomatic and subclinical (i.e., microintoxication), is currently the dominant form of environmental poisoning, and its negative effects on health may appear after many years, e.g., secondary contamination from Pb bone deposits released in pregnancy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of environmental exposure (urban areas) of mothers to Pb, on its levels in their milk and blood and in the blood of newborns. Moreover, the aim was to determine the fatty acid profile in the mothers' blood and milk and in the blood of newborns. We also wanted to find if infant birth weight depends on Pb blood levels, as well as on Pb and fatty acid levels in the blood and milk of the mothers. Finally, we examined if the mothers' weight and body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy influenced the concentration of Pb and fatty acid profile in the blood and milk of mothers and in the blood of their children. Analysis of fatty acids elaidic (C18:1, 9t), oleic (C18:1, 9c), vaccenic (C18:1, 11t), cis-vaccenic (C18:1, 11c), linoleic (C18:2, cis), γ-linolenic (C18:3, n-6), α-linolenic (C18:3, n-3), arachidonic (C20:4, n-6), eicosapentaenoic (C20:5, n-3), and docosahexaenoic (C22:6, n-3) was conducted by gas chromatography. The concentration of Pb in the whole blood and milk were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization and Zeeman correction. Our study established a significant and strong correlation between the content of Pb in the blood of the mother and the child. This supports the assumption that the transport of Pb through the placenta is neither regulated nor selective. Environmental maternal exposure to lead resulting in Pb-B levels considered safe for
Suggestions of astronomical consideration and intentionality behind the architecture of the Neolithic Mnajdra South Temple is conducted through field studies, observations and researching relevant literature and publications. The research is founded on the temple's orientation, on cross-jam view and off-set illumination of sunrise at equinox, summer and winter solstice. The question of sacred rituals related to specific times or seasonal periods by observing the suns annual path on the eastern horizon, is investigated as a possibility of intentionality for the temples orientation and structure. Demarcated areas of the temple are illuminated at sunrise throughout the year, and especially pronounced at the beginning of modern times' ingress to the cardinal seasons. Of the extant prehistoric temples on Malta, The Mnajdra South Temple is the only one with an evident orientation towards East which coincides with both the sunrise at Equinox and during the temple period, the heliacal rising of the Pleiades.
Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata S; Kolli, Sunanda Reddy; Neogi, Sutapa B; Singh, Samiksha; John, Neena; N., Srinivas; Ramani, Sudha; Shamanna, BR; Doyle, Pat; Kinra, Sanjay; Ness, Andy; Pallepogula, Dinesh Raj; Pant, Hira B; Babbar, Smiksha; Reddy, Raghunath; Singh, Rachna
Background Evidence from high income countries shows mothers who are supplemented with folic acid in their periconceptional period and early pregnancy have significantly reduced adverse outcomes like birth defects. However, in India there is a paucity of data on association of birth defects and folic acid supplementation. We identified a few important questions to be answered using separate scientific methods and then planned to triangulate the information. Objective In this paper, we describe the protocol of our study that aims to determine the association of folic acid and pregnancy outcomes like neural tube defects (NTDs) and orofacial clefts (OFCs). We decided to fill the gaps in knowledge from India to determine public health consequences of folic acid deficiency and factors influencing dietary and periconceptional consumption of folic acid. Methods The proposed study will be carried out in five stages and will examine the questions related to folic acid deficiency across selected locations in South and North India. The study will be carried out over a period of 4 years through the hierarchical evidence-based approach. At first a systematic review was conducted to pool the current birth prevalence of NTDs and orofacial clefts OFCs in India. To investigate the population prevalence, we plan to use the key informant method to determine prevalence of NTDs and OFCs. To determine the normal serum estimates of folic acid, iron, and vitamin B12 among Indian women (15-35 years), we will conduct a population-based, cross-sectional study. We will further strengthen the evidence of association between OFCs and folic acid by conducting a hospital-based, case-control study across three locations of India. Lastly, using qualitative methods we will understand community and health workers perspective on factors that decide the intake of folic acid supplements. Results This study will provide evidence on the community prevalence of birth defects and prevalence folic acid and
Background Considering the importance of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to fetal development and the lack of studies that have compared the status of fatty acids between adolescents and adults mothers, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the composition of fatty acids in maternal and umbilical cord plasma from adolescent and adults mothers. Methods Forty pregnant adolescents and forty pregnant adults were selected to assess the distribution profile of fatty acids in the maternal and umbilical cord plasma. Quantification of fatty acids in the total lipids of the sample groups was performed through the use of gas-liquid chromatography. Results The maternal and umbilical cord plasma of the adolescents showed a greater concentration of AA than did that of the adults (P < 0.05). However, a greater percentage of EPA was found in the umbilical cord plasma of the adults (P < 0.05). DHA in the plasma of the adolescent mothers correlated positively to birth weight and head circumference. Conclusions This suggests that in situations of greater nutritional risk, as in adolescent pregnancy, n-3PUFA concentrations have a greater influence on the proper development of newborns. Moreover, variations in fatty acid concentrations in the maternal and cord plasma of adolescents and adults may indicate that pregnancy affects the LC-PUFA status of adults and adolescents in distinct ways. PMID:23153394
Yetiman, Ahmet E; Kesmen, Zülal
Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were combined for the investigation of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) populations in traditionally produced vinegars and mother of vinegar samples obtained from apple and grape. The culture-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, which targeted the V7-V8 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, showed that Komagataeibacter hansenii and Komagataeibacter europaeus/Komagataeibacter xylinus were the most dominant species in almost all of the samples analyzed directly. The culture-independent GTG5-rep PCR fingerprinting was used in the preliminary characterization of AAB isolates and species-level identification was carried out by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, 16S-23S rDNA internally transcribed to the spacer (ITS) region and tuf gene. Acetobacter okinawensis was frequently isolated from samples obtained from apple while K. europaeus was identified as the dominant species, followed by Acetobacter indonesiensis in the samples originating from grape. In addition to common molecular techniques, real-time PCR intercalating dye assays, including DNA melting temperature (Tm) and high resolution melting analysis (HRM), were applied to acetic acid bacterial isolates for the first time. The target sequence of ITS region generated species-specific HRM profiles and Tm values allowed discrimination at species level. PMID:25828705
Tiede, Vance R.
Roman architect Marcus Vetruvius Pollio (ca. 75-15 BC) wrote, “[O]ne who professes himself as an architect should be…acquainted with astronomy and the theory of the heavens…. From astronomy we find the east, west, south, and north, as well as the theory of the heavens, the Equinox, Solstice and courses of the Stars.” (De Architectura Libri Decem I:i:3,10). In order to investigate the role of astronomy in temple orientation, the author conducted a preliminary GIS DEM/Satellite Imaging survey of 11 temples at Pompeii, Italy (N 40d 45', E 14d 29'). The GIS survey measured the true azimuth and horizon altitude of each temple’s major axis and was field checked by a Ground Truth survey with theodolite and GPS, 5-18 April 2013. The resulting 3D vector data was analyzed with Program STONEHENGE (Hawkins 1983, 328) to identify the local skyline declinations aligned with the temple major axes. Analysis suggests that the major axes of the temples of Apollo, Jupiter and Venus are equally as likely to have been oriented to Pompeii’s urban grid, itself oriented NW-SE on Mt. Vesuvius’ slope and hydraulic gradient to optimize urban sewer/street drainage (cf. Hodge 1992). However, the remaining nine temples appear to be oriented to astronomical targets on the local horizon associated with Graeco-Roman calendrics and mythology. TEMPLE/ DATE/ MAJOR AXIS ASTRO-TARGET (Skyline Declination in degrees) Public Lares/AD 50/ Cross-Quarter 7 Nov/3 Feb Sun Set, Last Gleam (-16.5) Vespsian/ AD 69-79/ Cross-Quarter 7 Nov/3 Feb Sun Set, LG (-16.2) Fortuna Augusta/ AD 1/ Winter Solstice Sun Set, LG (-22.9) Aesculapius/ 100 BC/ Perseus Rise (β Persei-Algol = +33.0) & Midsummer Moon Major Stand Still Set, LG (-28.1) Isis/ 100 BC/ Midwinter Moon Major Stand Still Rise, Tangent (+28.5) & Equinox Sun Set, Tangent (-0.3) Jupiter/ 150 BC/ Θ Scorpionis-Sargas Rise (-38.0) Apollo/ 550 (rebuilt 70 BC)/ α Columbae-Phact Rise (-37.1) Venus/ 150 BC (rebuilt 70 BC)/ α Columbae-Phact Rise (-37
Kawai, Takashi; Takao, Hidenobu; Inoue, Tetsuri; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Noro, Kageyu
This paper describes the production and presentation of an experimental virtual museum of Japanese Buddhist art. This medium can provide an easy way to introduce a cultural heritage to people of different cultures. The virtual museum consisted of a multimedia program that included stereoscopic 3D movies of Buddhist statues; binaural 3D sounds of Buddhist ceremonies and the fragrance of incense from the Buddhist temple. The aim was to reproduce both the Buddhist artifacts and atmosphere as realistically as possible.
Ban, Lu; Fleming, Kate M.; Doyle, Pat; Smeeth, Liam; Hubbard, Richard B.; Fiaschi, Linda; Tata, Laila J.
Background Antenatal antiepileptic drug (AED) use has been found to be associated with increased major congenital anomaly (CA) risks. However whether such AED-associated risks were different according to periconceptional high dose (5mg daily) folic acid supplementation is still unclear. Methods We included 258,591 singleton live-born children of mothers aged 15-44 years in 1990-2013 from The Health Improvement Network, a large UK primary care database. We identified all major CAs according to the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies classification. Absolute risks and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated comparing children of mothers prescribed AEDs to those without such prescriptions, stratified by folic acid prescriptions around the time of conception (one month before conception to two months post-conception). Results CA risk was 476/10,000 in children of mothers with first trimester AEDs compared with 269/10,000 in those without AEDs equating to an aOR of 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.30-2.56. The highest system-specific risks were for heart anomalies (198/10,000 and 79/10,000 respectively, aOR 2.49,1.47-4.21). Sodium valproate and lamotrigine were both associated with increased risks of any CA (aOR 2.63,1.46-4.74 and aOR 2.01,1.12-3.59 respectively) and system-specific risks. Stratification by folic acid supplementation did not show marked reductions in AED-associated risks (e.g. for CAs overall aOR 1.75, 1.01-3.03 in the high dose folic acid group and 1.94, 95%CI 1.21-3.13 in the low dose or no folic acid group); however, the majority of mothers taking AEDs only initiated high dose folic acid from the second month of pregnancy. Conclusions Children of mothers with AEDs in the first trimester of pregnancy have a 2-fold increased risk of major CA compared to those unexposed. We found no evidence that prescribed high dose folic acid supplementation reduced such AED-associated risks. Although statistical power was limited, prescribing of folic
Coucouzeli, A.; Avghouli, O.
In this paper we present briefly the main results of our archaeoastronomical study of the temple of Zagora on Andros. This study has shown that the temple was designed for use as an astronomical observatory in the framework of the cult of the Dioskouroi and probably also for time reckoning and calendric purposes around 757 B.C. As the earliest and hitherto the only known observatory from ancient Greece, the temple of Zagora offers new insights into the beginnings of Greek astronomy.
This image of Cambodia's Angkor region, taken by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), reveals a temple (upper-right) not depicted on early 19th Century French archeological survey maps and American topographic maps. The temple, known as 'Sman Teng,' was known to the local Khmer people, but had remained unknown to historians due to the remoteness of its location. The temple is thought to date to the 11th Century: the heyday of Angkor. It is an important indicator of the strategic and natural resource contributions of the area northwest of the capitol, to the urban center of Angkor. Sman Teng, the name designating one of the many types of rice enjoyed by the Khmer, was 'discovered' by a scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., working in collaboration with an archaeological expert on the Angkor region. Analysis of this remote area was a true collaboration of archaeology and technology. Locating the temple of Sman Teng required the skills of scientists trained to spot the types of topographic anomalies that only radar can reveal.This image, with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet), depicts an area of approximately 5 by 4.7 kilometers (3.1 by 2.9 miles). North is at top. Image brightness is from the P-band (68 centimeters, or 26.8 inches) wavelength radar backscatter, a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color represents 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change, so going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again corresponds to 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change.AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data
Reports on three German literature courses taught in English at Temple University. The descriptions give course content, materials and methodologies used, and an indication of the success of each course. (Text is in German.) (TL)
Shorr, Lori; Rothman, Nancy; Parks, Steve
Outlines some of the administrative changes included in Temple University's move toward a more community-based education agenda and focuses on one case, Temple Health Connection (THC). THC is an on-site, community- and university-supported medical facility that serves as a locus for community health care, student learning, and faculty research.…
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a)...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51... Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a) Fruit shall be fairly uniform in size. When packed...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a)...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a)...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51... Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a) Fruit shall be fairly uniform in size. When packed...
Both Greeks and Romans placed the building of temples and sanctuaries high on their list of architectural priorities, as these structures were a source of public pride. The temples were built as shrines for the all-important gods and goddesses of the ancient world. The Parthenon is a great example of this. The frieze on the Parthenon shows scenes…
Redmond, Elsa M; Spencer, Charles S
Archaeological investigations during the past two decades in Mexico's Valley of Oaxaca have documented the appearance of key public buildings, such as the royal palace and multiroom temple, associated with the rise of an archaic state at ca. 300-100 B.C. A fuller picture is now emerging from the site of El Palenque, where recent excavations have defined a temple precinct on the east side of the site's plaza. This precinct exhibits characteristics similar to those of the temple precincts of later Mesoamerican states described by Colonial period sources. The excavation data document a walled enclosure containing three multiroom temples, two special residences identified as priests' residences, and an array of ritual features and activity areas. The temple precinct's components are interpreted as comprising a hierarchy of temples staffed by a specialized priesthood. A series of radiocarbon dates indicate that the precinct's differentiated components were all in use during the 300-100 B.C. period of archaic state emergence. The El Palenque temple precinct is the earliest temple precinct excavated thus far in the Valley of Oaxaca. PMID:23610387
Engel, Gregory A.; Heidrich, John; Chalise, Mukesh; Poudel, Narayan; Viscidi, Raphael; Barry, Peter A.; Allan, Jonathan S.; Grant, Richard; Kyes, Randy
The threat of zoonotic transmission of infectious agents at monkey temples highlights the necessity of investigating the prevalence of enzootic infectious agents in these primate populations. Biological samples were collected from 39 rhesus macaques at the Swoyambhu Temple and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, polymerase chain reaction, or combination of these tests for evidence of infection with rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV), Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1), simian virus 40 (SV40), simian retrovirus (SRV), simian T-cell lymphotropic virus (STLV), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and simian foamy virus (SFV). Antibody seroprevalence was 94.9% to RhCMV (37/39), 89.7% to SV40 (35/39), 64.1% to CHV-1 (25/39), and 97.4% to SFV (38/39). Humans who come into contact with macaques at Swoyambhu risk exposure to enzootic primateborne viruses. We discuss implications for public health and primate management strategies that would reduce contact between humans and primates. PMID:16707044
Hardiman, W. J.
Visiting the Temple of Kali in Calcutta, India, one understands the importance of an Afro-centric methodology in describing the complex nature of the Mother Goddess in ancient India. Discoveries of ancient female figurines indicate an early Indian concept of the female role in the creation of civilization and culture and of the notion of the…
Atya, M. A.; AL Khateeb, S. O.; Ahmed, S. B.; Musa, M. F.; Gaballa, M.; Abbas, A. M.; Shaaban, F. F.; Hafez, M. A.
GPR investigation has been conducted on Mut temple; to the south portion of Al-Karnak temple at the eastern bank of Luxor city. Within the survey, the GPR SIR system-10A has been used connected to 100/500 MHz antenna. The present work is oriented to allocate the buried Archaeological ruins at the site, and also to evaluate the archaeological significance of the artifacts in concern to the hydro-situation. The survey is composed of three data sets; the first set (A) includes three GPR profiles located inside the temple palisade at the western bank of the holy lake, the second set (B) includes four profiles distributed on the yard between Mute and Al Karnak temples, and the third set (C) includes three profiles oriented to study the EW Sphinx Avenue front of Mute temple. The measured GPR data has been processed and visualized in different ways to show the infra-content of the artifacts in the buried subsurface of the temple. Furthermore, intensive mutual work and discussion with the local inspectorate at Luxor about the results would lead to detect the zones of possible findings and, as much as possible, to define their identities. A series of sectional GPR records, time slices, maps, and 3D graphs are introduced to represent the remains of Mut temple and its infrastructure.
Choi, Hwan Jun; Jung, Kyu Hwa; Lee, Hyun Ju
Nodular fasciitis (NF) is a pseudosarcomatous reactive proliferative lesion that commonly occurs as a solitary, well-circumscribed, painful, rapidly growing soft tissue mass. It appears at any age, but incidence peaks in the third decade, with a slight predilection for women. It is most commonly located on the extremities, followed by the chest and trunk. Although a common site in the pediatric population, NF is found on the head and neck only in 7% to 20% in the adult population and includes the cheek, parotid region, zygoma, periorbital area, eyelid, forehead, and intraoral sites. The cause of NF is unknown, but an association with trauma may be present. A case of NF over the temple area in a 28-year-old man who has no trauma history but has surgical incisional biopsy history and tenderness on palpation is reported. PMID:25364967
Inamori, Yoshihiko; Morita, Yasuhiro; Sakagami, Yoshikazu; Okabe, Toshihoro; Ishida, Nakao
Five hinokitiol-related compounds (hinokitiol (beta-thujaplicin), beta-dolabrin, gamma-thujaplicin, 4-acetyltropolone and alpha -thujaplicin) isolated from the acid oil of Aomori Hiba (Thujopsis dolabrata Sieb. et Zucc. var hondai MAKINO) showed clear antifungal activity against wood-rotting fungi. These compounds have obvious insecticidal effects on termites. They also exhibited potent acaricidal activity against mites. The above-mentioned features suggest that Konjiki-do, a well known national treasure, one of the buildings in Chuson-ji Temple of Iwate Prefecture, Japan, which was built of wood from the tree containing these five compounds, was kept from harm against noxious insects and wood-rotting fungi for a long time of about 840 years, until it was extensively repaired in 1962. In addition to Konjiki-do, there are some old famous Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines using Aomori Hiba. From the results, it was found that Aomori Hiba (Hinokiasunaro) is excellent for use as building materials. PMID:16789546
The situation of two large size sundials of Changzhou Tianning Temple in Qing Dynasty is described. Their structures and principles were explored. The comparison between them and the traditional equatorial sundials in ancient China was made.
Simons, Cas; Rash, Lachlan D; Crawford, Joanna; Ma, Linlin; Cristofori-Armstrong, Ben; Miller, David; Ru, Kelin; Baillie, Gregory J; Alanay, Yasemin; Jacquinet, Adeline; Debray, François-Guillaume; Verloes, Alain; Shen, Joseph; Yesil, Gözde; Guler, Serhat; Yuksel, Adnan; Cleary, John G; Grimmond, Sean M; McGaughran, Julie; King, Glenn F; Gabbett, Michael T; Taft, Ryan J
Temple-Baraitser syndrome (TBS) is a multisystem developmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, epilepsy, and hypoplasia or aplasia of the nails of the thumb and great toe. Here we report damaging de novo mutations in KCNH1 (encoding a protein called ether à go-go, EAG1 or KV10.1), a voltage-gated potassium channel that is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), in six individuals with TBS. Characterization of the mutant channels in both Xenopus laevis oocytes and human HEK293T cells showed a decreased threshold of activation and delayed deactivation, demonstrating that TBS-associated KCNH1 mutations lead to deleterious gain of function. Consistent with this result, we find that two mothers of children with TBS, who have epilepsy but are otherwise healthy, are low-level (10% and 27%) mosaic carriers of pathogenic KCNH1 mutations. Consistent with recent reports, this finding demonstrates that the etiology of many unresolved CNS disorders, including epilepsies, might be explained by pathogenic mosaic mutations. PMID:25420144
Kirch, Patrick V.
It is well established that the ancient Polynesians possessed sophisticated knowledge of astronomy, applying their understanding of the movements of heavenly bodies among other things to long-distance navigation and to their calendrical systems. Nonetheless, Polynesian archaeologists have been reticent to apply the methods of archaeoastronomy to the interpretation of prehistoric monumental sites, especially temples (marae and heiau). This presentation draws upon examples from the Mangareva and Hawaiian archipelagoes to demonstrate that Polynesian ritual architecture frequently exhibits regular patterns of orientation, suggesting that these temples were aligned with particular astronomical phenomena, such as solstice, equinox, and Pleiades rising positions. The argument is advanced that Polynesian temples were not only places of offering and sacrifice to the gods, but also locations for formal astronomical observation. In part, such observation was presumably crucial to keeping the Polynesian lunar calendar synchronized with the solar year.
Ozkaya, Ozlem Aslan; Boeke, Hasan
Serapis temple, which was constructed in the Roman period in the city of Pergamon (Bergama/Turkey), is one of the most important monuments of the world heritage. In this study, the characteristics of bricks and mortars used in the temple have been determined in order to define the necessary characteristics of the intervention materials, which will be used in the conservation works of the temple. Several analyses were carried out to determine their basic physical properties, raw material compositions, mineralogical and microstructural properties using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope and a Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer. Analysis results indicated that the mortars are stiff, compact and hydraulic due to the use of natural pozzolanic aggregates. The Roman bricks are of low density, high porosity and were produced from raw materials containing calcium poor clays fired at low temperatures.
Jain, Anil K.; Goel, Sanjay; Agarwal, Sachin; Mittal, Vipin; Sharma, Hariom; Mahindru, Ranjeev
In India a temple is not only a structure of religious significance and celebration, but it also plays an important role in the social, administrative and cultural life of the locality. Temples have served as centers for learning Indian scriptures. Music and dance were fostered and performed in the precincts of the temples. Built at the end of the 10th century, the Brihadisvara temple signified new design methodologies. We have access to a large number of images, audio and video recordings, architectural drawings and scholarly publications of this temple. A multimedia system for this temple is being designed which is intended to be used for the following purposes: (1) to inform and enrich the general public, and (2) to assist the scholars in their research. Such a system will also preserve and archive old historical documents and images. The large database consists primarily of images which can be retrieved using keywords, but the emphasis here is largely on techniques which will allow access using image content. Besides classifying images as either long shots or close-ups, deformable template matching is used for shape-based query by image content, and digital video retrieval. Further, to exploit the non-linear accessibility of video sequences, key frames are determined to aid the domain experts in getting a quick preview of the video. Our database also has images of several old, and rare manuscripts many of which are noisy and difficult to read. We have enhanced them to make them more legible. We are also investigating the optimal trade-off between image quality and compression ratios.
Tsonev, Lyubomir; Kolev, Dimiter
In this paper we describe a rare but relatively well-preserved Sardinian type underground well temple located at the village of Garlo, in Bulgaria. This dates to the fourteenth or thirteenth century BCE, and contains some unique architectural features. We postulate that the Garlo temple was used during the winter solstice for rituals associated with the 'newly-born Sun', underground water and the start of the new annual cycle of life. Solar and water cults are known from ancient Thrace, but previously they have never been combined in this way.
Niccolini, G.; Carpinteri, A.; Lacidogna, G.; Manuello, A.
We perform a comparative statistical analysis between the acoustic-emission time series from the ancient Greek Athena temple in Syracuse and the sequence of nearby earthquakes. We find an apparent association between acoustic-emission bursts and the earthquake occurrence. The waiting-time distributions for acoustic-emission and earthquake time series are described by a unique scaling law indicating self-similarity over a wide range of magnitude scales. This evidence suggests a correlation between the aging process of the temple and the local seismic activity.
This 39-month project at Temple University (Pennsylvania) provided mentoring services by retired senior professors to untenured, full-time junior faculty. The program has involved a total of 58 junior faculty from 20 disciplines and 15 retired professors from 10 disciplines. Mentors received a stipend of $500 per protege per semester. The mentors…
Jeon, Jin Yong; Hwang, In Hwan; Hong, Joo Young
Religious precincts in urban spaces have their own religious spatiality formed by their sociocultural and historical background. It is necessary to identify the spatiality of urban religious precincts in their sociocultural contexts because soundscape perception is determined largely by context. In the present study, social surveys and soundwalks were performed in a Catholic cathedral and in Buddhist temple precincts in Seoul. In the surveys, important spatial functions, sound, and visual components of the Catholic cathedral and Buddhist temple precincts were investigated by principal component analysis. The results showed that the cathedral precincts play a more important role in social functions related to mainly visual components than the temple precincts do, whereas the functions for religious activities related to sound elements are more stressed in the temple precincts. In the soundwalk evaluation, contributions of soundscape and landscape components to tranquility in the two religious precincts were explored. It was found that pleasantness of soundscape and attractiveness of landscape significantly affected the perception of tranquility. In addition, it was revealed that a sense of enclosure could enhance tranquility in urban religious precincts. PMID:25234985
... published in the Federal Register (77 FR 10,618). The exemption became effective on March 7, 2012. On April... Surface Transportation Board Eric Temple--Control Exemption--Portland Vancouver Junction Railroad, LLC... verified notice of exemption to acquire direct control of Portland Vancouver Junction Railroad, LLC...
Salkin, Leslie M.; And Others
An individualized, self-paced curriculum at Temple University Dental School is being used to break the lock-step pattern of the lecture-oriented system and to help students reach the clinical learning environment more quickly. Freshmen begin work in periodontology with 12 programed lessons studied in a Learning Resources Center open 75 hours a…
Li, Jing; Moore, Danièle
This paper presents data gathered in interviews with 29 informants in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan, China--an administrative region with Theravada Buddhist religious identity. The data highlight tensions between the traditional faith-based education provided by Theravada Buddhist temple schools and secular state education. The…
Kalbfleisch, M. Layne
Dr. Temple Grandin is a professor of animal sciences at Colorado State University where she conducts research and teaches courses on livestock handling and facility design. She is also a past member of the board of directors of the Autism Society of America. She lectures to parents and teachers throughout the United States on her experiences with…
Lindstaedt, M.; Mechelke, K.; Schnelle, M.; Kersten, Th.
In autumn 2009 the Almaqah Temple of Yeha in Ethiopia has been recorded by terrestrial laser scanning and digital photogrammetry in cooperation between the Sana'a Branch of the Orient Department of the German Archaeological Institute and the HafenCity University Hamburg. The temple dates from the 7th Century BC and is one of the best preserved buildings of Sabaean architecture in Africa. As a basis for all future project works a geodetic network was established in UTM-coordinates by GPS measurements. The geodata collected will form the basis for all future work on the temple. The deformations of the facades were determined for restoration issues and the existing parts of the temple were modelled by meshing (3D triangulation). Using the scanned point cloud and a technical analysis of the building the Propylon, which is no longer existent today, was virtually reconstructed. In future, the data will also be included in the master plan for touristic development of the region of Axum and Yeha in northern Ethiopia.
This paper highlights some of the similarities and differences in the labor-management experiences of Boston University (Massachusetts), Temple University (Pennsylvania), the University of Bridgeport (Connecticut), and Yeshiva University (New York) to determine which may represent failures and which do not. In comparing the Yeshiva and Boston…
Malville, J. McKim; Singh, Rana P. B.
We use Varanasi, the paradigmatic holy city of India, as an illustration of the incorporation of visual astronomy into Hindu culture. In the city the Sun is honored in three ways: at morning worship, during pilgrimage, and as an icon in temples. Specific attributes of the Sun are symbolized by the adityas, represented by fourteen temples which were destroyed during the years of Mughal occupation of the city after A.D. 1192. According to local tradition the locations of these temples remained in the communal memory of the city and are marked today by Sun disks, lotus-form stones or images of Surya, that are set into the walls of houses or installed in shrines or temples. Many of the sites are included in pilgrimage routes of the city. With the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) we have mapped the positions of the adityas and find that most lie along the sides of a triangle which surrounded the original center of the city. The major text that deals with Varanasi and its spiritual traditions, the Kashi Khanda, gives the myths, stories and rituals associated with each of the former Sun temples and reveals the significance of the Sun for inhabitants and pilgrims. The Sun is understood to be a caring and protective deity, providing relief from life's ordinary problems such as skin disease, infertility, hunger and the problems of old age and death. The Kashi Khanda also includes references to probable observations of naked-eye sunspots, meteor showers, and the total solar eclipse of A.D. 1054.
Kong, S.H.; Chung, K.S.; Park, J.S.; Shin, I.S.; Han, H.T.
Currently, there are many researches on the analysis of indoor environment in Sokkuram Cave Temple. However, there is not enough researches about an experimental study on the dome's indoor environment in Sokkuram Cave Temple using a miniature model. The purpose of this investigation is to measure and analyze characteristics of indoor environment such as relative humidity, dry bulb temperature and air velocity in the miniature model of Sokkuram Cave dome during winter season.
Fink, Uwe; Hicks, Michael
Since comet P/Temple-2 is one of the potential targets for the CRAF (Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby) mission, we obtained long slit spectroscopic data with our CCD spectrograph during its 1988 apparition. As the same spectrograph was extensively used for observations of P/Halley, this allowed a direct spectroscopic comparison between the two objects. Furthermore we could choose a P/Halley spectrum which was taken at a heliocentric distance very close to that of P/Temple-2. Finally, we could adjust the integration windows along the slit to compensate for the different geocentric distances, so that roughly the same projected distance of the comets' comae was observed. The parameters for our observations are given.
Rao, N. Kameswara; Thakur, Priya
The navaranga in the medieval stone temple of Vidyasankara at Sringeri, built around A.D. 1350, has twelve zodiacal pillars arranged in a square with the zodiacal signs carved on them. It has been claimed that the morning sunrise lights up the pillar that corresponds to the zodiacal constellation in which Sun is located at that time, so the temple can be used as an instrument to predict calendar days. We carried out observations to investigate this aspect by monitoring both sunrises and sunsets, and found that the correspondence between the illumination of specific pillars and the zodiacal sign of the Sun could only be maintained if the epoch for such an arrangement was around 2000 B.C. The implications of this finding are discussed in this paper.
Capano, M.; Rescigno, C.; Sirleto, R.; Passariello, I.; Marzaioli, F.; D'Onofrio, A.; Terrasi, F.
We present here one recent CIRCE (Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage) - Caserta (Italy) project on cultural heritage field, analysing several mice bones, discovered in the Major Temple on the acropolis of Cumae (Napoli, Southern Italy). The bones were found in a vase linked to the holy context. In order to know their dating and formulate an hypothesis on their presence on the site, if it was an accidental rodent inclusion (believed on the base of archaeological context to have occurred during building abandonment periods (IV-V or XIII centuries AD)) or an intentional and ritual remain, the bones were 14C dated by AMS at CIRCE. The results indicate that the mice bones date to the IV century BC and are contemporaneous with building construction. This dating seems to exclude an accidental rodent presence and it supports the hypothesis of Apollo veneration in the temple, based on the already known link between mice and Apollo worship rituals.
Graham, Angus; Hunter, Morag A.; Pennington, Benjamin T.; Strutt, Kristian D.
The Egypt Exploration Society Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey (THaWS) works in the area around modern Luxor (Egypt), and investigates the extent to which the Egyptians manipulated the Nile and floodplain through canal and basin construction. A current focus of the project is to understand the relationship between the floodplain and a series of temples on the West Bank. A longstanding puzzle on the West Bank is why the temple of Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BCE) is not located in the same area as all the others. While 19 kings of the Egyptian New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE) built their temples on the toe-slope of the limestone cliffs fronting onto the edge of the modern alluvium, Amenhotep's sits entirely on the modern floodplain. Egyptologists have suggested this was done to allow the inundation of the Nile to wash into the temple, symbolising and recreating the essential Egyptian cosmogony of the primeval mound. However, was it possible that a period of low Nile discharge enabled him to build on the alluvium whilst keeping the temple dry from the Nile floods? The project is testing this hypothesis through an interdisciplinary approach which provides focussed information on the development of the floodplain over historic time periods. It combines geophysical survey (Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Ground Penetrating Radar and magnetometry) with geoarchaeology using an Eijkelkamp hand auger and gouge auger with facies being dated using the stratigraphic sequence of ceramic fragments within them. Two fieldwork seasons have been carried out to date (Graham et al. 2012, 2013). Calcareous palaeosols c. 4m below the surface have been identified in three separate augers across a distance of 3 km on the West Bank floodplain, suggesting a period of low inundation levels / drought. At one of the locations an ancient surface appears to lie 0.3-0.4m above the calcisol. Ceramic fragments from this unit tentatively indicate a New Kingdom date. The strontium isotope record from
de Arrizabalaga y Prado, L.; de La Fuente Marcos, R.
Ancient historians refer to a temple in Rome, dedicated to the Syrian sun god Elagabal, by his high priest, the Roman emperor called Varius (204-222AD, commonly called Elagabalus or Heliogabalus). On the basis of their texts, it has been thought that Varius either built a new temple, or rededicated an existing one, expropriated from some other deity, in order to house his god's principal cult object: a large black meteorite, or baetyl, which Varius brought from its temple at Emesa, in Syria, to Rome. In this paper we analyze the hypothesis that the site of the Varian Temple of Elagabal may have been that now known as the Vigna Barberini. A stratigraphic analysis shows that the Vigna Barberini is an artificial platform, built on the rubble of earlier hillside structures, dating from prehistoric times to the Julio-Claudian period. The platform, with more or less its present shape, is of Flavian date, and at that time contained a portico surrounding a central garden. On top of these, a Severan level corresponds to the base of the foundations of a temple that are very solid and go very deep. The azimuth of the temple wall oriented south-east is about 113°. Using a computer program, we have thoroughly scan ned the night sky in AD 1-250, looking for celestial objects that may have been worshipped in the temple. After taking into account the effects of precession, the main candidate for a celestial body worshipped from this site appears to be the star Sirius. In several Mediterranean cultures, the heliacal ortus, or earliest pre-dawn sighting of Sirius (when Sirius again rises into visibility after being hidden by the Sun's light for about 70 days) was thought to have astrological significance. We have compiled the relevant astronomical data for the heliacal ortus of Sirius in the time span 0-250 AD. During that period of time, it falls between 18th and 20th July. The azimuth angle of Sirius, when rising on the heliacal ortus day ci rca 150 AD, is about 111°. Being
Mothering in contemporary Western society needs to be understood in the context of a rapidly changing social context. Increased geographic mobility, improved access to child-related information through the media, and scientific and technological progress have contributed to significant shifts in cultural views on mothering. Several contextual impingements on mothering, including changing family structure, economic pressures, decreased social support, cultural ideals of the perfect mother, and increased awareness of interpersonal and global trauma impact mothers' internal worlds. These societal changes often reinforce mothers' fear of losing their children and an idealization of intensive mothering, and evoke challenges in reorganizing their sense of personal identity. Implications for psychoanalytic theory and practice, and specifically the need to integrate individual and contextual forces related to experiences of mothers will be explored. PMID:19295618
List, Thomas; John, Mike T.; Ohrbach, Richard; Schiffman, Eric L.; Truelove, Edmond L.; Anderson, Gary C.
Aims To investigate the relationship of headache frequency with patient-reported physical functioning and emotional functioning in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) subjects with concurrent temple headache. Methods The Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) Validation Project identified, as a subset of 614 TMD cases and 91 controls (n = 705), 309 subjects with concurrent TMD pain diagnoses (RDC/TMD) and temple headache. The temple headaches were subdivided into infrequent, frequent, and chronic headache according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICHD–II). Study variables included self-report measures of physical functioning (Jaw Function Limitation Scale [JFLS], Graded Chronic Pain Scale [GCPS], Short Form–12 [SF–12]) and emotional functioning (depression and anxiety as measured by the Symptom Checklist–90R/SCL–90R). Differences among the three headache subgroups were characterized by increasing headache frequency. The relationship between ordered headache frequency and physical as well as emotional functioning was analyzed using linear regression and trend tests for proportions. Results Physical functioning, as assessed with the JFLS (P < .001), SF-12 (P < .001), and GCPS (P < .001), was significantly associated with increased headache frequency. Emotional functioning, reflected in depression and anxiety, was also associated with increased frequency of headache (both P < .001). Conclusion Headache frequency was substantially correlated with reduced physical functioning and emotional functioning in subjects with TMD and concurrent temple headaches. A secondary finding was that headache was precipitated by jaw activities more often in subjects with more frequent temple headaches. PMID:22558607
Tottenham, Nim; Shapiro, Mor; Telzer, Eva H.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.
In altricial species, like the human, the caregiver, very often the mother, is one of the most potent stimuli during development. The distinction between mothers and other adults is learned early in life and results in numerous behaviors in the child, most notably mother-approach and stranger wariness. The current study examined the influence of…
Leroy, Stéphanie; Hendrickson, Mitch; Delqué-Kolic, Emmanuelle; Vega, Enrique; Dillmann, Philippe
Architecture represents key evidence of dynastic practice and change in the archaeological world. Chronologies for many important buildings and sequences, including the iconic temples of medieval Angkor in Cambodia, are based solely on indirect associations from inscriptions and architectural styles. The Baphuon temple, one of the last major buildings in Angkor without textual or scientifically-derived chronological evidence, is crucial both for the context and date of its construction and the period when its western façade was modified into a unique, gigantic Reclining Buddha. Its construction was part of a major dynastic change and florescence of the Hindu-Mahayana Buddhist state and the modification is the key evidence of Theravada Buddhist power after Angkor's decline in the 15th century. Using a newly-developed approach based on AMS radiocarbon dating to directly date four iron crampons integrated into the structure we present the first direct evidence for the history of the Baphuon. Comprehensive study of ferrous elements shows that both construction and modification were critically earlier than expected. The Baphuon can now be considered as the major temple associated with the imperial reformations and territorial consolidation of Suryavarman I (1010–1050 AD) for whom no previous building to legitimize his reign could be identified. The Theravada Buddhist modification is a hundred years prior to the conventional 16th century estimation and is not associated with renewed use of Angkor. Instead it relates to the enigmatic Ayutthayan occupation of Angkor in the 1430s and 40s during a major period of climatic instability. Accurately dating iron with relatively low carbon content is a decisive step to test long-standing assumptions about architectural histories and political processes for states that incorporated iron into buildings (e.g., Ancient Greece, medieval India). Furthermore, this new approach has the potential to revise chronologies related to iron
Song, Wonsuh; Oguchi, Chiaki; Waragai, Tetsuya
The Angkor complex is the one of the greatest cultural heritages in the world. It is constructed in the early 12th century, designated as a world cultural heritage by UNESCO in 1992. The temples at the Angkor complex are mainly made of sandstone and laterite. However, due to the tropical climate, plants, lichens and various microorganisms are growing well on the rock surface. Black crusts are also easily found on the stone surface. The 21st technical session of the International Coordinating Committee for the Safeguarding and Development of the Historic Site of Angkor (ICC-Angkor) held in 2012 recommended that to preserve both the biofilms and the forest cover and to prohibit the biocides (chlorine-based) and organic biocides. However, there are many reports that lichens and microorganisms accelerate rock weathering. It is important to clarify that how the biofilm on the Angkor temples affect Angkor sandstones. We sampled Angkor sandstone covered by black crust at the Bayon temple, Angkor complex, and observed the section and the surface of the rock sample by using SEM. Surfaces of the samples are not polished in order to observe the original condition. The samples are coated with gold for 180 seconds. The depth of the black crust is up to 1 mm. Many filamentous materials were found on the black crust. Average energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data of the five areas of ca. 20 μm ×15 μm in the black crusts shows that over 80 % of the filamentous materials are compounds of carbon. It seems that these materials are hyphae. The shape of the hypha is like a thread and its size is few μm in diameter and up to several centimeters in length. Black crusts are consisted of elements and compounds of carbon, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, and Fe. Further research has to be done to find out the better and proper way of conservation for the Angkor complex.
Leroy, Stéphanie; Hendrickson, Mitch; Delqué-Kolic, Emmanuelle; Vega, Enrique; Dillmann, Philippe
Architecture represents key evidence of dynastic practice and change in the archaeological world. Chronologies for many important buildings and sequences, including the iconic temples of medieval Angkor in Cambodia, are based solely on indirect associations from inscriptions and architectural styles. The Baphuon temple, one of the last major buildings in Angkor without textual or scientifically-derived chronological evidence, is crucial both for the context and date of its construction and the period when its western façade was modified into a unique, gigantic Reclining Buddha. Its construction was part of a major dynastic change and florescence of the Hindu-Mahayana Buddhist state and the modification is the key evidence of Theravada Buddhist power after Angkor's decline in the 15th century. Using a newly-developed approach based on AMS radiocarbon dating to directly date four iron crampons integrated into the structure we present the first direct evidence for the history of the Baphuon. Comprehensive study of ferrous elements shows that both construction and modification were critically earlier than expected. The Baphuon can now be considered as the major temple associated with the imperial reformations and territorial consolidation of Suryavarman I (1010-1050 AD) for whom no previous building to legitimize his reign could be identified. The Theravada Buddhist modification is a hundred years prior to the conventional 16th century estimation and is not associated with renewed use of Angkor. Instead it relates to the enigmatic Ayutthayan occupation of Angkor in the 1430s and 40s during a major period of climatic instability. Accurately dating iron with relatively low carbon content is a decisive step to test long-standing assumptions about architectural histories and political processes for states that incorporated iron into buildings (e.g., Ancient Greece, medieval India). Furthermore, this new approach has the potential to revise chronologies related to iron
This work presents the results of a research that was carried out to further our knowledge of the active faults in south-western Sicily. The only seismic event of particular significance that is known to have occurred is that of 15 January 1968 (Io= XMCS, Me 6.5) in the Belice valley. The archaeological park of Selinunte, the largest in the Mediterranean area, with its great temples and evidence of spectacular collapses, has been taken as a source of information capable of analysis by means of the methodological approach of archaeoseismology. The identification of the seismic indicators at Selinunte necessitated a detailed analysis of both old and new archaeological evidence, together with a critical re-examination of all the archaeological literature and existing documents dating from to the eighteenth century, together with travelers' accounts of that time. The history of the archaeological deposits, spoliation, and excavations has been reconstructed. These data are reinterpreted in the light of both the new discoveries of the most recent research, and of a number of methodological criteria already used in previous works on archaeoseismology. This long and complex analysis was carried out in 1998-99 with Anna Muggia, Clemente Marconi and Enzo Boschi in the research programme of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. It resulted in the identification of two seismic events that struck Selinunte and led to the collapse of the temples. The chronology of the earthquakes can be dated, for the first, to a period between the fourth and third century BC; for the second, to a period between the sixth and the thirteen century AD. Although the time span proposed, particularly for the second earthquake, is very broad, it does not mean that this earthquake is in anyway hypothetical from a geophysical point of view. Its traces are clear, but the long periods when the site was abandoned mitigate against the fixing of a precise date for the event. In order to reach
The rational system of medicine distinct from magical or religious practices originated with Hippocrates. This revolutionary change established diseases with natural causes and treatments. Epilepsy with its prominent physical and psychic features was regarded in ancient times with superstitious awe and given the name "Sacred Disease." Hippocratic authors distanced themselves from the prevailing supernatural views but were careful not to oppose the traditional medicine especially the cults of Asklepios. This analysis of the practices of Hippocratic and Temple medicine in relation to epilepsy reveals some clear differences and also some overlapping features. PMID:18979345
This study is not concerned, as the title might suggest, with the actual death of the mother but with the child's experience of a mother who is physically present but internally absent due to depression. The child simultaneously introjects and splits off the mother imago, making mourning and "burial" equally impossible. The consequence of this cathectic deprivation is what the author calls "psychic holes" or "white depression". Green attributes to the dead mother a similar structuring function for the psychic apparatus to that attributed to the dead father in Freud's Totem and Taboo, and places the dead mother complex side by side with the Oedipus complex. PMID:8465007
Kumar, Anish; Jayakumar, T; Rao, C Babu; Sharma, Govind K; Rajkumar, K V; Raj, Baldev; Arundhati, P
This paper presents the first scientific investigation on the musical pillars of the Vitthala Temple at Hampi, India. The solid stone columns in these pillars produce audible sound, when struck with a finger. Systematic investigations on the acoustic characteristics of the musical pillars of mahamandapam (great stage) of the Vitthala Temple have been carried out. The 11 most popular pillars that produce sounds of specific musical instruments are considered for the investigations. The sound produced from these 11 most popular musical pillars was recorded systematically and different nondestructive testing techniques such as low frequency ultrasonic testing, impact echo testing, and in situ metallography were employed on the musical columns of these pillars. The peak frequencies in the amplitude spectrum of the sound produced from various columns in these pillars are correlated with the dimensional measurements and ultrasonic velocity determined using impact echo technique. The peak frequencies obtained experimentally have been found to have excellent correlation with the calculated flexural frequencies based on the dimensional measurements and ultrasonic velocities of the columns. PMID:18681583
Klysubun, Wantana; Ravel, Bruce; Klysubun, Prapong; Sombunchoo, Panidtha; Deenan, Weeraya
Yellow and colorless ancient glasses, which were once used to decorate the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, Bangkok, Thailand, around 150 years ago, are studied to unravel the long-lost glass-making recipes and manufacturing techniques. Analyses of chemical compositions, using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SRXRF), indicate that the Thai ancient glasses are soda lime silica glasses (60 % SiO2; 10 % Na2O; 10 % CaO) bearing lead oxide between 2-16 %. Iron (1.5-9.4 % Fe2O3) and manganese (1.7 % MnO) are present in larger abundance than the other 3 d transition metals detected (0.04-0.2 %). K-edge x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) provide conclusive evidence on the oxidation states of Fe being 3+ and Mn being 2+ and on short-length tetrahedral structures around the cations. This suggests that iron is used as a yellow colorant with manganese as a decolorant. L 3-edge XANES results reveal the oxidation states of lead as 2+. The results from this work provide information crucial for replicating these decorative glasses for the future restoration of the Temple of the Emerald Buddha.
Singh, Akanksha; Jain, Akansha; Sarma, Birinchi K.; Abhilash, P.C.; Singh, Harikesh B.
Highlights: ► Effective management of temple floral offerings using E. fetida. ► Physico-chemical properties in TW VC were better especially EC, C/N, C/P and TK. ► TW VC as plant growth promoter at much lower application rates than KW and FYW VC. - Abstract: Recycling of temple waste (TW) mainly comprising of floral offerings was done through vermitechnology using Eisenia fetida and its impact on seed germination and plant growth parameters was studied by comparing with kitchen waste (KW) and farmyard waste (FYW) vermicompost (VC). The worm biomass was found to be maximum in TW VC compared to KW and FYW VCs at both 40 and 120 days old VCs. Physico-chemical analysis of worm-worked substrates showed better results in TW VC especially in terms of electrical conductivity, C/N, C/P and TK. 10% TW VC–water extract (VCE) showed stimulatory effect on germination percentage of chickpea seeds while KW and FYW VCE proved effective at higher concentration. Variation in growth parameters was also observed with change in the VC–soil ratio and TW VC showed enhanced shoot length, root length, number of secondary roots and total biomass at 12.5% VC compared to KW and FYW VC.
He, S.; Tang, Z.; Yang, S.
Baoguo Temple is located half way up Lingshan Mountain in Northern Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. The main hall of Baoguo Temple is Song dynasty wooden structure. As the oldest wooden architecture in Jiangnan, China, it is a national major protective historical relic. In 2005, Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum was set up and opens to the outside world. From 2007, to be able to protect it more effectively and foreseeably, Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum began to build information collecting systems towards historical architectures using modern information technology. After comparing correlated studies both at home and abroad, we found that: heritage protection abroad started earlier than us, and it has already established thorough protection system, relevant protection mechanism, and also issued relevant protection laws and regulations. The technology which was utilized in protection abroad was not only limited in RS, GIS, GPS, VR, but also included many emerging technology such as using a computational fluid dynamics model to simulate the condition of temperature and humidity. The main body of this paper are going to talk about four parts: the first one is existing information system. In this part, we'll introduce the information collecting system, which was preliminarily built in 2007 in Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum. Using the modern digital computer information technology, researchers can gradually check and acquire the information of the material of relics, the condition of the structure stress and the natural environmental information, which may probably affect the cultural architecture. And this part may be divided into information collection, information management and exhibition. The second part is update scheme design of original information collecting equipment and technology. Original information collecting system of microenvironment is relatively independent and data haven't been included in the management of the system
Peng Xi county, Sichuan province, the Bao Fan temple mural digitization survey mapping project: we use three-dimensional laserscanning, multi-baseline definition digital photography, multi-spectral digital image acquisition and other technologies for digital survey mapping. The purpose of this project is to use modern mathematical reconnaissance mapping means to obtain accurate mural shape, color, quality and other data. Combined with field investigation and laboratory analysis results, and based on a comprehensive survey and study, a comprehensive analysis of the historical Bao Fan Temple mural artistic and scientific value was conducted. A study of the mural's many qualities (structural, material, technique, preservation environment, degradation, etc.) reveal all aspects of the information carried by the Bao Fan Temple mural. From multiple angles (archeology, architecture, surveying, conservation science and other disciplines) an assessment for the Bao Fan Temple mural provides basic data and recommendations for conservation of the mural. In order to achieve the conservation of cultural relics in the Bao Fan Temple mural digitization survey mapping process, we try to apply the advantages of three-dimensional laser scanning equipment. For wall murals this means obtaining three-dimensional scale data from the scan of the building and through the analysis of these data to help determine the overall condition of the settlement as well as the deformation of the wall structure. Survey analysis provides an effective set of conclusions and suggestions for appropriate mural conservation. But before data collection, analysis and research need to first to select the appropriate scanning equipment, set the appropriate scanning accuracy and layout position of stations necessary to determine the scope of required data. We use the fine features of the three-dimensional laser scanning measuring arm to scan the mural surface deformation degradation to reflect the actual state of
Biber, A; Franck-Karl, G; Waimer, F; Riegert, U; Wiget, R
Quality of homoeopathic mother tinctures is assured by the definition of the starting material, the manufacturing process and the analytical characteristics described in the monograph. Traditionally analytical characterisation of the mother tincture comprises appearance, odour, identity, density and dry residue. According to annex I of directive 2001/83/EC an assay is only performed in case of a health hazard due to toxic compounds. The concept of marker substances as usually used in phytotherapy cannot be transferred to mother tinctures without research effort. For example the marker substances echinacoside, apigenin-7-glucoside and rosmarinic acid found in dried underground parts of Echinacea pallida Nutt., dried flower heads of Matricaria recutita L. and dried herb of Pulmonaria officinalis L. cannot be found in homoeopathic mother tinctures prepared from fresh material thereof. PMID:19275866
Hatzis, J; Noutsis, K; Hatzidakis, E; Bassioukas, K; Perissios, A
Two cases of fixed drug eruption, occurring in a mother and son, are presented. The eruption in the mother occurred after she ingested dimenhydrinate or acetylsalicylic acid and in the son after ingestion of either of the above drugs or with "junk" food (cheese crisps). Apart from the drugs, anxiety was found to be an essential factor in the manifestation of the mother's disease. A genetic predisposition would seem to link these cases. PMID:1387603
Lozier, G. Gregory; Mortimer, Kenneth P.
After faculty collective bargaining elections were held in the 14-campus Pennsylvania State College system and Temple University, questionnaires were administered to a sample of faculty. The objectives of the research were to identify relationships between the independent variable of faculty voting behavior in these elections and the following…
... Proposed Temple LNG Liquefaction Upgrade and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues The staff of the... EA on the important environmental issues. By this notice, the Commission requests public comments on... jurisdiction by law and/or special expertise with respect to the environmental issues of this project...
Temraz, Mostafa Gouda; Khallaf, Mohamed K.
The Temple of Kom Ombo is a huge ancient Egyptian temple in Upper Egypt. It was built by Ptolemy VI Philometor (180-145 BC) and added to by subsequent Ptolemys. The structure of the temple is built of local sandstone attributed to the Quseir Formation of "Nubian Sandstone" group at Gebel el-Silsila. Sandstone samples from Kom Ombo temple were taken to verify the source rock of the quarried material. Optical Polarizing Microscope (OPM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were used to determine the microstructure and physical properties of the sandstone. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) was carried out for the Sandstone samples to identify its mineralogical composition. The sandstone samples were treated with six polymeric products to determine changes in their physical and mechanical properties after penetration, consolidation of polymers within them. This sandstone is composed mainly of three quartz arenite microfacies (feldspathic, sublithic and calcareous) that are interpreted to have been deposited in fluvial to fluvial-marine environment. Silane polymers is showing a good penetration and filling pores between grains and recommended for treatment and conservation of the sandstone. Acrylic polymer shows random penetration of polymer and formation of a film of polymer on the surface of sandstone. Silo11 gave the best result in consolidation of sandstone samples then primal AC33. Wacker BS29 gave the best result in isolating process of sandstone samples, then wacker BS 290.
The essay examines variations in the meanings attached to old age by upper-caste Hindu women of all ages in the temple town of Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India. Based on ethnographic data, it suggests that there are two competing cultural constructions of old age: one as withdrawal from the struggles of the mundane world and the other as a second childhood. Through the narratives of two old women, it demonstrates the ways in which these constructions shape and influence their experience of this phase of life. It analyses the satisfaction that Oriya Hindu women derive during mature adulthood in terms of three indigenously derived measures: centrality, dominance and coherence. Finally, it examines the two constructions of old age in light of these three measures of satisfaction in order to see the degree to which they provide or do not provide old women with meaning and purpose during this, their final phase of life. PMID:22350647
Greif, Geoffrey L.
A national survey of 517 mothers without custody of at least one child revealed a great range in their reactions to their nontraditional role. Although many mothers reported feeling guilty and uncomfortable, a significant number felt well adjusted, and these two groups are contrasted. Offers practice implications for social workers. (Author)
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Ferando, Annette; Newbert, David
Funded under the Women's Educational Equity Act, the Assertiveness Training Program for Single Mothers was offered to mothers with children enrolled in the Omaha Head Start and Parent-Child Center Programs. The 16-week long program, providing a total of 40 hours of training, covered a wide range of topics in addition to the initial workshops on…
Nelson, Margaret K.
This paper explores how single mothers both incorporate others into family life (e.g., when they ask others to care for their children) and simultaneously "do families" in a manner that holds out a vision of a "traditional" family structure. Drawing on research with White, rural single mothers, the author explores the manner in which these women…
SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia
Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child. PMID:26474475
Spalter-Roth, Roberta M.; Hartmann, Heidi I.
This document presents a study that views working mothers as primary or co-equal earners, who need wages sufficient to support their families. The study hypothesized that the complex socioeconomic trends of the last two decades have had more of an impact on working mothers' wages than have their specific family relations. The study employed a…
Kenway, Jane; Fahey, Johannah
Through selected theories of melancholia, this paper seeks to shed some fresh interpretive light on the reproduction and disruption of gender, violence and family turmoil across generations of mothers and daughters. The originality of the paper lies in its exploratory deployment of theories of melancholia to consider issues of women, violence and…
Lin, Ta-Chang; Chang, Feng-Hsiang; Hsieh, Jue-Hsien; Chao, How-Ran; Chao, Mu-Rong
Incense burning, a common and popular practice among many families and in most temples in Taiwan, can result in indoor pollution-related health problems. This exploratory study was aimed at characterizing human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total suspended particulate (TSP) inside and around a Taiwanese temple, and to compare the indoor levels with levels outside. Additionally, three types of commonly used unburned incense and incense ash were analyzed in order to evaluate the relationship between incense composition and PAH emissions.Standard methods were used to determine air concentrations of 21 PAHs and TSP inside and around a chosen temple. Indoor mean total-PAH concentration, particle-bound PAH concentration and TSP concentration were 6258 ng/m(3), 490 micro g/g and 1316 micro g/m(3), respectively; values for outdoor readings were 231 ng/m (3), 245 micro g/g and 73 micro g/m(3), for outdoors, respectively indicating PAH and TSP concentrations inside 27 and 18 times greater, respectively than outdoors. With respect to concentrations of individual PAHs (particulate+gas phase), the five highest concentrations were of acenaphthylene (AcPy) (3583 ng/m(3)), naphthalene (Nap) (1264 ng/m(3)), acenaphthene (Acp) (349 ng/m(3)), fluoranthene (FL) (243 ng/m(3)) and phenanthrene (PA) (181 ng/m(3)). Median values for indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of individual PAHs ranged from 5.7 to 387.9, which implied that the temple was a significant PAH source. Moreover, PAH content of the tested stick incense and ash was very low. PAH levels inside the temple were much higher than those measured in the vicinity and inside residential houses; and were in fact close to levels measured at a local traffic intersection in Tainan, Taiwan, and those in a graphite-electrode producing plant during the graphitization process. It is obvious that such substantially high concentrations of PAHs and TSP constitute a potential health hazard to people working in or visiting
The ability of infants to recognize their mothers as distinct from others was investigated by presenting 6 boys and 6 girls at two age levels (5 weeks and 13 weeks) with the following six sequential stimulus conditions: (1) mother's face (MO); (2) stranger's face (SO); (3) mother's face with stranger's voice (MS); (4) stranger's face with mother's…
Chang, Yu Min; Lu, Nien Hua; Wu, Tsung Chiang
This study applies 3D Laser scanning technology to develop a high-precision measuring system for digital survey of historical building. It outperformed other methods in obtaining abundant high-precision measuring points and computing data instantly. In this study, the Pei-tien Temple, a Chinese Taoism temple in southern Taiwan famous for its highly intricate architecture and more than 300-year history, was adopted as the target to proof the high accuracy and efficiency of this system. By using French made MENSI GS-100 Laser Scanner, numerous measuring points were precisely plotted to present the plane map, vertical map and 3D map of the property. Accuracies of 0.1-1 mm in the digital data have consistently been achieved for the historical heritage measurement.
Shen, Joseph J
This study reports on two individuals with Temple-Baraitser syndrome, manifesting typical hallux and pollex findings, global developmental delay, and seizures. In the five previous cases identified to date, consistent craniofacial and osseous characteristics have been observed. The children described herein exhibit minor differences within this phenotype and are older, highlighting the phenotypic variability and natural history of the clinical and radiographic findings. PMID:25629734
Budulas, Peter P.; Young, Stuart H.; Emmerman, Philip J.
Small physical agents will be ubiquitous on the battlefield of the 21st century, principally to lower the exposure to harm of our ground forces. Teams of small collaborating physical agents conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA); chemical and biological agent detection, logistics, sentry; and communications relay will have advanced sensor and mobility characteristics. The mother ship much effectively deliver/retrieve, service, and control these robots as well as fuse the information gathered by these highly mobile robot teams. The mother ship concept presented in this paper includes the case where the mother ship is itself a robot or a manned system. The mother ship must have long-range mobility to deploy the small, highly maneuverable agents that will operate in urban environments and more localized areas, and act as a logistics base for the robot teams. The mother ship must also establish a robust communications network between the agents and is an up-link point for disseminating the intelligence gathered by the smaller agents; and, because of its global knowledge, provides the high-level information fusion, control and planning for the collaborative physical agents. Additionally, the mother ship incorporates battlefield visualization, information fusion, and multi-resolution analysis, and intelligent software agent technology, to support mission planning and execution. This paper discusses on going research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that supports the development of a robot mother ship. This research includes docking, battlefield visualization, intelligent software agents, adaptive communications, information fusion, and multi- modal human computer interaction.
Mothers of a random sample of 2182 legitimate live births were interviewed about their experiences of pregnancy, labour, and delivery. Of these, 24% reported that their labours were induced, and data about this from a subsample of mothers tallied with information obtained through the doctors in charge in 88% of cases. All but 3% of the mothers who were induced perceived some medical reason for the induction. The proportion of inductions in the 24 study areas ranged from 6% to 39%. A relatively small proportion of labours in “teaching” hospitals, small hospitals with less than 100 beds, and GP maternity hospitals were induced, but a comparatively high proportion of private patients had an induction. There was no clear association between induction and the mother's age or parity. Despite being given more pain relief, those who were induced reported similar intensities of pain during the first and second stages of labour to those whose labour started spontaneously; they also reported that they had “bad pains” for a similar period. The period they had contractions was shorter for the induced than for those starting spontaneously, and the intensity of pain at delivery was rated somewhat less by those who were induced. There was no difference between induced babies and others in the proportion who were held by their mothers immediately after their birth. Two-fifths of the mothers who were induced would have liked more information about induction; and a similar proportion said they had not discussed induction with a doctor, midwife, or nurse during their pregnancy. Only 17% of the mothers who had an induction said they would prefer to be induced if they had another baby. This contrasts with 63% of those who had epidural analgesia who would opt for the same procedure next time, while 83% of those who had had a baby in hospital, and 91% of those having had a home birth, would want their next baby in the same type of place. PMID:912282
Singh, Akanksha; Jain, Akansha; Sarma, Birinchi K; Abhilash, P C; Singh, Harikesh B
Recycling of temple waste (TW) mainly comprising of floral offerings was done through vermitechnology using Eisenia fetida and its impact on seed germination and plant growth parameters was studied by comparing with kitchen waste (KW) and farmyard waste (FYW) vermicompost (VC). The worm biomass was found to be maximum in TW VC compared to KW and FYW VCs at both 40 and 120days old VCs. Physico-chemical analysis of worm-worked substrates showed better results in TW VC especially in terms of electrical conductivity, C/N, C/P and TK. 10% TW VC-water extract (VCE) showed stimulatory effect on germination percentage of chickpea seeds while KW and FYW VCE proved effective at higher concentration. Variation in growth parameters was also observed with change in the VC-soil ratio and TW VC showed enhanced shoot length, root length, number of secondary roots and total biomass at 12.5% VC compared to KW and FYW VC. PMID:23481343
Marey Mahmoud, Hussein; Kantiranis, Nikolaos; Stratis, John
The present paper aims to characterize some Roman plasters from the reign of the Emperor Diocletian in the late 3rd century AD. These plasters were applied over Pharaonic walls from the reign of Amenhotep III (c.1402-1364 BC) at Luxor temple, Upper Egypt. For the characterization of theses plasters, several analytical techniques were applied such as optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron mi-croscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS), X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRPD), micro-Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies (μ-Raman and FT-IR). Based on the results of these analyses, the stratigraphic structure of the plaster layers was identified as fine coat 'intonaco' which is based mainly on lime and coarse coat 'arriccio' which consists of silica sand, phases of calcium carbonates and different pozzolanic additives. Moreover, the results revealed the green pigment as green earth (celadonite), the red pigment as red ochre, the yellow pigment as yellow ochre and the white pigment as cal-cium carbonate. The obtained data helped in improving our knowledge of some materials used during the Roman age in Egypt.
The body is socially constructed; and in this paper we explore the various and ever-changing constructions of the body, and thus of the embodied self, from the Greeks to the present. The one word, body, may therefore signify very different realities and perceptions of reality; and we consider briefly how and why these meanings changed. Plato believed the body was a 'tomb', Paul said it was the 'temple' of the Holy Spirit, the Stoic philosopher Epictetus taught that it was a 'corpse'. Christians believed, and believe, that the body is not only physical, but also spiritual and mystical, and many believed it was an allegory of church, state and family. Some said it was cosmic: one with the planets and the constellations. Descartes wrote that the body is a 'machine', and this definition has underpinned biomedicine to this day; but Sartre said that the body is the self. In sum, the body has no intrinsic meaning. Populations create their own meanings, and thus their own bodies; but how they create, and then change them, and why, reflects the social body. PMID:1600447
Mori, Hirotake; Mahittikorn, Aongart; Thammasonthijarern, Nipa; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Rojekittikhun, Wichit; Sukthana, Yaowalark
Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a common opportunistic intestinal pathogen in humans and animals. To investigate the prevalence, genotype and host specificity of E. bieneusi, 111 dog faecal samples were collected from dairy cattle farms, and 95 and 80 faecal samples were collected from dogs and cats, respectively, in a temple in central Thailand. E. bieneusi was found in 25 (31.3%) cats by nested PCR, but not in dogs. Genotyping analysis targeting the internal transcribed spacer of the rRNA gene identified genotype D - and other novel genotypes very similar to genotype D - which is a zoonotic genotype reported in both HIV patients and villagers in rural communities in Thailand. This is the first study to find E. bieneusi genotype D in cats, and it may be that cats are found to play an important role in E. bieneusi zoonotic transmission to humans. The present study indicates that further molecular epidemiological investigations of E. bieneusi among cats are necessary to evaluate their possible role as reservoir hosts and the potential risk they represent to humans. PMID:23932454
Goodman, Sherryl H
Whether one takes a biological, psychological, or psychosocial perspective, depression in mothers raises concerns about risks for the development of psychopathology in the children. This review addresses the complexity of that risk and the essential role of development in a model that explains processes of transmission. This article addresses the following aims: (a) to provide convincing evidence that depression in mothers is an important topic for clinical psychologists; (b) to summarize current theoretical models of mechanisms of risk for the development of psychopathology in children of depressed mothers and the status of empirical support for those models; (c) to examine the theoretical bases and current status of evidence for moderators of this risk; (d) to argue for the advantages to be gained from a developmental psychopathology perspective on this topic; and (e) to point to future directions for theory, research, and practice. PMID:17716050
Church, M W; Jen, K-L C; Anumba, J I; Jackson, D A; Adams, B R; Hotra, J W
Consuming omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FA) during pregnancy and lactation is beneficial to fetal and infant development and might reduce the incidence and severity of preterm births by prolonging pregnancy. Consequently, supplementing maternal diets with large amounts of omega-3 FA is gaining acceptance. However, both over- and under-supplementation with omega-3 FA can harm offspring development. Adverse fetal and neonatal conditions in general can enhance age-related neural degeneration, shorten life span and cause other adult-onset disorders. We hypothesized that maternal over- and under-nutrition with omega-3 FA would shorten the offspring's life span and enhance neural degeneration in old adulthood. To test these hypotheses, female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the three diet conditions starting from day 1 of pregnancy through the entire period of pregnancy and lactation. The three diets were Control omega-3 FA (omega-3/omega-6 ratio approximately 0.14), Excess omega-3 FA (omega-3/omega-6 ratio approximately 14.5) and Deficient omega-3 FA (omega-3/omega-6 ratio approximately 0% ratio). When possible, one male and female offspring from each litter were assessed for life span and sensory/neural degeneration (n=15 litters/group). The Excess offspring had shorter life spans compared to their Control and Deficient cohorts (mean+/-SEM=506+/-24, 601+/-14 and 585+/-21 days, p
Church, M W; Jen, K-L C; Jackson, D A; Adams, B R; Hotra, J W
Consuming omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FA) during pregnancy and lactation benefits fetal and infant brain development and might reduce the severity of preterm births by prolonging pregnancy. However, diets that are relatively rich in omega-3 FA can adversely affect fetal and infant development and the auditory brainstem response (ABR), a measure of brain development and sensory function. We previously examined the offspring of female rats fed excessive, adequate or deficient amounts of omega-3 FA during pregnancy and lactation. The 24-day-old offspring in the Excess group, compared to the Control group, had postnatal growth retardation and poor hearing acuity and prolonged neural transmission times as evidenced by the ABR. The Deficient group was intermediate. The current study followed these offspring to see if these poor outcomes persisted into young adulthood. Based on prior findings, we hypothesized that the Excess and Deficient offspring would "catch-up" to the Control offspring by young adulthood. Female Wistar rats received one of the three diet conditions from day 1 of pregnancy through lactation. The three diets were the Control omega-3 FA condition (omega-3/omega-6 ratio approximately 0.14), the Excess omega-3 FA condition (omega-3/omega-6 ratio approximately 14.0) and Deficient omega-3 FA condition (omega-3/omega-6 ratio approximately 0% ratio). The Control diet contained 7% soybean oil; whereas the Deficient and Excess omega-3 FA diets contained 7% safflower oil and 7% fish oil, respectively. One male and female offspring per litter were ABR-tested as young adults using tone pip stimuli of 2, 4, 8 and 16 kHz. The postnatal growth retardation and prolonged neural transmission times in the Excess and Deficient pups had dissipated by young adulthood. In contrast, the Excess group had elevated ABR thresholds (hearing loss) at all tone pip frequencies in comparison to the Control and Deficient groups. The Deficient group had worse ABR thresholds than the
Coll, Cynthia Garcia, Ed.; Surrey, Janet L., Ed.; Weingarten, Kathy, Ed.
Based on the view that increasing numbers of mothers who do not fit a narrow traditional image are often maligned, misunderstood, or ignored, this book presents the stories of a diverse group of mothers whose life circumstances place them outside the mainstream. Chapters explore the lives of mothers of exceptional children and biracial children;…
Bramswig, Nuria C; Ockeloen, C W; Czeschik, J C; van Essen, A J; Pfundt, R; Smeitink, J; Poll-The, B T; Engels, H; Strom, T M; Wieczorek, D; Kleefstra, T; Lüdecke, H-J
KCNH1 mutations have recently been described in six individuals with Temple-Baraitser syndrome (TMBTS) and six individuals with Zimmermann-Laband syndrome (ZLS). TMBTS is characterized by intellectual disability (ID), epilepsy, dysmorphic facial features, broad thumbs and great toes with absent/hypoplastic nails. ZLS is characterized by facial dysmorphism including coarsening of the face and a large nose, gingival enlargement, ID, hypoplasia of terminal phalanges and nails and hypertrichosis. In this study, we present four additional unrelated individuals with de novo KCNH1 mutations from ID cohorts. We report on a novel recurrent pathogenic KCNH1 variant in three individuals and add a fourth individual with a previously TMBTS-associated KCNH1 variant. Neither TMBTS nor ZLS was suspected clinically. KCNH1 encodes a voltage-gated potassium channel, which is not only highly expressed in the central nervous system, but also seems to play an important role during development. Clinical evaluation of our mutation-positive individuals revealed that one of the main characteristics of TMBTS/ZLS, namely the pronounced nail hypoplasia of the great toes and thumbs, can be mild and develop over time. Clinical comparison of all published KCNH1 mutation-positive individuals revealed a similar facial but variable limb phenotype. KCNH1 mutation-positive individuals present with severe ID, neonatal hypotonia, hypertelorism, broad nasal tip, wide mouth, nail a/hypoplasia, a proximal implanted and long thumb and long great toes. In summary, we show that the phenotypic variability of individuals with KCNH1 mutations is more pronounced than previously expected, and we discuss whether KCNH1 mutations allow for "lumping" or for "splitting" of TMBTS and ZLS. PMID:26264464
Eiduson, Bernice T.
Fifty Caucasian, never-married single mothers aged 18-30, who had opted to keep their babies, were studied longitudinally from the last trimester of pregnancy through the first three years of their children's lives in order to learn the extent to which they had reinterpreted traditional roles and responsibilities and had restructured their lives.…
Examines advice on infant nutrition given to mothers by health professionals since the 1940s and looks at ways that mathematics has been used to position women and health professionals and influence their behavior. Argues that a particular kind of mathematics and an authoritarian, transmission mode of learning are used by health…
Kaminer, Ruth K.; Cohen, Herbert J.
The paper examines whether a relationship exists between intellectual limitation on the mother's part and unfavorable outcomes for her children. The scope of the problem is examined and the difficulties inherent in estimating prevalence are noted. The issue of child neglect, rather than abuse is shown to be a major problem among institutionalized…
Sylvia Barnard, a classics professor at State University of New York at Albany, discusses growing up on a dairy farm in western Massachusetts; the influence of her mother's college education at Mount Holyoke; her own educational experiences, including those at Yale University where she obtained her doctorate; and her relationship with her…
Kelly, Marguerite; Parsons, Elia
This book is a compilation of practical suggestions for mothers on caring for children from birth through age 6. Everyday problems are discussed in an easy-to-read anecdotal style. The first section of the book deals with family life, including discussions of birth, breast feeding, basic child care (e.g., how to diaper a squirming baby),…
Describes Trees for Mother Earth, a program in which secondary students raise funds to buy fruit trees to plant during visits to the Navajo Reservation. Benefits include developing feelings of self-worth among participants, promoting cultural exchange and understanding, and encouraging self-sufficiency among the Navajo. (LP)
Mathers, Sherry; And Others
Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…
Killinger, Mimi; Binder-Hathaway, Rachel; Mitchell, Paige; Patrick, Emily
This article describes the experiences of four honors mothers as they offer sage advice. They argue convincingly that they are motivated, focused students who bring rich diversity to college programs. They further report disturbing marginalization and isolation that could be ameliorated with support and increased sensitivity on the part of…
Exploring the stresses and dangers substitute mothering may pose to a toddler's personality development, this paper points out behavioral hallmarks of toddlerhood, describes the main developmental tasks toddlers have to master, and discusses factors that facilitate healthy development during this phase. Special emphasis is given to the most…
This journal issue presents an overview of mother-child interaction during the first year of the child's life. Contents of the first section, which concern the development of the mother-child relationship, focus on the concept of the maternal instinct, mother and child during intrauterine life, birth of the child, the postnatal period (including…
Maternal fatty acid intake and fetal growth: evidence for an association in overweight women. The 'EDEN mother-child' cohort (study of pre- and early postnatal determinants of the child's development and health)
Drouillet, Peggy; Forhan, Anne; De Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Thiébaugeorges, Olivier; Goua, Valérie; Magnin, Guillaume; Schweitzer, Michel; Kaminski, Monique; Ducimetière, Pierre; Charles, Marie-Aline
Background Recent studies suggest a benefit of seafood and n-3 Fatty Acids (FA) intake on fetal growth and infant development. Objectives To study the association between FA intake and fetal growth in French pregnant women. Design Pregnant women included in the EDEN mother-child cohort study answered food frequency questionnaires on their usual diet 1) in the year prior to pregnancy and 2) during the last three months of pregnancy (n=1439). Conversion into nutrient intakes was performed using data on portion size and a French food composition table. Associations between maternal FA intakes and several neonatal anthropometric measurements were studied using linear regressions adjusted for center, mother’s age, smoking habits, height, parity, gestational age and newborn’s sex. Due to significant interaction, analyses were stratified according to maternal pre-pregnancy overweight status. Results Neither total lipid nor saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated (PUFA) fat intake were significantly associated with newborn size. In overweight women only (n=366), a high pre-pregnancy n-3FA intake (% n-3FA/PUFA) was positively associated with newborn’s birthweight (p=0.01), head, arm and wrist circumferences and sum of skinfolds (p<0.04). A substitution of one percent of n-3FA per day before pregnancy by other PUFA was related to an average decrease in birthweight of 60 g (p=0.01). Relationships with n-3FA intake at the end of pregnancy were weaker and not significant. Conclusions A high pre-pregnancy ratio n-3FA/PUFA may sustain fetal growth in overweight women. Follow-up of the children may help determine whether this has beneficial consequences for the child’s health and development. PMID:18631416
Caneva, G.; Bartoli, F.; Savo, V.; Futagami, Y.; Strona, G.
Biodeterioration is a major problem for the conservation of cultural heritage materials. We provide a new and original approach to analyzing changes in patterns of colonization (Biodeterioration patterns, BPs) by biological agents responsible for the deterioration of outdoor stone materials. Here we analyzed BPs of four Khmer temples in Angkor (Cambodia) exposed to variable environmental conditions, using qualitative ecological assessments and statistical approaches. The statistical analyses supported the findings obtained with the qualitative approach. Both approaches provided additional information not otherwise available using one single method. Our results indicate that studies on biodeterioration can benefit from integrating diverse methods so that conservation efforts might become more precise and effective. PMID:27597658
Caneva, G; Bartoli, F; Savo, V; Futagami, Y; Strona, G
Biodeterioration is a major problem for the conservation of cultural heritage materials. We provide a new and original approach to analyzing changes in patterns of colonization (Biodeterioration patterns, BPs) by biological agents responsible for the deterioration of outdoor stone materials. Here we analyzed BPs of four Khmer temples in Angkor (Cambodia) exposed to variable environmental conditions, using qualitative ecological assessments and statistical approaches. The statistical analyses supported the findings obtained with the qualitative approach. Both approaches provided additional information not otherwise available using one single method. Our results indicate that studies on biodeterioration can benefit from integrating diverse methods so that conservation efforts might become more precise and effective. PMID:27597658
Lo Brutto, M.; Spera, M. G.
The Temple of Olympian Zeus in Agrigento (Italy) was one of the largest temple and at the same time one of the most original of all the Greek architecture. We don't know exactly how it was because the temple is now almost completely destroyed but it is very well-known for the presence of the Telamons. The Telamons were giant statues (about 8 meters high) probably located outside the temple to fill the interval between the columns. In accordance with the theory most accredited by archaeologists the Telamons were a decorative element and also a support for the structure. However, this hypothesis has never been scientifically proven. One Telamon has been reassembled and is shown at the Archaeological Museum of Agrigento. In 2009 a group of researchers at the University of Palermo has begun a study to test the hypothesis that the Telamons support the weight of the upper part of the temple. The study consists of a 3D survey of the Telamon, to reconstruct a detailed 3D digital model, and of a structural analysis with the Finite Element Method (FEM) to test the possibility that the Telamon could to support the weight of the upper portion of the temple. In this work the authors describe the 3D survey of Telamon carry out with Range-Based Modelling (RBM) and Image-Based Modeling (IBM). The RBM was performed with a TOF laser scanner while the IBM with the ZScan system of Menci Software and Image Master of Topcon. Several tests were conducted to analyze the accuracy of the different 3D models and to evaluate the difference between laser scanning and photogrammetric data. Moreover, an appropriate data reduction to generate a 3D model suitable for FEM analysis was tested.
East, P L; Matthews, K L; Felice, M E
This study examined the interrelations among adolescent mothers' parenting attitudes, parenting confidence, and parenting stress and the potential differences in these dimensions by mothers' age, race, and parity, and age and sex of child. Subjects were 119 former adolescent mothers (mean age = 20.2 years) from predominantly poor, minority backgrounds (50% Hispanic, 27% African American, 17% non-Hispanic White). All subjects completed questionnaires about their parenting qualities twice an average of 10 weeks apart. All children were at least 1 year of age (mean age = 37.2 months; range 12-50 months). Subjects' parenting attitudes were assessed by the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory, a 32-item questionnaire. The Maternal Self-Report inventory was used to assess the mothers' self-esteem or their confidence in the mothering role. To assess the stress experienced with parenting, the Parenting Daily Hassles scale was used. Results indicated that for some mothers there exists a triple jeopardy of low parenting confidence, high parenting stress, and inappropriate parenting values. Mothers who reported feeling high parenting stress had low confidence in themselves as mothers, low empathy to their children's needs, and low acceptance of their children. Mothers who were older at the time of the study placed greater value on physical punishment and had less confidence in their caretaking abilities. Young maternal age at delivery and young maternal age at the time of this study were associated with low child acceptance. Non-Hispanic White mothers had significantly more favorable parenting values (greater empathy to child's needs and less value of physical punishment) than did African-American and Hispanic mothers, and African-American mothers reported significantly greater caretaking confidence than did Hispanic mothers. No parity or sex of child effects were found. These results suggest the presence of meaningful patterns of convergence and within-group variation for
Ozer, Erdal; Nacar, Mehmet Can; Yildirim, Ali; Enginyurt, Ozgur; Din, Hasan; Evcuman, Durmus
Background All individuals under the age of 18 are considered as children by the Convention on the Rights of Children. Underage mothers are a pediatric-age group of children that become pregnant and give birth. It may be unfamiliar in Western countries, but in Middle-Eastern countries ruled by religious laws and old-fashioned traditions, it is common for an older man to marry a girl. The aim of this study was to describe the status of underage mothers within the framework of children’s rights and to draw attention to this issue. We presented this study to increase awareness and sensitivity, and to scrutinize and discuss these topics. Material/Methods We retrospectively investigated cases of underaged pregnant girls who applied to Forensic Science Department outpatient clinics and Obstetrics and Gynecology Department outpatient clinics of Gaziosmanpasa University Faculty of Medicine between 2003 and 2013. Results We accessed records of 163 underage mothers (≤18 age). Mean age was 16.9±0.83 (14–18 years). Gravida and parity rates increased proportionately with increasing age. Most of our cases were 16 and 17 years of age (n: 117, 71.8%). Conclusions Underage motherhood is not only a medical issue; it is a multi-dimensional problem with social, economic, traditional, religious, and legal aspects. PMID:24714663
Lan, Wensheng; Li, Hui; Wang, Wei-Dong; Katayama, Yoko
The temples of Angkor monuments including Angkor Thom and Bayon in Cambodia and surrounding countries were exclusively constructed using sandstone. They are severely threatened by biodeterioration caused by active growth of different microorganisms on the sandstone surfaces, but knowledge on the microbial community and composition of the biofilms on the sandstone is not available from this region. This study investigated the microbial community diversity by examining the fresh and old biofilms of the biodeteriorated bas-relief wall surfaces of the Bayon Temple by analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences. The results showed that the retrieved sequences were clustered in 11 bacterial, 11 eukaryotic and two archaeal divisions with disparate communities (Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria; Alveolata, Fungi, Metazoa, Viridiplantae; Crenarchaeote, and Euyarchaeota). A comparison of the microbial communities between the fresh and old biofilms revealed that the bacterial community of old biofilm was very similar to the newly formed fresh biofilm in terms of bacterial composition, but the eukaryotic communities were distinctly different between these two. This information has important implications for understanding the formation process and development of the microbial diversity on the sandstone surfaces, and furthermore to the relationship between the extent of biodeterioration and succession of microbial communities on sandstone in tropic region. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00248-010-9707-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20593173
Briggs, Tracy A; Lokulo-Sodipe, Kemi; Chandler, Kate E; Mackay, Deborah J G; Temple, I Karen
We present a Caucasian female, who was diagnosed at 13 years of age with Temple syndrome (formerly referred to as "maternal UPD 14 phenotype") due to an epigenetic loss of methylation at IG-DMR/MEG3-DMR at the chromosome 14q32 imprinted locus. Clinical features were typical and included intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR), low birth weight, hypotonia, and poor feeding in the neonatal period; and failure to thrive and developmental delay--particularly in relation to speech--in early childhood. Premature puberty, with short stature and truncal obesity, but normal intelligence, were the key features in teenage years. To date only eight patients with Temple syndrome due to an epigenetic error have been described and the etiology of the methylation defect is currently undetermined. In view of a tendency towards central obesity, patients are at potential risk of early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as cardiovascular disease and they, therefore, require appropriate monitoring. PMID:26395259
Stewart, Joseph William; Goetz, Carole L.; Mills, L.R.
Ground water occurs in two aquifers in the Temple Terrace area of Hillsborough County, Fla. The lower one is the artesian Floridan aquifer; the upper is the water-table aquifer. The Floridan aquifer is a thick sequence of limestone and dolomite layers which include several permeable zones that generally are treated as a single hydrologic unit. The top of the Tampa Limestone is considered to be the top of the Floridan in the Temple Terrace area. The public supply wells of the city tap the Tampa Limestone and the underlying Suwannee Limestone, in the upper part of the Floridan. The general direction of ground-water movement in the Floridan aquifer is from north to south, but within the city the direction of movement is from northeast to southwest. The quantity of water moving southwest through a 1.8 mile section of the aquifer is about 2.7 million gallons per day. Ample supplies of water in a cavernous limestone, considered to be the most productive water-yielding zone in the aquifer, are available for additional development from the Floridan aquifer. Water-quality data are included also. (Woodard-USGS)
Camacho, H.; Sample, J.C. )
The Temple Avenue fault is a north-trending east-dipping normal fault that dissects the north flank of the Wilmington anticline in the Wilmington Oil field. The fault involves sediments of the Repetto Formation (lower Pliocene) and the Puente Formation (upper Miocene). Oil/water contact structural maps indicate that the fault acts as a permeability barrier. Well B-756-I was drilled across the Temple Ave. fault in the Repetto Formation. The throw of the fault in this well ranges from 15 to 17 meters (50 to 56 feet). The Repetto Formation is composed of interbeded sands and shales. Sixty five samples were collected from and around the fault zone. Preliminary XRD analysis of bulk and clay fractions show that authigenic clay minerals (<2 [mu]m) represent between 1 to 2% of the sediments. Clay minerals are mostly smectite (5-7%) and a Fe-illite (15-30%); chlorite and kaolinite are also present. The authigenic illite content appears to increase around the fault zone. Diagenetic conversion of Ca-rich feldspars to smectite is suggested by an inverse correlation of their abundances. Calcite is present in the majority of the samples (4-8%), but a significant increase in the carbonate content (14-16%) occurs along the fault. Ongoing SEM and isotope analysis will aid in the determination of the origin and nature of the changes in the mineralogy that contribute to form a permeability barrier.
This longitudinal, interpretive study explored how teen mothers experienced the self and future during a 12-year period. Sixteen families were first interviewed intensively in 1988-1989 once the teen's infant reached age 8 to 10 months; they were reinterviewed in 1993, 1997, and 2001 (Time 4). Twenty-seven family members were reinterviewed at Time 4. The metaphor of a narrative spine is used to describe how the mothers'lives unfolded during the 12-year period. The narrative spines of some mothers were large and supported well-developed, coherent "chapters" on mothering, adult love, and work. For others, mothering provided a "backbone" for a meaningful life; however, chapters on adult love and work were less fully developed. The lives of a third group of mothers lacked a coherent narrative structure. Each pattern is presented with a paradigm case. PMID:16275703
Monzo, Lilia D.
This paper examines how Latina mothers experience violence in schools through everyday interactions with those positioned with greater power in our society. Drawing on Bourdieu's concept of symbolic violence, the article discusses how deficit perspectives held toward Latina mothers and the privileging of White, middle-class frames result in…
Silitsky, Cindy; Jones, Sande Gracia
Parents are an important component of HIV prevention efforts for adolescents. The purpose of this study was to work with a community-based organization, Mothers' Voices South Florida, to evaluate the effectiveness of their educational program that teaches mothers how to talk to their children about HIV and safer sexual practices. Questionnaires…
Cardinale, T.; Valva, R.; Lucarelli, M.
The Summer School of Surveying and 3D modelling in Paestum was an opportunity to explore the use of innovative tools and advanced techniques in the design, implementation and management of surveys of historic and artistic complexes. In general such methods are used specifically for the development and management of vulnerability maps of existing heritage and so for the preventive conservation and valorisation of the built environment. The accurate detection of risk situations and the systematic promotion of highly selected and minimally invasive maintenance practices means that restoration and the efficiency of cycles of intervention can be optimized, with clear benefits from economic and cultural points of view. The group worked on the survey and 3D modelling of the Temple of Neptune, the Sphinx and the Metope of the Archaeological Park in Paestum.
El-Shishtawy, A M; Atwia, M G; El-Gohary, A; Parizek, R R
Hierakonpolis, Greek for City of the Hawk, nearly 25 km NW of Idfu (Egypt), is an important and extensive archaeological discovery covering a large area. Its richness in archaeological artifacts makes it a valuable site. It has a valid claim to be the first nation state, as indicated by the Palette of Narmer discovered in its main mound. Geological and hydrogeological investigations at the Hierakonpolis Temple Town site documented nearly a 4.0-m water table rise from as early as 1892 to the present. In addition to the rising water levels, the increase of both subsoil water salinity and humidity threatens and damages fragile carvings and paintings within tombs in Kingdom Hill, the foundation stability of the site, and the known and still to be discovered artifact that recent pottery finds dates at least 4,000 BCE. Representative rock and soil samples obtained from drilled cores in the study area were chosen for conducting detailed grain size and X-ray analysis, light and heavy mineral occurrences, distribution of moisture and total organic matter, and scanning electron microscopy investigations. Mineralogical analysis of clays indicated that the soil samples are composed of smectite/illite mixed layers with varying proportions of smectite to illite. Kaolinite is the second dominant clay constituent, besides occasional chlorite. Swelling of the clay portion of the soil, due to the presence of capillary groundwater, in contact with buried mudbrick walls expands and causes severe damage to important exposed and buried mudbrick structures, including the massive ancient "fort" believed to date from the Second Dynasty (from 2,890 to 2,686 BC). The "fort" is 1.0 km south of the Temple Town mounds near to confluence of Wadi Abu Sufian. Groundwater samples from the shallow aquifer close by the intersection of Wadi Abu Sufian and the Nile flood plain were analyzed for chemical composition and stable isotope ratios. The groundwater in the upper zone (subsoil water) within fine
Chauliac, M; Masse-raimbault, A M
This document dealing with women's lives and the health of mothers identifies factors conditioning the health and nutritional status of women and girls (life expectancy at birth, maternal mortality rate, and the birthrate); considers nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women, weight gain during preganncy, mothers' age and number of children and interbirth interval, maternal nutritional status and breastfeeding, anemia, work and women's health, pregnancy in adolescents, abortion, the growth of small girls and its effect on future pregnancies, and sexual mutilations; and reports on actions aimed at improving the health of women as well as health problems facing rural women. The 3 key concepts of this reflection on women's lives are: women's health should be taken into account as well as children's health; the development of the whole human being should be respected, implying ongoing surveillance of the health status of women and of their children; and the overall living conditions of women within the family and society must be analyzed at the different phases of their life, so as to encourage integrated actions rather than various uncoordinated efforts. Women's health status, like the health status of everyone, depends on a multitude of socioeconomic and sanitational factors. A figure illustrates several of the many interrelations between the various factors which influence the nutritional status of all individuals. Women of childbearing age are at greater risk than other population groups, due to their reproductive function and their ability to nurse children: pregnancy, like lactation, generates metabolic changes and increases nutritional needs. Delivery itself presents a series of risks for the woman's health, and only regular surveillance of pregnancy may prevent many of these. A woman's health status and, most of all her nutritional status during pregnancy and delivery, condition her future health and ability to assume her many tasks as well as
This article is concerned with exploring the impact of stigma upon teenage mothers. Drawing upon the findings of in-depth interviews with 20 teenage mothers, the study explores the ways and contexts within which stigma is experienced and identifies differential effects and coping mechanisms reported by the participants. Thereafter, it is suggested…
Oberlander, Sarah E.; Shebl, Fatma M.; Magder, Laurence S.; Black, Maureen M.
This study examined how the developmental processes of autonomy and relatedness are related to changes in the residential status of 181 first-time, adolescent, urban, low-income, African American mothers over the first 24 months postpartum. Although adolescent mothers were eager to live independently, few made a clear transition out of the…
Kalmar, Magda; And Others
This study examined Hungarian mothers' recollections, 8 years after the birth of their premature baby, of their stress at the time of the baby's birth. Interviews were conducted with 30 mothers whose babies had been born between 30 and 37 weeks gestational age. At the time of the follow-up, all children had normal IQs and were attending normal…
D'Arcy, Catherine; Turner, Colleen; Crockett, Belinda; Gridley, Heather
This article is a reflective narrative bringing together personal, collective, and action learning reflections from three women: all mothers, feminists, and community psychology practitioners. Its focus on mothering highlights the interconnectedness and tensions across these roles, as well as the shared learnings arising from this collaboration.…
Belmonte, J. A.; Gaspar, A. T.; Betancort, A. P.; Marrero, R.
Since the late 1990s, our research group has embarked on a systematic archaeoastronomical study of archaeological sites in the Maghreb. Earlier campaigns were devoted to Tunisia, Morocco and Libya (see e.g. Belmonte et. Al.1998, 1999 and 2002). In this short report we will present part of the data obtained in a field campaign carried out in winter 2002, analyzing the results yielded on early 50 ancient sacred structures (temples, churches, earlier mosques and mausoleums) of an extended area in Northern Tunisia (ancient Africa Proconsularis). These data were not discussed in previous reports on similar structures (e.g. Esteban at.al.2001) , although in a previous paper (Belmonte et.al.2003) we reported our results on the contemporary measured megalithic monuments. This paper will present the data of more than 30 temples and mausoleums of Roman era, 10 pre-Islamic Christian churches and a few earlier mosques. These new data will be discussed together with those obtained in previous campaigns in an attempt to shed some light on the possibility of astronomical alignments within this extended set of monuments (more than a hundred). Our results show that some astronomical patterns could be interpreted as solar ones. Interestingly, this solar tendency was continued by Christian churches until the arrival of Islam. This is a common feature to the other regions of early Christianity (see e.g. Romano 1992). Other curious patterns, including the planning of important cities could presumably be associated to the brightest stars of the sky, Sirius and Canopus. Finally, we will analyse how this astronomical tendencies managed to survive within the first Islamic orienting traditions.
Mady, T M
Increasing numbers of couples have benefitted from, or may be considering use of, the surrogate mother procedure. In this procedure, a couple, usually a husband and wife, enters into a contract with a surrogate mother. Under the terms of the contract, the surrogate mother is artificially inseminated, bears a child, and relinquishes all rights regarding that child to the semen donor and his wife. In exchange for bearing a child, the surrogate mother often receives a fee. In light of such increased use of the procedure, the issue of whether or not the arrangement is legal has particular importance. Questions of legality involve possible violations of criminal baby-selling statutes. Issues of whether adoption is necessary and whether the child is legitimate also are inherent in the surrogate mother arrangement. This Note argues that these questions should be resolved in favor of finding no impediment to the use of the surrogate mother procedure, at least within certain guidelines. However, even in the absence of legal impediment, detailed contracts and thorough medical screening for genetic, physical and psychological problems would further eliminate ambiguities regarding liability. In addition, the Note concludes that legislation should be enacted to deal with the legal ambiguities of the surrogate mother arrangement. This legislation should regulate the parties that enter into such an arrangement and the rights and responsibilities of these parties. PMID:7332012
Demircioglu, Haktan; Ömeroglu, Esra
The effect of training from trained mothers and education from mother to mother on family functions and child-rearing attitudes was examined. The study was conducted in the 2010-2011 academic year in Ankara, and was modeled based on a pre-test, post-test control group experimental pattern. The study was conducted with a total of 96 mothers, with…
Karger, Rex H.
A measure of mother-infant synchrony was developed and used to compare the interactions of mothers with pre-term and mothers with full-term infants. Each mother-infant dyad was observed during a standard bottle feeding session on three separate occasions: once prior to discharge and at one and three months after discharge. (JMB)
Using 619 mother-daughter dyads interviewed in the 1997 National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Women and Young Women, this study examines the assistance that adult daughters provide to their mothers and its covariates. Mothers and daughters have low levels of agreement on transfers. Using mothers' reports identifies different covariates of…
Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Feijo, Larissa
Interviewed depressed and non-depressed mothers on their breastfeeding practices and perceptions of their infants' feeding behavior. Found that, compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers breast fed less often, stopped breastfeeding earlier, and scored lower on a breastfeeding confidence scale. Mothers who breastfed rather than bottle…
Maddux, Hilary; Cobb, Nina
Noting that the well-being of children and that of mothers cannot be separated, this report uses the Mothers' Index to compare the well-being of mothers and children in 17 developed countries and 77 developing countries. The Mothers' Index is a composite of elements contributing to a woman's well-being, including health status, educational status,…
Watanabe, Makiko; Koizumi, Natsuko; Kato, Sayuri; Kikuchi, Ryohei; Kamei, Hiroyuki
Desertification in North Africa has rapidly advanced over the last 6,000 years. Such environmental changes began in the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt (4200 - 3150 BC), and the occupation of Achaemenid Persian and Roman cultures in Egypt occurred under even drier climates. Kharga is the largest oasis of the five oases, located in the western desert of Egypt that contains a treasure trove of archaeological resources. This oasis has been highlighted to promote resource exploration and development of archaeological tourism since the 1980's. The El-Zayyan temple is located 27 km south of the central Kharga oasis. Zayyan was once called 'Tchonemyris', which has connection with the means of 'huge well' in Greek. Although major portions of the temple were rebuilt in 140 AD during the rule of the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, this temple is considered to be originally built in the Ptolemaic period (4c-1c BC). It is likely that the area had a sufficient water supply in the past as the El-Zayyan temple stands at the lowest point (-18 m a.s.l.) in the Kharga oasis. Furthermore, the El-Ghueita temple that stands on a hill top at 68.5 m a.s.l., 4 km northward from the El-Zayyan temple, has given name that means 'beautiful garden' in Greek. From these facts, we can imagine that the past landscape of this area contained green surroundings. The El-Ghueita temple was well known as a production centre of high quality wine since the mid-Dynastic age (2050 -1786 BC). As this area is currently arid, it is expected that there were irrigation facilities to maintain the vast farm land during the ancient period. To deepen our knowledge of how people developed their technologies and conducted their life within the natural environment of a drastic drying period, understanding the process of environmental change on a region scale is necessary. The aim of this study was to extract proxies from sand deposits in the western desert area to estimate the change in the environment. We examined the
Alexander, S. S.; Walters, E.; Cakir, R.
A number of shallow seismic profiles were run within the walled 200x300m perimeter of the ancient Hierakonpolis Temple-Town site in Upper Egypt as part of an interdisciplinary investigation of the progressive rise in the water table caused by nearby irrigation practices. Each of these lines provided a profile of water table depth that is accurate to within approximately 10-15 cm when compared to point measurements on a piezometer array. Water table depths currently range from approximately 0.6m to 1.5m mainly because of buried structures and there is a seasonal variation modulating a steady shallowing trend. Prominent continuous high-velocity, high-frequency (200-300Hz)signals from very shallow depths above the water table were observed along some of these profiles and additional crossing lines were run to map these anomalies; this high-velocity layer is imbedded in the upper layer of unconsolidated, air-filled sediments that have extremely low velocities and very low Q. Subsequent shallow excavations (2001, 2005-2010) at several locations on the site have revealed that the cause of this shallow high-velocity layer is the presence of a zone of closely spaced artifacts (dense in potsherds and stone fragments) above the water table that reveal new, previously-unknown evidence of occupation in the ancient town as early as Dynasty I, c. 3200 BCE. In the northwest excavation an 'in situ' deposit of special pottery lies next to a bench, a large block of dressed limestone. Further to the north, layered occupation suggests a secular context with pottery of Dynasty II, 2900 BCE and a new early date, terminus ante quem, for the accompanying figurines, thus far exclusive to two temple sites in southern Egypt. Of key significance is the discovery of the first reported ebony artifacts (leg of a statue and eyes) found in the region, and rare anywhere in Egypt. To date only a fraction of these anomalous areas have been excavated, so important additional new archaeological finds
Kusumi, Asako; Li, Xianshu; Osuga, Yu; Kawashima, Arata; Gu, Ji-Dong; Nasu, Masao; Katayama, Yoko
The Bayon temple in Angkor Thom, Cambodia has shown serious deterioration and is subject to the formation of various pigmented biofilms. Because biofilms are damaging the bas-reliefs, low reliefs engraved on the surface of sandstone, information about the microbial community within them is indispensable to control biofilm colonization. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of biofilm samples from the pigmented sandstone surfaces showed that the bacterial community members in the biofilms differed clearly from those in the air and had low sequence similarity to database sequences. Non-destructive sampling of biofilm revealed novel bacterial groups of predominantly Rubrobacter in salmon pink biofilm, Cyanobacteria in chrome green biofilm, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in signal violet biofilm, Chloroflexi in black gray biofilm, and Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Rubrobacter in blue green biofilm. Serial peeling-off of a thick biofilm by layers with adhesive sheets revealed a stratified structure: the blue-green biofilm, around which there was serious deterioration, was very rich in Cyanobacteria near the surface and Chloroflexi in deep layer below. Nitrate ion concentrations were high in the blue-green biofilm. The characteristic distribution of bacteria at different biofilm depths provides valuable information on not only the biofilm formation process but also the sandstone weathering process in the tropics. PMID:24334526
Kusumi, Asako; Li, Xianshu; Osuga, Yu; Kawashima, Arata; Gu, Ji-Dong; Nasu, Masao; Katayama, Yoko
The Bayon temple in Angkor Thom, Cambodia has shown serious deterioration and is subject to the formation of various pigmented biofilms. Because biofilms are damaging the bas-reliefs, low reliefs engraved on the surface of sandstone, information about the microbial community within them is indispensable to control biofilm colonization. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of biofilm samples from the pigmented sandstone surfaces showed that the bacterial community members in the biofilms differed clearly from those in the air and had low sequence similarity to database sequences. Non-destructive sampling of biofilm revealed novel bacterial groups of predominantly Rubrobacter in salmon pink biofilm, Cyanobacteria in chrome green biofilm, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in signal violet biofilm, Chloroflexi in black gray biofilm, and Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Rubrobacter in blue green biofilm. Serial peeling-off of a thick biofilm by layers with adhesive sheets revealed a stratified structure: the blue–green biofilm, around which there was serious deterioration, was very rich in Cyanobacteria near the surface and Chloroflexi in deep layer below. Nitrate ion concentrations were high in the blue–green biofilm. The characteristic distribution of bacteria at different biofilm depths provides valuable information on not only the biofilm formation process but also the sandstone weathering process in the tropics. PMID:24334526
The arrangement of the five central figures of the east pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia has been the subject of scholarly debates since the discovery of the fragments more than a century ago. In theory, there are four substantially different arrangements, all of which have already been selected by certain scholars for various aesthetic, technical and other considerations. The present project tries to approach this controversy in a new way, by producing a virtual 3D reconstruction of the group. Digital models of the statues were produced by scanning the original fragments and by reconstructing them virtually. For this purpose an innovative new software (Leonar3Do) has also been employed. The virtual model of the pediment surrounding the sculptures was prepared on the basis of the latest architectural studies and afterwards the reconstructed models were inserted in this frame, in order to test the technical feasibility and aesthetic effects the four possible arrangements. The paper gives an overview of the entire work and presents the final results suggesting that two arrangements can be ruled out due to the limited space available in the pediment.
Undoubtedly, El-Kharga Oasis monumental sites are considered an important part of our world's cultural heritage in the South Western Desert of Egypt. These sites are scattered on the floor of the oasis representing ancient civilizations. The Roman stone monuments in Kharga represent cultural heritage of an outstanding universal value. Such those monuments have suffered weathering deterioration. There are various elements which affect the weathering process of stone monuments: climate conditions, shapes of cultural heritages, exposed time periods, terrains, and vegetation around them, etc. Among these, climate conditions are the most significant factor affecting the deterioration of Archeological sites in Egypt. El- Kharga Oasis belongs administratively to the New Valley Governorate. It is located in the southern part of the western desert of Egypt, lies between latitudes 22°30'14" and 26°00'00" N, and between 30°27'00" and 30°47'00" E. The area of El Kharga Oasis covers about 7500 square kilometers. Pilot studies were carried out on the EI-Nadura Temple, composed of sandstones originating from the great sand sea. The major objective of this study is to monitor and measure the weathering features and the weathering rate affecting the building stones forming El-Nadora Roman building rocks in cubic cm. To achieve these aims, the present study used analysis of climatic data such as annual and seasonal solar radiation, Monthly average number of hours of sunshine, maximum and minimum air temperatures, wind speed, which have obtained from actual field measurements and data Meteorological Authority of El-Kharga station for the period 1977 to 2010 (33 years), and from the period 1941-2050 (110 years) as a long term of temperature data. Several samples were collected and examined by polarizing microscopy (PLM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system (SEM-EDX). The results were in
Colpin, H; De Munter, A; Vandemeulebroecke, L
This is an exploratory study to answer two questions: (1) does in-vitro fertilization (IVF)-mothers' motivation for parenthood differ from the naturally conceiving mothers' motivation for parenthood? and (2) are IVF-mothers' parenthood motives correlated with their adjustment to parenthood (in the same way as they are for naturally conceiving mothers)? The study sample consisted of 31 mothers with a 24-30 month old, single-born child conceived by homologous IVF and a comparison group of 31 mothers with a naturally conceived child. Self-rating questionnaires were used. Overall, the parenthood motivation pattern was quite similar for IVF-mothers and mothers by natural conception. However, 'identity', 'motherhood' and 'social control' were significantly more important motives for IVF-mothers than for the naturally conceiving mothers. The two former motives remained more important for IVF-mothers when findings were adjusted for the influence of the mothers' age and educational level. Possible explanations for these findings refer to the infertility history. Overall, few correlations between parenthood motives and the adjustment to parenthood were significant, both for the IVF-mothers and for the mothers by natural conception. Further (hypothesis-testing) research is needed to support these findings. PMID:9575465
Porter, Maree; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C
Umbilical cord blood banking is one of many biomedical innovations that confront pregnant women with new choices about what they should do to secure their own and their child's best interests. Many mothers can now choose to donate their baby's umbilical cord blood (UCB) to a public cord blood bank or pay to store it in a private cord blood bank. Donation to a public bank is widely regarded as an altruistic act of civic responsibility. Paying to store UCB may be regarded as a "unique opportunity" to provide "insurance" for the child's future. This paper reports findings from a survey of Australian women that investigated the decision to either donate or store UCB. We conclude that mothers are faced with competing discourses that force them to choose between being a "good mother" and fulfilling their role as a "good citizen." We discuss this finding with reference to the concept of value pluralism. PMID:23180199
Taking present-day research into so-called new momism and intense mothering as a starting point, this article argues that the current mothering discourse, rather than articulating a new phenomenon, perpetuates a regulative discourse developed in the nineteenth century, in advice books written by medical doctors for pregnant women and new mothers. Both the Victorian and the present-day texts play on feelings of guilt and inadequacy in order to control the actions and emotions of mothers, although the threatened outcome differs: present-day mothers are warned that their children may become obese or develop neuropsychological disorders, whereas Victorian mothers are warned that their children might die. PMID:26095843
Fukumoto, M; Creed Kanashiro, H
In Lima, Peru, a study was conducted that evaluated the influences on mothers' decisions regarding breastfeeding. Local views and health professional advice was ascertained. A follow-up study of a group of pregnant women was conducted to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice in regard to the early feeding of their children. The women were interviewed in their homes before delivery, as soon as possible after delivery, and twice a week until their babies were 1 month old. The experience of the mother was the key factor, but advice from relatives, neighbors, and health professionals was also important. A lack of information about exclusive breast feeding was common. Although the women knew breast feeding was good, they were unaware that exclusive breast feeding was best. Health workers knew to advise against other milks, but failed to advise mothers against the use of herbal teas and sweetened water as supplements. The women commonly believed they were unable to produce enough milk to feed their children because of their own undernourishment. Others believed exclusive breast feeding would worsen their own health, while some experienced difficulties breast feeding. This led to supplementation with other milks; herbal teas were given to cure colic and to quench infants' thirst. Based on these findings, the project focused educational efforts on providing better information to mothers. Messages stressed the thirst quenching property of breast milk and its similar benefits to herbal tea, which should be consumed by the mother, rather than the infant. Since breast feeding practices were closely linked to mothers' beliefs about their own needs, the project emphasized the value and needs of the mother and the benefits of breast feeding for her. Educational activities, which continued for 12 months, included videos shown to small groups of mothers, posters, distribution of pamphlets, and messages broadcast over loudspeakers. A significant increase in the number of children
Bricklin, Alice G.
This book discusses aspects of natural parenthood based largely on the author's own experiences, with references to other supportive studies and expert opinions. Topics covered include emotional changes brought on by pregnancy; home type delivery; family sleeping quarters and baby-led nursing. Chapters are (1) On Becoming a Mother; (2) Conscious,…
Asserts that Mother Goose rhymes are culturally relevant. Offers ways in which Mother Goose can be used in the classroom. Discusses activities for language arts, movement, art, music, science, and mathematics instruction. (PRA)
Science News, 1977
Reports that a mother's perception of her newborn infant frequently predicts how well the child will adjust in later childhood. The more positive the mother perceives the child, the more emotionally healthy the child will later become. (SL)
Firestone, Robert W.; And Others
Understanding the core issues of a woman's relationship with her mother can be beneficial to women striving for a more fulfilling life. Both men and women suffer some degree of damage in their early relationships with one or both parents, and the relationship which appears to have the strongest influence on a woman's life is often her relationship…
Family literacy in Britain insists on a view of literacy as schooling rather than a range of social and cultural practices. Correspondence from 1890-1930 illustrates the importance of mothers making their first priority the nourishing of their own appetites for literacy. (SK)
Grady, Marilyn L.; LaCost, Barbara Y.
Writing that makes one think, writing that enriches one's understanding of the past and present, that's what Cokie Roberts' book, "We Are Our Mothers' Daughters" provides, and that, too, is what the authors of this issue of the "Journal of Women in Educational Leadership" provide. Roberts' background as a news analyst covering politics, Congress…
Schneiderman, J U
Growing numbers of Korean-Americans require US health care workers to become knowledgeable of and sensitive to the cultural beliefs and customs of Korean patients. To further such understanding, health behaviors related to infant care and family involvement in the postpartum period were observed in a Los Angeles, California, hospital located in a Korean community. Notable in unassimilated Korean families were the power of the mother-in-law to assume control of decisions regarding infant care and the tendency of new mothers to defer to their mothers-in-law rather than ask nurses for advice. There is a cultural perception that the new mother is sick and unable to handle her infant. Other practices identified include a special diet of seaweed soup, avoidance of cold (including the rejection of ice packs against pain), resistance to breast feeding, preference for a male child, and modesty in the presence of men. In some cases, clinical considerations conflicted with cultural traditions. Respectful teaching, in nonverbal ways if there is a language barrier, and modeling of infant care techniques are recommended. Disregard for childbirth-associated cultural traditions on the part of medical staff can only increase the stress for the infant and family. PMID:8857400
Wolf-Wendel, Lisa; Ward, Kelly
In this article we explore the role of academic discipline on the careers of tenure-line faculty women with children. Longitudinal, qualitative findings show that disciplinary contexts and ideal worker norms shape what it means to be an academic and a mother. Even after achieving tenure, ideal worker norms affect these roles; professional…
Discusses possible ways of providing continuity of care for young children of working mothers, including industry - sponsored day nurseries, cooperative nursery schools, communal clusters where working and nonworking women share household tasks and child care, and expanded neighborhood day care. (MG)
Scarr, Sandra; And Others
Reviews studies of the effects of maternal employment on marital relations, child development, and the mothers themselves. Concludes that employment is not the major issue in either marital relations or child development, but family circumstances, attitudes and expectations of both parents, and the distribution of available time have important…
Koplik, Elissa K.; Fisher, Celia B.
Exploring possible similarities and differences between mothers who work outside the home and mothers who do not, this study provides a preliminary investigation of maternal reactions to mother-child separation when children have reached school age. A total of 41 women working outside the home and 48 mothers staying at home responded to a…
de Paul, Joaquin; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia; Guibert, Maria; Asla, Nagore; Ormaechea, Amaia
This study investigates whether mothers who are neglectful and at high risk for child physical abuse present a deficit in empathy. Participants were neglectful mothers (n = 37), mothers at high risk for child physical abuse (n = 22), and nonmaltreating mothers (n = 37). The Interpersonal Reactivity Index, a self-report measure assessing specific…
This report provides a comprehensive look at the challenges facing mothers and children during and after armed conflict. The examination is divided into the sections "Mothers in War,""Mothers Rebuilding," and "Call to Action." Key findings include the following: (1) the nature of war has changed dramatically in recent decades, putting mothers and…
Broth, Michelle Robbins; Goodman, Sherryl H.; Hall, Christine; Raynor, Lynne Catherine
The inadequate parenting associated with mothers' depression may be related to mothers' problems in interpreting infants' emotional expressions. The relations between depressed and well mothers' accuracy at interpreting babies' facial expressions and the quality of the mothers' interactions with their infants were examined. In partial support of…
Olds, Sally Wendkos
Issues confronting the working mother are explored, including child care, career counseling, family relationships, the one-parent family, and the troubled child. Readers are told that there are almost no constant differences found between the children of employed and nonemployed mothers. Children develop best when the mother herself is satisfied…
Eshbaugh, Elaine M.
Although teen pregnancy and parenthood are more visible in society than in the past, teen mothers are often stereotyped and stigmatized. The study examined positivity toward teen mothers among college students (N = 316) at a midwestern university. Although students responded positively to some items regarding teen mothers, other statements showed…
Dougherty, Sharon Ann
In view of the increasing number of single women who adopt children, the social work profession has an obligation to learn more about this group of mothers. This article is based on a research study to identify characteristics of single adoptive mothers and their children and to learn what community supports the mothers believe would be helpful.…
Turney, Howard M.; Conway, Pat; Plummer, Pam; Adkins, Samuel E.; Hudson, George Cliff; McLeod, David A.; Zafaroni, Aileen
This study examined the relationship between young mothers' individual characteristics (demographics and self-efficacy), social support, and behavioral intentions regarding education and child bearing. Using a home visiting model, the program recruited 141 teen mothers to participate. Young mothers completed an initial assessment, measuring…
Phares, Vicky; Fields, Sherecce; Kamboukos, Dimitra
We explored mothers' and fathers' time spent with their adolescents and found that mothers reported spending more time with their adolescents than did fathers. Developmental patterns were found for some aspects of time involvement, with both mothers and fathers reporting higher involvement with younger adolescents. Ratings of time-spent were not…
Kreklewetz, Christine M.; Piotrowski, Caroline C.
A study involving 16 incest-survivor mothers with daughters between the ages of 9-14 found the mothers described themselves as very protective and often overly-protective parents, wanting to parent differently, and better, than they were parented. Many survivors strive to be the "perfect mother" including over-protecting and over-nurturing…
Pickens, Jeffrey; Field, Tiffany
Facial expressions were examined in 84 3-month-old infants of mothers classified as depressed, nondepressed, or low scoring on the Beck Depression Inventory. Infants of both depressed and low-scoring mothers showed significantly more sadness and anger expressions and fewer interest expressions than infants of nondepressed mothers. (Author/MDM)
Slaughter, Diana T.; And Others
This document on mother-infant interaction reports differences found between mothers in a parent education program and a control group. The parent education program provided two different informal methods of stimulating mothers' awareness of their influence on their children's learning and development. Both programs stressed maternal responsivity…
.... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-11749 Filed 5-10-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8671 of May 6, 2011 Mother's Day, 2011 By the President of the United States... constant as ever. On Mother's Day, we celebrate the extraordinary importance of mothers in our lives....
Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka
The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…
Fernandez, Roy C.; O'Connor, Carol
This report discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated the decision-making process of two mothers' selection of treatment for their sons' attention deficit disorder (ADD). One mother opted for a medical treatment, and the other mother opted for a non-medical treatment. The boy who is medically treated is 14, and the non-medically treated…
Wahbeh, W.; Nebiker, S.; Fangi, G.
This paper exploits the potential of dense multi-image 3d reconstruction of destroyed cultural heritage monuments by either using public domain touristic imagery only or by combining the public domain imagery with professional panoramic imagery. The focus of our work is placed on the reconstruction of the temple of Bel, one of the Syrian heritage monuments, which was destroyed in September 2015 by the so called "Islamic State". The great temple of Bel is considered as one of the most important religious buildings of the 1st century AD in the East with a unique design. The investigations and the reconstruction were carried out using two types of imagery. The first are freely available generic touristic photos collected from the web. The second are panoramic images captured in 2010 for documenting those monuments. In the paper we present a 3d reconstruction workflow for both types of imagery using state-of-the art dense image matching software, addressing the non-trivial challenges of combining uncalibrated public domain imagery with panoramic images with very wide base-lines. We subsequently investigate the aspects of accuracy and completeness obtainable from the public domain touristic images alone and from the combination with spherical panoramas. We furthermore discuss the challenges of co-registering the weakly connected 3d point cloud fragments resulting from the limited coverage of the touristic photos. We then describe an approach using spherical photogrammetry as a virtual topographic survey allowing the co-registration of a detailed and accurate single 3d model of the temple interior and exterior.
Gragson, Ted L; Thompson, Victor D.; Leigh, David S.; Hautefeuille, Florent
Data on ground-penetrating radar transect files are provided that support the research presented in "Discovery and Appraisal of the Early Christian Church of Notre Dame de Baudes near Labastide-du-Temple, France" . Data consist of 102 transect files obtained with a GSSI SIR-3000 controller and a 400 MHz center frequency antenna in two grid blocks covering ca. 2700 m2. The data are distributed raw without post-processing in SEG-Y rev. 1 format (little endian). PMID:27222858
Gragson, Ted L; Thompson, Victor D; Leigh, David S; Hautefeuille, Florent
Data on ground-penetrating radar transect files are provided that support the research presented in "Discovery and Appraisal of the Early Christian Church of Notre Dame de Baudes near Labastide-du-Temple, France" . Data consist of 102 transect files obtained with a GSSI SIR-3000 controller and a 400 MHz center frequency antenna in two grid blocks covering ca. 2700 m(2). The data are distributed raw without post-processing in SEG-Y rev. 1 format (little endian). PMID:27222858
Stevenson-Hinde, J; Simpson, M J
Stable characteristics of rhesus monkey mothers, in terms of Confident and Excitable scores, were significantly positively correlated with the respective scores of their daughters but not their sons. With sons, mothers' Excitable scores were significantly negatively correlated with sons' Confident scores. Correlations of the maternal scores with earlier mother/infant interactions suggest how mothers' characteristics could have influenced infant characteristics. Mothers' Confident scores were negatively correlated with both rejecting and leaving their daughters. When a year old the daughters, on the other hand, left mothers relatively frequently and played a relatively low role in maintaining proximity. For both sons and daughters, mothers' Excitable scores were positively correlated with approaching and leaving their infants, as well as restricting at the age of weaning. Infants approached Excitable mothers relatively frequently, and year-old sons played a relatively high role in maintaining proximity with mother. In terms of attachment theory, Confident mothers appear to provide a "secure base" for their daughters, but reject their sons when very young. Excitable mothers appear to behave inappropriately to both sons and daughters, producing infants who may be "insecurely attached." PMID:7198571
Connelly, C D; Straus, M A
It is widely believed that young mothers are at greater risk of engaging in physical abuse. However, this relationship is not clearly supported by previous empirical research. This study reexamines the issue using a nationally representative sample of 1,997 mothers. All analyses controlled for family income, race, number of minor children in the home, age of abused child, mother's education, and whether mother was a single parent. Physical abuse was measured with the Conflict Tactics Scales. Using mother's age at time of birth of the abused child, the younger the mother, the greater the rate of child abuse; however, there was not a significant relationship when mother's age was measured at age at time of abuse. Large families and minority group children were also found to be at greater risk of abuse. The paper discusses implications for further research and for prevention of child abuse. PMID:1393729
Brand, Jennie E.; Thomas, Juli Simon
Given the recent era of economic upheaval, studying the effects of job displacement has seldom been so timely and consequential. Despite a large literature associating displacement with worker well-being, relatively few studies focus on the effects of parental displacement on child well-being, and fewer still focus on implications for children of single parent households. Moreover, notwithstanding a large literature on the relationship between single motherhood and children’s outcomes, research on intergenerational effects of involuntary employment separations among single mothers is limited. Using 30 years of nationally representative panel data and propensity score matching methods, we find significant negative effects of job displacement among single mothers on children’s educational attainment and social-psychological well-being in young adulthood. Effects are concentrated among older children and children whose mothers had a low likelihood of displacement, suggesting an important role for social stigma and relative deprivation in the effects of socioeconomic shocks on child well-being. PMID:25032267
Kneebone, G M; Kneebone, R; Gibson, R A
The fatty acid composition of samples of breast milk obtained from 51 mothers (26 Malay, 15 Chinese, 10 Indian) residing in Penang, Malaysia was determined by gas chromatography. Despite living in close physical proximity the mothers from the three racial groups showed distinct cultural differences in dietary intake. These differences were reflected in differences in the fatty acid composition of breast milk samples. The milk of Chinese mothers was generally less saturated (41%) than that of Malay and Indian mothers (52 and 50% respectively). The milk of Chinese mothers was also richer in linoleic acid (17%) than that of Malay and Indian mothers (9% and 11% respectively). Overall the level of individual fatty acids fell within the range of values reported for Western mothers on well nourished diets and pointed to breast milk of high standard despite large variations in the diet of Malaysian mothers. PMID:3984928
Vincent, Jill; Vincent, Claire
Between the 17th and 19th centuries, the Japanese government closed its borders to the outside world in an attempt to become more powerful. Foreign books were banned, people could not travel, and foreigners were not allowed to enter the country. One result of this isolation was the flourishing of sangaku--wooden tablets inscribed with intricately…
This article is a discussion of some of the current knowledge on how to best support young mothers who wish to breastfeed. It includes practice points taken from Phoebe's own qualitative research on young mothers and infant feeding and also a discussion of the valuable work of other midwives and researchers on the subject. We know that breastfeeding can have significant benefits for mothers and their babies; we also know that young mothers, as a group, are less likely to breastfeed than other mothers. Breastfeeding is an emotional subject: it can be empowering and satisfying, but it can also be a time of emotional strain and negative feelings of guilt and failure. This article aims to increase the understanding of what young mothers may want and need from breastfeeding support. PMID:27172673
Youngblut, J M; Brady, N R; Brooten, D; Thomas, D J
Changes in the welfare system limit the length of time a person can receive welfare benefits, thus mandating employment for many current welfare recipients. Single mothers with young children who do not become employed will lose financial support for housing, food, clothing, and health care and place their own and their children's health and safety at risk. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore women's experiences of being unemployed and to examine the barriers to employment perceived by single mothers who expressed a desire to be employed. Nine mothers were recruited from a larger sample of single mothers who had participated in a quantitative study about employment conducted 1 to 2 years earlier. Using focus group interviews, mothers were asked what it was like to be a single mother, and then what barriers to their employment they perceived. Two dimensions were identified from the mothers' statements. The first, a sense of obligation, included themes of "being there" for their own and their child's benefit and doing what it takes to optimize the child's growth and development. The second, negotiating the obstacles, referred to problems regarding child care, lack of involvement of the child's father and lack of support from relatives and friends for the mother's efforts toward securing employment. These findings have important implications for welfare reform, namely, that efforts aimed at moving nonemployed single mothers into the workforce will fail if these factors are not considered. PMID:10818834
Wright, Jan; Maher, JaneMaree; Tanner, Claire
In the context of concerns about childhood obesity, mothers are placed at the forefront of responsibility for shaping the eating behaviour and consequently the health of their young children. This is evident in a multitude of diverse sites such as government reports, health promotion materials, reality TV shows and the advice of childcare nurses and preschools. These sites produce a range of resources available to mothers to draw on to constitute themselves as mothers in terms of caring for their children's health. Drawing on a qualitative study of mothers recruited through three Australian preschool centres, this article examines how the working-class and middle-class mothers of preschool-aged children engage with knowledge about motherhood, children and health and how those engagements impact on their mothering, their foodwork and their children. We argue that, unlike the working-class mothers pathologised in some literature on obesity, these working-class mothers demonstrated a no-nonsense (but still responsibilised) approach to feeding their children. The middle-class mothers, on the other hand, were more likely to engage in practices of self-surveillance and to demonstrate considerable anxieties about the appropriateness of their practices for their children's current and future health. PMID:25677342
Twenty mothers of culturally disadvantaged children took part in a program of self-help which was both child- and mother-centered. Two groups of ten mothers each met weekly with two staff members over an 8-month period and were trained to tutor their infants (1 to 2-years-old) in their homes. Fifteen of the initial 20 mothers remained in the…
Meguid, Nagwa A; Dardir, Ahmed A; Khass, Mohamed; Hossieny, Lamia El; Ezzat, Afaf; El Awady, Mostafa K
Recent reports linking Down syndrome (DS) to maternal polymorphisms at the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene locus have generated great interest among investigators in the field. The present study aimed at evaluation of MTHFR 677C/T and 1298A/C polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene as maternal risk factors for DS. Forty two mothers of proven DS outcomes and forty eight control mothers with normal offspring were included. Complete medical and nutritional histories for all mothers were taken with special emphasis on folate intake. Folic acid intake from food or vitamin supplements was significantly low (below the Recommended Daily Allowance) in the group of case mothers compared to control mothers. Frequencies of MTHFR 677T and MTHFR 1298C alleles were significantly higher among case mothers (32.1% and 57.1%, respectively) compared to control mothers (18.7% and 32.3%, respectively). Heterozygous and homozygous genotype frequencies of MTHFR at position 677 (CT and TT) were higher among case mothers than controls (40.5% versus 25% and 11.9% versus 6.2%, respectively) with an odds ratio of 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93-5.89) and 2.75 (95% CI 0.95-12.77), respectively. Interestingly, the homozygous genotype frequency (CC) at position 1298 was significantly higher in case mothers than in controls (33.3% versus 2.1% respectively) with an odds ratio of 31.5 (95% CI 3.51 to 282.33) indicating that this polymorphism may have more genetic impact than 677 polymorphism. Heterozygous genotype (AC) did not show significant difference between the two groups. We here report on the first pilot study of the possible genetic association between DS and MTHFR 1298A/C genotypes among Egyptians. Further extended studies are recommended to confirm the present work. PMID:18057532
Brazelton, T B; Tronick, E; Adamson, L; Als, H; Wise, S
By three weeks of age, the human neonate demonstrates behaviours which are quite different with an object and with a human interactant. He also demonstrates an expectancy for interaction with his caregiver which has clearly defined limits, as demonstrated behaviourally. In microanalysis of videotape, we saw regularly a set of interactive behaviours which were demonstrable in optimal face-to-face interaction between infants and their mothers. All parts of the infant's body move in smooth circular patterns as he attends to her. His face-to-face attention to her is rhythmic with approach-withdrawal cycling of extremities. The attention phase and build-up to her cues are followed by turning away and a recovery phase in a rhythm of attention-non-attention which seems to define a cyclical homeostatic curve of attention, averaging several cycles per minute. When she violates his expectancy for rhythmic interaction by presenting a still, unresponsive face to him, he becomes visibly concerned, his movements become jerky, he averts his face, then attempts to draw her into interaction. When repeated attempts fail, he finally withdraws into an attitude of helplessness, face averted, body curled up and motionless. If she returns to her usual interactive responses, he comes alive after an initial puzzled period, and returns to his rhythmic cyclical behaviour which has previously characterized their ongoing face-to-face interaction. This attentional cycling may be diagnostic of optimal mother-infant interactions and seems not to be present in more disturbed interactions. PMID:1045978
Hoskins, Marie L.; Lam, Eugenie
Examines how daughters' anorexia influence the mothers' understandings of mothering and self within the greater context of societal influences. Using constructivist theory and discursive psychology, four themes characterized participants' relationship to cultural myths and discourses associated with eating disorders and mothering. (Contains 48…
Murray, Ashley; Ellis, Monica U.; Castellanos, Ted; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Sneed, Carl D.
We examined approaches used by African-American mothers and mothers of Latino descent for informal sex-related discussions with their children to inform sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV intervention development efforts. We recruited mothers (of children aged 12-15) from youth service agencies and a university in southern California.…
Moorman, Elizabeth A.; Pomerantz, Eva M.
This research examined the role of mothers' cognitions about children's self-control in their responses to children's helplessness. Mothers and their four-year-old children (N = 109) were asked to work on a difficult task in the laboratory. Mothers' hostility and warmth as well as children's helpless (vs. mastery) behavior were coded every minute.…
Knutson, John F.; Johnson, Christina R.; Sullivan, Patricia M.
Objective: To assess the disciplinary preferences of mothers of profoundly deaf children and normally hearing children in a test of the hypothesized link between child disabilities and punitive parenting. Method: Disciplinary preferences of mothers seeking a cochlear implant for their profoundly deaf child (n = 57), mothers not seeking an implant…
Stringer, Ebonie Cunningham; Barnes, Sandra L.
Since the early 1990s, the number of children with imprisoned mothers has increased 131%. A mother's imprisonment potentially exposes children to a concentrated disadvantage that undermines their cognitive, emotional, and intellectual abilities. Additionally, such experiences can have deleterious effects on mother-child relationships, stand-in…
This study explored Mandarin-speaking mothers' referential choice in relation to informativeness. The data consisted of two Mandarin-speaking mothers' natural conversation with their children, collected when the children were between the ages of 2;2 and 3;1. The subject and object arguments of the mothers' utterances were coded for the categories…
Panagos, PG; Vishwanathan, R; Penfield-Cyr, A; Matthan, NR; Shivappa, N; Wirth, MD; Hebert, JR; Sen, S
OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of maternal obesity on breastmilk composition. STUDY DESIGN Breastmilk and food records from 21 lean and 21 obese women who delivered full-term infants were analyzed at 2 months post-partum. Infant growth and adiposity were measured at birth and 2 months of age. RESULT Breastmilk from obese mothers had higher omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio and lower concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docasapentaenoic acid and lutein compared with lean mothers (P < 0.05), which were strongly associated with maternal body mass index. Breastmilk saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid concentrations were positively associated with maternal dietary inflammation, as measured by dietary inflammatory index. There were no differences in infant growth measurements. CONCLUSION Breastmilk from obese mothers has a pro-inflammatory fatty acid profile and decreased concentrations of fatty acids and carotenoids that have been shown to have a critical role in early visual and neurodevelopment. Studies are needed to determine the link between these early-life influences and subsequent cardiometabolic and neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:26741571
Shin, Eun-Hye; Cho, Eunhae; Lee, Cha Gon
Temple syndrome (TS, MIM 616222) is an imprinting disorder involving genes within the imprinted region of chromosome 14q32. TS is a genetically complex disorder, which is associated with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 (UPD14), paternal deletions on chromosome 14, or loss of methylation at the intergenic differentially methylated region (IG-DMR). Here, we describe the case of a patient with maternal hetero-UPD14, mixed iso-/hetero-disomy mechanism identified by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis of patient-father duos study. The phenotype of our case is similarities to Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) during infancy and to Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS) during childhood. This SNP array appears to be an effective initial screening tool for patients with nonspecific clinical features suggestive of chromosomal disorders. PMID:26867509
Goldman, A; Wollina, U; Tchernev, G; Chokoeva, A A; Lotti, T
Congenital melanocytic nevi can be stigmatising for the patient. Larger nevi bear an increased risk for melanoma development. Large congenital melanocytic nevi may be a symptom of neurocutaneous melanosis. We report on a 5-year-old boy with an extensive hair-bearing facial congenital melanocytic nevus, covering forehead, glabella and temple region associated with unilateral brow and blepharoptosis. The lesion was excised en bloc. The resulting defect had been closed by full thickness skin graft. Healing was unremarkable and long-term follow-up over 13 years demonstrated a satisfying esthetic and functional outcome. There was no evidence of melanoma development. Surgery is an option for disfiguring larger congenital melanocytic nevi as long as esthetics and function can be preserved. Long-term follow-up is recommended due to the increased risk of melanoma. PMID:27373136
Guedeney, Antoine; Guedeney, Nicole; Wendland, Jaqueline; Burtchen, Nina
In this chapter, we briefly describe several modes of parent-infant-psychotherapy, an efficient way of treating parent-infant relationship disorders. We then focus on treatment for postnatally depressed mothers. Perinatal depression defines an episode of major or minor depression occurring during pregnancy or the first 12 months after birth. Attachment-based parent-infant interventions are particularly helpful in the context of maternal perinatal depression, as postpartum depression has a special link with unresolved trauma and losses in the mother's childhood. The goal of treatment is to improve the mother's mood but also to prevent or reduce the effects of postpartum depression on the child. Infants of perinatally depressed mothers are at risk for a large array of negative outcomes, including attachment insecurity (particularly disorganised attachment), social-skills deficits, cognitive difficulties, behaviour problems, and later psychopathology. The 'ghosts in the nursery' concept refers to the painful or disturbed early childhood experiences coming from the mother's past, which haunt the present mother-infant relationship. By addressing the mother's unresolved attachment conflicts (in her relationship to her own parents), it is believed that the development of a more adaptive parenting and a more secure and less disorganised attachment between the mother and her infant is facilitated. Changes in parent- infant interaction are not dependent on the port of entry (e.g. child's behaviour, parent's representation or parent-infant relationship). The perspective of attachment is key to install a therapeutic alliance with parents. PMID:24045134
Young, Stuart H.; Budulas, Peter P.; Emmerman, Philip J.
This paper discusses ongoing research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that investigates the feasibility of developing a collaboration architecture between small physical agents and a mother ship. This incudes the distribution of planning, perception, mobility, processing and communications requirements between the mother ship and the agents. Small physical agents of the future will be virtually everywhere on the battlefield of the 21st century. A mother ship that is coupled to a team of small collaborating physical agents (conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA); logistics; sentry; and communications relay) will be used to build a completely effective and mission capable intelligent system. The mother ship must have long-range mobility to deploy the small, highly maneuverable agents that will operate in urban environments and more localized areas, and act as a logistics base for the smaller agents. The mother ship also establishes a robust communications network between the agents and is the primary information disseminating and receiving point to the external world. Because of its global knowledge and processing power, the mother ship does the high-level control and planning for the collaborative physical agents. This high level control and interaction between the mother ship and its agents (including inter agent collaboration) will be software agent architecture based. The mother ship incorporates multi-resolution battlefield visualization and analysis technology, which aids in mission planning and sensor fusion.
Eshbaugh, Elaine M.
This study examines the proportions of ethnically diverse low-income teen mothers who are cohabitating and/or married to the father of their child(ren) at approximately 14, 24, and 36 months after birth of their child. In addition, the relationship between marital status and education among teen mothers is explored. At 36 months after giving…
Cook, Judith A.
Conducted home visits to gather data from 49 parents living with psychiatrically disabled child at time of latter's entry into psychiatric rehabilitation program. Found high level of emotional distress on part of mothers and fathers. When differences were found between parents, mothers reported significantly higher degrees of anxiety, depression,…
Flaherman, Valerie J; Lee, Henry C
This article provides the pediatric community with a practical overview of milk expression and an update on the recent literature. Approaches for working mothers, preterm infants, critically ill infants, and mothers before lactogenesis II are presented separately, as these groups may benefit from practices tailored to individual needs. PMID:23178067
Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.
Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…
Berkeley Lab scientists have mimicked the structure of mother of pearl to create what may well be the toughest ceramic ever produced. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2008/12/05/scientists-create-tough-ceramic-that-mimics-mother-of-pearl/
Limited research has explored the perceptions of self-determination held by diverse families. In this study, seven mothers of transition-age youth with severe disabilities who were Hispanic were interviewed. Each mother was actively engaged in advocacy related to diverse children with disabilities in their local schools and communities. Mothers…
Regmi, Kapil Dev
Mother Tongue Instruction has been a debatable issue since long. There may be two options in the medium of instruction: either to teach especially primary and preprimary schoolchildren in their own mother tongue or continue using second or foreign language as the medium of instruction. Both of the approaches bear some pros and cons. This article…
Berkeley Lab scientists have mimicked the structure of mother of pearl to create what may well be the toughest ceramic ever produced. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2008/12/05/scientists-create-tough-ceramic-that-mimics-mother-of-pearl/
... United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-11555 Filed... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8517 of May 7, 2010 Mother's Day, 2010 By the President of the United States... children and opened doors of opportunity for our Nation's daughters and granddaughters. On Mother's Day,...
... thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-11757 Filed 5-14-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8980 of May 10, 2013 Mother's Day, 2013 By the President of the United States... Americans first came together to mark Mother's Day, generations of women have empowered their children...
This paper is about mothering an intellectually disabled child identified with special educational needs. It specifically looks at the parent partnership rhetoric that has dominated UK government policy and directives for nearly three decades and yet research suggests parents and more often mothers have to battle to be recognised as legitimate…
Ross, Wendy Middlemiss; And Others
Efforts were undertaken to develop a parental interview for determining parenting style of parents of children of all ages and children within several subcultural groups. The interview provided mothers with descriptions of common situations in the home and asked the mothers to choose specific responses representing the following parenting styles:…
Berghout Austin, Ann M.; And Others
Measures fathers' and mothers' linguistic involvement in the development of communication between young siblings--infants and toddlers. In a laboratory setting, 39 families, each with a mother, a father and two children, were videotaped in semistructured activities. Results suggest that fathers very actively direct sibling interactions, especially…
For women, the transition to motherhood is often a time period filled with excitement, changes, and challenges. Mothers often face changes in their own sexuality in their adjustment to motherhood. The majority of research on the sexual changes during motherhood has focused on the first year postpartum of mothers and has emphasized biological,…
Propst, L. Rebecca; And Others
Examined the effects of demographic variables, variables specific to marriage and divorce, and coping resources (internal and external) on the adjustment of single mothers. Results indicate that four classes of variables have an effect on the mother's adjustment: phase of divorce and/or separation; numbers and ages of children; style of coping;…
Henggeler, Scott W.; Borduin, Charles M.
Studied the effects of maternal employment on mother-child relations and children's psychosocial functioning. Mother-son pairs (N=28) were divided into maternal working versus maternal nonworking groups. Groups were observed at home and in a laboratory. Results indicated no significant main effects or interaction effects for maternal working…
This study investigates the father's contribution to child development in the context of a triadic family constellation, integrating data that parallel previous investigations of fathers: differences in children's behavior to mother and father, differences in mothers' and fathers' behavior to the child, and correlations between parental and child…
Dole, Debora M; Shambley-Ebron, Donna
The life-course perspective considers the effects of chronic, high levels of stress as contributing to the disparity in infant mortality between African Americans and all other groups. Many young mothers are mothering their children in isolation without benefit of the cultural safety net that once existed, further contributing to a state of chronic stress. This study explored the cultural meanings of mothering for African American adolescent mothers using Photovoice, a participatory research methodology. Results suggested a network consisting of extended kin and "other mothers" is integral in providing support and identifying cultural strengths used in coping and reducing effects of chronic stress. PMID:27149231
Campos, Antonia do Carmo Soares; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão
Since 1958, phototherapy has been used as a method to cure jaundice, which is still an important disease in newborn children. Supported by a phenomenological and qualitative approach, this study aims to investigate the mothers' perception of the phototherapy treatment their children are submitted to. Research subjects were ten mothers of newborns under phototherapy treatment at the Neonatological Hospitalization Unit of a public maternity in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Data were collected between May and July 2002. We used group meetings with the mothers as suggested by Carl Rogers. Discourse was organized into categories according to Bardin, which revealed themes that were analyzed in view of Paterson's and Zderad's humanistic nursing theory, as follows: mothers' knowledge on phototherapy and concerns about the treatment. We concluded that the analyzed mothers' major concern is related to the babies' vision. PMID:15651644
Williams, P D; Soetjiningsih; Williams, A R
The study examined Balinese mothers' expectations for children's development and mothers' child-rearing practices, as influenced by selected variables (child's gender and ordinal position, mother's education, and rural or urban residence). Rural (n = 100) and urban (n = 100) mothers responded to structured questionnaires read aloud to them by trained interviewers who recorded responses. All children were between 4 and 6 years. Equal numbers of male and female children were included, and the entire economic and educational ranges of families were represented. MANOVA results showed significant interaction effects of residential location and maternal education on mothers' expectations of children's cognitive, F(2, 170) = 4.31, p = .04, and psychosocial development, F(2, 170) = 4.35, p = .01. Significant interaction effects were found for maternal education, residential location, child's ordinal position, and gender, F(3, 170) = 5.92, p = .001, on maternal child-rearing practices. Two developmental timetables were constructed. PMID:11094575
Thompson, P J; Harm, N J
Incarceration of a mother disrupts the mother-child relationship and the child's emotional development. The researchers evaluated a 15-week parenting program in a women's prison that was designed to enhance mother-child interactions during imprisonment. Pre- and postmeasures for the 104 women were Hudson's (1982) Index of Self-Esteem, Bavolek's (1984) Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory, and semistructured questionnaires. Self-esteem and attitudes about expectations of children, corporal punishment, and family roles improved significantly. Empathy and mother-child interactions through visits and letters improved. Participants identified the most helpful components of the program. Those who had been physically, sexually, and emotionally abused and those who had used drugs and alcohol had positive results. Findings support the value of parent education for self-development of incarcerated mothers and for the welfare of their children. PMID:11111498
Nichols, Lee Anne
The purpose of this study was to identify the social process of infant care among Cherokee mothers. Nineteen informants, who had an infant less than 2 years of age, were interviewed. The data were analyzed using the technique of constant comparative analysis. A social process of Indian infant care among Cherokee mothers was identified. Eight concepts emerged from data analysis. The first and principal concept, being a Cherokee mother, describes the functions of being an Indian mother in Cherokee society. The other seven concepts describe the patterns of cultural care the mothers provided to their infants. These included accommodating everyday infant care, accommodating health perspectives, building a care-providing consortium, living spiritually, merging the infant into Indian culture, using noncoercive discipline techniques, and vigilantly watching for the natural unfolding of the infant. Trustworthiness and credibility of the generated theory were evaluated through multiple measures. PMID:15296577
The number of women in the workforce is continuing to increase and surveys suggest that one-fourth of employed women with a child less than 1 year of age will be concurrently breastfeeding and working for at least 1 month. Combining breastfeeding and employment is a complex process in American society. Women will be seeking practical, sound advice on how to be successful in this combination. This article offers suggestions for promoting its success, describes the preplanning that needs to occur, and provides current lactation recommendations and resources. It also offers information about working with employers, the importance of a support network, decisions that each family must make, the use of breast pumps; milk storage, lactation enhancement including the use of herbs, and practical tips for the mother's working day. PMID:10907331
Macedo, A; Marques, M; Bos, S; Maia, B R; Pereira, T; Soares, M J; Valente, J; Gomes, A A; Nogueira, V; Azevedo, M H
We examined if perfectionism and the perception of being an anxious person were associated with more negative infant temperament ratings by the mothers. 386 women (mean age=30.08; standard deviation=4.21) in their last trimester of pregnancy completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and an item about their perception of being or not an anxious person. The Portuguese version of the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies and the Operational Criteria Checklist for Psychotic Illness were used to generate diagnoses according to DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. After delivery, women completed eight items of the Difficult Infant Temperament Questionnaire (developed by our team) and filled in, again, the BDI-II and were interviewed with the DIGS. Women with depression (DSM-IV/ICD-10) and probable cases of depression using different cut-offs adjusted to Portuguese prevalence (BDI-II), in pregnancy and postpartum, were excluded. The Difficult Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed to have factorial validity and internal consistency. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between perfectionism total scale score and item 6 from the temperament scale ("is your baby irritable or fussy?"). Considering MPS 3-factor solution found for pregnancy there was also a statistically significant negative correlation between SOP and the same item. Women with low SOP differed from those with medium and high SOP in the total temperament score. Moreover, the low SOP group differed from the medium group on items three and four scores. There were no significant associations with SPP, which is the dimension more closely associated with negative outcomes. There was an association between anxiety trait status (having it or not) and scoring low, medium or high in the infant temperament scale. The proportion of anxious vs. non-anxious women presenting a high score on the infant temperament scale was higher (24.2% vs. 12
Fu, Alyssa S; Markus, Hazel Rose
"Tiger Mother" Amy Chua provoked a culture clash with her claim that controlling parenting in Asian American (AA) contexts produces more successful children than permissive parenting in European American (EA) contexts. At the heart of this controversy is a difference in the normative models of self that guide behavior. Ideas and practices prevalent in AA contexts emphasize that the person is and should be interdependent with one's close others, especially one's mother. In contrast, EA contexts emphasize the person as independent, even from one's mother. We find that AA compared with EA high school students experience more interdependence with their mothers and pressure from them, but that the pressure does not strain their relationship with their mothers. Furthermore, following failure, AAs compared with EAs are more motivated by their mothers, and AAs are particularly motivated by pressure from their mothers when it conveys interdependence. PMID:24727812
Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida de Deus; de Moura, Marcoeli Silva; de Toledo, Orlando Ayrton
This study assesses the assimilation of knowledge and preventive practices in oral health among the mothers of children assisted by a mother-child dental care program. The Preventive Program for Pregnant Mothers and Babies (PPPMB) is an extension project run by the Piauí Federal University (UFPI), whose goal is to make pregnant women and mothers of children from zero to 36 months old more concerned about habits fostering oral health. After a random selection of clinical record cards for children who had participated in this Program, letters were sent to their mothers. Feedback was received from 281 mothers, who responded through interviews that included questions on matters addressed by the Program. The findings indicate that mothers attending this Program were properly informed, adopting hygienic practices in their families that underpin the control and prevention of oral diseases. PMID:17680166
Kress, Sandra; Cierpka, Manfred; Möhler, Eva; Resch, Franz
Maternal intuitive skills can be threatened as a result of severe deprivation or unresolved trauma in the own childhood and can even be inaccessible to the mother. A mother's own childhood experience of abuse maybe a risk factor for repeated child abuse. As a follow-up study to assess the emotional availability of abused mothers it was investigated how a physical or sexual abuse appears in the mother-child interaction and communication in the context of "cycle of abuse" and whether it could give effect to it. Interactions of mothers with abuse experience were compared with those of mothers without an abuse experience and evaluated five months postpartum with the Munich clinical communication scale (MKK). The results suggest that maltreatment experienced mothers show less emotion tuning to their child in a standardized interaction sequence. PMID:22957399
In Manila, the Philippines, the Dr. Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital has been a maternity hospital for 75 years. It averages 90 deliveries a day. Its fees are P200-P500 for a normal delivery and P800-P2000 for a cesarean section. Patients pay what they can and pay the balance when they can. The hospital provides a safe motherhood package that encompasses teaching responsible parenthood, prenatal care, labor, delivery, postpartum care, breast feeding, family planning, and child survival. In 1986, the hospital introduced innovative policies and procedures that promote, protect, and support breast feeding. It has a rooming-in policy that has saved the hospital P6.5 million so far. In the prenatal stage, hospital staff inform pregnant women that colostrum protects the newborn against infections, that suckling stimulates milk production, and that there is no basis to the claim of having insufficient breast milk. Sales representatives of milk substitutes are banned from the hospital. Staff confiscate milk bottles or formula. A lactation management team demonstrates breast feeding procedures. Mothers also receive support on the correct way of breast feeding from hospital staff, volunteers from the Catholic Women's League, consumer groups, and women lawyers. The hospital's policy is no breast milk, no discharge. This encourages mothers to motivate each other to express milk immediately after birth. The hospital has received numerous awards for its breast feeding promotion efforts. UNICEF has designated Fabella Hospital as a model of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. The hospital serves as the National Lactation Management Education Training Center. People from other developing countries have received training in lactation management here. The First Lady of the Philippines, the First Lady of the US, and the Queen of Spain have all visited the hospital. The hospital has also integrated its existing services into a women's health care center. PMID:12347466
The outcomes of the IS/MT pilot project and the expanded services program as well as program replications in other geographic areas suggest that efforts to support the teenage mother in the care of her firstborn infant can have a demonstrable effect. Completing school, securing employment, going off welfare, and acting on a decision to prevent subsequent unwanted pregnancies were all secondary effects of a 20-week postnatal mother-infant class program designed to positively influence infant development. Similar treatment effects have been reported by IS/MT replications in St. Louis and Genesee County, Michigan. Other program innovations, however, lacking the funds and/or the expertise to conduct adequate evaluations, are nonetheless significant because they provide a groundswell capable of establishing a climate for social change. At the community level, this is expressed in the creation of new service paradigms, as in Norfolk and Memphis, where individuals and agencies are transformed and experiment with new solutions to thorny problems. At the national level, it is expressed in coalitions and political alliances around a single issue, as with the Children's Defense Fund and adolescent and single-parent families. As one who has spent almost 20 years addressing the consequences of teenage parenthood, it is heartening to know that the time is near to address the prevention of the problem. Let us hope that the Children's Defense Fund agenda accurately reflects the beliefs and feelings of the majority of our citizenry and that our national priorities will change to include the reduction of teen pregnancy and teen parenthood. PMID:2410176
Ebrahimi, Hossein; Mohammadi, Eissa; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Pirzadeh, Akbar; Mahmoudi, Hamzeh; Ansari, Ismail
Introduction: A deaf child creates a feeling of stigma in many hearing parents. Stigma in mothers can have a negative impact on a child’s treatment and rehabilitation process. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the extent of stigma in mothers with deaf children. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 90 mothers with deaf children. The data-collection instrument included the stigma scale in the mothers of children with disabilities. The reliability and validity of the instrument were confirmed through content validity and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α=86%), respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 software. Results: Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child’s deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother’s level of education and mean stigma scores (P<0.033). The stigma score was higher in mothers who were living independently of their relatives (P<0.029). The mean stigma score in mothers of children with a cochlear implant was lower than that of mothers of children with earphones (86.70 vs. 99.64), and this difference tended towards significance (P=0.057). Conclusion: This study showed that half of all mothers with deaf children were scorned and felt ashamed of having a deaf child in the family because of the stigma. The majority of mothers with deaf children felt stigmatized, and only their education and residency status affected this issue. The mothers of cochlear-implanted children perceived less stigma. Due to the various social and psychological problems caused by hearing impairment, it is necessary to consider the emotional health and psychological state of the mothers in addition to rehabilitation
Shaikh Alaudeen; Nor Muslim; Kamarul Faridah; Ali Azman; Hamid Arshat
The influence of socioeconomic status (ethnicity, income, and parity) on electrolyte composition (sodium and potassium) in human milk is little known. The authors have thus quantitatively analyzed approximately 700 samples of milk (1-90 days postpartum) obtained from healthy Malaysian mothers (Malay, Chinese, and Indians) of full-term infants. Results show that the mean concentration (mmol/1) of sodium is highest 48.2 +/- 1.7; mean +/- SEM) in the Malaysian mothers' colostrum and this value decreased by 30% in their transitional milk and remained constant throughout subsequent days of lactation. Ethnically, it is found that the level of sodium in colostrum of Malay and Chinese mothers was similar but the Indian mothers' colostrum showed apparently higher value (52.7 +/- 3.4 mmpl/1) that is statistically insignificant. The transitional milk of all 3 ethnic groups studied exhibited similar levels of sodium. On subsequent days of lactation (mature milk) the Malay mothers exhibited the lowest concentration (25.9 +/- 2.6 mmol/1) of sodium that is significantly (p .05) different from that of Chinese and Indian mothers. Income and parity do not significantly affect the sodium level in Malaysian mothers' milk during all stages of lactation studied. The level of potassium, however, did not change significantly with days of lactation. Like sodium, potassium too was not influenced by income and parity. PMID:12342168