Sample records for acid prevents calcium

  1. The Role of Calcium in Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaney, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Osteoporosis results from several factors. Calcium deficiency is only one, and high calcium intake will prevent only those cases in which calcium is the limiting factor. Calcium cannot reverse, but only arrest, bone loss. A high calcium intake for every member of the population is advocated. (Author/MT)

  2. Development and Field Application of a Novel Non-acid Calcium Naphthenate Inhibitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Debord; Piyush Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Current state of the art for treating calcium naphthenates requires addition of large doses of acid to the production fluids. Although effective in dissolving deposits, acid treatments result in increased corrosion in production equipment, decreased oil quality and increased transport and HSE costs. Consequently, an opportunity exists for the development of non-acid inhibitors to prevent calcium naphthenate formation without the

  3. Calcium stimulation of gastrin and gastric acid secretion: effect of small doses of calcium carbonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Behar; M Hitchings; R D Smyth

    1977-01-01

    Oral calcium carbonate (0-5 g, pH 9-4) increased serum gastrin and gastric acid output with slight but insignificant change in serum calcium. A similar rise in serum calcium during an intravenous infusion of calcium gluconate failed to increase serum gastrin and gastric acid output. Both intragastric calcium actions were abolished by acidification of the calcium carbonate solution (pH 1-0). The

  4. Calcium prevention and treatment of osteoporosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Beth O'Connell; Pamela L. Stamm

    2004-01-01

    Less bone loss occurs when calcium intake is adequate. Calcium therapy can increase bone mineral density by 1.5 to 2%. Most\\u000a studies revealing a reduced fracture rate with antiresorptive agents included concomitant calcium supplementation. Calcium\\u000a absorption occurs predominantly in the upper small bowel under the control of 1,25 hydroxyvitamin D. Adequate vitamin D intake\\u000a should be ensured, especially in winter

  5. Original article Acid gelation of colloidal calcium phosphate-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Acid gelation of colloidal calcium phosphate- depleted preheated milk Marie Abstract ­ This study aimed at understanding the role of colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) in acid gelation of acid gels. colloidal calcium phosphate / CCP / acid milk gel / dialysis ­ 90 °C 10 min p

  6. Dairy calcium, bone metabolism, and prevention of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Renner, E

    1994-12-01

    Single-photon absorptiometry was used to measure the bone mineral content of young adults, osteoporotic patients, and age-matched controls without bone disease. A retrospective dietary survey was made to study the relationship between calcium intake and bone mineral content at different periods of life. The bone mineral content and bone mineral density of young adults are directly related to the calcium intake through milk and diary products. Calcium intake through milk and milk products in childhood and adolescence had been significantly lower in patients than in the controls; for the later periods of life (both the 20 to 30 yr prior to the study and at the time of the study), no significant differences existed between the calcium intakes of the two groups. Adequate calcium intake also protected against increased bone resorption, as evidenced in particular by the reduced serum osteocalcin, a parameter of bone turnover. The data support the hypothesis that adequate calcium intake through milk and milk products in childhood and adolescence is a decisive marker for attaining maximum bone mass (peak adult bone mass) and for the prevention of osteoporosis. The recommended dietary allowances of calcium have been fixed to 1200 mg/d for the age group between 10 and 24 yr. However, in Germany, calcium was undersupplied by up to 50% in the diet of children and adolescents. PMID:7699131

  7. Plasma phospholipid arachidonic acid content and calcium metabolism in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Baggio; Alessandro Budakovic; Maria Angela Nassuato; Giuseppe Vezzoli; Enzo Manzato; Giovanni Luisetto; Martina Zaninotto

    2000-01-01

    Plasma phospholipid arachidonic acid content and calcium metabolism in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis.BackgroundReports of an increase in plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid arachidonic acid content and in urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) excretion in patients with idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis suggested their crucial role in the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria, a well-known risk factor for lithogenesis.MethodsTo confirm this hypothesis, 15 healthy subjects and 20 nephrolithiasis

  8. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prevent falls in women, but not in men. Metabolic syndrome. Some evidence suggests that getting more calcium from ... vitamin D, might lower the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Cancer. Research shows that healthy older women who ...

  9. Diet Acids and Alkalis Influence Calcium Retention in Bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Buclin; M. Cosma; M. Appenzeller; A.-F. Jacquet; L. A. Décosterd; J. Biollaz; P. Burckhardt

    2001-01-01

    :   The urine-acidifying properties of food constituents depend on their content of non-oxidizable acids or precursors. Acidifying\\u000a constituents such as animal proteins may negatively affect calcium metabolism and accelerate bone resorption, thus representing\\u000a an aggravating factor for osteoporosis. This four-period, double-crossover study investigated whether a diet intervention\\u000a specifically focused on acid load could modify calcium metabolism in humans. Eight healthy

  10. Meta-analysis of the effect of the acid-ash hypothesis of osteoporosis on calcium balance.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Tanis R; Lyon, Andrew W; Eliasziw, Michael; Tough, Suzanne C; Hanley, David A

    2009-11-01

    The acid-ash hypothesis posits that protein and grain foods, with a low potassium intake, produce a diet acid load, net acid excretion (NAE), increased urine calcium, and release of calcium from the skeleton, leading to osteoporosis. The objectives of this meta-analysis were to assess the effect of changes in NAE, by manipulation of healthy adult subjects' acid-base intakes, on urine calcium, calcium balance, and a marker of bone metabolism, N-telopeptides. This meta-analysis was limited to studies that used superior methodological quality for the study of calcium metabolism. We systematically searched the literature and included studies if subjects were randomized to the interventions and followed the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine's Panel on Calcium and Related Nutrients for calcium studies. Five of 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. The studies altered the amount and/or type of protein. Despite a significant linear relationship between an increase in NAE and urinary calcium (p < 0.0001), there was no relationship between a change of NAE and a change of calcium balance (p = 0.38; power = 94%). There was no relationship between a change of NAE and a change in the marker of bone metabolism, N-telopeptides (p = 0.95). In conclusion, this meta-analysis does not support the concept that the calciuria associated with higher NAE reflects a net loss of whole body calcium. There is no evidence from superior quality balance studies that increasing the diet acid load promotes skeletal bone mineral loss or osteoporosis. Changes of urine calcium do not accurately represent calcium balance. Promotion of the "alkaline diet" to prevent calcium loss is not justified. PMID:19419322

  11. Calciuric response to an acute acid load in healthy subjects and hypercalciuric calcium stone formers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Houillier; Michel Normand; Marc Froissart; Anne Blanchard; Paul Jungers; Michel Paillard

    1996-01-01

    Calciuric response to an acute acid load in healthy subjects and hypercalciuric calcium stone formers. Excessive animal protein consumption is associated with a greater risk of occurrence of renal calcium stone, presumably because of the attendant endogenous acid production. Indeed, chronic acid load enhances urinary calcium excretion possibly through an increased bone calcium release. Because acute studies are best designed

  12. Solubility of calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids in simulated intestinal environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Y. Graham; Jeffrey W. Sackman

    1983-01-01

    Calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids are often referred to as being insoluble. These soaps make up most of the fecal lipid in infants fed high calcium diets and are responsible for increased fat malabsorption in patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency receiving enzymes and calcium carbonate antacids. We investigated the solubility of the calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids in

  13. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase II trial studies how well docosahexaenoic acid works in preventing recurrence in breast cancer survivors. Docosahexaenoic acid supplement may prevent recurrence in breast cancer survivors.

  14. Lithium prevents early cytosolic calcium increase and secondary injurious calcium overload in glycolytically inhibited endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bosche, Bert, E-mail: bert.bosche@uk-essen.de [Department of Neurology, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany) [Department of Neurology, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research with Klaus-Joachim-Zülch Laboratories of the Max Planck Society and the Medical Faculty of the University of Cologne (Germany); Schäfer, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.schaefer@sanofi.com [Institute of Physiology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen (Germany)] [Institute of Physiology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen (Germany); Graf, Rudolf, E-mail: rudolf.graf@nf.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research with Klaus-Joachim-Zülch Laboratories of the Max Planck Society and the Medical Faculty of the University of Cologne (Germany)] [Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research with Klaus-Joachim-Zülch Laboratories of the Max Planck Society and the Medical Faculty of the University of Cologne (Germany); Härtel, Frauke V., E-mail: frauke.haertel@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Physiology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden (Germany); Schäfer, Ute, E-mail: ute.schaefer@medunigraz.at [Research Unit for Experimental Neurotraumatology, Medical University of Graz (Austria)] [Research Unit for Experimental Neurotraumatology, Medical University of Graz (Austria); Noll, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.noll@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Physiology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden (Germany)] [Institute of Physiology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden (Germany)

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •We investigate free calcium as a central signalling element in endothelial cells. •Inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxy-D-glucose reduces cellular ATP. •This manoeuvre leads to a biphasic increase and overload of free calcium. •Pre-treatment with lithium for 24 h abolishes both phases of the calcium increase. •This provides a new strategy to protect endothelial calcium homeostasis and barrier function. -- Abstract: Cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) is a central signalling element for the maintenance of endothelial barrier function. Under physiological conditions, it is controlled within narrow limits. Metabolic inhibition during ischemia/reperfusion, however, induces [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} overload, which results in barrier failure. In a model of cultured porcine aortic endothelial monolayers (EC), we addressed the question of whether [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} overload can be prevented by lithium treatment. [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and ATP were analysed using Fura-2 and HPLC, respectively. The combined inhibition of glycolytic and mitochondrial ATP synthesis by 2-desoxy-D-glucose (5 mM; 2-DG) plus sodium cyanide (5 mM; NaCN) caused a significant decrease in cellular ATP content (14 ± 1 nmol/mg protein vs. 18 ± 1 nmol/mg protein in the control, n = 6 culture dishes, P < 0.05), an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} (278 ± 24 nM vs. 71 ± 2 nM in the control, n = 60 cells, P < 0.05), and the formation of gaps between adjacent EC. These observations indicate that there is impaired barrier function at an early state of metabolic inhibition. Glycolytic inhibition alone by 10 mM 2-DG led to a similar decrease in ATP content (14 ± 2 nmol/mg vs. 18 ± 1 nmol/mg in the control, P < 0.05) with a delay of 5 min. The [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} response of EC was biphasic with a peak after 1 min (183 ± 6 nM vs. 71 ± 1 nM, n = 60 cells, P < 0.05) followed by a sustained increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. A 24-h pre-treatment with 10 mM of lithium chloride before the inhibition of ATP synthesis abolished both phases of the 2-DG-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase. This effect was not observed when lithium chloride was added simultaneously with 2-DG. We conclude that lithium chloride abolishes the injurious [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} overload in EC and that this most likely occurs by preventing inositol 3-phosphate-sensitive Ca{sup 2+}-release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Though further research is needed, these findings provide a novel option for therapeutic strategies to protect the endothelium against imminent barrier failure.

  15. Characterization of C80 Naphthenic Acid and Its Calcium Naphthenate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heléne Magnusson; Johan Sjöblom

    2008-01-01

    A C80 naphthenic acid (tetraacid) and its calcium naphthenate have been characterized with respect to their interfacial properties at both the oil\\/water and the air\\/water interfaces as well as their thermal properties. Naphthenic acids in crude oils may give rise to different problems in oil production including naphthenate deposition and formation of stable emulsions. This may lead to severe disturbances

  16. Adsorption characteristics of amino acids on to calcium oxalate.

    PubMed

    He, Junbin; Lin, Rihui; Long, Han; Liang, Yuwei; Chen, Yangyang

    2015-09-15

    Adsorption of amino acids on to calcium oxalate found in urinary calculus has been studied and the adsorption characteristics were analyzed. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were used to fit the kinetics data. The pseudo-second-order model best described the dynamic behavior of the adsorption process. The uptake of glutamic acid and aspartic acid were found to decrease as solution pH increasing from 4 to 8. The experimental data obtained at different pH conditions were analyzed and fitted by Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Temkin and Sips isotherm models using linear and nonlinear regression analysis. Error analysis (correlation coefficient, residual root mean square error and chi-square test) showed that the Langmuir I isotherm model and the non-linear form of Sips isotherm model should be primarily adopted for fitting the equilibrium data. The maximum adsorption capacity of glutamic acid and aspartic acid onto calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals are 0.059 and 0.066?mol/g at pH 4, respectively. These studies have the vital significance for research aimed at exploring the role of urinary amino acids effect the formation process of calcium oxalate crystals found in urinary calculus and for potential application in the design of synthetic peptides used for urinary calculi therapy. PMID:26021431

  17. 40 CFR 721.10382 - Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1). 721.10382 Section... § 721.10382 Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance...substance identified as diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1) (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10382 - Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1). 721.10382 Section... § 721.10382 Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance...substance identified as diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1) (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10382 - Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1). 721.10382 Section... § 721.10382 Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance...substance identified as diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1) (PMN...

  20. Comparative absorption of calcium sources and calcium citrate malate for the prevention of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Patrick, L

    1999-04-01

    Anthropologically speaking, humans were high consumers of calcium until the onset of the Agricultural Age, 10,000 years ago. Current calcium intake is one-quarter to one-third that of our evolutionary diet and, if we are genetically identical to the Late Paleolithic Homo sapiens, we may be consuming a calcium-deficient diet our bodies cannot adjust to by physiologic mechanisms. Meta-analyses of calcium and bone mass studies demonstrate supplementation of 500 to 1500 mg calcium daily improves bone mass in adolescents, young adults, older men, and postmenopausal women. Calcium citrate malate has high bioavailability and thus has been the subject of calcium studies in these populations. Positive effects have been seen in prepubertal girls, adolescents, and postmenopausal women. The addition of trace minerals and vitamin D in separate trials has improved the effect of calcium citrate malate on bone density and shown a reduction of fracture risk. PMID:10231607

  1. Comparative Absorption of Calcium Sources and Calcium Citrate Malate for the Prevention of Osteoporosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lyn Patrick

    1999-01-01

    Anthropologically speaking, humans were high consumers of calcium until the onset of the Agricultural Age, 10,000 years ago. Current calcium intake is one-quarter to one-third that of our evolutionary diet and, if we are genetically identical to the Late Paleolithic Homo sapiens, we may be consuming a calcium-deficient diet our bodies cannot adjust to by physiologic mechanisms. Meta-analyses of calcium

  2. Sanitary dips with calcium propionate, calcium chloride, or a calcium amino acid chelate maintain quality and shelf stability of fresh-cut honeydew chunks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Saftner; Jinhe Bai; Judith A. Abbott; Yuen S. Lee

    2003-01-01

    Freshly cut honeydew chunks were dipped for 30 s in a solution containing 1.9 mM hypochlorous acid (ClO) without or with a 40 mM concentration of calcium (Ca) propionate, Ca amino acid chelate formulation (Ca chelate), calcium chloride (CaCl2), or not treated. Respiration and ethylene production rates, firmness, translucency, microbiological and sensory characteristics, surface color, volatile abundance, and tissue calcium

  3. Inhibiting MAP Kinase Activity Prevents Calcium Transients and Mitosis Entry in Early Sea Urchin Embryos*

    E-print Network

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    Inhibiting MAP Kinase Activity Prevents Calcium Transients and Mitosis Entry in Early Sea Urchin Kingdom A transient calcium increase triggers nuclear enve- lope breakdown (mitosis entry) in sea urchin embryos. Cdk1/cyclin B kinase activation is also known to be re- quired for mitosis entry. More recently

  4. Trial of calcium for preeclampsia prevention (CPEP): Rationale, design, and methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Levine; Joy R. Esterlitz; Elizabeth G. Raymond; Rebecca DerSimonian; John C. Hauth; L. Ben Curet; Baha M. Sibai; Patrick M. Catalano; Cynthia D. Morris; John D. Clemens; Marian G. Ewell; Steven A. Friedman; Robert L. Goldenberg; Sig-Linda Jacobson; Gary M. Joffe; Mark A. Klebanoff; Alice S. Petrulis; Jose G. Rigau-Perez

    1996-01-01

    The results of ten clinical trials suggest that supplemental calcium may prevent preeclampsia. However, methodologic problems and differences in study design limit the acceptance of the results and their relevance to other patient populations. Many of the trials were conducted in countries where, unlike the United States, the usual daily diet contained little calcium. Moreover, none of the trials has

  5. Calcium and Cancer Prevention: Strengths and Limits of the Evidence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... involved more than 30,000 women in the Women’s Health Study found a reduced risk of breast cancer associated ... intakes of calcium among premenopausal but not postmenopausal women ( 24 ). In this study, higher versus lower calcium intakes from the diet, ...

  6. Lifelong calcium intake and prevention of bone fragility in the aged

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P. Heaney

    1991-01-01

    Summary  Primary prevention of osteoporosis involves achieving the full genetic potential for bone mass. Secondary prevention is concerned\\u000a with protecting what bone mass a woman may have at her current age. Calcium plays an important role in both. Calcium requirement\\u000a varies with stage of growth, with physiological drains (e.g., pregnancy and lactation), and with factors that influence absorption\\u000a and excretory loss

  7. Improved Organic Acid Production by Calcium Alginate-Immobilized Propionibacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A Rickert; Charles E Glatz; Bonita A Glatz

    1998-01-01

    Propionic and acetic acid production by Propionibacterium cells immobilized in calcium alginate beads was evaluated in 12-h repeated-batch fermentations on glucose and lactate as primary carbon sources. Beads contained approximately 2 × 1011 cells g?1 (wet weight) and were added at 40% of broth volume. High initial substrate concentrations (up to 115 gl?1 glucose and up to 78 gl?1 lactate)

  8. Vitamin D/Calcium Polyp Prevention Study | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Extensive experimental and observational data suggest that intake of calcium and of vitamin D exert protective effects on colorectal neoplasia. Building on their previous work, the investigators will investigate the chemopreventive effect of vitamin D in the large bowel, to study whether calcium with vitamin D is more effective than calcium alone, and to confirm their positive finding regarding calcium.

  9. Aluminum Citrate Prevents Renal Injury from Calcium Oxalate Crystal Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Besenhofer, Lauren M.; Cain, Marie C.; Dunning, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals are responsible for the kidney injury associated with exposure to ethylene glycol or severe hyperoxaluria. Current treatment strategies target the formation of calcium oxalate but not its interaction with kidney tissue. Because aluminum citrate blocks calcium oxalate binding and toxicity in human kidney cells, it may provide a different therapeutic approach to calcium oxalate-induced injury. Here, we tested the effects of aluminum citrate and sodium citrate in a Wistar rat model of acute high-dose ethylene glycol exposure. Aluminum citrate, but not sodium citrate, attenuated increases in urea nitrogen, creatinine, and the ratio of kidney to body weight in ethylene glycol–treated rats. Compared with ethylene glycol alone, the addition of aluminum citrate significantly increased the urinary excretion of both crystalline calcium and crystalline oxalate and decreased the deposition of crystals in renal tissue. In vitro, aluminum citrate interacted directly with oxalate crystals to inhibit their uptake by proximal tubule cells. These results suggest that treating with aluminum citrate attenuates renal injury in rats with severe ethylene glycol toxicity, apparently by inhibiting calcium oxalate’s interaction with, and retention by, the kidney epithelium. PMID:23138489

  10. Aluminum citrate prevents renal injury from calcium oxalate crystal deposition.

    PubMed

    Besenhofer, Lauren M; Cain, Marie C; Dunning, Cody; McMartin, Kenneth E

    2012-12-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals are responsible for the kidney injury associated with exposure to ethylene glycol or severe hyperoxaluria. Current treatment strategies target the formation of calcium oxalate but not its interaction with kidney tissue. Because aluminum citrate blocks calcium oxalate binding and toxicity in human kidney cells, it may provide a different therapeutic approach to calcium oxalate-induced injury. Here, we tested the effects of aluminum citrate and sodium citrate in a Wistar rat model of acute high-dose ethylene glycol exposure. Aluminum citrate, but not sodium citrate, attenuated increases in urea nitrogen, creatinine, and the ratio of kidney to body weight in ethylene glycol-treated rats. Compared with ethylene glycol alone, the addition of aluminum citrate significantly increased the urinary excretion of both crystalline calcium and crystalline oxalate and decreased the deposition of crystals in renal tissue. In vitro, aluminum citrate interacted directly with oxalate crystals to inhibit their uptake by proximal tubule cells. These results suggest that treating with aluminum citrate attenuates renal injury in rats with severe ethylene glycol toxicity, apparently by inhibiting calcium oxalate's interaction with, and retention by, the kidney epithelium. PMID:23138489

  11. Calcium ion binding to a soil fulvic acid using a donnan potential model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marinsky, J.A.; Mathuthu, A.; Ephraim, J.H.; Reddy, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium ion binding to a soil fulvic acid (Armadale Bh Horizon) was evaluated over a range of calcium ion concentrations, from pH 3.8 to 7.3, using potentiometric titrations and calcium ion electrode measurements. Fulvic acid concentration was constant (100 milligrams per liter) and calcium ion concentration varied up to 8 X 10-4 moles per liter. Experiments discussed here included: (1) titrations of fulvic acid-calcium ion containing solutions with sodium hydroxide; and (2) titrations of fully neutralized fulvic acid with calcium chloride solutions. Apparent binding constants (expressed as the logarithm of the value, log ??app) vary with solution pH, calcium ion concentration, degree of acid dissociation, and ionic strength (from log ??app = 2.5 to 3.9) and are similar to those reported by others. Fulvic acid charge, and the associated Donnan Potential, influences calcium ion-fulvic acid ion pair formation. A Donnan Potential corrrection term allowed calculation of intrinsic calcium ion-fulvic acid binding constants. Intrinsic binding constants vary from 1.2 to 2.5 (the average value is about log??= 1.6) and are similar to, but somewhat higher than, stability constants for calcium ion-carboxylic acid monodentate complexes. ?? by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Mu??nchen.

  12. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Store-Operated Calcium Entry Contribute to Usnic Acid-Induced Toxicity in Hepatic Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Zhang, Zhuhong; Wu, Yuanfeng; Shi, Qiang; Yan, Hua; Mei, Nan; Tolleson, William H; Guo, Lei

    2015-07-01

    The use of usnic acid as a weight loss agent is a safety concern due to reports of acute liver failure in humans. Previously we demonstrated that usnic acid induces apoptosis and cytotoxicity in hepatic HepG2 cells. We also demonstrated that usnic acid induces autophagy as a survival mechanism against its cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated and characterized further molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of usnic acid in HepG2 cells. We found that usnic acid causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress demonstrated by the increased expression of typical ER stress markers, including CHOP, ATF-4, p-eIF2?, and spliced XBP1. Usnic acid inhibited the secretion of Gaussia luciferase measured by an ER stress reporter assay. An ER stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyrate attenuated usnic acid-induced apoptosis. Moreover, usnic acid significantly increased the cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration. Usnic acid increased the expression of calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1 (CRAM1 or ORAI1) and stromal interaction molecule 1, two key components of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), which is the major Ca(2+) influx pathway in non-excitable cells, this finding was also confirmed in primary rat hepatocytes. Furthermore, knockdown of ORAI1 prevented ER stress and ATP depletion in response to usnic acid. In contrast, overexpression of ORAI1 increased ER stress and ATP depletion caused by usnic acid. Taken together, our results suggest that usnic acid disturbs calcium homeostasis, induces ER stress, and that usnic acid-induced cellular damage occurs at least partially via activation of the Ca(2+) channel of SOCE. PMID:25870318

  13. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Calcium Fact Sheet for Consumers What is calcium and what does it do? Calcium is a ... find out more about calcium? Disclaimer How much calcium do I need? The amount of calcium you ...

  14. Soil-calcium depletion linked to acid rain and forest growth in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Huntington, T.G.

    1999-01-01

    Since the discovery of acid rain in the 1970's, scientists have been concerned that deposition of acids could cause depletion of calcium in forest soils. Research in the 1980's showed that the amount of calcium in forest soils is controlled by several factors that are difficult to measure. Further research in the 1990's, including several studies by the U.S. Geological Survey, has shown that (1) calcium in forest soils has decreased at locations in the northeastern and southeastern U.S., and (2) acid rain and forest growth (uptake of calcium from the soil by roots) are both factors contributing to calcium depletion.

  15. Original article Effect of calcium and mineral waters on oleic-acid

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Effect of calcium and mineral waters on oleic-acid uptake by isolated hamster) Summary ― The effect of calcium upon the uptake of oleic acid solubilized with 10 mM taurocholate (Hanks' medium) led to a decrease in oleic-acid uptake. This uptake inhibition was dependent on both

  16. Interactions between red light, abscisic acid, and calcium in gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leopold, A. C.; LaFavre, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of red light on orthogravitropism of Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots has been attributed to its effects on the transduction phase of gravitropism (AC Leopold, SH Wettlaufer [1988] Plant Physiol 87:803-805). In an effort to characterize the orthogravitropic transduction system, comparative experiments have been carried out on the effects of red light, calcium, and abscisic acid (ABA). The red light effect can be completely satisfied with added ABA (100 micromolar) or with osmotic shock, which is presumed to increase endogenous ABA. The decay of the red light effect is closely paralleled by the decay of the ABA effect. ABA and exogenous calcium show strong additive effects when applied to either Merit or a line of corn which does not require red light for orthogravitropism. Measurements of the ABA content show marked increases in endogenous ABA in the growing region of the roots after red light. The interpretation is offered that red light or ABA may serve to increase the cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium, and that this may be an integral part of orthogravitropic transduction.

  17. Causative and preventive action of calcium in cataractogenesis1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Purshottam Das GUPTA; Kaid JOHAR; Abhay VASAVADA

    Calcium and Ca-dependent enzymes play specific role in the development of human cataracts. Entry of Ca2+ into the lens epithelial cells (LEC) is highly regulated by quantum of receptors. The Ca2+ level controls homeostasis and growth of entire lens. Intracellular overload of Ca2+ in the LEC trigger a series of events such as activation of Ca-dependent enzymes, irreversible breakdown of

  18. Maleic Acid – but Not Structurally Related Methylmalonic Acid – Interrupts Energy Metabolism by Impaired Calcium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bei-Tzu; Okun, Jürgen Günther; Kölker, Stefan; Morath, Marina Alexandra; Sauer, Sven Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Maleic acid (MA) has been shown to induce Fanconi syndrome via disturbance of renal energy homeostasis, though the underlying pathomechanism is still under debate. Our study aimed to examine the pathomechanism underlying maleic acid-induced nephrotoxicity. Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is structurally similar to MA and accumulates in patients affected with methymalonic aciduria, a defect in the degradation of branched-chain amino acids, odd-chain fatty acids and cholesterol, which is associated with the development of tubulointerstitial nephritis resulting in chronic renal failure. We therefore used MMA application as a control experiment in our study and stressed hPTECs with MA and MMA to further validate the specificity of our findings. MMA did not show any toxic effects on proximal tubule cells, whereas maleic acid induced concentration-dependent and time-dependent cell death shown by increased lactate dehydrogenase release as well as ethidium homodimer and calcein acetoxymethyl ester staining. The toxic effect of MA was blocked by administration of single amino acids, in particular L-alanine and L-glutamate. MA application further resulted in severe impairment of cellular energy homeostasis on the level of glycolysis, respiratory chain, and citric acid cycle resulting in ATP depletion. As underlying mechanism we could identify disturbance of calcium homeostasis. MA toxicity was critically dependent on calcium levels in culture medium and blocked by the extra- and intracellular calcium chelators EGTA and BAPTA-AM respectively. Moreover, MA-induced cell death was associated with activation of calcium-dependent calpain proteases. In summary, our study shows a comprehensive pathomechanistic concept for MA-induced dysfunction and damage of human proximal tubule cells. PMID:26086473

  19. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of calcium dietary supplements are carbonate and citrate. Calcium carbonate is inexpensive, but is absorbed best when taken ... antacid products, such as Tums® and Rolaids®, contain calcium carbonate. Each pill or chew provides 200–400 mg ...

  20. Effect of acid rain on calcium carbonate saturation in the Albemarle sound of North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, K.A.; Burgess, S.K.; Willey, J.D.; Kieber, R.J. [Univ. of North Carolina, Wilmington, NC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The effects of acidic rainwater additions on calcium carbonate solubility and alkalinity in the poorly buffered, biologically active and commercially important waters of the Albemarle Sound, NC are reported. Samples collected monthly at four sites were analyzed for salinity, pK total alkalinity, and calcium concentrations. Five percent and 10% dilutions of sulfuric acid at pH 4, mimicking acid rain additions, were added and total alkalinity and calcium concentrations again determined. The addition of acid decreased the alkalinity in the Albemarle samples by as much as 15%, although the magnitude of the impact depended both on site and season. The effects of acid additions on dissolved calcium concentrations were more variable,. and also displayed a site and season dependency. Calcium concentrations, alkalinity, and pH values were also determined during controlled laboratory experiments, where 25 mg/L Callinectes sapidus shells were added to Albemarle Sound water. All three analytes increased significantly upon acid additions relative to controls.

  1. Global Prevention of All Folic Acid-Preventable Spina bifida and Anencephaly by 2010

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2002-01-01

    Folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly are pandemic, affecting 225,000 children a year. These birth defects are as preventable as polio. As we near the eradication of polio, it is time to make the commitment to global prevention of all folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly (FA-P SBA) by 2010. Folic acid fortification of centrally processed foods, such as wheat

  2. Calcium Sulfate Formation and Mitigation when Seawater was Used to Prepare HCl-Based Acids 

    E-print Network

    He, Jia

    2012-02-14

    It has been a practice to use seawater for preparing acid in offshore operations where fresh water is relatively expensive or logistically impossible to use. However, hydrochloric acid will release calcium ion into solution, ...

  3. J Bone Miner Res . Author manuscript Proteins, dietary acid load, and calcium and risk of postmenopausal

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with increasing animal protein intake was also observed (p trend the association between protein intake and the overall acid-base equilibrium of the diet (as renal net acid of calcium (protein intake was associated with a significant increased fracture

  4. Calcium Sulfate Formation and Mitigation when Seawater was Used to Prepare HCl-Based Acids

    E-print Network

    He, Jia

    2012-02-14

    It has been a practice to use seawater for preparing acid in offshore operations where fresh water is relatively expensive or logistically impossible to use. However, hydrochloric acid will release calcium ion into solution, which will combine...

  5. Propionic Acid and Calcium Propionate in Diets for Egg-Type Layers and Broiler Chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Oruwari

    1993-01-01

    Oruwari, B.M. 1993. Propionic acid and calcium propionate in diets for egg-type layers and broiler chicks. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 3:73–81.Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of low levels of supplemental propionic acid or calcium propionate on performance when these nutrients were included in diets for laying hens and broiler chickens. A supplementation of 1g calcium propionate\\/kg significantly

  6. Comparative effects of oral aromatic and branched-chain amino acids on urine calcium and excretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aromatic amino acids (AAAs) bind to the calcium sensor receptor (CaR) but branched-chain amino acids (B-CAAs) do not; by binding to this receptor, AAAs have an increased potential to affect calcium homeostasis. This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of AAAs and B-CAAs on calci...

  7. CO.sub.2 Pretreatment prevents calcium carbonate formation

    DOEpatents

    Neavel, Richard C. (Baytown, TX); Brunson, Roy J. (Buffalo Grove, IL); Chaback, Joseph J. (Worthington, OH)

    1980-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by pretreatment with carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding carbonate prior to liquefaction. The pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 14 to about 68 atmospheres and a carbon dioxide partial pressure within the range from about 14 to about 34 atmospheres. Temperature during pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 100.degree. to about 200.degree. C.

  8. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with soft bones that you eat, such as canned sardines and salmon Calcium-enriched foods such as breakfast ... tofu. Check the product labels. The exact amount of calcium you need ...

  9. Effects of oral calcium gluconate on gastric acid secretion and serum gastrin concentration in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M J Brodie; P C Ganguli; A Fine; T J Thomson

    1977-01-01

    A single oral dose of 4-46 mmol calcium gluconate at pH 5-6 was administered intragastrically to 15 male volunteers without gastrointestinal disease. There was a significant rise in acid output from 30-90 minutes after the calcium was given compared with the basal hourly collection. The serum gastrin level 30 minutes after calcium administration was significantly raised, but no correlation could

  10. Nonstarter Lactic Acid Bacteria and Aging Temperature Affect Calcium Lactate Crystallization in Cheddar Cheese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-E. Chou; C. G. Edwards; L. O. Luedecke; M. P. Bates; S. Clark

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of unappetizing calcium lactate crys- tals in Cheddar cheese is a challenge and expense to manufacturers, and this research was designed to un- derstand their origin. It was hypothesized that non- starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) affect calcium lac- tate crystallization (CLC) by producing D(?)-lactate. This study was designed to understand the effect of NSLAB growth and aging

  11. Development of poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) composites for calcium carbonate and sulphate scale inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mithil Kumar, N; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Jagadeesh, Dani; Kanny, K; Bux, F

    2015-05-01

    Polyaspartic acid (PSI) is suitable for the inhibition of inorganic scale deposition. To enhance its scale inhibition efficiency, PSI was modified by reacting aspartic acid with malic acid (MA) using thermal polycondensation polymerization. This reaction resulted in poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) (PSI-co-MA) dual polymer. The structural, chemical and thermal properties of the dual polymers were analysed by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and gel permeation chromatography. The effectiveness of six different molar ratios of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate scale inhibition at laboratory scale batch experiments was evaluated with synthetic brine solution at selected doses of polymer at 65-70°C by the static scale test method. The performance of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for the inhibition of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate precipitation was compared with that of a PSI single polymer. The PSI-co-MA exhibited excellent ability to control inorganic minerals, with approximately 85.36% calcium carbonate inhibition and 100% calcium sulphate inhibition at a level of 10?mg/L PSI-co-MA, respectively. Therefore, it may be reasonably concluded that PSI-co-MA is a highly effective scale inhibitor for cooling water treatment applications. PMID:25371160

  12. Long-Chain Fatty Acids Activate Calcium Channels in Ventricular Myocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, James Min-Che; Xian, Hu; Bacaner, Marvin

    1992-07-01

    Nonesterified fatty acids accumulate at sites of tissue injury and necrosis. In cardiac tissue the concentrations of oleic acid, arachidonic acid, leukotrienes, and other fatty acids increase greatly during ischemia due to receptor or nonreceptor-mediated activation of phospholipases and/or diminished reacylation. In ischemic myocardium, the time course of increase in fatty acids and tissue calcium closely parallels irreversible cardiac damage. We postulated that fatty acids released from membrane phospholipids may be involved in the increase of intracellular calcium. We report here that low concentrations (3-30 ?M) of each long-chain unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic) and saturated (palmitic, stearic, and arachidic) fatty acid tested induced multifold increases in voltage-dependent calcium currents (ICa) in cardiac myocytes. In contrast, neither short-chain fatty acids (<12 carbons) or fatty acid esters (oleic and palmitic methyl esters) had any effect on ICa, indicating that activation of calcium channels depended on chain length and required a free carboxyl group. Inhibition of protein kinases C and A, G proteins, eicosanoid production, or nonenzymatic oxidation did not block the fatty acid-induced increase in ICa. Thus, long-chain fatty acids appear to directly activate ICa, possibly by acting at some lipid sites near the channels or directly on the channel protein itself. We suggest that the combined effects of fatty acids released during ischemia on ICa may contribute to ischemia-induced pathogenic events on the heart that involve calcium, such as arrhythmias, conduction disturbances, and myocardial damage due to cytotoxic calcium overload.

  13. Developing precipitation modes for preventing the calcium-oxalate contamination of sugar beet pectins.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoming; Meng, Hecheng; Zhu, Siming; Tang, Qiang; Pan, Runquan; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-09-01

    Effects of precipitation modes on the co-precipitation of insoluble oxalates particles during the purification of sugar beet pectins (SBP) from the extract were investigated. It was observed that soluble oxalate ions formed insoluble oxalate salts with calcium and precipitated with pectins during ethanol precipitation as pH of the medium increased and the solvent changed from water to ethanol-water mixture. Comparison among the employed precipitation methods revealed that both the dialysis-ethanol-precipitation and metal precipitation effectively prevented the calcium-oxalate contamination of SBP. Emulsifying properties of DEPP, EPP and MPP were also studied. It was observed that DEPP performed better than the remainder with respect to emulsifying ability. Based on these results, we concluded that the dialysis-ethanolic-precipitation can be a suitable method for improving the purity as well as emulsifying properties of the resulting pectins. PMID:25842309

  14. Lasting neuron depression induced by high potassium and its prevention by low calcium and NMDA receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Jing, J; Aitken, P G; Somjen, G G

    1991-08-23

    Spreading depression-like neuron depolarization was induced in CA1 of hippocampal tissue slices by irrigation with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 133.5 mM K+ for 8-40 min. Evoked responses disappeared during irrigation with high-K+ solution. Following 8-20 min irrigation orthodromic responses showed a triphasic recovery cycle: early partial return with evidence of neuron hyperexcitability, then secondary depression and finally slow partial recovery. After 30 min or more of high-K+ exposure, ortho- and antidromic responses remained severely depressed for at least 5.5 to 6.5 h. When, however, the tissue was deprived of calcium, or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors were blocked by 10 microM 3-((+-)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP), then evoked responses recovered partially after a 30- or 40-min high-K+ exposure. Post-exposure hyperexcitability was not prevented by CPP. We conclude that prolonged depolarization by elevated K+ causes irreversible neuron damage, which is triggered or accelerated by influx of calcium ions into neurons, mediated in part by NMDA receptor activation. PMID:1660751

  15. Protein kinase inhibitors prevent junction dissociation induced by low extracellular calcium in MDCK epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    When epithelial cell cultures are transferred from a medium with a normal extracellular calcium concentration (1-2 mM) to a medium with a low extracellular calcium concentration (LC, less than 50 microM free Ca2+) cell-cell contacts are disrupted, and the tight junction- dependent transepithelial resistance drops. In this study, I used MDCK epithelial cells to investigate the effects of LC on the localization of the tight junction protein cingulin, and the role of protein kinases in the events induced by LC. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that within 15 min of incubation of confluent monolayers in LC, cingulin labeling was dislocated from the cell periphery, as an array of granules forming a ring-like structure. At later times after calcium removal, cingulin labeling appeared mostly cytoplasmic, in a diffuse and granular pattern, and cells appeared rounded and smaller. These events were not influenced by lack of serum, or by preincubation with 10 mM sodium azide or 6 mg/ml of cycloheximide. However, the disruption of cell-cell contacts, the cell shape changes, and the redistribution of cingulin and other junctional proteins induced by LC were inhibited when cells were pretreated with the protein kinase inhibitor H-7 (greater than or equal to 30 microM). The inhibitors H-8 and, to a lesser degree, staurosporine were also effective, whereas HA-1004 and ML-7 showed essentially no activity, suggesting a specificity of action of different inhibitors. Measurement of the transepithelial resistance showed that the kinase inhibitors that could prevent junction disassembly could also reduce the drop in transepithelial resistance induced by LC. Dose-response curves demonstrated that H-7 is the most effective among the inhibitors, and the transepithelial resistance was 70% of control up to 1 h after calcium removal. These results suggest that low extracellular calcium modulates junctional integrity and cytoskeletal organization through an effector system involving protein kinases. PMID:1556151

  16. Perlwapin, an abalone nacre protein with three four-disulfide core (whey acidic protein) domains, inhibits the growth of calcium carbonate crystals.

    PubMed

    Treccani, Laura; Mann, Karlheinz; Heinemann, Fabian; Fritz, Monika

    2006-10-01

    We have isolated a new protein from the nacreous layer of the shell of the sea snail Haliotis laevigata (abalone). Amino acid sequence analysis showed the protein to consist of 134 amino acids and to contain three sequence repeats of approximately 40 amino acids which were very similar to the well-known whey acidic protein domains of other proteins. The new protein was therefore named perlwapin. In addition to the major sequence, we identified several minor variants. Atomic force microscopy was used to explore the interaction of perlwapin with calcite crystals. Monomolecular layers of calcite crystals dissolve very slowly in deionized water and recrystallize in supersaturated calcium carbonate solution. When perlwapin was dissolved in the supersaturated calcium carbonate solution, growth of the crystal was inhibited immediately. Perlwapin molecules bound tightly to distinct step edges, preventing the crystal layers from growing. Using lower concentrations of perlwapin in a saturated calcium carbonate solution, we could distinguish native, active perlwapin molecules from denaturated ones. These observations showed that perlwapin can act as a growth inhibitor for calcium carbonate crystals in saturated calcium carbonate solution. The function of perlwapin in nacre growth may be to inhibit the growth of certain crystallographic planes in the mineral phase of the polymer/mineral composite nacre. PMID:16861275

  17. [Effect of calcium on medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid in Salvia miltiorrhiza suspension cultures].

    PubMed

    Liu, Liancheng; Wang, Cong; Dong, Juan'e; Su, Hui; Zhuo, Zequn; Xue, Yaxin

    2013-07-01

    We studied medium alkalinization in Salvia miltiorrhiza suspension cultures treated with salicylic acid and the effect of Ca2+ in this process through application of calcium channel antagonists (Verapamil, LaCl3, LiCl, 2-APB) and ionophore A23187. The results show that salicylic acid could induce significant medium alkalinization in S. miltiorrhiza culture. Verapamil and LaCl3 or LiCl and 2-APB, two different groups of calcium channel antagonist, significantly inhibited the medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid. However, the suppression effect of verapamil or LaCl3 on medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid was higher than that of LiCl or 2-APB. When two types of calcium channel inhibitor (LaCl3 and 2-APB) were used together, the medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid was completely suppressed and even reduced the pH in medium. On the other hand, A23187 could promote the medium alkalinization. Based on the results above, we speculated that salicylic acid could induce significant medium alkalinization in S. miltiorrhiza culture, depending on the calcium from both extracell and intracell. Moreover, calcium from extracell plays a more dominant role in this process. Reveal of relationship in this research between Ca2+ and medium alkalinization can provide theory evidence for mechanism of the plant secondary metabolism. PMID:24195365

  18. Solvent Extraction Behavior of Magnesium and Calcium in Versatic Acid-Amine Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil K. De; Syamal Ray

    1974-01-01

    Quantitative extraction of calcium and magnesium in high molecular weight carboxylic acid, versatic-9, and amine systems is reported. Butanol was used as diluent. The study includes the extraction behavior as a function of pH by controlled addition of amines, such as monoethanol amine, diethanol amine, and triethanol amine, the effect of diluent, solvent concentration, and different high molecular carboxylic acids

  19. BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF CALCIUM SORBENTS FOR ACID GAS EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Calcium sorbents for acid gas emission control were evaluated for effectiveness in removing SO2/HCl and SO2/NO from simulated incinerator and boiler flue gases. All tests were conducted in a bench-scale reactor (fixed-bed) simulating fabric filter conditions in an acid gas remova...

  20. A new approach in biomimetic synthesis of calcium phosphate coatings using lactic acidNa lactate buffered body fluid solution

    E-print Network

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    A new approach in biomimetic synthesis of calcium phosphate coatings using lactic acid­Na lactate phosphate Coating Biomimetic a b s t r a c t The main objective of this study was to investigate calcium,3]. More recently, calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings, such as hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), have been

  1. [Preventive and remineralization effect over incipient lesions of caries decay by phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate].

    PubMed

    Juárez-López, María Lilia Adriana; Hernández-Palacios, Rosa Diana; Hernández-Guerrero, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-Farfán, Dolores; Molina-Frechero, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Dental caries continues to affect a large percentage of Mexican children and currently advises that if diagnosed at an early stage can be reversed with minimally invasive treatments. The casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate known as CPP-ACP is a phosphoprotein capable of releasing calcium and phosphate ions in the oral environment promoting remineralization. OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP with fluoride added in a scholar preventive program. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A cuasi- experimental study was conducted in 104 schools of six years old. The children were classified into three groups and received six months biweekly applications of different treatments: casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate added fluoride (CPP-ACPF), sodium fluoride (NaF) and a control group. Clinical evaluation was performed with the laser fluorescence technique (Diagnodent model 2095). 1340 teeth were included: 294 teeth with incipient lesions and 1,046 healthy teeth. Statistical tests of ?2 y Mc Nemar were used. RESULTS. In the group that received the application of CPP-ACPF, 38% of incipient carious lesions were remineralizing compared with 21% in the group receiving the NaF (p < 0.001) and 15% in the control group (p < 0.0001) The percentage of teeth free of caries were preserved in the therapy group phosphoprotein was the biggest. This group also showed the lower proportion of deep carious lesion development (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION. The application biweekly for six months of CPP-ACPF showed a protective and remineralizing effect on incipient carious lesions. His action was better than the application of NaF. However, to reduce the impact from dental caries in schoolchildren is important to have a comprehensive preventive approach that includes promoting self-care, as well as the application of sealants. PMID:24960324

  2. Prevention of Birth Defects: Folic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Williamson

    2001-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) comprise an important category contributing to infant mortality. While some NTDs may be due to identifiable inherited or specific environmental factors, most are multifactorial, with genetic and environmental factors contributing to their occurrence. Folic acid has been found to have a protective effect against the recurrence and occurrence of NTDs. In addition to natural dietary sources,

  3. A Randomized Trial of Low-Animal-Protein or High-Fiber Diets for Secondary Prevention of Calcium Nephrolithiasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertrand Dussol; Cecilia Iovanna; Michel Rotily; Sophie Morange; Françoise Leonetti; Patricia Dupuy; Alain Vazi; Adriana Saveanu; Anderson Loundou; Yvon Berland

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a low-animal-protein diet (LAPD) or a high-fiber diet (HFD) for the prevention of calcium nephrolithiasis recurrence. Methods: We conducted a 4-year randomized trial comparing the effect of 2 diets in 175 idiopathic calcium stone formers. Fifty-five were assigned to a LAPD (<13% of total energy derived from protein),

  4. Mechanism of action of a desensitizing fluoride toothpaste delivering calcium and phosphate ingredients in the treatment of dental hypersensitivity. Part III: Prevention of dye penetration through dentin vs a calcium- and phosphate-free control.

    PubMed

    Winston, Anthony E; Charig, Andrew J; Thong, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the pain of dental hypersensitivity resulting from gum recession is from the movement of fluid within the exposed tubules of dentin, causing changes in pressure on the nerve within the pulpal cavity. One method of treating hypersensitivity is to occlude the tubules, preventing fluid movement. This article discusses the use of a dye penetration technique, which establishes this mechanism of action for a desensitizing fluoride toothpaste containing calcium and phosphate. Two groups of intact teeth were perfectly sealed with enamel paint. Windows 100-micro to 200-micro deep were opened on opposite sides of each tooth at the dentin-enamel junction and briefly etched using 20% polyacrylic acid. One batch of teeth was treated eight times for 30 mins each with a 1:3 slurry of the desensitizing toothpaste and another set with a similar slurry prepared from a calcium- and phosphate-free control. A 0.85% aqueous solution of acid red fuchsin dye was applied to each window and allowed to dry. After a brief rinse, the teeth were sectioned across the windows. Almost no dye penetration was seen in teeth treated with the desensitizing toothpaste; however, extensive penetration through the dentin was visible in the control-treated teeth. The differences in dye penetration for the two sets of teeth were significant by both subjective (P < .001) and objective (P < .01) measures. Tubule occlusion because of calcium and phosphate ions from the desensitizing toothpaste accounts for its tooth desensitizing efficacy. PMID:20158016

  5. Low-dose calcium supplementation for preventing pre-eclampsia: a systematic review and commentary

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeyr, GJ; Belizán, JM; von Dadelszen, P

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data link low dietary calcium with pre-eclampsia. Current recommendations are for 1.5–2 g/day calcium supplementation for low-intake pregnant women, based on randomised controlled trials of ?1 g/day calcium supplementation from 20 weeks of gestation. This is problematic logistically in low-resource settings; excessive calcium may be harmful; and 20 weeks may be too late to alter outcomes. Objectives To review the impact of lower dose calcium supplementation on pre-eclampsia risk. Search strategy and selection criteria We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register. Data collection and analysis Two authors extracted data from eligible randomised and quasi-randomised trials of low-dose calcium (LDC, <1 g/day), with or without other supplements. Main results Pre-eclampsia was reduced consistently with LDC with or without co-supplements (nine trials, 2234 women, relative risk [RR] 0.38; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.28–0.52), as well as for subgroups: LDC alone (four trials, 980 women, RR 0.36; 95% CI 0.23–0.57]); LDC plus linoleic acid (two trials, 134 women, RR 0.23; 95% CI 0.09–0.60); LDC plus vitamin D (two trials, 1060 women, RR 0.49; 0.31–0.78) and a trend for LDC plus antioxidants (one trial, 60 women, RR 0.24; 95% CI 0.06–1.01). Overall results were consistent with the single quality trial of LDC alone (171 women, RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.06–1.38). LDC plus antioxidants commencing at 8–12 weeks tended to reduce miscarriage (one trial, 60 women, RR 0.06; 95% CI 0.00–1.04). Conclusions These limited data are consistent with LDC reducing the risk of pre-eclampsia; confirming this in sufficiently powered randomised controlled trials would have implications for current guidelines and their global implementation. PMID:24621141

  6. Nicotinic acid modulates intracellular calcium concentration and disassembles the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiejing; Li, Yanxi; Zhang, Penghui; Niu, Hua; Shi, Yu

    2014-12-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA), a member of the vitamin B family, is well known for its functions in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis due to decreasing plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In recent years, the major side effect of NA, cutaneous flushing, has also attracted extensive attention. However, the effects of NA in other aspects of physiology or cell biology have remained elusive. The present study provided evidence that high concentrations of NA were able to first reduce and later elevate intracellular [Ca2+] in the NIH3T3 cell line. The reduction of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration was achieved within the initial 10 sec, and was preceded by a gradual elevation of intracellular [Ca2+]. Notably, marked accumulation of opaque materials in the perinuclear region was observed in NIH3T3 cells treated with 70 mM NA. Further analysis revealed that treatment with 70 mM NA for 1 h disassembled the microtubule and F?actin cytoskeleton systems and resulted in ??tubulin degradation in an ubiquitin?proteasome-dependent manner. These data indicated that high concentrations of NA disrupted cytoskeleton structures, which may have contributed to minus end (nucleus region) to plus end (cell membrane region)-directed transport processes and resulted in the deposition of material in the perinuclear region. Artificially increasing [Ca2+] adding CaCl2 to the culture media effected the disassembly of F?actin, while it had no apparent effect on microtubules. These results suggested that the disruption of the cytoskeleton systems was not entirely due to the NA-induced elevation of [Ca2+]. Finally, microinjection of NA into xenopus embryos blocked the transport of melanosomes to the peripheral cellular area. In conclusion, the present study indicated that NA disassembles F?actin and microtubule systems, thereby blocking cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular transport. PMID:25241762

  7. Improvement of Tear Trough by Monophasic Hyaluronic Acid and Calcium Hydroxylapatite

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Tear trough deformities are a sign of facial aging. The anatomical base is well understood. In many patients, minimal invasive surgical procedures are useful to improve appearance. Here, the authors describe the use of monophasic hyaluronic acid dermal filler and calcium hydroxylapatite injection for correction. Forty female patients with a mean age of 50 years have been treated. On average, an improvement of one class of Hidman’s severity score could be achieved by single treatment. Mean duration of the effect was 10.1 months for hyaluronic acid and 12.8 months for calcium hydroxylapatite. Adverse effects were mild and temporary. Patients satisfaction was high (95%). PMID:25371770

  8. Production of citric and oxalic acids and solubilization of calcium phosphate by Penicillium bilaii.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, J E; Kuiack, C

    1992-01-01

    An isolate of Penicillium bilaii previously reported to solubilize mineral phosphates and enhance plant uptake of phosphate was studied. Using agar media with calcium phosphate and the pH indicator alizarin red S, the influence of the medium composition on phosphate solubility and medium acidification was recorded. The major acidic metabolites produced by P. bilaii in a sucrose nitrate liquid medium were found to be oxalic acid and citric acid. Citric acid production was promoted under nitrogen-limited conditions, while oxalic acid production was promoted under carbon-limited conditions. Citric acid was produced in both growth and stationary phases, but oxalic acid production occurred only in stationary phase. When submerged cultures which normally produce acid were induced to sporulate, the culture medium shifted toward alkaline rather than acid reaction with growth. PMID:1622211

  9. Gibberellic acid and abscisic acid coordinately regulate cytoplasmic calcium and secretory activity in barley aleurone protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, S; Jones, R L

    1992-04-15

    The effects of gibberellic acid (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA) on the temporal and spatial dynamics of cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in aleurone protoplasts of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Himalaya) were measured by using fluorescence ratio analysis and confocal microscopy. After 4-6 h of treatment, GA3 induced a sustained increase in [Ca2+]i from 50 to 150 nM in aleurone protoplasts. The increase in [Ca2+]i preceded the GA3-induced increase in alpha-amylase synthesis and secretion by 4 h. The elevation of [Ca2+]i was highest in the peripheral cytoplasm and may play a role in coordinating the secretory events there. Reducing Ca2+ levels in the incubation medium to below 500 microM inhibited the increase in [Ca2+]i and the GA3-induced stimulation of alpha-amylase synthesis and secretion. These data suggest that GA3 may increase [Ca2+]i by increasing the influx of Ca2+ at the plasma membrane. ABA reversed the effect of GA3 on [Ca2+]i within 3 h, 2 h before its effect on alpha-amylase production could be detected. Thus changes in [Ca2+]i may play a role in mediating the effects of GA3 and ABA on the synthesis and secretion of alpha-amylase in the aleurone cell. PMID:1533046

  10. Calcium-dependent phospholipid catabolism and arachidonic acid mobilization in cerebral minces

    SciTech Connect

    Damron, D.S.; Dorman, R.V. (Kent State Univ., OH (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Cerebral minces were used to investigate the role of calcium influx on trauma-induced alterations of brain lipid metabolism. Cerebral phospholipids, nonpolar lipids, and free fatty acids were radiolabeled in vivo with ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid. Tissue incubation stimulated the time-dependent catabolism of choline and inositol glycerophospholipids, and resulted in the accumulation of ({sup 3}H)free fatty acids. These effects were attenuated in Ca{sup 2}{sup +}-free incubations, and when EGTA or verapamil were present. The inhibition of calcium influx also reduced the labeling of diglycerides, whereas ethanolamine and serine glycerophospholipids were not affected by incubation or treatments. Replacing Ca{sup 2}{sup +} with other cations also attenuated the incubation-dependent alterations in lipid metabolism. However, only cadmium was able to compete with calcium and reduce the accumulation of ({sup 3}H)free fatty acids. It appeared that about half of the observed phospholipid catabolism was dependent on Ca{sup 2}{sup +} influx and that at least 80% of the ({sup 3}H)free fatty acid accumulation required calcium.

  11. Epidermal growth factor enhances intracellular pH regulation via calcium signaling in acid-exposed primary cultured rabbit gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nylander-Koski, Outi; Mustonen, Harri; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Kiviluoto, Tuula; Kivilaakso, Eero

    2006-08-01

    We have elucidated the role of different ion transporters and epidermal growth factor(EGF) during luminal acid exposure in primary cultured rabbit surface epithelial cells by measuring intracellular calcium and pH. Amiloride, DIDS, or sodium or bicarbonate substitutions were used to inhibit ion transport. During luminal acid exposure the dominant intracellular pH regulator is the Na+/H+ antiport, and bicarbonate transport has only a secondary role, which is uncovered as the Na+/H+ function fails. The decrease in intracellular pH caused by luminal acid was significantly smaller in serosal EGF-treated epithelia than in controls. This defensive function of EGF was abolished by verapamil, BAPTA, and calmidazolium but not by TMB-8. EGF increased intracellular calcium, which was prevented by verapamil but not by TMB-8. EGF enhances gastric epithelial defense against luminal acid by inducing intracellular calcium signaling via plasma membrane verapamil-sensitive calcium channels and thereby enhancing the function of the Na+/H+ antiport. PMID:16832619

  12. Deltamethrin multifactorial activity toward carp larva mobility related to calcium, humic acids, and pH.

    PubMed

    Ghillebaert, F; Prodorutti, D; Chaillou, C; Roubaud, P

    1996-12-01

    The toxicity of pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin was assessed by the "escaping capability" of carp larvae out of a trap. Mobility was tested after 1, 4, and 12 hr exposure to eight deltamethrin concentrations in standard water and after 24 hr exposure to seven deltamethrin concentrations in 18 media derived from the combinations of pH levels of 6.9, 7.8, 9.0, calcium concentrations of 2 . 10(-4) and 2 . 10(-2) M, and humic acid concentrations on 0, 5 and 100 mg/liter. In standard water, a 1-hr exposure at 4 microg/liter deltamethrin increased the mobility, while a 4-hr 32 microg/liter exposure decreased it. After 24 hr without deltamethrin, mobility was reduced at pH 6.9 and 7.8 and 2 . 10(-4) M calcium. It was also reduced in 100 mg/liter humic acids, especially when the former pH and calcium conditions were used. Humic acid effects could partly result from a calcium concentration reduction in water, and darkness due to humic acid coloration could play a minor role. Increasing humic acid concentration, calcium concentration, and pH reduced deltamethrin activity. In 0 or 5 mg/liter humic acids the No Observed Effect Concentration was 1 microg/liter, and in 100 mg/liter humic acid it was 2 microg/liter. Compared to previous results on deltamethrin-induced lethality, the escape test appeared less reproducible, but was 2 or 4 times more sensitive. PMID:9007004

  13. Calcium bioavailability and its relation to osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C M

    1992-06-01

    The balance of data suggests that calcium intake has a positive influence on bone mass in premenopausal women and has a preventive effect on the rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women. Even small advantages in bone mass provide great reductions in fracture rates. However, the majority of studies have tested the relationship of calcium intake and bone mass using calcium supplements. Few intervention studies have manipulated calcium intake through foods. Calcium is only useful to the skeleton once it is absorbed. Therefore, the bioavailability of dietary calcium becomes important in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Isotopic tracer techniques have only recently been employed in the labeling of foods with calcium isotopes for evaluation of calcium absorption. Milk calcium is usually the referent food which is typically absorbed at 20-40% depending on the calcium status of the subject. The absorptive efficiency of most vegetable sources is as good or better than for dairy foods, unless they have high concentrations of oxalic acid (spinach, for example) or phytic acid (wheat bran cereal, for example). Few vegetable sources are concentrated sources of calcium. Therefore, it would be difficult to obtain adequate intakes of calcium to protect against osteoporosis without liberal use of dairy products in the diet. Alternately, calcium supplements provide concentrated amounts of absorbable calcium, but they do not provide other nutrients necessary for skeletal growth and maintenance. PMID:1579576

  14. Activation of the calcium sensing receptor stimulates gastrin and gastric acid secretion in healthy participants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastric acid secretion is a complex process regulated by neuronal and hormonal pathways. Ex vivo studies in human gastric tissues indicate that the calcium sensing receptor (CaR), expressed on the surface of G and parietal cells, may be involved in this regulation. We sought to determine whether cin...

  15. Mechanical and structural characterisation of completely degradable polylactic acid\\/calcium phosphate glass scaffolds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Montse Charles-Harris; Sergio del Valle; Emilie Hentges; Pierre Bleuet; Damien Lacroix; Josep A. Planell

    2007-01-01

    This study involves the mechanical and structural characterisation of completely degradable scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. The scaffolds are a composite of polylactic acid (PLA) and a soluble calcium phosphate glass, and are thus completely degradable. A factorial experimental design was applied to optimise scaffold composition prior to simultaneous microtomography and micromechanical testing. Synchrotron X-ray microtomography combined with in situ

  16. Calcium channels activated by hydrogen peroxide mediate abscisic acid signalling in guard cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen-Ming Pei; Yoshiyuki Murata; Gregor Benning; Sébastien Thomine; Birgit Klüsener; Gethyn J. Allen; Erwin Grill; Julian I. Schroeder

    2000-01-01

    Drought is a major threat to agricultural production. Plants synthesize the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in response to drought, triggering a signalling cascade in guard cells that results in stomatal closure, thus reducing water loss. ABA triggers an increase in cytosolic calcium in guard cells ([Ca2+]cyt) that has been proposed to include Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane. However, direct

  17. Luteolin prevents uric acid-induced pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ying; Shi, Xuhui; Shuai, Xuanyu; Xu, Yuemei; Liu, Yun; Liang, Xiubin; Wei, Dong; Su, Dongming

    2014-07-01

    Elevated uric acid causes direct injury to pancreatic ?-cells. In this study, we examined the effects of luteolin, an important antioxidant, on uric acid-induced ?-cell dysfunction. We first evaluated the effect of luteolin on nitric oxide (NO) formation in uric acid-stimulated Min6 cells using the Griess method. Next, we performed transient transfection and reporter assays to measure transcriptional activity of nuclear factor (NF)-?B. Western blotting assays were also performed to assess the effect of luteolin on the expression of MafA and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in uric acid-treated cells. Finally, we evaluated the effect of luteolin on uric acid-induced inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in Min6 cells and freshly isolated mouse pancreatic islets. We found that luteolin significantly inhibited uric acid-induced NO production, which was well correlated with reduced expression of iNOS mRNA and protein. Furthermore, decreased activity of NF-?B was implicated in inhibition by luteolin of increased iNOS expression induced by uric acid. Besides, luteolin significantly increased MafA expression in Min6 cells exposed to uric acid, which was reversed by overexpression of iNOS. Moreover, luteolin prevented uric acid-induced inhibition of GSIS in both Min6 cells and mouse islets. In conclusion, luteolin protects pancreatic ?-cells from uric acid-induced dysfunction and may confer benefit on the protection of pancreatic ?-cells in hyperuricemia-associated diabetes. PMID:25050113

  18. Production and bioavailability of calcium and magnesium salts of omega-3 fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaroslav A. Kralovec; H. Stephen Ewart; Jeffrey H. D. Wright; Lynn V. Watson; Dorothy Dennis; Colin J. Barrow

    2009-01-01

    In order to provide an alternative to traditional liquid fish oil gelatin capsules, we developed a solid, powdered form of omega-3 fish oil concentrate by forming calcium- and magnesium-fatty acid salts. These salts were produced using a concentrated fish oil ethyl ester that contained in excess of 60% omega-3 fatty acids. The bioavailability of these omega-3 salts was compared with

  19. Influence of maleic acid copolymers on calcium orthophosphates crystallization at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelin, Irina M.; Popescu, Irina; Suflet, Dana M.; Aflori, Magdalena; Bulacovschi, Victor

    2013-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the maleic acid copolymers role on calcium orthophosphates crystallization at low temperature. In this respect, two maleic acid copolymers with different structures [poly(sodium maleate-co-vinyl acetate) and poly(sodium maleate-co-methyl methacrylate)] were used. The syntheses of the calcium orthophosphates in the absence and in the presence of the copolymers were performed through the wet chemical method using calcium nitrate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and ammonium hydroxide as reactants. The syntheses were monitored in situ by potentiometric and conductometric measurements. To ensure the transformation of less thermodynamically stable calcium orthophosphates into more stable forms, the samples were aged 30 days in mother solutions, at room temperature. The presence of the copolymers in the final products was evidenced by FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy and laser light scattering measurements gave information about the composites morphology and the size of the formed structures. X-ray diffraction evidenced that, as a function of comonomer structure and of copolymer concentration, the products could contain hydroxyapatite with low crystallinity, calcium-deficient or carbonated hydroxyapatite. At high concentration of poly(sodium maleate-co-methyl methacrylate) the transformation of brushite into apatitic structures was inhibited.

  20. IMPACT OF AROMATIC VERSUS BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINO ACIDS ON CALCIUM EXCRETION, ABSORPTION, AND BONE TURNOVER – POTENTIAL ROLE OF THE CALCIUM SENSOR RECEPTOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aromatic amino acids (AAAs), but not branched-chain amino acids (B-CAAs), bind to the calcium sensor receptor (CaSR) in renal tissue and thus AAAs may have a greater calciuric action than B-CAAs (1). This study was done to determine and compare the effects of increasing intake of these two types of ...

  1. Preventive Effect of Phytic Acid on Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brindha, E.; Rajasekapandiyan, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the preventive role of phytic acid on membrane bound enzymes such as sodium potassium- dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na+ /K+ ATPase), calcium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Ca2+ ATPase) and magnesium- dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Mg2+ ATPase) and glycoproteins such as hexose, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with phytic acid (25 and 50 mg/kg, respectively) for a period of 56 days. After the treatment period, ISO (85 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected to rats at an interval of 24 h for 2 days. ISO-induced rats showed a significant decrease in the activity of Na+ /K+ ATPase and increase in the activities of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase in the heart and a significant (P<0.05) increase in the levels of glycoproteins in serum and the heart were also observed in ISO-induced rats. Pretreatment with phytic acid for a period of 56 days exhibited a significant (P<0.05) effect and altered these biochemical parameters positively in ISO-induced rats. Thus, our study shows that phytic acid has cardioprotective role in ISO-induced MI in rats.

  2. Sphingosine 1Phosphate Mobilizes Sequestered Calcium, Activates Calcium Entry, and Stimulates Deoxyribonucleic Acid Synthesis in Thyroid FRTL-5 Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KID TORNQUIST; PIA SAARINEN; MINNA VAINIO; MIKAEL AHLSTROM

    1997-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (SPP) potently mobilizes sequestered cal- cium and is a mitogen in several cell types. In the present investi- gation, we have evaluated the effect of SPP on intracellular free calcium concentration ((Ca21)i) and synthesis of DNA in thyroid FRTL-5 cells. SPP rapidly and transiently mobilized sequestered calcium and stimulated entry of extracellular calcium. The entry of calcium, but

  3. [Destabilization of the cytosolic calcium level and cardiomyocyte death in the presence of long-chain fatty acid derivatives].

    PubMed

    Berezhnov, A V; Fedotova, E I; Nenov, M N; Kokoz, Iu M; Zinchenko, V P; Dynnik, V V

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown using the fluorescent microscopy technique that long-chain fatty acid derivatives, myristoylcarnitine and palmitoylcarnitine, exert the most toxic effect on rat ventricular cardiomyoctes. The addition of 20-50 microM acylcarnitines increases calcium concentration in cytoplasm ([Ca2+]i) and causes cell death after the 4-8 min lag-period. This effect is independent on extracellular calcium and L-type calcium channel inhibitors. Free acids (myristic and palmitic acids) at a concentration of 300-500 microM have a little effect on [Ca2+]i within 30 min. We suggest that the toxic effect is due to the activation of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium channels by acylcarnitines and resulting acyl-CoA. Mitochondria play a role of calcium-buffer system in these conditions. The calcium capacity of this buffer determines the lag-period. Phosphate increases the calcium capacity of mitochondrial and the lag-period. In the presence of rotenone and oligomycin the elevation of [Ca2+]i after the addition of acylcarnitines occurs without the lag-period. The exhaustion of the mitochondrial calcium-buffer capacity or significant depolarization of mitochondrial leads to a rapid release of calcium from mitochondria and cell death. Thus, the activation of reticular calcium channels is the main reason of the toxicity of myristoylcarnitine and palmitoylcarnitine. PMID:19137688

  4. Salvianolic acid B, an antioxidant from Salvia miltiorrhiza, prevents 6-hydroxydopamine induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lin-Lin; Wang, Xue-Jun; Sun, Yu-Ning; Li, Chun-Rong; Xing, Ya-Ling; Zhao, Hai-Bao; Duan, Ming; Zhou, Zhe; Wang, Sheng-Qi

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by dopamine may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Salvianolic acid B is an antioxidant derived from the Chinese herb, Salvia miltiorrhiza. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of salvianolic acid B against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with salvianolic acid B significantly reduced 6-hydroxydopamine-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, and prevented 6-hydroxydopamine-induced increases in intracellular calcium. Our data demonstrated that 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis was reversed by salvianolic acid B treatment. Salvianolic acid B reduced the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced increase of caspase-3 activity, and reduced cytochrome C translocation into the cytosol from mitochondria. The 6-hydroxydopamine-induced decrease in the Bcl-x/Bax ratio was prevented by salvianolic acid B. Additionally, salvianolic acid B decreased the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and induced the activation of 6-hydroxydopamine-suppressed protein kinase C. These results indicate that the protective function of salvianolic acid B is dependent upon its antioxidative potential. Our results strongly suggest that salvianolic acid B may be effective in treating neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:17884684

  5. Effects of calcium channel blockers on gastric emptying and acid secretion of the rat in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Brage, R.; Cortijo, J.; Esplugues, J.; Esplugues, J. V.; Martí-Bonmatí, E.; Rodriguez, C.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of three calcium channel blockers (verapamil, diltiazem and cinnarizine) on gastric emptying and secretion in the rat. Pretreatment with the calcium blockers delayed gastric emptying of phenol red in a dose-dependent manner. Verapamil was the most effective of the agents tested. Verapamil and diltiazem inhibited gastric acid secretion in the pylorus-ligated rat without affecting pepsin output. Cinnarizine was ineffective in this model. When the perfused lumen of the anaesthetized rat was used, verapamil was found to inhibit responses to carbachol or histamine more than those to pentagastrin. Further, we found a greater sensitivity to verapamil for basal compared with vagal-stimulated (2-deoxy-D-glucose) acid secretion. Neither diltiazem nor cinnarizine modified gastric acid secretion in this experimental model. These findings are discussed in relation to the role of extracellular calcium in gastric motility and secretion, and the existence of a regional and functional selectivity for calcium blockers is proposed. PMID:3814903

  6. Assay of calcium borogluconate veterinary medicines for calcium gluconate, boric acid, phosphorus, and magnesium by using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, D.J.; Spann, K.P.

    1985-03-01

    An inductively coupled plasma spectrometric method is described for the determination of 4 elements (Ca, B, P, and Mg) in calcium borogluconate veterinary medicines. Samples are diluted, acidified, and sprayed directly into the plasma. Reproducibility relative confidence intervals for a single sample assay are +/- 1.4% (calcium), +/- 1.8% (boron), +/- 2.6% (phosphorus), and +/- 1.4% (magnesium). The total element concentrations for each of 4 elements compared favorably with concentrations determined by alternative methods. Formulation estimates of levels of calcium gluconate, boric acid, phosphorus, and magnesium salts can be made from the analytical data.

  7. Diabetes induces and calcium channel blockers prevent cardiac expression of proapoptotic thioredoxin-interacting protein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junqin; Cha-Molstad, Hyunjoo; Szabo, Anna; Shalev, Anath

    2009-05-01

    Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a critical process in the pathogenesis of ischemic and diabetic cardiomyopathy, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) has recently been shown to have deleterious effects in the cardiovascular system and we therefore investigated whether it may also play a role in diabetes-associated cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In fact, TXNIP expression was increased in H9C2 cardiomyocytes incubated at high glucose, and cardiac expression of TXNIP and cleaved caspase-3 were also elevated in vivo in streptozotocin- and obesity-induced diabetic mice. Together, these findings not only suggest that TXNIP is involved in diabetic cardiomyopathy but also that it may represent a novel therapeutic target. Surprisingly, testing putative TXNIP modulators revealed that calcium channel blockers reduce cardiomyocyte TXNIP transcription and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of verapamil for 3 wk also reduced cardiac TXNIP expression in mice even in the face of severe diabetes, and these reduced TXNIP levels were associated with decreased apoptosis. To determine whether lack of TXNIP can mimic the verapamil-induced decrease in apoptosis, we used TXNIP-deficient HcB-19 mice, harboring a natural nonsense mutation in the TXNIP gene. Interestingly, we found significantly reduced cleaved caspase-3 levels in HcB-19 hearts, suggesting that TXNIP plays a critical role in cardiac apoptosis and that the verapamil effects were mediated by TXNIP reduction. Thus our results suggest that TXNIP reduction is a powerful target to enhance cardiomyocyte survival and that agents such as calcium channel blockers may be useful in trying to achieve this goal and prevent diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:19258488

  8. Steel corrosion protection by means of alkyd paints pigmented with calcium acid phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Amo, B. del; Romagnoli, R.; Vetere, V.F. [CIC-CONICET, La Plata (Argentina)

    1999-06-01

    The use of classic anticorrosive pigments is becoming more and more restricted by increasing environmental concerns; they are gradually being replaced by zinc phosphate and related compounds. Other anticorrosive pigments such as surface-exchanged silicas were also proposed. The object of this research is to study the anticorrosive properties of calcium acid phosphate as an inhibitive pigment, introducing a careful selection of complementary pigments in order to achieve an efficient anticorrosive protection. Several alkyd paints were prepared and evaluated through accelerated and electrochemical tests. The nature of the passive film formed was also studied. Paint containing zinc oxide and calcium carbonate (50/50) as complementary pigments showed the best performance in the salt spray test. Zinc oxide and calcium carbonate decreased film permeability and improved steel passivation. The passive film was composed of ferric oxyhydroxide, the pores of which became plugged by ferric phosphate.

  9. Effect of different amounts and types of calcium on colonic cell proliferation and fecal bile acids concentration

    E-print Network

    C?hen Hsiao-Ch?ing

    1991-01-01

    in decreased cell proliferative activity which was not significantly different from the level of cell proliferation in the low fat diet. Rats fed 1. 0% or 1. 5% calcium in the high fat diet had similar concentrations of deoxycholate, omega muricholate... and total bile acids as the values in the low fat diets. In experiment 2, rats fed calcium phosphate and calcium casein had a tendency towarded decreased cell proliferative activity and concentrations of lithocholate, deoxycholate, beta muricholate, other...

  10. Calcium Antagonists Inhibit Sustained Gibberellic Acid-Induced Growth of Avena (Oat) Stem Segments.

    PubMed Central

    Montague, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    The elongation response of Avena sativa (oat) stem segments to gibberellic acid (GA3) is of large magnitude, with high hormonal sensitivity and specificity, but without cell division activity. This system is therefore an excellent model for mechanistic studies on higher plant cell elongation and the action of gibberellin. At millimolar concentrations, the calcium antagonists verapamil, D-600, nicardipine, diltiazem, bepridil, 8-(N,N,-diethylamino)-octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate HCl, and lanthanum substantially inhibited the growth of GA3-treated segments but had no effect on the elongation of nonhormone-treated segments. Although verapamil reduced the maximum growth rate and caused premature cessation of growth, even preincubation of the segments with the drug prior to treatment with GA3 failed to inhibit the earliest measured stimulation of growth by the hormone. Inhibition by verapamil was not reversed by increased concentrations of GA3 or calcium. Neither the calcium ionophore A23187 nor agonist BAY K 8644 had any effect on growth. Light microscopic examination of epidermal peels from antagonist-treated internodal tissue revealed no obvious differences from the control except that the cells were not as elongated. Although these results may support a role for calcium ion movement in maintaining the GA3-induced growth of Avena stem segments, they do not support the involvement of calcium ion movement in the hormone-mediated initiation of growth. PMID:12231695

  11. Chlorogenic acid and coffee prevent hypoxia-induced retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Jang, Holim; Ahn, Hong Ryul; Jo, Hyoung; Kim, Kyung-A; Lee, Eun Ha; Lee, Ki Won; Jung, Sang Hoon; Lee, Chang Y

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether chlorogenic acid (CGA) and coffee have protective effects against retinal degeneration. Under hypoxic conditions, the viability of transformed retinal ganglion (RGC-5) cells was significantly reduced by treatment with the nitric oxide (NO) donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). However, pretreatment with CGA attenuated cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, CGA prevented the up-regulation of apoptotic proteins such as Bad and cleaved caspase-3. Similar beneficial effects of both CGA and coffee extracts were observed in mice that had undergone an optic nerve crush (ONC) procedure. CGA and coffee extract reduced cell death by preventing the down-regulation of Thy-1. Our in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that coffee and its major component, CGA, significantly reduce apoptosis of retinal cells induced by hypoxia and NO, and that coffee consumption may help in preventing retinal degeneration. PMID:24295042

  12. Carbonate-containing apatite (CAP) synthesis under moderate conditions starting from calcium carbonate and orthophosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    Pham Minh, Doan; Tran, Ngoc Dung; Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    The synthesis of carbonate-containing apatite (CAP) from calcium carbonate and orthophosphoric acid under moderate conditions was investigated. In all cases, complete precipitation of orthophosphate species was observed. The reaction temperature influenced strongly the decomposition of calcium carbonate and therefore the composition of formed products. The reaction temperature of 80 °C was found to be effective for the complete decomposition of calcium carbonate particles after 48 h of reaction. Infra-red spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetry/mass spectroscopy (TG-MS) coupling, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations allowed the identification of the composition of formed products. By increasing the reaction temperature from 20 °C to 80 °C, the content of A-type CAP increased and that of B-type CAP decreased, according to the favorable effect of temperature on the formation of A-type CAP. The total amount of carbonate content incorporated in CAP's structure, which was determined by TG-MS analysis, increased with the reaction temperature and reached up to 4.1% at 80 °C. At this temperature, the solid product was mainly composed of apatitic components and showed the typical flat-needle-like structure of CAP particles obtained in hydrothermal conditions. These results show an interesting one-step synthesis of CAP from calcium carbonate and orthophosphoric acid as low cost but high purity starting materials. PMID:23623121

  13. CITRIC ACID AS A SET RETARDER FOR CALCIUM ALUMINATE PHOSPHATE CEMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA,T.; BROTHERS, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    Citric acid added as set retarder significantly contributed to enhancing the setting temperature and to extending the thickening time of a calcium aluminate phosphate (CaP) geothermal cement slurry consisting of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) as the base reactant and sodium polyphosphate (NaP) solution as the acid reactant. The set-retarding activity of citric acid was due to the uptake of Ca{sup 2+} ions from the CAC by carboxylic acid groups within the citric acid. This uptake led to the precipitation of a Ca-complexed carboxylate compound as a set-retarding barrier layer on the CAC grains' surfaces. However, this barrier layer was vulnerable to disintegration by the attack of free Ca{sup 2+} ions from CAC, and also to degradation at elevated temperature, thereby promoting the generation of exothermic energy from acid-base reactions between the CAC and NaP after the barrier was broken. The exothermic reaction energy that was promoted in this way minimized the loss in strength of the citric acid-retarded cement. The phase composition assembled in both retarded and non-retarded cements after autoclaving at 180 C encompassed three reaction products, hydroxyapatite (HOAp), hydrogrossular and boehmite, which are responsible for strengthening the autoclaved cement. The first two reaction products were susceptible to reactions with sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate to form crystalline bassanite scale as the corrosion product. The boehmite phase possessed a great resistance to acid and sulfate. Although the bassanite scales clinging to the cement's surfaces were the major factor governing the loss in weight, they served in protecting the cement from further acid- and sulfate-corrosion until their spallation eventually occurred. Nevertheless, the repetitive processes of HOAp and hydrogrossular {yields} bassanite {yields} spallation played an important role in extending the useful lifetime of CaP cement in a low pH environment at 180 C.

  14. Tranexamic acid for the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sentilhes, L; Lasocki, S; Ducloy-Bouthors, A S; Deruelle, P; Dreyfus, M; Perrotin, F; Goffinet, F; Deneux-Tharaux, C

    2015-04-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a major cause of maternal mortality, accounting for one-quarter of all maternal deaths worldwide. Uterotonics after birth are the only intervention that has been shown to be effective for PPH prevention. Tranexamic acid (TXA), an antifibrinolytic agent, has therefore been investigated as a potentially useful complement to this for both prevention and treatment because its hypothesized mechanism of action in PPH supplements that of uterotonics and because it has been proved to reduce blood loss in elective surgery, bleeding in trauma patients, and menstrual blood loss. This review covers evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for PPH prevention after caesarean (n=10) and vaginal (n=2) deliveries and for PPH treatment after vaginal delivery (n=1). It discusses its efficacy and side effects overall and in relation to the various doses studied for both indications. TXA appears to be a promising drug for the prevention and treatment of PPH after both vaginal and caesarean delivery. Nevertheless, the current level of evidence supporting its efficacy is insufficient, as are the data about its benefit:harm ratio. Large, adequately powered multicentre RCTs are required before its widespread use for preventing and treating PPH can be recommended. PMID:25571934

  15. Dual SOâ-NOâ concentration reduction by calcium salts of carboxylic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Steciak; Yiannis A. Levendis; Donald L. Wise; Gerard A. Simons

    1995-01-01

    This research continues the investigation of agents that are capable of simultaneously removing SOâ and Moâ from the effluent of coal-fired power plants. The simultaneous removal of SOâ and NOâ by calcium salts of carboxylic acids was evaluated in a laboratory-scale furnace in atmospheres containing 2,000 ppm SOâ, 1,000 ppm NO, 3% Oâ, and 12% COâ at gas temperatures between

  16. Recommendations for accelerating global action to prevent folic acid-preventable birth defects and other folate-deficiency diseases: Meeting of experts on preventing folic acid-preventable neural tube defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Godfrey P. Oakley; Karen N. Bell; Mary Beth Weber

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In April of 2003, The Micronutrient Initiative, in collaboration with several other organizations, convened a group of knowledgeable scientists and policy experts to discuss ways to accelerate the global pace at which countries implement effective and sustainable programs to prevent folic acid-preventable birth defects and other folate-deficiency diseases. Programs implemented to date by fewer than 40 countries have prevented

  17. Synthesis, characterization and cation adsorption of p-aminobenzoic acid intercalated on calcium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Camila F.N. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)] [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Lazarin, Angélica M., E-mail: amlazarin2@uem.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Sernaglia, Rosana L.; Andreotti, Elza I.S. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)] [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy photographs of calcium phosphate (a) and intercalated with p-aminobenzoic acid (b). Highlights: ? Calcium phosphate was intercalated with p-aminobenzoic acid. ? Guest molecule contains nitrogen and oxygen atoms from amine and carboxylic groups. ? These basic centers are potentially useful for cation coordination in ethanol solution. ? Crystal morphology of compounds is lamellar, it agrees with expected structural characteristics. -- Abstract: Crystalline lamellar calcium phosphate retained 4-aminobenzoic acid inside its cavity without leaching. The intense infrared bands in the 1033 and 1010 cm{sup ?1} interval confirmed the presence of the phosphonate groups attached to the inorganic layer, with sharp and intense peaks in X-ray diffraction patterns, which gave basal distances of 712 and 1578 pm for the original and the intercalated compounds, respectively. Solid-state {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra presented only one peak for the phosphate groups attached to the main inorganic polymeric structure near ?2.4 ppm. The adsorption isotherms from ethanol gave the maximum adsorption capacities of 6.44 and 3.34 mmol g{sup ?1} for nickel and cobalt, respectively, which stability constant and distribution coefficient followed Co > Ni.

  18. Dietary intakes and urinary excretion of calcium and acids: a cross-sectional study of women in China?3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-Fan Ha; Xi-He Zhao; Banoo Parpia

    The relationship between dietary intakes and urinary calcium was examined in a cross-sectional survey of 764 middle-aged and elderly women with markedly different dietary patterns and lifestyles. Urinary calcium was correlated positively with urinary acids, including titratable acid (r = 0.46, P < 0.0001). ammonia (r = 0.42, P < 0.0001), and sulfate (r = 0.52, P < 0.000 1).

  19. Heart valve calcification and calcium x phosphorus product in hemodialysis patients: Analysis of optimum values for its prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margarita Rufino; Sagrario García; Alejandro Jiménez; Alejandra Alvarez; Rosa Miquel; Patricia Delgado; Domingo Marrero; Armando Torres; Daniel Hernández; Victor Lorenzo; Margarita Rufino Hernández

    2003-01-01

    Heart valve calcification and calcium x phosphorus product in hemodialysis patients: Analysis of optimum values for its prevention.BackgroundPrevalence of valve calcification (VC) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is high and information regarding modifiable predictors is scarce. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of VC in our maintenance hemodialysis (HD) population, and the optimal Ca x P value that

  20. The activity of ferulic and gallic acids in biofilm prevention and control of pathogenic bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anabela Borges; Maria J. Saavedra; Manuel Simões

    2012-01-01

    The activity of two phenolic acids, gallic acid (GA) and ferulic acid (FA) at 1000 ?g ml, was evaluated on the prevention and control of biofilms formed by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. In addition, the effect of the two phenolic acids was tested on planktonic cell susceptibility, bacterial motility and adhesion. Biofilm prevention and control

  1. Identification of a Calcium Permeable Human Acid-sensing Ion Channel 1 Transcript Variant*

    PubMed Central

    Hoagland, Erin N.; Sherwood, Thomas W.; Lee, Kirsten G.; Walker, Christopher J.; Askwith, Candice C.

    2010-01-01

    The acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated cation channels activated when extracellular pH declines. In rodents, the Accn2 gene encodes transcript variants ASIC1a and ASIC1b, which differ in the first third of the protein and display distinct channel properties. In humans, ACCN2 transcript variant 2 (hVariant 2) is homologous to mouse ASIC1a. In this article, we study two other human ACCN2 transcript variants. Human ACCN2 transcript variant 1 (hVariant 1) is not present in rodents and contains an additional 46 amino acids directly preceding the proposed channel gate. We report that hVariant 1 does not produce proton-gated currents under normal conditions when expressed in heterologous systems. We also describe a third human ACCN2 transcript variant (hVariant 3) that is similar to rodent ASIC1b. hVariant 3 is more abundantly expressed in dorsal root ganglion compared with brain and shows basic channel properties analogous to rodent ASIC1b. Yet, proton-gated currents from hVariant 3 are significantly more permeable to calcium than either hVariant 2 or rodent ASIC1b, which shows negligible calcium permeability. hVariant 3 also displays a small acid-dependent sustained current. Such a sustained current is particularly intriguing as ASIC1b is thought to play a role in sensory transduction in rodents. In human DRG neurons, hVariant 3 could induce sustained calcium influx in response to acidic pH and make a major contribution to acid-dependent sensations, such as pain. PMID:21036899

  2. Identification of a calcium permeable human acid-sensing ion channel 1 transcript variant.

    PubMed

    Hoagland, Erin N; Sherwood, Thomas W; Lee, Kirsten G; Walker, Christopher J; Askwith, Candice C

    2010-12-31

    The acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated cation channels activated when extracellular pH declines. In rodents, the Accn2 gene encodes transcript variants ASIC1a and ASIC1b, which differ in the first third of the protein and display distinct channel properties. In humans, ACCN2 transcript variant 2 (hVariant 2) is homologous to mouse ASIC1a. In this article, we study two other human ACCN2 transcript variants. Human ACCN2 transcript variant 1 (hVariant 1) is not present in rodents and contains an additional 46 amino acids directly preceding the proposed channel gate. We report that hVariant 1 does not produce proton-gated currents under normal conditions when expressed in heterologous systems. We also describe a third human ACCN2 transcript variant (hVariant 3) that is similar to rodent ASIC1b. hVariant 3 is more abundantly expressed in dorsal root ganglion compared with brain and shows basic channel properties analogous to rodent ASIC1b. Yet, proton-gated currents from hVariant 3 are significantly more permeable to calcium than either hVariant 2 or rodent ASIC1b, which shows negligible calcium permeability. hVariant 3 also displays a small acid-dependent sustained current. Such a sustained current is particularly intriguing as ASIC1b is thought to play a role in sensory transduction in rodents. In human DRG neurons, hVariant 3 could induce sustained calcium influx in response to acidic pH and make a major contribution to acid-dependent sensations, such as pain. PMID:21036899

  3. Heat stability and acid gelation properties of calcium-enriched reconstituted skim milk affected by ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Chandrapala, Jayani; Bui, Don; Kentish, Sandra; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2014-05-01

    The aggregation of proteins after heating of calcium-fortified milks has been an ongoing problem in the dairy industry. This undesirable effect restricts the manufacture of calcium rich dairy products. To overcome this problem, a completely new approach in controlling the heat stability of dairy protein solutions, developed in our lab, has been employed. In this approach, high intensity, low frequency ultrasound is applied for a very short duration after a pre-heating step at ?70 °C. The ultrasound breaks apart whey/whey and whey/casein aggregates through the process of acoustic cavitation. Protein aggregates do not reform on subsequent post-heating, thereby making the systems heat stable. In this paper, the acid gelation properties of ultrasonicated calcium-enriched skim milks have also been investigated. It is shown that ultrasonication alone does not change the gelation properties significantly whereas a sequence of preheating (72 °C/1 min) followed by ultrasonication leads to decreased gelation times, decreased gel syneresis and increased skim milk viscosity in comparison to heating alone. Overall, ultrasonication has the potential to provide calcium-fortified dairy products with increased heat stability. However, enhanced gelation properties can only be achieved when ultrasonication is completed in conjunction with heating. PMID:24698480

  4. Effects of a reduced calcium, phosphorus and protein intake and of benzoic acid on calcium and phosphorus metabolism of growing pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gutzwiller; H. D. Hess; A. Adam; D. Guggisberg; A. Liesegang; P. Stoll

    2011-01-01

    In order to minimise environmental pollution, many pig feeds contain low phosphorus and protein concentrations as well as benzoic acid (BA), an additive which reduces ammonia formation in the slurry. Since both a low P intake and metabolic acidosis compromise bone mineralisation, the effect of a diet with a low concentration of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and crude protein (CP)

  5. Endurance exercise training normalizes repolarization and calcium-handling abnormalities, preventing ventricular fibrillation in a model of sudden cardiac death

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Ingrid M.; Belevych, Andriy E.; Sridhar, Arun; Nishijima, Yoshinori; Ho, Hsiang-Ting; He, Quanhua; Kukielka, Monica; Terentyev, Dmitry; Terentyeva, Radmila; Liu, Bin; Long, Victor P.; Györke, Sandor; Billman, George E.

    2012-01-01

    The risk of sudden cardiac death is increased following myocardial infarction. Exercise training reduces arrhythmia susceptibility, but the mechanism is unknown. We used a canine model of sudden cardiac death (healed infarction, with ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by an exercise plus ischemia test, VF+); we previously reported that endurance exercise training was antiarrhythmic in this model (Billman GE. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 297: H1171–H1193, 2009). A total of 41 VF+ animals were studied, after random assignment to 10 wk of endurance exercise training (EET; n = 21) or a matched sedentary period (n = 20). Following (>1 wk) the final attempted arrhythmia induction, isolated myocytes were used to test the hypotheses that the endurance exercise-induced antiarrhythmic effects resulted from normalization of cellular electrophysiology and/or normalization of calcium handling. EET prevented VF and shortened in vivo repolarization (P < 0.05). EET normalized action potential duration and variability compared with the sedentary group. EET resulted in a further decrement in transient outward current compared with the sedentary VF+ group (P < 0.05). Sedentary VF+ dogs had a significant reduction in repolarizing K+ current, which was restored by exercise training (P < 0.05). Compared with controls, myocytes from the sedentary VF+ group displayed calcium alternans, increased calcium spark frequency, and increased phosphorylation of S2814 on ryanodine receptor 2. These abnormalities in intracellular calcium handling were attenuated by exercise training (P < 0.05). Exercise training prevented ischemically induced VF, in association with a combination of beneficial effects on cellular electrophysiology and calcium handling. PMID:23042911

  6. Effect of calcium nitrite-based corrosion inhibitor in preventing corrosion of embedded steel in concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Y. Ann; H. S. Jung; H. S. Kim; S. S. Kim; H. Y. Moon

    2006-01-01

    Due to the corrosion inhibition effect and compatibility with concrete properties, calcium nitrite solution has been widely used, in North America and Asia,. However, investigation has often been restricted to tests using a macrocell corrosion monitoring or measuring corrosion rate in an aqueous condition. This study concerns the assessment of the inhibition effect of calcium nitrite-based corrosion inhibitor using a

  7. Aspirin potentiates prestimulated acid secretion and mobilizes intracellular calcium in rabbit parietal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, R A; Nandi, J; King, R L

    1990-01-01

    The effects of aspirin on gastric acid secretion were studied in isolated rabbit parietal cells (PC). Aspirin (10(-5) M) potentiated histamine-, dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP)-, forskolin- and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine-stimulated acid secretion without affecting basal acid secretion. Augmentation of secretagogue-stimulated acid secretion by aspirin was dependent on calcium (Ca2+) since potentiation was blocked by removal of extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]o) or addition of the calcium antagonist lanthanum chloride. Using the Ca2+ probe fura-2, aspirin (10(-6) - 2 X 10(-5) M) rapidly increased intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in a dose-dependent manner. The source of released Ca2+ was intracellular as demonstrated by depletion of intracellular Ca2+ and [Ca2+]o with EGTA washing. Aspirin did not affect several other signal transduction sites involved in stimulus-secretion coupling, including the H2 receptor, intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP), inositol 1,4,5, triphosphate (IP3) and H+,K(+)-ATPase. Aspirin decreased PC prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content by 98%. Exogenous dimethyl PGE2 (dmPGE2) inhibited both histamine-stimulated acid secretion and its enhancement by aspirin. In contrast, dmPGE2 abolished aspirin-induced potentiation of dbcAMP-stimulated acid secretion by augmenting the dbcAMP-stimulated response. These results indicate that aspirin acts at a site beyond the adenylate cyclase/cAMP system and before the proton pump, presumably by releasing Ca2+ from an IP3-independent intracellular storage pool and by inhibiting PGE2 generation. Images PMID:2166752

  8. Application of acidic calcium sulfate and e-polylysine to pre-rigor beef rounds for reduction of pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illness continues to be a serious public health problem and is a major concern for the United States food industry. This study evaluated the effectiveness of warm solutions of acidic calcium sulfate (ACS), lactic acid (LA), episolon-polylysine (EPL), ACS plus EPL, and sterile distilled wa...

  9. Calcium-induced calcium release and gap junctions mediate large-scale calcium waves in olfactory ensheathing cells in situ.

    PubMed

    Stavermann, Maren; Meuth, Patrick; Doengi, Michael; Thyssen, Anne; Deitmer, Joachim W; Lohr, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are a specialised type of glial cells, supporting axon growth and guidance during development and regeneration of the olfactory nerve and the nerve layer of the olfactory bulb. We measured calcium signalling in OECs in olfactory bulb in-toto preparations using confocal and epifluorescence microscopy and the calcium indicator Fluo-4. We identified two subpopulations of olfactory bulb OECs: OECs in the outer sublamina of the nerve layer responded to purinergic neurotransmitters such as adenosine triphosphate with calcium transients, while OECs in the inner sublamina of the nerve layer did not respond to neurotransmitters. However, the latter generated spontaneous calcium waves that covered hundreds of cells. These calcium waves persisted in the presence of tetrodotoxin and in calcium-free saline, but were abolished after calcium store depletion with cyclopiazonic acid or inositol trisphosphate receptor blockage with 2-APB. Calcium waves could be triggered by laser photolysis of caged inositol trisphosphate. Blocking purinoceptors with PPADS had no effect on calcium wave propagation, whereas blocking gap junctions with carbenoxolone or meclofenamic acid entirely suppressed calcium waves. Increasing calcium buffer capacity in OECs with NP-EGTA ("caged" Ca(2+)) prevented calcium wave generation, and laser photolysis of NP-EGTA in a small group of OECs resulted in a calcium increase in the irradiated cells followed by a calcium wave. We conclude that calcium waves in OECs can be initiated by calcium-induced calcium release via InsP3 receptors and propagate through gap junctions, while purinergic signalling is not involved. PMID:26091864

  10. Synthesis of terbium doped calcium phosphate nanocrystalline powders by citric acid sol–gel combustion method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingchao Han; Xinyu Wang; Shipu Li; Xionghua Ma

    2009-01-01

    Terbium doped calcium phosphate (Tb-doped CaP) nanocrystalline powders were synthesized by the citric acid sol–gel combustion\\u000a method. The phase composition, morphology and luminescent property of Tb-doped CaP nanocrystalline powders were characterized\\u000a by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence spectrophotometer\\u000a and fluorescence microscopy. At 700 °C, Tb-doped CaP nanocrystalline powders are composed of HAP (main phase) and ?-TCP

  11. Preparation and characterization of uniform particles of flufenamic acid and its calcium and barium salts.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amr Ali; Matijevi?, Egon

    2012-09-01

    Uniform fully dispersed particles of flufenamic acid, a widely used anti-inflammatory drug, were prepared by two different methods. In the first one, the drug solution in organic solvents was added to a non-solvent (water or aqueous solutions of stabilizers); while in the second procedure the drug was precipitated by acidifying its basic aqueous solutions. In addition calcium and barium salts of uniform spherical particles were obtained by precipitation in aqueous basic solutions of the drug. These salts are supposed to improve the drug reactivity. The prepared dispersions of the drug and its salts were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and electrophoresis. PMID:22703985

  12. Surface acidity and solid-state compatibility of excipients with an acid-sensitive API: case study of atorvastatin calcium.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Ramprakash; Landis, Margaret; Hancock, Bruno; Gatlin, Larry A; Suryanarayanan, Raj; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure the apparent surface acidity of common excipients and to correlate the acidity with the chemical stability of an acid-sensitive active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in binary API-excipient powder mixtures. The acidity of 26 solid excipients was determined by two methods, (i) by measuring the pH of their suspensions or solutions and (ii) the pH equivalent (pHeq) measured via ionization of probe molecules deposited on the surface of the excipients. The chemical stability of an API, atorvastatin calcium (AC), in mixtures with the excipients was evaluated by monitoring the appearance of an acid-induced degradant, atorvastatin lactone, under accelerated storage conditions. The extent of lactone formation in AC-excipient mixtures was presented as a function of either solution/suspension pH or pHeq. No lactone formation was observed in mixtures with excipients having pHeq > 6, while the lactone levels were pronounced (> 0.6% after 6 weeks at 50°C/20% RH) with excipients exhibiting pHeq < 3. The three pHeq regions (> 6, 3-6, and < 3) were consistent with the reported solution pH-stability profile of AC. In contrast to the pHeq scale, lactone formation did not show any clear trend when plotted as a function of the suspension/solution pH. Two mechanisms to explain the discrepancy between the suspension/solution pH and the chemical stability data were discussed. Acidic excipients, which are expected to be incompatible with an acid-sensitive API, were identified based on pHeq measurements. The incompatibility prediction was confirmed in the chemical stability tests using AC as an example of an acid-sensitive API. PMID:25319055

  13. Acid-induced release of curcumin from calcium containing nanotheranostic excipient.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aifei; Muhammad, Faheem; Qi, Wenxiu; Wang, Nan; Chen, Liang; Zhu, Guangshan

    2014-08-27

    Poor water solubility is believed one of the most critical problems of numerous promising pharmaceutical ingredients in their successful clinical utilization. Nanomedicine holds considerable promise to address this challenge, because it extends the therapeutic window of hydrophobic drugs through nanonization approach. Recently, the integration of diagnostic agents with smart therapeutic nanocarriers is also an emerging research arena to simultaneously visualize diseased tissues, achieve site specific drug release and track the impact of therapy. In this study, we have developed a biocompatible smart theranostic nanosystem which transports a highly promising hydrophobic drug (curcumin) in response to mildly acidic environment. As calcium is a main constituent of human body, hence we exploited the reversible calcium chelate formation tendency of divalent calcium to load and unload curcumin molecules. Moreover, an emerging T1 contrast agent is also tethered onto the surface of nanocarrier to realize MRI diagnosis application. In-vitro cell experiments revealed a significantly high chemotherapeutic efficiency of curcumin nanoformulation (IC50; 1.67 ?g/mL), whereas free curcumin was found ineffective at the corresponding concentration (IC50; 29.72 ?g/mL). MR imaging test also validated the performance of resulting system. Our strategy can be extended for the targeted delivery of other hydrophobic pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:25025519

  14. The Effect of the Oxidant Hypochlorous Acid on the L-Type Calcium Current in Isolated Ventricular Cardiomyocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Hammerschmidt; Hans Wahn

    1998-01-01

    Disturbances of cellular calcium homeostasis due to oxidative stress are involved in reperfusion associated phenomena like myocardial stunning and reperfusion induced arrhythmias. This study investigates the effect of the major neutrophil-derived oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl) on thel-type calcium current (ICa,L) of hamster ventricular cardiomyocytes. Using the whole-cell recording configuration of the patch-clamp technique, ICa,Lwas recorded over 12.5 min (0.1 Hz).

  15. Antibiotic-Loaded Synthetic Calcium Sulfate Beads for Prevention of Bacterial Colonization and Biofilm Formation in Periprosthetic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Howlin, R. P.; Brayford, M. J.; Webb, J. S.; Cooper, J. J.; Aiken, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Periprosthetic infection (PI) causes significant morbidity and mortality after fixation and joint arthroplasty and has been extensively linked to the formation of bacterial biofilms. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), as a cement or as beads, is commonly used for antibiotic release to the site of infection but displays variable elution kinetics and also represents a potential nidus for infection, therefore requiring surgical removal once antibiotics have eluted. Absorbable cements have shown improved elution of a wider range of antibiotics and, crucially, complete biodegradation, but limited data exist as to their antimicrobial and antibiofilm efficacy. Synthetic calcium sulfate beads loaded with tobramycin, vancomycin, or vancomycin-tobramycin dual treatment (in a 1:0.24 [wt/wt] ratio) were assessed for their abilities to eradicate planktonic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis relative to that of PMMA beads. The ability of the calcium sulfate beads to prevent biofilm formation over multiple days and to eradicate preformed biofilms was studied using a combination of viable cell counts, confocal microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy of the bead surface. Biofilm bacteria displayed a greater tolerance to the antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts. Antibiotic-loaded beads were able to kill planktonic cultures of 106 CFU/ml, prevent bacterial colonization, and significantly reduce biofilm formation over multiple days. However, established biofilms were harder to eradicate. These data further demonstrate the difficulty in clearing established biofilms; therefore, early preventive measures are key to reducing the risk of PI. Synthetic calcium sulfate loaded with antibiotics has the potential to reduce or eliminate biofilm formation on adjacent periprosthetic tissue and prosthesis material and, thus, to reduce the rates of periprosthetic infection. PMID:25313221

  16. Formation of calcium carbonate films on chitosan substrates in the presence of polyacrylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    He, Linghao; Xue, Rui [Zhengzhou University of Light Industry Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Surface and Interface Science, Henan, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Song, Rui, E-mail: rsong@gucas.ac.c [Zhengzhou University of Light Industry Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Surface and Interface Science, Henan, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2009-05-15

    In this investigation, chitosan membranes with different surface average degrees of deacetylation (DA) are prepared and then are employed as the support matrix to culture calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}). In the presence of high concentration of polyacrylic acid (PAA), the CaCO{sub 3} films obtained on the surface of all chitosan films mainly consisted of vaterite, which suggests the presence of bulk PAA plays an overwhelming part in stabilizing the vaterite. As a comparison, the influences of active groups indicate that only in case of low concentration PAA the thin CaCO{sub 3} films grown on chitosan with 8% DA mainly consisted of vaterite owing to the strong nucleation ability of -NH{sub 2} group, whereas, for those grown on chitosan with 80% DA the CaCO{sub 3} films mainly consisted of aragonite. A more complex scenario revealed that in the case of intermediate concentration of PAA the formed polymorphs behave as mixtures of vaterite and aragonite. - Graphical abstract: Chitosan membranes with different degrees of deacetylation (DA) are employed as support to culture calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}). In high concentration of polyacrylic acid (PAA), the CaCO{sub 3} films obtained consisted of vaterite. However, the CaCO{sub 3} film grown on chitosan with 8% DA mainly consisted of vaterite as opposed to aragonite for chitosan with 8% DA. The schematic presentation of the formation of calcium carbonate on chitosan films with different degrees of acetylation in the presence of PAA with low-, mid- and high concentrations.

  17. Biomediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate and Sulfur in a Faintly Acidic Hot Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L.; Peng, X.; Qiao, H.

    2014-12-01

    A faintly acidic hot spring named "female Tower" (T=73.5 ?, pH=6.64 ) is located in the Jifei Geothermal Field?Yunnan province, Southwest China. The precipitates in the hot spring are composed of large amounts of calcite and sulfur, as reveals by XRD analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis show the microbial mats are formed of various coccoid, rod and filamentous microbes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis show that intracellular sulfur granules are commonly associated with these microbes. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) analysis shows that the surface of microbes are mainly composed of Ca, C, O and S. A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrates the majority of bacteria in the spring are sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In the spring water, H2S concentration was up to 60 ppm, while SO42- concentration was only about 10 ppm. We suggest that H2S might be utilized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in this hot spring water, leading to the formation of sulfur granules intracellularly and extracellularly. In the meantime, this reaction increases the pH in ambient environments, which fosters the precipitation of calcium carbonate precipitation in the microbial mats. This study suggests that the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria could play an important role in calcium carbonate precipitation in faintly acidic hot spring environments.

  18. Acid-sensing ion channel 1a mediates acid-induced increases in intracellular calcium in rat articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Feng-Lai; Chen, Fei-Hu; Lu, Wei-Guo; Li, Xia; Wu, Fan-Rong; Li, Jian-Ping; Li, Cheng-Wan; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Teng-Yue; Hu, Wei

    2010-07-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are cationic channels that are activated by extracellular acidification and implicated in pain perception, ischemic stroke, mechanosensation, learning, and memory. It has been shown that ASIC1a is an extracellular pH sensor in the central and peripheral nervous systems, but its physiological and pathological roles in non-neural cells are poorly understood. We demonstrated a novel physiological function of ASIC1a in rat articular chondrocytes. The expression of ASIC1a mRNA and protein in rat articular chondrocytes was evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. The distribution of ASIC1a protein located in articular chondrocytes was determined by using immunofluorescence cell staining. The possible molecular mechanisms of articular chondrocytes pH sensing, as assessed by recording intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) in chondrocytes, were analyzed by using the laser scanning confocal microscopy technique. The cell injury following acid exposure was analyzed with lactate dehydrogenase release assay and electron microscopy. mRNA and protein expression showed that ASIC1a was expressed abundantly in these cells. In cultured chondrocytes, extracellular pH 6.0 increased intracellular calcium in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+). The ASIC1a-specific blocker PcTX venom significantly reduced this increase in [Ca(2+)]i, and inhibited acid-induced articular chondrocyte injury. However, the increase in [Ca(2+)]i and articular chondrocyte injury were not observed in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). These findings show that increased [Ca(2+)]i, mediated via ASIC1a, might contribute to acidosis-induced articular chondrocyte injury. PMID:20179994

  19. Fasudil prevents calcium oxalate crystal deposit and renal fibrogenesis in glyoxylate-induced nephrolithic mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haiyan; Chen, Wei; Ding, Jiarong; Jia, Meng; Yin, Jingjing; Guo, Zhiyong

    2015-04-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common kidney disease and one of the major causes of chronic renal insufficiency. We develop and utilize a glyoxylate induced mouse model of kidney calcium oxalate crystal deposition for studying the pharmacological effects of fasudil, a Rho associated protein kinase (ROCK) specific inhibitor, on the kidney injury and fibrosis caused by calcium oxalate crystallization and deposition. Glyoxylate was administrated intraperitoneally to C57BL/6J mice for five consecutive days to establish a mouse model of kidney calcium oxalate crystal formation and deposition. The results showed that the protein expression levels of E-cad and Pan-ck were lower, and the protein expression levels of ?-SMA and Vim were higher, in the kidney tissue of the glyoxylate induced model mice compared with the control mice. The changes in protein expression were weakened when the animals were pretreated with fasudil before glyoxylate administration. Expression of ROCK, PAI-1, and p-Smad proteins in the kidney tissue increased in response to glyoxylate treatment, and the increase was eased when the animals were pretreated with fasudil. Expression of Smad2 and Smad3 in the kidney tissue remained unchanged after glyoxylate administration. Cell apoptosis and proliferation in the kidney cortex and medulla were enhanced in response to the glyoxylate induced calcium oxalate crystal formation and deposition, and fasudil pre-treatment was able to attenuate the enhancement. The results suggest that Fasudil reduces the glyoxylate induced kidney calcium crystal formation and deposition and slows down the kidney fibrogenesis caused by calcium crystal deposition. The possible mechanism may be related the regulatory effects on Rho/ROCK signal transduction and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). PMID:25697583

  20. Colorectal Chemoprevention with Calcium and Vitamin D | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  1. Translating gene-calcium interactions to precision medicine for colorectal cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  2. Prevention of falls and fractures in old people by administration of calcium and vitamin d. randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are many studies that associate vitamin D serum levels in older persons with muscle strength, physical performance and risk of fractures and falls. However, current evidence is insufficient to make a general recommendation for administrating calcium and vitamin D to older persons. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of calcium and vitamin D supplementation in improving musculoskeletal function and decreasing the number of falls in person aged over 65 years. Methods/Design Phase III, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of already marketed drugs in a new indication. It will be performed at Primary Care doctor visits at several Healthcare Centers in different Spanish Health Areas. A total of 704 non-institutionalized subjects aged 65 years or older will be studied (sample size calculated for a statistical power of 80%, alpha error 0.05, annual incidence of falls 30% and expected reduction of 30% to 20% and expected loss to follow up of 20%). The test drug containing 800 IU of vitamin D and 1000 mg of calcium will be administered daily. The control group will receive a placebo. The subjects will be followed up over two years. The primary variable will be the incidence of spontaneous falls. The secondary variables will include: consequences of the falls (fractures, need for hospitalization), change in calcidiol plasma levels and other analytical determinations (transaminases, PTH, calcium/phosphorous, albumin, creatinine, etc.), change in bone mass by densitometry, change in muscle strength in the dominant hand and change in musculoskeletal strength, risk factors for falls, treatment compliance, adverse effects and socio-demographic data. Discussion The following principles have been considered in the development of this Project: the product data are sufficient to ensure that the risks assumed by the study participants are acceptable, the study objectives will probably provide further knowledge on the problem studied and the available information justifies the performance of the study and its possible risk for the participants. If calcium and vitamin D supplementation is effective in the prevention of falls and fractures in the elderly population, a recommendation may be issued with the aim of preventing some of the consequences of falls that affect quality of life and the ensuing personal, health and social costs. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01452243 Clinical trial authorized by the Spanish Medicines Agency: EudraCT number 2006-001643-63. PMID:22151975

  3. Purification and characterisation of a glutamic acid-containing peptide with calcium-binding capacity from whey protein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shun-Li; Zhao, Li-Na; Cai, Xixi; Wang, Shao-Yun; Huang, Yi-Fan; Hong, Jing; Rao, Ping-Fan

    2015-02-01

    The bioavailability of dietary ionised calcium is affected by intestinal basic environment. Calcium-binding peptides can form complexes with calcium to improve its absorption and bioavailability. The aim of this study was focused on isolation and characterisation of a calcium-binding peptide from whey protein hydrolysates. Whey protein was hydrolysed using Flavourzyme and Protamex with substrate to enzyme ratio of 25:1 (w/w) at 49 °C for 7 h. The calcium-binding peptide was isolated by DEAE anion-exchange chromatography, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). A purified peptide of molecular mass 204 Da with strong calcium binding ability was identified on chromatography/electrospray ionisation (LC/ESI) tandem mass spectrum to be Glu-Gly (EG) after analysis and alignment in database. The calcium binding capacity of EG reached 67·81 ?g/mg, and the amount increased by 95% compared with whey protein hydrolysate complex. The UV and infrared spectrometer analysis demonstrated that the principal sites of calcium-binding corresponded to the carboxyl groups and carbonyl groups of glutamic acid. In addition, the amino group and peptide amino are also the related groups in the interaction between EG and calcium ion. Meanwhile, the sequestered calcium percentage experiment has proved that EG-Ca is significantly more stable than CaCl2 in human gastrointestinal tract in vitro. The findings suggest that the purified dipeptide has the potential to be used as ion-binding ingredient in dietary supplements. PMID:25592629

  4. The crystallinity of calcium phosphate powders influenced by the conditions of neutralized procedure with citric acid additions

    SciTech Connect

    Li Chengfeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, No. 12 Zhangzhou Road, 255049 Zibo, Shandong (China)], E-mail: cfli@sdut.edu.cn

    2009-05-06

    Calcium phosphate powders with nano-sized crystallinity were synthesized by neutralization using calcium hydroxide and orthophosphoric acid with the assistance of citric acid. The influence of processing parameters, such as free or additive citric acid, synthetic temperature and ripening time, on the crystallinity of hydroxyapatite were investigated. The results of X-ray diffraction and microstructure observations showed that the crystallinity and morphology of nano-sized hydroxyapatite particles were influenced by the presence or absence of citric acid. It was found that the crystallinities and crystallite sizes of hydroxyapatite powders prepared with the additive citric acid increased with increasing synthetic temperature and ripening time. Especially, the crystallinities of (h k 0) planes were raised and more homogeneously grown particles were obtained with increasing synthetic temperature.

  5. Topical treatment of experimental hydrofluoric acid skin burns by 2.5% calcium gluconate.

    PubMed

    Roblin, Isabelle; Urban, Martine; Flicoteau, Domitille; Martin, Chantel; Pradeau, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Topical therapy with 2.5% calcium gluconate gel is considered as the "first-aid" treatment of accidental hydrofluoric acid skin burns. The efficacy of three different gel formulations varying in the amount and/or nature of their gelling and moisturizing agents was experimentally evaluated. Thirty male Wistar-Han rats (250 g) were exposed to 60 mul of 40% hydrofluoric acid for 2 minutes on two spots (4 cm) of skin under pentobarbital anesthesia. One lesion was massaged with 1 g of gel (10 rats/type of gel) at 3 minutes; 30 minutes; 1 hour; 1 hour, 30 minutes; 2 hours; 3 hours; and 4 hours after injury. During the next 3 days, rats received a single daily application of gel. The other lesion for each rat remained untreated (control). From day 1 after injury to the end of the study (day 17), gel therapy reduced the number of extensive (-66%), severe (-44%), and moderate (-34%) lesions (P < .0001). It reduced (P < .001) the median Area Under the Curve day 0-17 of burn injury from 34.0 (25th to 75th percentile: 18.2-44.5; untreated lesions) to 17.7 (7.0-26.7); overall, there was three cases of treatment failure. At day 17, full wound recovery was obtained in 14 cases by gel therapy compared with 6 in the absence of treatment. The efficacy of the three gel formulations was comparable for all evaluated parameters. Repeated applications of a 2.5% calcium gluconate gel is an efficient treatment of experimental 40% hydrofluoric acid skin burn; few differences were observed between evaluated gel formulations. PMID:17091088

  6. Influence of calcium addition on growth of highly purified syntrophic cultures degrading long-chain Fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Roy, F; Albagnac, G; Samain, E

    1985-03-01

    Two highly purified syntrophic associations resulting in acetogenesis from stearate (SM) and oleate (OM) were obtained from the sludges of a sewage digestor. In both cases, Methanospirillum hungatei together with short, motile, gram-negative, nonfluorescent rods morphologically similar to Syntrophomonas wolfei were identified by microscopic examination. Besides growing on volatile fatty acids (butyrate through caproate), both cultures grew on oleate (C(18:1)) and numerous even-numbered, saturated long-chain fatty acids (LCFA [decanoate through stearate]). In addition, during growth on LCFA, supplementation of the culture media with calcium chloride was an absolute requirement. The sole difference between the associations was observed when SM and OM cultures were transferred from a stearate to an oleate medium. The SM culture needed 10 days before starting to degrade oleate, whereas the OM culture grew immediately, but the OM culture also grew immediately when transferred to stearate medium. Saturated LCFA degradation occurred in the presence of equinormal amounts of calcium (fatty acid/Ca ratio, 2). On the other hand, OM degradation only took place in the presence of an equimolar amount of calcium (fatty acid/Ca ratio, 1). These observations are discussed by considering the solubility constants of LCFA as calcium salts and the toxicity of the free acids against microorganisms. PMID:16346761

  7. A comparison of calcium to zoledronic acid for improvement of cortical bone in an animal model of CKD

    PubMed Central

    Moe, Sharon M.; Chen, Neal X.; Newman, Christopher L.; Gattone, Vincent H.; Organ, Jason M.; Chen, Xianming; Allen, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased risk of fractures, yet the optimal treatment is unknown. In secondary analyses of large randomized trials, bisphosphonates have been shown to improve bone mineral density and reduce fractures. However, bisphosphonates are currently not recommended in patients with advanced kidney disease due to concern about over-suppressing bone remodeling, which may increase the risk of developing arterial calcification. In the present study we used a naturally occurring rat model of CKD with secondary hyperparathyroidism, the Cy/+ rat, and compared the efficacy of treatment with zoledronic acid, calcium given in water to simulate a phosphate binder, and the combination of calcium and zoledronic acid. Animals were treated beginning at 25 weeks of age (approximately 30% of normal renal function) and followed for ten weeks. The results demonstrate that both zoledronic acid and calcium improved bone volume by microCT and both equally suppressed mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, and mineralizing surface of trabecular bone. In contrast, only calcium treatment with or without zoledronic acid improved cortical porosity and cortical biomechanical properties (ultimate load and stiffness) and lowered parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, only calcium treatment led to the adverse effects of increased arterial calcification and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). These results suggest zoledronic acid may improve trabecular bone volume in CKD in the presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism, but does not benefit extraskeletal calcification or cortical biomechanical properties. Calcium effectively reduces PTH and benefits both cortical and trabecular bone yet increases the degree of extra skeletal calcification. PMID:24038306

  8. Regulation of growth and photosynthetic parameters by salicylic acid and calcium in Brassica juncea under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Shamsul; Ahmad, Abrar; Wani, Arif Shafi; Alyemeni, Mohammed Nasser; Ahmad, Aqil

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium, a non-essential and toxic metal, negatively affects plant growth and productivity, and alters the plant's physiological processes necessary for its survival. The present study was designed to explore the individual and combined effects of calcium and salicylic acid (SA) on the morphology and physiology of Brassica juncea L. cv. Varuna under cadmium stress. The application of calcium (2 mM) through the soil and/or SA (10-5 M) as foliar spray enhanced the growth, photosynthetic parameters, and proline content determined after 45 days of treatment. The application of cadmium (6 mg kg-1) through the soil was toxic and decreased both growth and the photosynthetic parameters. The application of calcium and SA in combination was most effective in alleviating the harmful effects of cadmium on growth and photosynthesis. Calcium and SA clearly induced plant protection mechanisms by enhancing proline and chlorophyll accumulation in the leaves. PMID:25854765

  9. Calcium and humic acid affect seed germination, growth, and nutrient content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) seedlings under saline soil conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Önder Türkmen; Atilla Dursun; Metin Turan; Çeknas Erdinç

    2004-01-01

    The effects of calcium and humic acid on seed germination, growth and macro- and micro-nutrient contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) seedlings in saline soil conditions were evaluated. Different levels of humic acid (0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg) and calcium (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg kg) were applied to growth media treated with 50 mg NaCl kg

  10. Prevention of Polyglycolic Acid-Induced Peritoneal Adhesions Using Alginate in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Matoba, Mari; Hashimoto, Ayumi; Tanzawa, Ayumi; Orikasa, Taichi; Ikeda, Junki; Iwame, Yoshizumi; Ozamoto, Yuki; Miyamoto, Hiroe; Yoshida, Chiko; Hashimoto, Toru; Torii, Hiroko; Takamori, Hideki; Morita, Shinichiro; Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki; Hagiwara, Akeo

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative intra-abdominal or intrathoracic adhesions sometimes cause significant morbidity. We have designed three types of alginate-based treatments using strongly cross-linked (SL), weakly cross-linked (WL), and non-cross-linked (NL) alginate with calcium gluconate. In rat experiments, we compared the antiadhesive effects of the three types of alginate-based treatments, fibrin glue treatment (a standard treatment), and no treatment against adhesions caused by polyglycolic acid (PGA) mesh (PGA-induced adhesions). The antiadhesive materials were set on the PGA sheet fixed on the parietal peritoneum of the abdomen. Fifty-six days later, the adhesions were evaluated macroscopically by the adhesion scores and microscopically by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunostaining. We also tested the fibroblast growth on the surface of the antiadhesive materials in vitro. The antiadhesive effects of WL and NL were superior to the no treatment and fibrin glue treatment. A microscopic evaluation confirmed that the PGA sheet was covered by a peritoneal layer constructed of well-differentiated mesothelial cells, and the inflammation was most improved in the NL and WL. The fibroblast growth was inhibited most on the surfaces of the NL and WL. These results suggest that either the WL or NL treatments are suitable for preventing PGA-induced adhesions compared to SL or the conventional treatment. PMID:26078949

  11. Kinetics of aggregation and crystallization of polyaspartic Acid stabilized calcium phosphate particles at high concentrations.

    PubMed

    Krogstad, Daniel V; Wang, Dongbo; Lin-Gibson, Sheng

    2015-05-11

    Bone is an important material to study due to its exceptional mechanical properties and relevance with respect to hard tissue regeneration and repair. A significant effort has been directed toward understanding the bone formation process and the production of synthetic bone mimicking materials. Here, the formation and structural evolution of calcium phosphate (CaP) was investigated in the presence of relatively high concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and polyaspartic acid (pAsp) using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The incipient CaP aggregates were comprised of spherical nanoparticles (diameter ? 3-4 nm); they became preferentially aligned over time and eventually transformed into nanorods. The nanorods remained stable in suspension with no signs of further aggregation for at least four months. Detailed cryo-TEM suggested that the CaP nanorods formed through an oriented attachment mechanism. These results show that the reaction concentration greatly influences the mechanism and final properties of CaP. Mechanistic insights gained from this study will facilitate better design and fabrication of bioinspired materials. PMID:25901665

  12. Preventive effect of a high fluoride toothpaste and arginine-carbonate toothpaste on dentinal tubules exposure followed by acid challenge: a dentine permeability evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Considering the current high use of high fluoride toothpastes, the aim of the study was to quantify alterations in the root dentine permeability submitted to treatment with a high fluoride toothpaste and 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste as a preventive treatment for dentinal tubules exposure followed by acid challenge. Methods Thirty-third molars were sectioned below the cementoenamel. The root segments were connected to a hydraulic pressure apparatus to measure dentine permeability after the following sequential steps (n = 10 per group): I) Baseline; II) treatment with phosphoric acid for 30 s (maximum permeability); III) Toothbrushing (1 min) according to the experimental groups (G1- control; G2- 5000 ppm fluoride toothpaste; G3- 8% arginine-calcium carbonate toothpaste); IV) acid challenge for 5 min (orange juice). The data were converted into percentage, considering stage II as 100%. Results The results have shown a statistically significant decreasing on dentine permeability after treatment with toothpaste (Friedman test and Dunn’s post hoc test). Comparison among groups demonstrated a high increasing on dentine permeability when acid challenge was performed after toothbrushing with distilled water (control group) (Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s post hoc test). Conclusion The toothpaste treatment may provide sufficient resistance on dentine surface, preventing dentinal tubules exposure after acid challenge. PMID:24958423

  13. Role of Postoperative Vitamin D and/or Calcium Routine Supplementation in Preventing Hypocalcemia After Thyroidectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alhefdhi, Amal; Mazeh, Haggi

    2013-01-01

    Background. Transient hypocalcemia is a frequent complication after total thyroidectomy. Routine postoperative administration of vitamin D and calcium can reduce the incidence of symptomatic postoperative hypocalcemia. We performed a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of this intervention. The primary aim was to evaluate the efficacy of routine postoperative oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation in preventing symptomatic post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. The second aim was to draw clear guidelines regarding prophylactic calcium and/or vitamin D therapy for patients after thyroidectomy. Methods. We identified randomized controlled trials comparing the administration of vitamin D or its metabolites to calcium or no treatment in adult patients after thyroidectomy. The search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Google Scholar, and Web of Knowledge databases. Patients with a history of previous neck surgery, calcium supplementation, or renal impairment were excluded. Results. Nine studies with 2,285 patients were included: 22 in the vitamin D group, 580 in the calcium group, 792 in the vitamin D and calcium group, and 891 in the no intervention group, with symptomatic hypocalcemia incidences of 4.6%, 14%, 14%, and 20.5%, respectively. Subcomparisons demonstrated that the incidences of postoperative hypocalcemia were 10.1% versus 18.8% for calcium versus no intervention and 6.8% versus 25.9% for vitamin D and calcium versus no intervention. The studies showed a significant range of variability in patients' characteristics. Conclusions. A significant decrease in postoperative hypocalcemia was identified in patients who received routine supplementation of oral calcium or vitamin D. The incidence decreased even more with the combined administration of both supplements. Based on this analysis, we recommend oral calcium for all patients following thyroidectomy, with the addition of vitamin D for high-risk individuals. PMID:23635556

  14. Interactions between acidic matrix macromolecules and calcium phosphate ester crystals: relevance to carbonate apatite formation in biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Moradian-Oldak, J; Frolow, F; Addadi, L; Weiner, S

    1992-01-22

    Control over crystal growth by acidic matrix macromolecules is an important process in the formation of many mineralized tissues. Earlier studies on the interactions between acidic macromolecules and carboxylate- and carbonate-containing crystals showed that the proteins recognize a specific stereochemical motif on the interacting plane. Here we show that a similar stereochemical motif is recognized by acidic mollusc shell macromolecules interacting with four different organic calcium phosphate-containing crystals. In addition, an acidic protein from vertebrate tooth dentin was also observed to recognize a similar structural motif in one of the crystals. The characteristic motif recognized is composed of rows of calcium ions and phosphates arranged in a plane defined by two free oxygens and a phosphorus atom emerging perpendicular to the affected face. These observations may have a direct bearing on the manner in which control over crystal growth is exerted on carbonate apatite crystals commonly found in vertebrate tissues. PMID:1348121

  15. Presence and racemisation of amino acids in calcium oxalate patinas. A case study from the Baptistery in Parma, Italy.

    PubMed

    Casoli, Antonella; Palla, Gerardo

    2002-01-01

    The organic material present in oxalate patinas, collected from the stone external surfaces of the Baptistery in Parma (Italy), was analysed by GC-MS. The high racemisation levels determined for several specific amino acids indicate that microbial activity could contribute to the formation and modification of the organic material leading to the calcium oxalate patinas. PMID:12556029

  16. Computational modelling of the mechanical environment of osteogenesis within a polylactic acid–calcium phosphate glass scaffold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Louis Milan; Josep A. Planell; Damien Lacroix

    2009-01-01

    A computational model based on finite element method (FEM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is developed to analyse the mechanical stimuli in a composite scaffold made of polylactic acid (PLA) matrix with calcium phosphate glass (Glass) particles. Different bioreactor loading conditions were simulated within the scaffold. In vitro perfusion conditions were reproduced in the model. Dynamic compression was also reproduced

  17. Effects of calcium phosphate precipitation method on acid resistance to apatite powder and bovine tooth.

    PubMed

    Suge, Toshiyuki; Kawasaki, Akiko; Ishikawa, Kunio; Matsuo, Takashi; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2008-07-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of CPP method on the crystallinity of apatite powder and on the acid resistance of bovine enamel. Crystallinity degrees of apatite powder before and after CPP treatment were measured by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Polished bovine enamel specimens treated with CPP method or NaF were immersed in a lactic acid solution for up to five days. The demineralized depth of enamel was measured with a surface roughness analyzer. XRD peaks became sharper after the CPP treatment, indicating an increased crystallinity of the apatite powder. The demineralized depth of bovine enamel treated with CPP method was shallower than that of enamel treated with NaF. Results of this study revealed that the CPP method increased the crystallinity of apatite powder and the acid resistance of enamel. Therefore, the CPP method would be useful not only for treating dentin hypersensitivity, but also for the prevention of dental caries. PMID:18833763

  18. Blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter prevents iron accumulation in a model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huiying; Hao, Shuangying; Sun, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Dingding; Gao, Xin; Yu, Zhuang; Li, Kuanyu; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2015-01-24

    Previous studies have shown that iron accumulation is involved in the pathogenesis of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and chelation of iron reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage. We previously reported that blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) provided benefit in the early brain injury after experimental SAH. This study was undertaken to identify whether blockage of MCU could ameliorate iron accumulation-associated brain injury following SAH. Therefore, we used two reagents ruthenium red (RR) and spermine (Sper) to inhibit MCU. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups including sham, SAH, SAH+RR, and SAH+Sper. Biochemical analysis and histological assays were performed. The results confirmed the iron accumulation in temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, blockage of MCU dramatically reduced the iron accumulation in this area. The mechanism was revealed that inhibition of MCU reversed the down-regulation of iron regulatory protein (IRP) 1/2 and increase of ferritin. Iron-sulfur cluster dependent-aconitase activity was partially conserved when MCU was blocked. In consistence with this and previous report, ROS levels were notably reduced and ATP supply was rescued; levels of cleaved caspase-3 dropped; and integrity of neurons in temporal lobe was protected. Taken together, our results indicated that blockage of MCU could alleviate iron accumulation and the associated injury following SAH. These findings suggest that the alteration of calcium and iron homeostasis be coupled and MCU be considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH. PMID:25529443

  19. Prevention of Breast Cancer Development by Epidermal Fatty Acid Binding Protein ( | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  20. Calcium-activated gene transfection from DNA/poly(amic acid-co-imide) complexes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Szu-Yuan; Chang, Li-Ting; Peng, Sydeny; Tsai, Hsieh-Chih

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we synthesized a water-soluble poly(amic acid-co-imide) (PA-I) from ethylenediaminetetraacetic dianhydride (EDTA) and 2,2?-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine) that possesses comparable transfection efficiency to that of polyethylenimine (PEI), when prepared in combination with divalent calcium cations. The polycondensation of monomers afforded poly(amic acid) (PA) precursors, and subsequent thermal imidization resulted in the formation of PA-I. At a polymer/DNA ratio (indicated by the molar ratio of nitrogen in the polymer to phosphate in DNA) of 40, complete retardation of the DNA band was observed by gel electrophoresis, indicating the strong association of DNA with PA-I. A zeta potential of ?22 mV was recorded for the PA-I polymer solution, and no apparent cytotoxicity was observed at concentrations up to 500 ?g·mL?1. In the presence of divalent Ca2+, the transfection efficiency of PA-I was higher than that of PA, due to the formation of a copolymer/Ca2+/DNA polyplex and the reduction in negative charge due to thermal cyclization. Interestingly, a synergistic effect of Ca2+ and the synthesized copolymer on DNA transfection was observed. The use of Ca2+ or copolymer alone resulted in unsatisfactory delivery, whereas the formation of three-component polyplexes synergistically increased DNA transfection. Our findings demonstrated that a PA-I/Ca2+/DNA polyplex could serve as a promising candidate for gene delivery. PMID:25767385

  1. Hippuric acid as a significant regulator of supersaturation in calcium oxalate lithiasis: the physiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Atanassova, Stoyanka S; Gutzow, Ivan S

    2013-01-01

    At present, the clinical significance of existing physicochemical and biological evidence and especially the results we have obtained from our previous in vitro experiments have been analyzed, and we have come to the conclusion that hippuric acid (C6H5CONHCH2COOH) is a very active solvent of Calcium Oxalate (CaOX) in physiological solutions. Two types of experiments have been discussed: clinical laboratory analysis on the urine excretion of hippuric acid (HA) in patients with CaOX lithiasis and detailed measurements of the kinetics of the dissolution of CaOX calculi in artificial urine, containing various concentrations of HA. It turns out that the most probable value of the HA concentration in the control group is approximately ten times higher than the corresponding value in the group of the stone-formers. Our in vitro analytical measurements demonstrate even a possibility to dissolve CaOX stones in human urine, in which increased concentration of HA have been established. A conclusion can be that drowning out HA is a significant regulator of CaOX supersaturation and thus a regulation of CaOX stone formation in human urine. Discussions have arisen to use increased concentration of HA in urine both as a solubilizator of CaOX stones in the urinary tract and on the purpose of a prolonged metaphylactic treatment. PMID:24307993

  2. Calcium involved in the poly(?-glutamic acid)-mediated promotion of Chinese cabbage nitrogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zongqi; Lei, Peng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Xianju; Liang, Jinfeng; Chi, Bo; Xu, Hong

    2014-07-01

    Plant growth can reportedly be promoted by poly(?-glutamic acid) (?-PGA). However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. To reveal the mechanism of ?-PGA, we designed an experiment that investigated the effect of ?-PGA on the nitrogen metabolism of Chinese cabbage hydroponic cultured at different calcium (Ca) levels and varied exogenous Ca(2+) inhibitors. The results showed that nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase, and glutamate dehydrogenase activities in leaves and roots were obviously enhanced by ?-PGA at the normal Ca(2+) level (4.0 mM). Meanwhile, ?-PGA increased the content of total nitrogen, soluble protein, and soluble amino acids in leaves. However, the promotional effect of ?-PGA on fresh weight weakened when Ca(2+) was inadequate. Moreover, ?-PGA not only induced the influx of extracellular Ca(2+) and Ca(2+) in organelles into cytoplasm, but also increased the Ca(2+)-ATPase level to modify Ca(2+) homeostasis in plant cells. In addition, exogenous Ca(2+) inhibitors significantly suppressed the ?-PGA-mediated promotion of cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) level, calmodulin (CaM) content, GS and glutamate dehydrogenase activities. In summary, ?-PGA accelerated the nitrogen metabolism of plants through the Ca(2+)/CaM signaling pathway, thereby improving the growth of the plant. PMID:24762787

  3. Calcium gating of H+ fluxes in chloroplasts affects acid-base-driven ATP formation.

    PubMed

    Wooten, D C; Dilley, R A

    1993-10-01

    In previous work, calcium ions, bound at the lumenal side of the CF0H+ channel, were suggested to keep a H+ flux gating site closed, favoring sequestered domain H+ ions flowing directly into the CF0-CF1 and driving ATP formation by a localized delta approximately mu H+ gradient. Treatments expected to displace Ca++ from binding sites had the effect of allowing H+ ions in the sequestered domains to equilibrate with the lumen, and energy coupling showed delocalized characteristics. The existence of such a gating function implies that a closed-gate configuration would block lumenal H+ ions from entering the CF0-CF1 complex. In this work that prediction was tested using as an assay the dark, acid-base jump ATP formation phenomenon driven by H+ ions derived from succinic acid loaded into the lumen. Chlorpromazine, a photoaffinity probe for many proteins having high-affinity Ca(++)-binding sites, covalently binds to the 8-kDa CF0 subunit in the largest amounts when there is sufficient Ca++ to favor the localized energy coupling mode, i.e., the "gate closed" configuration. Photoaffinity-bound chlorpromazine blocked 50% or more of the succinate-dependent acid-base jump ATP formation, provided that the ionic conditions during the UV photoaffinity treatment were those which favor a localized energy coupling pattern and a higher level of chlorpromazine labeling of the 8-kDa CF0 subunit. Thylakoids held under conditions favoring a delocalized energy coupling mode and less chlorpromazine labeling of the CF0 subunit did not show any inhibition of acid-base jump ATP formation. Chlorpromazine and calmidazolium, another Ca(++)-binding site probe, were also shown to block redox-derived H+ initially released into sequestered domains from entering the lumen, at low levels of domain H+ accumulation, but not at higher H+ uptake levels; ie., the closed gate state can be overcome by sufficiently acidic conditions. That is consistent with the observation that the inhibition of lumenal succinate-dependent ATP formation by photoaffinity-attached chlorpromazine can be reversed by lowering the pH of the acid stage from 5.5 to 4.5. The evidence is consistent with the concept that Ca++ bound at the lumenal side of the CF0 H+ channel can block H+ flux from either direction, consistent with the existence of a molecular structure in the CF0 complex having the properties of a gate for H+ flux across the inner boundary of the CF0. Such a gate could control the expression of localized or delocalized delta approximately mu H+ energy coupling gradients. PMID:8132495

  4. A Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Calcium Propionate and Calcium Chloride for the Prevention of Parturient Paresis in Dairy Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Pehrson; C. Svensson; M. Jonsson

    1998-01-01

    The efficacy of calcium propionate for the preven- tion of parturient paresis (milk fever) was compared with that of calcium chloride using 194 cows that had experienced milk fever during the previous calving. The cows were mainly of the Swedish Red and White and Swedish Friesian breeds and were divided ran- domly into an experimental group (n = 99) and

  5. Resveratrol inhibits the intracellular calcium increase and angiotensin/endothelin system activation induced by soluble uric acid in mesangial cells

    PubMed Central

    Albertoni, G.; Schor, N.

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol (Resv) is natural polyphenol found in grapes. This study evaluated the protective effect of Resv against the effects of uric acid (UA) in immortalized human mesangial cells (ihMCs). ihMCs were preincubated with Resv (12.5 µM) for 1 h and treated with UA (10 mg/dL) for 6 or 12 h. The intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]i was quantified by fluorescence using flow cytometry. Angiotensinogen (AGT) and pre-pro endothelin-1 (ppET-1) mRNA were assayed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Angiotensin II (AII) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were assayed by ELISA. UA significantly increased [Ca2+]i. Pre-incubation with Resv significantly reduced the change in [Ca2+]i induced by UA. Incubation with UA for 6 or 12 h also increased AGT mRNA expression and AII protein synthesis. Resv blunted these increases in AGT mRNA expression and AII protein. Incubation with UA in the ihMCs increased ppET-1 expression and ET-1 protein synthesis at 6 and 12 h. When ihMCs were pre-incubated with Resv, UA had a significantly diminished effect on ppET-1 mRNA expression and ET-1 protein synthesis at 6 and 12 h, respectively. Our results suggested that UA triggers reactions including AII and ET-1 production in mesangial cells. The renin-angiotensin system may contribute to the pathogenesis of renal function and chronic kidney disease. Resv can minimize the impact of UA on AII, ET-1 and the increase of [Ca2+]i in mesangial cells, suggesting that, at least in part, Resv can prevent the effects of soluble UA in mesangial cells. PMID:25493383

  6. The scientific basis for eliminating folic acid-preventable spina bifida: a modern miracle from epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Godfrey P

    2009-04-01

    One of the most remarkable successes of epidemiology was the demonstration in the late twentieth century that spina bifida and anencephaly-two of the most common and severe birth defects-are caused primarily by folate deficiency. This article reviews the descriptive epidemiological studies that began when we did not have a clue about etiology. The paper tells the success story of the trials that proved that folic acid would prevent folic-acid-preventable spina bifida. Finally, it will tell how difficult it is to get prevention policy implemented, even when the scientific evidence is compelling. It concludes by noting that the inaction or inappropriate actions of food regulatory bodies in so many countries means that only 10% of folic-acid-preventable spina bifida is actually being prevented--a serious failure of public health policy. PMID:19344858

  7. Neural tube defects : Prevention by folic acid and other vitamins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Copp; Nicholas D. E. Greene

    2000-01-01

    Folic acid has been demonstrated in clinical trials to reduce significantly the recurrence (and probably occurrence) of neural\\u000a tube defects (NTD). In the U.K., there has been no decline in prevalence of NTD since the publication of the findings with\\u000a folic acid. This article examines a series of questions relating to the action of folic acid, with emphasis on the

  8. Calcium balance and acid-base status of women as affected by increased protein intake and by sodium bicarbonate ingestion13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josephine Lutz

    Six women, aged 38 to 62 yr. participated in a 40-day metabolic study to investigate the effect of level of protein intake and of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on urinary calcium, net calcium balance, net renal acid excretion, and arterialized venous blood pH and bicarbonate ion concentration. The diet contained 44 g protein during the first 16 days and 102 g

  9. The effect of phosphoric acid concentration on the synthesis of nano-whiskers of calcium metaphosphate by chemical precipitation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Nengjian; Zhang, Yin; Kong, Deshuang; Zhu, Jianping; Tao, Yaqiu; Qiu, Tai

    2011-10-01

    Calcium metaphosphate (CMP) nano-whiskers were produced by a chemical precipitation method. In order to produce nano-powders, CMP was prepared by the mixing of two precursors, calcium oxide (CaO) and phosphate acid (H3PO4). Sparingly soluble chemicals, the Ca/P ratio of the mixture was set to be 0.50 to produce stoichiometric CMP, were chemical agitated in phosphate acid solution. At least 3 hours of pre-hydrolysis of phosphorus precursor were required to obtain CMP phase. The CMP powders were dried in a drying oven at 60 °C for 7 days and then followed by a heat treatment at 390 °C for 8hours. The obtained powder was analyzed using XRD, XRF, FT-IR, SEM, TG-DTA, Zeta Potential Meter, Specific Surface Area, and Particle Size Analyzer. The results showed that obtained CMP nano-whiskers have a significantly powder characteristics.

  10. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT HIGHWALLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 26, Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Generation from Open-Pit Highwalls. The intent of this project was to obtain performance data on the ability of four technologies to prevent the gener...

  11. Thermotolerance and antioxidant systems in Agrostis stolonifera: involvement of salicylic acid, abscisic acid, calcium, hydrogen peroxide, and ethylene.

    PubMed

    Larkindale, Jane; Huang, Bingru

    2004-04-01

    This study investigated whether pre-treating plants with specific putative signaling components and heat acclimation would induce tolerance of a cool-season grass, creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris), to subsequent heat stress and whether thermotolerance induction of those pretreatments was associated with the regulation of antioxidant regenerating enzymes. The treatments included foliar application of salicylic acid (SA), abscisic acid (ABA), calcium chloride (CaCl2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC, a precursor of ethylene prior to the exposure of plants to heat stress (35 degrees C) in a growth chamber. Physiological measurements including turf quality, leaf photosynthetic rate, and levels of oxidative damage demonstrated that all treatments increased heat tolerance. The better heat tolerance for pre-treated plants as compared to controls was related to the protection of oxidative damage under heat stress. APX activity increased over the first 2 days and 5 days of heating for ACC and CaCl2 respectively, but for only 12 h for H2O2. SA and ABA pre-treatments had no effects on APX activity earlier, but maintained APX activity at a significantly higher level than in controls after 24 h of heating. SA and ABA pre-treatments had no effects on POX activity. ACC treatment significantly increased POX activity. Pre-treatment with CaCl2, H2O2, and HA reduced POX activity, particularly during the later phase of heating. Plants treated with SA, CaCl2, H2O2 and HA had lower CAT activity than their control plants prior to heating and within 48 h of heat stress. ABA and ACC pre-treatments maintained higher CAT activity than the controls after 48 h of heating. ACC, CaCl2, or HA pre-treatments increased SOD activity only before 5 days of heat stress. SA and ABA pre-treatments had less effect on APX activity earlier under heat stress. These results suggest that specific groups of potential signaling molecules may induce tolerance of creeping bentgrass to heat stress by reducing oxidative damage. PMID:15128028

  12. Leaching of lead from zinc leach residue in acidic calcium chloride aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Le; Mu, Wen-ning; Shen, Hong-tao; Liu, Shao-ming; Zhai, Yu-chun

    2015-05-01

    A process with potentially reduced environmental impacts and occupational hazards of lead-bearing zinc plant residue was studied to achieve a higher recovery of lead via a cost-effective and environmentally friendly process. This paper describes an optimization study on the leaching of lead from zinc leach residue using acidic calcium chloride aqueous solution. Six main process conditions, i.e., the solution pH value, stirring rate, concentration of CaCl2 aqueous solution, liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, leaching temperature, and leaching time, were investigated. The microstructure and components of the residue and tailing were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). On the basis of experimental results, the optimum reaction conditions were determined to be a solution pH value of 1, a stirring rate of 500 r·min-1, a CaCl2 aqueous solution concentration of 400 g·L-1, a liquid-to-solid mass ratio of 7:1, a leaching temperature of 80°C, and a leaching time of 45 min. The leaching rate of lead under these conditions reached 93.79%, with an iron dissolution rate of 19.28%. Silica did not take part in the chemical reaction during the leaching process and was accumulated in the residue.

  13. Seventy per cent hydrofluoric acid burns: delayed decontamination with hexafluorine® and treatment with calcium gluconate.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Carlos Alberto; Mathieu, Laurence; Hall, Alan H; Monteiro, Mário G Kool; de Almeida, Décio Moreira

    2011-01-01

    This is a case report of decontamination and treatment of a 70% hydrofluoric acid (HF) dermal splash injury. A worker was splashed with 70% HF, sustaining approximately 10% TBSA first- to third-degree chemical skin burns of the face, trunk, and left thigh and leg. Initial decontamination involved water rinsing, removal of contaminated clothing, more water rinsing, topical application of magnesium oxide, and administration of intravenous narcotics for management of severe pain. After a delay of approximately 3 hours, active skin washing with Hexafluorine®, 5 L, was performed, followed by intravenous, intradermal perilesional, and topical inunction administration of calcium gluconate. Pain relief and a cooling sensation were quite prompt after Hexafluorine® decontamination. Surgical debridement and skin grafting of the more severe burns were required. No significant systemic toxicity developed, although this has occurred in previously reported similar concentrated HF dermal splash exposure cases, some of which resulted in fatality. While burns did develop, the patient was released from the intensive care service after 2 days and, after skin grafting, had a good outcome at 90-day follow-up. Even after a long delay, decontamination with Hexafluorine® appeared to be beneficial in this case. PMID:21747332

  14. Calcium channels activated by hydrogen peroxide mediate abscisic acid signalling in guard cells.

    PubMed

    Pei, Z M; Murata, Y; Benning, G; Thomine, S; Klüsener, B; Allen, G J; Grill, E; Schroeder, J I

    2000-08-17

    Drought is a major threat to agricultural production. Plants synthesize the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in response to drought, triggering a signalling cascade in guard cells that results in stomatal closure, thus reducing water loss. ABA triggers an increase in cytosolic calcium in guard cells ([Ca2+]cyt) that has been proposed to include Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane. However, direct recordings of Ca2+ currents have been limited and the upstream activation mechanisms of plasma membrane Ca2+ channels remain unknown. Here we report activation of Ca2+-permeable channels in the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis guard cells by hydrogen peroxide. The H2O2-activated Ca2+ channels mediate both influx of Ca2+ in protoplasts and increases in [Ca2+]cyt in intact guard cells. ABA induces the production of H2O2 in guard cells. If H2O2 production is blocked, ABA-induced closure of stomata is inhibited. Moreover, activation of Ca2+ channels by H2O2 and ABA- and H2O2-induced stomatal closing are disrupted in the recessive ABA-insensitive mutant gca2. These data indicate that ABA-induced H2O2 production and the H2O2-activated Ca2+ channels are important mechanisms for ABA-induced stomatal closing. PMID:10963598

  15. [Calcium, dairy products and weight reduction].

    PubMed

    Hlavatá, Karolína

    2014-01-01

    Considerable attention is focused on calcium and other components of milk in terms of nutritional factors in the context of overweight and obesity. Studies have shown that calcium, proteins, branched amino acids and bioactive whey peptides in particular may help to reduce weight and improve body composition during weight loss, especially in terms of fat free mass (FFM) loss prevention. A diet with a higher content of proteins and calcium is also relevant to the regulation of food intake and improves overall patient compliance with weight management. PMID:25370769

  16. Acid-induced gelation of whey protein polymers: effects of pH and calcium concentration during polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Britten; Hélène J Giroux

    2001-01-01

    Heating whey protein dispersions (90°C for 15 min) at low ionic strength and pH values far from isoelectric point (pH>6.5) induced the formation of soluble polymers. The effect of mineral environment during heating on the hydrodynamic characteristics and acid-induced gelation properties of polymers was studied. Whey protein dispersions (80g\\/l) were denatured at different pH (6.5–8.5) and calcium concentrations (0–4mm) according

  17. Dairy product, saturated fatty acid, and calcium intake and prostate cancer in a prospective cohort of Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, Norie; Inoue, Manami; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, And Shoichiro

    2008-04-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have reported a positive association between dairy products and prostate cancer. Calcium or saturated fatty acid in dairy products has been suspected as the causative agent. To investigate the association between dairy products, calcium, and saturated fatty acid and prostate cancer in Japan, where both the intake of these items and the incidence of prostate cancer are low, we conducted a population-based prospective study in 43,435 Japanese men ages 45 to 74 years. Participants responded to a validated questionnaire that included 138 food items. During 7.5 years of follow-up, 329 men were newly diagnosed with prostate cancer. Dairy products were associated with a dose-dependent increase in the risk of prostate cancer. The relative risks (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles of total dairy products, milk, and yogurt were 1.63 (1.14-2.32), 1.53 (1.07-2.19), and 1.52 (1.10-2.12), respectively. A statistically significant increase in risk was observed for both calcium and saturated fatty acid, but the associations for these were attenuated after controlling for potential confounding factors. Some specific saturated fatty acids increased the risk of prostate cancer in a dose-dependent manner. Relative risks (95% confidence intervals) on comparison of the highest with the lowest quartiles of myristic acid and palmitic acid were 1.62 (1.15-2.29) and 1.53 (1.07-2.20), respectively. In conclusion, our results suggest that the intake of dairy products may be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. PMID:18398033

  18. Awareness of the use of folic acid to prevent neural tube defects in a Mediterranean area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oriol Coll; Sonia Pisa; Montserrat Palacio; Llorenç Quintó; Vicenç Cararach

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) is decreased in women who take folic acid during the periconceptional period. The main objective of our study was to evaluate the awareness of the need for folic acid supplementation and also the actual intake during the periconceptional period to prevent neural tube defects in a Mediterranean area. Study design: A retrospective

  19. THE USE OF FOLIC ACID FOR THE PREVENTION OF BIRTH DEFECTS IN PUERTO RICO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lourdes Garcia-Fragoso; Ines Garcia-Garcia; Cynthia E. River

    Introduction: The occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs) varies by race\\/ethnicity, and the highest rates are among women of Hispanic ethnicity. Women of reproductive age are advised to use folic acid to prevent NTDs and other birth defects. Since 1994, Puerto Rico has had a campaign to promote the use of folic acid, and since 1998, enriched grain products have

  20. Folic acid for the prevention of congenital anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hall; F. Solehdin

    1998-01-01

    Paediatricians need to be aware of the broad implications that sufficient maternal folic acid intake has on the wellbeing\\u000a of the embryo and fetus. There is now strong evidence that adequate periconceptional maternal folic acid supplementation during\\u000a critical periods of organ formation is associated with reduction in both the occurrence and recurrence of neural tube defects,\\u000a congenital heart defects (particularly

  1. Effect of fatty acid calcium salts from linseed oil on the yield and n-3 fatty acid content of milk and on blood plasma parameters of cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Brzóska

    2006-01-01

    The study was carried out with 16 Red-and-White cows in a 4×4 Latin square design. In 4 periods of 21 days each, diets containing grass silage, maize silage, brewers grains and concentrate mixture containing calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) were given to cows at a rate of 0.28 kg\\/kg of milk obtained. Cows received CSFA at 0, 1.84, 3.54

  2. Calcitriol prevents in vitro vascular smooth muscle cell mineralization by regulating calcium-sensing receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Mary, Aurélien; Hénaut, Lucie; Boudot, Cédric; Six, Isabelle; Brazier, Michel; Massy, Ziad A; Drüeke, Tilman B; Kamel, Saïd; Mentaverri, Romuald

    2015-06-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is a degenerative disease that contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A negative relationship has been demonstrated between VC and calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) expression in the vasculature. Of interest, vitamin D response elements, which allow responsiveness to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], are present in the promoters of the CaSR gene. We hypothesized that 1,25(OH)2D3, by modulating CaSR expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), might protect against VC. Human VSMCs were exposed to increasing concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 (0.01-10 nmol/L) in noncalcifying (1.8 mmol/L) or procalcifying Ca(2+)0 condition (5.0 mmol/L). Using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting we observed a significant increase in both CaSR mRNA and protein levels after exposure to 1.0 nmol/L 1,25(OH)2D3. This effect was associated with a maximal increase in CaSR expression at the cell surface after 48 hours of 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment, as assessed by flow cytometry. Down-regulation of the vitamin D receptor by small interfering RNA abolished these effects. In the procalcifying condition, 1.0 nmol/L 1,25(OH)2D3 blocked the Ca(2+)0-induced decrease in total and surface CaSR expression and protected against mineralization. Down-regulation of CaSR expression by CaSR small interfering RNA abolished this protective effect. 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations of 0.5 and 5.0 nmol/L were also effective, but other (0.01, 0.1, and 10 nmol/L) concentrations did not modify CaSR expression and human VSMC mineralization. In conclusion, these findings suggest that nanomolar concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 induce a CaSR-dependent protection against VC. Both lower and higher concentrations are either ineffective or may even promote VC. Whether this also holds true in the clinical setting requires further study. PMID:25763635

  3. Regulation of the synthesis of barley aleurone. cap alpha. -amylase by gibberellic acid and calcium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Carbonell, J.

    1984-09-01

    The effects of gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) and calcium ions on the production of ..cap alpha..-amylase and acid phosphatase by isolated aleurone layers of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya) were studied. Aleurone layers not previously exposed to GA/sub 3/ or CA/sup 2 +/ show qualitative and quantitative changes in hydrolase production following incubation in either GA/sub 3/ or CA/sup 2 +/ or both. In cubation in H/sub 2/O or CA/sup 2 +/ results in the production of low levels of ..cap alpha..-amylase or acid phosphatase. The addition of GA/sub 3/ to the incubation medium causes 10- to 20-fold increase in the amounts of these enzymes released from the tissue, and addition of CA/sup 2 +/ at 10 millimolar causes a further 8- to 9-fold increase in ..cap alpha..-amylase release and a 75% increase in phosphatase release. Production of ..cap alpha..-amylase isoenzymes is also modified by the levels of GA/sub 3/ and CA/sup 2 +/ in the incubation medium. ..cap alpha..-amylase 2 is produced under all conditions of incubation, while ..cap alpha..-amylase 1 appears only when layers are incubated in GA/sub 3/ or GA/sub 3/ plus CA/sup 2 +/. The synthesis of ..cap alpha..-amylases 3 and 4 requires the presence of both GA/sub 3/ and CA/sup 2 +/ in the incubation medium. Laurell rocket immunoelectrophoresis shows that two distinct groups of ..cap alpha..-amylase antigens are present in incubation media of aleurone layers incubated with both GA/sub 3/ and CA/sup 2 +/, while only one group of antigens is found in media of layers incubated in GA/sub 3/ alone. Strontium ions can be substituted for CA/sup 2 +/ in increasing hydrolase production, although higher concentrations of Sr/sup 2 +/ are requried for maximal response. We conclude that GA/sub 3/ is required for the production of ..cap alpha..-amylase 1 and that both GA/sub 3/ and either CA/sup 2 +/ or Sr/sup 2 +/ are required for the production of isoenzymes 3 and 4 of barley aleurone ..cap alpha..-amylase. 22 references, 8 figures, 1 tables.

  4. Prevention of Neural-Tube Defects with Periconceptional Folic Acid, Methylfolate, or Multivitamins?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew E. Czeizel; István Dudás; László Paput; Ferenc Bánhidy

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: To review the main results of intervention trials which showed the efficacy of periconceptional folic acid-containing multivitamin and folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural-tube defects (NTD). Methods and Results: The main findings of 5 intervention trials are known: (i) the efficacy of a multivitamin containing 0.36 mg folic acid in a UK nonrandomized controlled trial resulted in

  5. ISOLATED MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA MUTANTS WITH INCREASED CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTAL ACCUMULATION HAVE DECREASED ASCORBIC ACID LEVELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms controlling oxalate biosynthesis and calcium oxalate formation in plants remains largely unknown. As an initial step toward gaining insight into these regulatory mechanisms we initiated a mutant screen to identify plants that over-accumulate crystals of calcium oxalate. Four new mut...

  6. The role of calcium in growth induced by indole-3-acetic acid and gravity in the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. G.; Burg, J.; Ghosheh, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1992-01-01

    Leaf-sheath pulvini of excised segments from oat (Avena sativa L.) were induced to grow by treatment with 10 micromoles indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gravistimulation, or both, and the effects of calcium, EGTA, and calcium channel blockers on growth were evaluated. Unilaterally applied calcium (10 mM CaCl2) significantly inhibited IAA-induced growth in upright pulvini but had no effect on growth induced by either gravity or gravity plus IAA. Calcium alone had no effect on upright pulvini. The calcium chelator EGTA alone (10 mM) stimulated growth in upright pulvini. However, EGTA had no effect on either IAA- or gravity-induced growth but slightly diminished growth in IAA-treated gravistimulated pulvini. The calcium channel blockers lanthanum chloride (25 mM), verapamil (2.5 mM), and nifedipine (2.5 mM) greatly inhibited growth as induced by IAA (> or = 50% inhibition) or IAA plus gravity (20% inhibition) but had no effect on gravistimulated pulvini. Combinations of channel blockers were similar in effect on IAA action as individual blockers. Since neither calcium ions nor EGTA significantly affected the graviresponse of pulvini, we conclude that apoplastic calcium is unimportant in leaf-sheath pulvinus gravitropism. The observation that calcium ions and calcium channel blockers inhibit IAA-induced growth, but have no effect on gravistimulated pulvini, further supports previous observations that gravistimulation alters the responsiveness of pulvini to IAA.

  7. Calcium-Dependent and Calcium-Independent Events in the Initiation of Stomatal Closure by Abscisic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. C. MacRobbie

    1990-01-01

    The signal transduction mechanisms by which abscisic acid (ABA) induces net loss of potassium salts from guard cells and closes stomata are not understood. This paper describes the detailed timecourse of the ABA-induced K+(Rb+) efflux transient in guard cells of Commelina communis L. and its dependence on external Ca2+, and compares the effects of short pulses of ABA with that

  8. LMO4 is essential for paraventricular hypothalamic neuronal activity and calcium channel expression to prevent hyperphagia.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Tariq; Zhou, Xun; Pandey, Nihar R; Qin, Zhaohong; Keyhanian, Kianoosh; Wen, Kendall; Courtney, Ryan D; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Chen, Hsiao-Huei

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity reflects a lack of progress in combating one of the most serious health problems of this century. Recent studies have improved our understanding of the appetitive network by focusing on the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH), a key region responsible for the homeostatic balance of food intake. Here we show that mice with PVH-specific ablation of LIM domain only 4 (Lmo4) become rapidly obese when fed regular chow due to hyperphagia rather than to reduced energy expenditure. Brain slice recording of LMO4-deficient PVH neurons showed reduced basal cellular excitability together with reduced voltage-activated Ca(2+) currents. Real-time PCR quantification revealed that LMO4 regulates the expression of Ca(2+) channels (Cacna1h, Cacna1e) that underlie neuronal excitability. By increasing neuronal activity using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs technology, we could suppress food intake of PVH-specific LMO4-deficient mice. Together, these results demonstrate that reduced neural activity in LMO4-deficient PVH neurons accounts for hyperphagia. Thus, maintaining PVH activity is important to prevent hyperphagia-induced obesity. PMID:24381275

  9. Prevention of spina bifida: folic acid intake during pregnancy in Gulu district, northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bannink, Femke; Larok, Rita; Kirabira, Peter; Bauwens, Lieven; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The intake of folic acid before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy can prevent spina bifida. This paper describes folic acid intake in women in Gulu district in northern Uganda. Methods Structured interviews were held with 394 women attending antenatal care (ANC), 15 mothers of children with spina bifida, and 35 health workers in 2012 and 2013. SPSS16 was used for data analysis. Results 1/4 mothers of children with spina bifida took folic acid during late pregnancy, none preconception. None had knowledge about folic acid and spina bifida prevention. 33.5% of women attending ANC had ever heard about spina bifida, 1% knew folic acid intake can prevent spina bifida. 42.4% took folic acid supplements in late pregnancy, 8.1% during the first trimester, none preconception. All women said to have eaten food rich in folic acid. None were aware about fortified foods. 7% of health workers understood the importance of early folic acid intake. All health workers recommended folic acid intake to women attending ANC. 20% of the health workers and 25% of the women said folic acid supplements are not always available. Conclusion Folic acid intake is limited in northern Uganda. This is attributed to limited education and understanding of women and health workers about the importance of early folic acid intake, late presentation of women at ANC, poor supply chain and dilapidated health services caused by war and poverty. A combination of food fortification, sensitization of health workers, women, and improving folic acid supply is recommended.

  10. Bioefficacy of a novel calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid.

    PubMed

    Downs, Bernard W; Bagchi, Manashi; Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V; Shara, Michael A; Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Debasis

    2005-11-11

    Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and certain forms of cancer. Popular strategies on weight loss often fail to address many key factors such as fat mass, muscle density, bone density, water mass, their inter-relationships and impact on energy production, body composition, and overall health and well-being. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural plant extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, has been reported to promote body fat loss in humans without stimulating the central nervous system. The level of effectiveness of G. cambogia extract is typically attributed solely to HCA. However, other components by their presence or absence may significantly contribute to its therapeutic effectiveness. Typically, HCA used in dietary weight loss supplement is bound to calcium, which results in a poorly soluble (<50%) and less bioavailable form. Conversely, the structural characteristics of a novel Ca2+/K+ bound (-)-HCA salt (HCA-SX or Super CitriMax) make it completely water soluble as well as bioavailable. An efficacious dosage of HCA-SX (4500 mg/day t.i.d.) provides a good source of Ca2+ (495 mg, 49.5% of RDI) and K+ (720 mg, 15% of RDI). Ca2+ ions are involved in weight management by increasing lipid metabolism, enhancing thermogenesis, and increasing bone density. K+, on the other hand, increases energy, reduces hypertension, increases muscle strength and regulates arrhythmias. Both Ca and K act as buffers in pH homeostasis. HCA-SX has been shown to increase serotonin availability, reduce appetite, increase fat oxidation, improve blood lipid levels, reduce body weight, and modulate a number of obesity regulatory genes without affecting the mitochondrial and nuclear proteins required for normal biochemical and physiological functions. PMID:16055158

  11. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation to Prevent Recurrent Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Margaret; Thom, Elizabeth; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Thorp, John; Sorokin, Yoram; Varner, Michael W.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Caritis, Steve N.; Iams, Jay D.; Carpenter, Marshall W.; Peaceman, Alan M.; Mercer, Brian M.; Sciscione, Anthony; Rouse, Dwight J.; Ramin, Susan M.; Anderson, Garland D.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess whether the addition of an omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplement would reduce preterm birth in women with at least one prior spontaneous preterm birth receiving 17?-hydroxyprogesterone caproate. METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial in 13 centers. Women with a history of prior spontaneous singleton preterm birth and a current singleton gestation were assigned to either a daily omega-3 supplement (1,200 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 800 mg docosahexaenoic acid) or matching placebo from 16–22 through 36 weeks of gestation. All participants received weekly intramuscular 17?-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (250 mg). The primary study outcome was delivery before 37 weeks of gestation. A sample size of 800 was necessary to have 80% power to detect a 30% reduction in the primary outcome from 30%, assuming a type I error two-sided of 5%. RESULTS A total of 852 women were included, and none was lost to follow up. Delivery before 37 weeks of gestation occurred in 37.8% (164/434) of women in the omega-3 group and 41.6% (174/418) in the placebo group (relative risk 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.77–1.07). CONCLUSION Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation offered no benefit in reducing preterm birth among women receiving 17?-hydroxyprogesterone caproate who have a history of preterm delivery. PMID:20093894

  12. Uric acid and xanthine oxidase: future therapeutic targets in the prevention of cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Jesse; Walters, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Serum uric acid may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This review examines this association, potential mechanisms, and explores whether strategies to reduce uric acid will improve outcomes. The recent studies of xanthine oxidase inhibition are given particular focus. Epidemiological evidence supports the theory that uric acid is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recent studies of losartan, atorvastatin and fenofibrate suggest that uric acid reduction contributes to the risk reduction offered by these therapies. Several small studies of xanthine oxidase inhibition have shown improvements in measures of cardiovascular function of a similar magnitude to that of other proven preventative treatments. These trial data and the convincing epidemiological evidence mandate that large clinical trials of uric acid-lowering strategies are performed in patients with or at high risk of cardiovascular disease. If such approaches are shown to be effective in reducing cardiovascular events, they would represent a novel and cost-effective preventative approach. PMID:21894646

  13. Stress stimuli increase calcium-induced arachidonic acid release through phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2.

    PubMed Central

    Buschbeck, M; Ghomashchi, F; Gelb, M H; Watson, S P; Börsch-Haubold, A G

    1999-01-01

    Stress stimuli such as free radicals, high osmolarity or arsenite activate stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) in a wide variety of cells. In the present study, we have investigated the ability of several stress stimuli to activate SAPKs in platelets and to induce phosphorylation of their substrates. Treatment of human platelets with H(2)O(2) stimulated SAPK2a and its downstream target mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAP-K2). Kinase activity reached a maximum after 2-5 min and declined towards basal levels after 15 min. Arsenite caused a steady increase of MAPKAP-K2 activity up to 15 min. The level of maximal kinase activation by H(2)O(2) and arsenite was comparable with the effect caused by the physiological platelet stimulus thrombin. A high osmolarity solution of sorbitol induced comparatively small activation of SAPK2a and MAPKAP-K2. The 42-kDa extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 2 was not activated by H(2)O(2), sorbitol or arsenite. None of these stimuli triggered significant arachidonic acid release on their own. However, H(2)O(2) and sorbitol enhanced the release of arachidonic acid induced by the calcium ionophore A23187. This effect was reversed by the inhibitor of SAPK2a, 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulphinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl) imidazole (SB 203580), but not by the inhibitor of the ERK2-activating pathway, 2-(2-amino-3-methoxyphenyl)-oxanaphthalen-4-one (PD 98059). Both H(2)O(2) and sorbitol increased phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) and its intrinsic activity; both responses were blocked by SB 203580. Phosphorylation of cPLA(2) by H(2)O(2) occurred on Ser-505, a reaction that is known to increase the intrinsic lipase activity of the enzyme. Our results demonstrate that activation of SAPKs by stress stimuli primes cPLA(2) activation through phosphorylation. In vivo, this mechanism would lead to the sensitization of platelet activation and may be an important risk factor in thrombotic disease. PMID:10567216

  14. Efficacy of a novel calcium/potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid in weight control.

    PubMed

    Preuss, H G; Garis, R I; Bramble, J D; Bagchi, D; Bagchi, M; Rao, C V S; Satyanarayana, S

    2005-01-01

    The weight-loss efficacy of a novel, water-soluble, calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) was re-examined in 90 obese subjects (BMI: 30-50.8 kg/m2). We combined data from two previously reported randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies in order to achieve a better statistical evaluation based on a larger population. This re-examination of data also allowed us to reflect more intensely on various aspects of weight loss studies. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups: group A received a daily dose of HCA-SX 4, 667 mg (providing 2,800 mg HCA per day); group B was given a daily dose of a combination of HCA-SX 4,667 mg, niacin-bound chromium (NBC) 4 mg (providing 400 microg elemental chromium), and Gymnema sylvestre extract (GSE) 400 mg (providing 100 mg gymnemic acid); and group C received a placebo in three equally divided doses 30-60 min before each meal. All subjects were provided a 2,000 kcal diet/day and participated in a supervised walking program for 30 min/day, 5 days/week. Eighty-two subjects completed the study. At the end of 8 weeks, in group A, both body weight and BMI decreased by 5.4%, low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides levels were reduced by 12.9% and 6.9%, respectively, while high-density lipoprotein levels increased by 8.9%, serum leptin levels decreased by 38%, serotonin levels increased by 44.5% and urinary excretion of fat metabolites increased by 32-109%. Group B demonstrated similar beneficial changes, but generally to a greater extent. No significant adverse effects were observed. The combined results confirm that HCA-SX and, to a greater degree, the combination of HCA-SX plus NBC and GSE reduce body weight and BMI, suppress appetite, improve blood lipid profiles, increase serum leptin and serotonin levels and increase fat oxidation more than placebo. We conclude that dosage levels, timing of administration, subject compliance and bioavailability of HCA-SX significantly affect results and that when taken as directed, HCA-SX is a highly effective adjunct to healthy weight control. PMID:16366421

  15. Zoledronic Acid for the Treatment and Prevention of Primary and Secondary Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Rizzoli, René

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing interest in therapies that can be administered less frequently and/or avoid gastrointestinal irritation. The efficacy of once-yearly zoledronic acid (5 mg) in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis has been evaluated in different patient populations. In the 3-year HORIZON-Pivotal Fracture Trial in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, zoledronic acid reduced the risk of vertebral and hip fracture by 70% and 41%, respectively, versus placebo. The efficacy of zoledronic acid in preventing subsequent fracture in patients with a hip fracture was evaluated in the HORIZON-Recurrent Fracture Trial. New vertebral and nonvertebral fractures were significantly reduced by treatment initiated within 90 days of incident hip fracture, without evidence of delayed fracture healing. Data from a 1-year study show that a single zoledronic acid 5-mg infusion is superior to oral risedronate 5 mg/day for treatment and prevention of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Increases in bone mineral density and decreases in bone turnover markers were significantly greater with zoledronic acid than with risedronate. Two different treatment regimens of zoledronic acid were found to be more effective than placebo for prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women and reducing markers of bone turnover after 2 years. In conclusion, zoledronic acid 5 mg once-yearly infusion has demonstrated marked efficacy in the treatment and prevention of primary and secondary osteoporosis, with a combination of fracture risk reduction and prevention of bone loss at key sites. It is the only agent shown to reduce the incidence of fracture and mortality in patients with a previous low-trauma hip fracture. PMID:22870433

  16. Recovery of calcium carbonate from waste gypsum and utilization for remediation of acid mine drainage from coal mines.

    PubMed

    Mulopo, J; Radebe, V

    2012-01-01

    The recovery of calcium carbonate from waste gypsum (a waste product of the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process) was tested using sodium carbonate. Batch recovery of calcium carbonate from waste gypsum slurries by reacting with sodium carbonate under ambient conditions was used to assess the technical feasibility of CaCO(3) recovery and its use for pre-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) from coal mines. The effect of key process parameters, such as the slurry concentration (%) and the molar ratio of sodium carbonate to gypsum were considered. It was observed that batch waste gypsum conversion significantly increased with decrease in the slurry concentration or increase in the molar ratio of sodium carbonate to gypsum. The CaCO(3) recovered from the bench-scale batch reactor demonstrated effective neutralization ability during AMD pre-treatment compared with commercial laboratory grade CaCO(3). PMID:22828309

  17. Complete amino acid sequence of the sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein (SCP-I) from crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus).

    PubMed

    Jauregui-Adell, J; Wnuk, W; Cox, J A

    1989-01-30

    The complete amino acid sequence of the alpha chain of the dimeric sarcoplasmic Ca2+-binding protein (SCP-I = alpha 2) from crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) has been determined by partial automatic sequencing of the peptides derived from tryptic digests of the protein after citraconylation or treatment with 1,2-cyclohexanedione. Overlapping peptides were obtained by cleavage with o-iodosobenzoic acid, or digestion with Staphylococcus aureus protease, thermolysin and pepsin. The acetylated N-terminus was identified by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The monomeric protein contains 192 amino acids and has an Mr of 21,643. The sequence shows the presence of three calcium-binding sites and perhaps of two others that may be degenerated. PMID:2917647

  18. Improving amino acid nutrition to prevent intrauterine growth restriction in mammals.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gang; Wang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Guoyao; Feng, Cuiping; Zhou, Huaijun; Li, Defa; Wang, Junjun

    2014-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is one of the most common concerns in human obstetrics and domestic animal production. It is usually caused by placental insufficiency, which decreases fetal uptake of nutrients (especially amino acids) from the placenta. Amino acids are not only building blocks for protein but also key regulators of metabolic pathways in fetoplacental development. The enhanced demands of amino acids by the developing conceptus must be met via active transport systems across the placenta as normal pregnancy advances. Growing evidence indicates that IUGR is associated with a reduction in placental amino acid transport capacity and metabolic pathways within the embryonic/fetal development. The positive relationships between amino acid concentrations in circulating maternal blood and placental amino acid transport into fetus encourage designing new therapies to prevent or treat IUGR by enhancing amino acid availability in maternal diets or maternal circulation. Despite the positive effects of available dietary interventions, nutritional therapy for IUGR is still in its infancy. Based on understanding of the underlying mechanisms whereby amino acids promote fetal growth and of their dietary requirements by IUGR, supplementation with functional amino acids (e.g., arginine and glutamine) hold great promise for preventing fetal growth restriction and improving health and growth of IUGR offspring. PMID:24658999

  19. Periconceptional folic acid prevents miscarriage in Irish families with neural tube defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Byrne

    2011-01-01

    Background  Miscarriages occur to excess in sibships with neural tube defects (NTDs) and among maternal versus paternal relatives in NTD\\u000a families. Folic acid prevents most NTDs. Its potential to prevent miscarriages has been controversial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim  We evaluated the relationship of maternal line and periconceptional folic acid with miscarriage.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  First cousins in Irish families with NTDs were interviewed about pregnancy outcomes and the

  20. Surface properties of calcium and magnesium oxide nanopowders grafted with unsaturated carboxylic acids studied with inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Maciejewska, Magdalena; Krzywania-Kaliszewska, Alicja; Zaborski, Marian

    2012-09-28

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) was applied at infinite dilution to evaluate the surface properties of calcium and magnesium oxide nanoparticles and the effect of surface grafted unsaturated carboxylic acid on the nanopowder donor-acceptor characteristics. The dispersive components (?(s)(D)) of the free energy of the nanopowders were determined by Gray's method, whereas their tendency to undergo specific interactions was estimated based on the electron donor-acceptor approach presented by Papirer. The calcium and magnesium oxide nanoparticles exhibited high surface energies (79 mJ/m² and 74 mJ/m², respectively). Modification of nanopowders with unsaturated carboxylic acids decreased their specific adsorption energy. The lowest value of ?(s)(D) was determined for nanopowders grafted with undecylenic acid, approximately 55 mJ/m². The specific interactions were characterised by the molar free energy (?G(A)(SP)) and molar enthalpy (?H(A)(SP)) of adsorption as well as the donor and acceptor interaction parameters (K(A), K(D)). PMID:22907042

  1. THE ROLE OF GASTRIC ACID IN PREVENTING FOOD BORNE DISEASE AND BACTERIA OVERCOME ACID CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Secretion of hydrochloric acid by the stomach plays an important role in protecting the body against pathogens ingested with food or water. The gastric fluid pH of 1 to 2 is deleterious to many microbial pathogens; however, the neutralization of gastric acid by antacids or the inhibition of acid se...

  2. Preventing neural tube defects: The importance of periconceptional folic acid supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GregoryJ Locksmith; Patrick Duff

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To inform the obstetrician-gynecologist of recent scientific evidence regarding the use of supplemental folic acid for prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs).Data Sources: We selected English language articles via MEDLINE published from January 1990 through February 1997, using the search terms “folic acid” and “neural tube defect.” Additional sources were identified through cross-referencing and through searching selected journals published

  3. Boron-free fibers for prevention of acid induced brittle fracture of composite insulator GRP rods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel L. Armentrout; Maciej Kumosa; Terry S. McQuarrie

    2003-01-01

    An investigation was performed to determine whether corrosion resistant boron-free E-glass fibers could adequately prevent acid induced brittle fracture failures of high voltage composite insulator rods. Nine different rod compositions were tested at 45% of mechanical failure load in contact with 1 N nitric acid. Rods made out of commonly used E-glass fibers failed mechanically in less than 2 h

  4. In situ forming hydrogel composed of hyaluronate and polygalacturonic acid for prevention of peridural fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Yi; Peng, Hsiu-Hui; Chen, Mei-Hsiu; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Liu, Tse-Ying; Chen, Ming-Hong

    2015-04-01

    Hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels can reduce postoperative adhesion. However, the long-term application of hyaluronic acid is limited by tissue mediated enzymatic degradation. To overcome this limitation, we developed a polygalacturonic acid and hyaluronate composite hydrogel by Schiff's base crosslinking reaction. The polygalacturonic acid and hyaluronate composite hydrogels had short gelation time (less than 15 s) and degraded by less than 50 % in the presence of hyaluronidase for 7 days. Cell adhesion and migration assays showed polygalacturonic acid and hyaluronate composite hydrogels prevented fibroblasts from adhesion and infiltration into the hydrogels. Compared to hyaluronate hydrogels and commercial Medishield™ gels, polygalacturonic acid and hyaluronate composite hydrogel was not totally degraded in vivo after 4 weeks. In the rat laminectomy model, polygalacturonic acid and hyaluronate composite hydrogel also had better adhesion grade and smaller mean area of fibrous tissue formation over the saline control and hyaluronate hydrogel groups. Polygalacturonic acid and hyaluronate composite hydrogel is a system that can be easy to use due to its in situ cross-linkable property and potentially promising for adhesion prevention in spine surgeries. PMID:25791456

  5. Uric Acid Lowering to Prevent Kidney Function Loss in Diabetes: The Preventing Early Renal Function Loss (PERL) Allopurinol Study

    PubMed Central

    Maahs, David M.; Caramori, M. Luiza; Cherney, David Z.I.; Galecki, Andrzej T.; Gao, Chuanyun; Jalal, Diana; Perkins, Bruce A.; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Rossing, Peter; Mauer, Michael; Doria, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease causes significant morbidity and mortality among people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Intensive glucose and blood pressure control have thus far failed to adequately curb this problem and therefore a major need for novel treatment approaches exists. Multiple observations link serum uric acid levels to kidney disease development and progression in diabetes and strongly argue that uric acid lowering should be tested as one such novel intervention. A pilot of such a trial, using allopurinol, is currently being conducted by the Preventing Early Renal Function Loss (PERL) Consortium. Although the PERL trial targets T1D individuals at highest risk of kidney function decline, the use of allopurinol as a renoprotective agent may also be relevant to a larger segment of the population with diabetes. As allopurinol is inexpensive and safe, it could be cost-effective even for relatively low-risk patients, pending the completion of appropriate trials at earlier stages. PMID:23649945

  6. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the biocompatibility of a calcium phosphate/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite.

    PubMed

    Gala-García, A; Carneiro, M B H; Silva, G A B; Ferreira, L S; Vieira, L Q; Marques, M M; Sinisterra, R D; Cortes, M E

    2012-07-01

    This study assess the effects of bioceramic and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite (BCP/PLGA) on the viability of cultured macrophages and human dental pulp fibroblasts, and we sought to elucidate the temporal profile of the reaction of pulp capping with a composite of bioceramic of calcium phosphate and biodegradable polymer in the progression of delayed dentine bridge after (30 and 60 days) in vivo. Histological evaluation of inflammatory infiltrate and dentin bridge formation were performed after 30 and 60 days. There was similar progressive fibroblast growth in all groups and the macrophages showed viability. The in vivo study showed that of the three experimental groups: BCP/PLGA composite, BCP and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) dentin bridging was the most prevalent (90 %) in the BCP/PLGA composite after 30 days, mild to moderate inflammatory response was present throughout the pulp after 30 days. After 60 days was observed dentine bridging in 60 % and necrosis in 40 %, in both groups. The results indicate that understanding BCP/PLGA composite is biocompatible and by the best tissue response as compared to calcium hydroxide in direct pulp capping may be important in the mechanism of delayed dentine bridge after 30 and 60 days. PMID:22569732

  7. Impacts of calcium signal transduction on the fermentation production of antitumor ganoderic acids by medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi-Ning; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Recently signal transduction engineering of secondary metabolism is receiving great interest as a powerful tool towards efficient production of valuable secondary metabolites. This work found that the calcineurin-signal transduction was significant to triterpene biosynthesis by higher fungus (mushroom). Addition of calcium ion (at 10mM) to static liquid cultures of Ganoderma lucidum, a famous traditional medicinal mushroom, was proved as a useful strategy to enhance the production of antitumor ganoderic acids (GAs), which resulted in 3.7-, 2.6-, 4.5-, 3.2- and 3.8-fold improvement of total GAs, individual GA-Mk, -T, -S, and -Me, respectively. Experiments using Ca2+ sensor inhibitors indicated the involvement of calcineurin signal in regulating GAs biosynthesis. Quantitative gene transcription analysis revealed that the expression levels of genes of GAs biosynthesis and Ca2+ sensor were up-regulated with calcium addition while down-regulated under the inhibitors addition, suggesting that higher GAs production may be resulted from higher expressions of those genes. Based on the results obtained, a possible model on the effect of external calcium ion on the GAs biosynthesis via calcineurin signal transduction pathway was proposed. PMID:22036615

  8. Overexpression of a Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase Confers Salt and Drought Tolerance in Rice by Preventing Membrane Lipid Peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Campo, Sonia; Baldrich, Patricia; Messeguer, Joaquima; Lalanne, Eric; Coca, María; San Segundo, Blanca

    2014-05-01

    The OsCPK4 gene is a member of the complex gene family of calcium-dependent protein kinases in rice (Oryza sativa). Here, we report that OsCPK4 expression is induced by high salinity, drought, and the phytohormone abscisic acid. Moreover, a plasma membrane localization of OsCPK4 was observed by transient expression assays of green fluorescent protein-tagged OsCPK4 in onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells. Overexpression of OsCPK4 in rice plants significantly enhances tolerance to salt and drought stress. Knockdown rice plants, however, are severely impaired in growth and development. Compared with control plants, OsCPK4 overexpressor plants exhibit stronger water-holding capability and reduced levels of membrane lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage under drought or salt stress conditions. Also, salt-treated OsCPK4 seedlings accumulate less Na(+) in their roots. We carried out microarray analysis of transgenic rice overexpressing OsCPK4 and found that overexpression of OsCPK4 has a low impact on the rice transcriptome. Moreover, no genes were found to be commonly regulated by OsCPK4 in roots and leaves of rice plants. A significant number of genes involved in lipid metabolism and protection against oxidative stress appear to be up-regulated by OsCPK4 in roots of overexpressor plants. Meanwhile, OsCPK4 overexpression has no effect on the expression of well-characterized abiotic stress-associated transcriptional regulatory networks (i.e. ORYZA SATIVA DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN1 and ORYZA SATIVA No Apical Meristem, Arabidopsis Transcription Activation Factor1-2, Cup-Shaped Cotyledon6 genes) and LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT genes in their roots. Taken together, our data show that OsCPK4 functions as a positive regulator of the salt and drought stress responses in rice via the protection of cellular membranes from stress-induced oxidative damage. PMID:24784760

  9. Dual SO{sub 2}-NO{sub x} concentration reduction by calcium salts of carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Steciak, J.; Levendis, Y.A.; Wise, D.L. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Simons, G.A. [Simons Research Association, Lynnfield, MA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This research continues the investigation of agents that are capable of simultaneously removing SO{sub 2} and Mo{sub x} from the effluent of coal-fired power plants. The simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} by calcium salts of carboxylic acids was evaluated in a laboratory-scale furnace in atmospheres containing 2,000 ppm SO{sub 2}, 1,000 ppm NO, 3% O{sub 2}, and 12% CO{sub 2} at gas temperatures between 550 and 1,250 C (825 and 1,425 K) with a residence times of 4 s in an isothermal zone. The salts studied included calcium formate (CF, Ca(COOH){sub 2}), calcium acetate (CA, Ca(CH{sub 2}COOH){sub 2}), calcium propionate CP, (Ca(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOH){sub 2}) and calcium benzoate (CB, Ca(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}COOH){sub 2}). Maximum reductions in SO{sub 2} concentration due to the formation of CaSO{sub 4} were recorded as follows: 60% for CP, 55% for CR, 35% for CA, and 18% for CB at gas temperatures in the neighborhood of 950 C and at a Ca/s molar ratio near 2.8. With the organic portion of the injected salts acting as secondary fuel for NO{sub x} control, maximum NO{sub x} concentration reductions were 88% for CP, 65% for CB, 22% for CA and less than 10% for CF at gas temperatures near 950 C at bulk equivalence ratios that varied between 0.5 for CF and 2.1 for CB. A recently constructed, narrower furnace increased the gas flow velocities and the particle dispersion in the gas. Therein, at residence times as low as 1 s, CP achieved simultaneous SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal of over 80% at gas temperatures {ge}950 C. the addition of an oxidizing zone following the carboxylic acid sorbent injection zone affected the overall SO{sub 2}-NO{sub x} removal according to the stoichiometry of the sorbent injection zone. When this zone was: (1) fuel-lean, the overall SO{sub 2} removal improved; (2) stoichiometric, the overall SO{sub 2} removal was not affected; and (3) significantly fuel-rich , the overall SO{sub 2} removal worsened.

  10. The role of calcium channel blockers and resveratrol in the prevention of paraquat-induced parkinsonism in Drosophila melanogaster: a locomotor analysis.

    PubMed

    Bagatini, Pamela Brambilla; Saur, Lisiani; Rodrigues, Mariana Freitas; Bernardino, Guilherme Cardoso; Paim, Mariana Fontoura; Coelho, Guilherme Peres; Silva, Daniele Vieira da; de Oliveira, Raquel Mattos; Schirmer, Helena; Souto, André Arigony; Vianna, Mônica Ryff Moreira Roca; Xavier, Léder Leal

    2011-06-01

    Studies have suggested that neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease (PD) could be related to the pacemaker activity of the substantia nigra pars compacta generated by L-type Ca(v) 1.3 calcium channels, which progressively substitute voltage-dependent sodium channels in this region during aging. Besides this mechanism, which leads to increases in intracellular calcium, other factors are also known to play a role in dopaminergic cell death due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Thus, dihydropyridines, a class of calcium channel blockers, and resveratrol, a polyphenol that presents antioxidant properties, may represent therapeutic alternatives for the prevention of PD. In the present study, we tested the effects of the dihydropyridines, isradipine, nifedipine, and nimodipine and of resveratrol upon locomotor behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. As previously described, paraquat induced parkinsonian-like motor deficits. Moreover, none of the drugs tested were able to prevent the motor deficits produced by paraquat. Additionally, isradipine, nifedipine, resveratrol, and ethanol (vehicle), when used in isolation, induced motor deficits in flies. This study is the first demonstration that dyhidropyridines and resveratrol are unable to reverse the locomotor impairments induced by paraquat in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:21523449

  11. Acetylsalicylic Acid in migraine with aura prevention - a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Anoaica, Mihaela-Bianca; Anoaica, P G; Popescu, Florica

    2014-01-01

    In a retrospective study we evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA), an antiplatelet drug, in the prophylactic treatment of migraine with aura (MA). We reviewed the charts of 203 patients suffering from MA according to the ICHD II criteria, attending to Turin University Headache Centre. 95 subjects (46.8%) were treated with ASA at low dose, 108 (53.2%) with other prophylactic therapies normally used for migraine for a period that ranged from at least 4 months to 194 months. Eighty-four patients (88.4%) treated with ASA referred positive results, while only 64 patients (59.3%) who underwent other prophylactic treatments did (p < 0.001). The attacks' frequency of patients treated with ASA decreased significantly from 3.83±1.57 pre-treatment to 1.38±0.87 after treatment (p<0.001). Aura duration was markedly reduced from 36.21±19.80 pre-treatment to 22.0±15.5 after treatment (p<0.001). ASA was well-tolerated. ASA is a safe drug with minor possible side effects that can be routinely used when prophylactic treatment of MA is required. PMID:25729594

  12. Acetylsalicylic Acid in Migraine with Aura Prevention - a Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    ANOAICA, MIHAELA-BIANCA; ANOAICA, P.G.; POPESCU, FLORICA

    2014-01-01

    In a retrospective study we evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA), an antiplatelet drug, in the prophylactic treatment of migraine with aura (MA). We reviewed the charts of 203 patients suffering from MA according to the ICHD II criteria, attending to Turin University Headache Centre. 95 subjects (46.8%) were treated with ASA at low dose, 108 (53.2%) with other prophylactic therapies normally used for migraine for a period that ranged from at least 4 months to 194 months. Eighty-four patients (88.4%) treated with ASA referred positive results, while only 64 patients (59.3%) who underwent other prophylactic treatments did (p < 0.001). The attacks’ frequency of patients treated with ASA decreased significantly from 3.83±1.57 pre-treatment to 1.38±0.87 after treatment (p<0.001). Aura duration was markedly reduced from 36.21±19.80 pre-treatment to 22.0±15.5 after treatment (p<0.001). ASA was well-tolerated. ASA is a safe drug with minor possible side effects that can be routinely used when prophylactic treatment of MA is required. PMID:25729594

  13. Prevention of Tissue Injury and Postsurgical Adhesions by Precoating Tissues with Hyaluronic Acid Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W. Burns; Kevin Skinner; Jude Colt; Aviva Sheidlin; Roderick Bronson; Yoseph Yaacobi; Eugene P. Goldberg

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of inhibiting serosal tissue damage and preventing surgical adhesions by precoating tissues with dilute solutions of hyaluronic acid (HA) was evaluated in a rat cecal abrasion model. This study was performed at three independent laboratories using the same protocol. Three hundred and seventy-five adult rats were divided into five treatment groups (125 animals at each study site): 0.1%

  14. Zoledronic acid (Zometa ® ), a third generation bisphosphonate, for prevention of skeletal complications due to bone metastases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfredo Berruti; Marcello Tucci; Luigi Dogliotti

    2003-01-01

    Summary This report summarises the results of the clinical development program of zoledronic acid (Zometa ® ), a third generation bis- phosphonate, in the management of metastatic bone disease that formed the basis for its approval in Europe for prevention of skeletal related events in patients with advanced malignancies involving bone. Three randomised, double-blind, controlled phase III trials were conducted

  15. Effect of feeding calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids, from palm fatty acid distillate or soybean oil, to high producing dairy cows on milk yield and composition, and on selected blood and reproductive parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Mandebvu; C. S Ballard; C. J Sniffen; M. P Carter; H. M Wolford; T Sato; Y Yabuuchi; E Block; D. L Palmquist

    2003-01-01

    Calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids from palm fatty acid distillate (CaPFAD) and soybean oil (CaSOFA) were compared using 14 first lactation and 26 multiparous Holstein cows housed in a free-stall barn. It was hypothesized that if replacing CaPFAD with CaSOFA, a rich source of linoleic acid, could result in increased conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content in milk without losing

  16. PRESENILIN-NULL CELLS HAVE ALTERED TWO-PORE CALCIUM CHANNEL EXPRESSION AND LYSOSOMAL CALCIUM; IMPLICATIONS FOR LYSOSOMAL FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Kayala, Kara M Neely; Dickinson, George D; Minassian, Anet; Walls, Ken C; Green, Kim N; LaFerla, Frank M

    2012-01-01

    Presenilins are necessary for calcium homeostasis and also for efficient proteolysis through the autophagy/lysosome system. Presenilin regulates both endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores and autophagic proteolysis in a ?-secretase independent fashion. The endo-lysosome system can also act as a calcium store, with calcium efflux channels being recently identified as two-pore channels 1 and 2. Here we investigated lysosomal calcium content and the channels that mediate calcium release from these acidic stores in presenilin knockout cells. We report that presenilin loss leads to a lower total lysosomal calcium store despite the buildup of lysosomes found in these cells. Additionally, we find alterations in two-pore calcium channel protein expression, with loss of presenilin preventing the formation of a high molecular weight species of TPC1 and TPC2. Finally, we find that treatments that disturb lysosomal calcium release lead to a reduction in autophagy function yet lysosomal inhibitors do not alter two-pore calcium channel expression. These data indicate that alterations in lysosomal calcium in the absence of presenilins might be leading to disruptions in autophagy. PMID:23103503

  17. Presenilin-null cells have altered two-pore calcium channel expression and lysosomal calcium: implications for lysosomal function.

    PubMed

    Neely Kayala, Kara M; Dickinson, George D; Minassian, Anet; Walls, Ken C; Green, Kim N; Laferla, Frank M

    2012-12-13

    Presenilins are necessary for calcium homeostasis and also for efficient proteolysis through the autophagy/lysosome system. Presenilin regulates both endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores and autophagic proteolysis in a ?-secretase independent fashion. The endo-lysosome system can also act as a calcium store, with calcium efflux channels being recently identified as two-pore channels 1 and 2. Here we investigated lysosomal calcium content and the channels that mediate calcium release from these acidic stores in presenilin knockout cells. We report that presenilin loss leads to a lower total lysosomal calcium store despite the buildup of lysosomes found in these cells. Additionally, we find alterations in two-pore calcium channel protein expression, with loss of presenilin preventing the formation of a high molecular weight species of TPC1 and TPC2. Finally, we find that treatments that disturb lysosomal calcium release lead to a reduction in autophagy function yet lysosomal inhibitors do not alter two-pore calcium channel expression. These data indicate that alterations in lysosomal calcium in the absence of presenilins might be leading to disruptions in autophagy. PMID:23103503

  18. Nucleotide precursors prevent folic acid-resistant neural tube defects in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Leung, Kit-Yi; De Castro, Sandra C P; Savery, Dawn; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2013-09-01

    Closure of the neural tube during embryogenesis is a crucial step in development of the central nervous system. Failure of this process results in neural tube defects, including spina bifida and anencephaly, which are among the most common birth defects worldwide. Maternal use of folic acid supplements reduces risk of neural tube defects but a proportion of cases are not preventable. Folic acid is thought to act through folate one-carbon metabolism, which transfers one-carbon units for methylation reactions and nucleotide biosynthesis. Hence suboptimal performance of the intervening reactions could limit the efficacy of folic acid. We hypothesized that direct supplementation with nucleotides, downstream of folate metabolism, has the potential to support neural tube closure. Therefore, in a mouse model that exhibits folic acid-resistant neural tube defects, we tested the effect of specific combinations of pyrimidine and purine nucleotide precursors and observed a significant protective effect. Labelling in whole embryo culture showed that nucleotides are taken up by the neurulating embryo and incorporated into genomic DNA. Furthermore, the mitotic index was elevated in neural folds and hindgut of treated embryos, consistent with a proposed mechanism of neural tube defect prevention through stimulation of cellular proliferation. These findings may provide an impetus for future investigations of supplemental nucleotides as a means to prevent a greater proportion of human neural tube defects than can be achieved by folic acid alone. PMID:23935126

  19. Nucleotide precursors prevent folic acid-resistant neural tube defects in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kit-Yi; De Castro, Sandra C.P.; Savery, Dawn; Copp, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Closure of the neural tube during embryogenesis is a crucial step in development of the central nervous system. Failure of this process results in neural tube defects, including spina bifida and anencephaly, which are among the most common birth defects worldwide. Maternal use of folic acid supplements reduces risk of neural tube defects but a proportion of cases are not preventable. Folic acid is thought to act through folate one-carbon metabolism, which transfers one-carbon units for methylation reactions and nucleotide biosynthesis. Hence suboptimal performance of the intervening reactions could limit the efficacy of folic acid. We hypothesized that direct supplementation with nucleotides, downstream of folate metabolism, has the potential to support neural tube closure. Therefore, in a mouse model that exhibits folic acid-resistant neural tube defects, we tested the effect of specific combinations of pyrimidine and purine nucleotide precursors and observed a significant protective effect. Labelling in whole embryo culture showed that nucleotides are taken up by the neurulating embryo and incorporated into genomic DNA. Furthermore, the mitotic index was elevated in neural folds and hindgut of treated embryos, consistent with a proposed mechanism of neural tube defect prevention through stimulation of cellular proliferation. These findings may provide an impetus for future investigations of supplemental nucleotides as a means to prevent a greater proportion of human neural tube defects than can be achieved by folic acid alone. PMID:23935126

  20. Preventive role of gallic acid on alcohol dependent and cysteine protease-mediated pancreas injury.

    PubMed

    Kanbak, Güngör; Canbek, Mediha; O?lakç?, Ay?egül; Kartkaya, Kazim; Sentürk, Hakan; Bayramo?lu, Gökhan; Bal, Cengiz; Göl, Burak; Ozmen, Ay?e

    2012-12-01

    In order to investigate an association between alcohol consumption and lysosomal cysteine protease induced pancreatic injury and preventive effect of gallic acid as dose-dependent, we determined myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels, serum amylase activities and cathepsin B and L activities in the cytosolic and lysosomal fractions of pancreatic tissue in the ethanol (8 g/kg) and ethanol plus gallic acid (at different doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) given rats. Absolute ethanol (8 g/kg) was given by oral gavage. Gallic acid was dissolved in the saline (2 ml/kg) and administered before 30 min the oral administration of ethanol. Pancreatic myeloperoxidase and also malondialdehyde levels and serum amylase activities were measured. Besides, histological investigations were made. Cathepsin B activities in the cytosolic fraction were decreased by gallic acid (200 mg/kg) and increased in ethanol given rats. Cytosolic/lysosomal ratio of cathepsin B and L were found to be low in the all doses of gallic acid as compared to ethanol group. Serum amylase, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activities and malondialdehyde levels in the ethanol group were higher than in the control group. These were not statistically significant for myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde. Also, our histopathologic results indicated that ethanol administration increased pancreatic tissue injury. Gallic acid especially at 200 mg/kg improved ethanol-mediated pancreatic tissue damage.In conclusion, gallic acid treatments were decreased release of lysosomal cathepsin B and L enzymes into cytoplasmic fraction and prevented alcohol mediated pancreatic tissue injury. Preventive effect of gallic acid might be dose-dependent. PMID:23053933

  1. Cancer Preventive Potential of Kimchi Lactic Acid Bacteria (Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus plantarum)

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Shin-Hye; Cho, Young-Mi; Noh, Geon-Min; Om, Ae-Son

    2014-01-01

    The number of death due to cancer has been increasing in Korea. Chemotherapy is known to cause side effects because it damages not only cancerous cells but healthy cells. Recently, attention has focused on food-derived chemopreventive and anti-tumor agents or formulations with fewer side effects. Kimchi, most popular and widely consumed in Korea, contains high levels of lactic acid bacteria and has been shown to possess chemopreventive effects. This review focuses on Weissella cibaria and Lactobacillus plantarum, the representatives of kimchi lactic acid bacteria, in terms of their abilities to prevent cancer. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which lactic acid bacteria in kimchi prevent carcinogenic processes and improve immune functions. PMID:25574459

  2. Cancer Preventive Potential of Kimchi Lactic Acid Bacteria (Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus plantarum).

    PubMed

    Kwak, Shin-Hye; Cho, Young-Mi; Noh, Geon-Min; Om, Ae-Son

    2014-12-01

    The number of death due to cancer has been increasing in Korea. Chemotherapy is known to cause side effects because it damages not only cancerous cells but healthy cells. Recently, attention has focused on food-derived chemopreventive and anti-tumor agents or formulations with fewer side effects. Kimchi, most popular and widely consumed in Korea, contains high levels of lactic acid bacteria and has been shown to possess chemopreventive effects. This review focuses on Weissella cibaria and Lactobacillus plantarum, the representatives of kimchi lactic acid bacteria, in terms of their abilities to prevent cancer. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which lactic acid bacteria in kimchi prevent carcinogenic processes and improve immune functions. PMID:25574459

  3. Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    NCI’s prevention research has a broad focus, from identifying environmental and lifestyle factors that influence cancer risk to studying the biology of how cancer develops and studying ways to disseminate prevention interventions.

  4. Assay of calcium borogluconate veterinary medicines for calcium gluconate, boric acid, phosphorus, and magnesium by using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Lyons; K. P. Spann

    1985-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma spectrometric method is described for the determination of 4 elements (Ca, B, P, and Mg) in calcium borogluconate veterinary medicines. Samples are diluted, acidified, and sprayed directly into the plasma. Reproducibility relative confidence intervals for a single sample assay are +\\/- 1.4% (calcium), +\\/- 1.8% (boron), +\\/- 2.6% (phosphorus), and +\\/- 1.4% (magnesium). The total element

  5. [Intravenous drop of calcium gluconate for phosphorus burns].

    PubMed

    Hu, A J

    1993-07-01

    20 patients with phosphor burn (TBSA 2%-75%) were cured by i.v. drop of calcium gluconate combined with other therapies including eschar conservation. Our experimental data showed that dogs with burn by spreading 85% phosphoric acid and napalm locally increased the level of plasma phosphorus and pathological damages to the heart, lung, kidney and etc were similar to those previously reported phosphorus burns. Intravenous drop of calcium gluconate after phosphate burn reduced the level of plasma phosphorus to normal rapidly and lessened the visceral damages. We consider that i.v. drop of calcium gluconate can accelerate the elimination of phosphorus, and prevent phosphorus poisoning after phosphorus burns. PMID:8313772

  6. Pretreatment of solid carbonaceous material with dicarboxylic aromatic acids to prevent scale formation

    DOEpatents

    Brunson, Roy J. (Buffalo Grove, IL)

    1982-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by pretreatment with a pretreating agent selected from the group consisting of phthalic acid, phthalic anhydride, pyromellitic acid and pyromellitic anhydride. The pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding phthalate and/or pyromellitate prior to liquefaction. The pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 1 to about 2 atmospheres. Temperature during pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 5.degree. to about 80.degree. C.

  7. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Low Animal Protein, High Fiber Diet in the Prevention of Recurrent Calcium Oxalate Kidney Stones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Hiatt; Bruce Ettinger; Bette Caan; Charles P. Quesenberry; Debra Duncan; John T. Citron

    Low protein diets are commonly prescribed for patients with idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis, who account for >80% of new diagnoses of kidney stones. This dietary advice is supported by metabolic studies and epidemiologic observational studies but has not been evaluated in a controlled trial. Using 1983-1985 data from three Northern California Kaiser Permanente Medical Centers, the authors randomly assigned 99 persons

  8. Influence of acid-base changes on the intracellular calcium concentration of neurons in primary culture.

    PubMed

    OuYang, Y B; Mellergård, P; Kristián, T; Kristiánova, V; Siesjö, B K

    1994-01-01

    The influence of changes in intra- and extracellular pH (pHi and pHe, respectively) on the cytosolic, free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) of neocortical neurons was studied by microspectrofluorometric techniques and the fluorophore fura-2. When, at constant pHe, pHi was lowered with the NH4Cl prepulse technique, or by a transient increase in CO2 tension, [Ca2+]i invariably increased, the magnitude of the rise being proportional to delta pHi. Since similar results were obtained in Ca(2+)-free solutions, the results suggest that the rise in [Ca2+]i was due to calcium release from intracellular stores. The initial alkaline transient during NH4Cl exposure was associated with a rise in [Ca2+]i. However, this rise seemed to reflect influx of Ca2+ from the external solution. Thus, in Ca(2+)-free solution NH4Cl exposure led to a decrease in [Ca2+]i. This result and others suggest that, at constant pHe, intracellular alkalosis reduces [Ca2+]i, probably by enhancing sequestration of calcium. When cells were exposed to a CO2 transient at reduced pHe, Ca2+ rose initially but then fell, often below basal values. Similar results were obtained when extracellular HCO3- concentration was reduced at constant CO2 tension. Unexpectedly, such results were obtained only in Ca(2+)-containing solutions. In Ca(2+)-free solutions, acidosis always raised [Ca2+]i. It is suggested that a lowering of pHe stimulates extrusion of Ca2+ by ATP-driven Ca2+/2H+ antiport. PMID:7843312

  9. Removal of chromium and reduction of toxicity to Microtox system from tannery effluent by the use of calcium alginate beads containing humic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K Pandey; S. D Pandey; V Misra; A. K Srimal

    2003-01-01

    Removal of chromium (Cr) from tannery effluents by recovery of metal also reduces the ecotoxicological impact. To develop such a process, columns packed with calcium alginate (CA) beads with or without humic acid (HA) have been used as an adsorbent and tannery effluent was passed through it. Concentration of Cr in beads and in different fractions collected after adsorption was

  10. Continuous production of gibberellic acid in a fixed-bed reactor by immobilized mycelia of Gibberella fujikuroi in calcium alginate beads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Edmundo Nava Saucedo; Jean-Noël Barbotin; Daniel Thomas

    1989-01-01

    The continuous production of gibberellic acid with immobilized mycelia of Gibberella fujikuroi was maintained over a hundred days in a tubular fixed-bed reactor. Free mycelium at the beginning of the storage phase was harvested from G. fujikuroi shake-flask culture and was immobilized by ionotropic gelation in calcium alginate beads.

  11. Propionic Acid, Sodium Propionate and Calcium Propionate as Inhibitors of Mold Growth. II. Studies Pertaining to the Active Agent Responsible for the Inhibitory Effect of the Propionates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Olson Jr.; H. Macy

    1946-01-01

    Recent studies (4, 9, 11) have shown that aqueous solutions of sodium or calcium propionate, when used in treating parchment paper for wrapping prints of butter, were effective in restraining the growth of mold on the butter surface. Investigators in several branches of biology have been interested in the action of organic acids and their ~alts on microorganisms and many.

  12. Evaluation of four animal models of intrarenal calcium deposition and assessment of the influence of dietary supplementation with essential fatty acids on calcification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Burgess; T. M. Reynolds; N. Williams; A. Pathy; S. Smith

    1995-01-01

    Firstly, to determine a satisfactory animal model for induction of intrarenal calcification, a study of four previously described animal models of intrarenal calcification was carried out which showed that intraperitoneal injection of 10% calcium gluconate into female Sprague-Dawley rats was most effective. We then investigated the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with essential fatty acids could reduce the intrarenal calcification developing

  13. Effects of calcium, boron and nitrogen fertilization on the growth of teak ( Tectona grandis ) seedlings and chemical property of acidic soil substrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zaizhi ZhouKunnan; Kunnan Liang; Daping Xu; Yuchen Zhang; Guihua Huang; Huaming Ma

    Many teak plantations are established on acidic soils with low nutrient availability. There is also poor documentation of\\u000a nutrient budgets for teak, therefore, a pot experiment with optimal hybrid regression design (Roquemore R311A) was implemented\\u000a with calcium, boron and nitrogen treatments with teak seedlings (Tectona grandis L.f.) planted in acidic lateritic red soil substrate. Seedling growth, biomass production and root

  14. Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... LinkedIn Twitter Digg Delicious Reddit StubmleUpon Print About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... try to avoid secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  15. Palmitic acid and DGAT1 deficiency enhance osteoclastogenesis, while oleic acid-induced triglyceride formation prevents it.

    PubMed

    Drosatos-Tampakaki, Zoi; Drosatos, Konstantinos; Siegelin, Yasemin; Gong, Shan; Khan, Salmiyeh; Van Dyke, Thomas; Goldberg, Ira J; Schulze, P Christian; Schulze-Späte, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Both obesity and diabetes mellitus are associated with alterations in lipid metabolism as well as a change in bone homeostasis and osteoclastogenesis. We hypothesized that increased fatty acid levels affect bone health by altering precursor cell differentiation and osteoclast activation. Here we show that palmitic acid (PA, 16:0) enhances receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL)-stimulated osteoclastogenesis and is sufficient to induce osteoclast differentiation even in the absence of RANKL. TNF? expression is crucial for PA-induced osteoclastogenesis, as shown by increased TNF? mRNA levels in PA-treated cells and abrogation of PA-stimulated osteoclastogenesis by TNF? neutralizing antibodies. In contrast, oleic acid (OA, 18:1) does not enhance osteoclast differentiation, leads to increased intracellular triglyceride accumulation, and inhibits PA-induced osteoclastogenesis. Adenovirus-mediated expression of diacylglycerol acyl transferase 1 (DGAT1), a gene involved in triglyceride synthesis, also inhibits PA-induced osteoclastogenesis, suggesting a protective role of DGAT1 for bone health. Accordingly, Dgat1 knockout mice have larger bone marrow-derived osteoclasts and decreased bone mass indices. In line with these findings, mice on a high-fat PA-enriched diet have a greater reduction in bone mass and structure than mice on a high-fat OA-enriched diet. Thus, we propose that TNF? mediates saturated fatty acid-induced osteoclastogenesis that can be prevented by DGAT activation or supplementation with OA. PMID:24272998

  16. Investigation, using rat embryo culture, of the role of methionine supply in folic acid-mediated prevention of neural tube defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. G. J. M. Vanaerts

    1995-01-01

    Peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation has become a well established way to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and such supplementation reduces the prevalence of these defects by approximately 70%. However, the mechanism of the preventive effect of folic acid is not clear. This overview focuses on the biochemical basis of folic acid-preventable NTDs and on the results obtained with whole embryo

  17. Highly Conductive and Reliable Copper-Filled Isotropically Conductive Adhesives Using Organic Acids for Oxidation Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenjun; Deng, Dunying; Cheng, Yuanrong; Xiao, Fei

    2015-07-01

    The easy oxidation of copper is one critical obstacle to high-performance copper-filled isotropically conductive adhesives (ICAs). In this paper, a facile method to prepare highly reliable, highly conductive, and low-cost ICAs is reported. The copper fillers were treated by organic acids for oxidation prevention. Compared with ICA filled with untreated copper flakes, the ICA filled with copper flakes treated by different organic acids exhibited much lower bulk resistivity. The lowest bulk resistivity achieved was 4.5 × 10-5 ? cm, which is comparable to that of commercially available Ag-filled ICA. After 500 h of 85°C/85% relative humidity (RH) aging, the treated ICAs showed quite stable bulk resistivity and relatively stable contact resistance. Through analyzing the results of x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, we found that, with the assistance of organic acids, the treated copper flakes exhibited resistance to oxidation, thus guaranteeing good performance.

  18. Imbricatolic acid from Juniperus communis L. prevents cell cycle progression in CaLu-6 cells.

    PubMed

    De Marino, Simona; Cattaneo, Fabio; Festa, Carmen; Zollo, Franco; Iaccio, Annalisa; Ammendola, Rosario; Incollingo, Filomena; Iorizzi, Maria

    2011-11-01

    Imbricatolic acid was isolated from the methanolic extract of the fresh ripe berries of Juniperus communis (Cupressaceae) together with sixteen known compounds and a new dihydrobenzofuran lignan glycoside named juniperoside A. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and by comparison with the spectral data reported in literature. Imbricatolic acid was evaluated for its ability to prevent cell cycle progression in p53-null CaLu-6 cells. This compound induces the upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and their accumulation in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, as well as the degradation of cyclins A, D1, and E1. Furthermore, no significant imbricatolic acid-induced apoptosis was observed. Therefore, this plant-derived compound may play a role in the control of cell cycle. PMID:21567359

  19. Fatty acids and breast cancer: sensitization to treatments and prevention of metastatic re-growth.

    PubMed

    Bougnoux, Philippe; Hajjaji, Nawale; Maheo, Karine; Couet, Charles; Chevalier, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Lifestyle and nutritional factors have been recognized to influence breast cancer survival, irrespective of genomic alterations that are the hallmarks of the disease. The biological and molecular mechanisms involved in the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and breast cancer response to treatments in clinical and preclinical studies have been reviewed. Among nutrients, rumenic acid, a naturally occurring CLA isomer and n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) a highly unsaturated fatty acid, have emerged due to their potential to increase cancer treatment efficacy without additional side effects. In this review, we analyze the literature evidence that breast cancer treatment and outcome could be improved through an adjuvant dietary supplementation. Such an original approach would involve two successive phases of breast cancer treatment: an initial sensitization of residual tumor cells to chemotherapy and to radiation therapy with dietary DHA; then a prevention of metastatic re-growth with a prolonged rumenic acid supplementation. Safety is not anticipated to be a critical issue, although it has to be assessed in the long term. Dietary supplements, used in combination to anti-cancer agents, should be provided under medical prescription. Such an original use of fatty acids in breast cancer treatment could provide the lipid field with a new avenue to impact public health. PMID:19715726

  20. Polished rice as natural sources of cancer-preventing geranylgeranoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Muraguchi, Takashi; Okamoto, Kyoko; Mitake, Maiko; Ogawa, Hiroko; Shidoji, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Geranylgeranoic acid, a 20-carbon polyprenoic acid (all-trans 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2,4,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenoic acid) and its derivatives were previously developed as synthetic “acyclic retinoids” for cancer chemoprevention. Recently, we demonstrated the natural occurrence of geranylgeranoic acid in various medicinal herbs (Shidoji and Ogawa, 2004). In this present study, we present several lines of evidence to demonstrate that geranylgeranyl diphosphate taken in foods could be metabolized to GGA through geranylgeraniol and geranylgeranyl aldehyde via the following steps: 1) The conversion from geranylgeranyl diphosphate to geranylgeraniol was demonstrated to occur by the action of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase, with a Km of 46.1 µM. 2) Geranylgeraniol oxidase-mediated conversion of geranylgeraniol to geranylgeranyl aldehyde was revealed in rat liver homogenates, which activity was mainly localized in the mitochondrial fraction. The mitochondrial enzyme showed a Km of 92.9 µM. 3) The conversion of geranylgeranyl aldehyde to geranylgeranoic acid by geranylgeranyl aldehyde dehydrogenase in rat liver homogenates was absolutely dependent on exogenously added NAD+ or NADP+. The Km of the mitochondrial geranylgeranyl aldehyde dehydrogenase was 27.5 µM for geranylgeranyl aldehyde. Taken together, our data suggest that cancer preventive geranylgeranoic acid could be a physiological metabolite from commonly consumed foods. PMID:21765600

  1. Prevention by Means of Fluoride of Enamel Erosion as Caused by Soft Drinks and Orange Juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Larsen

    2001-01-01

    Fluoride has been suggested to prevent erosion of the teeth, either after a topical treatment of the teeth or by addition of fluoride to the acidic drink. The main aim of the present study was to describe the dissolution of calcium fluoride in some soft drinks and orange juice and compare it with the amounts of calcium fluoride left on

  2. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria and their potential in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Silny, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Allergy is one of the most important and very common health problems worldwide. To reduce the proportion of people suffering from allergy, alternative methods of prevention and treatment are sought. The aim of this paper is to present the possibilities of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases. Probiotics are live microorganisms belonging mainly to the lactic acid bacteria. They modify the microflora of the human digestive system, especially the intestinal microflora. Prophylactic administration of probiotics in the early stages of life (naturally in breast milk or milk substitute synthetic compounds) is very important because intestinal microflora plays a huge role in the development of the immune system. Prevention of allergies as early as in the prenatal and postnatal periods provides huge opportunities for inhibiting the growing problem of allergy in emerging and highly developed societies. Effects of probiotic therapy depend on many factors such as the species of the microorganism used, the dose size and characteristics of the bacteria such as viability and capacity of adhesion to the intestinal walls. Authors of several studies showed beneficial effects of probiotics in the perinatal period, infancy, and also in adults in the prevention of atopic dermatitis or allergic rhinitis. Probiotics, due to their immunomodulatory properties and safety of use are a good, natural alternative for the prevention and treatment of many diseases including allergies. It is therefore important to explore the knowledge about their use and to carry out further clinical trials.

  3. Selective Coupling of T-Type Calcium Channels to SK Potassium Channels Prevents Intrinsic Bursting in Dopaminergic Midbrain Neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakob Wolfart; Jochen Roeper

    2002-01-01

    Dopaminergic midbrain (DA) neurons display two principal ac- tivity patterns in vivo, single-spike and burst firing, the latter coding for reward-related events. We have shown recently that the small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel SK3 controls pacemaker frequency and precision in DA neu- rons of the substantia nigra (SN), and previous studies have implicated SK channels in the transition to burst firing.

  4. Prolonged Diuretic Activity and Calcium-Sparing Effect of Tropaeolum majus: Evidence in the Prevention of Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Lorena Neris; Prando, Thiago Bruno Lima; Dalsenter, Paulo Roberto; Gasparotto, Francielly Mourão; Gasparotto, Francielli; Jacomassi, Ezilda; Araújo, Valdinei de Oliveira; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies indicate high effectiveness in the use of the hydroethanolic extract from Tropaeolum majus (HETM) as a diuretic, the impact of its prolonged use in the presence of low estrogen levels remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the diuretic effects of prolonged administration of HETM in ovariectomized rats and their interrelationship between calcium excretion and bone turnover. Forty-two female Wistar rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated orally with different doses of HETM (3, 30, and 300?mg/kg) for 4 weeks. On the first day of treatment and at weekly intervals for four weeks the diuretic activity was evaluated. Electrolyte concentrations and creatinine levels were estimated from urine sample of each rat. The serum lipids, urea, creatinine, and osteocalcin were also measured at the end of the experiment. The data revealed that the HETM was able to sustain its diuretic effect after prolonged treatment. Moreover, its use has not affected the urinary calcium or potassium excretion, reduces lipid levels, and maintains osteocalcin levels similarly to untreated rats. These findings support the potential of HETM as a candidate to be used in clinical conditions in which the renal loss of calcium is not desired. PMID:25028592

  5. Effects of Benzoic Acid and Dietary Calcium:Phosphorus Ratio on Performance and Mineral Metabolism of Weanling Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Gutzwiller, A.; Schlegel, P.; Guggisberg, D.; Stoll, P.

    2014-01-01

    In a 2×2 factorial experiment the hypotheses tested were that the metabolic acid load caused by benzoic acid (BA) added to the feed affects bone mineralization of weanling pigs, and that a wide dietary calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) ratio in phytase-supplemented feeds with a marginal P concentration has a positive effect on bone mineralization. The four experimental diets, which contained 0.4% P and were supplemented with 1,000 FTU phytase/kg, contained either 5 g BA/kg or no BA and either 0.77% Ca or 0.57% Ca. The 68 four-week-old Large White pigs were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for six weeks and were then slaughtered. Benzoic acid increased feed intake (p = 0.009) and growth rate (p = 0.051), but did not influence the feed conversion ratio (p>0.10). Benzoic acid decreased the pH of the urine (p = 0.031), but did not affect breaking strength and mineralization of the tibia (p>0.10). The wide Ca:P ratio decreased feed intake (p = 0.034) and growth rate (p = 0.007) and impaired feed the conversion ratio (p = 0.027), but increased the mineral concentration in the fat-free DM of the tibia (p = 0.013) without influencing its breaking strength (p>0.10). The observed positive effect of the wide Ca:P ratio on bone mineralization may be attributed, at least in part, to the impaired feed conversion ratio, i.e. to the higher feed intake and consequently to the higher mineral intake per kg BW gain. The negative impact on animal performance of the wide dietary Ca:P ratio outweighs its potentially positive effect on bone mineralization, precluding its implementation under practical feeding conditions. PMID:25049984

  6. Effect of Acidic Environment on the Push-Out Bond Strength of Calcium-Enriched Mixture Cement

    PubMed Central

    Sobhnamayan, Fereshte; Sahebi, Safoora; Naderi, Misagh; Shojaee, Nooshin Sadat; Shanbezadeh, Najmeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This laboratory study was performed to evaluate the effect of different acidic pH values on the push-out bond strength of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight root dentin slices were obtained from freshly extracted single rooted human teeth and their lumen were instrumented to achieve a diameter of 1.3 mm. Then, CEM cement was mixed according to manufacturers’ instruction and placed in the lumens with minimal pressure. The specimens were randomly divided into four groups (n=12) which were wrapped in pieces of gauze soaked in either synthetic tissue fluid (STF) (pH=7.4) or butyric acid which was buffered at pH values of 4.4, 5.4 and 6.4. They were then incubated for 4 days at 37°C. The push-out test was performed by means of the universal testing machine. Specimens were then examined under a digital light microscope at 20× magnification to determine the nature of the bond failure. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn’s test for pairwise comparisons. Results: The highest push-out bond strength (10.19±4.39) was seen in the pH level of 6.4, which was significantly different from the other groups (P<0.05). The values decreased to 2.42±2.25 MPa after exposure to pH value of 4.4. Conclusion: Lower pH value of highly acidic environments (pH=4.4), adversely affects the force needed for displacement of CEM cement; while in higher pH values (pH=6.4) the bond-strength was not affected. CEM cement is recommended in clinical situations where exposure to acidic environment is unavoidable. PMID:25386207

  7. Doubling the number of women consuming vitamin supplement pills containing folic acid: An urgently needed birth defect prevention complement to the folic acid fortification of cereal grains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Godfrey P Oakley

    1997-01-01

    The major known environmental causes of birth defects are ancient agents that have been in the environment for centuries but have been only recently discovered—rubella, alcohol, and folic acid deficiency. In the United States, we have made great progress in preventing congenital rubella syndrome. We also have a great opportunity to prevent spina bifida and anencephaly (SBA) by increasing the

  8. Fatty Acid Oxidation and Calcium Homeostasis are Involved in the Rescue of Bupivacaine Induced Cardiotoxicity by Lipid Emulsion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Partownavid, Parisa; Umar, Soban; Li, Jingyuan; Rahman, Siamak; Eghbali, Mansoureh

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Lipid Emulsion (LE) has been shown to be effective in resuscitating bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest but its mechanism of action is not clear. Here we investigated whether fatty acid oxidation is required for rescue of bupivacaine induced cardiotoxicity by LE in rats. We also compared the mitochondrial function and calcium threshold for triggering of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening in bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest before and after resuscitation with LE. DESIGN Prospective, randomized, animal study. SETTING University Research Laboratory. SUBJECTS Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. INTERVENTIONS Asystole was achieved with a single dose of bupivacaine (10mg/kg over 20seconds, i.v.) and 20% LE infusion (5ml/kg bolus, and 0.5ml/kg/min maintenance) with cardiac massage started immediately. The rats in CVT group were pretreated with a single dose of fatty acid oxidation inhibitor CVT (0.5, 0.25, 0.125 or 0.0625mg/kg bolus i.v.) 5min prior to inducing asystole by bupivacaine overdose. Heart rate (HR), ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), the threshold for opening of mPTP, oxygen consumption and membrane potential were measured. The values are Mean±SEM. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Administration of bupivacaine resulted in asystole. ILP infusion improved the cardiac function gradually as the EF was fully recovered within 5min (EF=64±4% and FS=36±3%, n=6) and heart rate increased to 239±9 beats/min (71% recovery, n=6) within 10min. LE was only able to rescue rats pretreated with low dose of CVT (0.0625mg/kg) (HR=~181±11 beats/min at 10 min, recovery of 56%; EF=50±1%; FS=26±0.6% at 5min, n=3) but was unable to resuscitate rats pretreated with higher doses of CVT (0.5, 0.25 or 0.125mg/kg). The calcium retention capacity in response to Ca2+ overload was significantly higher in cardiac mitochondria isolated from rats resuscitated with 20% LE compared to the group that did not receive ILP after bupivacaine-overdose (330±42 vs. 180±8.2 nmol/mg-mitochondrial protein, p<0.05, n=3 in each group). The mitochondrial oxidative rate and membrane potential were similar in bupivacaine group before and after resuscitation with LE infusion. CONCLUSIONS Fatty acid oxidation is required for successful rescue of bupivacaine induced cardiotoxicity by LE. This rescue action is associated with inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. PMID:22647409

  9. Inhibition of Calcium Oxalate Crystal Growth in vitro by Uropontin: Another Member of the Aspartic Acid-Rich Protein Superfamily

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Shiraga; W. Min; W. J. Vandusen; M. D. Clayman; D. Miner; C. H. Terrell; J. R. Sherbotie; J. W. Foreman; C. Przysiecki; E. G. Neilson; J. R. Hoyer

    1992-01-01

    The majority of human urinary stones are primarily composed of calcium salts. Although normal urine is frequently supersaturated with respect to calcium oxalate, most humans do not form stones. Inhibitors are among the multiple factors that may influence the complex process of urinary stone formation. We have isolated an inhibitor of calcium oxalate crystal growth from human urine by monoclonal

  10. Phosphatidic acid integrates calcium signaling and microtubule dynamics into regulating ABA-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Wu, Kai; Lin, Feng; Qu, Yana; Liu, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Qun

    2014-03-01

    Specific cellular components have been identified to function in abscisic acid (ABA) regulation of stomatal apertures, including calcium, the cytoskeleton, and phosphatidic acid. In this study, the regulation and dynamic organization of microtubules during ABA-induced stomatal closure by phospholipase D (PLD) and its product PA were investigated. ABA induced microtubule depolymerization and stomatal closure in wide-type (WT) Arabidopsis, whereas these processes were impaired in PLD mutant (pld?1). The microtubule-disrupting drugs oryzalin or propyzamide induced microtubule depolymerization, but did not affect the stomatal aperture, whereas their co-treatment with ABA resulted in stomatal closure in both WT and pld?1. In contrast, the microtubule-stabilizing drug paclitaxel arrested ABA-induced microtubule depolymerization and inhibited ABA-induced stomatal closure in both WT and pld?1. In pld?1, ABA-induced cytoplasmic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]cyt) elevation was partially blocked, and exogenous Ca(2+)-induced microtubule depolymerization and stomatal closure were impaired. These results suggested that PLD?1 and PA regulate microtubular organization and Ca(2+) increases during ABA-induced stomatal closing and that crosstalk among signaling lipid, Ca(2+), and microtubules are essential for ABA signaling. PMID:24271006

  11. The Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiajie; Ma, David W. L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Dietary fatty acids, especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), are believed to play a role in reducing BC risk. Evidence has shown that fish consumption or intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are beneficial for inhibiting mammary carcinogenesis. The evidence regarding ?-linolenic acid (ALA), however, remains equivocal. It is essential to clarify the relation between ALA and cancer since ALA is the principal source of n-3 PUFA in the Western diet and the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA is not efficient in humans. In addition, the specific anticancer roles of individual n-3 PUFA, alone, have not yet been identified. Therefore, the present review evaluates ALA, EPA and DHA consumed individually as well as in n-3 PUFA mixtures. Also, their role in the prevention of BC and potential anticancer mechanisms of action are examined. Overall, this review suggests that each n-3 PUFA has promising anticancer effects and warrants further research. PMID:25412153

  12. The role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiajie; Ma, David W L

    2014-11-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Dietary fatty acids, especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), are believed to play a role in reducing BC risk. Evidence has shown that fish consumption or intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are beneficial for inhibiting mammary carcinogenesis. The evidence regarding ?-linolenic acid (ALA), however, remains equivocal. It is essential to clarify the relation between ALA and cancer since ALA is the principal source of n-3 PUFA in the Western diet and the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA is not efficient in humans. In addition, the specific anticancer roles of individual n-3 PUFA, alone, have not yet been identified. Therefore, the present review evaluates ALA, EPA and DHA consumed individually as well as in n-3 PUFA mixtures. Also, their role in the prevention of BC and potential anticancer mechanisms of action are examined. Overall, this review suggests that each n-3 PUFA has promising anticancer effects and warrants further research. PMID:25412153

  13. The effects of acid treatment and calcium ions on the solubility of concanavalin A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cacioppo, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc L.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of acid treatment (which removes Mn and Ca ions) and Ca(2+) ions on the solubility of jack-bean-meal concanavalin A were investigated using two techniques: the sitting drop technique and the microcolumn technique. It was found that the solubility of concanavalin A varied with the protein preparation procedures and with measurement techniques. Addition of Ca(2+) resulted in greatly lowered solubilities compared with the acid treated protein. The sitting drop solubilities for the recalcified protein agreed better with those reported by Mikol and Giege (1989) than with solubilities determined from column data.

  14. Acidosis and hypercalciuria: renal mechanisms affecting calcium, magnesium and sodium excretion in the sheep

    PubMed Central

    Stacy, B. D.; Wilson, B. W.

    1970-01-01

    1. Observations were made on the excretion of calcium and magnesium by the sheep's kidney following manipulation of the acid—base status. 2. Intravascular administration of a synthetic solution resembling saliva abolished the naturally occurring acidosis in sheep during feeding, and it also prevented the normal onset of post-prandial hypercalciuria and hypermagnesiuria. 3. Non-respiratory acidosis (induced by infusion of hydrochloric acid) and respiratory acidosis arising from inhalation of 6% (v/v) CO2 in air both caused an acute increase in calcium excretion. 4. Measurement of filtered loads showed that feeding exerted an effect on the functional characteristics of the sheep's kidney. The renal clearances of calcium and magnesium increased, whereas sodium clearance decreased. 5. Experimental conditions were arranged so that variations in acid—base status could be imposed at a time when the filtered load of calcium was declining. 6. With hydrochloric acid-acidosis the renal excretion of calcium increased, despite a steady fall in the filtered load. With sodium bicarbonate alkalosis, the filtered load and the renal excretion of calcium decreased in unison. 7. These variations in calcium excretion were not accompanied by corresponding changes in the excretion of sodium. 8. It is concluded that the renal tubules in the sheep are sensitive to acid—base status and that they respond to a lowering of the blood pH by decreasing the tubular reabsorption of filtered calcium. PMID:5499811

  15. Calcium balance in Drakensberg crag lizards (Pseudocordylus melanotus melanotus; Cordylidae).

    PubMed

    van der Wardt, S T; Kik, M J; Klaver, P S; Janse, M; Beynen, A C

    1999-12-01

    Eight nonreproductive female Drakensberg crag lizards (Pseudocordylus melanotus melanotus) were each fed diets of mealworms and calcium capsules with various calcium levels. Excreta were collected and analyzed for calcium and uric acid content. The amount of calcium in the feces was calculated. The lizards appeared to be able to maintain calcium balance at calcium intakes equivalent to 1.4-5.6% calcium in the dry matter of feed. Calcium balance was maintained by adapting intestinal calcium absorption. PMID:10749442

  16. Ryanodine receptors contribute to bile acid-induced pathological calcium signaling and pancreatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Orabi, Abrahim I.; Muili, Kamaldeen A.; Luo, Yuhuan; Sarwar, Sheharyar; Mahmood, Syeda Maham; Wang, Dong; Choo-Wing, Rayman; Singh, Vijay P.; Parness, Jerome; Ananthanaravanan, Meena; Bhandari, Vineet; Perides, George

    2012-01-01

    Biliary pancreatitis is the most common etiology for acute pancreatitis, yet its pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear. Ca2+ signals generated within the pancreatic acinar cell initiate the early phase of pancreatitis, and bile acids can elicit anomalous acinar cell intracellular Ca2+ release. We previously demonstrated that Ca2+ released via the intracellular Ca2+ channel, the ryanodine receptor (RyR), contributes to the aberrant Ca2+ signal. In this study, we examined whether RyR inhibition protects against pathological Ca2+ signals, acinar cell injury, and pancreatitis from bile acid exposure. The bile acid tauro-lithocholic acid-3-sulfate (TLCS) induced intracellular Ca2+ oscillations at 50 ?M and a peak-plateau signal at 500 ?M, and only the latter induced acinar cell injury, as determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Pretreatment with the RyR inhibitors dantrolene or ryanodine converted the peak-plateau signal to a mostly oscillatory pattern (P < 0.05). They also reduced acinar cell LDH leakage, basolateral blebbing, and propidium iodide uptake (P < 0.05). In vivo, a single dose of dantrolene (5 mg/kg), given either 1 h before or 2 h after intraductal TLCS infusion, reduced the severity of pancreatitis down to the level of the control (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the severity of biliary pancreatitis may be ameliorated by the clinical use of RyR inhibitors. PMID:22517774

  17. Comparison of Calcium Salts and Formaldehyde-Protected Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Inducing Milk Fat Depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. de Veth; S. K. Gulati; N. D. Luchini; D. E. Bauman

    2005-01-01

    Abomasal infusion studies have shown that trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) decreases milk fat synthesis. However, supplements of CLA must avoid rumen biohydrogenation for this technology to be ap- plied to ruminants. Rumen protection methods would reduce CLA metabolism in the rumen and increase its supply to the small intestine. Our objective was to com- pare the efficacy of

  18. Safety assessment of (?)-hydroxycitric acid and Super CitriMax ®, a novel calcium\\/potassium salt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Soni; G. A. Burdock; H. G. Preuss; S. J. Stohs; S. E. Ohia; D. Bagchi

    2004-01-01

    (?)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a principle constituent (10–30%) of the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, a plant native to Southeastern Asia. The dried rind has been used for centuries throughout Southeast Asia as a food preservative, flavoring agent and carminative. Extensive experimental studies show that HCA inhibits fat synthesis and reduces food intake. The objective of this review is

  19. ALUMINUM SOLUBILITY, CALCIUM-ALUMINUM EXCHANGE, AND PH IN ACID FOREST SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Important components in several models designed to describe the effects of acid deposition on soils and surface waters are the pH-A1 and Ca-A1 exchange relationships. f A1 solubility is controlled by A1 trihydroxide minerals, the theoretical pH-A1 relationship can be described by...

  20. A Comparison of Calcium Gluconate and Zephiran for the Treatment of Dermal Hydrofluoric Acid Exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua G. Alters

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF), an aqueous form of hydrogen fluoride (Lewis 1993), typically emits a colorless irritating gas at room temperature (Hance, Solomon, Salmon, Fall, & Cass 1997). This highly corrosive, commonly used inorganic compound readily attacks materials such as concrete, glass, natural rubber, and metal alloys containing silica (EPA Chemical Profile 1987). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has

  1. Soil calcium status and the response of stream chemistry to changing acidic deposition rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.; Lovett, G.M.; Murdoch, P.S.; Burns, D.A.; Stoddard, J.L.; Baldigo, B.P.; Porter, J.H.; Thompson, A.W.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a decreasing trend in acidic deposition rates over the past two to three decades, acidified surface waters in the northeastern United States have shown minimal changes. Depletion of soil Ca pools has been suggested as a cause, although changes in soil Ca pools have not been directly related to long-term records of stream chemistry. To investigate this problem, a comprehensive watershed study was conducted in the Neversink River Basin, in the Catskill Mountains of New York, during 1991-1996. Spatial variations of atmospheric deposition, soil chemistry, and stream chemistry were evaluated over an elevation range of 817-1234 m to determine whether these factors exhibited elevational patterns. An increase in atmospheric deposition of SO4 with increasing elevation corresponded with upslope decreases of exchangeable soil base concentrations and acid-neutralizing capacity of stream water. Exchangeable base concentrations in homogeneous soil incubated within the soil profile for one year also decreased with increasing elevation. An elevational gradient in precipitation was not observed, and effects of a temperature gradient on soil properties were not detected. Laboratory leaching experiments with soils from this watershed showed that (1) concentrations of Ca in leachate increased as the concentrations of acid anions in added solution increased, and (2) the slope of this relationship was positively correlated with base saturation. Field and laboratory soil analyses are consistent with the interpretation that decreasing trends in acid-neutralizing capacity in stream water in the Neversink Basin, dating back to 1984, are the result of decreases in soil base saturation caused by acidic deposition.

  2. Tanshinone IIA and Cryptotanshinone Prevent Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Hypoxia-Induced H9c2 Cells: Association to Mitochondrial ROS, Intracellular Nitric Oxide, and Calcium Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hyou-Ju; Li, Chun-Guang

    2013-01-01

    The protective actions of tanshinones on hypoxia-induced cell damages have been reported, although the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Given the importance of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulation of cell functions, the present study investigated the effects of two major tanshinones, Tanshinone IIA (TIIA) and cryptotanshinone (CT), on hypoxia-induced myocardial cell injury and its relationships with intracellular NO and ROS, calcium, and ATP levels in H9c2 cells. Chronic hypoxia significantly reduced cell viability which accompanied with LDH release, increase in mitochondrial ROS, intracellular NO and calcium levels, decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and cellular ATP contents. TIIA and CT significantly prevented cell injury by increasing cell viability and decreasing LDH release. The protective effects of tanshinones were associated with reduced mitochondrial superoxide production and enhanced mitochondrial SOD activity. Tanshinones significantly reduced intracellular NO and Ca2+ levels. ATP levels were also restored by TIIA. These findings suggest that the cytoprotective actions of tanshinones may involve regulation of intracellular NO, Ca2+, ATP productions, mitochondrial superoxide production, and SOD activity, which contribute to their actions against hypoxia injuries. PMID:23533503

  3. Marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids: fishing for clues for cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FA) are polyunsaturated essential FA with anti-inflammatory properties. The most potent are the marine-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which counteract the pro-inflammatory omega-6 FA. Americans take in an average of only 100 mg of EPA plus DHA per day resulting in a low omega-3:omega-6 intake ratio of 1:10 favoring inflammation. Cohort and/or case control studies suggest EPA and DHA are promising for breast, colon, and prostate cancer risk reduction. Mechanistic studies largely in preclinical models suggest EPA and DHA reduce synthesis of prostaglandin E2 and other inflammatory cytokines, decrease aromatase activity and proliferation, promote differentiation and apoptosis, and enhance insulin sensitivity. Animal models using 7% to 20% omega-3 added to chow are promising; however, this amount of omega-3 in a diet is unlikely to be acceptable to humans. The optimal EPA:DHA ratio or the lowest effective dose of EPA and DHA for cancer prevention is unclear, but it is likely to be more than 600 mg/day, which is six times the average American intake. Most phase II prevention trials use 1 to 3.3 g of EPA and DHA, which is safe and well tolerated. Two grams of EPA was associated with fewer polyps in individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Identification of serum risk biomarkers modulated by EPA and DHA in healthy humans has remained elusive, but phase II prevention trials with tissue obtained for risk and response biomarkers are ongoing. PMID:23714467

  4. Vasodilation by in vivo activation of astrocyte endfeet via two-photon calcium uncaging as a strategy to prevent brain ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuanxin; Mancuso, James; Zhao, Zhen; Li, Xuping; Cheng, Jie; Roman, Gustavo; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2013-12-01

    Decreased cerebral blood flow causes brain ischemia and plays an important role in the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. In this study, we photomodulated astrocytes in the live animal by a combination of two-photon calcium uncaging in the astrocyte endfoot and in vivo imaging of neurovasculature and astrocytes by intravital two-photon microscopy after labeling with cell type specific fluorescent dyes. Our study demonstrates that photomodulation at the endfoot of a single astrocyte led to a 25% increase in the diameter of a neighboring arteriole, which is a crucial factor regulating cerebral microcirculation in downstream capillaries. Two-photon uncaging in the astrocyte soma or endfoot near veins does not show the same effect on microcirculation. These experimental results suggest that infrared photomodulation on astrocyte endfeet may be a strategy to increase cerebral local microcirculation and thus prevent brain ischemia.

  5. Expression of a grape calcium-dependent protein kinase ACPK1 in Arabidopsis thaliana promotes plant growth and confers abscisic acid-hypersensitivity in germination, postgermination growth, and stomatal movement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang-Chun Yu; Sai-Yong Zhu; Gui-Feng Gao; Xiao-Jing Wang; Rui Zhao; Ke-Qin Zou; Xiao-Fang Wang; Xiao-Yan Zhang; Fu-Qing Wu; Chang-Cao Peng; Da-Peng Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Calcium is an important second messenger involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction. Calcium-dependent protein kinases\\u000a (CDPKs) are the best characterized calcium sensor in plants and are believed to be important components in plant hormone signaling.\\u000a However, in planta genetic evidence has been lacking to link CDPK with ABA-regulated biological functions. We previously identified\\u000a an ABA-stimulated CDPK from grape berry,

  6. Initial Amino Acid Intake Influences Phosphorus and Calcium Homeostasis in Preterm Infants – It Is Time to Change the Composition of the Early Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Bonsante, Francesco; Iacobelli, Silvia; Latorre, Giuseppe; Rigo, Jacques; De Felice, Claudio; Robillard, Pierre Yves; Gouyon, Jean Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Background Early aggressive parenteral nutrition (PN), consisting of caloric and nitrogen intake soon after birth, is currently proposed for the premature baby. Some electrolyte disturbances, such as hypophosphatemia and hypercalcemia, considered unusual in early life, were recently described while using this PN approach. We hypothesize that, due to its impact on cell metabolism, the initial amino acid (AA) amount may specifically influence the metabolism of phosphorus, and consequently of calcium. We aim to evaluate the influence of AA intake on calcium-phosphorus metabolism, and to create a calculation tool to estimate phosphorus needs. Methods Prospective observational study. Phosphate and calcium plasma concentrations and calcium balance were evaluated daily during the first week of life in very preterm infants, and their relationship with nutrition was studied. For this purpose, infants were divided into three groups: high, medium and low AA intake (HAA, MAA, LAA). A calculation formula to assess phosphorus needs was elaborated, with a theoretical model based on AA and calcium intake, and the cumulative deficit of phosphate intake was estimated. Results 154 infants were included. Hypophosphatemia (12.5%) and hypercalcemia (9.8%) were more frequent in the HAA than in the MAA (4.6% and 4.8%) and in the LAA group (0% and 1.9%); both p<0.001. Discussion Calcium-phosphorus homeostasis was influenced by the early AA intake. We propose to consider phosphorus and calcium imbalances as being part of a syndrome, related to incomplete provision of nutrients after the abrupt discontinuation of the placental nutrition at birth (PI-ReFeeding syndrome). We provide a simple tool to calculate the optimal phosphate intake. The early introduction of AA in the PN soon after birth might be completed by an early intake of phosphorus, since AA and phosphorus are (along with potassium) the main determinants of cellular growth. PMID:23977367

  7. THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF DIETARY OMEGA 3 FATTY ACIDS IN THE PREVENTION OF DEMENTIA AND MACULAR DEGENERATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dementia and AMD are major causes of disability in the elderly. Omega-3 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are highly concentrated in brain and retinal tissue and have been implicated in the prevention or delay in progression of dementia and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). ...

  8. Acetylsalicylic Acid and Eflornithine in Treating Patients at High Risk for Colorectal Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This phase II trial is studying how well giving acetylsalicylic acid together with eflornithine works in treating patients at high risk for colorectal cancer. Chemoprevention is the use of certain drugs to keep cancer from forming. The use of acetylsalicylic acid and eflornithine may prevent colorectal cancer.

  9. Intermittent or Continuous Acetylsalicylic Acid and Gene Expression in the Nasal Tissue of Current Smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase II clinical trial studies the safety and effects of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) taken continuously or intermittently on gene expression in the nasal tissue of current smokers. Smokers are at increased risk of developing lung cancer. Acetylsalicylic acid may be useful in preventing lung cancer.

  10. Prevention of acid drainage from stored coal. [Inhibition of bacterial action by treatment with a solution of sodium lauryl sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Olem; T. L. Bell; J. J. Longaker

    1983-01-01

    A method has been identified for controlling acid production and subsequent dissolution of toxic pollutants in drainage from coal storage piles. Results of laboratory and field experiments indicate that it may be possible to prevent, rather than treat, acid drainage by periodically applying an environmentally safe detergent formulation to the coal. These experiments showed that a mild solution of sodium

  11. Effect of feeding metal amino acid complexed trace minerals to dairy cattle for the prevention of facial eczema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. DeFrain; M. T. Socha; D. J. Tomlinson; A. R. Hittmann; B. J. McKay

    2010-01-01

    Two hundred eighty-two cows were assigned to a 40-week experiment to determine the efficacy of zinc amino acid complex (CZ), with or without cobalt glucoheptonate and amino acid complexes of manganese and copper, in preventing facial eczema (FE). Apart from 25 control cows, which received no supplemental zinc, manganese, copper, and cobalt throughout treatment periods, remaining 257 cows were randomly

  12. Intravenous ascorbic acid to prevent and treat cancer-associated sepsis?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The history of ascorbic acid (AA) and cancer has been marked with controversy. Clinical studies evaluating AA in cancer outcome continue to the present day. However, the wealth of data suggesting that AA may be highly beneficial in addressing cancer-associated inflammation, particularly progression to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multi organ failure (MOF), has been largely overlooked. Patients with advanced cancer are generally deficient in AA. Once these patients develop septic symptoms, a further decrease in ascorbic acid levels occurs. Given the known role of ascorbate in: a) maintaining endothelial and suppression of inflammatory markers; b) protection from sepsis in animal models; and c) direct antineoplastic effects, we propose the use of ascorbate as an adjuvant to existing modalities in the treatment and prevention of cancer-associated sepsis. PMID:21375761

  13. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The two main forms of calcium pills are: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium carbonate do not cost ...

  14. Influence of fluoride, sulfate and acidity on extractable phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and potassium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mehlich

    1978-01-01

    In an attempt to develop an improved extractant for the soil test evaluation of plant available nutrients the influence of fluoride, sulfate and acidity on extractable P and Ca was investigated with 12 taxonomically different soils, (sequentially fractionated for Ca, Al, and Fe forms of phosphorus). The soils were extracted with 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1N HCl alone and in

  15. Two calcium mobilizing pathways implicated within abscisic acid-induced stomatal closing in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cousson

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated whether, depending on the abscisic acid (ABA) concentration, phospholipase C (PLC) would be\\u000a implicated within a Ca2+ mobilizing pathway that would regulate stomatal aperture under standard watering conditions. Among Al sensitive mutants the\\u000a als1-1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (Columbia-4 ecotype) was selected for a pharmacological approach of stomatal closing in leaf epidermal peels\\u000a induced

  16. Efficacy of Organic Acids in Hand Cleansers for Prevention of Rhinovirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Ronald B.; Biedermann, Kim A.; Morgan, Jeffery M.; Keswick, Bruce; Ertel, Keith D.; Barker, Mark F.

    2004-01-01

    Direct hand-to-hand contact is an important mechanism of transmission of rhinovirus infection. The rhinoviruses are inactivated at a low pH. A survey of organic acids in vitro revealed that these compounds have antirhinoviral activity that persists for at least 3 h after application to the skin. In additional studies of salicylic acid (SA) and pyroglutamic acid (PGA), the hands of volunteers were contaminated with rhinovirus at defined times after application of the acid, and then volunteers attempted to inoculate the nasal mucosa with one hand and quantitative viral cultures were done on the other hand. In one study, 3.5% SA or 1% SA with 3.5% PGA was compared with controls 15 min after application to assess the efficacy of the inactivation of virus and prevention of infection. Virus was recovered from the hands of 28 out of 31 (90%) of the volunteers in the control group compared to 4 out of 27 (15%) and 0 out of 27 in the groups administered 3.5 and 1% SA, respectively (P < 0.05). Rhinovirus infection occurred in 10 out of 31 (32%) of the controls and 2 out of 27 (7%) of volunteers in both treatment groups (P < 0.05 compared with control). In a second study, the efficacy of 4% PGA was evaluated 15 min, 1 h, and 3 h after application. Significantly fewer volunteers had positive hand cultures at all time points compared with the control group, but the proportion that developed rhinovirus infection was not significantly reduced. These results suggest the feasibility of the prevention of rhinovirus transmission by hand treatments that are virucidal on contact and have activity that persists after application. PMID:15215114

  17. Prevention of bone mineral changes induced by bed rest: Modification by static compression simulating weight bearing, combined supplementation of oral calcium and phosphate, calcitonin injections, oscillating compression, the oral diophosphonatedisodium etidronate, and lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, V. S.; Hulley, S. B.; Donaldson, C. L.; Vogel, J. M.; Rosen, S. N.; Hantman, D. A.; Lockwood, D. R.; Seid, D.; Hyatt, K. H.; Jacobson, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    The phenomenon of calcium loss during bed rest was found to be analogous to the loss of bone material which occurs in the hypogravic environment of space flight. Ways of preventing this occurrence are investigated. A group of healthy adult males underwent 24-30 weeks of continuous bed rest. Some of them were given an exercise program designed to resemble normal ambulatory activity; another subgroup was fed supplemental potassium phosphate. The results from a 12-week period of treatment were compared with those untreated bed rest periods. The potassium phosphate supplements prevented the hypercalciuria of bed rest, but fecal calcium tended to increase. The exercise program did not diminish the negative calcium balance. Neither treatment affected the heavy loss of mineral from the calcaneus. Several additional studies are developed to examine the problem further.

  18. Nanouric acid or nanocalcium phosphate as central nidus to induce calcium oxalate stone formation: a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study on urinary nanocrystallites

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Xue, Jun-Fa; Xu, Meng; Gui, Bao-Song; Wang, Feng-Xin; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to accurately analyze the relationship between calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formation and the components of urinary nanocrystallites. Method High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction, fast Fourier transformation of HRTEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were performed to analyze the components of these nanocrystallites. Results The main components of CaOx stones are calcium oxalate monohydrate and a small amount of dehydrate, while those of urinary nanocrystallites are calcium oxalate monohydrate, uric acid, and calcium phosphate. The mechanism of formation of CaOx stones was discussed based on the components of urinary nanocrystallites. Conclusion The formation of CaOx stones is closely related both to the properties of urinary nanocrystallites and to the urinary components. The combination of HRTEM, fast Fourier transformation, selected area electron diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy could be accurately performed to analyze the components of single urinary nanocrystallites. This result provides evidence for nanouric acid and/or nanocalcium phosphate crystallites as the central nidus to induce CaOx stone formation. PMID:25258530

  19. Increased tissue levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevents pathological preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Aki; Kawana, Kei; Tomio, Kensuke; Taguchi, Ayumi; Isobe, Yosuke; Iwamoto, Ryo; Masuda, Koji; Furuya, Hitomi; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Nagasaka, Kazunori; Arimoto, Takahide; Oda, Katsutoshi; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Yamashita, Takahiro; Taketani, Yuji; Kang, Jing X.; Kozuma, Shiro; Arai, Hiroyuki; Arita, Makoto; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have anti-inflammatory effects. Preterm birth is an important problem in modern obstetrics and one of the main causes is an inflammation. We here showed that abundance of omega-3 fatty acids reduced the incidence of preterm birth induced by LPS with fat-1 mice, capable of converting omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids. We also indicated that the gene expression of IL-6 and IL-1? in uteruses and the number of cervical infiltrating macrophages were reduced in fat-1 mice. The analyses of lipid metabolomics showed the high level of 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoate in fat-1 mice, which was derived from EPA and was metabolized to anti-inflammatory product named resolvin E3 (RvE3). We finally showed that the administration of RvE3 to LPS-exposed pregnant wild type mice lowered the incidence of preterm birth. Our data suggest that RvE3 could be a potential new therapeutic for the prevention of preterm birth. PMID:24177907

  20. Observations on the prevention of cleft palate in dogs by folic acid and potential relevance to humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Elwood; T. A. Colquhoun

    1997-01-01

    Folic acid has been shown to prevent neural tube defects in humans, but its effects on other defects is unknown. In a consistent breeding programme of Boston terrier dogs started in 1974, folic acid supplementation (5 mg\\/day) was introduced in 1981. The frequency of cleft palate fell from 9\\/51 (17.6%) without folic acid to 8\\/191 (4.2%) after its introduction, giving

  1. Calcium Elevation- and Attenuated Resting Calcium-dependent Abscisic Acid Induction of Stomatal Closure and Abscisic Acid-Induced Enhancement of Calcium Sensitivities of S-type Anion and K+in Channels in Arabidopsis guard cells

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Robert S.; Xue, Shaowu; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Yang, Yingzhen; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Wang, Angela; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2010-01-01

    Stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid depends on mechanisms that are mediated by intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i), and also on mechanisms independent of [Ca2+]i in guard cells. In this study we address three important questions in reference to these two predicted pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. 1. How large is the relative abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closing response from a [Ca2+]i-elevation-independent pathway? 2. How do ABA-insensitive mutants affect a [Ca2+]i-elevation-independent pathway? 3. Does ABA enhance (prime) the Ca2+-sensitivity of anion and inward-rectifying K+ channel regulation? We monitored stomatal responses to ABA while experimentally inhibiting [Ca2+]i elevations and clamping [Ca2+]i to resting levels. The absence of [Ca2+]i-elevations was confirmed in ratiometric [Ca2+]i imaging experiments. ABA-induced stomatal closing in the absence of [Ca2+]i-elevations above the physiological resting [Ca2+]i showed only ?30% of the stomatal closure response and was greatly slowed compared to the presence of [Ca2+]i-elevations. The ABA-insensitive mutants ost1-2, abi2-1, gca2 showed partial stomatal closing responses that correlate with [Ca2+]i-dependent ABA signaling. Interestingly, patch clamp experiments show that exposure of guard cells to ABA greatly enhances the ability of cytosolic Ca2+ to both activate S-type anion channels and down-regulate inward K+ channels, providing strong evidence for the Ca2+ sensitivity priming hypothesis. The present study shows and quantifies an attenuated and slowed ABA response, while directly inhibiting [Ca2+]i-elevations in guard cells. A minimal model is discussed, in which ABA increases (primes) the [Ca2+]i sensitivity of stomatal closing mechanisms. PMID:19302418

  2. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 4, A laboratory study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 2, Objective 1 titled: Inhibition of acid production in coal refuse amended with calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate - containing FGD solids

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-06-30

    Control of S02 emission from coal combustion requires desulfurization of coal before its combustion to produce coal refuse. Alternatively, gaseous emissions from coal combustion may be scrubbed to yield flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products that include calcium sulfite (CaSO3?0.5H2O or simply CaS03). Acid production in coal refuse due to pyrite oxidation and disposal of large amounts of FGD can cause environmental degradation. Addition of CaS03 and CaS03-containing FGD to coal refuse may reduce the amounts of oxygen and ferric ion available to oxidize pyrite because the sulfite moiety in CaS03 is a strong reductant and thus may mitigate acid production in coal refuse. In Chapter 1, it was shown that CaS03 efficiently scavenged dissolved oxygen and ferric ion in water under the conditions commonly encountered in a coal refuse disposal environment. In the presence ofCaS03, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water exposed to the atmosphere declined to below 0.01 mg L"1 at pH <8.0. In Chapter 2, it was demonstrated that CaS03 prevented a pH drop in coal refuse slurry when 0.2 gCaS03 was added to a 2% fresh coal refuse slurry every three days. Calcium sulfite also inhibited acid leaching from fresh coal refuse in bench-scale columns under controlled conditions. During the initial 13 weeks of leaching, the total amounts of titratable acidity, soluble H\\ Fe, and Al from CaS03-treated refuse (6.4 gin 50 g fresh coal refuse) were only 26%,10%, 32%, and 39% of those of the control columns, respectively. A combination of CaS03 with CaC03 or fly ash enhanced the inhibitory effect of CaS03 on acid leaching. Calcium sulfite-containing FGD which combined CaS03, CaC03, fly ash, and gypsum showed a much stronger inhibitory effect on acid leaching than CaS03 alone. This combination effect was partially due to the positive interaction of CaS03 with CaC03 and fly ash on inhibition of acid leaching. In Chapter 3, CaS03-containing FGD was found to inhibit acid leaching from both fresh and aged coal refuse in large scale columns under simulated field conditions. During 39 weeks of leaching, the reduction of leachate acidity and Fe concentration and the increase ofleachate pH were significant (p <0.05) for the 22% FGD treatment with a linear response to increasing FGD rates (0%, 5.5%, 11%, and 22%). I conclude that CaS03 and CaS03-containing FGD have the ability to inhibit acid production in coal refuse and the inhibitory effect shown in this experiment is likely to occur under field conditions. Thus, the research results present a potential new method for mitigation of acid production in coal refuse and another beneficial utilization of FGD by-products.

  3. A Combination of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Scaffold with Hyaluronic Acid-Gelatin Hydrogel as a New Tool for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thuy Ba Linh

    2014-01-01

    A novel bone substitute was fabricated to enhance bone healing by combining ceramic and polymer materials. In this study, Hyaluronic acid (HyA)–Gelatin (Gel) hydrogel was loaded into a biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramic, and the resulting scaffold, with unique micro- and macroporous orientation, was evaluated for bone regeneration applications. The fabricated scaffold showed high interconnected porosity, with an average compressive strength of 2.8±0.15?MPa, which is usually recommended for cancellous bone substitution. In vitro cytocompatibility studies were conducted using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The HyA-Gel–loaded BCP scaffold resulted in a significant increase in cell proliferation at 3 (p<0.05) and 7 days (p<0.001) and high alkaline phosphatase activities at 14 and 21 days. Furthermore, the in vivo studies showed that the implanted HyA-Gel–loaded BCP scaffold begins to degrade within 3 months after implantation. Histological sections also confirmed a rapid new bone formation and a high rate of collagen mineralization. A bone matrix formation was confirmed by positive immunohistochemistry staining of osteopontin, osteocalcin, and collagen type I. In vivo expression of extracellular matrix proteins demonstrated that this novel bone substitute holds great promise for use in stimulating new bone regeneration. PMID:24517159

  4. Calcium phenylphosphonate as a host for 4-aminobenzoic acid-Synthesis, characterization, and cation adsorption from ethanol solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarin, Angelica M., E-mail: amlazarin2@uem.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringa, PR (Brazil); Ganzerli, Thiago A.; Sernaglia, Rosana L.; Andreotti, Elza I.S. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringa, PR (Brazil); Airoldi, Claudio [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-11-15

    Crystalline lamellar calcium phenylphosphonate retained 4-aminobenzoic acid inside its cavity without leaching. The intense infrared bands in the 1160-695 cm{sup -1} interval confirmed the presence of the phosphonate groups attached to the inorganic layer, with sharp and intense peaks in X-ray diffraction patterns, which gave basal distances of 1532 and 1751 pm for the original and the intercalated compounds, respectively. The thermogravimetric curves of both layered compounds showed the release of water molecules and the organic moiety in distinct stages, to yield a final Ca(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} residue. Solid-state {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra presented only one peak for the phenylphosphonate groups attached to the main inorganic polymeric structure near 12.4 ppm. The adsorption isotherms from ethanol gave the maximum adsorption capacities of 1.68 and 0.50 mmol g{sup -1} for copper and cobalt, respectively, whose average stability constants followed Co > Cu; the number of ligands was determined as four for both cations.

  5. Hybrid calcium phosphate coatings with the addition of trace elements and polyaspartic acid by a low-thermal process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sanzhong; Yang, Xianyan; Chen, Xiaoyi; Lin, Xiangjin; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Guojing; Gao, Changyou; Gou, Zhongru

    2011-06-01

    Research in the field of orthopedic implantology is currently focused on developing methodologies to potentiate osseointegration and to expedite the reestablishment of full functionality. We have developed a simple biomimetic approach for preparing trace elements-codoped calcium phosphate (teCaP) coatings on a titanium substrate. The reaction proceeded via low-thermal incubation in trace elements (TEs)-added simulated body fluid (teSBF) at 90 and 120 °C. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive x-ray analyses demonstrated that the teCaP coating was the composite of hydroxyapatite and whitlockite, simultaneously doped with magnesium, strontium, zinc and silicon. The addition of polyaspartic acid and TEs into SBF significantly densified the coating. The incubation temperature is another important factor controlling the coating precipitation rate and bonding strength. An incubation temperature of 120 °C could accelerate the coating precipitation and improve the interface bonding strength. The in vitro cell culture investigation indicated that the teCaP coating supported the adhesion and spreading of ovariectomized rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) and particularly, promoted rMSCs proliferation compared to the CaP coating prepared in SBF. Collectively, from such a biomimetic route there potentially arises a general procedure to prepare a wide range of bioactive teCaP coatings of different composition for osteoporotic osteogenic cells activation response. PMID:21487175

  6. [Calcium involved in the signaling pathway of jasmonic acid induced stomatal closure of Vicia faba L].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Shi, Wu Liang; Zhang, Shu Qiu; Lou, Cheng Hou

    2005-08-01

    Ca2+, an ubiquitous second messenger in the signal transudation pathway, is required for various physiological and developmental processes in plant. Jasmonic acid (JA) has been known to induce the stomatal closure. By monitoring the changes of [Ca2+]cyt with fluorescent probe Fluo-3 AM under the confocal microscopy, we observed that exogenous JA increased [Ca2+]cyt in guard cells of Vicia faba L. while the control and linolenic acid (LA), which is a precursor of JA, could hardly affect the change of [Ca2+]cyt. EGTA, a chelator of Ca2+ completely blocked JA-induced stomatal closure. After epidermis pretreated with EGTA, JA failed to result in [Ca2+]cyt increasing. Ruthenium red that blocked Ca2+ released from intracellular Ca2+ store could not significantly change JA-induced stomatal closure, while JA still increased [Ca2+]cyt. Furthermore, Ca2+ channel inhibitor of nifedipine (NIF) reduced the effectiveness of JA-induced stomatal closure and JA-induced increasing fluorescent intensity in guard cells. The results demonstrated that Ca2+ is involved in the signal transduction of JA induced stomatal closure, and the source of [Ca2+]cyt increasing in guard cells induced by JA might derive mainly from the external stores. PMID:16231695

  7. EE-drospirenone-levomefolate calcium versus EE-drospirenone + folic acid: folate status during 24 weeks of treatment and over 20 weeks following treatment cessation

    PubMed Central

    Diefenbach, Konstanze; Trummer, Dietmar; Ebert, Frank; Lissy, Michael; Koch, Manuela; Rohde, Beate; Blode, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    Background Adequate folate supplementation in the periconceptional phase is recommended to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Oral contraceptives may provide a reasonable delivery vehicle for folate supplementation before conception in women of childbearing potential. This study aimed to demonstrate that a fixed-dose combination of an oral contraceptive and levomefolate calcium leads to sustainable improvements in folate status compared with an oral contraceptive + folic acid. Methods This was a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study in which 172 healthy women aged 18–40 years received ethinylestradiol (EE)-drospirenone-levomefolate calcium or EE-drospirenone + folic acid for 24 weeks (invasion phase), and EE-drospirenone for an additional 20 weeks (folate elimination phase). The main objective of the invasion phase was to examine the area under the folate concentration time-curve for plasma and red blood cell (RBC) folate, while the main objective of the elimination phase was to determine the duration of time for which RBC folate concentration remained ? 906 nmol/L after cessation of EE-drospirenone-levomefolate calcium. Results Mean concentration-time curves for plasma folate, RBC folate, and homocysteine were comparable between treatment groups during both study phases. During the invasion phase, plasma and RBC folate concentrations increased and approached steady-state after about 8 weeks (plasma) or 24 weeks (RBC). After cessation of treatment with levomefolate calcium, folate concentrations decreased slowly. The median time to RBC folate concentrations falling below 906 nmol/L was 10 weeks (95% confidence interval 8–12 weeks) after cessation of EE-drospirenone-levomefolate calcium treatment. Plasma and RBC folate levels remained above baseline values in 41.3% and 89.3% of women, respectively, at the end of the 20-week elimination phase. Conclusion Improvements in folate status were comparable between EE-drospirenone-levomefolate calcium and EE-drospirenone + folic acid. Plasma and RBC folate levels remained elevated for several months following cessation of treatment with EE-drospirenone-levomefolate calcium. PMID:23610531

  8. Structure and dynamics of dimyristoylphosphatidic acid\\/calcium complexes by sup 2 H NMR, infrared, and Raman spectroscopies and small-angle X-ray diffraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaetan Laroche; M. Pezolet; E. J. Dufourc; J. Dufourcq

    1991-01-01

    The structural and dynamic properties of complexes of dimyristoylphosphatidic acid (DMPA) and calcium ions have been characterized by ²H NMR, Raman, and infrared spectroscopies and small-angle X-ray diffraction. All techniques used show that these complexes do not undergo a cooperative thermotropic phase transition. Small-angle X-ray diffraction unambiguously demonstrates that the structure of the lipid molecules of the DMPA\\/Ca{sup 2+} complexes

  9. Calcium Sulfate as High-Performance Filler for Polylactide (PLA) or How to Recycle Gypsum as By-product of Lactic Acid Fermentation Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marius Murariu; Amália Da Silva Ferreira; Leila Bonnaud; Philippe Dubois

    2009-01-01

    Reinforcing of polylactide (PLA) with fillers can be an interesting solution to reduce its global price and to improve specific properties. Starting from calcium sulfate (gypsum) as by-product of the lactic acid fermentation process, novel high performance composites have been produced by melt-blending PLA and this filler after a previous specific dehydration performed at 500°C for min. 1 h. Due

  10. Effect of low-carbohydrate high-protein diets on acid-base balance, stone-forming propensity, and calcium metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shalini T. Reddy; Chia-Ying Wang; Khashayar Sakhaee; Linda Brinkley; Charles Y. C. Pak

    2002-01-01

    Background: Low-carbohydrate high-protein (LCHP) diets are used commonly for weight reduction. This study explores the relationship between such diets and acid-base balance, kidney-stone risk, and calcium and bone metabolism. Methods: Ten healthy subjects participated in a metabolic study. Subjects initially consumed their usual non-weight-reducing diet, then a severely carbohydrate-restricted induction diet for 2 weeks, followed by a moderately carbohydrate-restricted maintenance

  11. Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury by Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid in Rat and Cell Culture Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shunan; Abedin, Md. Joynal; Noppakun, Kajohnsak; Wang, Lawrence; Kaur, Tarundeep; Najafian, Behzad; Rodrigues, Cecília M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) has grave short- and long-term consequences. Often the onset of AKI is predictable, such as following surgery that compromises blood flow to the kidney. Even in such situations, present therapies cannot prevent AKI. As apoptosis is a major form of cell death following AKI, we determined the efficacy and mechanisms of action of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a molecule with potent anti-apoptotic and pro-survival properties, in prevention of AKI in rat and cell culture models. TUDCA is particularly attractive from a translational standpoint, as it has a proven safety record in animals and humans. Methodology/Principal Findings We chose an ischemia-reperfusion model in rats to simulate AKI in native kidneys, and a human kidney cell culture model to simulate AKI associated with cryopreservation in transplanted kidneys. TUDCA significantly ameliorated AKI in the test models due to inhibition of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis and upregulation of survival pathways. Conclusions This study sets the stage for testing TUDCA in future clinical trials for prevention of AKI, an area that needs urgent attention due to lack of effective therapies. PMID:23152827

  12. Nebulised amphotericin B-polymethacrylic acid nanoparticle prophylaxis prevents invasive aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Shirkhani, Khojasteh; Teo, Ian; Armstrong-James, Darius; Shaunak, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus species are the major life threatening fungal pathogens in transplant patients. Germination of inhaled fungal spores initiates infection, causes severe pneumonia, and has a mortality of > 50%. This is leading to the consideration of pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent infection. We made a very low MWt amphotericin B-polymethacrylic acid nanoparticle. It was not toxic to lung epithelial cells or monocyte-derived-macrophages in-vitro, or in an in-vivo transplant immuno-suppression mouse model of life threatening invasive aspergillosis. Three days of nebuliser based prophylaxis delivered the nanoparticle effectively to lung and prevented both fungal growth and lung inflammation. Protection from disease was associated with > 99% killing of the Aspergillus and a 90% reduction in lung TNF-?; the primary driver of tissue destructive immuno-pathology. This study provides in-vivo proof-of-principle that very small and cost-effective nanoparticles can be made simply, and delivered safely and effectively to lung by the aerosol route to prevent fungal infections. From the Clinical Editor Aspergillus is an opportunistic pathogen, which affects immunocompromised patients. One novel way to help fight against this infection is pre-exposure prophylaxis. The authors here made PMA based anionic hydrogels carrying amphotericin B, with mucoadhesive behavior. They showed that aerosol route of the drug was very effective in protecting against the disease in an in-vivo model and should provide a stepping-stone towards clinical trials in the future. PMID:25791815

  13. Fish oil-feeding prevents perfluorooctanoic acid-induced fatty liver in mice.

    PubMed

    Kudo, N; Kawashima, Y

    1997-08-01

    The effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on the levels of lipids in liver and serum were compared between mice fed a diet supplemented with soy bean oil (SO), perilla oil (PO), or fish oil (FO) for 4 weeks. Hepatic content of triglyceride (TG) was significantly lower in the mice fed the FO diet than that in the mice fed either the SO or the PO diet. The treatment with PFOA caused a marked accumulation of TG in the livers of SO-fed and PO-fed mice (seven- and twofold over their respective controls), whereas a level of TG remained low in the mice fed the FO diet. Incorporation in vivo of [3H]glycerol revealed that FO-feeding reduced synthesis of TG in the liver. The administration of PFOA increased the incorporation of [3H]glycerol into hepatic phospholipid (PL) regardless of the dietary oil, while synthesis of hepatic TG from [3H]glycerol was not altered by the treatment with PFOA. Serum level of TG was reduced by the administration of PFOA to the mice fed either the SO diet or the PO diet, while no change in the level was observed in the mice fed the FO diet. These results suggest that the accumulation of TG in the livers of PFOA-treated mice is due to the inhibition of the secretion of TG into circulation. PFOA-induced hepatic accumulation of TG is prevented by the feeding of the FO diet which inhibits TG formation. Among three dietary oils, FO-feeding alone prevented the PFOA-caused accumulation of TG in the liver. The importance of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6(n - 3)) is discussed in relation to the prevention of fatty liver induced by chemicals. PMID:9266801

  14. Gluconic acid-producing Pseudomonas sp. prevent ?-actinorhodin biosynthesis by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    PubMed

    Galet, Justine; Deveau, Aurélie; Hôtel, Laurence; Leblond, Pierre; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Aigle, Bertrand

    2014-09-01

    Streptomyces are ubiquitous soil bacteria well known for their ability to produce a wide range of secondary metabolites including antibiotics. In their natural environments, they co-exist and interact with complex microbial communities and their natural products are assumed to play a major role in mediating these interactions. Reciprocally, their secondary metabolism can be influenced by the surrounding microbial communities. Little is known about these complex interactions and the underlying molecular mechanisms. During pairwise co-culture experiments, a fluorescent Pseudomonas, Pseudomonas fluorescens BBc6R8, was shown to prevent the production of the diffusible blue pigment antibiotic ?-actinorhodin by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) M145 without altering the biosynthesis of the intracellular actinorhodin. A mutant of the BBc6R8 strain defective in the production of gluconic acid from glucose and consequently unable to acidify the culture medium did not show any effect on the ?-actinorhodin biosynthesis in contrast to the wild-type strain and the mutant complemented with the wild-type allele. In addition, when glucose was substituted by mannitol in the culture medium, P. fluorescens BBc6R8 was unable to acidify the medium and to prevent the biosynthesis of the antibiotic. All together, the results show that P. fluorescens BBc6R8 impairs the biosynthesis of the lactone form of actinorhodin in S. coelicolor by acidifying the medium through the production of gluconic acid. Other fluorescent Pseudomonas and the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 also prevented the ?-actinorhodin production in a similar way. We propose some hypotheses on the ecological significance of such interaction. PMID:24906569

  15. The effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste and sodium fluoride mouthwash on the prevention of dentine erosion: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Moezizadeh, Maryam; Alimi, Azar

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The purpose was to compare the effect of 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste on prevention of dentin erosion. Materials and Methods: Buccal surfaces of 36 sound premolar teeth were ground flat and polished with abrasive discs. Half the polished surfaces were covered with tape to maintain a reference surface. Samples were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A was pretreated with tooth mousse (TM) 4 times a day for 5 days. Group B was pretreated with 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash 4 times a day for 5 days. Group C was considered as the control group with no pretreatment. In the next step, the samples were exposed to Coca-Cola 4 times a day for 3 days. After each erosive cycle, the samples were rinsed with deionized water and stored in artificial saliva. The surface loss was determined using profilometry. Results: The erosion in both Groups A and B was less than the control group. The surface loss in mouthwash group was significantly lower than in the control group. Erosion in TM group was more than the mouthwash group and less than the control group. Conclusion: Sodium fluoride mouthwash is more effective for prevention of dentin erosion. PMID:24944448

  16. The ?6-fatty acid, arachidonic acid, regulates the conversion of white to brite adipocyte through a prostaglandin/calcium mediated pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pisani, Didier F.; Ghandour, Rayane A.; Beranger, Guillaume E.; Le Faouder, Pauline; Chambard, Jean-Claude; Giroud, Maude; Vegiopoulos, Alexandros; Djedaini, Mansour; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Tauc, Michel; Herzig, Stephan; Langin, Dominique; Ailhaud, Gérard; Duranton, Christophe; Amri, Ez-Zoubir

    2014-01-01

    Objective Brite adipocytes are inducible energy-dissipating cells expressing UCP1 which appear within white adipose tissue of healthy adult individuals. Recruitment of these cells represents a potential strategy to fight obesity and associated diseases. Methods/Results Using human Multipotent Adipose-Derived Stem cells, able to convert into brite adipocytes, we show that arachidonic acid strongly inhibits brite adipocyte formation via a cyclooxygenase pathway leading to secretion of PGE2 and PGF2?. Both prostaglandins induce an oscillatory Ca++ signaling coupled to ERK pathway and trigger a decrease in UCP1 expression and in oxygen consumption without altering mitochondriogenesis. In mice fed a standard diet supplemented with ?6 arachidonic acid, PGF2? and PGE2 amounts are increased in subcutaneous white adipose tissue and associated with a decrease in the recruitment of brite adipocytes. Conclusion Our results suggest that dietary excess of ?6 polyunsaturated fatty acids present in Western diets, may also favor obesity by preventing the “browning” process to take place. PMID:25506549

  17. Calcium ionophore synergizes with bacterial lipopolysaccharides in activating macrophage arachidonic acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    LPS, a major component of Gram-negative bacterial cell walls, prime macrophages for greatly enhanced arachidonic acid [20:4] metabolism when the cells are subsequently stimulated. The LPS-primed macrophage has been used as a model system in which to study the role of Ca2+ in the regulation of 20:4 metabolism. The Ca2+ ionophore A23187 (0.1 microM) triggered the rapid release of 20:4 metabolites from LPS-primed macrophages but not from cells not previously exposed to LPS. Macrophages required exposure to LPS for at least 40 min before A23187 became effective as a trigger. A23187 (0.1 microM) also synergized with PMA in activating macrophage 20:4 metabolism. The PMA effect could be distinguished from that of LPS since no preincubation with PMA was required. A23187 greatly increased the amount of lipoxygenase products secreted from LPS-primed macrophages, leukotriene C4 synthesis being increased 150-fold. LPS-primed macrophages, partially permeabilized to Ca2+ with A23187, were used to titrate the Ca2+ concentration dependence of the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. Cyclooxygenase metabolites were detected at an order of magnitude lower Ca2+ concentration than were lipoxygenase products. The data suggest that Ca2+ regulates macrophage 20:4 metabolism at two distinct steps: an increase in intracellular Ca2+ regulates the triggering signal and relatively higher Ca2+ concentrations are required for 5-lipoxygenase activity. PMID:3126256

  18. Sodium and potassium-gated translocation of calcium by phosphatidic acid in multiphase systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reusch, R.

    1986-05-01

    The rate at which /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ is translocated from aqueous into hydrocarbon solvents by phosphatidic acid (PA) dispersed in the aqueous phase was examined as a function of concentration, pH, temperature, chain composition, nature of organic solvent, and presence of monovalent cations. Translocation required dianionic, diacyl PA in the liquid-crystalline state. Monovalent cations were also required with each manifesting unique effects. Rb/sup +/ and Cs/sup +/ increased translocation in proportion to the concentrations with Rb/sup +/ effecting higher rates. Na/sup +/, however, did not permit ionophore formation until a critical concentration was reached (0.325-0.40 M depending on the organic solvent) at which there was a very sharp pulse-like increase in rate. K/sup +/ exhibited a combination of effects. At low concentrations (<0.15 M) translocation increased in proportion to concentration; then, after a period of little change, there was a sharp increase similar to that observed with Na/sup +/ but at 1/15 the magnitude. These findings can be rationalized by considering the effects of these ions on the surface potential, surface tension, diffuse double layer and interfacial water structure. The results are inconsistent with an inverted micelle or hexagonal (HII) phase structure for the ionophoretic species, but are compatible with the dimer ionophore model previously proposed. These studies suggest a molecular mechanism by which the rapid entry of Ca/sup 2 +/ into stimulated cells may be mediated by PA.

  19. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate intakes of vitamin D and calcium are essential preventative measures and essential components of any therapeutic regimen for osteoporosis. Vitamin D is also important for the prevention of falls. Current evidence suggests that a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 75 nmol/L (30 ng/ml) or higher ...

  20. Acacetin Inhibits Glutamate Release and Prevents Kainic Acid-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tzu-Yu; Huang, Wei-Jan; Wu, Chia-Chan; Lu, Cheng-Wei; Wang, Su-Jane

    2014-01-01

    An excessive release of glutamate is considered to be a molecular mechanism associated with several neurological diseases that causes neuronal damage. Therefore, searching for compounds that reduce glutamate neurotoxicity is necessary. In this study, the possibility that the natural flavone acacetin derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn is a neuroprotective agent was investigated. The effect of acacetin on endogenous glutamate release in rat hippocampal nerve terminals (synaptosomes) was also investigated. The results indicated that acacetin inhibited depolarization-evoked glutamate release and cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]C) in the hippocampal nerve terminals. However, acacetin did not alter synaptosomal membrane potential. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of acacetin on evoked glutamate release was prevented by the Cav2.2 (N-type) and Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) channel blocker known as ?-conotoxin MVIIC. In a kainic acid (KA) rat model, an animal model used for excitotoxic neurodegeneration experiments, acacetin (10 or 50 mg/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally to the rats 30 min before the KA (15 mg/kg) intraperitoneal injection, and subsequently induced the attenuation of KA-induced neuronal cell death and microglia activation in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. The present study demonstrates that the natural compound, acacetin, inhibits glutamate release from hippocampal synaptosomes by attenuating voltage-dependent Ca2+ entry and effectively prevents KA-induced in vivo excitotoxicity. Collectively, these data suggest that acacetin has the therapeutic potential for treating neurological diseases associated with excitotoxicity. PMID:24520409

  1. Awareness and Intake of Folic Acid for the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects Among Lebanese Women of Childbearing Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudine Nasr Hage; Maya Jalloul; Mohamad Sabbah; Salim M. Adib

    Since the early 1990s, international recommendations have promoted folic acid supplementation during the periconception period\\u000a as an effective way of preventing neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the adoption of this recommendation remains insufficient.\\u000a To assess the awareness and actual intake of folic acid among married Lebanese women aged 18–45 years, a cross-sectional study\\u000a was conducted among 600 women selected from all

  2. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) supplementation prevents cognitive impairment and amyloid deposition in APP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Lo, Adrian C; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Nunes, Ana F; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; D'Hooge, Rudi

    2013-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease hallmarked by extracellular A?(1-42) containing plaques, and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) containing hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Progressively, memory deficits and cognitive disabilities start to occur as these hallmarks affect hippocampus and frontal cortex, regions highly involved in memory. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression, which is high in the vicinity of A? plaques and NFTs, was found to influence ?-secretase activity, the molecular crux in A?(1-42) production. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is an endogenous bile acid that downregulates CTGF expression in hepatocytes and has been shown to possess therapeutic efficacy in neurodegenerative models. To investigate the possible in vivo therapeutic effects of TUDCA, we provided 0.4% TUDCA-supplemented food to APP/PS1 mice, a well-established AD mouse model. Six months of TUDCA supplementation prevented the spatial, recognition and contextual memory defects observed in APP/PS1 mice at 8 months of age. Furthermore, TUDCA-supplemented APP/PS1 mice displayed reduced hippocampal and prefrontal amyloid deposition. These effects of TUDCA supplementation suggest a novel mechanistic route for Alzheimer therapeutics. PMID:22974733

  3. Calcium Carbonate

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice by altering expression of hepatic genes regulating fatty acid synthesis and oxidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Concomitant supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3; DHA) prevented t10, c12- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance. Effective dose of DHA and mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Methods: We examined abi...

  5. Eicosapentaenoic acid prevents high fat diet-induced metabolic disorders: Genomic and metabolomic analyses of underlying mechanism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously our lab demonstrated eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA)'s ability to prevent high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity by decreasing insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and inflammation. In the current study, we used genomic and metabolomic approaches to further investigate the molecular basis for t...

  6. [Prevention of preeclampsia - review].

    PubMed

    Vlk, R; Mat?cha, J; Drochýtek, V

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a serious condition that affects about five percent of pregnant women. The disorder itself or related complications are responsible for a significant percentage of maternal and fetal morbidity, even in developed countries. Although our understanding of etiology is still limited, the possibility of detecting and evaluating certain angiogenic factors by the end of the first trimester gives food for thought about prospects for preeclampsia prevention. Secondary prevention is currently based mostly on the effort to pharmacologically affect the spiral artery transformation and development of the abnormal placental microcirculation which lead to clinical symptoms of preeclampsia. The preventive treatment options are narrow. Greatest effect was noted with acetylsalicylic acid medication in the at-risk population. The dose of 75-150 mg per day is considered optimal. The treatment should start before the 16th gestational week; later initiation of therapy is associated with considerably smaller effect. The incidence of the early-onset preeclampsia (<34th gestational week) can be reduced up to 50% while preventive treatment affects the late-onset preeclampsia only minimally. Calcium supplementation is effective only in women with low calcium intake. Question for the future as well as subject of several studies is a clinical significance of low molecular weight heparin and sildenafil. PMID:26087220

  7. Inhibition of UV-induced uric acid production using allopurinol prevents suppression of the contact hypersensitivity response.

    PubMed

    Leighton, Sarah; Kok, Lai-Fong; Halliday, Gary M; Byrne, Scott N

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation suppresses adaptive immune responses. This contributes to skin carcinogenesis but may protect from some autoimmune diseases. However, the molecular changes occurring within UV-exposed skin that precipitate the downstream events leading to immune suppression are not fully understood. Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo mouse models, we have discovered that UV induces significant cutaneous production of immune suppressive uric acid. The ability of UV-induced uric acid to inhibit a contact hypersensitivity response was successfully blocked by the gout-treating drug Allopurinol. Up-regulation of NLRP3 mRNA by UV was also found to be dependent on UV-induced uric acid. This suggested that the target of UV-induced uric acid included proteins involved in the formation and activation of the NLRP3-inflammasome. However, in contrast to NLRP3, the adaptor protein ASC, which is required for formation of the NLRP3-inflammasome, was significantly down-regulated. Furthermore, this down-regulation was not dependent on UV-induced uric acid production because Allopurinol treatment failed to prevent the reduction in ASC. Hence, our results identify uric acid as an important molecule involved in sterile UV-induced inflammation and immune suppression. UV-induced uric acid may therefore offer a unique therapeutic target for preventing and treating skin cancer. PMID:23387472

  8. Bogs are a specialized wetland community with saturated, acidic, peat soils that have low concentra-tions of minerals (e.g., calcium, magnesium) and essential nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen). They

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    , acidic, peat soils that have low concentra- tions of minerals (e.g., calcium, magnesium) and essential of living Sphagnum mosses growing over a layer of saturated, acidic peat. Sedges, forbs and/or the low), pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea) and sundew (Drosera rotundifolia). SOILS: Fibric peat (Histosols

  9. Renal Outcomes in High-Risk Hypertensive Patients Treated With an Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor or a Calcium Channel Blocker vs. a Diuretic. A Report From the Antihypertensive and Lipid-lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahboob Rahman; Sara Pressel; Barry R. Davis

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study was performed to determine whether, in high-risk hypertensive patients with a re- duced glomerular filtration rate (GFR), treatment with a calcium channel blocker or an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lowers the incidence of renal disease outcomes compared with treatment with a diuretic. Methods: We conducted post hoc analyses of the Anti- hypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart

  10. Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Estrogen-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis by Modulating Enzymes of Estrogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Aiyer, Harini S.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine whether dietary berries and ellagic acid prevent 17? estradiol (E2) -induced mammary tumors by altering estrogen metabolism, we randomized ACI rats (n=6/group) into 5 groups ? sham implant + control diet (SH-CD), E2 ? implant + control diet (E2-CD), E2+2.5% black raspberry (E2-BRB); E2+2.5% blueberry (E2-BB) and E2+ 400ppm ellagic acid (E2-EA). Animals were euthanized at early (6wk), intermediate (18wk) and late (24wk) phases of E2-carcinogenesis and the mammary tissue analyzed for gene-expression changes using quantitative real-time PCR. At 6 weeks, E2-treatment caused 48-fold increase in cytochrome P4501A1(CYP1A1) (p<0.0001), which was attenuated by both BRB and BB diets to 12- and 21-fold, respectively (p<0.001). E2 did not alter CYP1B1 levels, but both berry and EA diets significantly suppressed it by 11- and 3.5-fold, respectively from baseline (p<0.05). There was a 5-fold increase in 17?-Hydroxysteroid dehyrdogenase(17?HSD7) and this was moderately abrogated to about 2-fold by all supplementation (p<0.05). At 18 weeks, CYP1A1 was elevated by 15-fold in E2-CD and only E2-BB reduced this increase to 7-fold (p<0.05). Catechol-O-methyl transferase(COMT) expression was elevated 2-fold by E2-treatment (p<0.05) and all supplementation reversed this. At 24 weeks, CYP1A1 expression was less pronounced, but still high (8-fold) in E2-treated rats. This increase was reduced to 3.2 and 4.6-fold, by E2-BRB and E2-EA, respectively (p<0.05), but not by E2-BB. Supplementation did not alter the effect of E2 on steroid receptors. The diets also significantly suppressed mammary tumor incidence (10–30%), volume (41–67%) and multiplicity (38 to 51%) (p<0.05). Berries may prevent mammary tumors by suppressing the levels of E2-metabolizing enzymes during the early phase of E2-carcinogenesis. PMID:20501861

  11. Preparation, mechanical property and cytocompatibility of poly(L-lactic acid)/calcium silicate nanocomposites with controllable distribution of calcium silicate nanowires.

    PubMed

    Dou, Yuandong; Wu, Chengtie; Chang, Jiang

    2012-11-01

    How to accurately control the microstructure of bioactive inorganic/organic nanocomposites still remains a significant challenge, which is of great importance in influencing their mechanical strength and biological properties. In this study, using a combined method of electrospinning and hot press processing, calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) nanowire/poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) nanocomposites with controllable microstructures and tailored mechanical properties were successfully prepared as potential bone graft substitutes. The electrospun hybrid nanofibers with various degrees of alignment were stacked together in a predetermined manner and hot pressed into hierarchically structured nanocomposites. The relationship between the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-prepared nanocomposites were systematically evaluated. The results showed that CSH nanowires in a PLLA matrix were able to be controlled from completely randomly oriented to uniaxially aligned, and then hierarchically organized with different interlayer angles, leading to corresponding nanocomposites with improved mechanical properties and varied anisotropies. It was also found that the bending strength of nanocomposites with 5 wt.% CSH nanowires (130 MPa) was significantly higher than that of pure PLLA (86 MPa) and other composites. The addition of CSH nanowires greatly enhanced the hydrophilicity and apatite-forming ability of PLLA films, as well as the attachment and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells. The study suggested that a combination of electrospinning and hot pressing is a viable means to control the microstructure and mechanical properties, and improve the mineralization ability and cellular responses, of CSH/PLLA nanocomposites for potential bone repair applications. PMID:22813849

  12. Searching for factors associated with resistance to acetylsalicylic acid used for secondary prevention of stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pierzcha?a, Krystyna; Niewiadomska, Ewa; Skrzypek, Micha?; Machowska-Majchrzak, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of resistance to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), used for secondary prevention of stroke, including the assessment of risk factors associated with the lack of ASA anti-aggregatory action. Material and methods Patients after a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or ischaemic stroke in the acute (n = 111) and chronic phase (n = 87) were enrolled in the study. The assessment of platelet function was performed by whole blood impedance aggregometry using a multi-channel platelet function analyser (Multiplate). Results A proper response to ASA was found in 121 patients (61.1%) (ASA responders), a partial response to ASA in 59 patients (29.8%) (ASA partial responders), and ASA resistance in 18 patients (9.1%) (ASA non-responders). Acetylsalicylic acid resistance was observed more frequently in the chronic phase. The mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration was higher in ASA non-responders (p = 0.02). The mean heart rate (p = 0.03) and the mean haematocrit (p = 0.03) were higher in the group of ASA partial responders and ASA non-responders. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists were more often used in the group of ASA partial responders and ASA non-responders (p = 0.04). Diuretics were more rarely used by ASA non-responders, whereas fibrates were more rarely used by ASA partial responders. Conclusions The method enabled the detection of ASA resistance in some patients with cerebrovascular disease. The study revealed some possible risk factors of ASA resistance: long ASA therapy, increased heart rate, higher LDL concentration, and higher haematocrit value. The relationship between the effect of ASA and other medications (angiotensin II receptor blockers, fibrates, diuretics) requires further study. Platelet function monitoring should be considered in patients at a greater risk of ASA resistance. PMID:25861296

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids and ERPR(-) and HER-2/neu(+) breast cancer prevention | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Project Summary In spite of decades of basic and clincial research, breast cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American women . A major breakthrough for prevention and cure has been the appreciation that breast cancer is not one disease, rather a collection of cancer subtypes becoming better defined by improved methodologies based upon histopathologic, genetic and molecular signatures.

  14. Awareness and intake of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects among Lebanese women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Nasr Hage, Claudine; Jalloul, Maya; Sabbah, Mohamad; Adib, Salim M

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, international recommendations have promoted folic acid supplementation during the periconception period as an effective way of preventing neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the adoption of this recommendation remains insufficient. To assess the awareness and actual intake of folic acid among married Lebanese women aged 18-45 years, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 women selected from all five administrative districts in Lebanon, using a multistage cluster sampling procedure. An anonymous questionnaire was completed which covered measures of knowledge and use of folate supplements, as well as demographic, socioeconomic and obstetrical factors. Sixty percent of surveyed women (60%; n = 360) had heard about folic acid. Doctors were the most frequent source of information (61.1%) but only 24.7% of women have been told of the correct period during which folic acid supplementation was useful. Overall, only 6.2% had taken folic acid tablets during the adequate period. Younger age, higher education level and stability/sufficiency of income appeared to be significant predictors of awareness among Lebanese women. Actual folic acid intake was significantly associated with younger age, higher number of pregnancies, planning the last pregnancy and having had that last one after 1990. In Lebanon, the level of folic acid awareness and adequate intake remain relatively low. Several approaches should be used to promote folic acid intake including awareness campaigns, and routine counseling by primary health care physicians on folic acid during preconception visits. PMID:21210201

  15. Not all cases of neural-tube defect can be prevented by increasing the intake of folic acid.

    PubMed

    Heseker, Helmut B; Mason, Joel B; Selhub, Jacob; Rosenberg, Irwin H; Jacques, Paul F

    2009-07-01

    Some countries have introduced mandatory folic acid fortification, whereas others support periconceptional supplementation of women in childbearing age. Several European countries are considering whether to adopt a fortification policy. Projections of the possible beneficial effects of increased folic acid intake assume that the measure will result in a considerable reduction in neural-tube defects (NTD) in the target population. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to evaluate the beneficial effects of different levels of folic acid administration on the prevalence of NTD. Countries with mandatory fortification achieved a significant increase in folate intake and a significant decline in the prevalence of NTD. This was also true for supplementation trials. However, the prevalence of NTD at birth declined to approximately five cases at birth per 10 000 births and seven to eight cases at birth or abortion per 10 000 births. This decline was independent of the amount of folic acid administered and apparently reveals a 'floor effect' for folic acid-preventable NTD. This clearly shows that not all cases of NTD are preventable by increasing the folate intake. The relative decline depends on the initial NTD rate. Countries with NTD prevalence close to the observed floor may have much smaller reductions in NTD rates with folic acid fortification. Additionally, potential adverse effects of fortification on other vulnerable population groups have to be seriously considered. Policy decisions concerning national mandatory fortification programmes must take into account realistically projected benefits as well as the evidence of risks to all vulnerable groups. PMID:19079944

  16. Betulinic acid prevents alcohol-induced liver damage by improving the antioxidant system in mice

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wei; Wu, Jianping; Yuan, Liyun; Wu, Jing; Tu, Di; Fang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic lupane-type triterpene, has a wide range of bioactivities. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of BA and the potential mechanism underlying the ability of this compound to prevent liver damage induced by alcohol in vivo. Mice were given oral doses of BA (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg) daily for 14 days, and induced liver injury by feeding 50% alcohol orally at the dosage of 10 ml/kg after 1 h last administration of BA. BA pretreatment significantly reduced the serum levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, total cholesterol, and triacylglycerides in a dose-dependent manner in the mice administered alcohol. Hepatic levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase were remarkably increased, while malondialdehyde contents and microvesicular steatosis in the liver were decreased by BA in a dose-dependent manner after alcohol-induced liver injury. These findings suggest that the mechanism underlying the hepatoprotective effects of BA might be due to increased antioxidant capacity, mainly through improvement of the tissue redox system, maintenance of the antioxidant system, and decreased lipid peroxidation in the liver. PMID:24378582

  17. Salicylic acid prevents Trichoderma harzianum from entering the vascular system of roots.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Ramírez, Ana; Poveda, Jorge; Martín, Ignacio; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Nicolás, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Trichoderma is a soil-borne fungal genus that includes species with a significant impact on agriculture and industrial processes. Some Trichoderma strains exert beneficial effects in plants through root colonization, although little is known about how this interaction takes place. To better understand this process, the root colonization of wild-type Arabidopsis and the salicylic acid (SA)-impaired mutant sid2 by a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-marked Trichoderma harzianum strain was followed under confocal microscopy. Trichoderma harzianum?GFP22 was able to penetrate the vascular tissue of the sid2 mutant because of the absence of callose deposition in the cell wall of root cells. In addition, a higher colonization of sid2 roots by GFP22 compared with that in Arabidopsis wild-type roots was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results, together with differences in the expression levels of plant defence genes in the roots of both interactions, support a key role for SA in Trichoderma early root colonization stages. We observed that, without the support of SA, plants were unable to prevent the arrival of the fungus in the vascular system and its spread into aerial parts, leading to later collapse. PMID:24684632

  18. Niflumic acid inhibits chloride conductance of rat skeletal muscle by directly inhibiting the CLC-1 channel and by increasing intracellular calcium

    PubMed Central

    Liantonio, A; Giannuzzi, V; Picollo, A; Babini, E; Pusch, M; Conte Camerino, D

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Given the crucial role of the skeletal muscle chloride conductance (gCl), supported by the voltage-gated chloride channel CLC-1, in controlling muscle excitability, the availability of ligands modulating CLC-1 are of potential medical as well as toxicological importance. Here, we focused our attention on niflumic acid (NFA), a molecule belonging to the fenamates group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Experimental approach: Rat muscle Cl? conductance (gCl) and heterologously expressed CLC-1 currents were evaluated by means of current-clamp (using two-microelectrodes) and patch-clamp techniques, respectively. Fura-2 fluorescence was used to determine intracellular calcium concentration, [Ca2+]i, in native muscle fibres. Key results: NFA inhibited native gCl with an IC50 of 42 ?M and blocked CLC-1 by interacting with an intracellular binding site. Additionally, NFA increased basal [Ca2+]i in myofibres by promoting a mitochondrial calcium efflux that was not dependent on cyclooxygenase or CLC-1. A structure-activity study revealed that the molecular conditions that mediate the two effects are different. Pretreatment with the Ca-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine partially inhibited the NFA effect. Therefore, in addition to direct channel block, NFA also inhibits gCl indirectly by promoting PKC activation. Conclusions and Implications: These cellular effects of NFA on skeletal muscle demonstrate that it is possible to modify CLC-1 and consequently gCl directly by interacting with channel proteins and indirectly by interfering with the calcium-dependent regulation of the channel. The effect of NFA on mitochondrial calcium stores suggests that NSAIDs, widely used drugs, could have potentially dangerous side-effects. PMID:17128287

  19. Molecular Pathways: Current Role and Future Directions of the Retinoic Acid Pathway In Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Roisin M.; Nguyen, Nguyen K.; Sukumar, Saraswati

    2013-01-01

    Retinoids and their naturally metabolized and synthetic products (e.g. all-trans retinoic acid, 13-cis retinoic acid, bexarotene) induce differentiation in various cell types. Retinoids exert their actions mainly through binding to the nuclear retinoic acid receptors (?, ?, ?), which are transcriptional and homeostatic regulators whose functions are often compromised early in neoplastic transformation. The retinoids have been investigated extensively for their utility in cancer prevention and treatment. Success has been achieved with their use in the treatment of subtypes of leukemia harboring chromosomal translocations. Promising results have been observed in the breast cancer prevention setting, where fenretinide prevention trials have provided a strong rationale for further investigation in young women at high-risk for breast cancer. Ongoing phase 3 randomized trials investigating retinoids in combination with chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer aim to definitively characterize the role of retinoids in this tumor type. The limited treatment success observed to date in the prevention and treatment of solid tumors may relate to the frequent epigenetic silencing of RAR?. Robust evaluation of RAR? and downstream genes may permit optimized use of retinoids in the solid tumor arena. PMID:23322901

  20. Effect of Supplementation with Calcium Salts of Fish Oil on n-3 Fatty Acids in Milk Fat1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Castañeda-Gutiérrez; M. J. de Veth; A. L. Lock; D. A. Dwyer; K. D. Murphy; D. E. Bauman

    2007-01-01

    Enrichment of milk fat with n-3 fatty acids, in partic- ular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid(DHA),maybeadvantageousbecauseoftheirbene- ficial effects on human health. In addition, these fatty acids play an important role in reproductive processes in dairy cows. Our objective was to evaluate the protec- tion of EPA and DHA against rumen biohydrogenation provided by Ca salts of fish oil. Four

  1. Lead in calcium supplements.

    PubMed Central

    Scelfo, G M; Flegal, A R

    2000-01-01

    Intercalibrated measurements of lead in calcium supplements indicate the importance of rigorous analytical techniques to accurately quantify contaminant exposures in complex matrices. Without such techniques, measurements of lead concentrations in calcium supplements may be either erroneously low, by as much as 50%, or below the detection limit needed for new public health criteria. In this study, we determined the lead content of 136 brands of supplements that were purchased in 1996. The calcium in the products was derived from natural sources (bonemeal, dolomite, or oyster shell) or was synthesized and/or refined (chelated and nonchelated calcium). The dried products were acid digested and analyzed for lead by high resolution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The method's limit of quantitation averaged 0.06 microg/g, with a coefficient of variation of 1.7% and a 90-100% lead recovery of a bonemeal standard reference material. Two-thirds of those calcium supplements failed to meet the 1999 California criteria for acceptable lead levels (1.5 microg/daily dose of calcium) in consumer products. The nonchelated synthesized and/or refined calcium products, specifically antacids and infant formulas, had the lowest lead concentrations, ranging from nondetectable to 2.9 microg Pb/g calcium, and had the largest proportion of brands meeting the new criteria (85% of the antacids and 100% of the infant formulas). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10753088

  2. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721.2076 Protection...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7; CAS...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721.2076 Protection...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7; CAS...

  4. The Role of Probiotic Bifidobacteria and Bile Acid Metabolism in Carcinogenesis | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  5. Atheroprotective Mechanisms of Ursolic Acid and Related Phytochemicals | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  6. Fatty acid desaturase activity, fish oil and colorectal cancer chemoprevention | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  7. N-3 Fatty Acid-Induced Akt Suppression: Chemoprevention for Pancreatic Neoplasia | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  8. Mechanism of Action of Retinoic Acid Using CD38 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  9. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Cancer Stem Cells | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  10. USE OF ACID LAKE REACIDIFICATION MODEL (ALaRM) TO ASSESS IMPACT OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS ON CALCIUM CARBONATE TREATED LAKES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph V. DePinto; Richard D. Scheffe; Thomas C. Young; William G. Booty; James R. Rhea

    1987-01-01

    A mathematical model (ALaRM) for predicting the reacidification profile of calcium carbonate treated lakes has been calibrated and confirmed using data from two Lake Acidification Mitigation Project (LAMP) lakes. This manuscript focused on the use of ALaRM to evaluate the relative impact of bottom sediment processes on the reacidification rate of the LAMP lakes. Prior to liming the lakes exhibited

  11. Core-Shell Collagen Peptide Chelated Calcium/Calcium Alginate Nanoparticles from Fish Scales for Calcium Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Honghui; Hong, Zhuan; Yi, Ruizao

    2015-07-01

    We report simple methods for preparing collagen peptide chelated calcium (cpcc) and a novel cpcc-loaded nanoparticle from marine fish scales for calcium supplementation. Cpcc nanoparticles have an average diameter of approximately 150 nm and a calcium content of up to 130.4 g/kg. Calcium alginate was selected to encapsulate cpcc for the preparation of core-shell cpcc/calcium alginate nanoparticles. The core-shell nanoparticles were mainly 200 to 500 nm in diameter. The ratio of calcium to sulfur was approximately 1.6:1. In vivo experiments indicated both cpcc and core-shell cpcc were able to improve calcium absorption and prevent calcium deficiency. Especially core-shell cpcc worked well to increase femur bone mineral density and femur calcium content in rats significantly. The study demonstrated that cpcc and core-shell cpcc nanoparticles were ideal for calcium supplementation. PMID:25990921

  12. Enhanced drug encapsulation and extended release profiles of calcium-alginate nanoparticles by using tannic acid as a bridging cross-linking agent.

    PubMed

    Abulateefeh, Samer R; Taha, Mutasem O

    2014-11-21

    Abstract Calcium alginate nanoparticles (NPs) suffer from sub-optimal stability in bio-relevant media leading to low drug encapsulation efficiency and uncontrolled release profiles. To sort out these drawbacks, a novel approach is proposed herein based on introducing tannic acid into these NPs to act as a bridging cross-linking aid agent. Calcium-alginate NPs were prepared by the ionotropic gelation method and loaded with diltiazem hydrochloride as a model drug. These NPs were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, and morphology, and results were explained in accordance with Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The incorporation of tannic acid led to more than four folds increase in drug encapsulation efficiency (i.e. from 15.3% to 69.5%) and reduced burst drug release from 44% to around 10% within the first 30?min. These findings suggest the possibility of improving the properties of Ca-alginate NPs by incorporating cross-linking aid agents under mild conditions. PMID:25413187

  13. High butyric acid amounts induce oxidative stress, alter calcium homeostasis, and cause neurite retraction in nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Kamio, Noriaki; Seki, Keisuke; Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2015-07-01

    Butyric acid (BA) is a common secondary metabolite by-product produced by oral pathogenic bacteria and is detected in high amounts in the gingival tissue of patients with periodontal disease. Previous works have demonstrated that BA can cause oxidative stress in various cell types; however, this was never explored using neuronal cells. Here, we exposed nerve growth factor (NGF)-treated PC12 cells to varying BA concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 5.0 mM). We measured total heme, H2O2, catalase, and calcium levels through biochemical assays and visualized the neurite outgrowth after BA treatment. Similarly, we determined the effects of other common periodontal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on neurite outgrowth for comparison. We found that high (1.0 and 5.0 mM) BA concentrations induced oxidative stress and altered calcium homeostasis, whereas low (0.5 mM) BA concentration had no significant effect. Moreover, compared to other SCFAs, we established that only BA was able to induce neurite retraction. PMID:25808460

  14. Antinociceptive effect of clavulanic acid and its preventive activity against development of morphine tolerance and dependence in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, V.; Dehdashti, Kh.

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate has a key role in pain perception and also development of tolerance and dependence to morphine. It has been reported that clavulanic acid affects glutamatergic transmission via activation of glutamate transporter. Therefore the present study was aimed to evaluate the possible antinociceptive effect of clavulanic acid and its preventive activity against development of morphine tolerance and dependence in animal models. Male Swiss mice (25-30 g) were used in this study. Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin test and hot plate method were used to assess the antinociceptive effect of clavulanic acid. Morphine (30 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered to the mice two times a day (8 AM and 4 PM) for 3 days in order to produce tolerance. To develop morphine dependence, morphine sulfate (50, 50 and 75 mg/kg) was injected at 8 and 12 AM and 16 PM respectively and for 3 consecutive days. Naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p) was used to induce morphine withdrawal syndrome and the number of jumps and presence of ptosis, piloerection, tremor, sniffing and diarrhea were recorded and compared with control group. Clavulanic acid at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg inhibited abdominal constriction and licking behavior of acetic acid and formalin-induced pain respectively. Clavulanic acid was not able to show any antinociception in hot plate model and could not prevent development of tolerance and dependence to morphine. Clavulanic acid has considerable antinociceptive activity and further studies are needed to clarify its exact mechanism. PMID:25657803

  15. Overexpression of a Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase Confers Salt and Drought Tolerance in Rice by Preventing Membrane Lipid Peroxidation1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Sonia; Baldrich, Patricia; Messeguer, Joaquima; Lalanne, Eric; Coca, María; San Segundo, Blanca

    2014-01-01

    The OsCPK4 gene is a member of the complex gene family of calcium-dependent protein kinases in rice (Oryza sativa). Here, we report that OsCPK4 expression is induced by high salinity, drought, and the phytohormone abscisic acid. Moreover, a plasma membrane localization of OsCPK4 was observed by transient expression assays of green fluorescent protein-tagged OsCPK4 in onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells. Overexpression of OsCPK4 in rice plants significantly enhances tolerance to salt and drought stress. Knockdown rice plants, however, are severely impaired in growth and development. Compared with control plants, OsCPK4 overexpressor plants exhibit stronger water-holding capability and reduced levels of membrane lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage under drought or salt stress conditions. Also, salt-treated OsCPK4 seedlings accumulate less Na+ in their roots. We carried out microarray analysis of transgenic rice overexpressing OsCPK4 and found that overexpression of OsCPK4 has a low impact on the rice transcriptome. Moreover, no genes were found to be commonly regulated by OsCPK4 in roots and leaves of rice plants. A significant number of genes involved in lipid metabolism and protection against oxidative stress appear to be up-regulated by OsCPK4 in roots of overexpressor plants. Meanwhile, OsCPK4 overexpression has no effect on the expression of well-characterized abiotic stress-associated transcriptional regulatory networks (i.e. ORYZA SATIVA DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN1 and ORYZA SATIVA No Apical Meristem, Arabidopsis Transcription Activation Factor1-2, Cup-Shaped Cotyledon6 genes) and LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT genes in their roots. Taken together, our data show that OsCPK4 functions as a positive regulator of the salt and drought stress responses in rice via the protection of cellular membranes from stress-induced oxidative damage. PMID:24784760

  16. Role of the Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Prevention of Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KI WON LEE; HYONG JOO LEE; HONG YON CHO; YOUNG JUN KIM

    2005-01-01

    There are multiple lines of evidence that a variety of natural fatty acids are effective in health promotion. Among these fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)—a collective term referring to a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA, cis-9, cis-12-octadecadienoic acid)—is currently under intensive investigation due to its health-promotion potential. The antitumor activity of CLA is of

  17. Updated estimates of neural tube defects prevented by mandatory folic Acid fortification - United States, 1995-2011.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jennifer; Mai, Cara T; Mulinare, Joe; Isenburg, Jennifer; Flood, Timothy J; Ethen, Mary; Frohnert, Barbara; Kirby, Russell S

    2015-01-16

    In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 µg of folic acid daily to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). NTDs are major birth defects of the brain and spine that occur early in pregnancy as a result of improper closure of the embryonic neural tube, which can lead to death or varying degrees of disability. The two most common NTDs are anencephaly and spina bifida. Beginning in 1998, the United States mandated fortification of enriched cereal grain products with 140 µg of folic acid per 100 g. Immediately after mandatory fortification, the birth prevalence of NTD cases declined. Fortification was estimated to avert approximately 1,000 NTD-affected pregnancies annually. To provide updated estimates of the birth prevalence of NTDs in the period after introduction of mandatory folic acid fortification (i.e., the post-fortification period), data from 19 population-based birth defects surveillance programs in the United States, covering the years 1999-2011, were examined. After the initial decrease, NTD birth prevalence during the post-fortification period has remained relatively stable. The number of births occurring annually without NTDs that would otherwise have been affected is approximately 1,326 (95% confidence interval = 1,122-1,531). Mandatory folic acid fortification remains an effective public health intervention. There remain opportunities for prevention among women with lower folic acid intakes, especially among Hispanic women, to further reduce the prevalence of NTDs in the United States. PMID:25590678

  18. [Calcium--essential for everybody].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2014-06-01

    Calcium regulates majority of metabolic processes within human organism and its optimal intake decreases risk of metabolic illnesses conditioned by diet. Deficiency of calcium results in higher body max index, increase risk of insulin resistance, diabetes type 2 and osteoporosis. Diet delivering full calcium load diminished impendency of hypertension; calcium regulates tension of smooth muscles of blood vessels, limits neurotransmitters activity and also diminish hazardous activity of sodium chloride. Anticancerogenic activity of calcium results from formation insoluble bile acids and fat acids salts, and most of all, from inhibition of intestine mucosa cells hyper proliferation. Due to presence of vitamin D3, CLA, proteins and bioactive peptides emerging from them, milk is more efficient in prophylaxis of diet conditioned illnesses than calcium supplements. Efficiency of milk and dairy products in treatment of obesity, sclerosis and hypertension has been proved by DASH diet. PMID:25095643

  19. Protein intake and calcium absorption – Potential role of the calcium sensor receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bess Dawson-Hughes

    2007-01-01

    Dietary protein induces calcium excretion but the source of this calcium is unclear. Evidence from short-term studies indicates that protein promotes bone resorption, but many epidemiologic studies do not corroborate this. Evidence is also mixed on whether protein promotes calcium absorption. Studies in animal models suggest that the aromatic amino acid components of protein, but not the branched-chain amino acids,

  20. Treatment and prevention of ARD using silica micro encapsulation[Acid Rock Drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, P.; Rybock, J.; Wheaton, A.

    1999-07-01

    In response to the known drawbacks of liming and the ever-increasing regulatory demands on the mining industry, KEECO has developed a silica micro encapsulation (SME) process. SME is a cost-effective, high performance reagent that is utilized in conjunction with simple chemical delivery systems. By encapsulating metals in a silica matrix formation and rapidly precipitating them into a sand-like sludge, it offers all the advantages of liming without the negative drawbacks. Utilizing an injection technique via a high shear mixing device, a slurry form of the SME product called KB-1{trademark} was applied to ARD at the Bunker Hill Mine in Idaho and to ARD pumped from collection ponds at a remote mine site in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Flow rates at both sites ranged form 500 to 800 gallons per minute. Treated water from the Bunker Hill Mine operation achieved the site's NPDES criteria for all evaluated metals and US Drinking Water quality for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and zinc with a dosage rate of 1.34 grams KB-1{trademark} per liter. Treated water from the Sierra Nevada project focused on the control of aluminum, arsenic, copper, iron and nickel. All water samples displayed a >99.5% reduction in these metals, as well as an 84%--87% reduction in the concentration of sulfate. Testing on sludge generated form both operations achieved TCLP Action Limits. The SME process is currently under evaluation as a means to coat the pyrite surfaces of newly generated mine tailings to prevent oxidation and future acid generation.

  1. Folate Deficiency and Folic Acid Supplementation: The Prevention of Neural-Tube Defects and Congenital Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Czeizel, Andrew E.; Dudás, Istvan; Vereczkey, Attila; Bánhidy, Ferenc

    2013-01-01

    Diet, particularly vitamin deficiency, is associated with the risk of birth defects. The aim of this review paper is to show the characteristics of common and severe neural-tube defects together with congenital heart defects (CHD) as vitamin deficiencies play a role in their origin. The findings of the Hungarian intervention (randomized double-blind and cohort controlled) trials indicated that periconceptional folic acid (FA)-containing multivitamin supplementation prevented the major proportion (about 90%) of neural-tube defects (NTD) as well as a certain proportion (about 40%) of congenital heart defects. Finally the benefits and drawbacks of three main practical applications of folic acid/multivitamin treatment such as (i) dietary intake; (ii) periconceptional supplementation; and (iii) flour fortification are discussed. The conclusion arrived at is indeed confirmation of Benjamin Franklin’s statement: “An ounce of prevention is better than a pound of care”. PMID:24284617

  2. Folate deficiency and folic acid supplementation: the prevention of neural-tube defects and congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Czeizel, Andrew E; Dudás, Istvan; Vereczkey, Attila; Bánhidy, Ferenc

    2013-11-01

    Diet, particularly vitamin deficiency, is associated with the risk of birth defects. The aim of this review paper is to show the characteristics of common and severe neural-tube defects together with congenital heart defects (CHD) as vitamin deficiencies play a role in their origin. The findings of the Hungarian intervention (randomized double-blind and cohort controlled) trials indicated that periconceptional folic acid (FA)-containing multivitamin supplementation prevented the major proportion (about 90%) of neural-tube defects (NTD) as well as a certain proportion (about 40%) of congenital heart defects. Finally the benefits and drawbacks of three main practical applications of folic acid/multivitamin treatment such as (i) dietary intake; (ii) periconceptional supplementation; and (iii) flour fortification are discussed. The conclusion arrived at is indeed confirmation of Benjamin Franklin's statement: "An ounce of prevention is better than a pound of care". PMID:24284617

  3. Endoscopic tissue shielding with polyglycolic acid sheets, fibrin glue and clips to prevent delayed perforation after duodenal endoscopic resection.

    PubMed

    Doyama, Hisashi; Tominaga, Kei; Yoshida, Naohiro; Takemura, Kenichi; Yamada, Shinya

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of delayed perforation after endoscopic resection for superficial non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumors is extremely high. Endoscopic tissue shielding with polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheets and fibrin glue is a promising method to prevent delayed perforation after endoscopic resection in the duodenum. However, we often encounter difficulty when covering an artificial ulcer with PGA sheets after endoscopic resection. We report three cases of postoperative ulcers covered by PGA sheets, fibrin glue, and clips. PMID:24750147

  4. Gelation of fluoroalkylated 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid oligomers as potential for prevention of HIV1 transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideo Sawada; Shinsuke Katayama; Yutaka Nakamura; Tokuzo Kawase; Yoshio Hayakawa; Masanori Baba

    1998-01-01

    End-capped fluoroalkyl segments in 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid oligomers could serve as a new interaction for gelation in both water and organic polar solvents under non-cross-linked conditions, and these gelling oligomers were found to be selective inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication, suggesting that the compounds have the potential to prevent HIV-1 transmission through their chemical and biological properties.

  5. Awareness of folic acid for prevention of neural tube defects in a community with high prevalence of consanguineous marriages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lutfi Jaber; Igbaria A. Karim; Abu Moch Jawdat; Mawasi Fausi; Paul Merlob

    2004-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe congenital malformations and can be fatal. Intake of 0.4 mg folic in the periconceptional period reduces the risk of NTD by 50–70%. Consanguinity in the Arab population in Israel is a prevalent custom. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness regarding folic acid and its effect in the prevention of

  6. Preventing Acid Mine Drainage with an Elevated Water Table: Long-Term Column Experiments and Parameter Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariam Ouangrawa; Michel Aubertin; John W. Molson; Bruno Bussière; Gérald J. Zagury

    2010-01-01

    The elevated water table (EWT) technique for preventing acid mine drainage (AMD) was tested using instrumented laboratory\\u000a columns containing reactive tailings from the Louvicourt and Sigma mines, Abitibi, Quebec. The tests were performed in short\\u000a (0.4 m) and long (1.4–1.7 m) columns over 400–500 days and included periodic surface recharge and subsequent monitoring of\\u000a the leached drainage water. In each column, the water

  7. Beyond lipids: The role of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil in the prevention of coronary heart disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry A. Jacobson

    2007-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid therapy shows great promise in the secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. A meta-analysis of\\u000a recent omega-3 trials shows reductions of coronary heart disease mortality of 36% (95% Cl, 20%–50%; P P = 0.046). Some of the potential mechanisms for cardiovascular protection include a reduction in cardiac arrhythmias and plaque\\u000a stabilization. Since the publication of the landmark

  8. Preferential affinity of calcium ions to charged phosphatidic-acid surface from a mixed calcium/barium solution: X-ray reflectivity and fluorescence studies

    E-print Network

    Wei Bu; Kevin Flores; Jacob Pleasants; David Vaknin

    2009-01-16

    X-ray reflectivity and fluorescence near total reflection experiments were performed to examine the affinities of divalent ions ($\\mathrm{Ca^{2+}}$ and $\\mathrm{Ba^{2+}}$) from aqueous solution to a charged phosphatidic-acid (PA) surface. A phospholipid (1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphate, DMPA), spread as a monolayer at the air/water interface, was used to form and control the charge density at the interface. We find that for solutions of the pure salts (i.e., $\\mathrm{CaCl_{2}}$ and $\\mathrm{BaCl_{2}}$), the number of bound ions per DMPA at the interface is saturated at concentrations that exceed $\\mathrm{10^{-3}M}$. For a 1:1 $\\mathrm{Ca^{2+}/Ba^{2+}}$ mixed solutions, we find that the bound $\\mathrm{Ca^{2+}/Ba^{2+}}$ ratio at the interface is 4:1. If the only property determining charge accumulation near PA were the ionic charges, the concentration of mixed $\\mathrm{Ca^{2+}/Ba^{2+}}$ at the interface would equal that of the bulk. Our results show a clear specific affinity of PA for Ca compared to Ba. We provide some discussion on this issues as well as some implications for biological systems. Although our results indicate an excess of counterion charge with respect to the surface charge, that is, charge inversion, the analysis of both reflectivity and fluorescence do not reveal excess of co-ions (namely, $\\mathrm{Cl^{-}}$ or $\\mathrm{I}^{-}$).

  9. Extraction and sorption of acetic acid at pH above pK{sub a} to form calcium magnesium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Reisinger, H.; King, C.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The use of rock salt for deicing roads has many negative effects on automobiles, highway systems, and the environment. Calcium magnesium acetate, hence-forth denoted CMA, has been identified as a more desirable, environmentally benign solid deicer for high-ways, airport runaways, and similar applications. CMA is also of interest as an additive for scavenging sulfur in combustion processes so as to reduce emissions of sulfur oxides and as a catalyst for coal gasification. Different extractants (trioctylphosphine oxide and secondary, tertiary, and quaternary amines) and solid sorbents (tertiary and quaternary amines) were investigated as agents for recovery of acetic acid as part of a process for production of CMA from fermentation acetic acid. The pH and temperature dependencies for uptake of acetic acid by these extractants and sorbents were measured, along with the degrees of regeneration by aqueous suspensions of slaked dolomitic lime. These results enable identification of agents having optimal basicity. Among the extractants, the secondary amine Amberlite LA-2 gave the best combined performance for extraction and regeneration. Among the sorbents, a tertiary amine, Amberlite IRA-35, gave the best performance. Trioctylphosphine oxide does not maintain capacity in the pH range (about 6) most attractive for acetic acid fermentation. Slurred crushed dolomite is not sufficiently basic to accomplish regeneration.

  10. Calcium Salts for Treating Hypocalcemia: Carrier Effects, AcidBase Balance, and Oral Versus Rectal Administration1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesse P. Goff; Ronald L. Horst

    1994-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral Ca salt supplements,are being used to combat,hypocalcemia,in dairy cows. The absorption of these Ca supple- ments is dependent,on the salt and car- rier used. In the studies presented, the magnitude,of the rise in plasma Ca con- centration following,administration,of the Ca preparation was used as an index of Ca absorption by the gastrointestinal tract. Calcium chloride preparations in a

  11. Calcium absorption in elderly subjects on high- and low-fiber diets: effect of gastric acidity14

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamsin A Knox; Zohrab Kassarjian; Bess Dawson-Hughes; Gerard E Dallal; Sanjeev Arora; Robert M Russell; Barbara B Golner

    In vitro studies suggest that the effect of fiber in inhibiting calcium absorption is pH dependent. In nine nor- mal, elderly control subjects and eight elderly subjects with achlorhydria, 47Ca was ingested with three test meals: a low-fiber meal (0.5 g dietary fiber), a high-fiber meal (10.5 g), and a high- fiber meal with 120 mL of 0.1 mol HC\\/L.

  12. Differential effects of endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids on voltage-dependent calcium fluxes in rabbit T-tubule membranes: comparison with fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Oz, Murat; Tchugunova, Yulia; Dinc, Meral

    2004-10-11

    The effects of cannabinoid receptor ligands including 2-arachidonoylglycerol, R-methanandamide, Delta9-THC (Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol), WIN 55,212-2 [4,5-dihydro-2-methyl-4(4-morpholinylmethyl)-1-(1-naphthalenylcarbonyl)-6H-pyrrolo[3,2,1ij]quinolin-6-one], CP 55,940 ([1alpha,2beta-(R)-5alpha]-(-)-5-(1,1-dimethyl)-2-[5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxypropyl) cyclohexyl-phenol]) and a series of fatty acids on depolarization-induced Ca2+ effluxes mediated by voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels were investigated comparatively in transverse tubule membrane vesicles from rabbit skeletal muscle. Vesicles were loaded with 45Ca2+ and membrane potentials were generated by establishing potassium gradients across the vesicle using the ionophore valinomycin. Endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonoylglycerol and R-methanandamide (all 10 microM), inhibited depolarization-induced Ca2+ effluxes and specific binding of [3H]PN 200-110 (isradipine) to transverse tubule membranes. On the other hand, synthetic cannabinoids, including CP 55,940, WIN 55,212-2, and Delta9-THC (all 10 microM), were ineffective. Additional experiments using endocannabinoid metabolites suggested that whereas ethanolamine and glycerol were ineffective, arachidonic acid inhibited Ca2+ effluxes and specific binding of [3H]PN 200-110. Further studies indicated that only those fatty acids containing two or more double bonds were effective in inhibiting depolarization-induced Ca2+ effluxes and specific binding of [3H]PN 200-110. These results indicate that endocannabinoids, but not synthetic cannabinoids, directly inhibit the function of voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) and modulate the specific binding of calcium channel ligands of the dihydropyridine (DHP) class. PMID:15464089

  13. Will mandatory folic acid fortification prevent or promote cancer?1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-In Kim

    An overwhelming body of evidence for a protective effect of periconceptional folic acid supplementation against neural tube de- fects (NTDs) led to mandatory folic acid fortification in the United States. The effectiveness of folic acid fortification in improving folate status has already been shown to be quite striking, with a dramatic increase in blood measurements of folate in the United

  14. Platelet-activating factor induces phospholipid turnover, calcium flux, arachidonic acid liberation, eicosanoid generation, and oncogene expression in a human B cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Schulam, P.G.; Kuruvilla, A.; Putcha, G.; Mangus, L.; Franklin-Johnson, J.; Shearer, W.T. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Platelet-activating factor is a potent mediator of the inflammatory response. Studies of the actions of platelet-activating factor have centered mainly around neutrophils, monocytes, and platelets. In this report we begin to uncover the influence of platelet-activating factor on B lymphocytes. Employing the EBV-transformed human B cell line SKW6.4, we demonstrate that platelet-activating factor significantly alters membrane phospholipid metabolism indicated by the incorporation of 32P into phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidic acid but not significantly into phosphatidylethanolamine at concentrations ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-6) M. The inactive precursor, lyso-platelet-activating factor, at a concentration as high as 10(-7) M had no effect on any of the membrane phospholipids. We also show that platelet-activating factor from 10(-12) to 10(-6) M induced rapid and significant elevation in intracellular calcium levels, whereas lyso-platelet-activating factor was again ineffective. We further demonstrate the impact of platelet-activating factor binding to B cells by measuring platelet-activating factor induced arachidonic acid release and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid production. Moreover, platelet-activating factor was capable of inducing transcription of the nuclear proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun. Finally we explored the possible role of 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid as a regulator of arachidonic acid liberation demonstrating that endogenous 5-lipoxygenase activity modulates platelet-activating factor induced arachidonic acid release perhaps acting at the level of phospholipase A2. In summary, platelet-activating factor is shown here to have a direct and profound effect on a pure B cell line.

  15. Preventive effect of phytic acid on lysosomal hydrolases in normal and isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Brindha, E; Rajasekapandiyan, M

    2015-02-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the preventive role of phytic acid on lysosomal enzymes in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in male Wistar rats. Rats subcutaneously injected with ISO (85?mg/kg) at an interval of 24?h for two days showed a significant increase in the activities of lysosomal enzymes (glucuronidase, N-acetyl glucosaminidase, galactosidase, cathepsin-B and cathepsin-D) were increased significantly in serum and the heart of ISO-induced rats, but the activities of glucuronidase and cathepsin-D were decreased significantly in the lysosomal fraction of the heart. Pretreatment with phytic acid (25 and 50?mg/kg) daily for a period of 56?d positively altered activities of lysosomal hydrolases in ISO-induced rats. Thus, phytic acid possesses a cardioprotective effect in ISO-induced MI in rats. PMID:25560919

  16. Sulfo-N-succinimidyl Oleate (SSO) Inhibits Fatty Acid Uptake and Signaling for Intracellular Calcium via Binding CD36 Lysine 164

    PubMed Central

    Kuda, Ondrej; Pietka, Terri A.; Demianova, Zuzana; Kudova, Eva; Cvacka, Josef; Kopecky, Jan; Abumrad, Nada A.

    2013-01-01

    FAT/CD36 is a multifunctional glycoprotein that facilitates long-chain fatty acid (FA) uptake by cardiomyocytes and adipocytes and uptake of oxidized low density lipoproteins (oxLDL) by macrophages. CD36 also mediates FA-induced signaling to increase intracellular calcium in various cell types. The membrane-impermeable sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl (NHS) ester of oleate (SSO) irreversibly binds CD36 and has been widely used to inhibit CD36-dependent FA uptake and signaling to calcium. The inhibition mechanism and whether SSO modification of CD36 involves the FA-binding site remain unexplored. CHO cells expressing human CD36 were SSO-treated, and the protein was pulled down, deglycosylated, and resolved by electrophoresis. The CD36 band was extracted from the gel and digested for analysis by mass spectrometry. NHS derivatives react with primary or secondary amines on proteins to yield stable amide or imide bonds. Two oleoylated peptides, found only in SSO-treated samples, were identified with high contribution and confidence scores as carrying oleate modification of Lys-164. Lysine 164 lies within a predicted CD36 binding domain for FA and oxLDL. CHO cells expressing CD36 with mutated Lys-164 had impaired CD36 function in FA uptake and FA-induced calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum, supporting the importance of Lys-164 for both FA effects. Furthermore, consistent with the importance of Lys-164 for oxLDL binding, SSO inhibited oxLDL uptake by macrophages. In conclusion, SSO accesses Lys-164 in the FA-binding site on CD36, and initial modeling of this site is presented. The data suggest competition between FA and oxLDL for access to the CD36 binding pocket. PMID:23603908

  17. Economic burden of neural tube defects and impact of prevention with folic acid: a literature review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunni Yi; Marion Lindemann; Antje Colligs; Claire Snowball

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the second most common group of serious birth defects. Although folic acid has been shown to\\u000a reduce effectively the risk of NTDs and measures have been taken to increase the awareness, knowledge, and consumption of\\u000a folic acid, the full potential of folic acid to reduce the risk of NTDs has not been realized in most

  18. Multiple Calcium Stores: Separate but Interacting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hon Cheung Lee (University of Minnesota; Department of Pharmacology REV)

    2000-07-11

    Multiple mechanisms exist for increasing the concentration of intracellular calcium. This Perspective by Lee is one in a series on intracellular calcium release mechanisms and focuses on the calcium store operated by nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP). The characterization of the NAADP-operated calcium store as separate from the inositol trisphosphate (IP3)-operated and cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR)-operated calcium stores is discussed. Lee also addresses the role of NAADP in regulating intracellular calcium fluctuations during fertilization and hormonal activation of pancreatic acinar cells.

  19. Ferulic acid may prevent infection of Cicer arietinum by Sclerotium rolfsii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Sarma; U. P. Singh

    2003-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography analysis of different parts of Sclerotium rolfsii-infected and healthy seedlings of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) was carried out to examine the status of phenolic compounds. Three major peaks that appeared consistently were identified as gallic, vanillic and ferulic acids. Gallic acid concentrations were increased in the leaves and stems of infected plants compared to healthy ones. Vanillic

  20. The importance of folic acid in the primary prevention of congenital malformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JACEK WYSOCKI

    2008-01-01

    Folic acid is a vitamin essential to the normal functioning of all human cells. Tetrahydrofolate (THF) is the biologically active form of folic acid. Its main function is to transfer one-carbon units between compounds participating in many important biochemical processes such as purines and thymidylate biosynthesis, and S-adenosylmethionine synthesis. A deficiency of folates in a daily diet or disturbances in

  1. Fatty acids and breast cancer: Sensitization to treatments and prevention of metastatic re-growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Bougnoux; Nawale Hajjaji; Karine Maheo; Charles Couet; Stephan Chevalier

    2010-01-01

    Lifestyle and nutritional factors have been recognized to influence breast cancer survival, irrespective of genomic alterations that are the hallmarks of the disease. The biological and molecular mechanisms involved in the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and breast cancer response to treatments in clinical and preclinical studies have been reviewed. Among nutrients, rumenic acid, a naturally occurring CLA isomer

  2. Can perinatal supplementation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent diabetes mellitus?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U N Das

    2003-01-01

    It is suggested that the negative correlation between breast-feeding and insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus can be related to the presence of significant amounts of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the human breast milk. Based on this, it is proposed that provision of adequate amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during the critical periods of brain growth and development

  3. Prevention of bread mould spoilage by using lactic acid bacteria with antifungal properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla Luciana Gerez; Maria Ines Torino; Graciela Rollán

    2009-01-01

    The ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to inhibit Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium, the main contaminants in bread, was evaluated. Only four strains (Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 778, Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1100, and Lactobacillus brevis CRL 772 and CRL 796) from 95 strains tested displayed antifungal activity. The major antifungal compounds were acetic and phenyllactic acids. The fermentation quotient (FQ=2.0) and

  4. Treatment and prevention systems for acid mine drainage and halogenated contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Song (Fort Collins, CO); Fallgren, Paul H. (Laramie, WY); Morris, Jeffrey M. (Laramie, WY)

    2012-01-31

    Embodiments include treatments for acid mine drainage generation sources (10 perhaps by injection of at least one substrate (11) and biologically constructing a protective biofilm (13) on acid mine drainage generation source materials (14). Further embodiments include treatments for degradation of contaminated water environments (17) with substrates such as returned milk and the like.

  5. Efficacy of folic acid supplementation in stroke prevention: a meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaobin Wang; Xianhui Qin; Hakan Demirtas; Jianping Li; Guangyun Mao; Yong Huo; Ningling Sun; Lisheng Liu; Xiping Xu

    2007-01-01

    METHODS: We collected data from eight randomized trials of folic acid that had stroke reported as one of the endpoints. Relative risk (RR) was used as a measure of the effect of folic acid supplementation on the risk of stroke with a random effect model. The analysis was further stratified by factors that could affect the treatment effects. FINDINGS: Folic

  6. The role of extracellular free-calcium gradients in gravitropic signalling in maize roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, T.; Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Gravitropism in roots has been proposed to depend on a downward redistribution of calcium across the root cap. However, because of the many calcium-binding sites in the apoplast, redistribution might not result in a physiologically effective change in the apoplasmic calcium activity. To test whether there is such a change, we measured the effect of gravistimulation on the calcium activity of statocyte cell walls with calcium-specific microelectrodes. Such a measurement must be made on a tissue with gravity sensing cells at the surface. To obtain such a tissue, decapped maize roots (Zea mays L. cv. Golden Cross Bantam) were grown for 31 h to regenerate gravitropic sensitivity, but not root caps. The calcium activity in the apoplasm surrounding the gravity-sensing cells could then be measured. The initial pCa was 2.60 +/- 0.28 (approx 2.5 mM). The calcium activity on the upper side of the root tip remained constant for 10 min after gravistimulation, then decreased 1.7-fold. On the lower side, after a similar lag the calcium activity increased 1.6-fold. Control roots, which were decapped but measured before recovering gravisensitivity (19 h), showed no change in calcium activity. To test whether this gradient is necessary for gravitropic curvature, we eliminated the calcium activity gradient during gravitropism by applying a mobile calcium-binding site (dinitro-BAPTA; 1,2-bis(2-amino-5-nitro-phenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid) to the root cap; this treatment eliminated gravicurvature. A calcium gradient may be formed by proton-induced calcium desorption if there is a proton gradient. Preventing the formation of apoplastic pH gradients, using 10 and 50 mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (Mes) buffer or 10 mM fusicoccin to stimulate proton excretion maximally, did not inhibit curvature; therefore the calcium gradient is not a secondary effect of a proton gradient. We have found a distinct and rapid differential in the apoplasmic calcium activity between the upper and lower sides of gravistimulated maize root tips which is necessary for gravitropism.

  7. Effect of different amounts and types of calcium on colonic cell proliferation and fecal bile acids concentration 

    E-print Network

    C?hen Hsiao-Ch?ing

    1991-01-01

    , propionic and n-butyric acids are three major short chain fatty acids. Sakata demonstrated that administration twice a day of approximately 10% of the daily production level of SCFA (a mixture of acetic, propionic and n-butyric of 100, 20 and 6 m... was in the order n-butyric ) propionic ) acetic acid. The authors also indicated that the trophic effect of SCFA did not require bacterial action. In contrast, SCFA inhibited epithelial proliferation of cecum in vitro (16). The effect of dietary fat on colon...

  8. Melatonin Prevents Myeloperoxidase Heme Destruction and the Generation of Free Iron Mediated by Self-Generated Hypochlorous Acid

    PubMed Central

    Shaeib, Faten; Khan, Sana N.; Ali, Iyad; Najafi, Tohid; Maitra, Dhiman; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim; Saed, Ghassan M.; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abu-Soud, Husam M.

    2015-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) generated hypochlorous acid (HOCl) formed during catalysis is able to destroy the MPO heme moiety through a feedback mechanism, resulting in the accumulation of free iron. Here we show that the presence of melatonin (MLT) can prevent HOCl-mediated MPO heme destruction using a combination of UV-visible photometry, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-specific electrode, and ferrozine assay techniques. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that MPO heme protection was at the expense of MLT oxidation. The full protection of the MPO heme requires the presence of a 1:2 MLT to H2O2 ratio. Melatonin prevents HOCl–mediated MPO heme destruction through multiple pathways. These include competition with chloride, the natural co-substrate; switching the MPO activity from a two electron oxidation to a one electron pathway causing the buildup of the inactive Compound II, and its subsequent decay to MPO-Fe(III) instead of generating HOCl; binding to MPO above the heme iron, thereby preventing the access of H2O2 to the catalytic site of the enzyme; and direct scavenging of HOCl. Collectively, in addition to acting as an antioxidant and MPO inhibitor, MLT can exert its protective effect by preventing the release of free iron mediated by self-generated HOCl. Our work may establish a direct mechanistic link by which MLT exerts its antioxidant protective effect in chronic inflammatory diseases with MPO elevation. PMID:25835505

  9. Melatonin prevents myeloperoxidase heme destruction and the generation of free iron mediated by self-generated hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed

    Shaeib, Faten; Khan, Sana N; Ali, Iyad; Najafi, Tohid; Maitra, Dhiman; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim; Saed, Ghassan M; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abu-Soud, Husam M

    2015-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) generated hypochlorous acid (HOCl) formed during catalysis is able to destroy the MPO heme moiety through a feedback mechanism, resulting in the accumulation of free iron. Here we show that the presence of melatonin (MLT) can prevent HOCl-mediated MPO heme destruction using a combination of UV-visible photometry, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-specific electrode, and ferrozine assay techniques. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that MPO heme protection was at the expense of MLT oxidation. The full protection of the MPO heme requires the presence of a 1:2 MLT to H2O2 ratio. Melatonin prevents HOCl-mediated MPO heme destruction through multiple pathways. These include competition with chloride, the natural co-substrate; switching the MPO activity from a two electron oxidation to a one electron pathway causing the buildup of the inactive Compound II, and its subsequent decay to MPO-Fe(III) instead of generating HOCl; binding to MPO above the heme iron, thereby preventing the access of H2O2 to the catalytic site of the enzyme; and direct scavenging of HOCl. Collectively, in addition to acting as an antioxidant and MPO inhibitor, MLT can exert its protective effect by preventing the release of free iron mediated by self-generated HOCl. Our work may establish a direct mechanistic link by which MLT exerts its antioxidant protective effect in chronic inflammatory diseases with MPO elevation. PMID:25835505

  10. Fatty Acid Profile and Physical Properties of Milk Fat from Cows fed Calcium Salts of Fatty Acids with Varying Unsaturation1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Y. Chouinard; V. Girard; G. J. Brisson

    1998-01-01

    Holstein cows (n = 24) averaging 42 d in milk were used in a randomized complete block design during a 4-wk trial. A control total mixed ration (TMR) was compared with TMR supplemented with Ca salts of fatty acids from canola oil, soybean oil, or linseed oil. The three vegetable oils were progressively more un- saturated; the dominant fatty acids

  11. Effects of Prilled Fatty Acids and Calcium Salts of Fatty Acids on Rumen Fermentation, Nutrient Digestibilities, Milk Production, and Milk Composition1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Schauff; J. H. Clark

    1989-01-01

    Lactating Holstein cows averaging 193 d postpartum and fitted with rumen can- nulae were used in two experiments to investigate the effects of supplementing Ca salts of fatty acids or prilled fatty acids to the diet on fermentation in the rumen, apparent total tract nutrient di- gestibility, milk production, and milk composition. Cows were fed ad libitum total mixed diets

  12. Retinoic acid is essential for Th1 cell lineage stability and prevents transition to a Th17 cell program.

    PubMed

    Brown, Chrysothemis C; Esterhazy, Daria; Sarde, Aurelien; London, Mariya; Pullabhatla, Venu; Osma-Garcia, Ines; Al-Bader, Raya; Ortiz, Carla; Elgueta, Raul; Arno, Matthew; de Rinaldis, Emanuele; Mucida, Daniel; Lord, Graham M; Noelle, Randolph J

    2015-03-17

    CD4(+) T cells differentiate into phenotypically distinct T helper cells upon antigenic stimulation. Regulation of plasticity between these CD4(+) T-cell lineages is critical for immune homeostasis and prevention of autoimmune disease. However, the factors that regulate lineage stability are largely unknown. Here we investigate a role for retinoic acid (RA) in the regulation of lineage stability using T helper 1 (Th1) cells, traditionally considered the most phenotypically stable Th subset. We found that RA, through its receptor RAR?, sustains stable expression of Th1 lineage specifying genes, as well as repressing genes that instruct Th17-cell fate. RA signaling is essential for limiting Th1-cell conversion into Th17 effectors and for preventing pathogenic Th17 responses in vivo. Our study identifies RA-RAR? as a key component of the regulatory network governing maintenance and plasticity of Th1-cell fate and defines an additional pathway for the development of Th17 cells. PMID:25769610

  13. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid prevents stress induced aggregation of proteins in vitro and promotes PERK activation in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Gani, Amina R; Uppala, Jagadeesh Kumar; Ramaiah, Kolluru V A

    2015-02-15

    Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) a bile salt and chemical chaperone reduces stress-induced aggregation of proteins; activates PERK [PKR (RNA-dependent protein kinase)-like ER (endoplasmic reticulum) kinase] or EIF2AK3, one of the hall marks of ER stress induced unfolded protein response (UPR) in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells; prevents heat and dithiothreitol (DTT) induced aggregation of BSA (bovine serum albumin), and reduces ANS (1-anilino-naphthalene-8-sulfonate) bound BSA fluorescence in vitro. TUDCA inactivates heat treated, but not the native EcoR1 enzyme, and reduces heat-induced aggregation and activity of COX-1 (cyclooxygenase enzyme-1) in vitro. These findings suggest that TUDCA binds to the hydrophobic regions of proteins and prevents their subsequent aggregation. This may stabilize unfolded proteins that can mount UPR or facilitate their degradation through cellular degradation pathways. PMID:25579883

  14. [Prevention and therapeutic effects of sika deer velvet collagen hydrolysate on osteoporosis in rats by retinoic acid].

    PubMed

    Li, Yinqing; Zhao, Yu; Sun, Xiaodi; Qu, Xiaobo

    2010-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate the preventive and therapeutic effects of the collagen hydrolysate extracted from Sika deer velvet (CSDV) on osteoporosis rats induced by retinoicacid. Histomorphometric indices and serum biochemical parameters were measured in osteoporosis rats treated with/without antler collagen and in sham-operated rats. Our results were as follows: compared with the osteoporosis group, significant elevation in the levels of bone mineral density (BMD), Ca, P and static histomorphometric indexes and biomechanical properties, but reduction in the level of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were observed in antler collagen-treated groups. However, the above function with the collagenase solution velvet material varied with the different doses. In conclusion, the extracted collagen is found to play a role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis rats by retinoic acid. PMID:20545204

  15. The marine sponge-derived polyketide endoperoxide plakortide F acid mediates its antifungal activity by interfering with calcium homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plakortide F acid (PFA) is a marine-derived polyketide endoperoxide exhibiting strong inhibitory activity against several clinically important fungal pathogens. In the present study, transcriptional profiling coupled with mutant and biochemical analyses were conducted using the model organism Sacch...

  16. INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS OF CALCIUM ISOTOPES IN HUMAN SERUM: A LOW-SAMPLE-VOLUME ACID-EQUILIBRATION METHOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analytical methods for measuring the calcium isotope distribution in enriched human serum samples that use low blood volumes, simple preparation methods, and rapid analysis are important in clinical studies of calcium kinetics. Previously, sample preparation by oxalate precipitation typically requi...

  17. Intravenous ascorbic acid to prevent and treat cancer-associated sepsis?

    E-print Network

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin C fails to protect amino acids and lipids from oxidation during acute inflammation.vitamin C administration reduces early recurrence rates after electrical cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation and attenuates associated inflammation.

  18. Ascorbic acid supplementation prevents hyperlipidemia and improves myocardial performance in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soter Dai; John H. McNeill

    1995-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of ascorbic acid (AA) supplementation on the cardiac performance and the plasma levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, cholesterol and free fatty acid in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ) 55 mg\\/kg. AA was given in drinking water in concentrations of 1 g\\/l or 2 g\\/l for 8

  19. Transgenic 6F tomatoes act on the small intestine to prevent systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia caused by Western diet and intestinally derived lysophosphatidic acid[S

    PubMed Central

    Navab, Mohamad; Hough, Greg; Buga, Georgette M.; Su, Feng; Wagner, Alan C.; Meriwether, David; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Gao, Feng; Grijalva, Victor; Danciger, Janet S.; Van Lenten, Brian J.; Org, Elin; Lusis, Aldons J.; Pan, Calvin; Anantharamaiah, G. M.; Farias-Eisner, Robin; Smyth, Susan S.; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Fogelman, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that levels of unsaturated lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in the small intestine significantly correlated with the extent of aortic atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-null (LDLR?/?) mice fed a Western diet (WD). Here we demonstrate that WD increases unsaturated (but not saturated) LPA levels in the small intestine of LDLR?/? mice and causes changes in small intestine gene expression. Confirmation of microarray analysis by quantitative RT-PCR showed that adding transgenic tomatoes expressing the apoA-I mimetic peptide 6F (Tg6F) to WD prevented many WD-mediated small intestine changes in gene expression. If instead of feeding WD, unsaturated LPA was added to chow and fed to the mice: i) levels of LPA in the small intestine were similar to those induced by feeding WD; ii) gene expression changes in the small intestine mimicked WD-mediated changes; and iii) changes in plasma serum amyloid A, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol levels, and the fast-performance liquid chromatography lipoprotein profile mimicked WD-mediated changes. Adding Tg6F (but not control tomatoes) to LPA-supplemented chow prevented the LPA-induced changes. We conclude that: i) WD-mediated systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia may be in part due to WD-induced increases in small intestine LPA levels; and ii) Tg6F reduces WD-mediated systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia by preventing WD-induced increases in LPA levels in the small intestine. PMID:24085744

  20. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721...6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. ...6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt...

  1. Calcium phosphate deposition rate, structure and osteoconductivity on electrospun poly(l-lactic acid) matrix using electrodeposition or simulated body fluid incubation

    PubMed Central

    He, Chuanglong; Jin, Xiaobing; Ma, Peter X.

    2013-01-01

    Mineralized nanofibrous scaffolds have been proposed as promising scaffolds for bone regeneration due to their ability to mimic both nanoscale architecture and chemical composition of natural bone extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, a novel electrodeposition method was compared with an extensively explored simulated body fluid (SBF) incubation method in terms of the deposition rate, chemical composition, and morphology of calcium phosphate formed on electrospun fibrous thin matrices with a fiber diameter in the range from about 200 nm to about 1400 nm prepared using 6, 8, 10 and 12 wt% poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) solutions in a mixture of dichloromethane and acetone (2:1 in volume). The effects of the surface modification using the two mineralization techniques on osteoblastic cell (MC3T3-E1) proliferation and differentiation were also examined. It was found that electrodeposition was two to three orders of magnitude faster than the SBF method in mineralizing the fibrous matrices, reducing the mineralization time from about two weeks to an hour to achieve the same amounts of mineralization. The mineralization rate also varied with the fiber diameter but in opposite directions between the two mineralization methods. As a general trend, the increase of fiber diameter resulted in a faster mineralization rate for the electrodeposition method but a slower mineralization rate for the SBF incubation method. Using the electrodeposition method, one can control the chemical composition and morphology of the calcium phosphate by varying the electric deposition potential and electrolyte temperature to tune the mixture of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and hydroxy apatite (HAp). Using the SBF method, one can only obtain a low crystallinity HAp. The mineralized electrospun PLLA fibrous matrices from either method similarly facilitate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells as compared to neat PLLA matrices. Therefore, the electrodeposition method can be utilized as a fast and versatile technique to fabricate mineralized nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. PMID:24012605

  2. Calcium Free Asbestos for Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snitzer, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    Organic-acid salt removes unwanted calcium without weakening asbestos. Asbestos mixed with disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (disodium EDTA) in water and agitated for 2 hours. After disodium EDTA solution is drained away, asbestos contains only 0.02 to 0.1 percent calcium. Fiber structure of asbestos unaffected.

  3. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyoung Jun; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kang Sik; Jeong, Soyeon; Shin, Soyeon; Lim, Kyu; Heo, Jun Young; Kweon, Gi Ryang

    2015-01-30

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson's disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson's disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis. PMID:25545062

  4. Natural xenobiotics to prevent cyanobacterial and algal growth in freshwater: contrasting efficacy of tannic acid, gallic acid, and gramine.

    PubMed

    Laue, Pauline; Bährs, Hanno; Chakrabarti, Shumon; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2014-06-01

    Allelochemical action against planktonic phototrophs is one central issue in freshwater ecology and quality management. To determine some basic mechanisms of this toxic action, we exposed the coccal green alga, Desmodesmus armatus, and the coccal cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, in a batch culture well-supplied with carbon dioxide to increasing concentrations of the polyphenols tannic acid and gallic acid and the alkaloid gramine. The phototrophs were checked after 2d and at the end of the culture for biomass-based growth rates, cell volume, maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (?PSIImax), chlorophyll a content (chla) after 2d and at the end of the culture, and lipid peroxidation only at the end of the culture. During the culture, the pH rose from 7.64 to 10.95, a pH characteristic of eutrophic freshwater bodies during nuisance algal blooms. All xenobiotics reduced the growth rate, ?PSIImax, and chla during the first 2d with M. aeruginosa being more sensitive to the polyphenols than D. armatus. The efficacy of the polyphenols declined with increasing pH, indicating potential polymerization and corresponding reduced bioavailability of the polyphenols. In contrast to the polyphenols, gramine increased its toxic action over time, independent of the prevailing pH. All exposures caused slight to severe lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the phototrophs. Hence, one mechanism of growth inhibition may be oxidative stress-mediated reduction in photosynthesis. The presented results suggest that in successful field trials with leachate, the prevailing environmental conditions may inactivate polyphenols and xenobiotics other than polyphenols may be more effective. PMID:24332729

  5. ?-Linolenic Acid-Enriched Diet Prevents Myocardial Damage and Expands Longevity in Cardiomyopathic Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Fiaccavento, Roberta; Carotenuto, Felicia; Minieri, Marilena; Masuelli, Laura; Vecchini, Alba; Bei, Roberto; Modesti, Andrea; Binaglia, Luciano; Fusco, Angelo; Bertoli, Aldo; Forte, Giancarlo; Carosella, Luciana; Di Nardo, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    Randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that the increased intake of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly reduces the risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease, but no investigations have been performed in hereditary cardiomyopathies with diffusely damaged myocardium. In the present study, ?-sarcoglycan-null cardiomyopathic hamsters were fed from weaning to death with an ?-linolenic acid (ALA)-enriched versus standard diet. Results demonstrated a great accumulation of ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid and an increased eicosapentaenoic/arachidonic acid ratio in cardiomyopathic hamster hearts, correlating with the preservation of myocardial structure and function. In fact, ALA administration preserved plasmalemma and mitochondrial membrane integrity, thus maintaining proper cell/extracellular matrix contacts and signaling, as well as a normal gene expression profile (myosin heavy chain isoforms, atrial natriuretic peptide, transforming growth factor-?1) and a limited extension of fibrotic areas within ALA-fed cardiomyopathic hearts. Consequently, hemodynamic indexes were safeguarded, and more than 60% of ALA-fed animals were still alive (mean survival time, 293 ± 141.8 days) when all those fed with standard diet were deceased (mean survival time, 175.9 ± 56 days). Therefore, the clinically evident beneficial effects of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are mainly related to preservation of myocardium structure and function and the attenuation of myocardial fibrosis. PMID:17148657

  6. Evaluation of Internet education to increase dietary calcium intake in youth

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Valerie Suzanne

    2004-11-15

    in Prevention of Osteoporosis....................... 9 Calcium in Prevention of Other Diseases.................... 10 Current Calcium Intakes Among Adolescents............. 11 Barriers to Adequate Calcium Intake.......................... 12... ............................................................... 102 APPENDIX E: DEMOGRAPHICS PLUS QUESTIONNAIRE (DPQ)............... 124 APPENDIX F: FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE (FFQ) ....................... 130 APPENDIX G: CALCIUM OSTEOPOROSIS PHYSICAL ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE (COPA...

  7. Zinc, magnesium, and calcium ion supplementation confers tolerance to acetic acid stress in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizing xylose.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ku Syahidah Ku; Sakamoto, Takatoshi; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential substrate for ethanol production. However, pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials produces inhibitory compounds such as acetic acid, which negatively affect ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Supplementation of the medium with three metal ions (Zn(2+) , Mg(2+) , and Ca(2+) ) increased the tolerance of S. cerevisiae toward acetic acid compared to the absence of the ions. Ethanol production from xylose was most improved (by 34%) when the medium was supplemented with 2 mM Ca(2+) , followed by supplementation with 3.5 mM Mg(2+) (29% improvement), and 180 ?M Zn(2+) (26% improvement). Higher ethanol production was linked to high cell viability in the presence of metal ions. Comparative transcriptomics between the supplemented cultures and the control suggested that improved cell viability resulted from the induction of genes controlling the cell wall and membrane. Only one gene, FIT2, was found to be up-regulated in common between the three metal ions. Also up-regulation of HXT1 and TKL1 might enhance xylose consumption in the presence of acetic acid. Thus, the addition of ionic nutrients is a simple and cost-effective method to improve the acetic acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae. PMID:24924214

  8. MAP2c prevents arachidonic acid-induced fibril formation of tau: Role of chaperone activity and phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Gopa; Gupta, Suvroma; Poddar, Asim; Bhattacharyya, Bhabatarak

    2015-10-01

    Tau has long been associated with Alzheimer's disease, where it forms neurofibrillary tangles. Here we show for the first time by electron microscopy that MAP2c prevents arachidonic acid-induced in vitro aggregation of tau. However, phosphorylated MAP2c failed to prevent the same. Previously we reported that MAP2c possesses chaperone-like activity while tau does not (Sarkar et al., 2004, Eur J Biochem., 271(8), 1488-96). Here we demonstrate that phosphorylation severely impaired the chaperone activity of MAP2c, implying a crucial role of chaperone in preventing tau fibrillation. Additionally, the ability of MAP2c to induce microtubule polymerization was abolished completely upon phosphorylation. As tau and MAP2c possess highly homologous C-termini, we speculated that the N-terminus of MAP2c might account for its chaperone activity. Nevertheless, experiments showed that N-terminus of MAP2c alone is inactive as a chaperone. Our preliminary findings suggest that MAP2c/MAP2 could be one of the regulators maintaining tau homeostasis in the cell. PMID:26071842

  9. Biodegradable and injectable in situ cross-linking chitosan-hyaluronic acid based hydrogels for postoperative adhesion prevention.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Wang, Ning; Jin, Xun; Deng, Rui; Nie, Shihong; Sun, Lu; Wu, Qinjie; Wei, Yuquan; Gong, Changyang

    2014-04-01

    Postsurgical peritoneal adhesions are very common and serious complication after surgery. Biodegradable and injectable hydrogels derived from natural polysaccharides are ideal biomaterials for prevention of postoperative adhesion. In this work, we report a class of injectable, biodegradable, and non-toxic hydrogel derived from N, O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) and aldehyde hyaluronic acid (A-HA), without requirement of any chemical linkers or radiant light sources. NOCC was prepared by introducing carboxymethyl groups to the N-position and the O-position of chitosan, and A-HA was prepared using periodate oxidation method. The gelation is attributed to the Schiff base between the amino groups of NOCC and aldehyde groups in A-HA, and the hydrogel precursors cross-linked to form a flexible hydrogel. NOCC, A-HA, and NOCC/A-HA hydrogel extract exhibited very low cytotoxicity and hemolysis, and the acute toxicity tests showed that the hydrogel was non-toxic. Besides, the highly porous three-dimensional hydrogel can supported the growth and proliferation of the cells encapsulated in the hydrogels, but was not favorable for the attachment of fibroblasts to the surface, suggesting that the NOCC/A-HA hydrogel can be developed for adhesion prevention. The hydrogel was susceptible to the lysozyme and can be degraded within 2 weeks in vivo. Furthermore, we employed a rat model of sidewall defect-cecum abrasion to investigate the efficacy of NOCC/A-HA hydrogel in preventing post-operative peritoneal adhesions. A significant reduction of peritoneal adhesion formation was found in the NOCC/A-HA-treated group, compared with commercial hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel group and normal saline group. In addition, the potential anti-adhesion mechanism of NOCC/A-HA hydrogel was discussed, which may attribute to the combination of barrier function and bioactivity of NOCC and A-HA. PMID:24507411

  10. The effect of dietary supplementation with calcium salts of long chain fatty acids and/or L-carnitine on ovarian activity of Rahmani ewes.

    PubMed

    El-Shahat, K H; Abo-El maaty, Amal M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with calcium salts of long chain fatty acids with or without of l-carnitine on ovarian activity using 24 Rahmani ewes randomly allocated to four treatments. Control animals (n=6) were fed a basal diet of hay (64.2%) and barley grain (35.0%) plus minerals and vitamins (0.8%). Ewes on the three treatments received the same basal diet supplemented with calcium salts of long chain fatty acids (CSFA) at 3% of the basal diet dry matter intake (1.4 kg/ewe/d); 250 ppm l-carnitine (LC); or both these supplements (CSFA+LC). All use exhibited natural estrus on one or two occasions and were weighed at the start and the end of the study as well as body condition score was assessed at the end of study. All ewes were then synchronised for estrus using intravaginal sponges for 12 d prior to the start of the nutritional treatments and three weeks after the nutritional treatments began. The nutritional treatments were imposed for a total of 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected prior to the start of treatments and every two weeks thereafter except after sponge removal of first and second synchronisation where the blood samples were collected daily for progesterone assay. The results revealed that Rahmani ewes received basal diet (control) and l-carnitine had significantly decrease final body weight and body condition score (36.3+/-0.4; 36.8+/-0.3; 2.2+/-0.04; 2.1+/-0.05; p<0.05, respectively) than those on CSFA and CSFA+LC (38.6+/-0.9; 39.5+/-0.6; 3.3+/-0.07; 3.4+/-0.06; respectively). At the second ultrasound examination, the control animals had significantly fewer total follicles (7.3+/-0.8; p<0.05) than those on the CSFA (8.4+/-0.8), l-carnitine (8.7+/-1.5) and CSFA+LC (8.0+/-0.6) treatments. The increased numbers occurred in the medium and large categories of follicles. In addition, the ovulation rates were significantly lower (p<0.05) for control (1.3+/-0.2) and l-carnitine (1.5+/-0.00) than for CSFA (2.5+/-0.3) and CSFA+LC (2.3+/-0.2). Furthermore, serum progesterone concentrations had risen and were significantly higher (p<0.05) for CSFA (2.5+/-0.3 ng/ml) and CSFA+LC (2.7+/-0.1 ng/ml) than for control (1.1+/-0.7 ng/ml) and l-carnitine (1.5+/-0.4 ng/ml). It was concluded that supplementation of the basal diet with l-carnitine alone did not improve performance of ewes or the ovarian response. However, the addition of calcium salts of long chain fatty acids to the basal diet alone or in combination with l-carnitine significantly improved the number and size of ovarian preovulatory follicles, and the ovulation rate of Rahmani ewes. Further evidence was required to study their influence on follicular atresia. PMID:19473790

  11. Elevated tissue omega-3 fatty acid status prevents age-related glucose intolerance in fat-1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Romanatto, Talita; Fiamoncini, Jarlei; Wang, Bin; Curi, Rui; Kang, Jing X

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of elevated tissue omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) status on age-related glucose intolerance utilizing the fat-1 transgenic mouse model, which can endogenously synthesize n-3 PUFA from omega-6 (n-6) PUFA. Fat-1 and wild-type mice, maintained on the same dietary regime of a 10% corn oil diet, were tested at two different ages (2 months old and 8 months old) for various glucose homeostasis parameters and related gene expression. The older wild-type mice exhibited significantly increased levels of blood insulin, fasting blood glucose, liver triglycerides, and glucose intolerance, compared to the younger mice, indicating an age-related impairment of glucose homeostasis. In contrast, these age-related changes in glucose metabolism were largely prevented in the older fat-1 mice. Compared to the older wild-type mice, the older fat-1 mice also displayed a lower capacity for gluconeogenesis, as measured by pyruvate tolerance testing (PTT) and hepatic gene expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose 6 phosphatase (G6Pase). Furthermore, the older fat-1 mice showed a significant decrease in body weight, epididymal fat mass, inflammatory activity (NF?-B and p-I?B expression), and hepatic lipogenesis (acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression), as well as increased peroxisomal activity (70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP70) and acyl-CoA oxidase1 (ACOX1) expression). Altogether, the older fat-1 mice exhibit improved glucose homeostasis in comparison to the older wild-type mice. These findings support the beneficial effects of elevated tissue n-3 fatty acid status in the prevention and treatment of age-related chronic metabolic diseases. PMID:24211484

  12. Re-assembled casein micelles and casein nanoparticles as nano-vehicles for ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Zimet; Dina Rosenberg; Yoav D. Livney

    2011-01-01

    Food enrichment with nutraceuticals is an important goal, but its effectiveness in preventing diseases depends on preserving the functionality and bioavailability of the bioactive nutraceuticals. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are important nutraceutical lipids, providing protection against cardiovascular and other diseases. Caseins are the major milk proteins whose biological function is to transport calcium, protein and

  13. Prevention of Alzheimer's disease: Omega3 fatty acid and phenolic anti-oxidant interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg M. Cole; Giselle P. Lim; Fusheng Yang; Bruce Teter; Aynun Begum; Qiulan Ma; Marni E. Harris-White; Sally A. Frautschy

    2005-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are syndromes of aging that share analogous lesions and risk factors, involving lipoproteins, oxidative damage and inflammation. Unlike in CVD, in AD, sensitive biomarkers are unknown, and high-risk groups are understudied. To identify potential prevention strategies in AD, we have focused on pre-clinical models (transgenic and amyloid infusion models), testing dietary\\/lifestyle factors strongly

  14. Corrosion Prevention of Cold Rolled Steel Using Water Dispersible Lignosulfonic Acid Doped Polyaniline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The invention provides coatings useful for preventing corrosion of metals. The coatings comprise a film-forming resin and conductive polymers comprising linearly conjugated x-systems and residues of sulfonated lignin or a sulfonated polyflavonoid or derivatives of solfonated lignin or a sulfonated polyflavonoid. The invention also provides a latex formulation of the coatings, and articles of manufacture comprising a metal substrate and a coating in contact with the metal substrate.

  15. Corrosion prevention of cold rolled steel using water dispersible lignosulfonic acid doped polyaniline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The invention provides coatings useful for preventing corrosion of metals. The coatings comprise a film-forming resin and conductive polymers comprising linearly conjugated .pi.-systems and residues of sulfonated lignin or a sulfonated polyflavonoid or derivatives of solfonated lignin or a sulfonated polyflavonoid. The invention also provides a latex formulation of the coatings, and articles of manufacture comprising a metal substrate and a coating in contact with the metal substrate.

  16. CORROSION PREVENTION OF COLD ROLLED STEEL USING WATER DISPERSIBLE LIGNOSULFONIC ACID DOPED POLYANILINE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The invention provides coatings useful for preventing corrosion of metals. The coatings comprise a film-forming resin and conductive polymers comprising linearly conjugated pi-systems and residues of sulfonated lignin or a sulfonated polyflavonoid or derivatives of sulfonated lignin or a sulfonated polyflavonoid. The invention also provides a latex formulation of the coatings, and articles of manufacture comprising a metal substrate and a coating in contact with the metal substrate.

  17. The role of lactic acid bacteria in colon cancer prevention: mechanistic considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiro Hirayama; Joseph Rafter

    1999-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most important causes of cancer morbidity and mortality in Western countries. While a myriad of healthful effects have been attributed to the probiotic lactic acid bacteria, perhaps the most controversial remains that of anticancer activity. It should be pointed out already at this point that there is no direct experimental evidence for cancer suppression

  18. Incubation at 25°C prevents acid crash and enhances alcohol production in Clostridium carboxidivorans P7.

    PubMed

    Ramió-Pujol, Sara; Ganigué, Ramon; Bañeras, Lluís; Colprim, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    Incubation of carboxydotrophs at 37°C provides optimal conditions for their growth. However, a fast accumulation of organic acids, specifically acetate, during the exponential growth phase may result in low alcohol production and substrate consumption due to a phenomenon known as "acid crash". The present work investigates growth and productivity of Clostridium carboxidivorans P7 at two incubation temperatures. At 37°C the culture was not able to override the "acid crash", resulting in low ethanol titers (1.56mM). On the other hand, lower metabolic rates at 25°C enhanced ethanol and butanol production (32.1 and 14.5mM, respectively). Moreover, at low temperatures, hexanol and caproic acid were also produced at significant concentrations, 8.21 and 9.02mM respectively, among the highest values reported for P7. Our results demonstrate that production of biofuels with longer carbon chains molecules may be enhanced incubating syngas-fermenting acetogenic bacteria at sub-optimal temperatures. PMID:26046429

  19. Fish Oil-Feeding Prevents Perfluorooctanoic Acid-Induced Fatty Liver in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naomi Kudo; Yoichi Kawashima

    1997-01-01

    The effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on the levels of lipids in liver and serum were compared between mice fed a diet supplemented with soy bean oil (SO), perilla oil (PO), or fish oil (FO) for 4 weeks. Hepatic content of triglyceride (TG) was significantly lower in the mice fed the FO diet than that in the mice fed either

  20. Helicobacter pylori infection prevents erosive reflux oesophagitis by decreasing gastric acid secretion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Koike; S Ohara; H Sekine; K Iijima; Y Abe; K Kato; T Toyota; T Shimosegawa

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUNDHelicobacter pylori infection is less prevalent and atrophic gastritis is less extensive in patients with reflux oesophagitis than those without it, but few studies have examined this relationship directly.AIMSWe investigated the relationship between H pylori infection, acid secretion, and reflux oesophagitis in Japanese subjects.SUBJECTSA total of 105 patients with erosive reflux oesophagitis were compared with 105 sex and age matched

  1. Preventing acid phosphate attack in coordinated phosphate programs for high-pressure boilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hollander

    1999-01-01

    Coordinated phosphate programs were introduced to maintain bulk water and underdeposit chemistries in a safe pH range. With the wide assortment of additives routinely employed in modern treatment programs, it is no longer a simple matter to control the treatment. The errors induced by the additives and impurities can lead to acid attack and boiler tube failure.

  2. Mycophenolic Acid Inhibits Dengue Virus Infection by Preventing Replication of Viral RNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Diamond; Marcus Zachariah; Eva Harris

    2002-01-01

    Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease of global importance with no available antiviral therapy. We assessed the ability of mycophenolic acid (MPA), a drug currently used as an immunosuppressive agent, to inhibit dengue virus (DV) antigen expression, RNA replication, and virus production. Pharmacological concentrations of MPA effectively blocked DV infection, decreasing the percentage of infected cells by 99% and

  3. Vitamin E supplementation does not prevent ethanol-reduced hepatic retinoic acid levels in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic, excessive ethanol intake can increase retinoic acid (RA) catabolism by inducing cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). Vitamin E (VE) is an antioxidant implicated in CYP2E1 inhibition. In the current study, we hypothesized that VE supplementation inhibits CYP2E1 and decreases RA catabolism, thereby ...

  4. In vitro digestion testing of lipid-based delivery systems: calcium ions combine with fatty acids liberated from triglyceride rich lipid solutions to form soaps and reduce the solubilization capacity of colloidal digestion products.

    PubMed

    Devraj, Ravi; Williams, Hywel D; Warren, Dallas B; Mullertz, Anette; Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W

    2013-01-30

    In vitro digestion testing is of practical importance to predict the fate of drugs administered in lipid-based delivery systems. Calcium ions are often added to digestion media to increase the extent of digestion of long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), but the effects they have on phase behaviour of the products of digestion, and consequent drug solubilization, are not well understood. This study investigates the effect of calcium and bile salt concentrations on the rate and extent of in vitro digestion of soybean oil, as well as the solubilizing capacity of the digestion products for two poorly water-soluble drugs, fenofibrate and danazol. In the presence of higher concentrations of calcium ions, the solubilization capacities of the digests were reduced for both drugs. This effect is attributed to the formation of insoluble calcium soaps, visible as precipitates during the digestions. This reduces the availability of liberated fatty acids to form mixed micelles and vesicles, thereby reducing drug solubilization. The use of high calcium concentrations does indeed force in vitro digestion of LCTs but may overestimate the extent of drug precipitation that occurs within the intestinal lumen. PMID:23178598

  5. The relationship between blood carbon dioxide, acid-base balance and calcium metabolism in the hyperthermic laying hen 

    E-print Network

    Ono, Yoshitaka

    1988-01-01

    greatly disturbing acid ? base balance (phase I panting). However, severe hyperthermia causes a pronounced hypocapnia (low blood COs ) as tidal volume begins to increase, indicating second phase panting. When the environmental temperature rises over 32... by inhalation may have beneficial effects on respiratory alkalosis induced by hyperthermia in the chickens during summer months (Mather et al. , 1980, Boon et al. , 1980, Brackenbury et af, , 1982a, Barnas et al. , 1980). However, this approach...

  6. A Calcium Sensor and Its Interacting Protein Kinase Are Global Regulators of Abscisic Acid Signaling in Arabidopsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Guo; Liming Xiong; Chun-Peng Song; Deming Gong; Ursula Halfter; Jian-Kang Zhu

    2002-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) triggers an oscillation in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, which is then perceived by unknown Ca2+ binding proteins to initiate a series of signaling cascades that control many physiological processes, including adaptation to environmental stress. We report here that a Ca2+ binding protein, SCaBP5, and its interacting protein kinase, PKS3, function as global regulators of ABA

  7. The relationship between blood carbon dioxide, acid-base balance and calcium metabolism in the hyperthermic laying hen

    E-print Network

    Ono, Yoshitaka

    1988-01-01

    species by Calder and Schmidt ? Nielson (1966, 1968). It is important from a poultry industry viewpoint to understand how birds control their acid ? base balance during exposure to high environment temperature during the summer months when egg shell... and hind limb muscle increased significantly due to an increase in skeletal muscle metabolism. As a result of changes the muscles released more lactate and pyruvate. Hood and Tannen (1983) have shown that high blood pH stimulates and low blood p...

  8. Abscisic Acid Induces Oscillations in Guard-Cell Cytosolic Free Calcium That Involve Phosphoinositide-Specific Phospholipase C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina Staxen; Christophe Pical; Lucy T. Montgomery; Julie E. Gray; Alistair M. Hetherington; Martin R. McAinsh

    1999-01-01

    Oscillations in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) are an important component of Ca2+-based signal transduction pathways. This fact has led us to investigate whether oscillations in [Ca2+]cyt are involved in the response of stomatal guard cells to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA). We show that ABA induces oscillations in guard-cell [Ca2+]cyt. The pattern of the oscillations depended on the

  9. Ursolic acid protects monocytes against metabolic stress-induced priming and dysfunction by preventing the induction of Nox4?

    PubMed Central

    Ullevig, Sarah L.; Kim, Hong Seok; Nguyen, Huynh Nga; Hambright, William S.; Robles, Andrew J.; Tavakoli, Sina; Asmis, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Aims Dietary supplementation with ursolic acid (UA) prevents monocyte dysfunction in diabetic mice and protects mice against atherosclerosis and loss of renal function. The goal of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism by which UA prevents monocyte dysfunction induced by metabolic stress. Methods and results Metabolic stress sensitizes or “primes” human THP-1 monocytes and murine peritoneal macrophages to the chemoattractant MCP-1, converting these cells into a hyper-chemotactic phenotype. UA protected THP-1 monocytes and peritoneal macrophages against metabolic priming and prevented their hyper-reactivity to MCP-1. UA blocked the metabolic stress-induced increase in global protein-S-glutathionylation, a measure of cellular thiol oxidative stress, and normalized actin-S-glutathionylation. UA also restored MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP1) protein expression and phosphatase activity, decreased by metabolic priming, and normalized p38 MAPK activation. Neither metabolic stress nor UA supplementation altered mRNA or protein levels of glutaredoxin-1, the principal enzyme responsible for the reduction of mixed disulfides between glutathione and protein thiols in these cells. However, the induction of Nox4 by metabolic stress, required for metabolic priming, was inhibited by UA in both THP-1 monocytes and peritoneal macrophages. Conclusion UA protects THP-1 monocytes against dysfunction by suppressing metabolic stress-induced Nox4 expression, thereby preventing the Nox4-dependent dysregulation of redox-sensitive processes, including actin turnover and MAPK-signaling, two key processes that control monocyte migration and adhesion. This study provides a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory and athero- and renoprotective properties of UA and suggests that dysfunctional blood monocytes may be primary targets of UA and related compounds. PMID:24494201

  10. Innovative Approach to Prevent Acid Drainage from Uranium Mill Tailings Based on the Application of Na-Ferrate (VI)

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, H.M.; Reinhart, D.; Lettie, L.; Franklin, M.R. [University of Central Florida, P.O. Box. 162450, Orlando, FL, 32816-2450 (United States); Fernandes, H.M.; Franklin, M.R. [Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD), Av. Salvador Allende s/n - Recreio - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - 22795-090 (Brazil); Sharma, V. [Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Daly, L.J. [Ferrate Treatment Technologies, LLC, 6432 Pine Castle Blvd. Unit 2C, Orlando, FL, 32809 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The operation of uranium mining and milling plants gives rise to huge amounts of wastes from both mining and milling operations. When pyrite is present in these materials, the generation of acid drainage can take place and result in the contamination of underground and surface waters through the leaching of heavy metals and radionuclides. To solve this problem, many studies have been conducted to find cost-effective solutions to manage acid mine drainage; however, no adequate strategy to deal with sulfide-ric h wastes is currently available. Ferrate (VI) is a powerful oxidizing agent in aqueous media. Under acidic conditions, the redox potential of the Ferrate (VI) ion is the highest of any other oxidant used in wastewater treatment processes. The standard half cell reduction potential of ferrate (VI) has been determined as +2.20 V to + 0.72 V in acidic and basic solutions, respectively. Ferrate (VI) exhibits a multitude of advantageous properties, including higher reactivity and selectivity than traditional oxidant alternatives, as well as disinfectant, flocculating, and coagulant properties. Despite numerous beneficial properties in environmental applications, ferrate (VI) has remained commercially unavailable. Starting in 1953, different methods for producing a high purity, powdered ferrate (VI) product were developed. However, producing this dry, stabilized ferrate (VI) product required numerous process steps which led to excessive synthesis costs (over $20/lb) thereby preventing bulk industrial use. Recently a novel synthesis method for the production of a liquid ferrate (VI) based on hypochlorite oxidation of ferric ion in strongly alkaline solutions has been discovered (USPTO 6,790,428; September 14, 2004). This on-site synthesis process dramatically reduces manufacturing cost for the production of ferrate (VI) by utilizing common commodity feedstocks. This breakthrough means that for the first time ferrate (VI) can be an economical alternative to treating acid mining drainage generating materials. The objective of the present study was to investigate a methodology of preventing the generation of acid drainage by applying ferrate (VI) to acid generating materials prior to the disposal in impoundments or piles. Oxidizing the pyritic material in mining waste could diminish the potential for acid generation and its related environmental risks and long-term costs at disposal sites. The effectiveness of toxic metals removal from acid mine drainage by applying ferrate (VI) is also examined. Preliminary results presented in this paper show that the oxidation of pyrite by ferrate is a first-order rate reaction in Fe(VI) with a half-life of about six hours. The stability of Fe(VI) in water solutions will not influence the reaction rate in a significant manner. New low-cost production methods for making liquid ferrate on-site makes this technology a very attractive option to mitigate one of the most pressing environmental problems in the mining industry. (authors)

  11. Knowledge and periconceptional use of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects in ethnic communities in the United Kingdom: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peake, Jordana N; Copp, Andrew J; Shawe, Jill

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that periconceptional supplementation with folic acid can prevent a significant proportion of neural tube defects (NTDs). The present study evaluated how folic acid knowledge and periconceptional use for NTD prevention varies by ethnicity in the United Kingdom (U.K.). METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify studies that included assessment of folic acid knowledge or use in U.K. women of different ethnicities. Only research and referenced sources published after 1991, the year of the landmark Medical Research Council’s Vitamin Study, were included. A meta-analysis was performed of studies that assessed preconceptional folic acid use in Caucasians and non-Caucasians. RESULTS: Five studies met the inclusion criteria for assessment of knowledge and/or use of folic acid supplements in U.K. women including non-Caucasians. The available evidence indicates that South Asians specifically have less knowledge and lower periconceptional use of folic acid than Caucasians; one study found that West Indian and African women also had lower folic acid uptake. A synthesis of results from three of the studies, in a meta-analysis, shows that Caucasians are almost three times more likely to take folic acid before conception than non-Caucasians. CONCLUSION: From the limited evidence available, U.K. women of non-Caucasian ethnicity appear to have less knowledge and a lower uptake of folic acid supplementation than Caucasians during the periconceptional period. Implementing targeted, innovative education campaigns together with a mandatory fortification policy, including the fortification of ethnic minority foods, will be required for maximum prevention of folic acid–preventable NTDs across different ethnic groups. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 97:444–451, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23873812

  12. Inhibition of Calcium Influx Reduces Dysfunction and Apoptosis in Lipotoxic Pancreatic ?-Cells via Regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Chen, Kaixian; Zhu, Weiliang; Wang, Heyao

    2015-01-01

    Lipotoxicity plays an important role in pancreatic ?-cell failure during the development of type 2 diabetes. Prolonged exposure of ?-cells to elevated free fatty acids level could cause deterioration of ?-cell function and induce cell apoptosis. Therefore, inhibition of fatty acids-induced ?-cell dysfunction and apoptosis might provide benefit for the therapy of type 2 diabetes. The present study examined whether regulation of fatty acids-triggered calcium influx could protect pancreatic ?-cells from lipotoxicity. Two small molecule compounds, L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine and potassium channel activator diazoxide were used to inhibit palmitic acid-induced calcium influx. And whether the compounds could reduce palmitic acid-induced ?-cell failure and the underlying mechanism were also investigated. It was found that both nifedipine and diazoxide protected MIN6 pancreatic ?-cells and primary cultured murine islets from palmitic acid-induced apoptosis. Meanwhile, the impaired insulin secretion was also recovered to varying degrees by these two compounds. Our results verified that nifedipine and diazoxide could reduce palmitic acid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress to generate protective effects on pancreatic ?-cells. More importantly, it suggested that regulation of calcium influx by small molecule compounds might provide benefits for the prevention and therapy of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26147439

  13. CDC Grand Rounds: additional opportunities to prevent neural tube defects with folic acid fortification.

    PubMed

    2010-08-13

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects that result from the failure of the neural tube to close in the cranial region (anencephaly) or more caudally along the spine (spina bifida) by the 28th day of gestation. Infants born with anencephaly usually die within a few days of birth, and those with spina bifida have life-long disabilities with varying degrees of paralysis. Currently, identified risk factors for NTDs include a mother who previously had an NTD-affected pregnancy, maternal diabetes, obesity, hyperthermia, certain antiseizure medications, genetic variants, race/ethnicity, and nutrition (particularly folic acid insufficiency). In the United States, during 1995-1996, approximately 4,000 pregnancies were affected by an NTD. This number declined to 3,000 pregnancies in 1999-2000 after fortification of enriched cereal grain products with folic acid was mandated. Worldwide, in 1998, approximately 300,000 births were affected by an NTD. PMID:20703205

  14. Abscisic acid and osmoticum prevent germination of developing alfalfa embryos, but only osmoticum maintains the synthesis of developmental proteins.

    PubMed

    Xu, N; Coulter, K M; Derek Bewley, J

    1990-10-01

    Developing seeds of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) acquire the ability to germinate during the latter stages of development, the maturation drying phase. Isolated embryos placed on Murashige and Skoog medium germinate well during early and late development, but poorly during mid-development; however, when placed on water they germinate well only during the latter stage of development. Germination of isolated embryos is very slow and poor when they are incubated in the presence of surrounding seed structures (the endosperm or seed coat) taken from the mid-development stages. This inhibitory effect is also achieved by incubating embryos in 10(-5) M abscisic acid (ABA). Endogenous ABA attains a high level during mid-development, especially in the endosperm. Seeds developing in pods treated with fluridone (1-methyl-3-phenyl-5[3-(trifluoromethyl)-phenyl]-4(1H)-pyridinone) contain low levels of ABA during mid-development, and the endosperm and seed coat only weakly inhibit the germination of isolated embryos. However, intact seeds from fluridone-treated pods do not germinate viviparously, which is indicative that ABA alone is not responsible for maintaining seeds in a developing state. Application of osmoticum (e.g. 0.35 M sucrose) to isolated developing embryos prevents their germination. Also, in the developing seed in situ the osmotic potential is high. Thus internal levels of osmoticum may play a role in preventing germination of the embryo and maintaining development. Abscisic acid and osmoticum impart distinctly different metabolic responses on developing embryos, as demonstrated by their protein-synthetic capacity. Only in the presence of osmoticum do embryos synthesize proteins which are distinctly recognizable as those synthesized by developing embryos in situ, i.e. when inside the pod. Abscisic acid induces the synthesis of a few unique proteins, but these arise even in mature embryos treated with ABA. Thus while both osmoticum and ABA prevent precocious germination, their effects on the synthetic capacity of the developing embryo are quite distinct. Since seeds with low endogenous ABA do not germinate, osmotic regulation may be the more important of these two factors in controlling seed development. PMID:24197189

  15. Prevention and Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer by Curcumin in Combination With Omega3 Fatty Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malisetty V. Swamy; Bhargava Citineni; Jagan M. R. Patlolla; Altaf Mohammed; Yuting Zhang; Chinthalapally V. Rao

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells were exposed to curcumin, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or combinations of both and analyzed for proliferation and apoptosis. Pancreatic tumor xenografts were established by injecting BxPC-3 cells into each flank of nude mice. After the tumors reached a size of approximately 190–200 mm, animals were fed diets with or without 2,000 ppm curcumin in 18% corn oil

  16. Alpha-Lipoic Acid for the Prevention of Diabetic Macular Edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christos Haritoglou; Joachim Gerss; Hans P. Hammes; Anselm Kampik; Michael W. Ulbig

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: To evaluate the effect of ?-lipoic acid (ALA) on the occurrence of diabetic macular edema. Methods: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, multinational study. Patients were randomized to the treatment group with 600 mg ALA per day or the placebo group. Every 6 months stereo fundus photographs, HbA1c levels, and an ophthalmological examination were documented. The primary endpoint was the occurrence

  17. Sr Incorporation and Calcium Isotopic Fractionation during Calcium Carbonate Precipitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Niedermayr; M. Dietzel; S. J. Köhler; F. Böhm; B. Kisakurek; A. Eisenhauer

    2009-01-01

    Element substitution and calcium isotopic fractionation can provide information about the mechanisms of CaCO3 precipitation, precipitation rates, temperatures and solution chemistry. In the present study precipitation experiments for the formation of the CaCO3 polymorphs: calcite, aragonite and vaterite were carried out. Calcium carbonates are formed at various Mg\\/Ca ratios or in presence of polyaspartic acid at temperatures between 5 and

  18. Essential fatty acids prevent slowed nerve conduction in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Julu, P O

    1988-01-01

    Rats were given streptozotocin to induce insulin-dependent diabetes or citrate buffer alone in two experiments. Initially, the effect of 5 wks of dietary gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) plus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on cutaneous nerve conduction velocity (CV) was examined. CV was determined by direct stimulation and recording from saphenous nerve under urethane anesthesia. Secondly, a 5 weeks study of supplementing the diet with GLA, GLA and EPA, or hydrogenated coconut oil (HC) was done. In addition, motor nerve CV was determined by directly stimulating sciatic nerve and recording from gastrocnemius muscle. The acute diabetes led to weight loss, and elevated blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Essential fatty acid (EFA) supplementation had no effect on any of these measures of severity of diabetes. In diabetic rats without EFA supplementation, CV of the myelinated fibers fell by 19-21%, while those receiving both GLA and EPA had normal CV. In diabetic rats receiving GLA alone, CV fell by 5-7%, which was significantly less than those without EFA supplementation (p less than 0.01 for cutaneous, and p less than 0.001 for motor nerves). PMID:2853165

  19. Preventing corona effects: multiphosphonic acid poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers for stable stealth iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Torrisi, V; Graillot, A; Vitorazi, L; Crouzet, Q; Marletta, G; Loubat, C; Berret, J-F

    2014-08-11

    When dispersed in biological fluids, engineered nanoparticles are selectively coated with proteins, resulting in the formation of a protein corona. It is suggested that the protein corona is critical in regulating the conditions of entry into the cytoplasm of living cells. Recent reports describe this phenomenon as ubiquitous and independent of the nature of the particle. For nanomedicine applications, however, there is a need to design advanced and cost-effective coatings that are resistant to protein adsorption and that increase the biodistribution in vivo. In this study, phosphonic acid poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers were synthesized and used to coat iron oxide particles. The copolymer composition was optimized to provide simple and scalable protocols as well as long-term stability in culture media. It is shown that polymers with multiple phosphonic acid functionalities and PEG chains outperform other types of coating, including ligands, polyelectrolytes, and carboxylic acid functionalized PEG. PEGylated particles exhibit moreover exceptional low cellular uptake, of the order of 100 femtograms of iron per cell. The present approach demonstrates that the surface chemistry of engineered particles is a key parameter in the interactions with cells. It also opens up new avenues for the efficient functionalization of inorganic surfaces. PMID:25046557

  20. [Turtle isthmic complex of visual nuclei: immunohistochemical study of gamma-aminobutyric acid, choline acetyltransferase, calcium-binding proteins and cytochrome oxidase activity].

    PubMed

    Belekhova, M G; Kenigfest, N V

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of the immunoreactivity for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), calcium-binding proteins (CaBPr) and histochemistry of cytochrome oxidase activity (CO) was studied in turtles (Testudo horsfieldi, Emys orbicularis) isthmal complex of visual nuclei. Magnocellular nucleus (IMc) was shown to reveal mainly the strongly stained GABA-, parvalbumin (PV)-ir neurons and CO-positive cells, as well as variable both in number and degree of intensity of ChAT-, cal- bindin (CB)-, and calretinin (CR)-ir cells. After the local tracer injection into the optic tectum GABA-ir neurons containing also retrograde label were found in IMc. The most caracteristic of the parvocellular nucleus (IPc) was the content of strongly stained ChAT-ir neurons, dense GABA-ir and CO-active terminal fields, as well as the neurons variable by the amount and the degree of immunoreactivity for CaBPr and GABA. Principal similarity in these features in the turtle IMc and IPc and of those in the avian isthmal nuclei of the same name allows suggesting their homology and consequently the same participation in selective processing of the visual information flow. The comparison with lower vertebrates confirms the evolutionary conservatism of visual isthmal complex among vertebrates and the existence of its progressive differentiation in the process of evolution. PMID:25786321

  1. Comparison of enriched palmitic acid and calcium salts of palm fatty acids distillate fat supplements on milk production and metabolic profiles of high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rico, D E; Ying, Y; Harvatine, K J

    2014-09-01

    A variable response to fat supplementation has been reported in dairy cows, which may be due to cow production level, environmental conditions, or diet characteristics. In the present experiment, the effect of a high palmitic acid supplement was investigated relative to a conventional Ca salts of palm fatty acids (Ca-FA) supplement in 16 high-producing Holstein cows (46.6±12.4kg of milk/d) arranged in a crossover design with 14-d periods. The experiment was conducted in a non-heat-stress season with 29.5% neutral detergent fiber diets. Treatments were (1) high palmitic acid (PA) supplement fed as free FA [1.9% of dry matter (DM); 84.8% C16:0] and (2) Ca-FA supplement (2.3% of DM; 47.7% C16:0, 35.9% C18:1, and 8.4% C18:2). The PA supplement tended to increase DM intake, and increased the yields of milk and energy-corrected milk. Additionally, PA increased the yields of milk fat, protein, and lactose, whereas milk concentrations of these components were not affected. The yields of milk de novo and 16-C FA were increased by PA compared with Ca-FA (7 and 20%, respectively), whereas the yield of preformed FA was higher in Ca-FA. A reduction in milk fat concentration of de novo and 16-C FA and a marginal elevation in trans-10 C18:1 in Ca-FA is indicative of altered ruminal biohydrogenation and increased risk of milk fat depression. No effect of treatment on plasma insulin was observed. A treatment by time interaction was detected for plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), which tended to be higher in Ca-FA than in PA before feeding. Overall, the palmitic acid supplement improved production performance in high-producing cows while posing a lower risk for milk fat depression compared with a supplement higher in unsaturated FA. PMID:25022691

  2. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... much calcium Too much production of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by the parathyroid glands in the neck (hyperparathyroidism) ... glands in the neck do not produce enough PTH (hypoparathyroidism) Use of a water pill called a ...

  3. Preventing Effect of L-Type Calcium Channel Blockade on Electrophysiological Alterations in Dentate Gyrus Granule Cells Induced by Entorhinal Amyloid Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Pourbadie, Hamid Gholami; Naderi, Nima; Mehranfard, Nasrin; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Khodagholi, Fariba; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex (EC) is one of the earliest affected brain regions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). EC-amyloid pathology induces synaptic failure in the dentate gyrus (DG) with resultant behavioral impairment, but there is little known about its impact on neuronal properties in the DG. It is believed that calcium dyshomeostasis plays a pivotal role in the etiology of AD. Here, the effect of the EC amyloid pathogenesis on cellular properties of DG granule cells and also possible neuroprotective role of L-type calcium channel blockers (CCBs), nimodipine and isradipine, were investigated. The amyloid beta (A?) 1–42 was injected bilaterally into the EC of male rats and one week later, electrophysiological properties of DG granule cells were assessed. Voltage clamp recording revealed appearance of giant sIPSC in combination with a decrease in sEPSC frequency which was partially reversed by CCBs in granule cells from A? treated rats. EC amyloid pathogenesis induced a significant reduction of input resistance (Rin) accompanied by a profound decreased excitability in the DG granule cells. However, daily administration of CCBs, isradipine or nimodipine (i.c.v. for 6 days), almost preserved the normal excitability against A?. In conclusion, lower tendency to fire AP along with reduced Rin suggest that DG granule cells might undergo an alteration in the membrane ion channel activities which finally lead to the behavioral deficits observed in animal models and patients with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25689857

  4. [Calcium signaling in platelet activation].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong

    2012-12-01

    The activation of platelet is the initial factor for natural hemostasis and thrombosis and the elevation in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) plays a key role in platelet activation. The increased [Ca2+]i is due to the entry of extracellular Ca2+ through the plasma membrane (PM) and the release of intracellular Ca2+ through Ca2+ pools, which are divided mainly into two types: one is the dense tubular system (DTS), and the other is lysosome-like acidic organelles (LLAO). The former releases calciums via the signal transduction pathway of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), and the latter via nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP). Sequentially, store-operated calcium channels (SOCC) are responsible for most of calcium influx from extracellular compartment, which is regulated by the cooperation of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), a Ca2+ sensor molecule in intracellular stores, and ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1 (Orail), a plasma membrane protein. Their regulation will emplify the results of elevation of [Ca2+]i. There are two different pumps to remove the intracellular free Ca2+ after the elevation of [Ca2+]i, one is sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA) to pump Ca2+ back to the intracellular stores, the other is the plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA) which pumps Ca2+ out of the cells, to maintain low intracellular calcium concentration relatively in the resting. PMID:23520759

  5. Calcium orthophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. This type of materials is of special significance for human beings, because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and antlers) and pathological (i.e., those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium orthophosphates, while dental caries and osteoporosis mean a partial decalcification of teeth and bones, respectively, that results in replacement of a less soluble and harder biological apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Therefore, the processes of both normal and pathological calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium orthophosphates. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis might be considered an in vivo dissolution of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, calcium orthophosphates hold a great significance for humankind, and in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided. PMID:23507744

  6. Calcium Hydroxylapatite

    PubMed Central

    Yutskovskaya, Yana Alexandrovna; Philip Werschler, WM.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Calcium hydroxylapatite is one of the most well-studied dermal fillers worldwide and has been extensively used for the correction of moderate-to-severe facial lines and folds and to replenish lost volume. Objectives: To mark the milestone of 10 years of use in the aesthetic field, this review will consider the evolution of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine, provide a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach, and examine how the unique properties of calcium hydroxylapatite provide it with an important place in today’s market. Methods: This article is an up-to-date review of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine along with procedures for its use, including a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach by three expert injectors. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxylapatite is a very effective agent for many areas of facial soft tissue augmentation and is associated with a high and well-established safety profile. Calcium hydroxylapatite combines high elasticity and viscosity with an ability to induce long-term collagen formation making it an ideal agent for a global facial approach. PMID:25610523

  7. The retinaldehyde reductase DHRS3 is essential for preventing the formation of excess retinoic acid during embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Sara E.; Pierzchalski, Keely; Butler Tjaden, Naomi E.; Pang, Xiao-Yan; Trainor, Paul A.; Kane, Maureen A.; Moise, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidation of retinol via retinaldehyde results in the formation of the essential morphogen all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). Previous studies have identified critical roles in the regulation of embryonic ATRA levels for retinol, retinaldehyde, and ATRA-oxidizing enzymes; however, the contribution of retinaldehyde reductases to ATRA metabolism is not completely understood. Herein, we investigate the role of the retinaldehyde reductase Dhrs3 in embryonic retinoid metabolism using a Dhrs3-deficient mouse. Lack of DHRS3 leads to a 40% increase in the levels of ATRA and a 60% and 55% decrease in the levels of retinol and retinyl esters, respectively, in Dhrs3?/? embryos compared to wild-type littermates. Furthermore, accumulation of excess ATRA is accompanied by a compensatory 30–50% reduction in the expression of ATRA synthetic genes and a 120% increase in the expression of the ATRA catabolic enzyme Cyp26a1 in Dhrs3?/? embryos vs. controls. Excess ATRA also leads to alterations (40–80%) in the expression of several developmentally important ATRA target genes. Consequently, Dhrs3?/? embryos die late in gestation and display defects in cardiac outflow tract formation, atrial and ventricular septation, skeletal development, and palatogenesis. These data demonstrate that the reduction of retinaldehyde by DHRS3 is critical for preventing formation of excess ATRA during embryonic development.—Billings, S. E., Pierzchalski, K., Butler Tjaden, N. E., Pang, X.-Y., Trainor, P. A., Kane, M. A., Moise, A. R. The retinaldehyde reductase DHRS3 is essential for preventing the formation of excess retinoic acid during embryonic development. PMID:24005908

  8. Chlorogenic acid prevents acetaminophen-induced liver injury: the involvement of CYP450 metabolic enzymes and some antioxidant signals*

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Chun; Sheng, Yu-chen; Jiang, Ping; Wei, Hai; Ji, Li-li

    2015-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a polyphenolic compound, is abundant in fruits, dietary vegetables, and some medicinal herbs. This study investigated the prevention of CGA against acetaminophen (AP)-induced hepatotoxicity and its engaged mechanisms. CGA reversed the decreased cell viability induced by AP in L-02 cells in vitro. In addition, CGA reduced the AP-induced increased serum levels of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) in vivo. The effect of CGA on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymatic (CYP2E1, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4) activities showed that CGA caused very little inhibition on CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 enzymatic activities, but not CYP3A4. The measurement of liver malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and glutathione (GSH) levels showed that CGA prevented AP-induced liver oxidative stress injury. Further, CGA increased the AP-induced decreased mRNA expression of peroxiredoxin (Prx) 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, epoxide hydrolase (Ephx) 2, and polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide K (Polr2k), and nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). In summary, CGA ameliorates the AP-induced liver injury probably by slightly inhibiting CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 enzymatic properties. In addition, cellular important antioxidant signals such as Prx1, 2, 3, 5, 6, Ephx2, Polr2k, and Nrf2 also contributed to the protection of CGA against AP-induced oxidative stress injury. PMID:26160718

  9. Tailor-made preventive medicine integrating amino acid checkup and its application toward disaster-stricken areas.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Masahiro; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    ICT technologies for healthcare are useful in myriad locations for people with lifestyle-related illnesses and health irregularities. When symptoms turn into actual illnesses, it is difficult for them to be managed, and this situation is relevant for managing the health of victims after large-scale disasters; it is important to keep people healthy to prevent them from acquiring illness. This paper proposes a system of personalized preventive medicine for individuals to maintain their health and receive evidence-based feedback. We introduce general medical checkups, ubiquitous sensing, and plasma amino acid analysis as the system's core components. We evaluate these elements and discuss their applicability toward the disaster-stricken Tohoku area of Japan. This is an initial evaluation, but some functions are being used in the area. There are gaps between research results and actually deployable technologies, but it is important to use and improve the quality of life of victims who are ultimately forced to live in temporary housing for more than five years. PMID:23366339

  10. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy: A Potential Tool to Prevent Membrane Rupture and Preterm Labor

    PubMed Central

    Pietrantoni, Emanuela; Del Chierico, Federica; Rigon, Giuliano; Vernocchi, Pamela; Salvatori, Guglielmo; Manco, Melania; Signore, Fabrizio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are required to maintain the fluidity, permeability and integrity of cell membranes. Maternal dietary supplementation with ?-3 PUFAs during pregnancy has beneficial effects, including increased gestational length and reduced risk of pregnancy complications. Significant amounts of ?-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are transferred from maternal to fetal blood, hence ensuring high levels of DHA in the placenta and fetal bloodstream and tissues. Fetal DHA demand increases exponentially with gestational age, especially in the third trimester, due to fetal development. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), a daily intake of DHA is recommended during pregnancy. Omega-3 PUFAs are involved in several anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving and anti-oxidative pathways. Several placental disorders, such as intrauterine growth restriction, premature rupture of membranes (PROM) and preterm-PROM (pPROM), are associated with placental inflammation and oxidative stress. This pilot study reports on a preliminary evaluation of the significance of the daily DHA administration on PROM and pPROM events in healthy pregnant women. Further extensive clinical trials will be necessary to fully elucidate the correlation between DHA administration during pregnancy and PROM/pPROM occurrence, which is related in turn to gestational duration and overall fetal health. PMID:24810692

  11. Rapid Low Temperature-Induced Stomatal Closure Occurs in Cold-Tolerant Commelina communis Leaves But Not in Cold-Sensitive Tobacco Leaves, via a Mechanism That Involves Apoplastic Calcium But Not Abscisic Acid1

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Sally; Clephan, Alison Lee; Davies, William John

    2001-01-01

    Commelina communis stomata closed within 1 h of transferring intact plants from 27°C to 7°C, whereas tobacco (Nicotiana rustica) stomata did not until the leaves wilted. Abscisic acid (ABA) did not mediate cold-induced C. communis stomatal closure: At low temperatures, bulk leaf ABA did not increase; ABA did not preferentially accumulate in the epidermis; its flux into detached leaves was lower; its release from isolated epidermis was not greater; and stomata in epidermal strips were less sensitive to exogenous ABA. Stomata of both species in epidermal strips on large volumes of cold KCl failed to close unless calcium was supplied. Therefore, the following cannot be triggers for cold-induced stomatal closure in C. communis: direct effects of temperature on guard or epidermal cells, long-distance signals, and effects of temperature on photosynthesis. Low temperature increased stomatal sensitivity to external CaCl2 by 50% in C. communis but only by 20% in tobacco. C. communis stomata were 300- to 1,000-fold more sensitive to calcium at low temperature than tobacco stomata, but tobacco epidermis only released 13.6-fold more calcium into bathing solutions than C. communis. Stomata in C. communis epidermis incubated on ever-decreasing volumes of cold calcium-free KCl closed on the lowest volume (0.2 cm3) because the epidermal apoplast contained enough calcium to mediate closure if this was not over diluted. We propose that the basis of cold-induced stomatal closure exhibited by intact C. communis leaves is increased apoplastic calcium uptake by guard cells. Such responses do not occur in chill-sensitive tobacco leaves. PMID:11500555

  12. Cell Calcium 50 (2011) 157167 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    2011-01-01

    Cell Calcium 50 (2011) 157­167 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Cell Calcium journal-pore channels TPC1 TPC2 TPCN1 TPCN2 Calcium Endosomes Lysosomes Acidic calcium stores a b s t r a c]. The most recently discovered Ca2+-mobilizing messenger is nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate

  13. Prevention of Surgical Site Infection After Open Prosthetic Inguinal Hernia Repair: Efficacy of Parenteral Versus Oral Prophylaxis with Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid in a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet A. Kuzu; Selçuk Hazinedaro?lu; ?ükrü Dolalan; Nam?k Özkan; Samet Yalç?n; A. Bülent Erkek; Hatem Mahmoudi; Acar Tüzüner; Atilla H. Elhan; Ercümet Kuterdem

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to compare the efficacy of oral versus parenteral prophylactic amoxicillin–clavulanic acid for preventing surgical site infection after open prosthetic mesh repair of inguinal hernia. A total of 480 inguinal-hernia patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Group I (n = 240) received 1.313 g oral amoxicillin–clavulanic acid 2 hours before operation, and group

  14. Unsaturated fatty acid feeding prevents the development of acute hepatitis in Long-Evans cinnamon (LEC) rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, T; Nagayasu, H; Kawano, T; Kitajo, H; Hamada, J; Moriuchi, T; Okada, F; Watanabe, S; Yasuda, S; Okuyama, H; Kobayashi, H; Arisue, M

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the effects of dietary alpha-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3; alpha-LNA) and linoleic acid (18:2, n-6; LA) on the development of hereditary hepatitis, we compared incidences and grades of acute hepatitis between the Long-Evans cinnamon (LEC) rats fed with safflower oil-supplemented diet and perilla oil-supplemented diet. Both safflower and perilla oil supplemented diets reduced the incidence of hepatitis and significantly prolonged its onset as compared to the non-supplemented conventional diet. No significant difference was observed between safflower and perilla oil diets in the rats of incidence of hepatitis. At the age of 16 weeks, just before the onset of hepatitis, serum levels of transaminase (AST, ALT) and concentration of copper in rats fed with both test diets were significantly reduced as compared with that of rats fed alpha-linolenate and linoleate have an inhibitory effect on the development of hepatitis in LEC rats due to the prevention of serum copper elevation. PMID:10697529

  15. Gallic acid exhibits risks of inducing muscular hemorrhagic liposis and cerebral hemorrhage--its action mechanism and preventive strategy.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chiu-Lan; Lin, Chien-Hong; Wang, Hui-Er; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Peng, Robert Y

    2015-02-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) (GA) occurs in many plants. The adverse effects of GA are seldom cited. GA (6-14??M) provoked the hemorrhagic liposis of the cervical muscles and intracranial hemorrhage. The cause of these pathological events and the method for prevention are still lacking. Using the chicken embryo model and some selected nutraceutics such as folate, glutathione (GSH), N-acetylcysteine, and vitamin E (Vit E), we carried out this study. Results revealed that the action mechanism of GA involved (i) inducing hypoxia with upregulated gene hif-1? and downregulated ratio vegf-r2/vegf-a, leading to dys-vascularization and myopathy; (ii) impairing cytochrome c oxidase; (iii) stimulating creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase release; (iv) eliciting carnitine accumulation and liposis via downregulating gene CPT1; (v) suppressing superoxide dismutase and stimulating NO, H2O2, and malondialdehyde; and (vi) depleting erythrocytic and tissue GSH, resulting in hemorrhage. When both Vit E and GSH were applied to the day?1 chicks, a better alleviation effect was revealed. Conclusively, GA potentially exhibits adverse effect by eliciting hemorrhagic liposis of cervical muscles and cerebral hemorrhage. Supplementation with GSH, Vit E, and N-acetylcysteine is able to ameliorate these adverse effects, warranting the importance of restricting the clinical phytotherapeutic doses of GA and related compounds. PMID:25403162

  16. Identifying calcium sources at an acid deposition-impacted spruce forest: A strontium isotope, alkaline earth element multi-tracer approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullen, T.D.; Bailey, S.W.

    2005-01-01

    Depletion of calcium from forest soils has important implications for forest productivity and health. Ca is available to fine feeder roots from a number of soil organic and mineral sources, but identifying the primary source or changes of sources in response to environmental change is problematic. We used strontium isotope and alkaline earth element concentration ratios of trees and soils to discern the record of Ca sources for red spruce at a base-poor, acid deposition-impacted watershed. We measured 87Sr/86Sr and chemical compositions of cross-sectional stemwood cores of red spruce, other spruce tissues and sequential extracts of co-located soil samples. 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ba ratios together provide a tracer of alkaline earth element sources that distinguishes the plant-available fraction of the shallow organic soils from those of deeper organic and mineral soils. Ca/Sr ratios proved less diagnostic, due to within-tree processes that fractionate these elements from each other. Over the growth period from 1870 to 1960, 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ba ratios of stemwood samples became progressively more variable and on average trended toward values that considered together are characteristic of the uppermost forest floor. In detail the stemwood chemistry revealed an episode of simultaneous enhanced uptake of all alkaline earth elements during the growth period from 1930 to 1960, coincident with reported local and regional increases in atmospheric inputs of inorganic acidity. We attribute the temporal trends in stemwood chemistry to progressive shallowing of the effective depth of alkaline earth element uptake by fine roots over this growth period, due to preferential concentration of fine roots in the upper forest floor coupled with reduced nutrient uptake by roots in the lower organic and upper mineral soils in response to acid-induced aluminum toxicity. Although both increased atmospheric deposition and selective weathering of Ca-rich minerals such as apatite provide possible alternative explanations of aspects of the observed trends, the chemical buffering capacity of the forest floor-biomass pool limits their effectiveness as causal mechanisms. ?? Springer 2005.

  17. Role of zoledronic acid in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Räkel, Agnès; Boucher, Andrée; Ste-Marie, Louis-Georges

    2011-01-01

    Taken once a year, intravenous zoledronic acid (Zol) (Reclast® or Aclasta®) is a third-generation nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate that is effective compared with placebo in reducing the risk of fractures in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and recent low-trauma hip fracture. In glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, there is no significant difference between Zol and risedronate for new fractures. Improvements in bone mineral density and early reduction of bone remodeling markers are observed in postmenopausal osteoporosis, recent low-trauma hip fracture, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Given that Zol is generally well tolerated and very convenient, it is an interesting therapeutic option for aging patients who take multiple oral drugs, who have adherence or gastrointestinal tolerance issues, and who have an indication for oral bisphosphonates. Zol is not recommended for patients with severe renal impairment. Vitamin D deficiency should be corrected before the administration of Zol. PMID:21594000

  18. Role of zoledronic acid in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Räkel, Agnès; Boucher, Andrée; Ste-Marie, Louis-Georges

    2011-01-01

    Taken once a year, intravenous zoledronic acid (Zol) (Reclast® or Aclasta®) is a third-generation nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate that is effective compared with placebo in reducing the risk of fractures in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and recent low-trauma hip fracture. In glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, there is no significant difference between Zol and risedronate for new fractures. Improvements in bone mineral density and early reduction of bone remodeling markers are observed in postmenopausal osteoporosis, recent low-trauma hip fracture, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Given that Zol is generally well tolerated and very convenient, it is an interesting therapeutic option for aging patients who take multiple oral drugs, who have adherence or gastrointestinal tolerance issues, and who have an indication for oral bisphosphonates. Zol is not recommended for patients with severe renal impairment. Vitamin D deficiency should be corrected before the administration of Zol. PMID:21594000

  19. Future opportunities in preventing ototoxicity: Caffeic acid phenethyl ester may be a candidate (Review).

    PubMed

    Akyol, Sumeyya; Isik, Bunyamin; Altuntas, Aynur; Erden, Gonul; Cakmak, Ozlem; Kur?unlu, S Fatih; Adam, Bahattin; Akyol, Omer

    2015-09-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is an important active component of propolis, which is derived from honeybee hives. It has received increasing attention in a variety of medical and pharmaceutical research, due to its anti?oxidant, antiproliferative, anti?inflammatory, antiviral and antifungal activity, in addition to its antineoplastic properties. Besides the use of CAPE as an antioxidant and anti?inflammatory agent in a number of in vivo studies of ear disease, its beneficial effects have been reported in the treatment of cancer, arthritis, allergies, heart disease, diabetes, kidney disease, liver disease and neurological disease. CAPE influences a number of biochemical pathways, as well as several targets involved in ear diseases, in particular, in ototoxicity. The protective effects of CAPE in ototoxicity, which may be induced by a number factors, including lipopolysaccharides, hydrogen peroxide and streptomycin, are evaluated and discussed in the present review. PMID:25975288

  20. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids regulate macrophage polarization and prevent LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Dai, Meiyan; Wu, Lujin; He, Zuowen; Zhang, Shasha; Chen, Chen; Xu, Xizhen; Wang, Peihua; Gruzdev, Artiom; Zeldin, Darryl C; Wang, Dao Wen

    2015-09-01

    Macrophages, owning tremendous phenotypic plasticity and diverse functions, were becoming the target cells in various inflammatory, metabolic and immune diseases. Cytochrome P450 epoxygenase 2J2 (CYP2J2) metabolizes arachidonic acid to form epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which possess various beneficial effects on cardiovascular system. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of EETs treatment on macrophage polarization and recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated CYP2J2 expression on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cardiac dysfunction, and sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms. In vitro studies showed that EETs (1µmol/L) significantly inhibited LPS-induced M1 macrophage polarization and diminished the proinflammatory cytokines at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level; meanwhile it preserved M2 macrophage related molecules expression and upregulated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Furthermore, EETs down-regulated NF-?B activation and up-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR?/?) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression, which play important roles in regulating M1 and M2 polarization. In addition, LPS treatment in mice induced cardiac dysfunction, heart tissue damage and infiltration of M1 macrophages, as well as the increase of inflammatory cytokines in serum and heart tissue, but rAAV-mediated CYP2J2 expression increased EETs generation in heart and significantly attenuated the LPS-induced harmful effects, which mechanisms were similar as the in vitro study. Taken together, the results indicate that CYP2J2/EETs regulates macrophage polarization by attenuating NF-?B signaling pathway via PPAR?/? and HO-1 activation and its potential use in treatment of inflammatory diseases. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 2108-2119, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25626689

  1. Sinapic Acid Prevents Hypertension and Cardiovascular Remodeling in Pharmacological Model of Nitric Oxide Inhibited Rats

    PubMed Central

    Silambarasan, Thangarasu; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Krishna Priya, Mani; Suganya, Natarajan; Chatterjee, Suvro; Raja, Boobalan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Hypertensive heart disease is a constellation of abnormalities that includes cardiac fibrosis in response to elevated blood pressure, systolic and diastolic dysfunction. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of sinapic acid on high blood pressure and cardiovascular remodeling. Methods An experimental hypertensive animal model was induced by L-NAME intake on rats. Sinapic acid (SA) was orally administered at a dose of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Blood pressure was measured by tail cuff plethysmography system. Cardiac and vascular function was evaluated by Langendorff isolated heart system and organ bath studies, respectively. Fibrotic remodeling of heart and aorta was assessed by histopathologic analyses. Oxidative stress was measured by biochemical assays. mRNA and protein expressions were assessed by RT-qPCR and western blot, respectively. In order to confirm the protective role of SA on endothelial cells through its antioxidant property, we have utilized the in vitro model of H2O2-induced oxidative stress in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. Results Rats with hypertension showed elevated blood pressure, declined myocardial performance associated with myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis, diminished vascular response, nitric oxide (NO) metabolites level, elevated markers of oxidative stress (TBARS, LOOH), ACE activity, depleted antioxidant system (SOD, CAT, GPx, reduced GSH), aberrant expression of TGF-?, ?-MHC, eNOS mRNAs and eNOS protein. Remarkably, SA attenuated high blood pressure, myocardial, vascular dysfunction, cardiac fibrosis, oxidative stress and ACE activity. Level of NO metabolites, antioxidant system, and altered gene expression were also repaired by SA treatment. Results of in vitro study showed that, SA protects endothelial cells from oxidative stress and enhance the production of NO in a concentration dependent manner. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that SA may have beneficial role in the treatment of hypertensive heart disease by attenuating fibrosis and oxidative stress through its antioxidant potential. PMID:25531679

  2. Salvianolic acid A, a novel matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibitor, prevents cardiac remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Baohong; Li, Defang; Deng, Yanping; Teng, Fukang; Chen, Jing; Xue, Song; Kong, Xiangqian; Luo, Cheng; Shen, Xu; Jiang, Hualiang; Xu, Feng; Yang, Wengang; Yin, Jun; Wang, Yanhui; Chen, Hui; Wu, Wanying; Liu, Xuan; Guo, De-an

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac fibrosis is a deleterious consequence of hypertension which may further advance to heart failure and increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) contributes to the underlying mechanism. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies to attenuate the effects of MMP-9 are urgently needed. In the present study, we characterize salvianolic acid A (SalA) as a novel MMP-9 inhibitor at molecular, cellular and animal level. We expressed a truncated form of MMP-9 which contains only the catalytic domain (MMP-9 CD), and used this active protein for enzymatic kinetic analysis and Biacore detection. Data generated from these assays indicated that SalA functioned as the strongest competitive inhibitor of MMP-9 among 7 phenolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza. In neonatal cardiac fibroblast, SalA inhibited fibroblast migration, blocked myofibroblast transformation, inhibited secretion of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) as well as collagen induced by MMP-9 CD. Functional effects of SalA inhibition on MMP-9 was further confirmed in cultured cardiac H9c2 cell overexpressing MMP-9 in vitro and in heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) in vivo. Moreover, SalA treatment in SHR resulted in decreased heart fibrosis and attenuated heart hypertrophy. These results indicated that SalA is a novel inhibitor of MMP-9, thus playing an inhibitory role in hypertensive fibrosis. Further studies to develop SalA and its analogues for their potential clinical application of cardioprotection are warranted. PMID:23533637

  3. Fructose Diet-Induced Skin Collagen Abnormalities Are Prevented by Lipoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Thirunavukkarasu, V.; Nandhini, A. T. Anitha

    2004-01-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation of proteins, leading to chemical modification and cross-linking are of importance in the pathology of diabetic complications.We studied the effect of ?-lipoic acid (LA) on the content and characteristics of the protein collagen from skin of high-fructose fed rats. The rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 each. Two groups of rats were fed with a high fructose diet (60 g/100 g diet) and administered either LA (35 mg/kg b.w., i.p) (FRU+LA) or 0.2 ml vehicle (saline) (FRU) for 45 days. The other 2 groups were fed with control diet containing starch (60 g/100 g diet) and administered either saline (CON) or lipoic acid (CON+LA). The rats were maintained for 45 days and then sacrificed. Plasma glucose, insulin, fructosamine, protein glycation, and blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) were measured. Collagen was isolated from skin and the physicochemical properties of collagen were studied. Fructose administration caused accumulation of collagen in skin. Extensive cross-linking was evidenced by enhanced glycation and AGE-linked fluorescence. Increased peroxidation and changes in physicochemical properties such as shrinkage temperature, aldehyde content, solubililty pattern, susceptibility to denaturing agents were observed in fructose-fed rats. SDS gel pattern of collagen from these rats showed elevated ? component of type I collagen. These changes were alleviated by the simultaneous administration of LA. Administration of LA to fructose-fed rats had a positive influence on both quantitative and qualitative properties of collagen. The results suggest a mechanism for the ability of LA to delay diabetic complications. PMID:15763937

  4. Saturated fatty acid diet prevents radiation-associated decline in intestinal uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, A.B.; Keelan, M.; Lam, T.; Cheeseman, C.I.; Walker, K.; Clandinin, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed isocaloric semipurified diets containing a high content of either polyunsaturated (P) or saturated (S) fatty acids; these diets were nutritionally adequate, providing for all known essential nutrient requirements. On day 3 after beginning S or P, one group of animals was exposed to a single 6-Gy dose of abdominal radiation, and the other half was sham irradiated. S or P diets were continued for a further 14 days. Brush-border membrane purification and sucrase-specific activities were unaffected by diet or by abdominal irradiation. In rats fed P, irradiation was associated with an increase in jejunal brush-border membrane total phospholipid and the ratio of phospholipid to cholesterol; these changes were not observed in animals fed S. In irradiated rats, ileal brush-border membrane phospholipid per cholesterol was high in animals fed S compared with P. In irradiated animals fed P, there was reduced jejunal and ileal uptake of several medium- and long-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, and the ileal uptake of higher concentrations of glucose was reduced in irradiated animals fed P. In contrast, lipid uptake was similar in control and irradiated animals fed S except for cholesterol uptake, which was reduced. Ileal uptake of higher concentrations of glucose was increased in irradiated animals fed S. Quantitative autoradiography failed to demonstrate any change in the distribution of leucine or lysine transport sites along the villus 1 or 2 wk after abdominal irradiation or in response to feeding S or P. Also, these differences in transport achieved by feeding S to radiated animals were not explained by variations in the animals' food consumption or intestinal mucosal surface area.

  5. Salvianolic Acid A, a Novel Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Inhibitor, Prevents Cardiac Remodeling in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yanping; Teng, Fukang; Chen, Jing; Xue, Song; Kong, Xiangqian; Luo, Cheng; Shen, Xu; Jiang, Hualiang; Xu, Feng; Yang, Wengang; Yin, Jun; Wang, Yanhui; Chen, Hui; Wu, Wanying; Liu, Xuan; Guo, De-an

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac fibrosis is a deleterious consequence of hypertension which may further advance to heart failure and increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) contributes to the underlying mechanism. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies to attenuate the effects of MMP-9 are urgently needed. In the present study, we characterize salvianolic acid A (SalA) as a novel MMP-9 inhibitor at molecular, cellular and animal level. We expressed a truncated form of MMP-9 which contains only the catalytic domain (MMP-9 CD), and used this active protein for enzymatic kinetic analysis and Biacore detection. Data generated from these assays indicated that SalA functioned as the strongest competitive inhibitor of MMP-9 among 7 phenolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza. In neonatal cardiac fibroblast, SalA inhibited fibroblast migration, blocked myofibroblast transformation, inhibited secretion of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) as well as collagen induced by MMP-9 CD. Functional effects of SalA inhibition on MMP-9 was further confirmed in cultured cardiac H9c2 cell overexpressing MMP-9 in vitro and in heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) in vivo. Moreover, SalA treatment in SHR resulted in decreased heart fibrosis and attenuated heart hypertrophy. These results indicated that SalA is a novel inhibitor of MMP-9, thus playing an inhibitory role in hypertensive fibrosis. Further studies to develop SalA and its analogues for their potential clinical application of cardioprotection are warranted. PMID:23533637

  6. Prevention of Neural Tube Defects: A Cross-Sectional Study of the Uptake of Folic Acid Supplementation in Nearly Half a Million Women

    PubMed Central

    Bestwick, Jonathan P.; Huttly, Wayne J.; Morris, Joan K.; Wald, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Taking folic acid supplements before pregnancy to reduce the risk of a neural tube defect (NTD) is especially important in countries without universal folic acid fortification. The extent of folic acid supplementation among women who had antenatal screening for Down’s syndrome and NTDs at the Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, London between 1999 and 2012 was assessed. Methods and Findings 466,860 women screened provided details on folic acid supplementation. The proportion of women who took folic acid supplements before pregnancy was determined according to year and characteristics of the women. The proportion of women taking folic acid supplements before pregnancy declined from 35% (95% CI 34%–35%) in 1999–2001 to 31% (30%–31%) in 2011–2012. 6% (5%–6%) of women aged under 20 took folic acid supplements before pregnancy compared with 40% of women aged between 35 and 39. Non-Caucasian women were less likely to take folic acid supplements before pregnancy than Caucasian women; Afro-Caribbean 17% (16%–17%), Oriental 25% (24%–25%) and South Asian 20% (20%–21%) compared with 35% (35%–35%) for Caucasian women. 51% (48%–55%) of women who previously had an NTD pregnancy took folic acid supplements before the current pregnancy. Conclusions The policy of folic acid supplementation is failing and has led to health inequalities. This study demonstrates the need to fortify flour and other cereal grain with folic acid in all countries of the world. PMID:24586711

  7. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Calcium Isotopes in Human Serum: A Low-Sample-Volume Acid-Equilibration Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhensheng Chen; Ian J. Griffin; Yana L. Kriseman; Lily K. Liang; Steven A. Abrams

    2003-01-01

    Background: Analytical methods for measuring the calcium isotope distribution in enriched human serum samples that use low blood volumes, simple preparation methods, and rapid analysis are important in clinical studies of calcium kinetics. Previously, sample prepara- tion by oxalate precipitation typically required 500 L of serum. This method was time-consuming, and the blood volume required was limiting in circumstances when

  8. Abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits light-induced stomatal opening through calcium- and nitric oxide-mediated signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Mata, Carlos; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling component of ABA-induced stomatal closure. However, only fragmentary data are available about NO effect on the inhibition of stomatal opening. Here, we present results supporting that, in Vicia faba guard cells, there is a critical Ca2+-dependent NO increase required for the ABA-mediated inhibition of stomatal opening. Light-induced stomatal opening was inhibited by exogenous NO in V. faba epidermal strips. Furthermore, ABA-mediated inhibition of stomatal opening was blocked by the specific NO scavenger cPTIO, supporting the involvement of endogenous NO in this process. Since the raise in Ca2+ concentration is a pre-requisite in ABA-mediated inhibition of stomatal opening, it was interesting to establish how does Ca2+, NO and ABA interact in the inhibition of light-induced stomatal opening. The permeable Ca2+ specific buffer BAPTA-AM blocked both ABA- and Ca2+- but not NO-mediated inhibition of stomatal opening. The NO synthase (NOS) specific inhibitor L-NAME prevented Ca2+-mediated inhibition of stomatal opening, indicating that a NOS-like activity was required for Ca2+ signaling. Furthermore, experiments using the NO specific fluorescent probe DAF-2DA indicated that Ca2+ induces an increase of endogenous NO. These results indicate that, in addition to the roles in ABA-triggered stomatal closure, both NO and Ca2+ are active components of signaling events acting in ABA inhibition of light-induced stomatal opening. Results also support that Ca2+ induces the NO production through the activation of a NOS-like activity. PMID:17889574

  9. Differential Responses of Abaxial and Adaxial Guard Cells of Broad Bean to Abscisic Acid and Calcium1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xi-Qing; Wu, Wei-Hua; Assmann, Sarah M.

    1998-01-01

    Regulation by abscisic acid (ABA) and Ca2+ of broad bean (Vicia faba) abaxial and adaxial guard cell movements and inward K+ currents were compared. One millimolar Ca2+ in the bathing medium inhibited abaxial stomatal opening by 60% but only inhibited adaxial stomatal opening by 15%. The addition of 1 ?m ABA in the bathing medium resulted in 80% inhibition of abaxial but only 45% inhibition of adaxial stomatal opening. Similarly, ABA and Ca2+ each stimulated greater abaxial stomatal closure than adaxial stomatal closure. Whole-cell patch-clamp results showed that the inward K+ currents of abaxial guard cells were inhibited by 60% (?180 mV) in the presence of 1.5 ?m Ca2+ in the cytoplasm, whereas the inward K+ currents of adaxial guard cells were not affected at all by the same treatment. Although 1 ?m ABA in the cytoplasm inhibited the inward K+ currents to a similar extent for both abaxial and adaxial guard cells, the former were more sensitive to ABA applied externally. These results suggest that the abaxial stomata are more sensitive to Ca2+ and ABA than adaxial stomata in regard to stomatal opening and closing processes and that the regulation of the inward K+ currents by ABA may not proceed via a Ca2+-signaling pathway in adaxial guard cells. Therefore, there may be different pathways for ABA- and Ca2+-mediated signal transduction in abaxial and adaxial guard cells. PMID:9847117

  10. Control of. cap alpha. -amylase mRNA accumulation by gibberellic acid and calcium in barley aleurone layers

    SciTech Connect

    Deikman, J.; Jones, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Pulse-labeling of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya) aleurone layers incubated for 13 hours in 2.5 micromolar gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) with or without 5 millimolar CaCl/sub 2/ shows that ..cap alpha..-amylase isozymes 3 and 4 are not synthesized in vivo in the absence of Ca/sup 2 +/. No difference was observed in ..cap alpha..-amylase mRNA levels between layers incubated for 12 hours in 2.5 micromolar GA/sub 3/ with 5 millimolar CaCl/sub 2/ and layers incubated in GA/sub 3/ alone. RNA isolated from layers incubated for 12 hours in GA/sub 3/ with and without CA/sup 2 +/. A cDNA clone for ..cap alpha..-amylase was isolated and used to measure ..cap alpha..-amylase mRNA levels in aleurone layers incubated in the presence and absence of Ca/sup 2 +/ was translated in vitro and was found to produce the same complement of translation products regardless of the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ in the incubation medium. Immunoprecipitation of translation products showed that the RNA for ..cap alpha..-amylase synthesized in Ca/sup 2 +/-deprived aleurone layers was translatable. Ca/sup 2 +/ is required for the synthesis of ..cap alpha..-amylase isozymes 3 and 4 at a step after mRNA accumulation and processing.

  11. Interaction of calcium ions and salivary acidic proline-rich proteins with hydroxyapatite. A possible aspect of inhibition of hydroxyapatite formation.

    PubMed

    Bennick, A; Kells, D; Madapallimattam, G

    1983-07-01

    The relationship between Ca2+- and hydroxyapatite-binding sites in salivary acidic proline-rich phosphoproteins A and C was investigated. Coating of hydroxyapatite with protein before adsorption had no effect on Ca2+ binding to the mineral, but simultaneous adsorption of Ca+ and protein to hydroxyapatite caused additional Ca2+ binding to the solid. The additional amount of Ca2+ adsorbed, measured in mol of Ca2+/mol of protein adsorbed to hydroxyapatite, was approx. 2 for protein C, 4 for protein A, 9 for the N-terminal tryptic peptide and 2 for dephosphorylated protein A. It is suggested that the ability of the proteins to inhibit hydroxyapatite formation is related to the binding of the proteins to crystal growth sites on the mineral, which prevents access of Ca2+ from the surrounding liquid. PMID:6311157

  12. Intracellular spermine prevents acid-induced uncoupling of Cx43 gap junction channels.

    PubMed

    Skatchkov, Serguei N; Bukauskas, Feliksas F; Benedikt, Jan; Inyushin, Mikhail; Kucheryavykh, Yuriy V

    2015-06-17

    Polyamines (PAs), such as spermine and spermidine, modulate the activity of numerous receptors and channels in the central nervous system (CNS) and are stored in glial cells; however, little attention has been paid to their role in the regulation of connexin (Cx)-based gap junction channels. We have previously shown that PAs facilitate diffusion of Lucifer Yellow through astrocytic gap junctions in acute brain slices; therefore, we hypothesized that spermine can regulate Cx43-mediated (as the most abundant Cx in astrocytes) gap junctional communication. We used electrophysiological patch-clamp recording from paired Novikoff cells endogenously expressing Cx43 and HeLaCx43-EGFP transfectants to study pH-dependent modulation of cell-cell coupling in the presence or absence of PAs. Our results showed (i) a higher increase in gap junctional communication at higher concentrations of cytoplasmic spermine, and (ii) that spermine prevented uncoupling of gap junctions at low intracellular pH. Taken together, we conclude that spermine enhances Cx43-mediated gap junctional communication and may preserve neuronal excitability during ischemia and trauma when pH in the brain acidifies. We, therefore, suggest a new role of spermine in the regulation of a Cx43-based network under (patho)physiological conditions. PMID:26011388

  13. Effects of dietary calcium soaps of unsaturated fatty acids on digestion, milk composition and physical properties of butter.

    PubMed

    Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Bayourthe, C; Vernay, M; Moncoulon, R

    1997-05-01

    Dairy cows fitted with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas were utilized to investigate the effects of feeding with Ca soaps (CaS) of palm fatty acids (FA) and rapeseed FA. Diets compared were control diet based on maize silage and concentrate, and two diets with 40 g CaS of palm oil FA or rapeseed oil FA/kg diet, replacing part of the concentrates of the control diet. Total digestibilities of dry matter, fibre and fat, and ruminal fermentation were not significantly altered by giving CaS; the extent of ruminal biohydrogenation of total unsaturated C18 FA was significantly reduced by both CaS diets. Apparent intestinal digestibility of FA was not different among diets, although the amount of FA absorbed with the CaS diets was twice that with the control diet. No difference among diets was observed for milk production, or fat and protein contents. Giving CaS diets decreased the proportions of 4:0 to 14:0 FA in milk fat, and increased cis-18:1n-9, compared with control diet. The rapeseed diet lowered the content of 16:0, and increased the contents of 18:0 and trans-18:1n-7. CaS diets did not result in a marked increase of polyunsaturated FA content in milk fat. Butter from cows fed on the CaS diets contained more liquid fat at 6 and 14 degrees C than butter from the cows fed on the control diet. Incorporating CaS, particularly those from rapeseed, in dairy cows' diets increased C18 FA in milk and improved butter spreadability. PMID:9161912

  14. Calcium partitioning and allocation and blossom-end rot development in tomato plants in response to whole-plant and fruit-specific abscisic acid treatments

    PubMed Central

    Tonetto de Freitas, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms regulating Ca2+ partitioning and allocation in plants and fruit remain poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to determine Ca2+ partitioning and allocation in tomato plants and fruit in response to whole-plant and fruit-specific abscisic acid (ABA) treatments, as well as to analyse the effect of changes in Ca2+ partitioning and allocation on fruit susceptibility to the Ca2+ deficiency disorder blossom-end rot (BER) under water stress conditions. Tomato plants of the cultivar Ace 55 (Vf) were grown in a greenhouse and exposed to low Ca2+ conditions during fruit growth and development. Starting 1 day after pollination (DAP), the following treatments were initiated: (i) whole plants were sprayed weekly with deionized water (control) or (ii) with 500mg l?1 ABA; or fruit on each plant were dipped weekly (iii) in deionized water (control) or (iv) in 500mg l?1 ABA. At 15 DAP, BER was completely prevented by whole-plant or fruit-specific ABA treatments, whereas plants or fruit treated with water had 16–19% BER incidence. At 30 DAP, BER was prevented by the whole-plant ABA treatment, whereas fruit dipped in ABA had a 16% and water-treated plants or fruit had a 36–40% incidence of BER. The results showed that spraying the whole plant with ABA increases xylem sap flow and Ca2+ movement into the fruit, resulting in higher fruit tissue and water-soluble apoplastic Ca2+ concentrations that prevent BER development. Although fruit-specific ABA treatment had no effect on xylem sap flow rates or Ca2+ movement into the fruit, it increased fruit tissue water-soluble apoplastic Ca2+ concentrations and reduced fruit susceptibility to BER to a lesser extent. PMID:24220654

  15. The FXR agonist obeticholic acid prevents gut barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation in cholestatic rats.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Len; Farre, Ricard; Verbinnen, Bert; Covens, Kris; Vanuytsel, Tim; Verhaegen, Jan; Komuta, Mina; Roskams, Tania; Chatterjee, Sagnik; Annaert, Pieter; Vander Elst, Ingrid; Windmolders, Petra; Trebicka, Jonel; Nevens, Frederik; Laleman, Wim

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial translocation (BTL) drives pathogenesis and complications of cirrhosis. Farnesoid X-activated receptor (FXR) is a key transcription regulator in hepatic and intestinal bile metabolism. We studied potential intestinal FXR dysfunction in a rat model of cholestatic liver injury and evaluated effects of obeticholic acid (INT-747), an FXR agonist, on gut permeability, inflammation, and BTL. Rats were gavaged with INT-747 or vehicle during 10 days after bile-duct ligation and then were assessed for changes in gut permeability, BTL, and tight-junction protein expression, immune cell recruitment, and cytokine expression in ileum, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleen. Auxiliary in vitro BTL-mimicking experiments were performed with Transwell supports. Vehicle-treated bile duct-ligated rats exhibited decreased FXR pathway expression in both jejunum and ileum, in association with increased gut permeability through increased claudin-2 expression and related to local and systemic recruitment of natural killer cells resulting in increased interferon-? expression and BTL. After INT-747 treatment, natural killer cells and interferon-? expression markedly decreased, in association with normalized permeability selectively in ileum (up-regulated claudin-1 and occludin) and a significant reduction in BTL. In vitro, interferon-? induced increased Escherichia coli translocation, which remained unaffected by INT-747. In experimental cholestasis, FXR agonism improved ileal barrier function by attenuating intestinal inflammation, leading to reduced BTL and thus demonstrating a crucial protective role for FXR in the gut-liver axis. PMID:25592258

  16. Fusarium Head Blight Control and Prevention of Mycotoxin Contamination in Wheat with Botanicals and Tannic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Forrer, Hans-Rudolf; Musa, Tomke; Schwab, Fabienne; Jenny, Eveline; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Wettstein, Felix E.; Vogelgsang, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Suspensions or solutions with 1% of Chinese galls (Galla chinensis, GC) or 1% of tannic acid (TA), inhibited germination of conidia or mycelium growth of Fusarium graminearum (FG) by 98%–100% or by 75%–80%, respectively, whereas dried bark from buckthorn (Frangula alnus, FA) showed no effect at this concentration. In climate chamber experiments where the wheat variety “Apogee” was artificially inoculated with FG and F. crookwellense (FCr) and treated with 5% suspensions of TA, GC and FA, the deoxynivalenol (DON) content in grains was reduced by 81%, 67% and 33%, respectively. In field experiments with two commercial wheat varieties and artificial or semi-natural inoculations, mean DON reductions of 66% (TA) and 58% (FA), respectively, were obtained. Antifungal toxicity can explain the high efficacies of TA and GC but not those of FA. The Fusarium head blight (FHB) and mycotoxin reducing effect of FA is probably due to elicitation of resistance in wheat plants. With semi-natural inoculation, a single FA application in the first half of the flowering period performed best. However, we assume that applications of FA at the end of ear emergence and a treatment, triggered by an infection period, with TA or GC during flowering, might perform better than synthetic fungicides. PMID:24577585

  17. Fusarium head blight control and prevention of mycotoxin contamination in wheat with botanicals and tannic acid.

    PubMed

    Forrer, Hans-Rudolf; Musa, Tomke; Schwab, Fabienne; Jenny, Eveline; Bucheli, Thomas D; Wettstein, Felix E; Vogelgsang, Susanne

    2014-03-01

    Suspensions or solutions with 1% of Chinese galls (Galla chinensis, GC) or 1% of tannic acid (TA), inhibited germination of conidia or mycelium growth of Fusarium graminearum (FG) by 98%-100% or by 75%-80%, respectively, whereas dried bark from buckthorn (Frangula alnus, FA) showed no effect at this concentration. In climate chamber experiments where the wheat variety "Apogee" was artificially inoculated with FG and F. crookwellense (FCr) and treated with 5% suspensions of TA, GC and FA, the deoxynivalenol (DON) content in grains was reduced by 81%, 67% and 33%, respectively. In field experiments with two commercial wheat varieties and artificial or semi-natural inoculations, mean DON reductions of 66% (TA) and 58% (FA), respectively, were obtained. Antifungal toxicity can explain the high efficacies of TA and GC but not those of FA. The Fusarium head blight (FHB) and mycotoxin reducing effect of FA is probably due to elicitation of resistance in wheat plants. With semi-natural inoculation, a single FA application in the first half of the flowering period performed best. However, we assume that applications of FA at the end of ear emergence and a treatment, triggered by an infection period, with TA or GC during flowering, might perform better than synthetic fungicides. PMID:24577585

  18. Intraperitoneal administration of butyrate prevents the severity of acetic acid colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Malago, Joshua J.; Sangu, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Intrarectal infusion of butyrate improves colorectal disorders including ulcerative colitis (UC). However, it is not established whether systemically administered butyrate benefits such patients. The current study aimed at exploring and comparing the potential of intraperitoneally, intrarectally, and orally administered butyrate against acetic acid (AA)-induced UC in rats. Intrarectal administration of 2 ml of 50% AA was done after or without prior treatment of rats for 7 consecutive days with 100 mg/kg sodium butyrate (SB) intraperitoneally, intrarectally, or orally. Rats were sacrificed after 48 h of AA-treatment. Subsequently, colon sections were processed routinely for histopathological examination. We clinically observed diarrhea, loose stools, and hemoccult-positive stools, and histologically, epithelial loss and ulceration, crypt damage, goblet cell depletion, hemorrhage, and mucosal infiltration of inflammatory cells. The changes were significantly reduced by intraperitoneal, intrarectal, or oral butyrate, with intraperitoneal butyrate exhibiting the highest potency. It is concluded that intraperitoneal administration of butyrate abrogates the lesions of AA-induced UC and its potency surpasses that of intrarectal or oral butyrate. PMID:25743124

  19. Calcium activity and post-ischemic suppression of protein synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Djuricic; G. Röhn; W. Paschen; K.-A. Hossmann

    1995-01-01

    Increase in intracellular calcium concentration is a prominent feature of ischemia and has been considered a major factor in the initiation of ischemic pathology, which involves inhibition of protein synthesis. A reduction of calcium ion activity during and immediately after in vitro ischemia did not prevent inhibition of protein synthesis in hippocampae slices. When slices were overloaded with calcium by

  20. Iron mediates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent stimulation of calcium-induced pathways and hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Pablo; Humeres, Alexis; Elgueta, Claudio; Kirkwood, Alfredo; Hidalgo, Cecilia; Núñez, Marco T

    2011-04-15

    Iron deficiency hinders hippocampus-dependent learning processes and impairs cognitive performance, but current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying the unique role of iron in neuronal function is sparse. Here, we investigated the participation of iron on calcium signal generation and ERK1/2 stimulation induced by the glutamate agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), and the effects of iron addition/chelation on hippocampal basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP). Addition of NMDA to primary hippocampal cultures elicited persistent calcium signals that required functional NMDA receptors and were independent of calcium influx through L-type calcium channels or ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors; NMDA also promoted ERK1/2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Iron chelation with desferrioxamine or inhibition of ryanodine receptor (RyR)-mediated calcium release with ryanodine-reduced calcium signal duration and prevented NMDA-induced ERK1/2 activation. Iron addition to hippocampal neurons readily increased the intracellular labile iron pool and stimulated reactive oxygen species production; the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or the hydroxyl radical trapper MCI-186 prevented these responses. Iron addition to primary hippocampal cultures kept in calcium-free medium elicited calcium signals and stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation; RyR inhibition abolished these effects. Iron chelation decreased basal synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices, inhibited iron-induced synaptic stimulation, and impaired sustained LTP in hippocampal CA1 neurons induced by strong stimulation. In contrast, iron addition facilitated sustained LTP induction after suboptimal tetanic stimulation. Together, these results suggest that hippocampal neurons require iron to generate RyR-mediated calcium signals after NMDA receptor stimulation, which in turn promotes ERK1/2 activation, an essential step of sustained LTP. PMID:21296883

  1. Nuclear calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, C Peter; Bading, Hilmar

    2012-01-01

    Calcium is the major intracellular messenger linking synaptic activity in neurons to gene expression to control diverse functions including adaptive responses to synaptic activity as well as survival and death (Bading et al. 1993; Hardingham et al. 1997; Chawla and Bading 2001; West et al. 2001; Zhang et al. 2007; Flavell and Greenberg 2008; Mellstrom et al. 2008; Redmond 2008; Wayman et al. 2008; Bootman et al. 2009; Zhang et al. 2009; Hardingham and Bading 2010). Calcium entry at the synapse acts locally to activate signaling cascades which regulate posttranslational modifications essential for synaptic plasticity, such as the insertion of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) into the postsynaptic membrane (Soderling 2000; Malinow and Malenka 2002; Ehrlich and Malinow 2004). Synaptic activity can also evoke calcium signals in the nucleus which regulate gene pools largely through the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and its coactivator, CREB-binding protein (CBP) (Bading et al. 1993; Hardingham et al. 1997; Hardingham et al. 1999; Hu et al. 1999; Hardingham et al. 2001b; Impey et al. 2002; Zhang et al. 2009). Distinct mechanisms have been proposed to mediate synaptically generated calcium signals in subcompartments of pyramidal neurons; N-methyl-D -aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and ryanodine receptors have been implicated in the spine, inositol 3,4,5 triphosphate (IP3) receptors in the dendrites, and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) at the soma and nucleus, although both NMDARs and IP3 receptors can also contribute to somatic and nuclear calcium signals under certain stimulation conditions (Nakamura et al. 1999; Bardo et al. 2006; Raymond and Redman 2006; Watanabe et al. 2006; Hong and Ross 2007; Hagenston et al. 2008; Bengtson et al. 2010). We review here the calcium signaling pathways underlying synaptically activated gene transcription leading to long-lasting changes in synaptic efficacy and memory as well as the physiological mechanisms by which synaptic activity evokes nuclear calcium signals. PMID:22351065

  2. Preventive Effects of Omega3 and Omega6 Fatty Acids on Peroxide Mediated Oxidative Stress Responses in Primary Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theofilos Tourtas; Marco T. Birke; Friedrich E. Kruse; Ulrich-Christoph Welge-Lüssen; Kerstin Birke

    2012-01-01

    Pathologic processes in glaucoma include increased apoptosis, accumulation of extracellular material in the trabecular meshwork and optic nerve, condensations of the cytoskeleton and precocious cellular senescence. Oxidative stress was shown to generate these alterations in primary ocular cells. Fatty acids omega-3 and -6 are alleged to constitute a prophylaxis against these deleterious effects. Here, we tested actual preventive effects omega-3

  3. Folic Acid and the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects: A Survey of Awareness Among Latina Women of Childbearing Age Residing in Southeast Michigan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srimathi Kannan; Elaine Menotti; Holly K. Scherer; Jennifer Dickinson; Kimberly Larson

    2007-01-01

    Periconceptional intake of folic acid is known to reduce the risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). To inform southeast Michigan Latina women of childbearing age about the benefits of food and supplemental sources of the micronutrient in the prevention of NTDs, Spanish-English bilingual health educators carried out 20 education events in supermarkets and community organizations serving Latina women. One hundred

  4. Effect of consumption of fatty acids, calcium, vitamin D and boron with regular physical activity on bone mechanical properties and corresponding metabolic hormones in rats.

    PubMed

    Naghii, M R; Ebrahimpour, Y; Darvishi, P; Ghanizadeh, G; Mofid, M; Torkaman, G; Asgari, A R; Hedayati, M

    2012-03-01

    The consumption of fatty acids, nutrients, and regular physical activity, individually influence bone mechanical properties in rats. To investigate their effects in combination, male rats were divided into the seven groups: G1: regular food and drinking water; G2: same as Gr.1 + physical activity (Whole body vibration; WBV); G3: same as Gr.2 + Calcium, Vit. D, Boron; G4: same as Gr.3 + canola oil; G5: same as Gr.3 + sunflower oil; G6: same as Gr.3 + mix of sunflower oil and canola oil; and G7: same as Gr.3 + coconut oil; and treated for 8 weeks. Analysis between the control with the groups 2 and 3 revealed that vibration in the G2 increased the body weight (P = 0.04), with no other major difference in plasma and bone indices. Comparison between the control with the G4-G7 (the oil groups) revealed that the rats in the G5 had a lower body weight (15 % less) and a significant increase in plasma levels of Estradiol in the G7 was noted. In addition, levels of Testosterone in the G4 and G7, and Free Testosterone in the G7 had a remarkable increase. Similar trend was observed for plasma levels of Vit. D in the G4 and G5. The stiffness and the breaking strength of the femur in the G7, and the breaking strength of the lumbar in the G7 compared to the control and the G4 and G5 was significantly higher and tended to increase in comparison to the G6. Better and stronger measurements observed for coconut oil is warranted to further study its effect on biomechanical properties of bones. PMID:22439438

  5. The effects of secular calcium and magnesium concentration changes on the thermodynamics of seawater acid/base chemistry: Implications for Eocene and Cretaceous ocean carbon chemistry and buffering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hain, Mathis P.; Sigman, Daniel M.; Higgins, John A.; Haug, Gerald H.

    2015-05-01

    Reconstructed changes in seawater calcium and magnesium concentration ([Ca2+], [Mg2+]) predictably affect the ocean's acid/base and carbon chemistry. Yet inaccurate formulations of chemical equilibrium "constants" are currently in use to account for these changes. Here we develop an efficient implementation of the MIAMI Ionic Interaction Model to predict all chemical equilibrium constants required for carbon chemistry calculations under variable [Ca2+] and [Mg2+]. We investigate the impact of [Ca2+] and [Mg2+] on the relationships among the ocean's pH, CO2, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), saturation state of CaCO3 (?), and buffer capacity. Increasing [Ca2+] and/or [Mg2+] enhances "ion pairing," which increases seawater buffering by increasing the concentration ratio of total to "free" (uncomplexed) carbonate ion. An increase in [Ca2+], however, also causes a decline in carbonate ion to maintain a given ?, thereby overwhelming the ion pairing effect and decreasing seawater buffering. Given the reconstructions of Eocene [Ca2+] and [Mg2+] ([Ca2+]~20 mM; [Mg2+]~30 mM), Eocene seawater would have required essentially the same DIC as today to simultaneously explain a similar-to-modern ? and the estimated Eocene atmospheric CO2 of ~1000 ppm. During the Cretaceous, at ~4 times modern [Ca2+], ocean buffering would have been at a minimum. Overall, during times of high seawater [Ca2+], CaCO3 saturation, pH, and atmospheric CO2 were more susceptible to perturbations of the global carbon cycle. For example, given both Eocene and Cretaceous seawater [Ca2+] and [Mg2+], a doubling of atmospheric CO2 would require less carbon addition to the ocean/atmosphere system than under modern seawater composition. Moreover, increasing seawater buffering since the Cretaceous may have been a driver of evolution by raising energetic demands of biologically controlled calcification and CO2 concentration mechanisms that aid photosynthesis.

  6. Differential gene expression for glutamic acid decarboxylase and type II calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in basal ganglia, thalamus, and hypothalamus of the monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.L.; Isackson, P.J.; Hendry, S.H.; Jones, E.G. (Department of Anatomy, University of California, Irvine (USA))

    1991-06-01

    In situ hybridization histochemistry, using cRNA probes, revealed a complementarity in the distributions of cells in the basal ganglia, basal nucleus of Meynert, thalamus, hypothalamus, and rostral part of the midbrain that showed gene expression for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) or the alpha-subunit of type II calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CAM II kinase-alpha). Cells in certain nuclei such as the thalamic reticular nucleus, globus pallidus, and pars reticulata of the substantia nigra show GAD gene expression only; others in nuclei such as the basal nucleus of Meynert, medial mamillary nuclei, and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei show CAM II kinase-alpha gene expression only. A few nuclei, for example, the pars compacta of the substantia nigra and the greater part of the subthalamic nucleus, display gene expression for neither GAD nor CAM II kinase-alpha. In other nuclei, notably those of the dorsal thalamus, and possibly in the striatum, GAD- and CAM II kinase-expressing cells appear to form two separate populations that, in most thalamic nuclei, together account for the total cell population. In situ hybridization reveals large amounts of CAM II kinase-alpha mRNA in the neuropil of most nuclei containing CAM II kinase-alpha-positive cells, suggesting its association with dendritic polyribosomes. The message may thus be translated at those sites, close to the synapses with which the protein is associated. The in situ hybridization results, coupled with those from immunocytochemical staining for CAM II kinase-alpha protein, indicate that CAM II kinase-alpha is commonly found in certain non-GABAergic afferent fiber systems but is not necessarily present in the postsynaptic cells on which they terminate. It appears to be absent from most GABAergic fiber systems but can be present in the cells on which they terminate.

  7. Preventing protein oxidation with sugars: scavenging of hypohalous acids by 5-selenopyranose and 4-selenofuranose derivatives.

    PubMed

    Storkey, Corin; Pattison, David I; White, Jonathan M; Schiesser, Carl H; Davies, Michael J

    2012-11-19

    Heme peroxidases including myeloperoxidase (MPO) are released at sites of inflammation by activated leukocytes. MPO generates hypohalous acids (HOX, X = Cl, Br, SCN) from H(2)O(2); these oxidants are bactericidal and are key components of the inflammatory response. However, excessive, misplaced or mistimed production can result in host tissue damage, with this implicated in multiple inflammatory diseases. We report here methods for the conversion of simple monosaccharide sugars into selenium- and sulfur-containing species that may act as potent water-soluble scavengers of HOX. Competition kinetic studies show that the seleno species react with HOCl with rate constants in the range 0.8-1.0 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), only marginally slower than those for the most susceptible biological targets including the endogenous antioxidant, glutathione. The rate constants for the corresponding sulfur-sugars are considerably slower (1.4-1.9 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)). Rate constants for reaction of the seleno-sugars with HOBr are ~8 times lower than those for HOCl (1.0-1.5 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1)). These values show little variation with differing sugar structures. Reaction with HOSCN is slower (~10(2) M(-1) s(-1)). The seleno-sugars decreased the extent of HOCl-mediated oxidation of Met, His, Trp, Lys, and Tyr residues, and 3-chlorotyrosine formation, on both isolated bovine serum albumin and human plasma proteins, at concentrations as low as 50 ?M. These studies demonstrate that novel selenium (and to a lesser extent, sulfur) derivatives of monosaccharides could be potent modulators of peroxidase-mediated damage at sites of acute and chronic inflammation, and in multiple human pathologies. PMID:23075063

  8. The Proteomic and Genomic Teratogenicity Elicited by Valproic Acid Is Preventable with Resveratrol and ?-Tocopherol

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yeh; Lin, Ping-Xiao; Hsieh, Chiu-Lan; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Peng, Robert Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previously, we reported that valproic acid (VPA), a common antiepileptic drug and a potent teratogenic, dowregulates RBP4 in chicken embryo model (CEM) when induced by VPA. Whether such teratogenicity is associated with more advanced proteomic and genomic alterations, we further performed this present study. Methodology/Principal Findings VPA (60 µM) was applied to 36 chicken embryos at HH stage 10 (day-1.5). Resveratrol (RV) and vitamin E (vit E) (each at 0.2 and 2.0 µM) were applied simultaneously to explore the alleviation effect. The proteins in the cervical muscles of the day-1 chicks were analyzed using 2D-electrophoresis and LC/MS/MS. While the genomics associated with each specific protein alteration was examined with RT-PCR and qPCR. At earlier embryonic stage, VPA downregulated PEBP1 and BHMT genes and at the same time upregulated MYL1, ALB and FLNC genes significantly (p<0.05) without affecting PKM2 gene. Alternatively, VPA directly inhibited the folate-independent (or the betaine-dependent) remethylation pathway. These features were effectively alleviated by RV and vit E. Conclusions VPA alters the expression of PEBP1, BHMT, MYL1, ALB and FLNC that are closely related with metabolic myopathies, myogenesis, albumin gene expression, and haemolytic anemia. On the other hand, VPA directly inhibits the betaine-dependent remethylation pathway. Taken together, VPA elicits hemorrhagic myoliposis via these action mechanisms, and RV and vit E are effective for alleviation of such adverse effects. PMID:25551574

  9. A 7-day oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids was ineffective to prevent muscle damage during a marathon.

    PubMed

    Areces, Francisco; Salinero, Juan Jose; Abian-Vicen, Javier; González-Millán, Cristina; Gallo-Salazar, Cesar; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Lara, Beatriz; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 7-day oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to prevent muscle damage during a marathon. Forty-six experienced runners were randomly divided into two groups, one with BCAA supplementation (n = 25, supplemented with 5 g day(-1) of powdered 1:0.5:0.5 leucine:isoleucine:valine, during the 7 days prior to the competition) and the other as a control group (n = 21, supplemented with an isocaloric placebo). Before the marathon race and within 3 min of finishing, leg muscle power was measured with a maximal countermovement jump and a urine sample was obtained. During the race, running pace was measured by means of a time-chip. Myoglobin concentration was determined in the urine samples as an indirect marker of muscle damage. A visual analog scale (0-10 points) was used to assess leg muscle pain during the race. In the BCAA group, the mean running pace during the marathon was similar to the control group (3.3 ± 0.4 vs. 3.3 ± 0.5 m s(-1), respectively, 0.98). The pre- to post-race reduction in muscle power was similar in both BCAA and control groups (-23.0 ± 16.1 vs. -17.3 ± 13.8 %, P = 0.13). Post-race urine myoglobin concentration was similar in both BCAA and control groups (5.4 ± 7.5 vs. 4.5 ± 8.6 ?g mL(-1), P = 0.70). Finally, there were no differences between groups in the perceived muscle pain during the race (6 ± 1 vs. 5 ± 1 points, P = 0.80). A 7-day supplementation of BCAA (5 g day(-1)) did not increase the running performance during a marathon. Furthermore, BCAA supplementation was ineffective to prevent muscle power loss, muscle damage or perceived muscle pain during a marathon race. PMID:24477835

  10. Omega 3 fatty acids for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Lee; Harrison, Roger A; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Moore, Helen; Worthington, Helen V; Ness, Andrew; Capps, Nigel; Smith, George Davey; Riemersma, Rudolph; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that omega 3 (W3, n-3 or omega-3) fats from oily fish and plants are beneficial to health. Objectives To assess whether dietary or supplemental omega 3 fatty acids alter total mortality, cardiovascular events or cancers using both RCT and cohort studies. Search methods Five databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to February 2002. No language restrictions were applied. Bibliographies were checked and authors contacted. Selection criteria RCTs were included where omega 3 intake or advice was randomly allocated and unconfounded, and study duration was at least six months. Cohorts were included where a cohort was followed up for at least six months and omega 3 intake estimated. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed for inclusion, data extracted and quality assessed independently in duplicate. Random effects meta-analysis was performed separately for RCT and cohort data. Main results Forty eight randomised controlled trials (36,913 participants) and 41 cohort analyses were included. Pooled trial results did not show a reduction in the risk of total mortality or combined cardiovascular events in those taking additional omega 3 fats (with significant statistical heterogeneity). Sensitivity analysis, retaining only studies at low risk of bias, reduced heterogeneity and again suggested no significant effect of omega 3 fats. Restricting analysis to trials increasing fish-based omega 3 fats, or those increasing short chain omega 3s, did not suggest significant effects on mortality or cardiovascular events in either group. Subgroup analysis by dietary advice or supplementation, baseline risk of CVD or omega 3 dose suggested no clear effects of these factors on primary outcomes. Neither RCTs nor cohorts suggested increased relative risk of cancers with higher omega 3 intake but estimates were imprecise so a clinically important effect could not be excluded. Authors’ conclusions It is not clear that dietary or supplemental omega 3 fats alter total mortality, combined cardiovascular events or cancers in people with, or at high risk of, cardiovascular disease or in the general population. There is no evidence we should advise people to stop taking rich sources of omega 3 fats, but further high quality trials are needed to confirm suggestions of a protective effect of omega 3 fats on cardiovascular health. There is no clear evidence that omega 3 fats differ in effectiveness according to fish or plant sources, dietary or supplemental sources, dose or presence of placebo. PMID:15495044

  11. Salvianolic acid B prevents bone loss in prednisone-treated rats through stimulation of osteogenesis and bone marrow angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Liao; Li, Ting; Liu, Yuyu; Zhou, Le; Li, Pinghua; Xu, Bilian; Huang, Lianfang; Chen, Yan; Liu, Yanzhi; Tian, Xiaoyan; Jee, Webster S S; Wu, Tie

    2012-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) induced osteoporosis (GIO) is caused by the long-term use of GC for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The GC related disruption of bone marrow microcirculation and increased adipogenesis contribute to GIO development. However, neither currently available anti-osteoporosis agent is completely addressed to microcirculation and bone marrow adipogenesis. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is a polyphenolic compound from a Chinese herbal medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Sal B on osteoblast bone formation, angiogenesis and adipogenesis-associated GIO by performing marrow adipogenesis and microcirculation dilation and bone histomorphometry analyses. (1) In vivo study: Bone loss in GC treated rats was confirmed by significantly decreased BMD, bone strength, cancellous bone mass and architecture, osteoblast distribution, bone formation, marrow microvessel density and diameter along with down-regulation of marrow BMPs expression and increased adipogenesis. Daily treatment with Sal B (40 mg/kg/d) for 12 weeks in GC male rats prevented GC-induced cancellous bone loss and increased adipogenesis while increasing cancellous bone formation rate with improved local microcirculation by capillary dilation. Treatment with Sal B at a higher dose (80 mg/kg/d) not only prevented GC-induced osteopenia, but also increased cancellous bone mass and thickness, associated with increase of marrow BMPs expression, inhibited adipogenesis and further increased microvessel diameters. (2) In vitro study: In concentration from 10(-6) mol/L to 10(-7) mol/L, Sal B stimulated bone marrow stromal cell (MSC) differentiation to osteoblast and increased osteoblast activities, decreased GC associated adipogenic differentiation by down-regulation of PPAR? mRNA expression, increased Runx2 mRNA expression without osteoblast inducement, and, furthermore, Sal B decreased Dickkopf-1 and increased ?-catenin mRNA expression with or without adipocyte inducement in MSC. We conclude that Sal B prevented bone loss in GC-treated rats through stimulation of osteogenesis, bone marrow angiogenesis and inhibition of adipogenesis. PMID:22493705

  12. Salvianolic Acid B Prevents Bone Loss in Prednisone-Treated Rats through Stimulation of Osteogenesis and Bone Marrow Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liao; Li, Ting; Liu, Yuyu; Zhou, Le; Li, Pinghua; Xu, Bilian; Huang, Lianfang; Chen, Yan; Liu, Yanzhi; Tian, Xiaoyan; Jee, Webster S. S.; Wu, Tie

    2012-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) induced osteoporosis (GIO) is caused by the long-term use of GC for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The GC related disruption of bone marrow microcirculation and increased adipogenesis contribute to GIO development. However, neither currently available anti-osteoporosis agent is completely addressed to microcirculation and bone marrow adipogenesis. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is a polyphenolic compound from a Chinese herbal medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Sal B on osteoblast bone formation, angiogenesis and adipogenesis-associated GIO by performing marrow adipogenesis and microcirculation dilation and bone histomorphometry analyses. (1) In vivo study: Bone loss in GC treated rats was confirmed by significantly decreased BMD, bone strength, cancellous bone mass and architecture, osteoblast distribution, bone formation, marrow microvessel density and diameter along with down-regulation of marrow BMPs expression and increased adipogenesis. Daily treatment with Sal B (40 mg/kg/d) for 12 weeks in GC male rats prevented GC-induced cancellous bone loss and increased adipogenesis while increasing cancellous bone formation rate with improved local microcirculation by capillary dilation. Treatment with Sal B at a higher dose (80 mg/kg/d) not only prevented GC-induced osteopenia, but also increased cancellous bone mass and thickness, associated with increase of marrow BMPs expression, inhibited adipogenesis and further increased microvessel diameters. (2) In vitro study: In concentration from 10?6 mol/L to 10?7 mol/L, Sal B stimulated bone marrow stromal cell (MSC) differentiation to osteoblast and increased osteoblast activities, decreased GC associated adipogenic differentiation by down-regulation of PPAR? mRNA expression, increased Runx2 mRNA expression without osteoblast inducement, and, furthermore, Sal B decreased Dickkopf-1 and increased ?-catenin mRNA expression with or without adipocyte inducement in MSC. We conclude that Sal B prevented bone loss in GC-treated rats through stimulation of osteogenesis, bone marrow angiogenesis and inhibition of adipogenesis. PMID:22493705

  13. Conjugated linoleic Acid prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice by modulating both osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Fernandes, Gabriel; Williams, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. Beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on bone mineral density (BMD) have been reported in mice, rats and humans, but the effect of long term CLA supplementation against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice and the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been studied yet. Eight-week old ovariectomized (Ovx) and sham operated C57BL/6 mice were fed either a diet containing 0.5 % safflower oil (SFO) or 0.5 % CLA for 24 weeks to examine BMD, bone turn over markers and osteotropic factors. Bone marrow (BM) cells were cultured to determine the effect on inflammation, osteoclastogenesis, and osteoblastogenesis. SFO/Ovx mice had significantly lower femoral, tibial and lumbar BMD compared to SFO/Sham mice; whereas, no difference was found between CLA/Ovx and CLA/Sham mice. CLA inhibited bone resorption markers whereas enhanced bone formation markers in Ovx mice as compared to SFO-fed mice. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence activated cell sorting analyses of splenocytes revealed that CLA inhibited pro-osteoclastogenic receptor activator of NF-?B (RANKL) and stimulated decoy receptor of RANKL, osteoprotegerin expression. CLA also inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine and enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine production of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated splenocytes and BM cells. Furthermore, CLA inhibited osteoclast differentiation in BM and stimulated osteoblast differentiation in BM stromal cells as confirmed by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. In conclusion, CLA may prevent postmenopausal bone loss not only by inhibiting excessive bone resorption due to estrogen deficiency but also by stimulating new bone formation. CLA might be a potential alternative therapy against osteoporotic bone loss. PMID:24338525

  14. Meteoric calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plane, John M. C.

    2011-11-01

    Calcium is found throughout the solar system, the Earth's crust and oceans, and is an essential constituent of cells, shells and bones -- yet it is curiously scarce in the upper atmosphere. John Plane ponders on this 25-year-old mystery.

  15. Project Calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.; Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Allan, S.E.; Bieber, J.

    1992-09-01

    Fouling problems in utility boilers have been classified into two principal types: high-temperature and low-temperature fouling. A multiclient-sponsored program was initiated at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to better understand the causes of low-temperature fouling when burning high-calcium western US coals. The goals of Project Calcium were to define the low-temperature deposition problem, identify the calcium-based components that are responsible for the formation of the deposits, develop ways to predict their formation, and identify possible methods to mitigate the formation of these deposits. To achieve the goals of Project Calcium, detailed sampling of utility boilers and laboratory-scale studies coupled with state-of-the-art methods to determine the inorganic components in coals and coal ash-derived materials were conducted. Boiler Sampling was also performed. The work involved sampling coal, entrained ash, deposits and slags from five full-scale utility boilers combined with detailed advanced characterization of the materials. The results of this work aided in identifying the key phenomena to focus the laboratory studies and in model verification. Field testing was conducted at three utilities.

  16. The calcium paradox - What should we have to fear?

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcos Aurélio Barboza; Brandi, Antônio Carlos; dos Santos, Carlos Alberto; Botelho, Paulo Henrique Husseni; Cortez, José Luís Lasso; Goissis, Gilberto; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2014-01-01

    The calcium paradox was first mentioned in 1966 by Zimmerman et al. Thereafter gained great interest from the scientific community due to the fact of the absence of calcium ions in heart muscle cells produce damage similar to ischemia-reperfusion. Although not all known mechanisms involved in cellular injury in the calcium paradox intercellular connection maintained only by nexus seems to have a key role in cellular fragmentation. The addition of small concentrations of calcium, calcium channel blockers, and hyponatraemia hypothermia are important to prevent any cellular damage during reperfusion solutions with physiological concentration of calcium. PMID:25140476

  17. Calcium kinetics and the long-term effects of lowering dialysate calcium concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Àngel Argilés; Peter G Kerr; Bernard Canaud; Jean Louis Flavier; Charles Mion

    1993-01-01

    Calcium kinetics and the long-term effects of lowering dialysate calcium concentration. The optimal dialysate calcium (Ca) content for hemodialysis has been classically fixed at 1.75 mM. However, this dialysate Ca concentration (dCa) with its positive intradialytic Ca balance combined with the use of CaCO3 as a phosphate binder may result in hypercalcemia. To prevent or treat hypercalcemia, a decrease in

  18. Original article Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate; accepted 19 November 1999) Abstract --Dairy products provide abundant, accessible calcium for humans, while some calcium sulfate-rich mineral waters could provide appreciable amounts of calcium

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents dendritic cell maturation and in vitro and in vivo expression of the IL-12 cytokine family

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute and chronic inflammation play essential roles in inflammatory/autoimmune conditions. Protective anti-inflammatory effects of the n-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were reported in animal models of colitis, sepsis, and stroke. Since dendritic cells (DC) represent the essential cellular link between innate and adaptive immunity and have a prominent role in tolerance for self-antigens, we sought to investigate the impact of DHA on DC maturation and proinflammatory cytokine production. Methods Murine bone marrow-derived DC were treated with DHA and stimulated with various toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. Flow cytometry was used to determine the levels of surface maturation markers and endocytic activity. Cytokine expression and secretion were measured by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA assays. PPAR? and NF?B activity in nuclear extracts were determined by binding to specific oligonucleotide sequences using ELISA-based assays. In vivo effects of DHA were assessed in splenic DC from LPS-inoculated mice maintained on a DHA-enriched diet. Results DHA maintained the immature phenotype in bone marrow-derived DC by preventing the upregulation of MHCII and costimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80 and CD86) and maintaining high levels of endocytic activity. DHA inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including the IL-12 cytokine family (IL-12p70, IL-23, and IL-27), from DC stimulated with TLR2, 3, 4, and 9 ligands. DHA inhibition of IL-12 expression was mediated through activation of PPAR? and inhibition of NF?Bp65 nuclear translocation. DHA exerted a similar inhibitory effect on IL-12 and IL-23 expression in vivo in LPS-inoculated mice maintained on a DHA-enriched diet. Conclusions Exposure of bone marrow-derived DC to DHA resulted in the maintenance of an immature phenotype and drastic reduction in proinflammatory cytokine release. DHA inhibited the expression and secretion of the IL-12 cytokine family members (IL-12p70, IL-23 and IL-27), which play essential roles in the differentiation of the proinflammatory Th1/Th17 effector cells. The effect of DHA on IL-12 expression was mediated through activation of PPAR? and inhibition of NF?B. Inhibition of IL-12 and IL-23 expression was also evident in splenic DC from mice fed a DHA-enriched diet, suggesting that dietary DHA acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in vivo. PMID:20122166

  20. Endoscopic tissue shielding method with polyglycolic acid sheets and fibrin glue to prevent delayed perforation after duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Takimoto, Kengo; Imai, Yoshihito; Matsuyama, Kiichi

    2014-04-01

    Delayed perforation after duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) occurs at a high rate because the duodenal wall is very thin and the artificial ulcer after resection is exposed to bile and pancreatic juice. We investigated the application of the combination of a polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheet and fibrin glue. PGA sheets comprise materials widely used in surgery for absorbable thread. Fibrin glue is a heated blood product and is used for hemostasis during operations. We developed a combined method using both materials. We have used this method in two cases. One case involved an elevated lesion located in the lower duodenal angle of the duodenum. The other involved an elevated lesion in the second portion of the duodenum. About 1 week after ESD, the PGA sheets remained covering the ulcer and delayed perforation did not occur. We were able to easily carry out this method for several parts of the duodenum. This method may be helpful for the prevention of delayed perforation after duodenal ESD. PMID:24750148

  1. Protocatechuic Acid Prevents oxLDL-Induced Apoptosis by Activating JNK/Nrf2 Survival Signals in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Santangelo, Carmela; Filesi, Carmelina; Galvano, Fabio; D'Archivio, Massimo; Masella, Roberta; Giovannini, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Protocatechuic acid (PCA), one of the main metabolites of complex polyphenols, exerts numerous biological activities including antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherosclerotic effects. Oxidised LDL have atherogenic properties by damaging arterial wall cells and inducing p53-dependent apoptosis in macrophages. This study was aimed at defining the molecular mechanism responsible for the protective effects of PCA against oxidative and proapoptotic damage exerted by oxLDL in J774 A.1 macrophages. We found that the presence of PCA in cells treated with oxLDL completely inhibited the p53-dependent apoptosis induced by oxLDL. PCA decreased oxLDL-induced ROS overproduction and in particular prevented the early increase of ROS. This decrease seemed to be the main signal responsible for maintaining the intracellular redox homeostasis hindering the activation of p53 induced by ROS, p38MAPK, and PKC?. Consequently the overexpression of the proapoptotic p53-target genes such as p66Shc protein did not occur. Finally, we demonstrated that PCA induced the activation of JNK, which, in turn, determined the increase of nuclear Nrf2, leading to inhibition of the early ROS overproduction. We concluded that the antiapoptotic mechanism of PCA was most likely related to the activation of the JNK-mediated survival signals that strengthen the cellular antioxidant defences rather than to the PCA antioxidant power.

  2. Efficacy of all-trans retinoid acid in preventing nickel induced cardiotoxicity in myocardial cells of rats.

    PubMed

    Lou, Siyue; Zhong, Like; Yang, Xiaochun; Xue, Tao; Gai, Renhua; Zhu, Difeng; Zhao, Yuqin; Yang, Bo; Ying, Meidan; He, Qiaojun

    2013-01-01

    Nickel, a metal commonly found in battery plants and welding factories, has potential cardiotoxicity, while all-trans retinoid acid (atRA) can promote cardiovascular repair and myocardial recovery. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether atRA could prevent cardiotoxicity induced by nickel both in vitro and in vivo. In the study, a rat myocardial cell line (H9c2) exposed to different concentrations of nickel chloride (NiCl(2)) displayed apoptotic features accompanied by reactive oxygen species generation. In addition, NiCl(2) also caused obvious apoptosis and systolic dysfunction in primary myocardial cells. Treatment with atRA efficiently attenuated the cytotoxicities triggered by NiCl(2) as it significantly mitigated ROS generation and decreased MAP kinases activity in NiCl(2)-treated cardiomyocytes. Additionally, NiCl(2) exposure caused obvious arrhythmia in Sprague-Dawley rats with the maximum tolerance dose of NiCl(2) between 2 and 3mg/kg. A combinational intragastric administration of 40mg/kg atRA can partially reverse NiCl(2)-induced arrhythmia in rats. Our results suggested that atRA might have therapeutic potential in alleviating the adverse effects of nickel on the cardiovascular system. PMID:22989704

  3. Current Review of Genetically Modified Lactic Acid Bacteria for the Prevention and Treatment of Colitis Using Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Chatel, Jean-Marc; Miyoshi, Anderson; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are disorders of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by recurrent inflammation that requires lifelong treatments. Probiotic microorganisms appear as an alternative for these patients; however, probiotic characteristics are strain dependent and each probiotic needs to be tested to understand the underlining mechanisms involved in their beneficial properties. Genetic modification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was also described as a tool for new IBD treatments. The first part of this review shows different genetically modified LAB (GM-LAB) described for IBD treatment since 2000. Then, the two principally studied strategies are discussed (i) GM-LAB producing antioxidant enzymes and (ii) GM-LAB producing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Different delivery systems, including protein delivery and DNA delivery, will also be discussed. Studies show the efficacy of GM-LAB (using different expression systems) for the prevention and treatment of IBD, highlighting the importance of the bacterial strain selection (with anti-inflammatory innate properties) as a promising alternative. These microorganisms could be used in the near future for the development of therapeutic products with anti-inflammatory properties that can improve the quality of life of IBD patients.

  4. Molecular Structure of Calcium Monoxide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-06-03

    Calcium Oxide is a caustic white solid sparingly soluble in water; the commercial form is prepared by roasting calcium carbonate limestone in kilns until all the carbon dioxide is driven off. Calcium oxide is also known as burnt lime or caustic lime. This lime was used in glass production. Its ability to work with silicates is also used in modern metal production (steel, magnesium, aluminum, and other non-ferrous metals) industries to remove impurities as slag. It is also used in water and sewage treatment to reduce acidity; in agriculture to improve acid soils; and in pottery, concrete, paints and the food industry (pH adjuster for ice milk mix, dietary Supplements, dough conditioner, and yeast food).

  5. Original article Stability of milk-derived calcium

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Stability of milk-derived calcium phosphate suspensions Skelte G. ANEMA* Fonterra January 2009 Abstract ­ Milk-derived calcium phosphate (MDCP) can be isolated from whey derived from acid casein or cottage cheese manufacture as a precipitated calcium phosphate material. However

  6. Calcium-dependent nitric oxide production is involved in the cytoprotective properties of n-acetylcysteine in glycochenodeoxycholic acid-induced cell death in hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Rubio, Sandra; Linares, Clara I.; Bello, Rosario I. [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Gonzalez, Raul; Ferrin, Gustavo [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red de Enfermedades Hepaticas y Digestivas (CIBEREH o Ciberehd) (Spain); Hidalgo, Ana B. [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Munoz-Gomariz, Elisa [Department of Biostatistics, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Rodriguez, Blanca A. [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Barrera, Pilar; Ranchal, Isidora [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red de Enfermedades Hepaticas y Digestivas (CIBEREH o Ciberehd) (Spain); Duran-Prado, Mario [Instituto de Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez Neyra, CSIC, Granada (Spain); CIBER Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion CB06/03, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo (Spain); Aguilar-Melero, Patricia [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); De la Mata, Manuel [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red de Enfermedades Hepaticas y Digestivas (CIBEREH o Ciberehd) (Spain); Muntane, Jordi, E-mail: jordi.muntane.exts@juntadeandalucia.e [Liver Research Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red de Enfermedades Hepaticas y Digestivas (CIBEREH o Ciberehd) (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    The intracellular oxidative stress has been involved in bile acid-induced cell death in hepatocytes. Nitric oxide (NO) exerts cytoprotective properties in glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA)-treated hepatocytes. The study evaluated the involvement of Ca{sup 2+} on the regulation of NO synthase (NOS)-3 expression during N-acetylcysteine (NAC) cytoprotection against GCDCA-induced cell death in hepatocytes. The regulation of Ca{sup 2+} pools (EGTA or BAPTA-AM) and NO (L-NAME or NO donor) production was assessed during NAC cytoprotection in GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} entrance was induced by A23187 in HepG2. Cell death, Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, NOS-1, -2 and -3 expression, AP-1 activation, and NO production were evaluated. GCDCA reduced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration and NOS-3 expression, and enhanced cell death in HepG2. NO donor prevented, and L-NAME enhanced, GCDCA-induced cell death. The reduction of Ca{sup 2+} entry by EGTA, but not its release from intracellular stores by BAPTA-AM, enhanced cell death in GCDCA-treated cells. The stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} entrance by A23187 reduced cell death and enhanced NOS-3 expression in GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The cytoprotective properties of NAC were related to the recovery of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration, NOS-3 expression and NO production induced by GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The increase of NO production by Ca{sup 2+}-dependent NOS-3 expression during NAC administration reduces cell death in GCDCA-treated hepatocytes.

  7. Osteopetrorickets due to Snx10 deficiency in mice results from both failed osteoclast activity and loss of gastric acid-dependent calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liang; Morse, Leslie R; Zhang, Li; Sasaki, Hajime; Mills, Jason C; Odgren, Paul R; Sibbel, Greg; Stanley, James R L; Wong, Gee; Zamarioli, Ariane; Battaglino, Ricardo A

    2015-03-01

    Mutations in sorting nexin 10 (Snx10) have recently been found to account for roughly 4% of all human malignant osteopetrosis, some of them fatal. To study the disease pathogenesis, we investigated the expression of Snx10 and created mouse models in which Snx10 was knocked down globally or knocked out in osteoclasts. Endocytosis is severely defective in Snx10-deficient osteoclasts, as is extracellular acidification, ruffled border formation, and bone resorption. We also discovered that Snx10 is highly expressed in stomach epithelium, with mutations leading to high stomach pH and low calcium solubilization. Global Snx10-deficiency in mice results in a combined phenotype: osteopetrosis (due to osteoclast defect) and rickets (due to high stomach pH and low calcium availability, resulting in impaired bone mineralization). Osteopetrorickets, the paradoxical association of insufficient mineralization in the context of a positive total body calcium balance, is thought to occur due to the inability of the osteoclasts to maintain normal calcium-phosphorus homeostasis. However, osteoclast-specific Snx10 knockout had no effect on calcium balance, and therefore led to severe osteopetrosis without rickets. Moreover, supplementation with calcium gluconate rescued mice from the rachitic phenotype and dramatically extended life span in global Snx10-deficient mice, suggesting that this may be a life-saving component of the clinical approach to Snx10-dependent human osteopetrosis that has previously gone unrecognized. We conclude that tissue-specific effects of Snx10 mutation need to be considered in clinical approaches to this disease entity. Reliance solely on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can leave hypocalcemia uncorrected with sometimes fatal consequences. These studies established an essential role for Snx10 in bone homeostasis and underscore the importance of gastric acidification in calcium uptake. PMID:25811986

  8. Comparison of Four Strong Acids on the Precipitation Potential of Gypsum in Brines During Distillation of Pretreated, Augmented Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, Dean

    2011-01-01

    Two batches of nominally pretreated and augmented urine were prepared with the baseline pretreatment formulation of sulfuric acid and chromium trioxide. The urine was augmented with inorganic salts and organic compounds in order to simulate a urinary ionic concentrations representing the upper 95 percentile on orbit. Three strong mineral acids: phosphoric, hydrochloric, and nitric acid, were substituted for the sulfuric acid for comparison to the baseline sulfuric acid pretreatment formulation. Three concentrations of oxidizer in the pretreatment formulation were also tested. Pretreated urine was distilled to 85% water recovery to determine the effect of each acid and its conjugate base on the precipitation of minerals during distillation. The brines were analyzed for calcium and sulfate ion, total, volatile, and fixed suspended solids. Test results verified that substitution of phosphoric, hydrochloric, or nitric acids for sulfuric acid would prevent the precipitation of gypsum up to 85% recovery from pretreated urine representing the upper 95 percentile calcium concentration on orbit.

  9. A novel once daily microparticulate dosage form comprising lansoprazole to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough in the case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: preparation, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Alai, Milind; Lin, Wen Jen

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate the lansoprazole (LPZ)-loaded microparticles to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough in the case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The microparticulate delivery system was prepared by solvent evaporation method using Eudragit RS100 as a matrix polymer followed by enteric coated with Eudragit S100 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate HP55 using spray drying method. The enteric coated microparticles were stable in gastric pH condition. In vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in male Wistar rats demonstrated that enteric coated microparticles sustained release of LPZ and promoted ulcer healing activity. In other words, the microparticulate dosage form provided effective drug concentration for a longer period as compared to conventional extended release dosage form, and showed sufficient anti-acid secretion activity to treat acid related disorders including the enrichment of nocturnal acid breakthrough event based on a once daily administration. PMID:23294453

  10. Biomass bioconversion to calcium magnesium acetate deicing salt. Final project report on Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Trantolo, D.J.

    1989-06-01

    The project experimentally investigated using biomass as feedstock for conversion to calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), an alternative road salt. This new organic road salt will prevent corrosion of bridge decks, underground cables, and rusting of cars and trucks. CMA from biomass will reduce costs, compared to petroleum and natural gas for making this material. Phase I work focused on bioconversion of sewage sludge residuals to CMA. The process is based on a packed bed fermenter to produce acetic acid from biomass, as well as liquid ion exchange to recover acetic acid from the fermenter broth prior to the final production step which occurs by passing the acetic acid over limestone. In Phase I: (1) percent bioconversion and kinetics of biomass to acetic acid have been confirmed in small batch fermenters; (2) equilibrium constants for acetic acid recovery via liquid ion exchange have been documented; and (3) rates of conversion to CMA have been determined.

  11. Dietary inclusion of diallyl disulfide, yucca powder, calcium fumarate, an extruded linseed product, or medium-chain fatty acids does not affect methane production in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    van Zijderveld, S M; Dijkstra, J; Perdok, H B; Newbold, J R; Gerrits, W J J

    2011-06-01

    Two similar experiments were conducted to assess the effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS), yucca powder (YP), calcium fumarate (CAFU), an extruded linseed product (UNSAT), or a mixture of capric and caprylic acid (MCFA) on methane production, energy balance, and dairy cow performance. In experiment 1, a control diet (CON1) and diets supplemented with 56 mg of DADS/kg of dry matter (DM), 3g of YP/kg of DM, or 25 g of CAFU/kg of DM were evaluated. In experiment 2, an inert saturated fat source in the control diet (CON2) was exchanged isolipidically for an extruded linseed source (100g/kg of DM; UNSAT) or a mixture of C8:0 and C10:0 (MCFA; 20.3g/kg of DM). In experiment 2, a higher inclusion level of DADS (200mg/kg of DM) was also tested. Both experiments were conducted using 40 lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Cows were adapted to the diet for 12 d and were subsequently kept in respiration chambers for 5 d to evaluate methane production, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance. Feed intake was restricted to avoid confounding effects of possible differences in ad libitum feed intake on methane production. Feed intake was, on average, 17.5 and 16.6 kg of DM/d in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. None of the additives reduced methane production in vivo. Methane production in experiment 1 was 450, 453, 446, and 423 g/d for CON1 and the diets supplemented with DADS, YP, and CAFU, respectively. In experiment 2, methane production was 371, 394, 388, and 386 g/d for CON2 and the diets supplemented with UNSAT, MCFA, and DADS, respectively. No effects of the additives on energy balance or neutral detergent fiber digestibility were observed. The addition of MCFA increased milk fat content (5.38% vs. 4.82% for control) and fat digestibility (78.5% vs. 59.8% for control), but did not affect milk yield or other milk components. The other products did not affect milk yield or composition. Results from these experiments emphasize the need to confirm methane reductions observed in vitro with in vivo data. PMID:21605778

  12. Effect of combination therapy of fatty acids, calcium, vitamin D and boron with regular physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in rat.

    PubMed

    Naghii, M R; Darvishi, P; Ebrahimpour, Y; Ghanizadeh, G; Mofid, M; Hedayati, M; Asgari, A R

    2012-01-01

    The effect of consumption of fatty acids and selected nutrients, along with regular physical activity, on cardiovascular risk factors in rats was investigated.Male rats were divided into the seven groups: Group 1: regular food and drinking water, Group 2: same as Group. 1 + physical activity (whole body vibration; WBV), Group 3: same as Group. 2 + calcium, vitamin D, boron, Group 4: same as Group. 3 + canola oil, Group 5: same as Group. 3 + sunflower oil, Group 6: same as Group. 3 + mix of sunflower oil and canola oil, Group 7: same as Group. 3 + coconut oil. Rats were treated for 8 weeks, and analysis of the frozen plasmas was performed. A- Analysis between the treatment groups and control revealed that vibration training in Group 2 increased body weight (P = 0.04), plasma creatin kinase (CK), (P = 0.02), and estradiol (E2), (P = 0.03). Rats in Group 5 consumed less food and plasma levels of cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased significantly (P = 0.02) in Group 6 and in Group 7 (p<0.05). B- Analysis of data among Group 4 - 7 (the oil consuming groups) and Group 3 revealed significant differences in cholesterol (Chol), LDL-C, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), C- reactive protein (hs-CRP), estradiol (E2), atherogenic index (AI), and risk factor (RF), (p<0.05). In addition, plasma levels of testosterone (T) and free testosterone (FT) in Group 7 had a remarkable but non-significant increase. As a result of vibration training, a similar trend was observed for vitamin D in Group 2-7. The findings show that WBV is effective in improving health status by influencing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Moreover, canola oil and sunflower oil, separately, showed beneficial impacts on CVD risk factors; whereas their combination had negative impacts on lipid profile. Coconut oil revealed to be efficient to provide health benefits in terms of CVD treatments. PMID:22277894

  13. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid is a potent in vitro scavenger of peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion and hypochlorous acid and prevents in vivo ozone-induced tyrosine nitration in lungs.

    PubMed

    Floriano-Sánchez, Esaú; Villanueva, Cleva; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Rocha, Diana; Sánchez-González, Dolores Javier; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José

    2006-05-01

    The antioxidant nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has recently become well known as a putative anticancer drug. In this paper, it was evaluated the in vitro peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)), hydroxyl radical (OH(v)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), superoxide anion and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging capacity of NDGA. It was found that NDGA scavenges: (a) ONOO(-) (IC(50) = 4 +/- 0.94 microM) as efficiently as uric acid; (b) (1)O(2) (IC(50) = 151 +/- 20 microM) more efficiently than dimethyl thiourea, lipoic acid, N-acetyl-cysteine and glutathione; (c) OH(v) (IC(50) = 0.15 +/- 0.02 microM) more efficiently than dimethyl thiourea, uric acid, trolox, dimethyl sulfoxide and mannitol, (d) (IC(50) = 15 +/- 1 microM) more efficiently than N-acetyl-cysteine, glutathione, tempol and deferoxamine and (e) HOCl (IC(50) = 622 +/- 42 microM) as efficiently as lipoic acid and N-acetyl-cysteine. NDGA was unable to scavenge H(2)O(2). In an in vivo study in rats, NDGA was able to prevent ozone-induced tyrosine nitration in lungs. It is concluded that NDGA is a potent in vitro scavenger of ONOO(-), (1)O(2), OH(v), and HOCl and is able to prevent lung tyrosine nitration in vivo. PMID:16551579

  14. Apoptotic cell death and altered calcium homeostasis caused by frataxin depletion in dorsal root ganglia neurons can be prevented by BH4 domain of Bcl-xL protein.

    PubMed

    Mincheva-Tasheva, Stefka; Obis, Elia; Tamarit, Jordi; Ros, Joaquim

    2014-04-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a decreased expression of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Major neurological symptoms of the disease are due to degeneration of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. In this study we have explored the neurodegenerative events occurring by frataxin depletion on primary cultures of neurons obtained from rat DRGs. Reduction of 80% of frataxin levels in these cells was achieved by transduction with lentivirus containing shRNA silencing sequences. Frataxin depletion caused mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, neurite degeneration and apoptotic cell death. A marked increase of free intracellular Ca(2+) levels and alteration in Ca(2+)-mediated signaling pathways was also observed, thus suggesting that altered calcium homeostasis can play a pivotal role in neurodegeneration caused by frataxin deficiency. These deleterious effects were reverted by the addition of a cell-penetrant TAT peptide coupled to the BH4, the anti-apoptotic domain of Bcl-x(L). Treatment of cultured frataxin-depleted neurons with TAT-BH4 was able to restore the free intracellular Ca(2+) levels and protect the neurons from degeneration. These observations open the possibility of new therapies of FRDA based on modulating the Ca(2+) signaling and prevent apoptotic process to protect DRG neurons from neurodegeneration. PMID:24242291

  15. Calcium Isotope Effect in Calcium Ion Exchange with a Fluid Phase Containing a Macrocyclic Compound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. Jepson; W. F. Evans

    1987-01-01

    The separation coefficient for calcium isotope exchange with a macrocyclic polyether was measured by ion exchange chromatography. The isotopic enrichment proceeds according to the chemical exchange reaction:where L represents the macrocyclic polyether 18-crown-6. The observed -separation coefficient for the calcium 40\\/44 isotope pair, ?(40\\/44), was 4.9×10 (±1.3×10, 95% C.L.) with calcium-40 enriched in the fluid phase. A sulfonic acid resin

  16. Oxidation kinetics of by-product calcium sulfite

    E-print Network

    Othman, Hasliza

    1992-01-01

    solid buildup in the fritted cylinder. The electrode and stirring bar were also rinsed thoroughly with distilled water before each run. In the first part of the experiment, calcium sulfite was oxidized in a slurry form, Acids (succinic, sulfuric... in air only at high temperatures. With 5 C/min heating rate, calcium sulfite starts to oxidize above 550 C. Oxidation of calcium sulfite in a slurry form was achieved by dissolution, oxidation and precipitation. Oxidation of calcium sulfite in a...

  17. Inhibition of gravitropism in oat coleoptiles by the calcium chelator, ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daye, S.; Biro, R. L.; Roux, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    A treatment period as brief as 8 h in 10(-3) M EGTA completely blocks gravitropism in 70-80% of the treated coleoptiles of oats (Avena sativa L. cv. Garry) without inhibiting growth. Only about 10% of the plants perfused in water failed to exhibit gravitropism. Subsequent perfusion of EGTA-treated plants with calcium completely restores gravitropism; post-perfusion with water does not. After perfusion in water for 10 h, gravistimulated oat coleoptile segments show the same asymmetry of 45Ca distribution as reported earlier for non-perfused coleoptiles and sunflower hypocotyls. The degree of this asymmetry is reduced in those coleoptiles partially inhibited by perfusion in EGTA and is essentially absent in those coleoptiles completely inhibited by EGTA. The fact that calcium reverses the inhibitory effects of EGTA on gravitropism indicates that the inhibition was probably due to a reduction in the availability of free calcium required for one or more of the transduction steps of gravitropism.

  18. Omega3 fatty acid deficiency selectively up-regulates delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices in rat liver: prevention by normalization of omega-3 fatty acid status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rylon Hofacer; Ronald Jandacek; Therese Rider; Patrick Tso; I. Jack Magrisso; Stephen C. Benoit; Robert K. McNamara

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of perinatal dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid depletion and subsequent repletion on the expression of genes that regulate long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in rat liver and brain. It was hypothesized that chronic n-3 fatty acid deficiency would increase liver Fads1 and Fads2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression\\/activity and that n-3 fatty acid repletion would

  19. Ursodeoxycholic acid prevents selenite-induced oxidative stress and alleviates cataract formation: In vitro and in vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Hui-Ping; Wei, Shu-Qin; Gao, Xiang-Chun; Yu, Nan-Nan; Hu, Wan-Zhen; Bi, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antioxidative and anticataractogenic potential effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on selenite-induced cataract in vitro and in vivo. Methods Enucleated rat lenses were incubated in M199 medium alone (Group I), with 200 ?M selenite (Group II), or with 200 ?M selenite and 500 ?M UDCA (Group III). Selenite was administered on the third day and UDCA treatment was from the second to the fifth day. The development of cataracts was observed under an inverted microscope. Total antioxidative capabilities (T-AOC), mean activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total sulfhydryl content were analyzed in lenticular samples. In vivo, cataracts were induced in 12-day-old pups by single subcutaneous injections of sodium selenite. The test groups received 180 mg/kg bodyweight/day of UDCA intraperitoneally on postpartum days 11–16 or 0.5% UDCA drops four times daily on postpartum days 11–25. Results In vitro, morphological examination of the lenses revealed dense vacuolization and opacification in Group II, minimal vacuolization in 12.5% of Group III, and no opacification in 87.5% of Group III. In Group I, all lenses were clear. UDCA significantly (p<0.05) restored GSH and total sulfhydryl, and decreased MDA levels. T-AOC and the mean activities of the antioxidant enzymes were elevated following treatment with UDCA. In vivo, 0.5% UDCA drops resulted in only 20% nuclear cataract development and 180 mg/kg of UDCA intraperitoneally led to 50% development, compared to 100% in the control group (p<0.05). Conclusions UDCA prevents selenite toxicity and cataractogenesis by maintaining antioxidant status and GSH, protecting the sulfhydryl group, and inhibiting lipid peroxidation in lenses. PMID:22275806

  20. Release of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide and characteristic of coal combustion under the effect of calcium based organic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengli Niu; Kuihua Han; Chunmei Lu

    2011-01-01

    The influences of calcium based organic compounds of calcium propionate (CP), the product of the modified calcium hydroxide by propionic acid (named as MCP) and the product of the modified calcium hydroxide and magnesium oxide by propionic acid (named as MCMP) on the release of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitric oxide (NO) and on the characteristic of coal combustion have

  1. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling. Typically about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and replaced each day. To supply this amount, one would need to consume about 600 mg of calcium, since calcium is not very efficiently absorbed. Calcium ...

  2. Diagnosis and clinical manifestations of calcium pyrophosphate and basic calcium phosphate crystal deposition diseases.

    PubMed

    Ea, Hang-Korng; Lioté, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    Basic calcium phosphate and pyrophosphate calcium crystals are the 2 main calcium-containing crystals that can deposit in all skeletal tissues. These calcium crystals give rise to numerous manifestations, including acute inflammatory attacks that can mimic alarming and threatening differential diagnoses, osteoarthritis-like lesions, destructive arthropathies, and calcific tendinitis. Awareness of uncommon localizations and manifestations such as intraspinal deposition (eg, crowned dens syndrome, tendinitis of longus colli muscle, massive cervical myelopathy compression) prevents inappropriate procedures and cares. Coupling plain radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and synovial fluid analysis allow accurate diagnosis by directly or indirectly identifying the GRAAL of microcrystal-related symptoms. PMID:24703344

  3. The calcium-sensitive Sigma-1 receptor prevents cannabinoids from provoking glutamate NMDA receptor hypofunction: implications in antinociception and psychotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar; Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Herrero-Labrador, Raquel; Burgueño, Javier; Zamanillo, Daniel; Garzón, Javier

    2014-12-01

    Through the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), the endocannabinoid system plays a physiological role in maintaining the activity of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor within harmless limits. The influence of cannabinoids must be proportional to the stimulus in order to prevent NMDAR overactivation or exaggerated hypofunction that may precipitate symptoms of psychosis. In this framework, the recently reported association of CB1s with NMDARs, which mediates the reduction of cannabinoid analgesia promoted by NMDAR antagonism, could also support the precipitation of schizophrenia brought about by the abuse of smoked cannabis, mostly among vulnerable individuals. Accordingly, we have investigated this possibility using neuroprotection and analgesia as reporters of the CB1-NMDAR connection. We found that the Sigma 1 receptor (?1R) acts as a safety switch, releasing NMDARs from the influence of CB1s and thereby avoiding glutamate hypofunction. In ?1R(-/-) mice the activity of NMDARs increases and cannot be regulated by cannabinoids, and NMDAR antagonism produces no effect on cannabinoid analgesia. In wild-type mice, ligands of the ?1R did not affect the CB1-NMDAR regulatory association, however, experimental NMDAR hypofunction enabled ?1R antagonists to release NMDARs from the negative control of CB1s. Of the ?1R antagonists tested, their order of activity was: S1RA > BD1047 ? NE100 = BD1063, although SKF10047, PRE-084 and (+)pentazocine were inactive yet able to abolish the effect of S1RA in this paradigm. Thus, the ?1R controls the extent of CB1-NMDAR interaction and its failure might constitute a vulnerability factor for cannabis abuse, potentially precipitating schizophrenia that might otherwise be induced later in time by the endogenous system. PMID:24485144

  4. Calcium Depletion in Forest Soils of the Eastern US

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nannapaneni, Sujani.

    This week's In the News focuses on calcium depletion in the forest soils of ten states in the Eastern US. Calcium depletion decreases the ability of trees to "ward off stresses such as temperature changes and insect defoliation". Scientists have noted that sugar maples and red spruce trees in ten different sites now have reduced resistance to "defoliation by insects and low winter temperatures". In a recent report, scientists Gregory Lawrence and Thomas Huntington of the US Geological Survey (USGS) claim that a cause of calcium depletion is acid rain. Lawrence and Huntington describe a mechanism whereby acid rain decreases calcium soil content: ". . . sulfuric and nitric acids from acid deposition . . . tend to remain in solution within the mineral soil where they lower the pH, thereby releasing aluminum to soil water and causing the leaching of calcium". In addition, timber harvesting may also contribute to the depletion of calcium in forest soils because, as trees are removed from the site, the calcium within them is removed as well. Due to the combined effects of acid rain and timber harvest, some areas have low calcium soil content and consequently low forest growth. The nine resources listed provide background information on acid rain and articles and research efforts on the relationship between calcium soil content and acid rain.

  5. Calcium modulates the photoassembly of photosystem II (Mn){sub 4}-clusters by preventing ligation of nonfunctional high-valency states of manganese

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.; Kazimir, J.; Cheniae, G.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-10-17

    The requirement for Ca{sup 2+} in the Mn{sup 2+}-dependent photoactivation of oxygen evolution was re-evaluated using 17 kDa/24 kDa-less photosystem II (PSII) membranes depleted of (Mn){sub 4}-clusters by NH{sub 2}OH extraction. At optimum conditions (1 mM Mn{sup 2+}/10 {mu}M 2,6-dichlorphenolindophenol (DCIP)/20 mM Ca{sup 2+}), the light-induced increase of oxygen-evolution activity, the increase of membrane-bound Mn, and the B-band thermoluminescence emission intensity occurred in parallel. The extent of recovery of the oxygen-evolution activity was equivalent to 88% and 66% of the activity shown by parent NaCl-extracted PSII membranes and by PSII membranes, respectively. Analyses of the Ca{sup 2+} concentration dependence for the maximum recovery of oxygen evolution activity gave evidence for Ca{sup 2+}-binding site(s) having K{sub m} values of {approximately}38 and {approximately}1300 {mu}M. Illumination of membranes in the strict absence of Ca{sup 2+} resulted in large increases (up to 18 Mn/200 chlorophyll) of EDTA nonextractable, EPR silent, nonfunctional membrane-bound Mn{sup {ge}3+} and small increases of oxygen-evolution capability, dependent on pH and concentrations of Mn{sup 2+} and DCIP. In the strict absence of Ca{sup 2+}, significant recovery of oxygen-evolution activity was obtained under a limited set of conditions permitting photoligation of a limited abundance of the nonfunctional Mn{sup {ge}3+}. Simple addition of Ca{sup 2+} to membranes containing nonfunctional Mn{sup {ge}3+} followed by reillumination resulted in the conversion of Mn{sup {ge}3+} to (Mn){sub 4}-clusters. It is argued that Ca{sup 2+} promotes the conformational change involved in the conversion of the Mn{sup 2+} mononuclear intermediate to the Mn{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 2+} binuclear intermediate in the photoactivation mechanism, thereby permitting photoassembly of (Mn){sub 4}-clusters and preventing photo-inactivation by Mn{sup {ge}3+} ions. 68 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Stimulation of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels inhibits neurogenic contraction of human bladder from patients with urinary symptoms and reverses acetic acid-induced bladder hyperactivity in rats.

    PubMed

    La Fuente, José M; Fernández, Argentina; Cuevas, Pedro; González-Corrochano, Rocío; Chen, Mao Xiang; Angulo, Javier

    2014-07-15

    We have analysed the effects of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BK) stimulation on neurogenic and myogenic contraction of human bladder from healthy subjects and patients with urinary symptoms and evaluated the efficacy of activating BK to relief bladder hyperactivity in rats. Bladder specimens were obtained from organ donors and from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Contractions elicited by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and carbachol (CCh) were evaluated in isolated bladder strips. in vivo cystometric recordings were obtained in anesthetized rats under control and acetic acid-induced hyperactive conditions. Neurogenic contractions of human bladder were potentiated by blockade of BK and small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK) but were unaffected by the blockade of intermediate calcium-activated potassium channels (IK). EFS-induced contractions were inhibited by BK stimulation with NS-8 or NS1619 or by SK/IK stimulation with NS309 (3µM). CCh-induced contractions were not modified by blockade or stimulation of BK, IK or SK. The anti-cholinergic agent, oxybutynin (0.3µM) inhibited either neurogenic or CCh-induced contractions. Neurogenic contractions of bladders from BPH patients were less sensitive to BK inhibition and more sensitive to BK activation than healthy bladders. The BK activator, NS-8 (5mg/kg; i.v.), reversed bladder hyperactivity induced by acetic acid in rats, while oxybutynin was ineffective. NS-8 did not significantly impact blood pressure or heart rate. BK stimulation specifically inhibits neurogenic contractions in patients with urinary symptoms and relieves bladder hyperactivity in vivo without compromising bladder contractile capacity or cardiovascular safety, supporting its potential therapeutic use for relieving bladder overactivity. PMID:24747752

  7. Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels and the Regulation of Vascular Tone

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jonathan Ledoux (College of Medicine, University of Vermont Department of Pharmacology)

    2006-02-01

    Different calcium signals in the endothelium and smooth muscle target different types of Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels to modulate vascular function. These differential calcium signals and targets represent multilayered opportunities for prevention and/or treatment of vascular dysfunctions.

  8. Disruption of the vacuolar calcium-ATPases in arabidopsis results in the activation of a salicylic acid-dependent programmed cell death pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium (Ca2+) signals regulate many aspects of plant development, including the Hypersensitive Response (HR) that triggers a programmed cell death response to protect a plant from a pathogen. A transient increase in cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt ) results from Ca2+ entry from the apoplast or release fr...

  9. Calcium waves occur as Drosophila oocytes activate.

    PubMed

    Kaneuchi, Taro; Sartain, Caroline V; Takeo, Satomi; Horner, Vanessa L; Buehner, Norene A; Aigaki, Toshiro; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2015-01-20

    Egg activation is the process by which a mature oocyte becomes capable of supporting embryo development. In vertebrates and echinoderms, activation is induced by fertilization. Molecules introduced into the egg by the sperm trigger progressive release of intracellular calcium stores in the oocyte. Calcium wave(s) spread through the oocyte and induce completion of meiosis, new macromolecular synthesis, and modification of the vitelline envelope to prevent polyspermy. However, arthropod eggs activate without fertilization: in the insects examined, eggs activate as they move through the female's reproductive tract. Here, we show that a calcium wave is, nevertheless, characteristic of egg activation in Drosophila. This calcium rise requires influx of calcium from the external environment and is induced as the egg is ovulated. Pressure on the oocyte (or swelling by the oocyte) can induce a calcium rise through the action of mechanosensitive ion channels. Visualization of calcium fluxes in activating eggs in oviducts shows a wave of increased calcium initiating at one or both oocyte poles and spreading across the oocyte. In vitro, waves also spread inward from oocyte pole(s). Wave propagation requires the IP3 system. Thus, although a fertilizing sperm is not necessary for egg activation in Drosophila, the characteristic of increased cytosolic calcium levels spreading through the egg is conserved. Because many downstream signaling effectors are conserved in Drosophila, this system offers the unique perspective of egg activation events due solely to maternal components. PMID:25564670

  10. Get Enough Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Physical Activity > Nutrition > Get Enough Calcium Get Enough Calcium The Basics Take Action! Ver en español Content ... June 26, 2015 The Basics Your body needs calcium to build strong bones when you are young ...

  11. Calcium and bones (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  12. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  13. A comprehensive evaluation of food fortification with folic acid for the primary prevention of neural tube defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiliang Liu; Roy West; Edward Randell; Linda Longerich; Kathleen Steel O'Connor; Helen Scott; Marian Crowley; Angeline Lam; Victor Prabhakaran; Catherine McCourt

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periconceptional use of vitamin supplements containing folic acid reduces the risk of a neural tube defect (NTD). In November 1998, food fortification with folic acid was mandated in Canada, as a public health strategy to increase the folic acid intake of all women of childbearing age. We undertook a comprehensive population based study in Newfoundland to assess the benefits

  14. PPAR/RXR Regulation of Fatty Acid Metabolism and Fatty Acid ?-Hydroxylase (CYP4) Isozymes: Implications for Prevention of Lipotoxicity in Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hardwick, James P.; Osei-Hyiaman, Douglas; Wiland, Homer; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2009-01-01

    Fatty liver disease is a common lipid metabolism disorder influenced by the combination of individual genetic makeup, drug exposure, and life-style choices that are frequently associated with metabolic syndrome, which encompasses obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistant diabetes. Common to obesity related dyslipidemia is the excessive storage of hepatic fatty acids (steatosis), due to a decrease in mitochondria ?-oxidation with an increase in both peroxisomal ?-oxidation, and microsomal ?-oxidation of fatty acids through peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). How steatosis increases PPAR? activated gene expression of fatty acid transport proteins, peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid ?-oxidation and ?-oxidation of fatty acids genes regardless of whether dietary fatty acids are polyunsaturated (PUFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), or saturated (SFA) may be determined by the interplay of PPARs and HNF4? with the fatty acid transport proteins L-FABP and ACBP. In hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis, the ?-oxidation cytochrome P450 CYP4A gene expression is increased even with reduced hepatic levels of PPAR?. Although numerous studies have suggested the role ethanol-inducible CYP2E1 in contributing to increased oxidative stress, Cyp2e1-null mice still develop steatohepatitis with a dramatic increase in CYP4A gene expression. This strongly implies that CYP4A fatty acid ?-hydroxylase P450s may play an important role in the development of steatohepatitis. In this review and tutorial, we briefly describe how fatty acids are partitioned by fatty acid transport proteins to either anabolic or catabolic pathways regulated by PPARs, and we explore how medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) CYP4A and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) CYP4F?-hydroxylase genes are regulated in fatty liver. We finally propose a hypothesis that increased CYP4A expression with a decrease in CYP4F genes may promote the progression of steatosis to steatohepatitis. PMID:20300478

  15. Thermochemistry of hydrated calcium borates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Li; Shiyang Gao; Shuping Xia; Bing Li; Rongzu Hu

    1997-01-01

    The enthalpies of solution of five hydrated calcium borates in approximately 1 mol·dm?3aqueous hydrochloric acid were determined. From a combination of these results with measured enthalpies of solution of H3BO3in HCl(aq) and of CaO in (hydrochloric acid+boric acid) (aq), together with the standard molar enthalpies of formation of CaO(s), H3BO3(S), and H2O(l), the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the

  16. Prospective Randomized Trial of Enoxaparin, Pentoxifylline and Ursodeoxycholic Acid for Prevention of Radiation-Induced Liver Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Seidensticker, Max; Seidensticker, Ricarda; Damm, Robert; Mohnike, Konrad; Pech, Maciej; Sangro, Bruno; Hass, Peter; Wust, Peter; Kropf, Siegfried; Gademann, Günther; Ricke, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim Targeted radiotherapy of liver malignancies has found to be effective in selected patients. A key limiting factor of these therapies is the relatively low tolerance of the liver parenchyma to radiation. We sought to assess the preventive effects of a combined regimen of pentoxifylline (PTX), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and low-dose low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) on focal radiation-induced liver injury (fRILI). Methods and Materials Patients with liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma who were scheduled for local ablation by radiotherapy (image-guided high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy) were prospectively randomized to receive PTX, UDCA and LMWH for 8 weeks (treatment) or no medication (control). Focal RILI at follow-up was assessed using functional hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A minimal threshold dose, i.e. the dose to which the outer rim of the fRILI was formerly exposed to, was quantified by merging MRI and dosimetry data. Results Results from an intended interim-analysis made a premature termination necessary. Twenty-two patients were included in the per-protocol analysis. Minimal mean hepatic threshold dose 6 weeks after radiotherapy (primary endpoint) was significantly higher in the study treatment-group compared with the control (19.1 Gy versus 14.6 Gy, p?=?0.011). Qualitative evidence of fRILI by MRI at 6 weeks was observed in 45.5% of patients in the treatment versus 90.9% of the control group. No significant differences between the groups were observed at the 12-week follow-up. Conclusions The post-therapeutic application of PTX, UDCA and low-dose LMWH significantly reduced the extent and incidence fRILI at 6 weeks after radiotherapy. The development of subsequent fRILI at 12 weeks (4 weeks after cessation of PTX, UDCA and LMWH during weeks 1–8) in the treatment group was comparable to the control group thus supporting the observation that the agents mitigated fRILI. Trial Registration EU clinical trials register 2008-002985-70 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01149304 PMID:25393877

  17. Cytoplasmic calcium mediates oxidative damage in an excitotoxic /energetic deficit synergic model in rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Konigsberg, Mina; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Herrera-Mundo, Nieves; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Morán, Julio; Fortoul-van der Goes, Teresa; Rondán-Zárate, Adrián; Maldonado, Perla D; Ali, Syed F; Santamaría, Abel

    2008-03-01

    Excessive calcium is responsible for triggering different potentially fatal metabolic pathways during neurodegeneration. In this study, we evaluated the role of calcium on the oxidative damage produced in an in vitro combined model of excitotoxicity/energy deficit produced by the co-administration of quinolinate and 3-nitropropionate to brain synaptosomal membranes. Synaptosomal fractions were incubated in the presence of subtoxic concentrations of these agents (21 and 166 microm, respectively). In order further to characterize possible toxic mechanisms involved in oxidative damage in this experimental paradigm, agents with different properties - dizocilpine, acetyl L-carnitine, iron porphyrinate and S-allylcysteine - were tested at increasing concentrations (10-1000 microm). Lipid peroxidation was assessed by the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. For confirmatory purposes, additional fractions were incubated in parallel in the presence of the intracellular calcium chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM). Under physiological conditions of extracellular calcium availability, synaptomes exposed to both toxins displayed an increased lipoperoxidation (76% above controls), and this effect was partially attenuated by the tested agents as follows: dizocilpine = iron porphyrinate > acetyl L-carnitine > S-allylcysteine. When the incubation medium was deprived of calcium, the lipoperoxidative effect achieved in this experimental paradigm was still high (49% above the control), and the order of attenuation was: iron porphyrinate > S-allylcysteine > acetyl L-carnitine > dizocilpine. BAPTA-AM was effective in preventing the pro-oxidant action of both toxins, promoting even lower peroxidative levels than those quantified under basal conditions. Our results suggest that the lipid peroxidation induced in synaptosomal fractions by quinolinate plus 3-nitropropionate is largely dependent on the cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. PMID:18364032

  18. Lipid Profiling following Intake of the Omega 3 Fatty Acid DHA Identifies the Peroxidized Metabolites F4-Neuroprostanes as the Best Predictors of Atherosclerosis Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Gladine, Cécile; Newman, John W.; Durand, Thierry; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Galano, Jean-Marie; Demougeot, Céline; Berdeaux, Olivier; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Mazur, Andrzej; Comte, Blandine

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The anti-atherogenic effects of omega 3 fatty acids, namely eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) are well recognized but the impact of dietary intake on bioactive lipid mediator profiles remains unclear. Such a profiling effort may offer novel targets for future studies into the mechanism of action of omega 3 fatty acids. The present study aimed to determine the impact of DHA supplementation on the profiles of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) oxygenated metabolites and to investigate their contribution to atherosclerosis prevention. A special emphasis was given to the non-enzymatic metabolites knowing the high susceptibility of DHA to free radical-mediated peroxidation and the increased oxidative stress associated with plaque formation. Atherosclerosis prone mice (LDLR?/?) received increasing doses of DHA (0, 0.1, 1 or 2% of energy) during 20 weeks leading to a dose-dependent reduction of atherosclerosis (R2?=?0.97, p?=?0.02), triglyceridemia (R2?=?0.97, p?=?0.01) and cholesterolemia (R2?=?0.96, p<0.01). Targeted lipidomic analyses revealed that both the profiles of EPA and DHA and their corresponding oxygenated metabolites were substantially modulated in plasma and liver. Notably, the hepatic level of F4-neuroprostanes, a specific class of DHA peroxidized metabolites, was strongly correlated with the hepatic DHA level. Moreover, unbiased statistical analysis including correlation analyses, hierarchical cluster and projection to latent structure discriminate analysis revealed that the hepatic level of F4-neuroprostanes was the variable most negatively correlated with the plaque extent (p<0.001) and along with plasma EPA-derived diols was an important mathematical positive predictor of atherosclerosis prevention. Thus, oxygenated n-3 PUFAs, and F4-neuroprostanes in particular, are potential biomarkers of DHA-associated atherosclerosis prevention. While these may contribute to the anti-atherogenic effects of DHA, further in vitro investigations are needed to confirm such a contention and to decipher the molecular mechanisms of action. PMID:24558496

  19. Calcium Hydroxide Isotope Effect in Calcium Isotope Enrichment by Ion Exchange

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. Jepson; G. C. Shockey

    1984-01-01

    The enrichment of calcium isotopes has been observed in ion-exchange chroma-tography with an aqueous phase of calcium hydroxide and a solid phase of sulfonic acid resin. The band front was exceedingly sharp as a result of the acid-base reaction occurring at the front of the band. Single-stage separation coefficients were found to be (Ca\\/Ca) = 11 × 10 and (Ca\\/Ca)

  20. Calcium Requirement for Ethylene-Dependent Responses.

    PubMed Central

    Raz, V; Fluhr, R

    1992-01-01

    Ethylene, a gaseous plant hormone, plays a role in plant development, defense, and climacteric fruit ripening. Both genetic and biochemical evidence suggest that the response of plants to ethylene is mediated by a specific ethylene receptor. The signal emanating from the receptor-effector complex is then presumably transduced via an unknown cascade pathway. We have used the plant pathogenesis response, exemplified by the induction of the pathogenesis-related gene chitinase, as a paradigm to investigate ethylene-dependent signal transduction in the plant cell. We showed that calcium is necessarily involved in the ethylene-mediated pathogenesis response. Blocking calcium fluxes with chelators inhibited ethylene-dependent induction of chitinase accumulation, but not ethylene independent induction. Artificially increasing cytosolic calcium levels by treatments with the calcium ionophore ionomycin or the calcium pump blocker thapsigargin stimulated chitinase accumulation. Plants grown in calcium-poor soil showed a 10-fold reduction in leaf extractable calcium. Their leaves exhibited a reduced pathogenesis reaction to ethylene and were impaired in another hormone response mediated by calcium, i.e., abscisic acid-controlled closure of guard cells. The addition of calcium to leaves excised from calcium-deficient plants restored their sensitivity to ethylene. Ethylene participates in the control of seedling growth, promoting the so-called "triple response" that results in distinct morphological development, such as hypocotyl hook formation. This effect, similar to the ethylene-promoted pathogenesis response, was found to be calcium dependent. The results indicate that calcium is required for a variety of ethylene-dependent processes. PMID:12297671