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Sample records for acid reduce post-coronary

  1. Can local application of Tranexamic acid reduce post-coronary bypass surgery blood loss? A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Fawzy, Hosam; Elmistekawy, Elsayed; Bonneau, Daniel; Latter, David; Errett, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Background Diffuse microvascular bleeding remains a common problem after cardiac procedures. Systemic use of antifibrinolytic reduces the postoperative blood loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of local application of tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods Thirty eight patients scheduled for primary isolated coronary artery bypass grafting were included in this double blind, prospective, randomized, placebo controlled study. Tranexamic acid (TA) group (19 patients) received 1 gram of TA diluted in 100 ml normal saline. Placebo group (19 patients) received 100 ml of normal saline only. The solution was purred in the pericardial and mediastinal cavities. Results Both groups were comparable in their baseline demographic and surgical characteristics. During the first 24 hours post-operatively, cumulative blood loss was significantly less in TA group (median of 626 ml) compared to Placebo group (median of 1040 ml) (P = 0.04). There was no significant difference in the post-op Packed RBCs transfusion between both groups (median of one unit in each) (P = 0.82). Significant less platelets transfusion required in TA group (median zero unit) than in placebo group (median 2 units) (P = 0.03). Apart from re-exploration for excessive surgical bleeding in one patient in TA group, no difference was found in morbidity or mortality between both groups. Conclusion Topical application of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting led to a significant reduction in postoperative blood loss without adding extra risk to the patient. PMID:19538741

  2. Dihydrolipoic acid reduces cytochrome b561 proteins.

    PubMed

    Bérczi, Alajos; Zimányi, László; Asard, Han

    2013-03-01

    Cytochrome b561 (Cyt-b561) proteins constitute a family of trans-membrane proteins that are present in a wide variety of organisms. Two of their characteristic properties are the reducibility by ascorbate (ASC) and the presence of two distinct b-type hemes localized on two opposite sides of the membrane. Here we show that the tonoplast-localized and the putative tumor suppressor Cyt-b561 proteins can be reduced by other reductants than ASC and dithionite. A detailed spectral analysis of the ASC-dependent and dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA)-dependent reduction of these two Cyt-b561 proteins is also presented. Our results are discussed in relation to the known antioxidant capability of DHLA as well as its role in the regeneration of other antioxidant compounds of cells. These results allow us to speculate on new biological functions for the trans-membrane Cyt-b561 proteins. PMID:22526465

  3. Acid rain reduced in eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bowersox, V.C.; Lynch, J.A.; Grimm, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    Sulfate and free hydrogen ion concentrations in precipitation decreased 10 to 25 percent over large areas of the eastern United States in 1995. The largest decreases in both ions occurred in and downwind of the Ohio River Valley, the same area where Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments set limitations, effective January 1, 1995, on sulfur dioxide emissions from affected coal-fired sources. Based on our analysis of precipitation chemistry and emissions data, we conclude that substantial declines in acid rain occurred in the eastern United States in 1995 because of large reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions in the same region.

  4. Acid rain reduced in Eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, J.A.; Bowersox, V.C.; Grimm, J.W.

    2000-03-15

    Concentrations of sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}) and free hydrogen ions (H{sup +}) in precipitation decreased from 10% to 25% over a large area of the Eastern US from 1995 through 1997 as compared to the previous 12-year (1983--1994) reference period. These decreases were unprecedented in magnitude and spatial extent. In contrast, nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) concentrations generally did not change over this period. The largest decreases in both H{sup +} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} concentrations, which nearly mimicked one another, occurred in and downwind of the Ohio River Valley, the same area where Title 4 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) set limitations on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions from a large number of utility-owned coal-fired sources. Phase 1 of the CAAA required that these limitations be met by January 1, 1995. On the basis of their analysis of precipitation chemistry and emissions data, the authors conclude that significant declines in acid rain occurred in many parts of the Eastern US from 1995 through 1997 because of large reductions in SO{sub 2} emissions in this region and a corresponding reduction in SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} concentrations in precipitation.

  5. Remediation of acid mine drainage with sulfate reducing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Hauri, J.F.; Schaider, L.A.

    2009-02-15

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed changes in dissolved metal concentrations and pH. Using synthetic acid mine drainage and combinations of inputs, students monitor their bioreactors for decreases in dissolved copper and iron concentrations.

  6. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  7. Growth Conditions To Reduce Oxalic Acid Content of Spinach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Rutzke, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    A controlled-environment agricultural (CEA) technique to increase the nutritive value of spinach has been developed. This technique makes it possible to reduce the concentration of oxalic acid in spinach leaves. It is desirable to reduce the oxalic acid content because oxalic acid acts as an anti-nutritive calcium-binding component. More than 30 years ago, an enzyme (an oxidase) that breaks down oxalic acid into CO2 and H2O2 was discovered and found to be naturally present in spinach leaves. However, nitrate, which can also be present because of the use of common nitratebased fertilizers, inactivates the enzyme. In the CEA technique, one cuts off the supply of nitrate and keeps the spinach plants cool while providing sufficient oxygen. This technique provides the precise environment that enables the enzyme to naturally break down oxalate. The result of application of this technique is that the oxalate content is reduced by 2/3 in one week.

  8. Reducible HPMA-co-oligolysine copolymers for nucleic acid delivery

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Julie; Johnson, Russell N.; Schellinger, Joan G.; Carlson, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Biodegradability can be incorporated into cationic polymers via use of disulfide linkages that are degraded in the reducing environment of the cell cytosol. In this work, N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) and methacrylamido-functionalized oligo-L-lysine peptide monomers with either a non-reducible 6-aminohexanoic acid (AHX) linker or a reducible 3-[(2-aminoethyl)dithiol]propionic acid (AEDP) linker were copolymerized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Both of the copolymers and a 1:1 (w/w) mixture of copolymers with reducible and non-reducible peptides were complexed with DNA to form polyplexes. The polyplexes were tested for salt stability, transfection efficiency, and cytotoxicity. The HPMA-oligolysine copolymer containing the reducible AEDP linkers was less efficient at transfection than the non-reducible polymer and was prone to flocculation in saline and serum-containing conditions, but was also not cytotoxic at charge ratios tested. Optimal transfection efficiency and toxicity was attained with mixed formulation of copolymers. Flow cytometry uptake studies indicated that blocking extracellular thiols did not restore transfection efficiency and that the decreased transfection of the reducible polyplex is therefore not primarily caused by extracellular polymer reduction by free thiols. The decrease in transfection efficiency of the reducible polymers could be partially mitigated by the addition of low concentrations of EDTA to prevent metal-catalyzed oxidation of reduced polymers. PMID:21893178

  9. Processes for converting lignocellulosics to reduced acid pyrolysis oil

    SciTech Connect

    Kocal, Joseph Anthony; Brandvold, Timothy A

    2015-01-06

    Processes for producing reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In a process, lignocellulosic material is fed to a heating zone. A basic solid catalyst is delivered to the heating zone. The lignocellulosic material is pyrolyzed in the presence of the basic solid catalyst in the heating zone to create pyrolysis gases. The oxygen in the pyrolysis gases is catalytically converted to separable species in the heating zone. The pyrolysis gases are removed from the heating zone and are liquefied to form the reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil.

  10. Novel Omega-3 Fatty Acid Epoxygenase Metabolite Reduces Kidney Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit; Khan, Md. Abdul Hye; Levick, Scott P.; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Hammock, Bruce D.; Imig, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases epoxidize the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid into novel epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs) that have multiple biological actions. The present study determined the ability of the most abundant EDP regioisomer, 19,20-EDP to reduce kidney injury in an experimental unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) renal fibrosis mouse model. Mice with UUO developed kidney tubular injury and interstitial fibrosis. UUO mice had elevated kidney hydroxyproline content and five-times greater collagen positive fibrotic area than sham control mice. 19,20-EDP treatment to UUO mice for 10 days reduced renal fibrosis with a 40%–50% reduction in collagen positive area and hydroxyproline content. There was a six-fold increase in kidney α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) positive area in UUO mice compared to sham control mice, and 19,20-EDP treatment to UUO mice decreased α-SMA immunopositive area by 60%. UUO mice demonstrated renal epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with reduced expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and elevated expression of multiple mesenchymal markers (FSP-1, α-SMA, and desmin). Interestingly, 19,20-EDP treatment reduced renal EMT in UUO by decreasing mesenchymal and increasing epithelial marker expression. Overall, we demonstrate that a novel omega-3 fatty acid metabolite 19,20-EDP, prevents UUO-induced renal fibrosis in mice by reducing renal EMT. PMID:27213332

  11. Editorial Commentary: Knee Hyaluronic Acid Viscosupplementation Reduces Osteoarthritis Pain.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H

    2015-10-01

    In contrast to the AAOS knee osteoarthritis guidelines, systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses shows that viscosupplementation with intra-articular hyaluronic acid injection reduces knee osteoarthritis pain and improves function according to the highest level of evidence. PMID:26433240

  12. Gut Microbial Fatty Acid Metabolites Reduce Triacylglycerol Levels in Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath; Furumoto, Hidehiro; Zheng, Jiawen; Kim, Young-Il; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxy and oxo fatty acids were recently found to be produced as intermediates during gut microbial fatty acid metabolism. Lactobacillus plantarum produces these fatty acids from unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of these gut microbial fatty acid metabolites on the lipogenesis in liver cells. We screened their effect on sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) expression in HepG2 cells treated with a synthetic liver X receptor α (LXRα) agonist (T0901317). The results showed that 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (18:1) (HYA), 10-hydroxy-6(Z),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) (γHYA), 10-oxo-12(Z)-18:1 (KetoA), and 10-oxo-6(Z),12(Z)-18:2 (γKetoA) significantly decreased SREBP-1c mRNA expression induced by T0901317. These fatty acids also downregulated the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes by suppressing LXRα activity and inhibiting SREBP-1 maturation. Oral administration of KetoA, which effectively reduced triacylglycerol accumulation and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) expression in HepG2 cells, for 2 weeks significantly decreased Srebp-1c, Scd-1, and Acc2 expression in the liver of mice fed a high-sucrose diet. Our findings suggest that the hypolipidemic effect of the fatty acid metabolites produced by L. plantarum can be exploited in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases or dyslipidemia. PMID:26399511

  13. Pleiotropic effect of lovastatin, with and without cholestyramine, in the post coronary artery bypass graft (Post CABG) trial.

    PubMed

    Domanski, Michael; Tian, Xin; Fleg, Jerome; Coady, Sean; Gosen, Christine; Kirby, Ruth; Sachdev, Vandana; Knatterud, Genell; Braunwald, Eugene

    2008-10-15

    This study evaluated patients in the Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (Post CABG) trial for evidence of statin pleiotropic effects in preventing atherosclerotic progression in saphenous vein grafts (SVGs). We studied 1,116 of the 1,351 patients in the Post CABG trial who were randomized to aggressive (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol target <85 mg/dl) or moderate (target LDL cholesterol <140 mg/dl) lovastatin treatment and who had sufficient data available. The generalized estimating equation models, adjusting for important covariates, were applied to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and probability of substantial atherosclerotic SVG progression (decrease in lumen diameter >or=0.6 mm) and the difference in minimum lumen diameter change between treatment groups. Aggressive lovastatin treatment compared with moderate treatment was associated with a significant decrease in risk of significant SVG atherosclerotic progression after adjustment for baseline cholesterol level, LDL cholesterol on treatment, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride changes on treatment and other independent predictors (OR 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 0.94, p = 0.019). Results were similar when the change or percent change from baseline of LDL cholesterol level on treatment was adjusted for rather than on-treatment LDL cholesterol and in the subset achieving a year-1 LDL cholesterol level from 90 to 135 mg/dl (OR 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.98, p = 0.042). Mean decrease in minimum lumen diameter was also significantly smaller in the aggressive than the moderate treatment arm (-0.256 vs -0.343 mm, p = 0.042). In conclusion, aggressive versus moderate lovastatin treatment appeared therapeutic in slowing the atherosclerotic process in SVGs from Post CABG patients, independent of its greater LDL cholesterol-lowering effect. PMID:18929703

  14. Reduced humic acid nanosheets and its uses as nanofiller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duraia, El-shazly M.; Henderson, B.; Beall, Gary W.

    2015-10-01

    Leonardite is highly oxidized form of lignite coal and contains a number of carboxyl groups around the edges of a graphene-like core. A novel approach has been developed to synthesize graphene oxide-like nanosheets in large scale utilizing leonardite as a starting material. Humic acid extracted from leonardite has been reduced by performing a high pressure catalytic hydrogenation. The reaction was carried out inside a high pressure stirred reactor at 150 °C and 750 psi (~5.2×106 Pa). Morphology of the as-synthesized samples showed porous platy particles and EDAX analysis indicates the carbon and oxygen atomic ratios as 96:4-97:3%. The as-synthesized material has been used as nanofiller in polyurethane. The reduced humic acid-polyurethane nanocomposite showed over 250% increase of Young's modulus. This new approach provides a low cost and scalable source for graphene oxide-like nanosheets in nanocomposite applications.

  15. Mycocerosic acid synthase exemplifies the architecture of reducing polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Dominik A; Jakob, Roman P; Zähringer, Franziska; Maier, Timm

    2016-03-24

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are biosynthetic factories that produce natural products with important biological and pharmacological activities. Their exceptional product diversity is encoded in a modular architecture. Modular PKSs (modPKSs) catalyse reactions colinear to the order of modules in an assembly line, whereas iterative PKSs (iPKSs) use a single module iteratively as exemplified by fungal iPKSs (fiPKSs). However, in some cases non-colinear iterative action is also observed for modPKSs modules and is controlled by the assembly line environment. PKSs feature a structural and functional separation into a condensing and a modifying region as observed for fatty acid synthases. Despite the outstanding relevance of PKSs, the detailed organization of PKSs with complete fully reducing modifying regions remains elusive. Here we report a hybrid crystal structure of Mycobacterium smegmatis mycocerosic acid synthase based on structures of its condensing and modifying regions. Mycocerosic acid synthase is a fully reducing iPKS, closely related to modPKSs, and the prototype of mycobacterial mycocerosic acid synthase-like PKSs. It is involved in the biosynthesis of C20-C28 branched-chain fatty acids, which are important virulence factors of mycobacteria. Our structural data reveal a dimeric linker-based organization of the modifying region and visualize dynamics and conformational coupling in PKSs. On the basis of comparative small-angle X-ray scattering, the observed modifying region architecture may be common also in modPKSs. The linker-based organization provides a rationale for the characteristic variability of PKS modules as a main contributor to product diversity. The comprehensive architectural model enables functional dissection and re-engineering of PKSs. PMID:26976449

  16. Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Background: Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Methods: Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Results: Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Conclusion: Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:22135611

  17. Anacardic acid from brazilian cashew nut trees reduces dentine erosion.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Cintia; Oliveira, Flávia; Dos Santos, Maria Lucilia; de Freitas, Thiago; Imparato, José Carlos; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of solutions containing saturated anacardic acid (AA) on dentine erosion in vitro. AA was chemically isolated from natural cashew nutshell liquid obtained by continuous extraction in a Soxhlet extractor and was fully saturated by catalytic hydrogenation. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activity, when exposed to buffers containing 100 µmol/l AA, was analyzed using zymography. Bovine root samples were subjected to erosive demineralization (Sprite Zero™, 4 × 90 s/day) and remineralization with artificial saliva between the erosive cycles for 5 days. The samples were treated as follows, after the first and the last acid exposure (1 min; n = 12/group): (1) 100 µmol/l epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (positive control); (2) 0.05% NaF; (3) 100 µmol/l saturated AA; (4) saturated AA and EGCG; (5) saturated AA, EGCG and NaF; (6) untreated (negative control). Dentine erosion was measured using a contact profilometer. Two dentine samples from each group were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Saturated AA reduced the activity of MMP-2. ANOVA and Tukey's test revealed that all treatments significantly reduced dentine loss compared to the negative control (6.03 ± 0.98 µm). Solutions containing saturated AA (1.97 ± 1.02 µm) showed the greatest reduction in dentine erosion compared to the NaF (3.93 ± 1.54 µm) and EGCG (3.79 ± 0.83 µm) solutions. Therefore, it may be concluded that AA significantly reduces dentine erosion in vitro, possibly by acting as an MMP-2 inhibitor. PMID:24993776

  18. Retinoic acid expands the evolutionarily reduced dentition of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Seritrakul, Pawat; Samarut, Eric; Lama, Tenzing T. S.; Gibert, Yann; Laudet, Vincent; Jackman, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish lost anterior teeth during evolution but retain a posterior pharyngeal dentition that requires retinoic acid (RA) cell-cell signaling for its development. The purposes of this study were to test the sufficiency of RA to induce tooth development and to assess its role in evolution. We found that exposure of embryos to exogenous RA induces a dramatic anterior expansion of the number of pharyngeal teeth that later form and shifts anteriorly the expression patterns of genes normally expressed in the posterior tooth-forming region, such as pitx2 and dlx2b. After RA exposure, we also observed a correlation between cartilage malformations and ectopic tooth induction, as well as abnormal cranial neural crest marker gene expression. Additionally, we observed that the RA-induced zebrafish anterior teeth resemble in pattern and number the dentition of fish species that retain anterior pharyngeal teeth such as medaka but that medaka do not express the aldh1a2 RA-synthesizing enzyme in tooth-forming regions. We conclude that RA is sufficient to induce anterior ectopic tooth development in zebrafish where teeth were lost in evolution, potentially by altering neural crest cell development, and that changes in the location of RA synthesis correlate with evolutionary changes in vertebrate dentitions.—Seritrakul, P., Samarut, E., Lama, T. T. S., Gibert, Y., Laudet, V., Jackman, W. R. Retinoic acid expands the evolutionarily reduced dentition of zebrafish. PMID:22942074

  19. Unsaturated fatty acids supplementation reduces blood lead level in rats.

    PubMed

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: "super lecithin" (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  20. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Reduces Blood Lead Level in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: “super lecithin” (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  1. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  2. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  3. Formation of diphenylthioarsinic acid from diphenylarsinic acid under anaerobic sulfate-reducing soil conditions.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Shihoko; Guan, Ling; Nakajima, Mami; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2013-11-15

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is a toxic phenylarsenical compound often found around sites contaminated with phenylarsenic chemical warfare agents, diphenylcyanoarsine or diphenylchloroarsine, which were buried in soil after the World Wars. This research concerns the elucidation of the chemical structure of an arsenic metabolite transformed from DPAA under anaerobic sulfate-reducing soil conditions. In LC/ICP-MS analysis, the retention time of the metabolite was identical to that of a major phenylarsenical compound synthesized by chemical reaction of DPAA and hydrogen sulfide. Moreover the mass spectra for the two compounds measured using LC/TOF-MS were similar. Subsequent high resolution mass spectral analysis indicated that two major ions at m/z 261 and 279, observed on both mass spectra, were attributable to C12H10AsS and C12H12AsSO, respectively. These findings strongly suggest that the latter ion is the molecular-related ion ([M+H](+)) of diphenylthioarsinic acid (DPTA; (C6H5)2AsS(OH)) and the former ion is its dehydrated fragment. Thus, our results reveal that DPAA can be transformed to DPTA, as a major metabolite, under sulfate-reducing soil conditions. Moreover, formation of diphenyldithioarsinic acid and subsequent dimerization were predicted by the chemical reaction analysis of DPAA with hydrogen sulfide. This is the first report to elucidate the occurrence of DPAA-thionation in an anaerobic soil. PMID:24007995

  4. Reducing protein adsorption with polymer-grafted hyaluronic acid coatings.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Mohamed H; Prata, Joseph E; Karácsony, Orsolya; Dunér, Gunnar; Washburn, Newell R

    2014-07-01

    We report a thermoresponsive chemical modification strategy of hyaluronic acid (HA) for coating onto a broad range of biomaterials without relying on chemical functionalization of the surface. Poly(di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (PMEO2MA), a polymer with a lower critical solution temperature of 26 °C in water, was grafted onto HA to allow facile formation of biopolymer coatings. While the mechanism for film formation appears to involve a complex combination of homogeneous nucleation followed by heterogeneous film growth, we demonstrate that it resulted in hydrophilic coatings that significantly reduce protein adsorption despite the high fraction of hydrophobic (PMEO2MA). Structural characterization was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), which showed the formation of a dense, continuous coating based on 200 nm domains that were stable in protein solutions for at least 15 days. The coatings had a water contact angle of 16°, suggesting the formation of hydrophilic but not fully wetting films. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) as well as biolayer interferometry (BLI) techniques were used to measure adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA), fibrinogen (Fbg), and human immunoglobulin (IgG), with results indicating that HA-PMEO2MA-coated surfaces effectively inhibited adsorption of all three serum proteins. These results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that this degree of hydrophilicity is sufficient to generate an effectively nonfouling surface and suggest that segregation during the solubility transition resulted in a surface that presented the hydrophilic HA component of the hybrid biopolymer. We conclude that PMEO2MA-grafted HA is a versatile platform for the passivation of hydrophobic biomaterial surfaces without need for substrate functionalization. PMID:24892924

  5. Phosphatidic Acid Improves Reprogramming to Pluripotency by Reducing Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuan; Du, Mingxia; Wu, Menghua; Zhu, Yanbing; Zhao, Xing; Cao, Xu; Li, Xin; Long, Peipei; Li, Wei; Hu, Baoyang

    2016-01-01

    Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) requires a considerable amount of lipids, such as phosphatidic acid (PA), to meet the needs of subsequent rapid cell division and proliferation. However, it is unclear whether PA, a biosynthetic precursor of lipids, affects reprogramming. By using lentiviral expression of the Yamanaka factors in mouse embryonic fibroblasts for reprogramming, we identified that PA is beneficial for the generation of iPS colonies. Inhibiting the generation of cellular PA dramatically decreased the number of iPSCs. Consistently, 400 μM PA improved iPSC generation by more than 4- to 5-fold. iPSCs generated in the presence of PA (PA-iPS) expressed pluripotent markers such as Oct4 and Nanog, differentiated into cells of the three germ layers in vitro, and contributed to chimeric mice when injected into blastocysts. The improved efficiency was primarily due to reduction of apoptosis as sufficient PA increased the accumulation of cardiolipin in the inner membrane of the mitochondria, which reduced the release of cytochrome c and, in turn, suppressed apoptosis by inhibiting caspase-7. The relatively higher amount of Bcl-2 in PA treatment also inhibited apoptosis. In addition, an accompanied sequential change from epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) at the initial phase of reprogramming to mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) was also detected. Our microarray data, which also supported our results, indicated the presence of significant membrane enrichment genes, thus suggesting that PA may function through membrane-anchored proteins. We thus identified a novel type of culture supplement that improves the efficiency of reprogramming and could be valuable for the generation of high-quality iPS cells. PMID:26451619

  6. Dietary hyodeoxycholic acid exerts hypolipidemic effects by reducing farnesoid X receptor antagonist bile acids in mouse enterohepatic tissues.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shiro; Fujita, Kyosuke

    2014-10-01

    Mice were fed a control diet or a diet supplemented with hyodeoxycholic acid, the most abundant bile acid contained in pig bile, for 4 weeks, after which their serum and livers were collected. The contents of total fatty acids of serum and liver cholesteryl esters, and of liver triglycerides, were reduced following the administration of the hyodeoxycholic acid-supplemented diet, which was mainly due to the reductions in the contents of monounsaturated fatty acids. Free cholesterol contents in the serum and liver were not changed by hyodeoxycholic acid administration. Hyodeoxycholic acid administration reduced the gene expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1. Hyodeoxycholic acid administration markedly changes the ratio of FXR-antagonist/FXR-agonist bile acids in the enterohepatic tissues of the mice (1.13 and 7.60 in hyodeoxycholic acid and control diet groups, respectively). Our findings demonstrate that hyodeoxycholic acid administration exerts the hypolipidemic effect in mice, in which downregulations of de novo lipogenesis and desaturation of saturated fatty acids are suggested to play important roles. In addition, regulation of FXR activation through the selective modification of the enterohepatic bile acid pool may be involved in the hypolipidemic effect of hyodeoxycholic acid administration. PMID:25189147

  7. Ghrelin reduces hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid beta oxidation.

    PubMed

    Rigault, C; Le Borgne, F; Georges, B; Demarquoy, J

    2007-04-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide secreted during starvation by gastric cells. Ghrelin physiologically induces food intake and seems to alter lipid and glucid metabolism in several tissues such as adipose tissue and liver. Liver has a key position in lipid metabolism as it allows the metabolic orientation of fatty acids between oxidation and esterification. We investigated the effects of peripheral ghrelin administration on 2 crucial parameters of fatty acid oxidation: the levocarnitine (L-carnitine)-dependent entry of the fatty acids in the mitochondria and the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Ghrelin was either given to rats prior to the hepatocyte preparation and culture or used to treat hepatocytes prepared from control animals. Direct incubation of ghrelin to raw hepatocytes did not induce any change in the studied parameters. In hepatocytes prepared from 3 nmol ghrelin-treated rats, a 44% reduction of the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation while no alteration of the L-carnitine-related parameters were observed. These results suggested (a) that ghrelin has no direct effect on liver, and (b) that when administrated to a whole organism, ghrelin may alter the lipid metabolism and the energy balance through a marked decrease in liver fatty acid oxidation. PMID:17556859

  8. 40 CFR 721.10440 - Diphosphoric acid, polymers with ethoxylated reduced Me esters of reduced polymd. oxidized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diphosphoric acid, polymers with ethoxylated reduced Me esters of reduced polymd. oxidized tetrafluoroethylene. 721.10440 Section 721.10440 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10440 - Diphosphoric acid, polymers with ethoxylated reduced Me esters of reduced polymd. oxidized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diphosphoric acid, polymers with ethoxylated reduced Me esters of reduced polymd. oxidized tetrafluoroethylene. 721.10440 Section 721.10440 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL...

  10. Teichuronic acid reducing terminal N-acetylglucosamine residue linked by phosphodiester to peptidoglycan of Micrococcus luteus

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, G.T.; Dickie, J.P.; Hamerski, D.A.; Magnuson, J.K.; Anderson, J.S. )

    1990-05-01

    Teichuronic acid-peptidoglycan complex isolated from Micrococcus luteus cells by lysozyme digestion in osmotically stabilized medium was treated with mild acid to cleave the linkage joining teichuronic acid to peptidoglycan. This labile linkage was shown to be the phosphodiester which joins N-acetylglucosamine, the residue located at the reducing end of the teichuronic acid, through its anomeric hydroxyl group to a 6-phosphomuramic acid, a residue of the glycan strand of peptidoglycan. {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the lysozyme digest of cell walls demonstrated the presence of a phosphodiester which was converted to a phosphomonoester by the conditions which released teichuronic acid from cell walls. Reduction of acid-liberated reducing end groups by NaB{sup 3}H{sub 4} followed by complete acid hydrolysis yielded ({sup 3}H) glucosaminitol from the true reducing end residue of teichuronic acid and ({sup 3}H)glucitol from the sites of fragmentation of teichuronic acid. The amount of N-acetylglucosamine detected was approximately stoichiometric with the amount of phosphate in the complex. Partial fragmentation of teichuronic acid provides an explanation of the previous erroneous identification of the reducing end residue.

  11. Feeding reduced crude protein diets with crystalline amino acids supplementation reduce air gas emissions from housing.

    PubMed

    Li, Q-F; Trottier, N; Powers, W

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that reducing dietary CP by 1.5% and supplementing crystalline AA (CAA) to meet the standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA requirements for growing and finishing pigs decreases air emissions of ammonia (NH), nitrous oxide (NO), and carbon dioxide (CO) compared with an industry standard diet, without reducing growth performance. Seventy-two pigs were allocated to 12 rooms (6 pigs per room) and 2 diets (6 rooms per diet) formulated according to a 5-phase feeding program across the grow-finish period (107 d total). The diets consisted of a standard diet containing 18.5 to 12.2% CP or a reduced CP diet containing 17.5 to 11.0% CP + CAA over the course of the 5-phase feeding program. Gases (NH, NO, hydrogen sulfide, methane, nonmethane total hydrocarbon, and CO) and ventilation rates were measured continuously from the rooms. Compared with standard diet, ADG and feed conversion of pigs fed reduced CP + CAA diets did not differ (2.7 kg gain/d and 0.37 kg gain/kg feed, respectively). Compared with standard diet, feeding reduced CP + CAA diets decreased ( < 0.01) NH emissions by 46% over the 107-d period (5.4 and 2.9 g · pig · d, respectively). Change in NH emissions for each percentage unit reduction in dietary CP concentration corresponded with 47.9, 53.2, 26.8, 26.5, and 51.6% during Phases 1 through 5, respectively. Emissions of other gases did not differ between diets. Feeding reduced CP diets formulated based on SID AA requirements for grow-finisher swine is effective in reducing NH emissions from housing compared with recent industry formulations and does not impact growth performances. PMID:26020753

  12. Accuracy of sequence alignment and fold assessment using reduced amino acid alphabets.

    PubMed

    Melo, Francisco; Marti-Renom, Marc A

    2006-06-01

    Reduced or simplified amino acid alphabets group the 20 naturally occurring amino acids into a smaller number of representative protein residues. To date, several reduced amino acid alphabets have been proposed, which have been derived and optimized by a variety of methods. The resulting reduced amino acid alphabets have been applied to pattern recognition, generation of consensus sequences from multiple alignments, protein folding, and protein structure prediction. In this work, amino acid substitution matrices and statistical potentials were derived based on several reduced amino acid alphabets and their performance assessed in a large benchmark for the tasks of sequence alignment and fold assessment of protein structure models, using as a reference frame the standard alphabet of 20 amino acids. The results showed that a large reduction in the total number of residue types does not necessarily translate into a significant loss of discriminative power for sequence alignment and fold assessment. Therefore, some definitions of a few residue types are able to encode most of the relevant sequence/structure information that is present in the 20 standard amino acids. Based on these results, we suggest that the use of reduced amino acid alphabets may allow to increasing the accuracy of current substitution matrices and statistical potentials for the prediction of protein structure of remote homologs. PMID:16506243

  13. Seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) Improves Growth, Immunity, Fatty Acid Profile and Reduces Cholesterol in Hanwoo Steers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J A; Islam, M M; Ahmed, S T; Mun, H S; Kim, G M; Kim, Y J; Yang, C J

    2014-08-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2% seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product (SW) on growth performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 Hanwoo steers (ave. 22 months old; 619 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to control (basal diet) and 2% SW supplemented diet. Dietary SW supplementation significantly (p<0.05) improved average daily gain and gain:feed ratio as well as serum immunoglobulin G concentration. Chemical composition and quality grade of meat and carcass yield grades evaluated at the end of the trial were found to be unaffected by SW supplementation. Dietary SW significantly reduced meat cholesterol concentration (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation significantly reduced the myristic acid (C14:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:ln-7) concentration, while SW increased the concentration of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) compared to control (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation had no effect on saturated fatty acids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids, poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or mono unsaturated fatty acid content in muscles. A reduced ratio of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 were found in SW supplemented group (p<0.05). In conclusion, 2% SW supplementation was found to improve growth, immunity and fatty acid profile with significantly reduced cholesterol of beef. PMID:25083105

  14. Seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) Improves Growth, Immunity, Fatty Acid Profile and Reduces Cholesterol in Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, J. A.; Islam, M. M.; Ahmed, S. T.; Mun, H. S.; Kim, G. M.; Kim, Y. J.; Yang, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2% seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product (SW) on growth performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 Hanwoo steers (ave. 22 months old; 619 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to control (basal diet) and 2% SW supplemented diet. Dietary SW supplementation significantly (p<0.05) improved average daily gain and gain:feed ratio as well as serum immunoglobulin G concentration. Chemical composition and quality grade of meat and carcass yield grades evaluated at the end of the trial were found to be unaffected by SW supplementation. Dietary SW significantly reduced meat cholesterol concentration (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation significantly reduced the myristic acid (C14:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:ln-7) concentration, while SW increased the concentration of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) compared to control (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation had no effect on saturated fatty acids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids, poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or mono unsaturated fatty acid content in muscles. A reduced ratio of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 were found in SW supplemented group (p<0.05). In conclusion, 2% SW supplementation was found to improve growth, immunity and fatty acid profile with significantly reduced cholesterol of beef. PMID:25083105

  15. Retinoic acid expands the evolutionarily reduced dentition of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Seritrakul, Pawat; Samarut, Eric; Lama, Tenzing T S; Gibert, Yann; Laudet, Vincent; Jackman, William R

    2012-12-01

    Zebrafish lost anterior teeth during evolution but retain a posterior pharyngeal dentition that requires retinoic acid (RA) cell-cell signaling for its development. The purposes of this study were to test the sufficiency of RA to induce tooth development and to assess its role in evolution. We found that exposure of embryos to exogenous RA induces a dramatic anterior expansion of the number of pharyngeal teeth that later form and shifts anteriorly the expression patterns of genes normally expressed in the posterior tooth-forming region, such as pitx2 and dlx2b. After RA exposure, we also observed a correlation between cartilage malformations and ectopic tooth induction, as well as abnormal cranial neural crest marker gene expression. Additionally, we observed that the RA-induced zebrafish anterior teeth resemble in pattern and number the dentition of fish species that retain anterior pharyngeal teeth such as medaka but that medaka do not express the aldh1a2 RA-synthesizing enzyme in tooth-forming regions. We conclude that RA is sufficient to induce anterior ectopic tooth development in zebrafish where teeth were lost in evolution, potentially by altering neural crest cell development, and that changes in the location of RA synthesis correlate with evolutionary changes in vertebrate dentitions. PMID:22942074

  16. Papain reduces gastric acid secretion induced by histamine and other secretagogues in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Cho, C H; Han, P W

    1984-04-01

    We studied the effect of papain on rats' gastric acid secretion and found that: 1. Feeding of latex of unripe papaya fruit significantly reduced gastric acid secretion induced by methacholine; 2. Feeding of crystalline papain in doses of 3.2 mg/kg reduced gastric acid secretion induced by histamine, methacholine and tetragastrin; 3. The reduction of gastric acid secretion was observed as early as 2 hours after papain feeding, lasted up to 48 hours, and waned within 96 hours; 4. Intraperitoneal injection of papain had no effect on acid secretion. These results led us to believe tha the effect of papain on gastric acid secretion is a local one acting directly on the gastric mucosa, and this local effect of a single dose of papain is reversible, causing no permanent damage to the mucosa. PMID:6400589

  17. Stoichiometry of Reducing Equivalents and Splitting of Water in the Citric Acid Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeira, Vitor M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a solution to the problem of finding the source of extra reducing equivalents, and accomplishing the stoichiometry of glucose oxidation reactions. Discusses the citric acid cycle and glycolysis. (CW)

  18. New alleles of FATB-1A to reduce palmitic acid levels in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wild-type soybeans, palmitic acid typically constitutes 10% of the total seed oil. Palmitic acid is a saturated fat linked to increased cholesterol levels, and reducing levels of saturated fats in soybean oil has been a breeding target. To identify novel and useful variation that could help in re...

  19. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... that the ratio of the Brix reading to the grams of acid, expressed as anhydrous citric acid, per 100 grams of juice is not less than 21 to 1 or more than 26 to 1. (b) The name of the food is “Reduced...

  20. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... that the ratio of the Brix reading to the grams of acid, expressed as anhydrous citric acid, per 100 grams of juice is not less than 21 to 1 or more than 26 to 1. (b) The name of the food is “Reduced...

  1. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... that the ratio of the Brix reading to the grams of acid, expressed as anhydrous citric acid, per 100 grams of juice is not less than 21 to 1 or more than 26 to 1. (b) The name of the food is “Reduced...

  2. Combination of amino acids reduces pigmentation in B16F0 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masago; Kawase, Ichiro; Ishii, Fumio

    2007-04-01

    Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, play significant roles in numerous physiological events in mammals. As the effects of amino acids on melanogenesis have yet to be demonstrated, the present study was conducted to identify whether amino acids, in particular alanine, glycine, isoleucine and leucine, influence melanogenesis in B16F0 melanoma cells. Glycine and L-isoleucine, but not D-isoleucine, reduced melanogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner without any morphological changes in B16F0 melanoma cells. L-Alanine and L-leucine, but not D-alanine and D-leucine, also reduced melanogenesis without any morphological changes in B16F0 melanoma cells. However these amino acids did not show a concentration-dependency. Combination of L-alanine and the other amino acids, particularly 4 amino acids combination, had an additive effect on the inhibition of melanogenesis compared with single treatment of L-alanine. None of the amino acids affected the activity of tyrosinase, a key enzyme in melanogenesis. These results suggest that L-alanine, glycine, L-isoleucine and L-leucine, but not the D-form amino acids, have a hypopigmenting effect in B16F0 melanoma cells, and that these effects are not due to the inhibition of tyrosinase activity. Combination of these 4 amino acids had the additive effect on hypopigmentation that was as similar as that of kojic acid. PMID:17409501

  3. Treatment of Irradiated Mice with High-Dose Ascorbic Acid Reduced Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tomohito; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Ito, Masataka; Nishida, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Masaru; Saitoh, Daizoh; Seki, Shuhji; Mukai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, it is expected that ascorbic acid should act as a radioprotectant. We investigated the effects of post-radiation treatment with ascorbic acid on mouse survival. Mice received whole body irradiation (WBI) followed by intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid. Administration of 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid immediately after exposure significantly increased mouse survival after WBI at 7 to 8 Gy. However, administration of less than 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid was ineffective, and 4 or more g/kg was harmful to the mice. Post-exposure treatment with 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in bone marrow cells and restored hematopoietic function. Treatment with ascorbic acid (3 g/kg) up to 24 h (1, 6, 12, or 24 h) after WBI at 7.5 Gy effectively improved mouse survival; however, treatments beyond 36 h were ineffective. Two treatments with ascorbic acid (1.5 g/kg × 2, immediately and 24 h after radiation, 3 g/kg in total) also improved mouse survival after WBI at 7.5 Gy, accompanied with suppression of radiation-induced free radical metabolites. In conclusion, administration of high-dose ascorbic acid might reduce radiation lethality in mice even after exposure. PMID:25651298

  4. Clinical efficacy and scintigraphic evaluation of post-coronary bypass patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for recurrent angina pectoris

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.C.; Beller, G.A.; Nygaard, T.W.; Tedesco, C.; Watson, D.D.; Burwell, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    The efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in improving recurrent anginal symptoms and myocardial perfusion after coronary artery bypass graft surgery was assessed prospectively in 55 patients, of whom 50 had an initial angiographic and clinical success. Although 80% of those successfully dilated were initially free of angina at 23 +/- 11 months of follow-up, one half of these patients had recurrent angina. Although only 48% of the patient cohort had complete relief of angina, 94% had less angina than before dilatation and 86% were able to decrease antianginal medications. Fifteen patients with persistent or recurrent angina had from one to five repeat dilatations. After angioplasty, lung thallium uptake, the extent of abnormal scan segments, and the magnitude of redistribution in dilated lesions were significantly reduced (n = 24 patients). Redistribution defects were seen in 38% of patients on postangioplasty scans. All were associated with subsequent angina. Of various clinical, angiographic, exercise, and thallium-201 scan variables, only the presence of delayed redistribution was an independent predictor of recurrent angina. Restenosis was the most common underlying cause for this exercise-induced perfusion defect. Thus percutaneous coronary angioplasty performed as primary therapy for recurrent angina after bypass surgery is moderately successful in long-term follow-up for the amelioration of symptoms and enhancement of regional myocardial perfusion.

  5. Acid-base accounting assessment of mine wastes using the chromium reducible sulfur method.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Russell; Stewart, Warwick; Miller, Stuart; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Li, Jun; Smart, Roger

    2012-05-01

    The acid base account (ABA), commonly used in assessment of mine waste materials, relies in part on calculation of potential acidity from total sulfur measurements. However, potential acidity is overestimated where organic sulfur, sulfate sulfur and some sulfide compounds make up a substantial portion of the sulfur content. The chromium reducible sulfur (CRS) method has been widely applied to assess reduced inorganic sulfur forms in sediments and acid sulfate soils, but not in ABA assessment of mine wastes. This paper reports the application of the CRS method to measuring forms of sulfur commonly found in mine waste materials. A number of individual sulfur containing minerals and real waste materials were analyzed using both CRS and total S and the potential acidity estimates were compared with actual acidity measured from net acid generation tests and column leach tests. The results of the CRS analysis made on individual minerals demonstrate good assessment of sulfur from a range of sulfides. No sulfur was measured using the CRS method in a number of sulfate salts, including jarosite and melanterite typically found in weathered waste rocks, or from dibenzothiophene characteristic of organic sulfur compounds common to coal wastes. Comparison of ABA values for a number of coal waste samples demonstrated much better agreement of acidity predicted from CRS analysis than total S analysis with actual acidity. It also resulted in reclassification of most samples tested from PAF to NAF. Similar comparisons on base metal sulfide wastes generally resulted in overestimation of the acid potential by total S and underestimation of the acid potential by CRS in comparison to acidity measured during NAG tests, but did not generally result in reclassification. In all the cases examined, the best estimate of potential acidity included acidity calculated from both CRS and jarositic S. PMID:22444067

  6. Integrated assessment of acid deposition impacts using reduced-form modeling. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, R.; Small, M.J.

    1996-05-01

    Emissions of sulfates and other acidic pollutants from anthropogenic sources result in the deposition of these acidic pollutants on the earth`s surface, downwind of the source. These pollutants reach surface waters, including streams and lakes, and acidify them, resulting in a change in the chemical composition of the surface water. Sometimes the water chemistry is sufficiently altered so that the lake can no longer support aquatic life. This document traces the efforts by many researchers to understand and quantify the effect of acid deposition on the water chemistry of populations of lakes, in particular the improvements to the MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) modeling effort, and describes its reduced-form representation in a decision and uncertainty analysis tool. Previous reduced-form approximations to the MAGIC model are discussed in detail, and their drawbacks are highlighted. An improved reduced-form model for acid neutralizing capacity is presented, which incorporates long-term depletion of the watershed acid neutralization fraction. In addition, improved fish biota models are incorporated in the integrated assessment model, which includes reduced-form models for other physical and chemical processes of acid deposition, as well as the resulting socio-economic and health related effects. The new reduced-form lake chemistry and fish biota models are applied to the Adirondacks region of New York.

  7. Postharvest salicylic acid treatment reduces storage rots in water-stressed but no unstressed sugarbeet roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) reduces storage rots in a number of postharvest crops. SA’s ability to protect sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots from common storage rot pathogens, however, is unknown. To determine the potential of SA to reduce storage losses caused by three common...

  8. Np(V) reduction by humic acid: contribution of reduced sulfur functionalities to the redox behavior of humic acid.

    PubMed

    Schmeide, K; Sachs, S; Bernhard, G

    2012-03-01

    The role of sulfur-containing functional groups in humic acids for the Np(V) reduction in aqueous solution has been studied with the objective to specify individual processes contributing to the overall redox activity of humic substances. For this, humic acid model substances type M1-S containing different amounts of sulfur (1.9, 3.9, 6.9 wt.%) were applied. The sulfur functionalities in these humic acids are dominated by reduced-sulfur species, such as thiols, dialkylsulfides and/or disulfides. The Np(V) reduction behavior of these humic acids has been studied in comparison to that of the sulfur-free humic acid type M1 at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 under anaerobic conditions by means of batch experiments. For Np redox speciation in solution, solvent extraction and ultrafiltration were applied. In addition, redox potentials of the sample solutions were monitored. At pH 5.0, both rate and extent of Np(V) to Np(IV) reduction were found to increase with increasing sulfur content of the humic acids. At pH 7.0 and 9.0, sulfur functional groups had only a slight influence on the reduction behavior of humic acid toward Np(V). Thus, in addition to quinoid moieties and non-quinoid phenolic OH groups, generally acknowledged as main redox-active sites in humic substances, sulfur functional groups have been identified as further redox-active moieties of humic substances being active especially in the slightly acidic pH range as shown for Np(V). Due to the low sulfur content of up to 2 wt.% in natural humic substances, their contribution to the total reducing capacity is smaller than that of the other redox-active functional groups. PMID:22285088

  9. Acid reducing agents to neonates – lack of evidence and guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Paulsson, Stina; Eksborg, Staffan; Andersson, Åsa; Nydert, Per; Grahnquist, Lena

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the clinical practice, i.e. the frequency of use and the treatment strategies, for acid reducing drugs to neonates in a Swedish hospital. Methods Retrospective reviews of charts and interviews with nurses at the neonatal wards of Karolinska University Hospital were performed to identify difficulties that might occur with drug administration. All patients admitted over a 2-month period were included. Main outcome measure were the number of patients treated with acid reducing drugs and the dosages. Results Nine out of 215 patients (4.2%) received an acid reducing drug. Patients treated with acid reducing drugs had significantly lower birth weight, lower gestational age and longer duration of hospitalization. Eight of the patients were treated with omeprazole. One of these patients started treatment with omeprazole but continued later on with ranitidine. One patient was exclusively treated with ranitidine. The doses of omeprazole (intravenous or oral administration) were within the range 0.16–1.26 mg/kg/day. Conclusions A wide variation in treatment regimens of acid reducing drugs is given to newborn infants. The percentage of treated children was much lower than earlier reports from the US and UK. No conclusions can be drawn as to whether the doses and dosing intervals used give sufficient acid suppression, since the effect of the therapy was not recorded. The present study is only retrospective and data are not truly comparable with other studies. Further studies are therefore warranted to evaluate effective doses and pharmacokinetics of acid reducing drugs in newborn infants.

  10. Bile acids reduce endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Röhrl, Clemens; Eigner, Karin; Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Stangl, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence of high concentrations of taurocholate, a natural non-cell-permeable bile acid, in human hepatic HepG2 and HuH7 cells. In contrast, selective cholesteryl-ester (CE) uptake was increased. Taurocholate exerted these effects extracellularly and independently of HDL modification, cell membrane perturbation or blocking of endocytic trafficking. Instead, this reduction of endocytosis and increase in selective uptake was dependent on SR-BI. In addition, cell-permeable bile acids reduced HDL endocytosis by farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation: chenodeoxycholate and the non-steroidal FXR agonist GW4064 reduced HDL endocytosis, whereas selective CE uptake was unaltered. Reduced HDL endocytosis by FXR activation was independent of SR-BI and was likely mediated by impaired expression of the scavenger receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36). Taken together we have shown that bile acids reduce HDL endocytosis by transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Further, we suggest that HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake are not necessarily tightly linked to each other. PMID:25010412

  11. High glucose levels reduce fatty acid oxidation and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Visiedo, Francisco; Bugatto, Fernando; Sánchez, Viviana; Cózar-Castellano, Irene; Bartha, Jose L; Perdomo, Germán

    2013-07-15

    Placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) exhibit an altered lipid metabolism. The mechanism by which GDM is linked to alterations in placental lipid metabolism remains obscure. We hypothesized that high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta. To test this hypothesis, we measured FAO, fatty acid esterification, de novo fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride levels, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activities (CPT) in placental explants of women with GDM or no pregnancy complication. In women with GDM, FAO was reduced by ~30% without change in mitochondrial content, and triglyceride content was threefold higher than in the control group. Likewise, in placental explants of women with no complications, high glucose levels reduced FAO by ~20%, and esterification increased linearly with increasing fatty acid concentrations. However, de novo fatty acid synthesis remained unchanged between high and low glucose levels. In addition, high glucose levels increased triglyceride content approximately twofold compared with low glucose levels. Furthermore, etomoxir-mediated inhibition of FAO enhanced esterification capacity by ~40% and elevated triglyceride content 1.5-fold in placental explants of women, with no complications. Finally, high glucose levels reduced CPT I activity by ~70% and phosphorylation levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by ~25% in placental explants of women, with no complications. We reveal an unrecognized regulatory mechanism on placental fatty acid metabolism by which high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial FAO through inhibition of CPT I, shifting flux of fatty acids away from oxidation toward the esterification pathway, leading to accumulation of placental triglycerides. PMID:23673156

  12. Antacids and Acid Reducers: OTC Relief for Heartburn and Acid Reflux

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease, you shouldn’t use an antacid containing calcium carbonate or aluminum hydroxide and magnesium carbonate unless your doctor recommends it. Talk to your doctor before taking a proton pump inhibitor if: You are a ... reduce calcium absorption from foods and supplements and may increase ...

  13. A solid acid esterification catalyst which reduces waste and increases yields

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, E.G.

    1993-12-31

    Recent research on polymeric catalysts has led to the development of a new solid acid esterification catalyst which is highly active for the esterification of fatty acids and maleic anhydride at elevated temperatures. The use of this catalyst eliminates the need for a final neutralization step which is required when using traditional homogenous acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and HCl) catalysts. This neutralization step generates large amounts of waste salts and hurts efficiency since unconsumed organic acid reactants are also neutralized. In the high temperature esterification reactions studied here, the production of dialkyl ether by-products from the acid catalyzed self-condensation of alcohol is also greatly reduced allowing for both high activity and selectivity.

  14. Lactic acid and trisodium phosphate treatment of lamb breast to reduce bacterial contamination.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, A J; Acuff, G R; Lucia, L M; Savell, J W

    2001-09-01

    Lactic acid and trisodium phosphate (TSP) were evaluated for the ability to reduce Escherichia coli and aerobic plate counts (APCs) on lamb breasts that were inoculated with a lamb fecal paste. A 90-s water rinse was applied followed by either a 9-s (55 degrees C) 2% lactic acid spray, a 60-s (55 degrees C) 12% TSP dip, or a combined treatment of both lactic acid and TSP treatments. Lactic acid reduced E. coli and APCs by 1.6 log10/cm2, and TSP caused a 1.8-log10/cm2 reduction in E. coli and a 0.7-log10/cm2 reduction in APCs. Combined reductions by the lactic acid spray followed by the TSP dip were 1.8 and 1.5 log10/cm2 for E. coli and APCs, respectively. Lactic acid and trisodium phosphate, used alone or in combination, were effective in reducing numbers of E. coli and could be useful as pathogen intervention steps in lamb slaughter processing. PMID:11563525

  15. New and existing oils and fats used in products with reduced trans-fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Tarrago-Trani, Maria Teresa; Phillips, Katherine M; Lemar, Linda E; Holden, Joanne M

    2006-06-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's final ruling on trans-fatty acid labeling issued in 2003 has caused a rapid transformation in the fat and oil industries. Novel ingredients and improved technologies are emerging to replace partially hydrogenated fats in foods. We present an overview of the structure and formation of trans fatty acids in foods, and a comprehensive review of the newly formulated products and current procedures practiced by the edible oil industry to reduce or eliminate trans fatty acids in response to the Food and Drug Administration's regulations mandating trans fat labeling of foods. PMID:16720128

  16. Palladium nanoparticles synthesized by reducing species generated during a successive acidic/alkaline treatment of sucrose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amornkitbamrung, Lunjakorn; Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2014-03-01

    Uniform spherical palladium nanoparticles with an average particle size of 4.3 ± 0.5 nm were successfully synthesized by reducing H2PdCl4 with intermediates in situ generated during a successive acidic/alkaline treatment of sucrose. A successive acidic/alkaline treatment plays an important role on converting the non-reducing sucrose into efficient reducing species containing aldehyde functionality. The Benedict's test corroborates the development and vanishing of the in situ generated reducing species upon prolonged degradation. An increase in alkalinity drastically improves the reduction efficiency. ATR FT-IR spectroscopy indicated spontaneous development of carboxylate after the alkaline treatment. Under the employed condition, small organic species with carbonyl groups (aldehyde, acid, and acid salt) were generated through the sucrose degradation before being oxidized to carbonate after an hour of the treatment. Sucrose was completely decomposed into carbonate after a 24-h successive acidic/alkaline treatment. The synthesized palladium nanoparticles express a good catalytic activity in the decolorization process of Congo red by sodium borohydride.

  17. Humic Acid-Oxidizing, Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria in Agricultural Soils

    PubMed Central

    Van Trump, J. Ian; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Thrash, J. Cameron; Weber, Karrie A.; Andersen, Gary L.; Coates, John D.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study demonstrates the prevalence, phylogenetic diversity, and physiology of nitrate-reducing microorganisms capable of utilizing reduced humic acids (HA) as electron donors in agricultural soils. Most probable number (MPN) enumeration of agricultural soils revealed large populations (104 to 106 cells g−1 soil) of microorganisms capable of reducing nitrate while oxidizing the reduced HA analog 2,6-anthrahydroquinone disulfonate (AH2DS) to its corresponding quinone. Nitrate-dependent HA-oxidizing organisms isolated from agricultural soils were phylogenetically diverse and included members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. Advective up-flow columns inoculated with corn plot soil and amended with reduced HA and nitrate supported both HA oxidation and enhanced nitrate reduction relative to no-donor or oxidized HA controls. The additional electron donating capacity of reduced HA could reasonably be attributed to the oxidation of reduced functional groups. Subsequent 16S rRNA gene-based high-density oligonucleotide microarray (PhyloChip) indicated that reduced HA columns supported the development of a bacterial community enriched with members of the Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, and Betaproteobacteria relative to the no-donor control and initial inoculum. This study identifies a previously unrecognized role for HA in stimulating denitrification processes in saturated soil systems. Furthermore, this study indicates that reduced humic acids impact soil geochemistry and the indigenous bacterial community composition. PMID:21750120

  18. Effect of oxalic acid treatment on sediment arsenic concentrations and lability under reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Bostick, Benjamin C; Mailloux, Brian J; Ross, James M; Chillrud, Steven N

    2016-07-01

    Oxalic acid enhances arsenic (As) mobilization by dissolving As host minerals and competing for sorption sites. Oxalic acid amendments thus could potentially improve the efficiency of widely used pump-and-treat (P&T) remediation. This study investigates the effectiveness of oxalic acid on As mobilization from contaminated sediments with different As input sources and redox conditions, and examines whether residual sediment As after oxalic acid treatment can still be reductively mobilized. Batch extraction, column, and microcosm experiments were performed in the laboratory using sediments from the Dover Municipal Landfill and the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund sites. Oxalic acid mobilized As from both Dover and Vineland sediments, although the efficiency rates were different. The residual As in both Dover and Vineland sediments after oxalic acid treatment was less vulnerable to microbial reduction than before the treatment. Oxalic acid could thus improve the efficiency of P&T. X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis indicated that the Vineland sediment samples still contained reactive Fe(III) minerals after oxalic acid treatment, and thus released more As into solution under reducing conditions than the treated Dover samples. Therefore, the efficacy of enhanced P&T must consider sediment Fe mineralogy when evaluating its overall potential for remediating groundwater As. PMID:26970042

  19. Registration of a sunflower genetic stock (RS3) with reduced palmitic and stearic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genetic stock, RS3 (PI 642702), having reduced levels of palmitic and stearic acids, was developed and released by the USDA-ARS and the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, Fargo, ND. This genetic stock provides an additional source of lower saturated fatt...

  20. The Impact of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Reducing Child Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Transler, Catherine; Eilander, Ans; Mitchell, Siobhan; van de Meer, Nelly

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To review the impact of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in reducing ADHD symptoms in children. Methods: Peer-reviewed experimental literature published from 1980 to Mai 2009 is consulted (Psychinfo, Medline, and resulting reference lists). Results: Placebo-controlled studies with ADHD or hyperactive children show no effects on…

  1. Mine Waste Technology Program. In Situ Source Control Of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 3, In Situ Source Control of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S....

  2. Spray washing carcasses with alkaline solutions of lauric acid to reduce bacterial contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions to reduce carcass bacterial contamination was examined. Skin of carcasses was inoculated with a cecal paste containing antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimirum, and Campylobacter coli. In one trial, in...

  3. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Johan A.; Wold, Agnes E.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Östman, Sofia M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 μM fatty acids; α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violetlow) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFNγ. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells. PMID:26619195

  4. A reduced amino acid alphabet for understanding and designing protein adaptation to mutation.

    PubMed

    Etchebest, C; Benros, C; Bornot, A; Camproux, A-C; de Brevern, A G

    2007-11-01

    Protein sequence world is considerably larger than structure world. In consequence, numerous non-related sequences may adopt similar 3D folds and different kinds of amino acids may thus be found in similar 3D structures. By grouping together the 20 amino acids into a smaller number of representative residues with similar features, sequence world simplification may be achieved. This clustering hence defines a reduced amino acid alphabet (reduced AAA). Numerous works have shown that protein 3D structures are composed of a limited number of building blocks, defining a structural alphabet. We previously identified such an alphabet composed of 16 representative structural motifs (5-residues length) called Protein Blocks (PBs). This alphabet permits to translate the structure (3D) in sequence of PBs (1D). Based on these two concepts, reduced AAA and PBs, we analyzed the distributions of the different kinds of amino acids and their equivalences in the structural context. Different reduced sets were considered. Recurrent amino acid associations were found in all the local structures while other were specific of some local structures (PBs) (e.g Cysteine, Histidine, Threonine and Serine for the alpha-helix Ncap). Some similar associations are found in other reduced AAAs, e.g Ile with Val, or hydrophobic aromatic residues Trp with Phe and Tyr. We put into evidence interesting alternative associations. This highlights the dependence on the information considered (sequence or structure). This approach, equivalent to a substitution matrix, could be useful for designing protein sequence with different features (for instance adaptation to environment) while preserving mainly the 3D fold. PMID:17565494

  5. Thyroid hormone reduces PCSK9 and stimulates bile acid synthesis in humans[S

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, Ylva; Breuer, Olof; Lütjohann, Dieter; Sjöberg, Stefan; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Reduced plasma LDL-cholesterol is a hallmark of hyperthyroidism and is caused by transcriptional stimulation of LDL receptors in the liver. Here, we investigated whether thyroid hormone (TH) actions involve other mechanisms that may also account for the reduction in LDL-cholesterol, including effects on proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and bile acid synthesis. Twenty hyperthyroid patients were studied before and after clinical normalization, and the responses to hyperthyroidism were compared with those in 14 healthy individuals after 14 days of treatment with the liver-selective TH analog eprotirome. Both hyperthyroidism and eprotirome treatment reduced circulating PCSK9, lipoprotein cholesterol, apoB and AI, and lipoprotein(a), while cholesterol synthesis was stable. Hyperthyroidism, but not eprotirome treatment, markedly increased bile acid synthesis and reduced fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 and dietary cholesterol absorption. Eprotirome treatment, but not hyperthyroidism, reduced plasma triglycerides. Neither hyperthyroidism nor eprotirome treatment altered insulin, glucose, or FGF21 levels. TH reduces circulating PSCK9, thereby likely contributing to lower plasma LDL-cholesterol in hyperthyroidism. TH also stimulates bile acid synthesis, although this response is not critical for its LDL-lowering effect. PMID:25172631

  6. Candida zemplinina Can Reduce Acetic Acid Produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Sweet Wine Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Dolci, Paola; Giacosa, Simone; Torchio, Fabrizio; Tofalo, Rosanna; Torriani, Sandra; Suzzi, Giovanna; Rolle, Luca

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigated the possibility of using Candida zemplinina, as a partner of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in mixed fermentations of must with a high sugar content, in order to reduce its acetic acid production. Thirty-five C. zemplinina strains, which were isolated from different geographic regions, were molecularly characterized, and their fermentation performances were determined. Five genetically different strains were selected for mixed fermentations with S. cerevisiae. Two types of inoculation were carried out: coinoculation and sequential inoculation. A balance between the two species was generally observed for the first 6 days, after which the levels of C. zemplinina started to decrease. Relevant differences were observed concerning the consumption of sugars, the ethanol and glycerol content, and acetic acid production, depending on which strain was used and which type of inoculation was performed. Sequential inoculation led to the reduction of about half of the acetic acid content compared to the pure S. cerevisiae fermentation, but the ethanol and glycerol amounts were also low. A coinoculation with selected combinations of S. cerevisiae and C. zemplinina resulted in a decrease of ∼0.3 g of acetic acid/liter, while maintaining high ethanol and glycerol levels. This study demonstrates that mixed S. cerevisiae and C. zemplinina fermentation could be applied in sweet wine fermentation to reduce the production of acetic acid, connected to the S. cerevisiae osmotic stress response. PMID:22247148

  7. Suspended culture of sulfate reducing bacteria for the remediation of acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Misken, K.A.; Figueroa, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    Acid mind drainages are characterized by low pH, and high sulfate and heavy metals concentrations. Conventional treatment technologies address these concerns with high chemical additions producing large volumes of sludge requiring disposal. An anaerobic suspended culture of sulfate reducing bacteria can reduce the metals and sulfate levels by reducing sulfate to sulfide levels by reducing sulfate to sulfate, which can then form precipates with the metal in solution, while increase pH and producing biocarbonate. Readily available and inexpensive organic carbon sources such as wastewater and waste beer were evaluated in serum bottles, and a bench scale sequencing batch reactor was operated using molasses as the organic source. Up to 90% sulfate removal was achieved while reducing iron concentrations to below detection limits. Increases in pH require production of stoichiometrically excess sulfide.

  8. Targeting acid sphingomyelinase reduces cardiac ceramide accumulation in the post-ischemic heart.

    PubMed

    Klevstig, Martina; Ståhlman, Marcus; Lundqvist, Annika; Scharin Täng, Margareta; Fogelstrand, Per; Adiels, Martin; Andersson, Linda; Kolesnick, Richard; Jeppsson, Anders; Borén, Jan; Levin, Malin C

    2016-04-01

    Ceramide accumulation is known to accompany acute myocardial ischemia, but its role in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease is unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine how ceramides accumulate in the ischemic heart and to determine if cardiac function following ischemia can be improved by reducing ceramide accumulation. To investigate the association between ceramide accumulation and heart function, we analyzed myocardial left ventricle biopsies from subjects with chronic ischemia and found that ceramide levels were higher in biopsies from subjects with reduced heart function. Ceramides are produced by either de novo synthesis or hydrolysis of sphingomyelin catalyzed by acid and/or neutral sphingomyelinase. We used cultured HL-1 cardiomyocytes to investigate these pathways and showed that acid sphingomyelinase activity rather than neutral sphingomyelinase activity or de novo sphingolipid synthesis was important for hypoxia-induced ceramide accumulation. We also used mice with a partial deficiency in acid sphingomyelinase (Smpd1(+/-) mice) to investigate if limiting ceramide accumulation under ischemic conditions would have a beneficial effect on heart function and survival. Although we showed that cardiac ceramide accumulation was reduced in Smpd1(+/-) mice 24h after an induced myocardial infarction, this reduction was not accompanied by an improvement in heart function or survival. Our findings show that accumulation of cardiac ceramides in the post-ischemic heart is mediated by acid sphingomyelinase. However, targeting ceramide accumulation in the ischemic heart may not be a beneficial treatment strategy. PMID:26930027

  9. Detection of folic acid protein in human serum using reduced graphene oxide electrodes modified by folic-acid.

    PubMed

    He, Lijie; Wang, Qian; Mandler, Daniel; Li, Musen; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2016-01-15

    The detection of disease markers is considered an important step for early diagnosis of cancer. We design in this work a novel electrochemical sensing platform for the sensitive and selective detection of folic acid protein (FP). The platform is fabricated by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) onto a gold electrode and post-functionalization of rGO with folic acid. Upon FP binding, a significant current decrease can be measured using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Using this scheme, a detection limit of 1pM is achieved. Importantly, the method also allows the detection of FP in serum being thus an appealing approach for the sensitive detection of biomarkers in clinical samples. PMID:26342582

  10. Reduced capacity for fatty acid oxidation in rats with inherited susceptibility to diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hong; Friedman, Mark I

    2007-08-01

    High-fat, energy-dense diets promote weight gain and obesity in humans and other animals, but the mechanisms underlying such diet-induced obesity remain elusive. To determine whether a reduced capacity to oxidize fat is involved in the etiology of diet-induced obesity, we examined different measures of fatty acid oxidation in rats selectively bred for susceptibility (DIO) or resistance (DR) to dietary obesity before and after they were fed a high-fat diet and became obese. DIO rats eating a low-fat diet oxidized less dietary fatty acid in vivo and had lower levels of plasma ketone bodies during fasting compared with DR rats. Lean DIO rats fed a low-fat diet showed reduced liver messenger RNA expression of CD36, which transports fatty acids across cell membranes, and long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ACADL), which catalyzes the first step in the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids. The deficit in CD36 and ACADL messenger RNA expression was also seen in obese DIO rats that had been eating a high-fat diet and, in addition, was accompanied by reduced expression of liver carnitine palmitoyl transferase I, the enzyme that mediates transport of long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria. No differences were found in the expression of liver enzymes involved in fat synthesis; however, in muscle, DIO rats fed the low-fat, but not high-fat, diet showed greater expression of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 and lipoprotein lipase than did DR rats. Expression of muscle enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation was similar in the 2 groups. These findings provide a metabolic mechanism for the development of diet-induced obesity and thus suggest potential targets for intervention strategies to treat or prevent it. PMID:17618960

  11. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation reduces SERCA Ca2+ transport efficiency in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Val Andrew; Bombardier, Eric; Irvine, Thomas; Metherel, Adam H; Stark, Ken D; Duhamel, Todd; Rush, James W E; Green, Howard J; Tupling, A Russell

    2015-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce the efficiency and increase the energy consumption of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump and mitochondrial electron transport chain by promoting Na(+) and H(+) membrane permeability, respectively. In skeletal muscle, the sarco(endo) plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) pumps are major contributors to resting metabolic rate. Whether DHA can affect SERCA efficiency remains unknown. Here, we examined the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with DHA would reduce Ca(2+) transport efficiency of the SERCA pumps in skeletal muscle. Total lipids were extracted from enriched sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes that were isolated from red vastus lateralis skeletal muscles of rats that were either fed a standard chow diet supplemented with soybean oil or supplemented with DHA for 8 weeks. The fatty acid composition of total SR membrane lipids and the major phospholipid species were determined using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). After 8 weeks of DHA supplementation, total SR DHA content was significantly elevated (control, 4.1 ± 1.0% vs. DHA, 9.9 ± 1.7%; weight percent of total fatty acids) while total arachidonic acid was reduced (control, 13.5 ± 0.4% vs. DHA-fed, 9.4 ± 0.2). Similar changes in these fatty acids were observed in phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol, altogether indicating successful incorporation of DHA into the SR membranes post-diet. As hypothesized, DHA supplementation reduced SERCA Ca(2+) transport efficiency (control, 0.018 ± 0.0002 vs. DHA-fed, 0.014 ± 0.0009) possibly through enhanced SR Ca(2+) permeability (ionophore ratio: control, 2.8 ± 0.2 vs. DHA-fed, 2.2 ± 0.3). Collectively, our results suggest that DHA may promote skeletal muscle-based metabolism and thermogenesis through its influence on SERCA. PMID:25772907

  12. Acid-Tolerant Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Play a Major Role in Iron Cycling in Acidic Iron Rich Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enright, K. A.; Moreau, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change drives drying and acidification of many rivers and lakes. Abundant sedimentary iron in these systems oxidizes chemically and biologically to form iron-ox(yhydrox)ide crusts and "hardpans". Given generally high sulfate concentrations, the mobilization and cycling of iron in these environments can be strongly influenced by bacterial sulfate reduction. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) induce reductive dissolution of oxidized iron phases by producing the reductant bisulfide as a metabolic product. These environmentally ubiquitous microbes also recycle much of the fixed carbon in sediment-hosted microbial mat communities. With prevalent drying, the buffering capacity for protons liberated from iron oxidation is exceeded, and the activity of sulfate-reducers is restricted to those species capable of tolerating low pH (and generally highly saline, i.e. sulfate-rich) conditions. These species will sustain the recycling of iron from more crystalline phases to more bioavailable species, as well as act as the only source of bisulfide for photosynthesizing microbial communities. The phylogeny and physiology of acid-tolerant SRB is therefore important to Fe, S and C cycling in iron-rich sedimentary environments, particularly those on a geochemical trajectory towards acidification. Previous studies have shown that these SRB species tend to be highly novel. We studied two distinct environments along a geochemical continuum towards acidification. In both settings, iron redox transformations exert a major, if not controlling, influence on reduction potential. An acidified, iron- rich tidal marsh receiving acid-mine drainage (San Francisco Bay, CA, USA) contained abundant textural evidence for reductive dissolution of Fe(III) in sediments with pH values varying from 2.4 - 3.8. From these sediments, full-length novel dsrAB gene sequences from acid-tolerant SRB were recovered, and sulfur isotope profiles reflected biological fractionation of sulfur under even the most

  13. Production of total reducing sugar (TRS) from acid hydrolysed potato peels by sonication and its optimization.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Saurav; Chakraborty, Sudip; Datta, Siddhartha; Drioli, Enrico; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2013-01-01

    Potato peel is a waste biomass which can be a source of raw material for biofuel production. This biomass contains a sufficient amount of total reducing sugar (TRS), which can be extracted and further treated with microbial pathways to produce bioethanol. The extraction of TRS from potato peels by hydrolysis in dilute sulphuric acid was investigated at different acid concentrations (0.50%, 0.75% and 1% w/v) and sonication was carried out to improve the extent of sugar extraction after hydrolysis. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to verify the experimental data and later applied for the optimization of the main important reaction variables including amplitude (60%, 80% and 100%), cycle (0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) and treatment time (5, 10 and 15 min) for the responses of TRS extraction by acid hydrolysis and later compared with the experimental data. PMID:24191439

  14. Palmitoleic acid reduces intramuscular lipid and restores insulin sensitivity in obese sheep

    PubMed Central

    Duckett, Susan K; Volpi-Lagreca, Gabriela; Alende, Mariano; Long, Nathan M

    2014-01-01

    Obese sheep were used to assess the effects of palmitoleic (C16:1 cis-9) acid infusion on lipogenesis and circulating insulin levels. Infusion of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day C16:1 intravenously in obese sheep reduced (P<0.01) weight gain by 77%. Serum palmitoleic levels increased (P<0.05) in a linear manner with increasing levels of C16:1 infusion. Cis-11 vaccenic (C18:1 cis-11) acid, a known elongation product of palmitoleic acid, was also elevated (P<0.05) in serum after 14 days and 21 days of infusion. Plasma insulin levels were lower (P<0.05) (10 mg/kg BW/day C16:1) than controls (0 mg/kg BW/day C16:1) at 14 days and 28 days of infusion. Infusion of C16:1 resulted in linear increases in tissue concentrations of palmitoleic, cis-11 vaccenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acids in a dose-dependent manner. Total lipid content of the semitendinosus (ST) muscle and mesenteric adipose tissue was reduced (P<0.01) in both 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg BW C16:1 dose levels. Total lipid content and mean adipocyte size in the longissimus muscle was reduced (P<0.05) in the 10 mg/kg BW C16:1 dose level only, whereas total lipid content and adipocyte size of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was not altered. Total lipid content of the liver was also unchanged with C16:1 infusion. Palmitoleic acid infusion upregulated (P<0.05) acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid elongase-6 (ELOVL6), and Protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 catalytic subunit, transcript variant 1 (AMPK) mRNA expressions in liver, subcutaneous adipose, and ST muscle compared to the controls. However, mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1B) differed between tissues. In the subcutaneous adipose and liver, C16:1 infusion upregulated (P<0.05) GLUT4 and CPT1B, whereas these genes were downregulated (P<0.05) in ST muscle with C16:1 infusion. These results show that C16:1 infusion for 28 days reduced weight gain, intramuscular adipocyte size and total

  15. B vitamin supplementation reduces excretion of urinary dicarboxylic acids in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Socha, Ewa; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-07-01

    Urinary dicarboxylic acids are an important source of information about metabolism and potential problems especially connected with energy production, intestinal dysbiosis, and nutritional individuality in autistic children. A diet rich in vitamins and macroelements is a new idea of intervention in autism. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and magnesium supplementation is effective in reducing the level of dicarboxylic acids in the urine of autistic children. We examined the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children before and after vitamin supplementation. Thirty children with autism received magnesium (daily dose, 200 mg), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine; daily dose, 500 mg), and vitamin B2 (riboflavin; daily dose, 20 mg). The treatment was provided for a period of 3 months. Organic acids were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Before supplementation, the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children were 41.47 ± 50.40 μmol/mmol creatinine, 15.61 ± 15.31 μmol/mmol creatinine, 8.02 ± 6.08 μmol/mmol creatinine; and after supplementation, the levels were 9.90 ± 8.26 μmol/mmol creatinine, 2.92 ± 2.41 μmol/mmol creatinine, and 2.57 ± 3.53 μmol/mmol creatinine, respectively. The results suggest that the supplementation reduces the level of dicarboxylic acid in the urine of autistic children. PMID:21840465

  16. Hyaluronic acid as a molecular filter and friction-reducing lubricant in the human inner ear.

    PubMed

    Anniko, M; Arnold, W

    1995-01-01

    Immunofluorescence for hyaluronic acid occurred intracellularly in morphologically highly specialized areas in the adult human inner ear, for instance in the cuticular plates of all types of hair cells, at the apposition between outer hair cells and Deiter's cell bodies and in the near-surface area of Hensen's cells. The cytoskeletal organization in these regions is characterized by tightly packed filamentous proteins. Under physiological stimulus these regions undergo micromechanical change, either actively moving (force generation) or passively vibrating with changes in elasticity. Hyaluronic acid might therefore act as a friction-reducing molecular lubricant. In the lateral wall of the cochlea an accumulation of hyaluronic acid occurred in the loose connective tissue of the spiral ligament, in particular close to the stria vascularis. Due to its complex molecular network, hyaluronic acid offers considerable resistance to bulk flow of water and may exclude molecules. The basal cell region of the stria vascularis is thus given additional support to minimize (seal?) the stria vascularis towards all other areas except the endolymphatic space. Here, hyaluronic acid could act as a molecular filter. PMID:7731661

  17. Zoledronic Acid May Reduce Intraoperative Bleeding in Spinal Tumors: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Juan; Zheng, Wei; Tan, Yan; Hu, Xiao-Yuan; Huang, Quan; Fan, Kai-Hua; Ma, Jie; Xiao, Wen-Jing; Ren, Jian-Dong; Hou, Jun; Xiao, Jian-Ru

    2015-01-01

    Between June 2010 and June 2011, 176 patients were divided into 2 groups: a group with spinal metastasis of solid tumors (n = 157) and a group with multiple myeloma (n = 19). Both groups were further divided into 2 subgroups: a group receiving zoledronic acid before surgery and a control group. The zoledronic acid subgroup of the solid tumors group was group A (n = 81), the control subgroup of the solid tumors group was group B (n = 76), the zoledronic acid subgroup of the multiple myeloma group was group C (n = 10), and the control subgroup of the multiple myeloma group was group D (n = 9). The average intraoperative blood loss during spinal surgery was as follows: 1311 ± 691 mL in group A and 1752 ± 740 mL in group B (P = 0.000) and 1994 ± 810 mL in group C and 3134 ± 795 mL in group D (P = 0.000). Patients receiving zoledronic acid before surgery had significantly less intraoperative bleeding than those who did not receive it. Preoperative use of zoledronic acid can effectively reduce intraoperative bleeding during surgery for the treatment of spinal tumors. PMID:25685817

  18. Trans Fatty Acids Induce Vascular Inflammation and Reduce Vascular Nitric Oxide Production in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Naomi G.; Pham, Matilda; Rizzo, Norma O.; Cheng, Andrew M.; Maloney, Ezekiel; Kim, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Intake of trans fatty acids (TFA), which are consumed by eating foods made from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. This relation can be explained by many factors including TFA's negative effect on endothelial function and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. In this study we investigated the effects of three different TFA (2 common isomers of C18 found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil and a C18 isomer found from ruminant-derived—dairy products and meat) on endothelial NF-κB activation and nitric oxide (NO) production. Human endothelial cells were treated with increasing concentrations of Elaidic (trans-C18:1 (9 trans)), Linoelaidic (trans-C18:2 (9 trans, 12 trans)), and Transvaccenic (trans-C18:1 (11 trans)) for 3 h. Both Elaidic and Linoelaidic acids were associated with increasing NF-κB activation as measured by IL-6 levels and phosphorylation of IκBα, and impairment of endothelial insulin signaling and NO production, whereas Transvaccenic acid was not associated with these responses. We also measured superoxide production, which has been hypothesized to be necessary in fatty acid-dependent activation of NF-κB. Both Elaidic acid and Linoelaidic acid are associated with increased superoxide production, whereas Transvaccenic acid (which did not induce inflammatory responses) did not increase superoxide production. We observed differential activation of endothelial superoxide production, NF-κB activation, and reduction in NO production by different C18 isomers suggesting that the location and number of trans double bonds effect endothelial NF-κB activation. PMID:22216328

  19. Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration is associated with physical disability in progressive multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Solanky, Bhavana S.; Muhlert, Nils; Tur, Carmen; Edden, Richard A. E.; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A. M.; Miller, David H.; Thompson, Alan J.; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is thought to be the major cause of ongoing, irreversible disability in progressive stages of multiple sclerosis. Gamma-aminobutyric acid is the principle inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. The aims of this study were to investigate if gamma-aminobutyric acid levels (i) are abnormal in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis compared with healthy controls; and (ii) correlate with physical and cognitive performance in this patient population. Thirty patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and 17 healthy control subjects underwent single-voxel MEGA-PRESS (MEscher-GArwood Point RESolved Spectroscopy) magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T, to quantify gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the prefrontal cortex, right hippocampus and left sensorimotor cortex. All subjects were assessed clinically and underwent a cognitive assessment. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare differences in gamma-aminobutyric acid concentrations between patients and controls adjusting for age, gender and tissue fractions within each spectroscopic voxel. Regression was used to examine the relationships between the cognitive function and physical disability scores specific for these regions with gamma-aminobuytric acid levels, adjusting for age, gender, and total N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamine-glutamate complex levels. When compared with controls, patients performed significantly worse on all motor and sensory tests, and were cognitively impaired in processing speed and verbal memory. Patients had significantly lower gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the hippocampus (adjusted difference = −0.403 mM, 95% confidence intervals −0.792, −0.014, P = 0.043) and sensorimotor cortex (adjusted difference = −0.385 mM, 95% confidence intervals −0.667, −0.104, P = 0.009) compared with controls. In patients, reduced motor function in the right upper and lower limb was associated with lower gamma-aminobutyric acid

  20. Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration is associated with physical disability in progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cawley, Niamh; Solanky, Bhavana S; Muhlert, Nils; Tur, Carmen; Edden, Richard A E; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Miller, David H; Thompson, Alan J; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2015-09-01

    Neurodegeneration is thought to be the major cause of ongoing, irreversible disability in progressive stages of multiple sclerosis. Gamma-aminobutyric acid is the principle inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. The aims of this study were to investigate if gamma-aminobutyric acid levels (i) are abnormal in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis compared with healthy controls; and (ii) correlate with physical and cognitive performance in this patient population. Thirty patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and 17 healthy control subjects underwent single-voxel MEGA-PRESS (MEscher-GArwood Point RESolved Spectroscopy) magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T, to quantify gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the prefrontal cortex, right hippocampus and left sensorimotor cortex. All subjects were assessed clinically and underwent a cognitive assessment. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare differences in gamma-aminobutyric acid concentrations between patients and controls adjusting for age, gender and tissue fractions within each spectroscopic voxel. Regression was used to examine the relationships between the cognitive function and physical disability scores specific for these regions with gamma-aminobuytric acid levels, adjusting for age, gender, and total N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamine-glutamate complex levels. When compared with controls, patients performed significantly worse on all motor and sensory tests, and were cognitively impaired in processing speed and verbal memory. Patients had significantly lower gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the hippocampus (adjusted difference = -0.403 mM, 95% confidence intervals -0.792, -0.014, P = 0.043) and sensorimotor cortex (adjusted difference = -0.385 mM, 95% confidence intervals -0.667, -0.104, P = 0.009) compared with controls. In patients, reduced motor function in the right upper and lower limb was associated with lower gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration in the

  1. Electrochemical analysis of proton and electron transfer equilibria of the reducible moieties in humic acids.

    PubMed

    Aeschbacher, Michael; Vergari, Daniele; Schwarzenbach, René P; Sander, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Humic substances play a key role in biogeochemical and pollutant redox reactions. The objective of this work was to characterize the proton and electron transfer equilibria of the reducible moieties in different humic acids (HA). Cyclic voltammetry experiments demonstrated that diquat and ethylviologen mediated electron transfer between carbon working electrodes and HA. These compounds were used also to facilitate attainment of redox equilibria between redox electrodes and HA in potentiometric E(h) measurements. Bulk electrolysis of HA combined with pH-stat acid titration demonstrated that electron transfer to the reducible moieties in HA also resulted in proton uptake, suggesting decreasing reduction potentials E(h) of HA with increasing pH. This was confirmed by potentiometric E(h)-pH titrations of HA at different redox states. E(h) measurements of HA samples prereduced to different redox states by bulk electrolysis revealed reducible moieties in HA that cover a wide range of apparent standard reduction potentials at pH 7 from E(h)(0)* = +0.15 to -0.3 V. Modeling revealed an overall increase in the relative abundance of reducible moieties with decreasing E(h). The wide range of HA is consistent with its involvement in numerous environmental electron transfer reactions under various redox conditions. PMID:21823669

  2. Acute Lung Injury Is Reduced in fat-1 Mice Endogenously Synthesizing n-3 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Konstantin; Kiessling, Almuth; Ott, Juliane; Schaefer, Martina Barbara; Hecker, Matthias; Henneke, Ingrid; Schulz, Richard; Günther, Andreas; Wang, Jingdong; Wu, Lijun; Roth, Joachim; Seeger, Werner; Kang, Jing X.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Acute lung injury (ALI) remains an important cause of mortality in intensive care units. Inflammation is controlled by cytokines and eicosanoids derived from the n-6 fatty acid (FA) arachidonic acid (AA). The n-3 FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and mediators derived from EPA and DHA possess reduced inflammatory potency. Objectives: To determine whether the ability of fat-1 mice to endogenously convert n-6 to n-3 FA, and thus generate an increased ratio of n-3 to n-6 FA, impacts experimental ALI. Methods: We investigated ALI induced by intratracheal instillation of endotoxin in fat-1 and wild-type (WT) mice, assessing leukocyte numbers, protein concentration, and prostaglandin and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as free FA in plasma, and lung ventilator compliance. Body temperature and motor activity of mice—markers of sickness behavior—were also recorded. Measurements and Main Results: In ALI, fat-1 mice exhibited significantly reduced leukocyte invasion, protein leakage, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and thromboxane B2 levels in lavage fluid compared with WT mice. Free AA levels were increased in the plasma of WT mice in response to endotoxin, whereas EPA and DHA were increased in the fat-1 group. Ventilator compliance was significantly improved in fat-1 mice. Body temperature and motor activity were decreased in ALI. fat-1 Mice recovered body temperature and motor activity faster. Conclusions: fat-1 Mice exhibited reduced features of ALI and sickness behavior. Increasing the availability of n-3 FA may thus be beneficial in critically ill patients with ALI. PMID:19136374

  3. Production and characterization of reduced NAADP (nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate).

    PubMed Central

    Billington, Richard A; Thuring, Jan W; Conway, Stuart J; Packman, Len; Holmes, Andrew B; Genazzani, Armando A

    2004-01-01

    The pyridine nucleotide NAADP (nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate) has been shown to act as a Ca2+-releasing intracellular messenger in a wide variety of systems from invertebrates to mammals and has been implicated in a number of cellular processes. NAADP is structurally very similar to its precursor, the endogenous coenzyme NADP and while much is known about the reduced form of NADP, NADPH, it is not known whether NAADP can also exist in a reduced state. Here we report that NAADP can be reduced to NAADPH by endogenous cellular enzymes and that NAADPH is functionally inert at the NAADP receptor. These data suggest that NAADPH could represent a mechanism for rapidly inactivating NAADP in cells. PMID:14606955

  4. Temporary reduction of radiation does not permanently reduce flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids in red lettuce.

    PubMed

    Becker, Christine; Kläring, Hans-Peter; Kroh, Lothar W; Krumbein, Angelika

    2013-11-01

    Applying transparent daytime screens in greenhouses in cool seasons reduces the amount of energy needed for heating, but also the solar radiation available for crops. This can reduce yield and product quality of leafy vegetables because of constrained photosynthesis and altered biosynthesis. To study this, we cultivated five-week old red leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) for four weeks in growth chambers under a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 225 and 410 μmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Some plants were exchanged between radiation intensities after two weeks. We investigated the concentration of five flavonoid glycosides, three caffeic acid derivatives, reducing sugars as well as plant growth. Remarkably, no significant influence of radiation intensity on the concentration of phenolic acids or anthocyanin glycosides was observed. In contrast, quercetin and luteolin glycoside concentration was between 14 and 34% lower in plants growing under lower compared to higher PPFD. Already after two weeks of cultivation, plants grown under lower PPFD contained less quercetin and luteolin glycosides but they completely compensated if subsequently transferred to higher PPFD until harvest. Hence, marketable lettuce heads which experienced temporary shading followed by an unshaded phase did not contain lower concentrations of flavonoid glycosides or phenolic acids. Also, there was no reduction of head mass in this variant. Our results suggest that saving energy in early growth stages is feasible without losses in yield or health promoting phenolic substances. In addition, there was a close correlation between the concentration of reducing sugars and some flavonoid glycosides, indicating a close metabolic connection between their biosynthesis and the availability of carbohydrates. PMID:23735845

  5. Ketogenic Diet, but Not Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diet, Reduces Spontaneous Seizures in Juvenile Rats with Kainic Acid-induced Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dustin, Simone M.; Stafstrom, Carl E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) is effective in many cases of drug-resistant epilepsy, particularly in children. In the classic KD, fats consist primarily of long-chain saturated triglycerides. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the n-3 type, decrease neuronal excitability and provide neuroprotection; pilot human studies have raised the possibility of using PUFAs to control seizures in patients. Methods: To determine the relative roles of the KD and PUFAs in an animal model, we induced epilepsy in juvenile rats (P29–35) using intraperitoneal kainic acid (KA). KA caused status epilepticus in all rats. Two days after KA, rats were randomized to one of 4 dietary groups: Control diet; PUFA diet; KD; or KD plus PUFA. All diets were administered isocalorically at 90% of the rat recommended daily calorie requirement. Spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) were assessed for 3 months after diet randomization. Results: Rats receiving the KD or KD-PUFA diet had significantly fewer SRS than those receiving the Control diet or PUFA diet. The PUFA diet did not reduce SRS compared to the Control diet. Conclusions: In the KA epilepsy model, the KD protects against SRS occurrence but dietary enhancement with PUFA does not afford additional protection against spontaneous seizures. PMID:27390673

  6. Friction reducing behavior of stearic acid film on a textured aluminum substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Quan; Wan, Yong; Li, Yang; Yang, Shuyan; Yao, Wenqing

    2013-09-01

    A simple two-step process was developed to render the aluminum hydrophobicity with lower friction. The textured aluminum substrate was firstly fabricated by immersed in a sodium hydroxide solution at 100 °C for 1 h. Stearic acid film was then deposited to acquire high hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy, IR spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements were used to analyze the morphological features, chemical structure and hydrophobicity of prepared samples, respectively. Moreover, the friction reducing behavior of the organic-inorganic composite film on aluminum sliding against steel was evaluated in a ball-on-plate configuration. It was found that the stearic acid film on the textured aluminum led to decreased friction with significantly extended life.

  7. Sulfate-reducing bacteria mediate thionation of diphenylarsinic acid under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ling; Shiiya, Ayaka; Hisatomi, Shihoko; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is often found as a toxic intermediate metabolite of diphenylchloroarsine or diphenylcyanoarsine that were produced as chemical warfare agents and were buried in soil after the World Wars. In our previous study Guan et al. (J Hazard Mater 241-242:355-362, 2012), after application of sulfate and carbon sources, anaerobic transformation of DPAA in soil was enhanced with the production of diphenylthioarsinic acid (DPTAA) as a main metabolite. This study aimed to isolate and characterize anaerobic soil microorganisms responsible for the metabolism of DPAA. First, we obtained four microbial consortia capable of transforming DPAA to DPTAA at a high transformation rate of more than 80% after 4 weeks of incubation. Sequencing for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from the consortia revealed that all the positive consortia contained Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans species. In contrast, the absence of dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrAB) which is unique to sulfate-reducing bacteria was confirmed in the negative consortia showing no DPAA reduction. Finally, strain DEA14 showing transformation of DPAA to DPTAA was isolated from one of the positive consortia. The isolate was assigned to D. acetoxidans based on the partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Thionation of DPAA was also carried out in a pure culture of a known sulfate-reducing bacterial strain, Desulfovibrio aerotolerans JCM 12613(T). These facts indicate that sulfate-reducing bacteria are microorganisms responsible for the transformation of DPAA to DPTAA under anaerobic conditions. PMID:25228086

  8. Effect of Topical Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Bleeding and Transfusions in TKA.

    PubMed

    Yue, Chen; Pei, Fuxing; Yang, Peiqing; Xie, Jinwei; Kang, Pengde

    2015-05-01

    Intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA) has been identified to be effective in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), but the effect of topical application is still unclear. Therefore, the authors conducted a meta-analysis to assess the effect of topical TXA in TKA. Twelve trials with a total of 1179 knees were included. The results revealed that the application of topical TXA in TKA significantly reduced total blood loss by a mean of 280.65 mL and reduced transfusions without increasing the risks of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Topical TXA also reduced postoperative drain output by a mean of 194.59 mL and lowered postoperative hemoglobin drop by a mean of 0.66 g/dL. In addition, subgroup analysis showed that high-concentration TXA may be better at reducing bleeding and transfusions than low-concentration TXA. Therefore, the authors concluded that topical TXA can effectively reduce bleeding and transfusion rate in TKA without increasing the risk of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and high-concentration (20 mg/mL or more) topical TXA is recommended. PMID:25970359

  9. Chenodeoxycholic Acid Reduces Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Protein and Its Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Moon, Yunwon; Choi, Su Mi; Chang, Soojeong; Park, Bongju; Lee, Seongyeol; Lee, Mi-Ock; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Park, Hyunsung

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated HIF-1α inhibitors under different hypoxic conditions, physiological hypoxia (5% O2) and severe hypoxia (0.1% O2). We found that chenodeoxy cholic acid (CDCA) reduced the amount of HIF-1α protein only under physiological hypoxia but not under severe hypoxia without decreasing its mRNA level. By using a proteasome inhibitor MG132 and a translation inhibitor cyclohexamide, we showed that CDCA reduced HIF-1α protein by decreasing its translation but not by enhancing its degradation. The following findings indicated that farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a CDCA receptor and its target gene, Small heterodimer partner (SHP) are not involved in this effect of CDCA. Distinctly from CDCA, MG132 prevented SHP and an exogenous FXR agonist, GW4064 from reducing HIF-1α protein. Furthermore a FXR antagonist, guggulsterone failed to prevent CDCA from decreasing HIF-1α protein. Furthermore, guggulsterone by itself reduced HIF-1α protein even in the presence of MG132. These findings suggested that CDCA and guggulsterone reduced the translation of HIF-1α in a mechanism which FXR and SHP are not involved. This study reveals novel therapeutic functions of traditional nontoxic drugs, CDCA and guggulsterone, as inhibitors of HIF-1α protein. PMID:26098428

  10. Supplementation with Abscisic Acid Reduces Malaria Disease Severity and Parasite Transmission.

    PubMed

    Glennon, Elizabeth K K; Adams, L Garry; Hicks, Derrick R; Dehesh, Katayoon; Luckhart, Shirley

    2016-06-01

    Nearly half of the world's population is at risk for malaria. Increasing drug resistance has intensified the need for novel therapeutics, including treatments with intrinsic transmission-blocking properties. In this study, we demonstrate that the isoprenoid abscisic acid (ABA) modulates signaling in the mammalian host to reduce parasitemia and the formation of transmissible gametocytes and in the mosquito host to reduce parasite infection. Oral ABA supplementation in a mouse model of malaria was well tolerated and led to reduced pathology and enhanced gene expression in the liver and spleen consistent with infection recovery. Oral ABA supplementation also increased mouse plasma ABA to levels that can signal in the mosquito midgut upon blood ingestion. Accordingly, we showed that supplementation of a Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood meal with ABA increased expression of mosquito nitric oxide synthase and reduced infection prevalence in a nitric oxide-dependent manner. Identification of the mechanisms whereby ABA reduces parasite growth in mammals and mosquitoes could shed light on the balance of immunity and metabolism across eukaryotes and provide a strong foundation for clinical translation. PMID:27001761

  11. Ascorbic acid serum levels are reduced in patients with hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Huijskens, Mirelle J.A.J.; Wodzig, Will K.W.H.; Walczak, Mateusz; Germeraad, Wilfred T.V.; Bos, Gerard M.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that patients treated with chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have highly significant reduced serum ascorbic acid (AA) levels compared to healthy controls. We recently observed in in vitro experiments that growth of both T and NK cells from hematopoietic stem cells is positively influenced by AA. It might be of clinical relevance to study the function and recovery of immune cells after intensive treatment, its correlation to AA serum levels and the possible effect of AA supplementation. PMID:27014565

  12. Reducing Molecular Flexibility by Cyclization for Elucidation of Absolute Configuration by CD Calculations: Daurichromenic Acid.

    PubMed

    Mándi, Attila; Swamy, Mahadeva M M; Taniguchi, Tohru; Anetai, Masaki; Monde, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Circular dichroism (CD) calculations of flexible natural products have been difficult because of the large number of low-energy conformers and ambiguous Boltzmann distributions. In this article, through electronic (ECD) and vibrational (VCD) studies on a natural product, (+)-daurichromenic acid, we demonstrate that derivatization of a flexible molecule can dramatically reduce its flexibility. This work also shows the usefulness of derivatization for diminishing computational expenses required for optimization and CD calculations, and for increasing the reliability of the assignment of absolute configuration. Chirality 28:453-459, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27172768

  13. Lipoic acid reduces inflammation in a mouse focal cortical experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Priya; Marracci, Gail; Galipeau, Danielle; Pocius, Edvinas; Morris, Brooke; Bourdette, Dennis

    2015-12-15

    Cortical lesions are a crucial part of MS pathology and it is critical to determine that new MS therapies have the ability to alter cortical inflammatory lesions given the differences between white and gray matter lesions. We tested lipoic acid (LA) in a mouse focal cortical EAE model. Brain sections were stained with antibodies against CD4, CD11b and galectin-3. Compared with vehicle, treatment with LA significantly decreased CD4+ and galectin-3+ immune cells in the brain. LA treated mice had fewer galectin-3+ cells with no projections indicating decrease in the number of infiltrating monocytes. LA significantly reduces inflammation in a focal cortical model of MS. PMID:26616873

  14. Activated sludge as substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria in acid mine drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ani, W.A.G.; Henry, J.G.; Prasad, D.

    1996-11-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), characterized by high concentrations of sulfates and heavy metals and low pH, presents a potential hazard to the environment.Several treatment processes (chemical precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis and electrolytic recovery) are available, but these are often too expensive. Biological treatment of AMD, mediated by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), seems promising. The objective of this study was to use activated sludge as a carbon source for the SRB and determine the most effective COD/sulfate ratio and hydraulic retention time (HRT) for reducing sulfate. Such information would be useful for the application of the proposed two-stage system to AMD treatment. Since the aim of this study was to obtain sulfate reduction and to avoid methane production, it was decided to operate the digesters initially at low COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} ratios of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0.

  15. Reduced Gut Acidity Induces an Obese-Like Phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster and in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Jui-Hung; Kuo, Ping-Chang; Yeh, Sheng-Rong; Lin, Hung-Yu; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Wang, Horng-Dar; Wang, Pei-Yu

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify genes involved in stress and metabolic regulation, we carried out a Drosophila P-element-mediated mutagenesis screen for starvation resistance. We isolated a mutant, m2, that showed a 23% increase in survival time under starvation conditions. The P-element insertion was mapped to the region upstream of the vha16-1 gene, which encodes the c subunit of the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase. We found that vha16-1 is highly expressed in the fly midgut, and that m2 mutant flies are hypomorphic for vha16-1 and also exhibit reduced midgut acidity. This deficit is likely to induce altered metabolism and contribute to accelerated aging, since vha16-1 mutant flies are short-lived and display increases in body weight and lipid accumulation. Similar phenotypes were also induced by pharmacological treatment, through feeding normal flies and mice with a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (acetazolamide) or proton pump inhibitor (PPI, lansoprazole) to suppress gut acid production. Our study may thus provide a useful model for investigating chronic acid suppression in patients. PMID:26436771

  16. Traumatic Acid Reduces Oxidative Stress and Enhances Collagen Biosynthesis in Cultured Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jabłońska-Trypuć, Agata; Pankiewicz, Walentyn; Czerpak, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic acid (TA) is a plant hormone (cytokinin) that in terms of chemical structure belongs to the group of fatty acids derivatives. It was isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris. TA activity and its influence on human cells and organism has not previously been the subject of research. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of TA on collagen content and basic oxidative stress parameters, such as antioxidative enzyme activity, reduced glutathione, thiol group content, and lipid peroxidation in physiological conditions. The results show a stimulatory effect of TA on tested parameters. TA caused a decrease in membrane phospholipid peroxidation and exhibited protective properties against ROS production. It also increases protein and collagen biosynthesis and its secretion into the culture medium. The present findings reveal that TA exhibits multiple and complex activity in fibroblast cells in vitro. TA, with its activity similar to unsaturated fatty acids, shows antioxidant and stimulatory effects on collagen biosynthesis. It is a potentially powerful agent with applications in the treatment of many skin diseases connected with oxidative stress and collagen biosynthesis disorders. PMID:27423205

  17. Beef conjugated linoleic acid isomers reduce human cancer cell growth even when associated with other beef fatty acids.

    PubMed

    De La Torre, Anne; Debiton, Eric; Juanéda, Pierre; Durand, Denys; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Barthomeuf, Chantal; Bauchart, Dominique; Gruffat, Dominique

    2006-02-01

    Although many data are available concerning anticarcinogenic effects of industrial conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), few studies have reported the antitumour properties of CLA mixtures originating from ruminant products. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antiproliferative effects of beef CLA mixtures on breast, lung, colon, melanoma and ovarian human cancer cell lines. For this purpose, four fatty acid (FA) extracts prepared from beef lipid and varying in their CLA composition, their corresponding purified CLA-enriched fractions, and mixtures of pure synthetic CLA, the composition of which reproduced that of the four selected beef samples, were tested on cancer cell lines. Cancer cells were exposed for 48 h to medium containing 100 microm-FA and their proliferation was determined by quantifying cellular DNA content (Hoechst 33342 dye). Compared with cells incubated without FA, the number of cancer cells was reduced from 25 to 67 % (P<0.0001) following FA treatment. Antiproliferative effects of CLA mixtures varied in magnitude according to the source of FA, the CLA composition and the cell lines. CLA mixtures naturally present in beef inhibited the proliferation of human cancer cell lines, a high content in cis-trans isomers allowing the most important antiproliferative effect. Beef total FA exhibited a greater growth-inhibitory activity than their corresponding CLA-enriched fractions. These results suggested that either beef FA other than beef CLA could possess antiproliferative properties and/or the existence of complementary effects of non-conjugated FA and CLA, which could favour the antiproliferative properties of beef total FA. PMID:16469152

  18. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid reduces apoptosis and protects against neurological injury after acute hemorrhagic stroke in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Cecilia M. P.; Solá, Susana; Nan, Zhenhong; Castro, Rui E.; Ribeiro, Paulo S.; Low, Walter C.; Steer, Clifford J.

    2003-01-01

    Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an endogenous bile acid, modulates cell death by interrupting classic pathways of apoptosis. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating acute neurological disorder, without effective treatment, in which a significant loss of neuronal cells is thought to occur by apoptosis. In this study, we evaluated whether TUDCA can reduce brain injury and improve neurological function after ICH in rats. Administration of TUDCA before or up to 6 h after stereotaxic collagenase injection into the striatum reduced lesion volumes at 2 days by as much as 50%. Apoptosis was ≈50% decreased in the area immediately surrounding the hematoma and was associated with a similar inhibition of caspase activity. These changes were also associated with improved neurobehavioral deficits as assessed by rotational asymmetry, limb placement, and stepping ability. Furthermore, TUDCA treatment modulated expression of certain Bcl-2 family members, as well as NF-κB activity. In addition to its protective action at the mitochondrial membrane, TUDCA also activated the Akt-1/protein kinase Bα survival pathway and induced Bad phosphorylation at Ser-136. In conclusion, reduction of brain injury underlies the wide-range neuroprotective effects of TUDCA after ICH. Thus, given its clinical safety, TUDCA may provide a potentially useful treatment in patients with hemorrhagic stroke and perhaps other acute brain injuries associated with cell death by apoptosis. PMID:12721362

  19. Reduced neonatal mortality in Meishan piglets: a role for hepatic fatty acids?

    PubMed

    Fainberg, Hernan P; Bodley, Katherine; Bacardit, Jaume; Li, Dongfang; Wessely, Frank; Mongan, Nigel P; Symonds, Michael E; Clarke, Lynne; Mostyn, Alison

    2012-01-01

    The Meishan pig breed exhibits increased prolificacy and reduced neonatal mortality compared to commercial breeds, such as the Large White, prompting breeders to introduce the Meishan genotype into commercial herds. Commercial piglets are highly susceptible to hypoglycemia, hypothermia, and death, potentially due to limited lipid stores and/or delayed hepatic metabolic ability. We therefore hypothesized that variation in hepatic development and lipid metabolism could contribute to the differences in neonatal mortality between breeds. Liver samples were obtained from piglets of each breed on days 0, 7, and 21 of postnatal age and subjected to molecular and biochemical analysis. At birth, both breeds exhibited similar hepatic glycogen contents, despite Meishan piglets having significantly lower body weight. The livers from newborn Meishan piglets exhibited increased C18∶1n9C and C20∶1n9 but lower C18∶0, C20∶4n6, and C22∶6n3 fatty acid content. Furthermore, by using an unsupervised machine learning approach, we detected an interaction between C18∶1n9C and glycogen content in newborn Meishan piglets. Bioinformatic analysis could identify unique age-based clusters from the lipid profiles in Meishan piglets that were not apparent in the commercial offspring. Examination of the fatty acid signature during the neonatal period provides novel insights into the body composition of Meishan piglets that may facilitate liver responses that prevent hypoglycaemia and reduce offspring mortality. PMID:23155453

  20. Mechanistic modeling of biocorrosion caused by biofilms of sulfate reducing bacteria and acid producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dake; Li, Yingchao; Gu, Tingyue

    2016-08-01

    Biocorrosion is also known as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Most anaerobic MIC cases can be classified into two major types. Type I MIC involves non-oxygen oxidants such as sulfate and nitrate that require biocatalysis for their reduction in the cytoplasm of microbes such as sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB). This means that the extracellular electrons from the oxidation of metal such as iron must be transported across cell walls into the cytoplasm. Type II MIC involves oxidants such as protons that are secreted by microbes such as acid producing bacteria (APB). The biofilms in this case supply the locally high concentrations of oxidants that are corrosive without biocatalysis. This work describes a mechanistic model that is based on the biocatalytic cathodic sulfate reduction (BCSR) theory. The model utilizes charge transfer and mass transfer concepts to describe the SRB biocorrosion process. The model also includes a mechanism to describe APB attack based on the local acidic pH at a pit bottom. A pitting prediction software package has been created based on the mechanisms. It predicts long-term pitting rates and worst-case scenarios after calibration using SRB short-term pit depth data. Various parameters can be investigated through computer simulation. PMID:27071053

  1. SN2-Palmitate Reduces Fatty Acid Excretion in Chinese Formula-fed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Lifshitz, Yael; Cohen, Tzafra; Malard, Patrice; Xu, Chungdi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Palmitic acid (PA) comprises 17% to 25% of human milk fatty acids, of which 70% to 75% are esterified to the SN2 position of the triglyceride (SN2-palmitate). In vegetable oils, which are commonly used in infant formulas, palmitate is primarily esterified to other positions, resulting in reduced calcium and fat absorption and hard stools. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of SN2-palmitate on nutrient excretion. Methods: In total, 171 Chinese infants were included (within 14 days of birth) in this multicenter study. Formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive either SN2-palmitate formula (INFAT, n = 57) or control formula (n = 57). The formulas (Biostime, China) differed only in their SN2 PA proportions. Stool was collected at 6 postnatal weeks. Results: The stool dry weight and fat content of the SN2-palmitate group were lower compared with the control group (dry weight 4.25 g vs 7.28 g, P < 0.05; fat 0.8 g vs 1.2 g, P < 0.05). The lipid component was also significantly lower for the SN2-palmitate group (0.79 g vs 1.19 g, P < 0.05). PA, representing ∼50% of the saponified fatty acids, was significantly lower in the SN2-palmitate group compared with the control group (0.3 g vs 0.7 g, P < 0.01). Breast-fed infants had a significantly lower stool dry weight, fat content, and saponified fat excretion compared with formula-fed infants (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Similar to breast milk, the SN2-palmitate infant formula primarily reduced calcium-saponified fat excretion. The results of this study further emphasize the nutritional importance of SN2-palmitate structured fat for infants. PMID:26334255

  2. Reduced immunogenicity of beta-lactoglobulin by conjugation with acidic oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Makoto; Miyakawa, Shunpei; Ohama, Yukie; Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Tadashi; To-o, Kenji; Kuriki, Takashi; Takahashi, Koji

    2004-07-14

    Bovine beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) was conjugated with the acidic oligosaccharides, alginic acid oligosaccharide (ALGO) and phosphoryl oligosaccharides (POs) by the Maillard reaction to reduce the immunogenicity of beta-LG. The molar ratios of beta-LG to ALGO and POs in the conjugates were 1:6 and 1:8. The carbohydrate-binding sites in the beta-LG-ALGO conjugate were partially identified to be (60)Lys, (77)Lys, (100)Lys, (138)Lys, and (141)Lys. The isoelectric point of each conjugate was lower than that of beta-LG. CD spectra indicated that the secondary structure of beta-LG was almost maintained after conjugation. The results of fluorescence studies indicated that the conformation around Trp had not changed in each conjugate and that the surface of each conjugate was covered with a saccharide chain. Structural analyses with monoclonal antibodies indicated that the conformation around (8)Lys-(19)Trp (beta-sheet, random coil, short helix) in the conjugates had changed, whereas the native structure was maintained around (15)Val-(29)Ile (beta-sheet) and (125)Thr-(135)Lys (alpha-helix). The beta-LG-ALGO and beta-LG-POs conjugates maintained 77 and 70% of the retinol binding activity of beta-LG. Conjugation with ALGO and POs substantially enhanced the thermal stability of beta-LG. The anti-beta-LG antibody response was markedly reduced after immunization with both conjugates in BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C3H/He mice. B cell epitopes of beta-LG and the conjugate recognized in these mice were determined with 15-mer multipin peptides, and the linear epitope profiles of the conjugates were found to be similar to those of beta-LG, whereas the antibody response to each epitope was dramatically reduced. In particular, effective reduction of the antibody response was observed in the vicinity of the carbohydrate-binding sites. Conjugation of beta-LG with these acidic oligosaccharides was effective in reducing the immunogenicity of beta-LG. The conjugates obtained in this study are

  3. Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid reduces nausea-induced conditioned gaping in rats and vomiting in Suncus murinus

    PubMed Central

    Rock, E M; Kopstick, R L; Limebeer, C L; Parker, L A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We evaluated the anti-emetic and anti-nausea properties of the acid precursor of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), and determined its mechanism of action in these animal models. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We investigated the effect of THCA on lithium chloride- (LiCl) induced conditioned gaping (nausea-induced behaviour) to a flavour, and context (a model of anticipatory nausea) in rats, and on LiCl-induced vomiting in Suncus murinus. Furthermore, we investigated THCA's ability to induce hypothermia and suppress locomotion [rodent tasks to assess cannabinoid1 (CB1) receptor agonist-like activity], and measured plasma and brain THCA and THC levels. We also determined whether THCA's effect could be blocked by pretreatment with SR141716 (SR, a CB1 receptor antagonist). KEY RESULTS In rats, THCA (0.05 and/or 0.5 mg·kg−1) suppressed LiCl-induced conditioned gaping to a flavour and context; the latter effect blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist, SR, but not by the 5-hydroxytryptamine-1A receptor antagonist, WAY100635. In S. murinus, THCA (0.05 and 0.5 mg·kg−1) reduced LiCl-induced vomiting, an effect that was reversed with SR. A comparatively low dose of THC (0.05 mg·kg−1) did not suppress conditioned gaping to a LiCl-paired flavour or context. THCA did not induce hypothermia or reduce locomotion, indicating non-CB1 agonist-like effects. THCA, but not THC was detected in plasma samples. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS THCA potently reduced conditioned gaping in rats and vomiting in S. murinus, effects that were blocked by SR. These data suggest that THCA may be a more potent alternative to THC in the treatment of nausea and vomiting. PMID:23889598

  4. Treatment with oleic acid reduces IgE binding to peanut and cashew allergens.

    PubMed

    Chung, Si-Yin; Mattison, Christopher P; Reed, Shawndrika; Wasserman, Richard L; Desormeaux, Wendy A

    2015-08-01

    Oleic acid (OA) is known to bind and change the bioactivities of proteins, such as α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine if OA binds to allergens from a peanut extract or cashew allergen and changes their allergenic properties. Peanut extract or cashew allergen (Ana o 2) was treated with or without 5mM sodium oleate at 70°C for 60 min (T1) or under the same conditions with an additional overnight incubation at 37°C (T2). After treatment, the samples were dialyzed and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and for OA content. IgE binding was evaluated by ELISA and western blot, using a pooled serum or plasma from individuals with peanut or cashew allergies. Results showed that OA at a concentration of 5mM reduced IgE binding to the allergens. Peanut sample T2 exhibited a lower IgE binding and a higher OA content (protein-bound) than T1. Cashew allergen T2 also showed a reduction in IgE binding. We conclude that OA reduces the allergenic properties of peanut extract and cashew allergen by binding to the allergens. Our findings indicate that OA in the form of sodium oleate may be potentially useful as a coating to reduce the allergenic properties of peanut and cashew allergens. PMID:25766831

  5. Recovery of reducing sugars and volatile fatty acids from cornstalk at different hydrothermal treatment severity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhangbing; Liu, Zhidan; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Lu, Haifeng; Duan, Na; Si, Buchun; Shen, Ruixia; Lu, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the degradation of cornstalk and recovery of reducing sugars and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) at different hydrothermal treatment severity (HTS) (4.17-8.28, 190-320°C). The highest recovery of reducing sugars and VFAs reached 92.39% of aqueous products, equal to 34.79% based on dry biomass (HTS, 6.31). GC-MS and HPLC identified that the aqueous contained furfural (0.35-2.88 g/L) and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (0-0.85 g/L) besides reducing sugars and VFAs. Hemicellulose and cellulose were completely degraded at a HTS of 5.70 and 7.60, respectively. SEM analysis showed that cornstalk was gradually changed from rigid and highly ordered fibrils to molten and grainy structure as HTS increased. FT-IR and TGA revealed the significant changes of organic groups for cornstalk before and after hydrothermal treatment at different HTS. Hydrothermal treatment might be promising for providing feedstocks suitable for biohythane production. PMID:26316401

  6. BPC-15 reduces trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colonic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Veljaca, M; Lesch, C A; Pllana, R; Sanchez, B; Chan, K; Guglietta, A

    1995-01-01

    The effect of BPC-15 (Booly Protection Compound-15) was evaluated in a rat model of colonic injury. A single intracolonic administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) dissolved in ethanol induces severe colonic damage, which is characterized by areas of necrosis surrounded by areas of acute inflammation. The damage is associated with high myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, mainly as a reflection of neutrophilic infiltration into the damaged tissue. In this study, 1 hr before a single intracolonic administration of 50 mg/kg of TNBS in 50% ethanol, the animals were treated with one of the following doses of BPC-15: 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 or 10 nmol/kg administered i.p. or with a dose of 10 nmol/kg administered intracolonically. The animals were sacrificed 3 days later and the extent of colonic necrosis and hyperemia was measured with an image analyzer. The i.p. administration of BPC-15 significantly reduced the extent of TNBS-induced colonic damage in a dose-dependent manner. This was associated with a statistically significant and dose-dependent reduction in colonic tissue MPO activity. At the dose tested (10 nmol/kg), intracolonic administration of BPC-15 did not significantly reduce either the extent of the colonic damage or the increase in MPO activity induced by TNBS. In conclusion, this study showed that i.p. administration of BPC-15 reduced TNBS-induced colonic damage in rats. PMID:7815358

  7. Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid, but not selenomethionine, reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice Lin Yan*, Lana C. DeMars The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid (MSeA) on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in...

  8. PPAR agonists reduce steatosis in oleic acid-overloaded HepaRG cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rogue, Alexandra; Anthérieu, Sébastien; Vluggens, Aurore; Umbdenstock, Thierry; Claude, Nancy; Moureyre-Spire, Catherine de la; Weaver, Richard J.; Guillouzo, André

    2014-04-01

    Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common form of chronic liver disease there is no pharmacological agent approved for its treatment. Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are closely associated with hepatic lipid metabolism, they seem to play important roles in NAFLD. However, the effects of PPAR agonists on steatosis that is a common pathology associated with NAFLD, remain largely controversial. In this study, the effects of various PPAR agonists, i.e. fenofibrate, bezafibrate, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, muraglitazar and tesaglitazar on oleic acid-induced steatotic HepaRG cells were investigated after a single 24-hour or 2-week repeat treatment. Lipid vesicles stained by Oil-Red O and triglycerides accumulation caused by oleic acid overload, were decreased, by up to 50%, while fatty acid oxidation was induced after 2-week co-treatment with PPAR agonists. The greatest effects on reduction of steatosis were obtained with the dual PPARα/γ agonist muraglitazar. Such improvement of steatosis was associated with up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation activity and down-regulation of many genes involved in lipogenesis. Moreover, modulation of expression of some nuclear receptor genes, such as FXR, LXRα and CAR, which are potent actors in the control of lipogenesis, was observed and might explain repression of de novo lipogenesis. Conclusion: Altogether, our in vitro data on steatotic HepaRG cells treated with PPAR agonists correlated well with clinical investigations, bringing a proof of concept that drug-induced reversal of steatosis in human can be evaluated in in vitro before conducting long-term and costly in vivo studies in animals and patients. - Highlights: • There is no pharmacological agent approved for the treatment of NAFLD. • This study demonstrates that PPAR agonists can reduce fatty acid-induced steatosis. • Some nuclear receptors appear to be potent actors in the control

  9. Enteric coating can lead to reduced antiplatelet effect of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Haastrup, Peter Fentz; Grønlykke, Thor; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2015-03-01

    Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely used as antithrombotic prophylaxis. Enteric-coated ASA has been developed to decrease the risk of gastrointestinal side effects. The consequences of enteric coating on pharmacokinetics and antiplatelet effect of ASA have not systematically been assessed. This MiniReview demonstrates that data from clinical trials indicate that enteric coating can reduce the antiplatelet effect of ASA compared to plain ASA. This is possibly due to decreased bioavailability of ASA caused by prolonged solvation and absorption of the enteric-coated formulations. Therefore, low-dose enteric-coated ASA might not be bioequivalent to plain ASA, entailing the risk of insufficient cardiovascular prophylaxis. PMID:25469781

  10. Melatonin reduces bacterial translocation and apoptosis in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis of rats

    PubMed Central

    Akcan, Alper; Kucuk, Can; Sozuer, Erdogan; Esel, Duygu; Akyildiz, Hizir; Akgun, Hulya; Muhtaroglu, Sabahattin; Aritas, Yucel

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of exogenous melatonin on bacterial translocation and apoptosis in a rat ulcerative colitis model. METHODS: Rats were randomly assigned to three groups: groupI: control, group II: experimental colitis, group III: colitis plus melatonin treatment. On d 11 after colitis, plasma tumor necrosis factor-α, portal blood endotoxin levels, colon tissue myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activity were measured. Bacterial translocation was quantified by blood, lymph node, liver and spleen culture. RESULTS: We observed a significantly reduced incidence of bacterial translocation to the liver, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, portal and systemic blood in animals treated with melatonin. Treatment with melatonin significantly decreased the caspase-3 activity in colonic tissues compared to that in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid- treated rats (16.11 ± 2.46 vs 32.97 ± 3.91, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Melatonin has a protective effect on bacterial translocation and apoptosis. PMID:18240350

  11. Hyaluronic acid-siRNA conjugate/reducible polyethylenimine complexes for targeted siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yeon Lim; Ku, Sook Hee; Jin, So; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Won Jong; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Sun Hwa; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2014-10-01

    The clinical applications of therapeutic siRNA remain as a challenge due to the lack of efficient delivery system. In the present study, hyaluronic acid-siRNA conjugate (HA-SS-siRNA)/reducible polyethylenimine (BPEI1.2k-SS) complexes were developed to efficiently deliver the siRNA to HA receptor abundant region with the improved siRNA stability. HA and siRNA were conjugated with disulfide bonds, which are cleavable in cytoplasm. The synthesized HA-SS-siRNA was further complexed with BPEI1.2k-SS, resulting in the formation of spherical nanostructures with approximately 190 nm of size and neutral surface charge. HA-SS-siRNA/BPEI1.2k-SS complexes exhibited the improved stability against serum proteins or polyanions. These complexes were successfully translocated into intracellular region via HA receptor-mediated endocytosis, and silenced target gene expression. PMID:25942799

  12. Reducing the cost of maintaining valve-regulated lead/acid batteries in telecommunications applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniveton, M. W.

    British Telecommunications has utilized valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) technology for 10 years and has considerable experience of varying product performance. A discussion is given of battery applications in telecommunications and includes experiences of typical failure modes such as group-bar corrosion and premature capacity loss, together with the detrimental effects of high temperature on service life. Specific maintenance requirements are also reviewed with particular attention to costs and reliability. Data are presented on the effectiveness of new methods of testing large numbers of VRLA batteries and, in particular, the reliability of conductance testing. An explanation is given of the role of conductance measurements, discharge testing and manufacturers' laboratory analysis in contributing to an effective maintenance programme. Specific requirements for the management of a battery-replacement programme are also included. Finally, BT user experience is described and solutions are provided to reduce the cost of VRLA maintenance while improving reliability.

  13. Chronic caffeine or theophylline exposure reduces gamma-aminobutyric acid/benzodiazepine receptor site interactions.

    PubMed

    Roca, D J; Schiller, G D; Farb, D H

    1988-05-01

    Methylxanthines, such as caffeine and theophylline, are adenosine receptor antagonists that exert dramatic effects upon the behavior of vertebrate animals by increasing attentiveness, anxiety, and convulsive activity. Benzodiazepines, such as flunitrazepam, generally exert behavioral effects that are opposite to those of methylxanthines. We report the finding that chronic exposure of embryonic brain neurons to caffeine or theophylline reduces the ability of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to potentiate the binding of [3H]flunitrazepam to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor. This theophylline-induced "uncoupling" of GABA- and benzodiazepine-binding site allosteric interactions is blocked by chloroadenosine, an adenosine receptor agonist, indicating that the chronic effects of theophylline are mediated by a site that resembles an adenosine receptor. We speculate that adverse central nervous system effects of long-term exposure to methylxanthines such as in caffeine-containing beverages or theophylline-containing medications may be exerted by a cell-mediated modification of the GABAA receptor. PMID:2835648

  14. Phytochemicals from Tradescantia albiflora Kunth Extracts Reduce Serum Uric Acid Levels in Oxonate-induced Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Dar; Chuang, Ya-Ling; Tseng, Han-Chun; Hwang, Tzann-Shun; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tradescantia albiflora (TA) Kunth (Commelinaceae) has been used for treating gout and hyperuricemia as folklore remedies in Taiwan. Therefore, it is worthwhile to study the effect of TA extracts on lowering uric acid activity. The hypouricemic effects of TA extracts on potassium oxonate (PO)-induced acute hyperuricemia were investigated for the first time. Materials and Methods: All treatments at the same volume (1 ml) were orally administered to the abdominal cavity of PO-induced hyperuricemic rats. One milliliter of TA extract in n-hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (BuOH), and water fractions has 0.28, 0.21, 0.28, and 1.03 mg TA, respectively; and the plasma uric acid (PUA) level was measured for a consecutive 4 h after administration. Results: All four fractions' extracts derived from TA were observed to significantly reduce PUA compared with the PO group. The EA-soluble fraction (TA-EA) exhibited the best xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity. Following column chromatography, 12 phytochemicals were isolated and identified from the EA fraction. The IC50 values of isolated phytochemicals indicated that bracteanolide A (AR11) showed the remarkable XO inhibitory effect (IC50 value of 76.4 μg/ml). These findings showed that the in vivo hypouricemic effect in hyperuricemic rats was consistent with in vitro XO inhibitory activity, indicating that TA extracts and derived phytochemicals could be potential candidates as hypouricemic agents. SUMMARY Tradescantia albiflora extracts possess in vivo hypouricemic action in hyperuricemic ratsT. albiflora extracts exhibited strong inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase (XO)Butenolide may play an important role in XO inhibitionThe extract bracteanolide A was demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. Abbreviations used: TA: Tradescantia albiflora, PO: potassium oxonate, HE: n-hexane, EA: ethyl acetate, BuOH: n-butanol, PUA: plasma uric acid, XO: xanthine oxidase, MeOH: methanol, IP

  15. Preparation of metal-resistant immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria beads for acid mine drainage treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Han, Xuemei

    2016-07-01

    Novel immobilized sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) beads were prepared for the treatment of synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD) containing high concentrations of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn using up-flow anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor. The tolerance of immobilized SRB beads to heavy metals was significantly enhanced compared with that of suspended SRB. High removal efficiencies of sulfate (61-88%) and heavy metals (>99.9%) as well as slightly alkaline effluent pH (7.3-7.8) were achieved when the bioreactor was fed with acidic influent (pH 2.7) containing high concentrations of multiple metals (Fe 469 mg/L, Cu 88 mg/L, Cd 92 mg/L and Zn 128 mg/L), which showed that the bioreactor filled with immobilized SRB beads had tolerance to AMD containing high concentrations of heavy metals. Partially decomposed maize straw was a carbon source and stabilizing agent in the initial phase of bioreactor operation but later had to be supplemented by a soluble carbon source such as sodium lactate. The microbial community in the bioreactor was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of partial 16S rDNA genes. Synergistic interaction between SRB (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and co-existing fermentative bacteria could be the key factor for the utilization of complex organic substrate (maize straw) as carbon and nutrients source for sulfate reduction. PMID:27058913

  16. Disrupting Protein Expression with Peptide Nucleic Acids Reduces Infection by Obligate Intracellular Rickettsia

    PubMed Central

    Pelc, Rebecca S.; McClure, Jennifer C.; Kaur, Simran J.; Sears, Khandra T.; Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Ceraul, Shane M.

    2015-01-01

    Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) are single-stranded synthetic nucleic acids with a pseudopeptide backbone in lieu of the phosphodiester linked sugar and phosphate found in traditional oligos. PNA designed complementary to the bacterial Shine-Dalgarno or start codon regions of mRNA disrupts translation resulting in the transient reduction in protein expression. This study examines the use of PNA technology to interrupt protein expression in obligate intracellular Rickettsia sp. Their historically intractable genetic system limits characterization of protein function. We designed PNA targeting mRNA for rOmpB from Rickettsia typhi and rickA from Rickettsia montanensis, ubiquitous factors important for infection. Using an in vitro translation system and competitive binding assays, we determined that our PNAs bind target regions. Electroporation of R. typhi and R. montanensis with PNA specific to rOmpB and rickA, respectively, reduced the bacteria’s ability to infect host cells. These studies open the possibility of using PNA to suppress protein synthesis in obligate intracellular bacteria. PMID:25781160

  17. Treatment of acid rock drainage using a sulfate-reducing bioreactor with zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the bioremediation of acid rock drainage (ARD) in flow-through columns testing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time as the sole exogenous electron donor to drive sulfate-reducing bacteria in permeable reactive barriers. Columns containing ZVI, limestone or a mixture of both materials were inoculated with an anaerobic mixed culture and fed a synthetic ARD containing sulfuric acid and heavy metals (initially copper, and later also cadmium and lead). ZVI significantly enhanced sulfate reduction and the heavy metals were extensively removed (>99.7%). Solid-phase analyses showed that heavy metals were precipitated with biogenic sulfide in the columns packed with ZVI. Excess sulfide was sequestered by iron, preventing the discharge of dissolved sulfide. In the absence of ZVI, heavy metals were also significantly removed (>99.8%) due to precipitation with hydroxide and carbonate ions released from the limestone. Vertical-profiles of heavy metals in the columns packing, at the end of the experiment, demonstrated that the ZVI columns still had excess capacity to remove heavy metals, while the capacity of the limestone control column was approaching saturation. The ZVI provided conditions that enhanced sulfate reduction and generated alkalinity. Collectively, the results demonstrate an innovative passive ARD remediation process using ZVI as sole electron-donor. PMID:26808248

  18. Retinoic acid reduces solvent-induced neuropathy and promotes neural regeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Palencia, Guadalupe; Hernández-Pedro, Norma; Saavedra-Perez, David; Peña-Curiel, Omar; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Ordoñez, Graciela; Flores-Estrada, Diana; Sotelo, Julio; Arrieta, Oscar

    2014-08-01

    In humans, exposure to organic solvents (OS) is frequent in work activities or as a recreational inhalant, inducing severe neuropathy (secondary to demyelization of peripheral nerves). We have previously shown that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) increases local content of neural growth factor (NGF), improving peripheral neuropathy of diverse origins. In this study, we evaluated the effect of ATRA on OS-induced peripheral neuropathy in experimental mice. Two simultaneous experiments were performed. The first one aimed to evaluate ATRA for the prevention of damage induced by OS, the second to test ATRA as an OS-induced neuropathy treatment. Nociceptive threshold latency and NGF concentration in serum and in peripheral nerves were determined. Morphological changes and evidence of sciatic nerve regeneration were evaluated. Mice exposed to OS developed neuropathy and axonal degeneration. ATRA diminished the effects of OS inhalation on sensorial changes and nerve morphology. Treatment with ATRA reversed sensorial and nerve morphological changes of OS-induced neuropathy, and this was associated with increased contents of NGF. Similar to previous experiences on diabetic and toxic neuropathy, ATRA reduced and partially reversed the peripheral neuropathy caused by OS exposure. These favorable effects apparently are due to local production of NGF induced by neural regeneration in response to the administration of retinoic acid. PMID:24647975

  19. Humic acids reduce the genotoxicity of mitomycin C in the human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, G; Loffredo, E; Senesi, N; Marcos, R

    2006-01-31

    The antimutagenic/desmutagenic activity of a leonardite humic acid (LHA) and a soil humic acid (SHA) was studied in the cultured human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6 treated with mitomycin C (MMC) as reference mutagen by evaluating the induction of micronuclei (MN). Two different concentrations of HA were used, 2.5 and 10 microg/ml, in three different treatments: (1) HA alone (genotoxic test); (2) HA after 2-h pre-incubation with 0.3 microM of MMC (desmutagenic test) and (3) combinations of HA and MMC at 0.3 microM without pre-incubation (antimutagenic test). Neither of the HA used alone did produce genotoxic effects, but both HAs reduced significantly the frequencies of MN induced by MMC, especially in the desmutagenic test. A slight cell-protective effect against the cytotoxicity of MMC was also exhibited by the two HAs in the desmutagenic test. The LHA showed a desmutagenic/antimutagenic activity that was more pronounced than that of SHA, which is possibly related to the higher carboxylic group content and lower phenolic group content of LHA. These results confirm the antigenotoxic action exerted by HAs in human cells, similarly to what has been previously observed in various plant species. PMID:16386451

  20. Oleic acid content of a meal promotes oleoylethanolamide response and reduces subsequent energy intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Ilario; Savarese, Maria; Ferracane, Rosalia; Sacchi, Raffaele; Vitaglione, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Animal data suggest that dietary fat composition may influence endocannabinoid (EC) response and dietary behavior. This study tested the hypothesis that fatty acid composition of a meal can influence the short-term response of ECs and subsequent energy intake in humans. Fifteen volunteers on three occasions were randomly offered a meal containing 30 g of bread and 30 mL of one of three selected oils: sunflower oil (SO), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and virgin olive oil (VOO). Plasma EC concentrations and appetite ratings over 2 h and energy intake over 24 h following the experimental meal were measured. Results showed that after HOSO and VOO consumption the circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) was significantly higher than after SO consumption; a concomitantly significant reduction of energy intake was found. For the first time the oleic acid content of a meal was demonstrated to increase the post-prandial response of circulating OEA and to reduce energy intake at subsequent meals in humans. PMID:25347552

  1. Ursolic acid and resveratrol synergize with chloroquine to reduce melanoma cell viability.

    PubMed

    Junco, Jacob J; Mancha-Ramirez, Anna; Malik, Gunjan; Wei, Sung-Jen; Kim, Dae Joon; Liang, Huiyun; Slaga, Thomas J

    2015-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is associated with a 5-year survival rate of less than 20% once metastasized. Malignant melanoma cells exhibit increased levels of autophagy, a process of intracellular digestion that allows cells to survive various stresses including chemotherapies, resulting in reduced patient survival. Autophagy can be inhibited by chemicals like chloroquine (CQ), which prevents fusion of autophagosomes to lysosomes, resulting in autophagosome accumulation in most systems. Here, we describe how tested CQ to see whether it could sensitize B16F10 metastatic mouse melanoma cells to the anticancer activities of the natural compounds ursolic acid (UA) and resveratrol (RES). CQ with UA or RES strongly and synergistically reduced the viability of B16F10 mouse melanoma and A375 human melanoma cells. Surprisingly, flow cytometry of acridine orange-stained cells showed that UA or RES in combination with CQ significantly reduced autophagosome levels. Western blotting analysis revealed that CQ plus UA or RES paradoxically increased LC3II, indicative of autophagosome accumulation. In addition, CQ plus RES synergistically decreased the levels of both autophagy initiator beclin-1 and autophagy supporter p62. These results indicate that CQ with UA or RES strongly and synergistically reduces the viability of B16F10 and A375 melanoma cells. However, studies on B16F10 cells have shown that the synergistic effect was not mediated by inhibition of autophagy induced by UA or RES. These compounds are well-tolerated in humans, and CQ has shown promise as an adjuvant therapy. These combinations may be valuable treatment strategies for melanoma. PMID:25647735

  2. Herbivore induction of jasmonic acid and chemical defences reduce photosynthesis in Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Nabity, Paul D; Zavala, Jorge A; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-01-01

    Herbivory initiates a shift in plant metabolism from growth to defence that may reduce fitness in the absence of further herbivory. However, the defence-induced changes in carbon assimilation that precede this reallocation in resources remain largely undetermined. This study characterized the response of photosynthesis to herbivore induction of jasmonic acid (JA)-related defences in Nicotiana attenuata to increase understanding of these mechanisms. It was hypothesized that JA-induced defences would immediately reduce the component processes of photosynthesis upon attack and was predicted that wild-type plants would suffer greater reductions in photosynthesis than plants lacking JA-induced defences. Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and thermal spatial patterns were measured together with the production of defence-related metabolites after attack and through recovery. Herbivore damage immediately reduced electron transport and gas exchange in wild-type plants, and gas exchange remained suppressed for several days after attack. The sustained reductions in gas exchange occurred concurrently with increased defence metabolites in wild-type plants, whereas plants lacking JA-induced defences suffered minimal suppression in photosynthesis and no increase in defence metabolite production. This suppression in photosynthesis occurred only after sustained defence signalling and defence chemical mobilization, whereas a short bout of feeding damage only transiently altered components of photosynthesis. It was identified that lipoxygenase signalling interacted with photosynthetic electron transport and that the resulting JA-related metabolites reduced photosynthesis. These data represent a metabolic cost to mounting a chemical defence against herbivory and link defence-signalling networks to the differential effects of herbivory on photosynthesis in remaining leaf tissues in a time-dependent manner. PMID:23264519

  3. Hexanoic acid protects tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea by priming defence responses and reducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Finiti, Ivan; de la O Leyva, María; Vicedo, Begonya; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; López-Cruz, Jaime; García-Agustín, Pilar; Real, Maria Dolores; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    Treatment with the resistance priming inducer hexanoic acid (Hx) protects tomato plants from Botrytis cinerea by activating defence responses. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR), we compared the expression profiles of three different conditions: Botrytis-infected plants (Inf), Hx-treated plants (Hx) and Hx-treated + infected plants (Hx+Inf). The microarray analysis at 24 h post-inoculation showed that Hx and Hx+Inf plants exhibited the differential expression and priming of many Botrytis-induced genes. Interestingly, we found that the activation by Hx of other genes was not altered by the fungus at this time point. These genes may be considered to be specific targets of the Hx priming effect and may help to elucidate its mechanisms of action. It is noteworthy that, in Hx and Hx+Inf plants, there was up-regulation of proteinase inhibitor genes, DNA-binding factors, enzymes involved in plant hormone signalling and synthesis, and, remarkably, the genes involved in oxidative stress. Given the relevance of the oxidative burst occurring in plant-pathogen interactions, the effect of Hx on this process was studied in depth. We showed by specific staining that reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in Hx+Inf plants was reduced and more restricted around infection sites. In addition, these plants showed higher ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and ascorbate, and normal levels of antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that Hx protects tomato plants from B. cinerea by regulating and priming Botrytis-specific and non-specific genes, preventing the harmful effects of oxidative stress produced by infection. PMID:24320938

  4. Reducing Capacity, Chlorogenic Acid Content and Biological Activity in a Collection of Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and Gboma (S. macrocarpon) Eggplants

    PubMed Central

    Plazas, Mariola; Prohens, Jaime; Cuñat, Amparo Noelia; Vilanova, Santiago; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Andújar, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants are important vegetables in Sub-Saharan Africa. Few studies have been made on these crops regarding the diversity of phenolic content and their biological activity. We have studied the reducing activity, the chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acid contents in a collection of 56 accessions of scarlet eggplant, including the four cultivated groups (Aculeatum, Gilo, Kumba, Shum) and the weedy intermediate S. aethiopicum-S. anguivi types, as well as in eight accessions of gboma eggplant, including the cultivated S. macrocarpon and its wild ancestor, S. dasyphyllum. A sample of the accessions evaluated in this collection has been tested for inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) using macrophage cell cultures. The results show that there is a great diversity in both crops for reducing activity, chlorogenic acid content and chlorogenic acid peak area (% of total phenolic acids). Heritability (H2) for these traits was intermediate to high in both crops. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic acid and accounted for more than 50% of the chromatogram peak area. Considerable differences were found among and within groups for these traits, but the greatest values for total phenolics and chlorogenic acid content were found in S. dasyphyllum. In most groups, reducing activity was positively correlated (with values of up to 0.904 in the Aculeatum group) with chlorogenic acid content. Inhibition of NO was greatest in samples having a high chlorogenic acid content. The results show that both crops are a relevant source of chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acids. The high diversity found also indicates that there are good prospects for breeding new scarlet and gboma eggplant cultivars with improved content in phenolics and bioactive properties. PMID:25264739

  5. Supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid in dairy cows reduces endogenous glucose production during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Hötger, Kristin; Hammon, Harald M; Weber, Claudia; Görs, Solvig; Tröscher, Arnulf; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Metges, Cornelia C

    2013-04-01

    Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation causes milk fat depression in dairy cows, but CLA effects on glucose metabolism are not clear. The objective of the study was to investigate glucose metabolism, especially endogenous glucose production (eGP) and glucose oxidation (GOx), as well as hepatic genes involved in endogenous glucose production in Holstein cows supplemented either with 50 g of rumen-protected CLA (9% trans-10,cis-12 and 10% cis-9,trans-11; CLA; n=10) or 50 g of control fat (24% C18:2; Ctrl; n=10) from wk 2 before parturition to wk 9 of lactation. Animal performance data were recorded and blood metabolites and hormones were taken weekly from 2 wk before to 12 wk after parturition. During wk 3 and 9 after parturition, glucose tolerance tests were performed and eGP and GOx were measured by [U-(13)C] glucose infusion. Liver biopsies were taken at the same time to measure total fat and glycogen concentrations and gene expression of pyruvate carboxylase, cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1. Conjugated linoleic acid feeding reduced milk fat, but increased milk lactose output; milk yield was higher starting 5 wk after parturition in CLA-fed cows than in Ctrl-fed cows. Energy balance was more negative during CLA supplementation, and plasma concentrations of glucose were higher immediately after calving in CLA-fed cows. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation did not affect insulin release during glucose tolerance tests, but reduced eGP in wk 3, and eGP and GOx increased with time after parturition. Hepatic gene expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase tended to be lower in CLA-fed cows than in Ctrl-fed cows. In spite of lower eGP in CLA-fed cows, lactose output and plasma glucose concentrations were greater in CLA-fed cows than in Ctrl-fed cows. This suggests a CLA-related glucose sparing effect most likely due to lower glucose utilization for milk

  6. Postharvest Exogenous Application of Abscisic Acid Reduces Internal Browning in Pineapple.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Liu, Yulong; He, Congcong; Zhu, Shijiang

    2015-06-10

    Internal browning (IB) is a postharvest physiological disorder causing economic losses in pineapple, but there is no effective control measure. In this study, postharvest application of 380 μM abscisic acid (ABA) reduced IB incidence by 23.4-86.3% and maintained quality in pineapple fruit. ABA reduced phenolic contents and polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities; increased catalase and peroxidase activities; and decreased O2(·-), H2O2, and malondialdehyde levels. This suggests ABA could control IB through inhibiting phenolics biosynthesis and oxidation and enhancing antioxidant capability. Furthermore, the efficacy of IB control by ABA was not obviously affected by tungstate, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, nor by diphenylene iodonium, NADPH oxidase inhibitor, nor by lanthanum chloride, calcium channel blocker, suggesting that ABA is sufficient for controlling IB. This process might not involve H2O2 generation, but could involve the Ca(2+) channels activation. These results provide potential for developing effective measures for controlling IB in pineapple. PMID:26007196

  7. Intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid reduce blood loss in cemented total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Digas, G; Koutsogiannis, I; Meletiadis, G; Antonopoulou, E; Karamoulas, V; Bikos, Ch

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of intravenous and topical tranexamic acid (TXA) versus control group for reduction in blood loss following primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A total of 90 patients were prospectively allocated to each of three groups (control, intravenous IV and intra-articular) and underwent unilateral total knee arthroplasty. In the IV group, patients received one dose of TXA of 15 mg/kg before deflation of the tourniquet, while in the intra-articular group patients received 2 g TXA via the drain retrogradely after closure of the wound. The mean drained blood loss in control, IV and intra-articular groups was 415 ± 24, 192 ± 21 and 121 ± 17 ml, respectively. About 43 % (control), 23 % (IV) and 17 % (intra-articular) of each group required transfusion, and the mean transfusion was 338, 168 and 79 ml, respectively. Preoperative hemoglobin values decreased at 24 h by 2.80 ± 0.14, 2.24 ± 0.17 and 2.26 ± 0.18 mg/dl, respectively. TXA reduced blood loss and transfusion requirement. Compared with one-dose intravenous administration, intra-articular administration of TXA seems to be more effective in terms of reducing drained blood loss and transfusion frequency. We recommend administration of topical TXA in primary TKA in healthy patients to decrease perioperative blood loss. PMID:26169991

  8. Macronutrient intake, plasma large neutral amino acids and mood during weight-reducing diets.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, U; Laessle, R; Kittl, S; Dickhaut, B; Schweiger, M; Pirke, K M

    1986-01-01

    Influence of diet composition on mood during weight-reducing diets was studied in healthy young women of normal weight. A broad range of macronutrient intake was achieved by means of divergent dietary instructions for the composition of a 1,000 kcal per day diet adhered to for six weeks. Global mood during the last three weeks of the diet was significantly better in the "vegetarian" than in the "mixed" diet group. During this time a significant correlation was observed between relative carbohydrate intake and global mood (r = -0.74; p less than 0.01) and between the ratio of plasma tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (a predictor of tryptophan flow into brain) and global mood (r = -0.52; p less than 0.05). Results suggest that group differences are related to differences in carbohydrate intake. It is hypothesized that impairment of central serotonergic function due to reduced tryptophan availability can prompt mood deterioration in situations of relatively low carbohydrate intake. PMID:3783150

  9. Salicylic acid reduces napropamide toxicity by preventing its accumulation in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Cui, Jing; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Guo Lin; Zhu, Hong Mei; Yang, Hong

    2010-07-01

    Napropamide is a widely used herbicide for controlling weeds in crop production. However, extensive use of the herbicide has led to its accumulation in ecosystems, thus causing toxicity to crops and reducing crop production and quality. Salicylic acid (SA) plays multiple roles in regulating plant adaptive responses to biotic and environmental stresses. However, whether SA regulates plant response to herbicides (or pesticides) was unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of SA on herbicide napropamide accumulation and biological processes in rapeseed (Brassica napus). Plants exposed to 8 mg kg(-1) napropamide showed growth stunt and oxidative damage. Treatment with 0.1 mM SA improved growth and reduced napropamide levels in plants. Treatment with SA also decreased the abundance of O (2) (-.) and H(2)O(2) as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and increased activities of guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in napropamide-exposed plants. Analysis of SOD, CAT, and POD activities using nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) confirmed the results. These results may help to understand how SA regulates plant response to organic contaminants and provide a basis to control herbicide/pesticide contamination in crop production. PMID:19967348

  10. Exogenous and endogenous hyaluronic acid reduces HIV infection of CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peilin; Fujimoto, Katsuya; Bourguingnon, Lilly; Yukl, Steven; Deeks, Steven; Wong, Joseph K

    2014-01-01

    Preventing mucosal transmission of HIV is critical to halting the HIV epidemic. Novel approaches to preventing mucosal transmission are needed. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major extracellular component of mucosa and the primary ligand for the cell surface receptor CD44. CD44 enhances HIV infection of CD4+ T cells, but the role of HA in this process is not clear. To study this, virions were generated with CD44 (HIVCD44) or without CD44 (HIVmock). Exogenous HA reduced HIV infection of unstimulated CD4+ T cells in a CD44-dependent manner. Conversely, hyaluronidase-mediated reduction of endogenous HA on the cell surface enhanced HIV binding to and infection of unstimulated CD4+ T cells. Exogenous HA treatment reduced activation of protein kinase C alpha via CD44 on CD4+ T cells during infection with HIVCD44. These results reveal new roles for HA during the interaction of HIV with CD4+ T cells that may be relevant to mucosal HIV transmission and could be exploitable as a future strategy to prevent HIV infection. PMID:24957217

  11. Tranexamic acid reduces the blood loss and blood transfusion requirements following peri-acetabular osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Wassilew, G I; Perka, C; Janz, V; Krämer, M; Renner, L

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the effect of using tranexamic acid (TXA) during peri-acetabular osteotomy (PAO) on peri-operative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements. In addition we analysed whether the use of TXA was associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following this procedure. A consecutive series of 96 PAOs, performed by a single surgeon, were reviewed. A total of 48 patients received TXA and 48 did not. The TXA group received a continuous infusion of TXA at a rate of 10 mg/kg/h. The primary outcome measure was the requirement for blood transfusion. Secondary outcomes included total blood loss, the decrease in the level of haemoglobin in the blood, the length of hospital stay, and the complications of this treatment. The mean rate of transfusion was significantly lower in the TXA group (62.5% vs 12.5%, p < 0.001). The mean blood loss was also significantly reduced in the TXA group (1.9 L (standard deviation (SD) 0.9) vs 1.5 L (SD 0.7), p < 0.01). No post-operative episodes of VTE were identified in either group. The use of TXA reduced the blood loss and the rate of transfusion after PAO significantly, without adverse effects such as an increased rate of VTE. PMID:26637672

  12. Clustering of protein families into functional subtypes using Relative Complexity Measure with reduced amino acid alphabets

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic analysis can be used to divide a protein family into subfamilies in the absence of experimental information. Most phylogenetic analysis methods utilize multiple alignment of sequences and are based on an evolutionary model. However, multiple alignment is not an automated procedure and requires human intervention to maintain alignment integrity and to produce phylogenies consistent with the functional splits in underlying sequences. To address this problem, we propose to use the alignment-free Relative Complexity Measure (RCM) combined with reduced amino acid alphabets to cluster protein families into functional subtypes purely on sequence criteria. Comparison with an alignment-based approach was also carried out to test the quality of the clustering. Results We demonstrate the robustness of RCM with reduced alphabets in clustering of protein sequences into families in a simulated dataset and seven well-characterized protein datasets. On protein datasets, crotonases, mandelate racemases, nucleotidyl cyclases and glycoside hydrolase family 2 were clustered into subfamilies with 100% accuracy whereas acyl transferase domains, haloacid dehalogenases, and vicinal oxygen chelates could be assigned to subfamilies with 97.2%, 96.9% and 92.2% accuracies, respectively. Conclusions The overall combination of methods in this paper is useful for clustering protein families into subtypes based on solely protein sequence information. The method is also flexible and computationally fast because it does not require multiple alignment of sequences. PMID:20718947

  13. Reducing isozyme competition increases target fatty acid accumulation in seed triacylglycerols of transgenic Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One goal of green chemistry is the production of industrially useful fatty acids (FAs) in crop plants. We focus on the engineering of industrial FAs, specifically hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) and conjugated polyenoic fatty acids (a-eleostearic acid, ESA), using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as a m...

  14. 78 FR 63476 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Nucleic Acid Tests To Reduce the Risk of Transmission of West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Products (HCT/Ps)'' dated April 2008 (April 28, 2008; 73 FR 22958), with respect to HCT/Ps. The testing... Reduce the Risk of Transmission of West Nile Virus From Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and... ``Guidance for Industry: Use of Nucleic Acid Tests to Reduce the Risk of Transmission of West Nile Virus...

  15. A role for branched-chain amino acids in reducing central fatigue.

    PubMed

    Blomstrand, Eva

    2006-02-01

    Several factors have been identified to cause peripheral fatigue during exercise, whereas the mechanisms behind central fatigue are less well known. Changes in the brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) level is one factor that has been suggested to cause fatigue. The rate-limiting step in the synthesis of 5-HT is the transport of tryptophan across the blood-brain barrier. This transport is influenced by the fraction of tryptophan available for transport into the brain and the concentration of the other large neutral amino acids, including the BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, and valine), which are transported via the same carrier system. Studies in human subjects have shown that the plasma ratio of free tryptophan (unbound to albumin)/BCAAs increases and that tryptophan is taken up by the brain during endurance exercise, suggesting that this may increase the synthesis of 5-HT in the brain. Ingestion of BCAAs increases their concentration in plasma. This may reduce the uptake of tryptophan by the brain and also 5-HT synthesis and thereby delay fatigue. Accordingly, when BCAAs were supplied to human subjects during a standardized cycle ergometer exercise their ratings of perceived exertion and mental fatigue were reduced, and, during a competitive 30-km cross-country race, their performance on different cognitive tests was improved after the race. In some situations the intake of BCAAs also improves physical performance. The results also suggest that ingestion of carbohydrates during exercise delays a possible effect of BCAAs on fatigue since the brain's uptake of tryptophan is reduced. PMID:16424144

  16. R-roscovitine reduces lung inflammation induced by lipoteichoic acid and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Hoogendijk, Arie J; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Duitman, Janwillem; van Lieshout, Miriam H P; Blok, Dana C; van der Poll, Tom; Wieland, Catharina W

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia remains associated with high morbidity and mortality. The gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important proinflammatory component of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall. R-roscovitine, a purine analog, is a potent cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-1, -2, -5 and -7 inhibitor that has the ability to inhibit the cell cycle and to induce polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) apoptosis. We sought to investigate the effect of R-roscovitine on LTA-induced activation of cell lines with relevance for lung inflammation in vitro and on lung inflammation elicited by either LTA or viable S. pneumoniae in vivo. In vitro R-roscovitine enhanced apoptosis in PMNs and reduced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) production in MH-S (alveolar macrophage) and MLE-12/MLE-15 (respiratory epithelial) cell lines. In vivo R-roscovitine treatment reduced PMN numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during LTA-induced lung inflammation; this effect was reversed by inhibiting apoptosis. Postponed treatment with R-roscovitine (24 and 72 h) diminished PMN numbers in lung tissue during gram-positive pneumonia; this step was associated with a transient increase in pulmonary bacterial loads. R-roscovitine inhibits proinflammatory responses induced by the gram-positive stimuli LTA and S. pneumoniae. R-roscovitine reduces PMN numbers in lungs upon LTA administration by enhancing apoptosis. The reduction in PMN numbers caused by R-roscovitine during S. pneumoniae pneumonia may hamper antibacterial defense. PMID:22692577

  17. Lysosomal Acid Lipase Activity Is Reduced Both in Cryptogenic Cirrhosis and in Cirrhosis of Known Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Umberto; Gallo, Paolo; Piemonte, Fiorella; Riva, Elisabetta; Porcari, Aldostefano; Vorini, Ferruccio; Tozzi, Giulia; Piccioni, Livia; Galati, Giovanni; De Vincentis, Antonio; Carotti, Simone; Morini, Sergio; D’Amico, Jessica; Angeletti, Silvia; Pedone, Claudio; Picardi, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-d) is a rare autosomal recessive disease in which LAL activity is almost absent, with consequent massive microvesicular steatosis evolving to cirrhosis and liver failure. We aimed to determine LAL-activity, and to investigate the most common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) affecting the LIPA gene and responsible for 50–70% of LAL-d cases (rs116928232 c.894G>A), in patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis. Sixty-three patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis, 88 cirrhotics of known etiology, and 97 healthy subjects were enrolled. LAL-activity was determined in dried-blood-spot (DBS). The c.894G>A mutation was analyzed by pyrosequencing method in SNP mode. LAL-activity was severely reduced in patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis with respect to healthy subjects [0.62 (0.44–0.86) Vs 0.96 (0.75–1.25) nmol/spot/h, p<0.001)], but it was also reduced in known-etiology cirrhotics [0.54 (0.42–0.79) nmol/spot/h, p<0.001 Vs healthy subjects; p = 0.5 Vs cryptogenic cirrhotics]. Fourteen percent of cryptogenic cirrhotics and 20% of known-etiology cirrhotics showed a LAL-activity in the range of heterozygous carriers of LIPA gene mutations (0.15–0.40 nmol/spot/h). However, none of the subjects with reduced LAL-activity carried the c.894G>A SNP except for one patient with HCV cirrhosis. By multivariate analysis, LAL-activity was not associated with age, sex, liver enzymes, liver function or lipid parameters, while it was independently associated with white blood cell (β = 0.2; p<0.01) and platelet (β = 0.4; p<0.001) counts and with the condition of cirrhosis (β = -0.2; p = 0.04). Conclusion Liver cirrhosis is characterized by a severe acquired reduction of LAL-activity, the precise causes and consequences of which need to be further addressed. DBS-determined lysosomal enzyme activities seem to be affected by white blood cell and platelet counts, and the specificity of these tests can be reduced when applied to determined populations

  18. Inhibition of ileal apical but not basolateral bile acid transport reduces atherosclerosis in apoE−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Tian; Haywood, Jamie; Dawson, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids induces hepatic bile acid synthesis, increases hepatic cholesterol demand, and increases clearance of apoB-containing lipoproteins in plasma. Based on these effects, bile acid sequestrants have been used for many years to treat hypercholesterolemia and the associated atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of blocking ileal apical versus basolateral membrane bile acid transport on the development of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mouse models. Methods and Results ApoE−/− and Ldlr−/− mice deficient in the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (Asbt) or apoE−/− mice deficient in the basolateral bile acid transporter (Ostα) were fed an atherogenic diet for 16 weeks. Bile acid metabolism, cholesterol metabolism, gene expression, and development of atherosclerosis were examined. Mice deficient in Asbt exhibited the classic response to interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, including significant reductions in hepatic and plasma cholesterol levels, and reduced aortic cholesteryl ester content. Ileal Fibroblast Growth Factor-15 (FGF15) expression was significantly reduced in Asbt−/−apoE−/− mice and was inversely correlated with expression of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1). Ileal FGF15 expression was directly correlated with plasma cholesterol levels and aortic cholesterol content. In contrast, plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis development were not reduced in apoE−/− mice deficient in Ostα. Conclusions Decreases in ileal FGF15, with subsequent increases in hepatic Cyp7a1 expression and bile acid synthesis appear to be necessary for the plasma cholesterol-lowering and atheroprotective effects associated with blocking intestinal bile acid absorption. PMID:23880190

  19. An 11-bp Insertion in Zea mays fatb Reduces the Palmitic Acid Content of Fatty Acids in Maize Grain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20–60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding. PMID:21931818

  20. Soil solution response to experimentally reduced acid deposition in a forest ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Alewell, C.; Matzner, E.; Bredemeier, M.; Blanch, K.

    1997-05-01

    In order to measure and predict reversibility of soil solution acidification under experimentally reduced acid input, a manipulation study with artificial {open_quote}preindustrial{close_quote} throughfall was established. A roof was installed underneath the canopy in a Norway Spruce stand of the German Soiling area. Water failing onto the roof was adjusted to clean rain concentrations before redistribution. Soil solutions were collected with suction cup lysimeters at various depths and were analyzed for major ions. The response of soil solution chemistry in the upper soil (10 cm depth) to a reduction of N, SO{sub 4}, and H input was rapid. While NO{sub 3} concentration in deeper soil layers reached input levels after 2 yr of treatment, SO{sub 4} concentration in the seepage water at 1 m depth remained high relative to the reduced input due to a release of formerly stored S from the soil. Aluminum concentration followed a similar pattern as the SO{sub 4} concentrations. The ion concentrations in soil leachate were predicted reasonably well using the MAGIC model with the measured SO{sub 4} sorption isotherms and the throughfall fluxes as model input Although the parameters of the Langmuir isotherm had no significant influence to the prediction of SO{sub 4} concentration in the upper soil layer, they were crucial for the prediction of SO{sub 4} dynamics in deeper soil layers. The model predicted that the reversibility of soil acidification at the Soiling area is delayed for decades due to the release of soil SO{sub 4}. 38 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Reducing THMFP by H2O2/UV oxidation for humic acid of small molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hsing Yuan; Yen, Li Shuang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the merits of using H2O2/UV oxidation for reducing trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP), colour, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of smaller molecular humic acid were investigated, especially the energy consumption based on EEO. The results show that THMFP decreases by increasing oxidation time, H2O2 dose and UV intensity. The reaction constant in descending order is kColour>kDOC>kTHMFP. Furthermore, EEO shows three trends. First, it decreases as H2O2 dose increases. That is, by increasing the amount of H2O2 dose, the electrical energy efficiency becomes better. Second, EEO,9 W>EEO,13 W, implying that higher UV power would result in a higher electrical energy efficiency. Third, EEO,THMFP>EEO,DOC>EEO,colour. That is, the electric energy efficiency is the best for colour removal, second for DOC removal, and third for THMFP reduction. The operation costs for 90% removal of colour, DOC, and THMFP are from 0.31 to 0.69, from 0.78 to 1.72, and from 1.11 to 2.29 US$/m3, respectively. However, reducing THMs to Taiwan's drinking water standard of 80 µg/L needs only 0.25-0.60 US$/m3. Therefore, the condition with UV of 9 W, H2O2 of 50 mg/L, and oxidation time of 23 min can be applied for THMs reduction as the cost is the smallest of 0.25 US$/m3, even lower than current Taiwan's drinking water price of 0.3 US$/m3. PMID:25518984

  2. Does tranexamic acid reduce blood loss during head and neck cancer surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Atul P; Chaukar, Devendra A; Patil, Vijaya P; Metgudmath, Rajendra B; Hawaldar, Rohini W; Divatia, Jigeeshu V

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Transfusion of blood and blood products poses several hazards. Antifibrinolytic agents are used to reduce perioperative blood loss. We decided to assess the effect of tranexamic acid (TA) on blood loss and the need for transfusion in head and neck cancer surgery. Methods: After Institutional Review Board approval, 240 patients undergoing supramajor head and neck cancer surgeries were prospectively randomised to either TA (10 mg/kg) group or placebo (P) group. After induction, the drug was infused by the anaesthesiologist, who was blinded to allocation, over 20 min. The dose was repeated every 3 h. Perioperative (up to 24 h) blood loss, need for transfusion and fluid therapy was recorded. Thromboelastography (TEG) was performed at fixed intervals in the first 100 patients. Patients were watched for post-operative complications. Results: Two hundred and nineteen records were evaluable. We found no difference in intraoperative blood loss (TA - 750 [600–1000] ml vs. P - 780 [150–2600] ml, P = 0.22). Post-operative blood loss was significantly more in the placebo group at 24 h (P - 200 [120–250] ml vs. TA - 250 [50–1050] ml, P = 0.009), but this did not result in higher number of patients needing transfusions (TA - 22/108 and P - 27/111 patients, P = 0.51). TEG revealed faster clot formation and minimal fibrinolysis. Two patients died of causes unrelated to study drug. Incidence of wound complications and deep venous thrombosis was similar. Conclusion: In head and neck cancer surgery, TA did not reduce intraoperative blood loss or need for transfusions. Perioperative TEG variables were similar. This may be attributed to pre-existing hypercoagulable state and minimal fibrinolysis in cancer patients. PMID:26962250

  3. Biological treatment of acidic coal refuse using sulphate-reducing bacteria with chicken manure as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia

    2014-01-01

    The performance of using chicken manure as carbon source to promote sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) activity within acidic coal refuse to prevent the generation of acidic leachate was investigated in batch and column bioreactors. The bioreactors showed satisfactory performance in biological sulphate reduction, evidenced by the increase in effluent pH, high removal efficiencies of sulphate and metals, and the presence of large numbers of SRB. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis of the formed precipitate indicated the formation of metal sulphides. Chicken manure was observed to play an important role in this treatment, which could not only provide carbon source but also reduce the adverse effect of strong acidity and metal toxicity on SRB activity. Metal removal could be mainly attributed to sulphides precipitation and sorption to chicken manure. This study indicated that SRB with chicken manure could be a novel alternative used for the prevention of acidic leachate from coal refuse. PMID:25189842

  4. Nacre-inspired integrated strong and tough reduced graphene oxide-poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Wan, Sijie; Hu, Han; Peng, Jingsong; Li, Yuchen; Fan, Yuzun; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2016-03-01

    Inspired by the relationship between interface interactions and the high performance mechanical properties of nacre, a strong and tough nacre-inspired nanocomposite was demonstrated based on graphene oxide (GO) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) prepared via a vacuum-assisted filtration self-assembly process. The abundant hydrogen bonding between GO and PAA results in both high strength and toughness of the bioinspired nanocomposites, which are 2 and 3.3 times higher than that of pure reduced GO film, respectively. In addition, the effect of environmental relative humidity on the mechanical properties of bioinspired nanocomposites is also investigated, and is consistent with previous theoretical predictions. Moreover, this nacre-inspired nanocomposite also displays high electrical conductivity of 108.9 S cm(-1). These excellent physical properties allow this type of nacre-inspired nanocomposite to be used in many applications, such as flexible electrodes, aerospace applications, and artificial muscles etc. This nacre-inspired strategy also opens an avenue for constructing integrated high performance graphene-based nanocomposites in the near future. PMID:26895081

  5. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid.

    PubMed

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E; Redhi, Godfrey H; Panlilio, Leigh V; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R

    2013-11-01

    In the reward circuitry of the brain, α-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) modulate effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana's main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by reexposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of α7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA offers a pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse. PMID:24121737

  6. Nacre-inspired integrated strong and tough reduced graphene oxide-poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Sijie; Hu, Han; Peng, Jingsong; Li, Yuchen; Fan, Yuzun; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2016-03-01

    Inspired by the relationship between interface interactions and the high performance mechanical properties of nacre, a strong and tough nacre-inspired nanocomposite was demonstrated based on graphene oxide (GO) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) prepared via a vacuum-assisted filtration self-assembly process. The abundant hydrogen bonding between GO and PAA results in both high strength and toughness of the bioinspired nanocomposites, which are 2 and 3.3 times higher than that of pure reduced GO film, respectively. In addition, the effect of environmental relative humidity on the mechanical properties of bioinspired nanocomposites is also investigated, and is consistent with previous theoretical predictions. Moreover, this nacre-inspired nanocomposite also displays high electrical conductivity of 108.9 S cm-1. These excellent physical properties allow this type of nacre-inspired nanocomposite to be used in many applications, such as flexible electrodes, aerospace applications, and artificial muscles etc. This nacre-inspired strategy also opens an avenue for constructing integrated high performance graphene-based nanocomposites in the near future.

  7. Sulforaphane reduces the alterations induced by quinolinic acid: modulation of glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Santana-Martínez, R A; Galván-Arzáte, S; Hernández-Pando, R; Chánez-Cárdenas, M E; Avila-Chávez, E; López-Acosta, G; Pedraza-Chaverrí, J; Santamaría, A; Maldonado, P D

    2014-07-11

    Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity involves a state of acute oxidative stress, which is a crucial event during neuronal degeneration and is part of the physiopathology of neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we evaluated the ability of sulforaphane (SULF), a natural dietary isothiocyanate, to induce the activation of transcription factor Nrf2 (a master regulator of redox state in the cell) in a model of striatal degeneration in rats infused with quinolinic acid (QUIN). Male Wistar rats received SULF (5mg/kg, i.p.) 24h and 5min before the intrastriatal infusion of QUIN. SULF increased the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels 4h after QUIN infusion, which was associated with its ability to increase the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), an antioxidant enzyme capable to regenerate GSH levels at 24h. Moreover, SULF treatment increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, while no changes were observed in γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase (GCL) activity. SULF treatment also prevented QUIN-induced oxidative stress (measured by oxidized proteins levels), the histological damage and the circling behavior. These results suggest that the protective effect of SULF could be related to its ability to preserve GSH levels and increase GPx and GR activities. PMID:24814729

  8. Prenatal ethanol exposure reduces the effects of excitatory amino acids in the rat hippocampus

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, E.P.; Ritchie, T. )

    1989-01-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion during pregnancy can lead to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a disorder marked by learning disabilities. A rat model of FAS was used by introducing pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to a liquid diet containing 35% ethanol-derived calories (E), while a second group was pair-fed an isocaloric liquid diet without ethanol (P). A third group of pregnant dams received ad libitum lab chow (C). At parturition, pups from the E and P groups were cross fostered by C mothers and all groups received lab chow. During adulthood, male offspring were sacrificed and hippocampal and prefrontal cortical slices were prelabeled with (3H)inositol. Phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis was determined by measuring the accumulation of (3H)inositol phosphates in the presence of LiCl in response to activation of various excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors. In hippocampal slices, ibotenate- and quisqualate-induced PI hydrolysis was reduced in E compared to P and C animals. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on carbachol-induced PI hydrolysis, evident in P and C animals, was completely abolished in the hippocampus of E animals. In contrast, in the prefrontal cerebral cortex, this inhibitory effect of NMDA prevailed even in the E animals. The evidence suggests that prenatal ethanol exposure alters the activity of EAA receptors in the hippocampal generation of 2nd messengers.

  9. Using reduced amino acid composition to predict defensin family and subfamily: Integrating similarity measure and structural alphabet.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yong-Chun; Li, Qian-Zhong

    2009-10-01

    Defensins are essentially ancient natural antibiotics with potent activity extending from lower organisms to humans. They can inhibit the growth or virulence of micro-organisms directly or indirectly enhance the host's immune system. The successful prediction of defensin peptides will provide very useful information and insights for the basic research of defensins. In this study, by selecting the N-peptide composition of reduced amino acid alphabet (RAAA) obtained from structural alphabet named Protein Blocks as the feature parameters, the increment of diversity (ID) is firstly developed to predict defensins family and subfamily. The jackknife test based on 2-peptide composition of reduced amino acid alphabet (RAAA) with 13 reduced amino acids shows that the overall accuracy of prediction are 91.36% for defensin family, and 94.21% for defensin subfamily. The results indicate that ID_RAAA is a simple and efficient prediction method for defensin peptides. PMID:19591890

  10. Reducing saturated fatty acids in Arabidopsis seeds by expression of a Caenorhabditis elegans 16:0-specific desaturase.

    PubMed

    Fahy, Deirdre; Scheer, Barbara; Wallis, James G; Browse, John

    2013-05-01

    Plant oilseeds are a major source of nutritional oils. Their fatty acid composition, especially the proportion of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, has important effects on human health. Because intake of saturated fats is correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, a goal of metabolic engineering is to develop oils low in saturated fatty acids. Palmitic acid (16:0) is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in the seeds of many oilseed crops and in Arabidopsis thaliana. We expressed FAT-5, a membrane-bound desaturase cloned from Caenorhabditis elegans, in Arabidopsis using a strong seed-specific promoter. The FAT-5 enzyme is highly specific to 16:0 as substrate, converting it to 16:1∆9; expression of fat-5 reduced the 16:0 content of the seed by two-thirds. Decreased 16:0 and elevated 16:1 levels were evident both in the storage and membrane lipids of seeds. Regiochemical analysis of phosphatidylcholine showed that 16:1 was distributed at both positions on the glycerolipid backbone, unlike 16:0, which is predominately found at the sn-1 position. Seeds from a plant line homozygous for FAT-5 expression were comparable to wild type with respect to seed set and germination, while oil content and weight were somewhat reduced. These experiments demonstrate that targeted heterologous expression of a desaturase in oilseeds can reduce the level of saturated fatty acids in the oil, significantly improving its nutritional value. PMID:23279079

  11. Amino acids interference on the quantification of reducing sugars by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid assay mislead carbohydrase activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; da Silva, Ayla Sant'Ana; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana Santana; da Silva Bon, Elba Pinto

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the interference of the amino acids tryptophan, cysteine, histidine, tyrosine, hydroxyproline, leucine, proline, serine, glycine, valine, glutamic acid, phenylalanine, and methionine on the measurement of reducing sugars using a phenol-free 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) reagent. It was found that in reaction mixtures containing 20mM of either tryptophan, cysteine, histidine, tyrosine, or hydroxyproline the measurement of 3.7 mM glucose was overestimated by 76%, 50%, 35%, 18%, and 10%, respectively. The amino acids valine, glutamic acid, and phenylalanine did not affect the DNS reaction, while methionine decreased the color development by 5%. The measurement of glucose, xylose, arabinose, and cellobiose at the 3.7-12.4 mM range in the presence of 20 mM cysteine resulted in an overestimated concentration of 34.8-50%. Enzymatic assays for measuring xylanolytic and filter paper activity (FPAse) were conducted in the presence of 20-60 mM cysteine, and compared to cysteine-free assays. In the presence of cysteine, the measured xylanase activity increased threefold and the FPAse activity increased twofold due to the overestimation of the reducing sugar concentrations in the assays. The interference from cysteine was reduced to a maximum of 8.6% when a DNS reagent containing phenol was used. PMID:23103512

  12. Baking Reduces Prostaglandin, Resolvin, and Hydroxy-Fatty Acid Content of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Brose, Stephen A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Burr, Gary S.; Wolters, William R.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the content of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regio-isomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and EPA while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The content of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of coating upon the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect upon prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA content indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined. PMID:21919483

  13. The effects of disopyramide phosphate on early post-coronary artery ligation dysrhythmias and on epicardial ST-segment elevation in anaesthetized dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, R. J.; Parratt, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    1 The antidysrhythmic, haemodynamic and metabolic effects of intravenously administered disopyramide phosphate (1 to 5 mg/kg) have been studied in greyhounds, anaesthetized with trichloroethylene. 2 In doses of 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg, disopyramide significantly reduced the ventricular dysrhythmias that occur in the initial 30-min period following acute coronary artery ligation. None of the disopyramide-treated animals developed ventricular fibrillations. 3 The metabolic consequences of coronary artery ligation, assessed by local coronary venous sampling from the ischaemic area, were not modified by disopyramide except that K+ egress was prevented. 4 There was evidence for substantial disopyramide-induced myocardial depression (decreased cardiac output and left ventricular dP/drmax with elevated ventricular filling pressure and pulmonary oedema and shunting) and it is suggested that great care be taken when the drug is administered intravenously in conditions where cardiac function is already compromised. Disopyramide also reduced myocardial blood flow. 5 In chloralose-anaesthetized mongrel dogs, disopyramide (2.5 mg/kg) significantly reduced the ST-segment elevation (assessed from epicardial recordings) that resulted from short (3 min) coronary artery occlusions. This could indicate a reduction in the extent and severity of myocardial injury or simply reflect decreased K+ efflux (since locally administered K+ itself increased ST-segment elevation). PMID:465877

  14. Reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore: effect of the iron removal operation on solid waste disposal.

    PubMed

    De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca; Vegliò, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The process of reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore is aimed at the extraction of manganese from low grade manganese ores. This work is focused on the iron removal operation. The following items have been considered in order to investigate the effect of the main operating conditions on solid waste disposal and on the process costs: (i) type and quantity of the base agent used for iron precipitation, (ii) effective need of leaching waste separation prior to the iron removal operation, (iii) presence of a second leaching stage with the roasted ore, which might also act as a preliminary iron removal step, and (iv) effect of tailings washing on the solid waste classification. Different base compounds have been tested, including CaO, CaCO3, NaOH, and Na2CO3. The latter gave the best results concerning both the precipitation process kinetics and the reagent consumption. The filtration of the liquor leach prior to iron removal was not necessary, implying significant savings in capital costs. A reduction of chemical consumption and an increase of manganese concentration in the solution were obtained by introducing secondary leaching tests with the previously roasted ore; this additional step was introduced without a significant decrease of global manganese extraction yield. Finally, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests carried out on the leaching solid waste showed: (i) a reduction of arsenic mobility in the presence of iron precipitates, and (ii) the need for a washing step in order to produce a waste that is classifiable as not dangerous, taking into consideration the existing Environmental National Laws. PMID:18556190

  15. Reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore: Effect of the iron removal operation on solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca Veglio, Francesco

    2009-01-15

    The process of reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore is aimed at the extraction of manganese from low grade manganese ores. This work is focused on the iron removal operation. The following items have been considered in order to investigate the effect of the main operating conditions on solid waste disposal and on the process costs: (i) type and quantity of the base agent used for iron precipitation, (ii) effective need of leaching waste separation prior to the iron removal operation, (iii) presence of a second leaching stage with the roasted ore, which might also act as a preliminary iron removal step, and (iv) effect of tailings washing on the solid waste classification. Different base compounds have been tested, including CaO, CaCO{sub 3}, NaOH, and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The latter gave the best results concerning both the precipitation process kinetics and the reagent consumption. The filtration of the liquor leach prior to iron removal was not necessary, implying significant savings in capital costs. A reduction of chemical consumption and an increase of manganese concentration in the solution were obtained by introducing secondary leaching tests with the previously roasted ore; this additional step was introduced without a significant decrease of global manganese extraction yield. Finally, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests carried out on the leaching solid waste showed: (i) a reduction of arsenic mobility in the presence of iron precipitates, and (ii) the need for a washing step in order to produce a waste that is classifiable as not dangerous, taking into consideration the existing Environmental National Laws.

  16. Fluorescence endoscopy with 5-amino levulinic acid (ALA) reduces early recurrence rate in superficial bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Frank; Riedl, Claus R.; Daniltchenko, Dmitri; Schnorr, Dietmar

    2003-06-01

    Purpose: Several investigators have demonstrated an approximately 20% higher tumor detection rate by ALA (5-aminolevulinic acid) based fluorescence endoscopy (AFE) compared to standard white light cystoscopy. These data suggest a reduction of residual and recurrent tumor following fluorescence guided transurethral resection (TUR) of bladder carcinoma. The present study was performed to test this hypothesis. Materials and Methods: In a prospective randomized multi-center study, 2 x 51 patients underwent TUR of bladder tumor(s) either with white light (current standard) or assisted by ALA-induced fluorescence. A 2nd look TUR with AFE was performed 6 weeks after the initial operation. Control cystoscopies were performed 3 and 6 months after initial tumor resection. Results: At 2nd look TUR (6 weeks post op) and at control cystoscopies 3 and 6 months following initial TUR in the white light group residual and/or recurrent carcinoma was detected in 20 of 51, in 24 of 48 and in 28 of 48 patients, respectively, and in the AFE group in 8 of 51, in 10 of 47 and in 17 of 47 patients, respectively. The differences were statistically significant (p=0.005, p=0.002 and p=0.01, respectively). Three patients in the white light and four patients in the AFE group were lost to follow up. Conclusions: AFE is a minimally invasive and inexpensive diagnostic procedure that significantly improves bladder tumor detection rates compared to standard white light endoscopy. In the present study AFE reduced the residual/recurrent tumor rate 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months after initial TUR by 59%, 58% and 38%, respectively.

  17. Combination of omega-3 Fatty acids, lithium, and aripiprazole reduces oxidative stress in brain of mice with mania.

    PubMed

    Arunagiri, Pandiyan; Rajeshwaran, Krishnamoorthy; Shanthakumar, Janakiraman; Tamilselvan, Thangavel; Balamurugan, Elumalai

    2014-09-01

    Manic episode in bipolar disorder (BD) was evaluated in the present study with supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids in combination with aripiprazole and lithium on methylphenidate (MPD)-induced manic mice model. Administration of MPD 5 mg/kg bw intraperitoneally (i.p.) caused increase in oxidative stress in mice brain. To retract this effect, supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids 1.5 ml/kg (p.o.), aripiprazole 1.5 mg/kg bw (i.p.), and lithium 50 mg/kg bw (p.o) were given to mice. Omega-3 fatty acids alone and in combination with aripiprazole- and lithium-treated groups significantly reduced the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) in the brain. MPD treatment significantly decreased the reduced glutathione (GSH) level and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and they were restored by supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids with aripiprazole and lithium. There is no remarkable difference in the effect of creatine kinase (CK) activity between MPD-induced manic model and the treatment groups. Therefore, our results demonstrate that oxidative stress imbalance and mild insignificant CK alterations induced by administration of MPD can be restored back to normal physiological levels through omega-3 fatty acids combined with lithium and aripiprazole that attributes to effective prevention against mania in adult male Swiss albino mice. PMID:25035188

  18. Which Route of Tranexamic Acid Administration is More Effective to Reduce Blood Loss Following Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    PubMed Central

    Keyhani, Sohrab; Esmailiejah, Ali Akbar; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Safdari, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The most appropriate route of tranexamic acid administration is controversial. In the current study, we compared the efficacy of intravenous (IV) and topical intra-articular tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. Methods: One hundred twenty 120 patients were scheduled to undergo primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomly allocated to three equal groups: IV tranexamic acid (500 mg), topical tranexamic acid (3 g in 100 mL normal saline) and the control. In the topical group, half of the volume was used to irrigate the joint and the other half was injected intra-articularly. The volume of blood loss, hemoglobin (Hb) level at 24 hours postoperative, and rate of transfusion was compared between groups. Results: The blood loss and Hb level were significantly greater and lower in the control group, respectively (P=0.031). Also, the rate of transfusion was significantly greater in the control group (P=0.013). However, IV and topical groups did not differ significantly in terms of measured variables. No patient experienced a thromboembolic event in our study. Conclusion: Tranexamic acid is a useful antifibrinolytic drug to reduce postoperative blood loss, Hb drop, and rate of blood transfusion in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. The route of tranexamic acid administration did not affect the efficacy and safety. PMID:26894222

  19. A Combined Supplementation of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Micronutrients (Folic Acid, Vitamin B12) Reduces Oxidative Stress Markers in a Rat Model of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kemse, Nisha G.; Kale, Anvita A.; Joshi, Sadhana R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Materials and Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids). L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day) was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP) was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation. Results Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (p<0.01 for both) systolic and diastolic BP; lower (p<0.01) pup weight; higher dam plasma homocysteine (p<0.05) and dam and offspring malondialdehyde (MDA) (p<0.01), lower (p<0.05) placental and offspring liver DHA and higher (p<0.01) tumor necrosis factor–alpha (TNF–ά) levels as compared to control. Individual micronutrient supplementation did not offer much benefit. In contrast, combined supplementation lowered systolic BP, homocysteine, MDA and placental TNF-ά levels in dams and liver MDA and protein carbonyl in the offspring as compared to PIH group. Conclusion Key constituents of one carbon cycle (folic acid, vitamin B12 and DHA) may play a role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia. PMID:25405347

  20. The antiepileptic drug valproic acid and other medium-chain fatty acids acutely reduce phosphoinositide levels independently of inositol in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pishan; Orabi, Benoit; Deranieh, Rania M.; Dham, Manik; Hoeller, Oliver; Shimshoni, Jakob A.; Yagen, Boris; Bialer, Meir; Greenberg, Miriam L.; Walker, Matthew C.; Williams, Robin S. B.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Valproic acid (VPA) is the most widely prescribed epilepsy treatment worldwide, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Our previous work identified a previously unknown effect of VPA in reducing phosphoinositide production in the simple model Dictyostelium followed by the transfer of data to a mammalian synaptic release model. In our current study, we show that the reduction in phosphoinositide [PtdInsP (also known as PIP) and PtdInsP2 (also known as PIP2)] production caused by VPA is acute and dose dependent, and that this effect occurs independently of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, inositol recycling and inositol synthesis. In characterising the structural requirements for this effect, we also identify a family of medium-chain fatty acids that show increased efficacy compared with VPA. Within the group of active compounds is a little-studied group previously associated with seizure control, and analysis of two of these compounds (nonanoic acid and 4-methyloctanoic acid) shows around a threefold enhanced potency compared with VPA for protection in an in vitro acute rat seizure model. Together, our data show that VPA and a newly identified group of medium-chain fatty acids reduce phosphoinositide levels independently of inositol regulation, and suggest the reinvestigation of these compounds as treatments for epilepsy. PMID:21876211

  1. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6) algal oils reduce inflammatory mediators in human peripheral mononuclear cells in vitro and paw edema in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nauroth, Julie M; Liu, Ying Chun; Van Elswyk, Mary; Bell, Rebecca; Hall, Eileen Bailey; Chung, Gloria; Arterburn, Linda M

    2010-05-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity associated with fish oil has been ascribed to the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Here we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of two DHA-rich algal oils, which contain little EPA, and determined the contribution of the constituent fatty acids, particularly DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6). In vitro, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was inhibited with apparent relative potencies of DPAn-6 (most potent) > DHA > EPA. In addition, DPAn-6 decreased intracellular levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and was a potent inhibitor of pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. DHA/DPAn-6-rich DHA-S (DHA-S) algal oil was more effective at reducing edema in rats than DHA-rich DHA-T (DHA-T), suggesting that DPAn-6 has anti-inflammatory properties. Further in vivo analyses demonstrated that feeding DPAn-6 alone, provided as an ethyl ester, reduced paw edema to an extent approaching that of indomethacin and enhanced the anti-inflammatory activity of DHA when given in combination. Together, these results demonstrate that DPAn-6 has anti-inflammatory activity and enhances the effect of DHA in vitro and in vivo. Thus, DHA-S algal oil may have potential for use in anti-inflammatory applications. PMID:20364438

  2. Efficacy of reducing sugar and phenol-sulfuric acid assays for analysis of soluble carbohydrates in feedstuffs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing sugar (RSA) and phenol–sulfuric acid (PSA) assays are commonly used to analyze water-soluble carbohydrates. However, questions have arisen as to their accuracy for measurement of feedstuffs with diverse carbohydrate profiles. This study evaluated the efficacy of RSA and PSA as they would co...

  3. A PTBA small molecule enhances recovery and reduces postinjury fibrosis after aristolochic acid-induced kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Novitskaya, Tatiana; McDermott, Lee; Zhang, Ke Xin; Chiba, Takuto; Paueksakon, Paisit; Hukriede, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    Phenylthiobutanoic acids (PTBAs) are a new class of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors that accelerate recovery and reduce postinjury fibrosis after ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury. However, unlike the more common scenario in which patients present with protracted and less clearly defined onset of renal injury, this model of acute kidney injury gives rise to a clearly defined injury that begins to resolve over a short period of time. In these studies, we show for the first time that treatment with the PTBA analog methyl-4-(phenylthio)butanoate (M4PTB) accelerates recovery and reduces postinjury fibrosis in a progressive model of acute kidney injury and renal fibrosis that occurs after aristolochic acid injection in mice. These effects are apparent when M4PTB treatment is delayed 4 days after the initiating injury and are associated with increased proliferation and decreased G2/M arrest of regenerating renal tubular epithelial cells. In addition, there is reduced peritubular macrophage infiltration and decreased expression of the macrophage chemokines CX3Cl1 and CCL2. Since macrophage infiltration plays a role in promoting kidney injury, and since renal tubular epithelial cells show defective repair and a marked increase in maladaptive G2/M arrest after aristolochic acid injury, these findings suggest M4PTB may be particularly beneficial in reducing injury and enhancing intrinsic cellular repair even when administered days after aristolochic acid ingestion. PMID:24370591

  4. Will Increasing Folic Acid in Fortified Grain Products Further Reduce Neural Tube Defects without Causing Harm?: Consideration of the Evidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Will Increasing Folic Acid in Fortified Grain Products Further Reduce Neural Tube Defects without Causing Harm?: Consideration of the Evidence. In the January issue of this journal, Johnston (1) includes our group’s recent analysis of data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination...

  5. Higher Plasma Docosahexaenoic Acid is Associated with Reduced Progression of Coronary-Artery Atherosclerosis in Women with Established Coronary Artery Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish intake, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and in some cases alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), have been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular events and death. The association between n-3 fatty acids in plasma lipids and progression of coronary-artery atherosclerosi...

  6. Foam-stabilizing effects and cling formation patterns of iso-alpha-acids and reduced iso-alpha-acids in lager beer.

    PubMed

    Kunimune, Takeshi; Shellhammer, Thomas H

    2008-09-24

    Foam-stabilizing properties and cling formation patterns of iso-alpha-acids and reduced iso-alpha-acids were investigated using an unhopped lager beer. Unhopped beer was dosed with iso-alpha-acid (Iso), rho-iso-alpha-acid (Rho), tetrahydro-iso-alpha-acid (Tetra), and hexahydro-iso-alpha-acid (Hexa), separately, over a range of concentrations from 2 to 10 ppm. A uniform foam was created by Inpack 2000 Flasher Head and was measured by a NIBEM Foam Stability Tester (NIBEM-TPH) followed by a NIBEM Cling Meter (NIBEM-CLM) to determine the relationship between the concentration and NIBEM-30 and the cling formation ability of each compound. The foam-stabilizing power was determined to be Tetra, Hexa, Iso, and Rho from the strongest to weakest. Linear regression models were created using the NIBEM-TPH data set, and on the basis of 95% confidence intervals, the foam stability of Tetra or Hexa became significantly larger than that of Iso when 2.4 or 4.2 ppm of Tetra or Hexa was used as a replacement for Iso, respectively. Cling formation patterns could be categorized into three groups: "ring", "mesh", and "powdery". The control beer had the lowest foam stability and did not yield any foam cling. PMID:18729457

  7. Oleanolic acid reduces markers of differentiation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Sung, Hye-Young; Kang, Sang-Wook; Kim, Jung-Lye; Li, Jing; Lee, Eun-Sook; Gong, Ju-Hyun; Han, Seoung Jun; Kang, Young-Hee

    2010-12-01

    Oleanolic acid is a triterpenoid compound that is widely present in vegetables, medicinal herbs, and other plants and has potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. However, the potential of oleanolic acid to offset obesity is not clear. This study tested the hypothesis that oleanolic acid suppresses the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes by downregulating cellular induction of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and cytidine-cytidine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine (CCAAT) enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα). The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured and differentiated in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum for 6 to 8 days in the absence and presence of 1 to 25 μmol/L oleanolic acid according to differentiating protocols. Nontoxic oleanolic acid, at 25 μmol/L or less, dose-dependently attenuated lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes as evidenced by Oil Red O staining. Western blot analysis showed that the induction of PPARγ and C/EBPα was markedly attenuated in differentiated and oleanolic acid-treated adipocytes at their transcriptional messenger RNA levels. Furthermore, this study examined whether oleanolic acid dampened the induction of visfatin, a proinflammatory and visceral fat-specific adipokine expressed in adipocytes. Visfatin expression was inhibited in differentiated adipocytes exposed to a PPARγ inhibitor GW9662. In addition, the visfatin production was significantly repressed in 25 μmol/L oleanolic acid-treated adipocytes, possibly through blocking PPARγ activation. These results demonstrate that oleanolic acid may be a promising agent to disturb adipocyte differentiation and suppress obesity-associated inflammation. PMID:21147366

  8. Ursolic acid reduces the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease imbalance in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanzhe; He, Zhiyi; Deng, Shumin

    2016-01-01

    Background Activators of PPARs, particularly PPARγ, may be effective neuroprotective drugs against inflammatory responses in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. Ursolic acid (UA) may act as a PPARγ agonist and serve as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, we used a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model to examine how UA acts as a neuroprotective agent to modulate the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance. Methods The middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion model (occlusion for 2 hours followed by reperfusion for 48 hours) was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats. UA was administered intragastrically 0.5, 24, and 47 hours after reperfusion. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (a PPARγ antagonist) was intraperitoneally administered 1, 24.5, and 47.5 hours after reperfusion. Forty-eight hours after reperfusion, neurological deficits and infarct volume were estimated. The PPARγ level and the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The activation of MAPK signaling pathways was also assessed. Results UA-treated (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) rats showed significant improvement in neurological deficit score, infarct volume, and the number of intact neurons compared with control rats (P<0.01). Both the PPARγ protein level and the percentage of PPARγ-positive cells were increased in the UA-treated groups (P<0.01). Compared with the control group, the UA-treated groups exhibited reduced protein levels of MMP2, MMP9, and activated MAPKs (P<0.01) but an increased level of TIMP1 (P<0.01). UA exerted its protective effects in a dose-dependent manner. Co-treatment with UA and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether completely abolished the UA-induced changes in PPARγ expression; however UA continued to exert a significant but partial neuroprotective effect. Conclusion UA can act as a PPARγ agonist to improve the metalloprotease/anti-metalloprotease balance, possibly by inhibiting the

  9. Grouping of amino acids and recognition of protein structurally conserved regions by reduced alphabets of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Wei

    2007-06-01

    Sequence alignment is a common method for finding protein structurally conserved/similar regions. However, sequence alignment is often not accurate if sequence identities between to-be-aligned sequences are less than 30%. This is because that for these sequences, different residues may play similar structural roles and they are incorrectly aligned during the sequence alignment using substitution matrix consisting of 20 types of residues. Based on the similarity of physicochemical features, residues can be clustered into a few groups. Using such simplified alphabets, the complexity of protein sequences is reduced and at the same time the key information encoded in the sequences remains. As a result, the accuracy of sequence alignment might be improved if the residues are properly clustered. Here, by using a database of aligned protein structures (DAPS), a new clustering method based on the substitution scores is proposed for the grouping of residues, and substitution matrices of residues at different levels of simplification are constructed. The validity of the reduced alphabets is confirmed by relative entropy analysis. The reduced alphabets are applied to recognition of protein structurally conserved/similar regions by sequence alignment. The results indicate that the accuracy or efficiency of sequence alignment can be improved with the optimal reduced alphabet with N around 9. PMID:17609897

  10. Mechanisms by which docosahexaenoic acid and related fatty acids reduce colon cancer risk and inflammatory disorders of the intestine

    PubMed Central

    Chapkin, Robert S.; Seo, Jeongmin; McMurray, David N.; Lupton, Joanne R.

    2008-01-01

    A growing body of epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence has underscored both the pharmacological potential and the nutritional value of dietary fish oil enriched in very long chain n-3 PUFAs such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3). The broad health benefits of very long chain n-3 PUFAs and the pleiotropic effects of dietary fish oil and DHA have been proposed to involve alterations in membrane structure and function, eicosanoid metabolism, gene expression and the formation of lipid peroxidation products, although a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of action has yet to be elucidated. In this review, we present data demonstrating that DHA selectively modulates the subcellular localization of lipidated signaling proteins depending on their transport pathway, which may be universally applied to other lipidated protein trafficking. An interesting possibility raised by the current observations is that lipidated proteins may exhibit different subcellular distribution profiles in various tissues, which contain a distinct membrane lipid composition. In addition, the current findings clearly indicate that subcellular localization of proteins with a certain trafficking pathway can be subjected to selective regulation by dietary manipulation. This form of regulated plasma membrane targeting of a select subset of upstream signaling proteins may provide cells with the flexibility to coordinate the arrangement of signaling translators on the cell surface. Ultimately, this may allow organ systems such as the colon to optimally decode, respond, and adapt to the vagaries of an ever-changing extracellular environment. PMID:18346463

  11. Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice, can reduce the thickness of subcutaneous thigh fat through topical application.

    PubMed

    Armanini, Decio; Nacamulli, Davide; Francini-Pesenti, Francesco; Battagin, Giuliana; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Fiore, Cristina

    2005-07-01

    Cortisol is involved in the distribution and deposition of fat, and its action is regulated by the activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice root, blocks 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, thus reducing the availability of cortisol at the level of adipocytes. We evaluated the effect of topical application of a cream containing glycyrrhetinic acid in the thickness of fat at the level of the thigh. Eighteen healthy women (age range 20-33 years) with normal BMI were randomly allocated to treatment, at the level of the dominant thigh, with a cream containing 2.5% glycyrrhetinic acid (n=9) or with a placebo cream containing the excipients alone (n=9). Before and after 1 month of treatment both the circumference and the thickness of the superficial fat layer of the thighs (by ultrasound analysis) were measured. The circumference and the thickness of the superficial fat layer were significantly reduced in comparison to the controlateral untreated thigh and to control subjects treated with the placebo cream. No changes were observed in blood pressure, plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone or cortisol. The effect of glycyrrhetinic acid on the thickness of subcutaneous fat was likely related to a block of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 at the level of fat cells; therefore, glycyrrhetinic acid could be effectively used in the reduction of unwanted local fat accumulation. PMID:15894038

  12. Reducing dietary intake of linoleic acid of mouse dams during lactation increases offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA content.

    PubMed

    Schipper, L; Oosting, A; Scheurink, A J W; van Dijk, G; van der Beek, E M

    2016-07-01

    Omega (n-)3 and n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) accumulation in the infant brain after birth is strongly driven by dietary supply of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFAs and their C18 precursors through breast milk or infant formula. n-3 LCPUFA accretion is associated with positive effects on neurodevelopmental outcome whereas high n-6 LCPUFA accumulation is considered disadvantageous. Maternal diet is crucial for breast milk fatty acid composition. Unfortunately, global increases in linoleic acid (C18:2n-6; LA) intake have dramatically increased n-6 LCPUFA and reduced n-3 LCPUFA availability for breastfed infants. We investigated the effects of reducing maternal dietary LA, or increasing n-3 LCPUFA, during lactation on milk and offspring brain fatty acids in mice. Offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA was higher following both interventions, although effects were mediated by different mechanisms. Because of competitive interactions between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, lowering maternal LA intake may support neurodevelopment in breastfed infants. PMID:27255638

  13. Removal of hexenuronic acid by xylanase to reduce adsorbable organic halides formation in chlorine dioxide bleaching of bagasse pulp.

    PubMed

    Nie, Shuangxi; Wang, Shuangfei; Qin, Chengrong; Yao, Shuangquan; Ebonka, Johnbull Friday; Song, Xueping; Li, Kecheng

    2015-11-01

    Xylanase-aided chlorine dioxide bleaching of bagasse pulp was investigated. The pulp was pretreated with xylanase and followed a chlorine dioxide bleaching stage. The ATR-FTIR and XPS were employed to determine the surface chemistry of the control pulp, xylanase treated and chlorine dioxide treated pulps. The hexenuronic acid (HexA) could obviously be reduced after xylanase pretreatment, and the adsorbable organic halides (AOX) were reduced after chlorine dioxide bleaching. Compared to the control pulp, AOX could be reduced by 21.4-26.6% with xylanase treatment. Chlorine dioxide demand could be reduced by 12.5-22% to achieve the same brightness. The ATR-FTIR and XPS results showed that lignin and hemicellulose (mainly HexA) were the main source for AOX formation. Xylanase pretreatment could remove HexA and expose more lignin, which decreased the chlorine dioxide demand and thus reduced formation of AOX. PMID:26263004

  14. Solid and liquid media for isolating and cultivating acidophilic and acid-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ňancucheo, Ivan; Rowe, Owen F; Hedrich, Sabrina; Johnson, D Barrie

    2016-05-01

    Growth media have been developed to facilitate the enrichment and isolation of acidophilic and acid-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacteria (aSRB) from environmental and industrial samples, and to allow their cultivation in vitro The main features of the 'standard' solid and liquid devised media are as follows: (i) use of glycerol rather than an aliphatic acid as electron donor; (ii) inclusion of stoichiometric concentrations of zinc ions to both buffer pH and to convert potentially harmful hydrogen sulphide produced by the aSRB to insoluble zinc sulphide; (iii) inclusion of Acidocella aromatica (an heterotrophic acidophile that does not metabolize glycerol or yeast extract) in the gel underlayer of double layered (overlay) solid media, to remove acetic acid produced by aSRB that incompletely oxidize glycerol and also aliphatic acids (mostly pyruvic) released by acid hydrolysis of the gelling agent used (agarose). Colonies of aSRB are readily distinguished from those of other anaerobes due to their deposition and accumulation of metal sulphide precipitates. Data presented illustrate the effectiveness of the overlay solid media described for isolating aSRB from acidic anaerobic sediments and low pH sulfidogenic bioreactors. PMID:27036143

  15. Enumeration and Characterization of Iron(III)-Reducing Microbial Communities from Acidic Subsurface Sediments Contaminated with Uranium(VI)

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, Lainie; North, Nadia N.; Dollhopf, Sherry L.; Balkwill, David L.; Kostka, Joel E.

    2003-01-01

    Iron(III)-reducing bacteria have been demonstrated to rapidly catalyze the reduction and immobilization of uranium(VI) from contaminated subsurface sediments. Thus, these organisms may aid in the development of bioremediation strategies for uranium contamination, which is prevalent in acidic subsurface sediments at U.S. government facilities. Iron(III)-reducing enrichment cultures were initiated from pristine and contaminated (high in uranium, nitrate; low pH) subsurface sediments at pH 7 and pH 4 to 5. Enumeration of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria yielded cell counts of up to 240 cells ml−1 for the contaminated and background sediments at both pHs with a range of different carbon sources (glycerol, acetate, lactate, and glucose). In enrichments where nitrate contamination was removed from the sediment by washing, MPN counts of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria increased substantially. Sediments of lower pH typically yielded lower counts of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in lactate- and acetate-amended enrichments, but higher counts were observed when glucose was used as an electron donor in acidic enrichments. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences extracted from the highest positive MPN dilutions revealed that the predominant members of Fe(III)-reducing consortia from background sediments were closely related to members of the Geobacteraceae family, whereas a recently characterized Fe(III) reducer (Anaeromyxobacter sp.) and organisms not previously shown to reduce Fe(III) (Paenibacillus and Brevibacillus spp.) predominated in the Fe(III)-reducing consortia of contaminated sediments. Analysis of enrichment cultures by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) strongly supported the cloning and sequencing results. Dominant members of the Fe(III)-reducing consortia were observed to be stable over several enrichment culture transfers by T-RFLP in conjunction with measurements of Fe(III) reduction activity and carbon substrate utilization. Enrichment

  16. Zoledronic Acid in Reducing Clinical Fracture and Mortality after Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Lyles, Kenneth W.; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S.; Magaziner, Jay S.; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Pieper, Carl F.; Mautalen, Carlos; Hyldstrup, Lars; Recknor, Chris; Nordsletten, Lars; Moore, Kathy A.; Lavecchia, Catherine; Zhang, Jie; Mesenbrink, Peter; Hodgson, Patricia K.; Abrams, Ken; Orloff, John J.; Horowitz, Zebulun; Eriksen, Erik Fink; Boonen, Steven

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mortality is increased after a hip fracture, and strategies that improve outcomes are needed. METHODS In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 1065 patients were assigned to receive yearly intravenous zoledronic acid (at a dose of 5 mg), and 1062 patients were assigned to receive placebo. The infusions were first administered within 90 days after surgical repair of a hip fracture. All patients received supplemental vitamin D and calcium. The median follow-up was 1.9 years. The primary end point was a new clinical fracture. RESULTS The rates of any new clinical fracture were 8.6% in the zoledronic acid group and 13.9% in the placebo group, a 35% risk reduction (P = 0.001); the respective rates of a new clinical vertebral fracture were 1.7% and 3.8% (P = 0.02), and the respective rates of new nonvertebral fractures were 7.6% and 10.7% (P = 0.03). In the safety analysis, 101 of 1054 patients in the zoledronic acid group (9.6%) and 141 of 1057 patients in the placebo group (13.3%) died, a reduction of 28% in deaths from any cause in the zoledronic-acid group (P = 0.01). The most frequent adverse events in patients receiving zoledronic acid were pyrexia, myalgia, and bone and musculoskeletal pain. No cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw were reported, and no adverse effects on the healing of fractures were noted. The rates of renal and cardiovascular adverse events, including atrial fibrillation and stroke, were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS An annual infusion of zoledronic acid within 90 days after repair of a low-trauma hip fracture was associated with a reduction in the rate of new clinical fractures and improved survival. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00046254.) PMID:18427590

  17. Prophylactic Supplementation of Caprylic Acid in Feed Reduces Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization in Commercial Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a major foodborne pathogen for which chickens serve as reservoir hosts. Reducing Salmonella Enteritidis carriage in chickens would reduce contamination of poultry meat and eggs with this pathogen. We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic ...

  18. Ursodeoxycholic acid pretreatment reduces oral bioavailability of the multiple drug resistance-associated protein 2 substrate baicalin in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Li, Xi-Ping; Xu, Yan-Jiao; Du, Guang; Liu, Dong

    2013-11-01

    Baicalin is a major bioactive component of Scutellaria baicalensis and a substrate of multiple drug resistance-associated protein 2. Expression of multiple drug resistance-associated protein 2 is regulated by NF-E2-related factor 2. The aim of this study was to explore whether ursodeoxycholic acid, an NF-E2-related factor 2 activator, could influence the oral bioavailability of baicalin. A single dose of baicalin (200 mg/kg) was given orally to rats pretreated with ursodeoxycholic acid (75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg, per day, intragastrically) or normal saline (per day, intragastrically) for six consecutive days. The plasma concentration of baicalin was measured with the HPLC method. The result indicated that the oral bioavailability of baicalin was significantly and dose-dependently reduced in rats pretreated with ursodeoxycholic acid. Compared with control rats, the mean area under concentration-time curve of baicalin was reduced from 13.25 ± 0.24 mg/L h to 7.62 ± 0.15 mg/L h and 4.97 ± 0.21 mg/L h, and the C(max) value was decreased from 1.31 ± 0.03 mg/L to 0.62 ± 0.05 mg/L and 0.36 ± 0.04 mg/L in rats pretreated with ursodeoxycholic acid at doses of 75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg, respectively, for six consecutive days. Hence, ursodeoxycholic acid treatment reduced the oral bioavailability of baicalin in rats, probably due to the enhanced efflux of baicalin from the intestine and liver by multiple drug resistance-associated protein 2. PMID:24135887

  19. Non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates reduce aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid and fumonisin in corn (maize)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus strains vary widely in their production of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). A total of 500 Aspergillus strains isolated from a variety of sources showed 16.4% were negative for both aflatoxin and CPA, 41.3% were positive for both mycotoxins, 13.0% were positive only fo...

  20. Treatment with oleic acid reduces IgE binding to peanut and cashew allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid (OA) is known to bind and change the bioactivities of proteins, such as a-lactalbumin and ß-lactoglobulin in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine if OA binds to allergens from a peanut extract or cashew allergen and changes their allergenic properties. Peanut extract or c...

  1. Can ω-3 fatty acids and tocotrienol-rich vitamin E reduce symptoms of neurodevelopmental disorders?

    PubMed

    Gumpricht, Eric; Rockway, Susie

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, which include autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders, and apraxia, are increasing worldwide and have a profound effect on the behaviors, cognitive skills, mood, and self-esteem of these children. Although the etiologies of these disorders are unclear, they often accompany genetic and biochemical abnormalities resulting in cognitive and communication difficulties. Because cognitive and neural development require essential fatty acids (particularly long-chain ω-3 fatty acids often lacking in mother's and children's diets) during critical growth periods, the potential behavior-modifying effects of these fatty acids as "brain nutrients" has attracted considerable attention. Additionally, there is compelling evidence for increased oxidative stress, altered antioxidant defenses, and neuroinflammation in these children. The purpose of this review is to provide a scientific rationale based on cellular, experimental animal model, observational, and clinical intervention studies for incorporating the combination of ω-3 fatty acids and tocotrienol-rich vitamin E as complementary nutritional therapies in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Should this nutritional combination correct key clinical or biochemical outcomes and/or improve behavioral patterns, it would provide a safe, complementary option for these children. PMID:24631384

  2. Reducing ammonia emissions and volatile fatty acids in poultry litter with liquid aluminum chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was a pen trial in which the effects of adding different rates of liquid aluminum chloride (AlCl3) on litter pH, total volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and ammonia (NH3) fluxes was evaluated. Liquid AlCl3 treatments used in this study were sprayed on the rice hull surface at rates of 100 g, 2...

  3. UNMETABOLIZED FOLIC ACID IN PLASMA IS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED NATURAL KILLER CELL CYTOTOXICITY AMONG POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Folic acid (FA) supplements and food fortification are used to prevent neural tube defects and to lower plasma homocysteine. Through exposure to food fortification and vitamin supplement use, large populations in the USA and elsewhere have an unprecedented high FA intake. We evaluated dietary and su...

  4. Vitamin E supplementation does not prevent ethanol-reduced hepatic retinoic acid levels in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic, excessive ethanol intake can increase retinoic acid (RA) catabolism by inducing cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). Vitamin E (VE) is an antioxidant implicated in CYP2E1 inhibition. In the current study, we hypothesized that VE supplementation inhibits CYP2E1 and decreases RA catabolism, thereby ...

  5. Higher Intakes of Antioxidants and Unsaturated Fatty Acid Reduce the Cardiac Autonomic Effects of Particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher intakes of antioxidants (vitamins C and E, carotene) found in foods such as cruciferous vegetables, and unsaturated fatty acids, including omega-3 from fish and monounsaturated fats from nuts and seeds, may prevent cardiovascular disease. We examined whether higher intake of such antioxidants...

  6. Spray washing carcasses with alkaline solutions of lauric acid to reduce bacterial contamination.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of spray washing carcasses with lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) on bacteria recovered from whole-carcass-rinsates (WCR) was examined. Skin of carcasses was inoculated with a cecal paste containing antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimirum, and Camp...

  7. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    DOEpatents

    Heilmann, Ingo H.; Shanklin, John

    2010-02-02

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  8. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    DOEpatents

    Heilmann, Ingo H; Shanklin, John

    2014-03-18

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  9. Amperometric Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Pharmaceutical Formulations by a Reduced Graphene Oxide-cobalt Hexacyanoferrate Nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Heli, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the redox properties of drugs and their determination are performed by electrochemical techniques. Data obtained from electrochemical techniques are often correlated with molecular structure and pharmacological activity of drugs. In this regard, different modified electrodes were applied as sensors for quantification of different drugs. A nanocomposite of reduced graphene oxide-cobalt hexacyanoferrate was synthesized by a simple precipitation route. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the nanocomposite comprised nanoparticles of cobalt hexacyanoferrate attached to the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets. A nanocomposite-modified carbon paste electrode was then fabricated. It represented prominent activity toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid, and the kinetics of the electrooxidation process was evaluated. Finally, an amperometric method was developed for the quantification of ascorbic acid in different pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:25901152

  10. Nitrogen dioxide reducing ascorbic acid technologies in the ventilator circuit leads to uniform NO concentration during inspiration.

    PubMed

    Pezone, Matthew J; Wakim, Matthew G; Denton, Ryan J; Gamero, Lucas G; Roscigno, Robert F; Gilbert, Richard J; Lovich, Mark A

    2016-08-31

    Conventional inhaled NO systems deliver NO by synchronized injection or continuous NO flow in the ventilator circuitry. Such methods can lead to variable concentrations during inspiration that may differ from desired dosing. NO concentrations in these systems are generally monitored through electrochemical methods that are too slow to capture this nuance and potential dosing error. A novel technology that reduces NO2 into NO via low-resistance ascorbic-acid cartridges just prior to inhalation has recently been described. The gas volume of these cartridges may enhance gas mixing and reduce dosing inconsistency throughout inhalation. The impact of the ascorbic-acid cartridge technology on NO concentration during inspiration was characterized through rapid chemiluminescence detection during volume control ventilation, pressure control ventilation, synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure using an in vitro lung model configured to simulate the complete uptake of NO. Two ascorbic acid cartridges in series provided uniform and consistent dosing during inspiration during all modes of ventilation. The use of one cartridge showed variable inspiratory concentration of NO at the largest tidal volumes, whereas the use of no ascorbic acid cartridge led to highly inconsistent NO inspiratory waveforms. The use of ascorbic acid cartridges also decreased breath-to-breath variation in SIMV and CPAP ventilation. The ascorbic-acid cartridges, which are designed to convert NO2 (either as substrate or resulting from NO oxidation during injection) into NO, also provide the benefit of minimizing the variation of inhaled NO concentration during inspiration. It is expected that the implementation of this method will lead to more consistent and predictable dosing. PMID:27264784

  11. Dietary α-linolenic acid increases the platelet count in ApoE-/- mice by reducing clearance.

    PubMed

    Stivala, Simona; Reiner, Martin F; Lohmann, Christine; Lüscher, Thomas F; Matter, Christian M; Beer, Juerg H

    2013-08-01

    Previously we reported that dietary intake of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) reduces atherogenesis and inhibits arterial thrombosis. Here, we analyze the substantial increase in platelet count induced by ALA and the mechanisms of reduced platelet clearance. Eight-week-old male apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice were fed a 0.21g% cholesterol diet complemented by either a high- (7.3g%) or low-ALA (0.03g%) content. Platelet counts doubled after 16 weeks of ALA feeding, whereas the bleeding time remained similar. Plasma glycocalicin and glycocalicin index were reduced, while reticulated platelets, thrombopoietin, and bone marrow megakaryocyte colony-forming units remained unchanged. Platelet contents of liver and spleen were substantially reduced, without affecting macrophage function and number. Glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) shedding, exposure of P-selectin, and activated integrin αIIbβ3 upon activation with thrombin were reduced. Dietary ALA increased the platelet count by reducing platelet clearance in the reticulo-endothelial system. The latter appears to be mediated by reduced cleavage of GPIb by tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme and reduced platelet activation/expression of procoagulant signaling. Ex vivo, there was less adhesion of human platelets to von Willebrand factor under high shear conditions after ALA treatment. Thus, ALA may be a promising tool in transfusion medicine and in high turnover/high activation platelet disorders. PMID:23801636

  12. Caffeic acid: potential applications in nanotechnology as a green reducing agent for sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yu Seon; Cha, Song-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-Ran; Kang, Young-Hwa; Park, Youmie

    2015-04-01

    The sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles from gold ions was conducted with caffeic acid as a green reducing agent. The formation of gold nanoparticles was confirmed by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. Spherical nanoparticles with an average diameter of 29.99 ± 7.43 nm were observed in high- resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images. The newly prepared gold nanoparticles exhibited catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. This system enables the preparation of green catalysts using plant natural products as reducing agents, which fulfills the growing need for sustainability initiatives. PMID:25973494

  13. POST CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFT STUDY (CABG)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Relative effectiveness of moderate versus more aggressive lipid lowering, and of low dose anticoagulation versus placebo, in delaying saphenous vein coronary bypass graft atherosclerosis and preventing occlusion of saphenous grafts of patients with saphenous vein coronary bypass ...

  14. Omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid increases SorLA/LR11, a sorting protein with reduced expression in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD): relevance to AD prevention.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiu-Lan; Teter, Bruce; Ubeda, Oliver J; Morihara, Takashi; Dhoot, Dilsher; Nyby, Michael D; Tuck, Michael L; Frautschy, Sally A; Cole, Greg M

    2007-12-26

    Environmental and genetic factors, notably ApoE4, contribute to the etiology of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Reduced mRNA and protein for an apolipoprotein E (ApoE) receptor family member, SorLA (LR11) has been found in LOAD but not early-onset AD, suggesting that LR11 loss is not secondary to pathology. LR11 is a neuronal sorting protein that reduces amyloid precursor protein (APP) trafficking to secretases that generate beta-amyloid (Abeta). Genetic polymorphisms that reduce LR11 expression are associated with increased AD risk. However these polymorphisms account for only a fraction of cases with LR11 deficits, suggesting involvement of environmental factors. Because lipoprotein receptors are typically lipid-regulated, we postulated that LR11 is regulated by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential omega-3 fatty acid related to reduced AD risk and reduced Abeta accumulation. In this study, we report that DHA significantly increases LR11 in multiple systems, including primary rat neurons, aged non-Tg mice and an aged DHA-depleted APPsw AD mouse model. DHA also increased LR11 in a human neuronal line. In vivo elevation of LR11 was also observed with dietary fish oil in young rats with insulin resistance, a model for type II diabetes, another AD risk factor. These data argue that DHA induction of LR11 does not require DHA-depleting diets and is not age dependent. Because reduced LR11 is known to increase Abeta production and may be a significant genetic cause of LOAD, our results indicate that DHA increases in SorLA/LR11 levels may play an important role in preventing LOAD. PMID:18160637

  15. Folic Acid Supplementation Mitigates Alzheimer's Disease by Reducing Inflammation: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Shuai; Ji, Lu; Wu, Tianfeng; Ji, Yong; Zhou, Yuying; Zhang, Meilin; Xu, Weili; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. Low serum folate levels can alter inflammatory reactions. Both phenomena have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the effect of folic acid on AD itself is unclear. We quantified folate supplementation's effect on inflammation and cognitive function in patients with AD over the course of 6 months. Methods. Patients newly diagnosed with AD (age > 60 years; n = 121; mild to severe; international criteria) and being treated with donepezil were randomly assigned into two groups with (intervention group) or without (control group) supplemental treatment with folic acid (1.25 mg/d) for 6 months. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was administered to all patients at baseline and follow-up, and blood samples were taken before and after treatment. We quantified serum folate, amyloid beta (Aβ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), plasma homocysteine (Hcy), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), and the mRNA levels of presenilin (PS), IL-6, and TNFα in leukocytes. Data were analyzed using a repeated-measures mixed model. Results. The mean MMSE was slightly increased in the intervention group compared to that in the control group (P < 0.05). Posttreatment, plasma SAM and SAM/SAH levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05), while Aβ40, PS1-mRNA, and TNFα-mRNA levels were lower in the intervention group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio was also higher in the intervention group (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Folic acid is beneficial in patients with AD. Inflammation may play an important role in the interaction between folic acid and AD. This trial is registered with clinical trial registration number ChiCTR-TRC-13003246. PMID:27340344

  16. Facile synthesis of graphene from graphite using ascorbic acid as reducing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrijanto, Eko; Shoelarta, Shoerya; Subiyanto, Gatot; Rifki, Sadur

    2016-04-01

    Graphene has attracted a tremendous attention in recent years due to its unique properties such as mechanical, thermal, optical and electrical properties. However, a large scale production of this material is still an issue and subjected to intense research efforts. Here, we show a simple and green approach of the graphene synthesis from graphene oxide using ascorbic acid as reduction agent. A facile synthesis of graphene (rGO) through chemical oxidation of graphite into graphene oxide (GO) was described using modified Hummers method (Improved Tour Method/ITM). The ITM method does not produce toxic gas and the temperature of the oxidation is easily controlled using ice bath. The synthesized of graphene oxide was highly soluble and stable in water. The reduction of graphene oxide into graphene was performed using ascorbic acid (AA) in mild condition. The combined ITM method and green reduction using ascorbic acid open the avenue of replacing hydrazine in the reduction of graphite oxide into graphene and may be very important step for bulk production of graphene.

  17. Application of Cornelian Cherry Iridoid-Polyphenolic Fraction and Loganic Acid to Reduce Intraocular Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Szumny, Dorota; Sozański, Tomasz; Kucharska, Alicja Z.; Dziewiszek, Wojciech; Piórecki, Narcyz; Magdalan, Jan; Chlebda-Sieragowska, Ewa; Kupczynski, Robert; Szeląg, Adam; Szumny, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common diseases of old age in modern societies is glaucoma. It is strongly connected with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and could permanently damage vision in the affected eye. As there are only a limited number of chemical compounds that can decrease IOP as well as blood flow in eye vessels, the up-to-date investigation of new molecules is important. The chemical composition of the dried Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) polar, iridoid-polyphenol-rich fraction was investigated. Loganic acid (50%) and pelargonidin-3-galactoside (7%) were found as the main components. Among the other constituents, iridoid compound cornuside and the anthocyans cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, cyanidin 3-O-robinobioside, and pelargonidin 3-O-robinobioside were quantified in the fraction. In an animal model (New Zealand rabbits), the influence of loganic acid and the polyphenolic fraction isolated from Cornelian cherry fruit was investigated. We found a strong IOP-hypotensive effect for a 0.7% solution of loganic acid, which could be compared with the widely ophthalmologically used timolol. About a 25% decrease in IOP was observed within the first 3 hours of use. PMID:26124854

  18. Ethanol exposure affects gene expression in the embryonic organizer and reduces retinoic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Yelin, Ronit; Schyr, Racheli Ben-Haroush; Kot, Hadas; Zins, Sharon; Frumkin, Ayala; Pillemer, Graciela; Fainsod, Abraham

    2005-03-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a set of developmental malformations caused by alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), the strongest manifestation of FASD, results in short stature, microcephally and facial dysmorphogenesis including microphthalmia. Using Xenopus embryos as a model developmental system, we show that ethanol exposure recapitulates many aspects of FAS, including a shortened rostro-caudal axis, microcephally and microphthalmia. Temporal analysis revealed that Xenopus embryos are most sensitive to ethanol exposure between late blastula and early/mid gastrula stages. This window of sensitivity overlaps with the formation and early function of the embryonic organizer, Spemann's organizer. Molecular analysis revealed that ethanol exposure of embryos induces changes in the domains and levels of organizer-specific gene expression, identifying Spemann's organizer as an early target of ethanol. Ethanol also induces a defect in convergent extension movements that delays gastrulation movements and may affect the overall length. We show that mechanistically, ethanol is antagonistic to retinol (Vitamin A) and retinal conversion to retinoic acid, and that the organizer is active in retinoic acid signaling during early gastrulation. The model suggests that FASD is induced in part by an ethanol-dependent reduction in retinoic acid levels that are necessary for the normal function of Spemann's organizer. PMID:15708568

  19. Metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by inhibiting FOXO1-mediated transcription of fatty acid-binding protein 4

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Jun; Ren, Pingping; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Xing Li; Chen, Li; Shen, Ying H.

    2010-02-26

    Objective: The accumulation of lipids in macrophages contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Strategies to reduce lipid accumulation in macrophages may have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. The antidiabetic drug metformin has been reported to reduce lipid accumulation in adipocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on lipid accumulation in macrophages and investigated the mechanisms involved. Methods and results: We observed that metformin significantly reduced palmitic acid (PA)-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in macrophages. Metformin promoted the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1), while reduced the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) which was involved in PA-induced lipid accumulation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that metformin regulates FABP4 expression at the transcriptional level. We identified forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 as a positive regulator of FABP4 expression. Inhibiting FOXO1 expression with FOXO1 siRNA significantly reduced basal and PA-induced FABP4 expression. Overexpression of wild-type FOXO1 and constitutively active FOXO1 significantly increased FABP4 expression, whereas dominant negative FOXO1 dramatically decreased FABP4 expression. Metformin reduced FABP4 expression by promoting FOXO1 nuclear exclusion and subsequently inhibiting its activity. Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by repressing FOXO1-mediated FABP4 transcription. Thus, metformin may have a protective effect against lipid accumulation in macrophages and may serve as a therapeutic agent for preventing and treating atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome.

  20. Knockdown of a nutrient amino acid transporter gene LdNAT1 reduces free neutral amino acid contents and impairs Leptinotarsa decemlineata pupation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Kai-Yun; Guo, Wen-Chao; Ahmat, Tursun; Li, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    A Leptinotarsa decemlineata SLC6 NAT gene (LdNAT1) was cloned. LdNAT1 was highly expressed in the larval alimentary canal especially midgut. LdNAT1 mRNA levels were high right after the molt and low just before the molt. JH and a JH analog pyriproxyfen activated LdNAT1 expression. RNAi of an allatostatin gene LdAS-C increased JH and upregulated LdNAT1 transcription. Conversely, silencing of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT decreased JH and reduced LdNAT1 expression. Moreover, 20E and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide repressed LdNAT1 expression, whereas a decrease in 20E by RNAi of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene LdSHD and disruption of 20E signaling by knockdown of LdE75 and LdFTZ-F1 activated LdNAT1 expression. Thus, LdNAT1 responded to both 20E and JH. Moreover, knockdown of LdNAT1 reduced the contents of cysteine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine and serine in the larval bodies and increased the contents of these amino acids in the larval feces. Furthermore, RNAi of LdNAT1 inhibited insulin/target of rapamycin pathway, lowered 20E and JH titers, reduced 20E and JH signaling, retarded larval growth and impaired pupation. These data showed that LdNAT1 was involved in the absorption of several neutral amino acids critical for larval growth and metamorphosis. PMID:26657797

  1. Stearidonic acid-enriched flax oil reduces the growth of human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Subedi, K; Yu, H-M; Newell, M; Weselake, R J; Meesapyodsuk, D; Qiu, X; Shah, S; Field, C J

    2015-01-01

    The 20 and 22 carbon n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) inhibit the growth of tumors in vitro and in animal models, but less is known about the 18 carbon n-3, stearidonic acid (SDA). This study aimed to establish and determine a mechanism for the anti-cancer activity of SDA-enriched oil (SO). SO (26 % of lipid) was produced by genetically engineering flax and used to treat human tumorigenic (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7) and non-tumorigenic (MCF-12A) breast cells. Nu/nu mice bearing MDA-MB-231 tumor were fed SO (SDA, 4 % of fat). Cell/tumor growth, phospholipid (PL) composition, apoptosis, CD95, and pro-apoptotic molecules were determined in SO-treated cells/tumors. Compared to a control lipid mixture, SO reduced (p < 0.05) the number of tumorigenic, but not MCF-12A cells, and resulted in higher concentration of most of the n-3 fatty acids in PL of all cells (p < 0.05). However, docosapentaenoic acid increased only in tumorigenic cells (p < 0.05). SO diet decreased tumor growth and resulted in more n-3 LCPUFA, including DPA and less arachidonic acid (AA) levels in major tumor PL (p < 0.05). Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells/tumors with SO resulted in more apoptotic cells (in tumors) and in vivo and in vitro, more CD95+ positive cells and a higher expression of apoptotic molecules caspase-10, Bad, or Bid (p < 0.05). Supplementing SO alters total PL and PL classes by increasing membrane content of n-3 LCPUFA and lowering AA (in vivo), which is associated with increased CD95-mediated apoptosis, thereby suggesting a possible mechanism for reduce tumor survival. PMID:25417173

  2. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce. PMID:27015405

  3. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce. PMID:27015405

  4. Reducing Isozyme Competition Increases Target Fatty Acid Accumulation in Seed Triacylglycerols of Transgenic Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    van Erp, Harrie; Shockey, Jay; Zhang, Meng; Adhikari, Neil D.; Browse, John

    2015-01-01

    One goal of green chemistry is the production of industrially useful fatty acids (FAs) in crop plants. We focus on hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) and conjugated polyenoic FAs (α-eleostearic acids [ESAs]) using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as a model. These FAs are found naturally in seed oils of castor (Ricinus communis) and tung tree (Vernicia fordii), respectively, and used for the production of lubricants, nylon, and paints. Transgenic oils typically contain less target FA than that produced in the source species. We hypothesized that competition between endogenous and transgenic isozymes for substrates limits accumulation of unique FAs in Arabidopsis seeds. This hypothesis was tested by introducing a mutation in Arabidopsis diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (AtDGAT1) in a line expressing castor FA hydroxylase and acyl-Coenzyme A:RcDGAT2 in its seeds. This led to a 17% increase in the proportion of HFA in seed oil. Expression of castor phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1A in this line increased the proportion of HFA by an additional 12%. To determine if our observations are more widely applicable, we investigated if isozyme competition influenced production of ESA. Expression of tung tree FA conjugase/desaturase in Arabidopsis produced approximately 7.5% ESA in seed lipids. Coexpression of VfDGAT2 increased ESA levels to approximately 11%. Overexpression of VfDGAT2 combined with suppression of AtDGAT1 increased ESA accumulation to 14% to 15%. Our results indicate that isozyme competition is a limiting factor in the engineering of unusual FAs in heterologous plant systems and that reduction of competition through mutation and RNA suppression may be a useful component of seed metabolic engineering strategies. PMID:25739701

  5. Flaxseed treatments to reduce biohydrogenation of alpha-linolenic acid by rumen microbes in cattle.

    PubMed

    Kronberg, S L; Scholljegerdes, E J; Barceló-Coblijn, G; Murphy, E J

    2007-12-01

    Enrichment of beef muscle with n-3 fatty acids (FA) is one means to introduce these FA into the diet, but ruminal biohydrogenation limits their bioavailability. To address this problem, we evaluated the ability of condensed tannin (quebracho), in the presence or absence of casein, to protect 18:3n-3 in flaxseed from hydrogenation by ruminal microbes in cattle using an in vitro fermentation approach coupled with evaluation in cattle in vivo. Treated and untreated flaxseed was incubated with bovine rumen fluid for 0 and 24 h. With tannin treated flaxseed, hydrogenation of 18:3n-3 was limited to only 13% over 24 h compared to 43% for untreated flaxseed, while addition of casein to the tannin added no additional protection. To determine if a similar level of protection would occur in vivo, we used two groups of five steers fed either a grain-based or forage-based diet. Five steers were given a grain-based diet during the trial and were fed either ground flaxseed or tannin treated flaxseed for 15 days prior to blood collection for plasma lipid fatty acid analysis. The forage fed steers followed the same regimen. Ingestion of tannin-treated flaxseed did not increase 18:3n-3 and 20:5n-3 in plasma neutral lipids as compared to non-treated flaxseed. Thus, we demonstrated that treating ground flaxseed with quebracho tannin is not useful for increasing 18:3n-3 in the neutral lipid of bovine blood plasma, and suggest caution when interpreting results from in vitro trials that test potential treatments for protecting fatty acids from hydrogenation by ruminal microbes. PMID:17985170

  6. Does tranexamic acid reduce blood transfusion cost for primary total hip arthroplasty? A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ryan N; Moskal, Joseph T; Capps, Susan G

    2015-02-01

    Peri-operative tranexamic acid (TXA) significantly reduces the need for allogeneic blood transfusion in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and thus hospital costs are reduced. Before employing TXA in primary THA at our institution, facility costs were $286.90/THA for blood transfusion and required 0.45 man-hours/THA (transfusion rate 19.87%). After incorporating TXA, the cost for intravenous application was $123.38/THA for blood transfusion and TXA medication and 0.07 man-hours/THA (transfusion rate 4.39%) and the cost for topical application was $132.41/THA for blood transfusion and TXA and 0.14 man-hours/THA (transfusion rate 12.86%). TXA has the potential to reduce the facility cost per THA and the man-hours/THA from blood transfusions. PMID:25534861

  7. Reduced food intake and body weight in mice treated with fatty acid synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Loftus, T M; Jaworsky, D E; Frehywot, G L; Townsend, C A; Ronnett, G V; Lane, M D; Kuhajda, F P

    2000-06-30

    With the escalation of obesity-related disease, there is great interest in defining the mechanisms that control appetite and body weight. We have identified a link between anabolic energy metabolism and appetite control. Both systemic and intracerebroventricular treatment of mice with fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitors (cerulenin and a synthetic compound C75) led to inhibition of feeding and dramatic weight loss. C75 inhibited expression of the prophagic signal neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus and acted in a leptin-independent manner that appears to be mediated by malonyl-coenzyme A. Thus, FAS may represent an important link in feeding regulation and may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:10875926

  8. Partial suckling of lambs reduced the linoleic and conjugated linoleic acid contents of marketable milk in Chios ewes.

    PubMed

    Tzamaloukas, O; Orford, M; Miltiadou, D; Papachristoforou, C

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of weaning systems applied in a commercial dairy sheep farm on the fatty acid (FA) composition of marketable milk produced. Forty second parity, purebred Chios ewes were allocated to the following weaning treatments: (a) ewes were weaned from their lambs at 48 h after birth and machine milked twice daily [no lambs (NL) group, n=20]; or, (b) starting 48 h postpartum, ewes were separated from their lambs for 12h during the evening, machine milked once daily the following morning, and lambs were allowed to suckle for 12 h during the day for the first 5 wk of lactation [partial suckling (PS) group, n=20]. After weaning of the PS lambs at wk 6 of age, all ewes were machine milked twice daily. Commercial milk yield and milk composition was recorded weekly (fat, protein, FA content) or fortnightly (somatic cell counts) throughout the first 10 wk of lactation. The PS ewes compared with NL group produced commercial milk lower in milk yield, milk fat, and somatic cell counts, but not in protein content during the first 5-wk period. Such differences were not observed after weaning of the PS lambs. The FA profile of commercial milk was also affected by partial suckling during the preweaning period. Total polyunsaturated FA were higher in NL compared with PS ewe milk at wk 1, 2, 4, and 5 (on average, 21% higher), whereas no differences were detected between NL and PS ewe milk from wk 6 to 10 of lactation. From the polyunsaturated FA, linoleic acid (C18:2 cis-9,cis-12) and conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2 cis-9,trans-11; rumenic acid) were particularly affected, showing on average a reduction of 18 and 38%, respectively. From the monounsaturated FA, vaccenic acid (C18:1 trans-11) was affected during wk 1 and 2 of the treatment period, with the PS ewe milk having reduced content compared with the NL milk. Other unsaturated FA, such as oleic acid and α-linolenic acid, or saturated FA were not found to be affected by the

  9. A mutant of the Arabidopsis thaliana TOC159 gene accumulates reduced levels of linolenic acid and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Afitlhile, Meshack; Workman, Samantha; Duffield, Kayla; Sprout, Danielle; Berhow, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that a mutant of Arabidopsis that lacks the Toc159 receptor is impaired in chloroplast biogenesis. The mutant is referred as plastid protein import 2 or ppi2 and has an albino phenotype due to its inability to import the photosynthetic proteins. In this study, we measured fatty acid composition and transcript levels of plastid-localized fatty acid desaturases in the wild type and ppi2 mutant. The objective was to evaluate whether the Toc159 receptor was critical in the import of lipid-synthesizing enzymes. The ppi2 mutant accumulated decreased levels of oleic acid (18:1) and α-linolenic acid (18:3). The mutant accumulated drastically reduced amounts of the chloroplast lipid monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), which contains more than 80% of 18:3. The expression of genes that encode stearoyl-ACP desaturase and MGD1 synthase were down-regulated in the ppi2 mutant, and this corresponded to decreased levels of 18:1 and MGDG, respectively. We conclude that in the ppi2 mutant the impaired synthesis of MGDG resulted in decreased amounts of 18:3. The mutant however, had a 30-fold increase in fad5 transcript levels; this increase was mirrored by a 16- to 50-fold accumulation of hexadecatrienoic acid (16:3), a fatty acid found exclusively in MGDG. Taken together, these data suggest that the Toc159 receptor is required in the import of stearoyl-ACP desaturase and MGD1 synthase into the chloroplasts. Since the expression of fad5 gene was up-regulated in the ppi2 mutant, we propose that fad5 desaturase is imported into plastids through the atToc132/atToc120 protein import pathway. PMID:24184455

  10. Seed-specific silencing of OsMRP5 reduces seed phytic acid and weight in rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Xu; Zhao, Hai-Jun; Pang, Wei-Qin; Cui, Hai-Rui; Poirier, Yves; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2014-08-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is poorly digested by humans and monogastric animals and negatively affects human/animal nutrition and the environment. Rice mutants with reduced PA content have been developed but are often associated with reduced seed weight and viability, lacking breeding value. In the present study, a new approach was explored to reduce seed PA while attaining competitive yield. The OsMRP5 gene, of which mutations are known to reduce seed PA as well as seed yield and viability, was down-regulated specifically in rice seeds by using an artificial microRNA driven by the rice seed specific promoter Ole18. Seed PA contents were reduced by 35.8-71.9% in brown rice grains of transgenic plants compared to their respective null plants (non-transgenic plants derived from the same event). No consistent significant differences of plant height or number of tillers per plant were observed, but significantly lower seed weights (up to 17.8% reduction) were detected in all transgenic lines compared to null plants, accompanied by reductions of seed germination and seedling emergence. It was observed that the silencing of the OsMRP5 gene increased the inorganic P (Pi) levels (up to 7.5 times) in amounts more than the reduction of PA-P in brown rice. This indicates a reduction in P content in other cellular compounds, such as lipids and nucleic acids, which may affect overall seed development. Put together, the present study demonstrated that seed specific silencing of OsMRP5 could significantly reduce the PA content and increase Pi levels in seeds; however, it also significantly lowers seed weight in rice. Discussions were made regarding future directions towards producing agronomically competitive and nutritionally valuable low PA rice. PMID:24648215

  11. Ergot alkaloids reduce rumen epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids have been shown to induce vasoconstriction of both peripheral and ruminal vessels. Constriction of ruminal vessels could lead to a reduction in epithelial blood flow thereby reducing nutrient absorption. The objectives of this experiment were to determine if steers receiving endophyt...

  12. Reactions of reducing and oxidizing radicals with caffeic acid:. a pulse radiolysis and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xifeng; Cai, Zhongli; Katsumura, Yosuke; Wu, Guozhong; Muroya, Yusa

    2001-01-01

    Molecular calculations coupled with pulse radiolysis studies are performed to understand the reactions of radicals with caffeic acid. From molecular calculation, we find that e aq- and ·OH tend to form adducts with caffeic acid, while N 3rad tends to abstract H from 4-hydroxyl group in benzene ring, generating a semi-quinoid radical. Based on comparison of the heat of formation, the most favorable radical attack sites and the most stable radical structures are predicted. The calculation results suggest that the stability of the electron adducts

  13. Efficacy of salicylic acid to reduce Penicillium expansum inoculum and preserve apple fruits.

    PubMed

    da Rocha Neto, Argus Cezar; Luiz, Caroline; Maraschin, Marcelo; Di Piero, Robson Marcelo

    2016-03-16

    Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide. Blue mold (Penicillium expansum) is one of the major diseases in apples postharvest, leading to wide use of fungicides and the search for alternative products to control the pathogen. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of salicylic acid (SA) as an alternative product to control blue mold and to preserve the physicochemical characteristics of apple fruit postharvest. The antimicrobial effect of SA was determined both in vitro and in situ, by directly exposing conidia to solutions of different concentrations SA or by inoculating the fruit with P. expansum and treating them curatively, eradicatively, or preventively with a 2.5mM SA solution. The physiological effects of SA on fruit were determined by quantifying the weight loss, total soluble solids content, and titratable acidity. In addition, the accumulation of SA in the fruit was determined by HPLC. SA (2.5mM) inhibited 100% of fungal germination in vitro and also controlled blue mold in situ when applied eradicatively. In addition, HPLC analysis demonstrated that SA did not persist in apple fruit. SA also maintained the physicochemical characteristics of fruit of different quality categories. Thus, SA may be an alternative to the commercial fungicides currently used against P. expansum. PMID:26808096

  14. [Rice straw and sewage sludge as carbon sources for sulfate-reducing bacteria treating acid mine drainage].

    PubMed

    Su, Yu; Wang, Jin; Peng, Shu-chuan; Yue, Zheng-bo; Chen, Tian-hu; Jin, Jie

    2010-08-01

    The performance of three organic carbon sources was assessed in terms of sulfate reduction and main metal removal, by using sewage sludge as the source of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and adding rice straw and ethanol with equal quantity. Results indicated that sewage sludge which contained certain amount of alkaline material could neutralize acidity of acid mine drainage(AMD) on the first day of experiment, elevating pH value from the initial 2.5 to around 5.4-6.3 and achieving suitable pH condition for SRB growth. Sewage sludge contained fewer biodegradable organic substance, reactive mixture with single sewage sludge showed the lowest sulfate reduction (65.9%). When the single sewage sludge was supplemented with rice straw, SRB reducing sulfate was enhanced (79.2%), because the degradation rate of rice straw was accelerated by the specific bacteria in sewage sludge, providing relatively abundant carbon source for SRB. Control experiment with ethanol was most effective in promoting sulfate reduction (97.9%). Metal removal efficiency in all three reactors was as high as 99% for copper, early copper removal was mainly attributed to the adsorption capacity of sewage sludge prior to SRB acclimation. It is feasible for using rice straw and sewage sludge as carbon sources for SRB treating acid mine drainage at a low cost, this may have significant implication for in situ bioremediation of mine environment. PMID:21090305

  15. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation alters proinflammatory gene expression and reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in a neonatal rat model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Jilling, Tamas; Li, Dan; Caplan, Michael S

    2007-04-01

    Although supplementation of preterm formula with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been shown to reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in animal models and clinical trials, the mechanisms remain elusive. We hypothesized that the protective effect of PUFA on NEC may be due to the ability of PUFA to suppress Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) gene expression (molecules that are important in the pathogenesis of NEC) in epithelial cells. To investigate the efficacy of different PUFA preparations on NEC in a neonatal rat model, we compared the incidence of NEC among the four PUFA supplemented groups--A: arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (AA+DHA), B: egg phospholipids (EP), C: DHA, and D: control without PUFA. PUFA supplementation reduced the incidence of NEC and inhibited intestinal PAFR and TLR4 gene expression compared with the controls. To validate the in vivo observations, IEC-6 cells were exposed to PAF after pretreatment with AA or DHA. Both AA and DHA supplementation blocked PAF-induced TLR4 and PAFR mRNA expression in these enterocytes. These results suggest that PUFA modulates gene expression of key factors involved in experimental NEC pathogenesis. These effects might in part explain the protective effect of PUFA on neonatal NEC. PMID:17515866

  16. Nitric acid passivation of Ti6Al4V reduces thickness of surface oxide layer and increases trace element release.

    PubMed

    Callen, B W; Lowenberg, B F; Lugowski, S; Sodhi, R N; Davies, J E

    1995-03-01

    Passivation of Ti6Al4V and cpTi implants using methods based on the ASTM-F86 nitric acid protocol are used with the intention of reducing their surface reactivity, and consequently the corrosion potential, in the highly corrosive biologic milieu. The ASTM-F86 passivation protocol was originally developed for surgical implants made of stainless steel and chrome cobalt alloy. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to examine the effect of nitric acid passivation on the surface oxide layer of mill-annealed Ti6Al4V and cpTi, we have found that such treatment actually reduced the oxide thickness on the alloy while having no significant effect on the pure metal. These results correlated with observations obtained using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS) to detect trace element release from solid, mill-annealed, Ti6Al4V and cpTi into serum-containing culture medium. We detected significantly greater levels of Ti, Al, and V in the presence of passivated compared to nonpassivated Ti6Al4V. In contrast, nitric acid passivation did not influence Ti release from mill-annealed cpTi. These results, derived from two mill-annealed Ti-based metals, would indicate that re-examination of ASTM-F86-based passivation protocols with respect to Ti6Al4V should be considered in view of the widespread use of this alloy for biomedical devices. PMID:7615579

  17. The nutraceutical potential of omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid in reducing the consequences of stroke.

    PubMed

    Blondeau, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a worldwide major cause of mortality and morbidity. Preclinical studies have identified over 1000 molecules with brain-protective properties. More than 200 clinical trials have evaluated neuroprotective candidates for ischemic stroke yet, to date almost all failed, leading to a re-analysis of treatment strategies against stroke. An emerging view is to seek combinatory therapy, or discovering molecules able to stimulate multiple protective and regenerative mechanisms. A pertinent experimental approach to identify such candidates is the study of brain preconditioning, which refers to how the brain protects itself against ischemia and others stress-inducing stimuli. The recent discovery that nutrients like alpha-linolenic acid (ALA is an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid required as part of our daily diet), may be an efficient brain preconditionner against stroke fosters the novel concept of brain preconditioning by nutraceuticals. This review stresses the underestimated role of nutrition in preventing and combating stroke. Although there is a consensus that increased consumption of salt, fatty foods and alcoholic beverages may promote pathologies like hypertension, obesity and alcoholism - all of which are well known risk factors of stroke - few risk factors are attributed to a deficiency in an essential nutrient in the diet. The ALA deficiency observed in the Western modern diets may itself constitute a risk factor. This review outlines how ALA supplementation by modification of the daily diet prevented mortality and cerebral damage in a rodent model of ischemic stroke. It also describes the pleiotropic ability of ALA to trigger responses that are multicellular, mechanistically diverse, resulting in neuronal protection, stimulation of neuroplasticity, and brain artery vasodilation. Overall, this review proposes a promising therapeutic opportunity by integrating a nutritional-based approach focusing on enriching the daily diet in ALA to prevent

  18. Climate warming is predicted to reduce omega-3, long-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acid production in phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Hixson, Stefanie M; Arts, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    Phytoplankton are the main source of energy and omega-3 (n-3) long-chain essential fatty acids (EFA) in aquatic ecosystems. Their growth and biochemical composition are affected by surrounding environmental conditions, including temperature, which continues to increase as a result of climate warming. Increasing water temperatures may negatively impact the production of EFA by phytoplankton through the process of homeoviscous adaptation. To investigate this, we conducted an exploratory data synthesis with 952 fatty acid (FA) profiles from six major groups of marine and freshwater phytoplankton. Temperature was strongly correlated with a decrease in the proportion of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated FA (LC-PUFA) and an increase in omega-6 FA and saturated FA. Based on linear regression models, we predict that global n-3 LC-PUFA production will be reduced by 8.2% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 27.8% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with an increase in water temperature of 2.5 °C. Using a previously published estimate of the global production of EPA by diatoms, which contribute to most of the world's supply of EPA, we predict a loss of 14.2 Mt of EPA annually as a result of ocean warming. The n-3 LC-PUFA are vitally important for an array of key physiological functions in aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and these FA are mainly produced by phytoplankton. Therefore, reduced production of these EFA, as a consequence of climate warming, is predicted to negatively affect species that depend on these compounds for optimum physiological function. Such profound changes in the biochemical composition of phytoplankton cell membranes can lead to cascading effects throughout the world's ecosystems. PMID:27070119

  19. Humic acids reduce the bioaccumulation and photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene to fish

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, J.E.; Oris, J.T.

    1999-09-01

    The effects of dissolved humic materials (DHM) on the photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene to juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were studied in single-treatment evaluations in a laboratory system under simulated sunlight (UV-A = 140.2 {+-} 2.6 {micro}W/cm{sup 2}, UV-B = 6.40 {+-} 0.21 {micro}W/cm{sup 2})(mean {+-} SE). Five concentrations of fluoranthene and five concentrations of DHM were achieved. The presence of DHM reduced the acute photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene. Regression analysis revealed that median lethal times (LT50) were directly related to DHM concentration and inversely related to fluoranthene water concentration. The presence of DHM also reduced fluoranthene bioaccumulation, and LT50 values were inversely related to fluoranthene body residues. These findings demonstrate that (1) the photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene is dependent on body residue and (2) site-specific environmental parameters that affect uptake and/or elimination can determine the rates of mortality due to photoinduced toxicity.

  20. Effectiveness of Hypochlorous Acid to Reduce the Biofilms on Titanium Alloy Surfaces in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Ju; Chen, Chun-Cheng; Ding, Shinn-Jyh

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents have been used as an adjunct to mechanical debridement for peri-implantitis treatment. The present in vitro study evaluated and compared the effectiveness of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and chlorhexidine (CHX) at eliminating Gram-negative (E. coli and P. gingivalis) and Gram-positive (E. faecalis and S. sanguinis) bacteria. The effect of irrigating volume and exposure time on the antimicrobial efficacy of HOCl was evaluated, and a durability analysis was completed. Live/dead staining, morphology observation, alamarBlue assay, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) detection were examined on grit-blasted and biofilm-contaminated titanium alloy discs after treatment with the three chemotherapeutic agents. The results indicated that HOCl exhibited better antibacterial efficacy with increasing irrigating volumes. HOCl achieved greater antibacterial efficacy as treatment time was increased. A decrease in antimicrobial effectiveness was observed when HOCl was unsealed and left in contact with the air. All the irrigants showed antibacterial activity and killed the majority of bacteria on the titanium alloy surfaces of biofilm-contaminated implants. Moreover, HOCl significantly lowered the LPS concentration of P. gingivalis when compared with NaOCl and CHX. Thus, a HOCl antiseptic may be effective for cleaning biofilm-contaminated implant surfaces. PMID:27447617

  1. Pachymic acid modified carbon nanoparticles reduced angiogenesis via inhibition of MMP-3

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Liu, Jun; Lu, Chun-Wei; Cai, Ding-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a process of new blood vessel generation, which is consistently and robustly correlated with tumor formation, growth, and metastasis. The disruption of angiogenesis, and the imbalanced endothelial remodeling and regression, are the main pathogenesis of malignant tumor. Recently, multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs) have been proposed as a new tool for drug delivery in cancer treatment, which also displayed anti-angiogenic property. In the present study, we modified MWNTs with pachymic acid (PA) extracted from Heterosmilax chinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine used for cancer treatment, and compared their effects on blood vessel development. MWNTs and PA/MWNTs were evaluated for their influences on chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) vessel morphology and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) expression, a crucial proteinase associated with tumor metastasis. MWNTs functioned as an inhibitor of forming branch while PA was not able to promote this inhibition. Subsequently, MWNTs suppressed the endothelial cell maturation, accounting for the ceased elongation of CAM blood vessel, while PA/MWNTs increased the suppressive effect, indicating the potential roles of PA in preventing angiogenesis. PA/MWNTs also showed greater anti-angiogenic property as MMP-3 expression in CAM tissue was significantly decreased by PA/MWNTs compared to MWNTs. These results emphasize the anti-angiogenic activities of PA, supporting a new promising therapy for cancer from the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:26191251

  2. Mechanically stable thermally crosslinked poly(acrylic acid)/reduced graphene oxide aerogels.

    PubMed

    Ha, Heonjoo; Shanmuganathan, Kadhiravan; Ellison, Christopher J

    2015-03-25

    Graphene oxide (GO) aerogels, high porosity (>99%) low density (∼3-10 mg cm(-3)) porous materials with GO pore walls, are particularly attractive due to their lightweight, high surface area, and potential use in environmental remediation, superhydrophobic and superoleophilic materials, energy storage, etc. However, pure GO aerogels are generally weak and delicate which complicates their handling and potentially limits their commercial implementation. The focus of this work was to synthesize highly elastic, mechanically stable aerogels that are robust and easy to handle without substantially sacrificing their high porosity or low density. To overcome this challenge, a small amount of readily available and thermally cross-linkable poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was intermixed with GO to enhance the mechanical integrity of the aerogel without disrupting other desirable characteristic properties. This method is a simple straightforward procedure that does not include multistep or complicated chemical reactions, and it produces aerogels with mass densities of about 4-6 mg cm(-3) and >99.6% porosity that can reversibly support up to 10,000 times their weight with full recovery of their original volume. Finally, pressure sensing capabilities were demonstrated and their oil absorption capacities were measured to be around 120 g oil per g aerogel(-1) which highlights their potential use in practical applications. PMID:25714662

  3. Reducing Pt use in the catalysts for formic acid electrooxidation via nanoengineered surface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Mengyin; Wang, Yulu; Chen, Guoqin; Zhou, Hua; Li, Yunhua; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Chen, Bing H.

    2014-07-01

    The design of active and durable catalysts for formic acid (FA) electrooxidation requires controlling the amount of three neighboring platinum atoms in the surface of Pt-based catalysts. Such requirement is studied by preparing Pt decorated Pd/C (donated as Pt-Pd/C) with various Pt:Pd molar ratios via galvanic displacement making the amount of three neighboring Pt atoms in the surface of Pt-Pd/C tunable. The decorated nanostructures are confirmed by XPS, HS-LEIS, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric measurements, demonstrating that Pt-Pd/C (the optimal molar ratio, Pt:Pd = 1:250) exhibits superior activity and durability than Pd/C and commercial Pt/C (J-M, 20%) catalysts for FA electrooxidation. The mass activity of Pt-Pd/C (Pt:Pd = 1:250) (3.91 A mg-1) is about 98 and 6 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C (0.04 A mg-1) and Pd/C (0.63 A mg-1) at a given potential of 0.1 V vs SCE, respectively. The controlled synthesis of Pt-Pd/C lead to the formation of largely discontinuous Pd and Pt sites and inhibition of CO formation, exhibiting unprecedented electrocatalytic performance toward FA electrooxidation while the cost of the catalyst almost the same as Pd/C. These findings have profound implications to the design and nanoengineering of decorated surfaces of catalysts for FA electrooxidation.

  4. Optimizing Techology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2004-01-31

    More than 56,000 coal quality data records from five public data sets have been selected for use in this project. These data will be used to create maps showing where coals with low mercury and acid-gas emissions might be found for power plants classified by air-pollution controls. Average coal quality values, calculated for 51,156 commercial coals by U.S. county-of-origin, are listed in the appendix. Coal moisture values are calculated for commercially shipped coal from 163 U.S. counties, where the raw assay data (including mercury and chlorine values) are reported on a dry basis. The calculated moisture values are verified by comparison with observed moisture values in commercial coal. Moisture in commercial U.S. coal shows provincial variation. For example, high volatile C bituminous rank coal from the Interior province has 3% to 4% more moisture than equivalent Rocky Mountain province coal. Mott-Spooner difference values are calculated for 4,957 data records for coals collected from coal mines and exploration drill holes. About 90% of the records have Mott-Spooner difference values within {+-}250 Btu/lb.

  5. A free nitrous acid (FNA)-based technology for reducing sludge production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Jiang, Guangming; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-07-01

    Sludge treatment and disposal is one of the major challenges for biological wastewater treatment plants and can represent up to 60% of their total operating costs. This study presents a novel strategy based on free nitrous acid (FNA or HNO2) treatment to achieve sludge reduction. Two sequencing batch reactors treating synthetic domestic wastewater were used, with one serving as an experimental reactor and the other as a control. In the experimental system, 50% of the excess sludge was exposed to FNA at 2.0 mg N/L for 24-42 h in an FNA treatment unit and then returned to the parent reactor. The sludge wastage flow from the experimental reactor was adjusted to obtain a similar mixed liquor suspended solids concentration to that in the control reactor, which was operated at a sludge retention time of 15 days. It was found that sludge production in the experimental system was 28% lower in comparison to the control. The addition of the FNA-treated sludge did not negatively affect the treatment performance and sludge properties of the experimental reactor, namely the organic carbon and nitrogen removal, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and sludge settleability. Endogenous denitrification batch tests indicate that FNA-treated sludge is available as a carbon source for denitrification. PMID:23726702

  6. Effectiveness of Hypochlorous Acid to Reduce the Biofilms on Titanium Alloy Surfaces in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Ju; Chen, Chun-Cheng; Ding, Shinn-Jyh

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents have been used as an adjunct to mechanical debridement for peri-implantitis treatment. The present in vitro study evaluated and compared the effectiveness of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and chlorhexidine (CHX) at eliminating Gram-negative (E. coli and P. gingivalis) and Gram-positive (E. faecalis and S. sanguinis) bacteria. The effect of irrigating volume and exposure time on the antimicrobial efficacy of HOCl was evaluated, and a durability analysis was completed. Live/dead staining, morphology observation, alamarBlue assay, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) detection were examined on grit-blasted and biofilm-contaminated titanium alloy discs after treatment with the three chemotherapeutic agents. The results indicated that HOCl exhibited better antibacterial efficacy with increasing irrigating volumes. HOCl achieved greater antibacterial efficacy as treatment time was increased. A decrease in antimicrobial effectiveness was observed when HOCl was unsealed and left in contact with the air. All the irrigants showed antibacterial activity and killed the majority of bacteria on the titanium alloy surfaces of biofilm-contaminated implants. Moreover, HOCl significantly lowered the LPS concentration of P. gingivalis when compared with NaOCl and CHX. Thus, a HOCl antiseptic may be effective for cleaning biofilm-contaminated implant surfaces. PMID:27447617

  7. Chronic administration of palmitoleic acid reduces insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation in KK-Ay Mice with genetic type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of palmitoleic acid (C16:1 n-7) on reducing muscle insulin resistance and preventing beta-cell apoptosis. However, the effect of palmitoleic acid on diabetes remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the antidiabetic effect of palmitoleic acid in KK-Ay mice, a spontaneous model for studies of obese type 2 diabetes with low insulin sensitivity. Methods KK-Ay mice were orally administered vehicle, 300 mg/kg of palmitoleic acid, or 300 mg/kg of palmitic acid (C16:0) on a daily basis for 4 weeks. Results Palmitoleic acid reduced body weight increase, ameliorated the development of hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia, and improved insulin sensitivity. In addition, hepatic characteristics were significantly affected, as weight of the liver and hepatic triglyceride levels were lower in the palmitoleic acid group when compared to the control (vehicle and palmitic acid groups). Oil red O staining clearly indicated reduced hepatic lipid accumulation in response to palmitoleic acid. Furthermore, palmitoleic acid down-regulated mRNA expressions of proinflammatory adipocytokine genes (TNFα and resistin) in white adipose tissue and lipogenic genes (SREBP-1, FAS, and SCD-1) in liver. Conclusions These results suggest that palmitoleic acid improves hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia by increasing insulin sensitivity, in part owing to suppressing proinflammatory gene expressions and improving hepatic lipid metabolism in diabetic mice. PMID:21774832

  8. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid reduces the invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells by modulating matrix metalloproteinases 7 and 13

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ga-Young; Han, Yu Kyeong; Han, Jeong Yoon; Lee, Chang Geun

    2016-01-01

    Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a conjugated form of UDCA that modulates several signaling pathways and acts as a chemical chaperone to relieve endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The present study showed that TUDCA reduced the invasion of the MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast cancer cell line under normoxic and hypoxic conditions using an in vitro invasion assay. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay revealed that the reduced invasion following TUDCA treatment was associated with a decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7 and −13, which play important roles in invasion and metastasis. Inhibitors and short hairpin RNAs were used to show that the effect of TUDCA in the reduction of invasion appeared to be dependent on the protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase pathway, a downstream ER stress signaling pathway. Thus, TUDCA is a candidate anti-metastatic agent to target the ER stress pathway. PMID:27602168

  9. Effect of reduced sulfur compounds on the fermentation of phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse by ethanologenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nieves, I U; Geddes, C C; Miller, E N; Mullinnix, M T; Hoffman, R W; Fu, Z; Tong, Z; Ingram, L O

    2011-04-01

    The addition of reduced sulfur compounds (thiosulfate, cysteine, sodium hydrosulfite, and sodium metabisulfite) increased growth and fermentation of dilute acid hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse by ethanologenic Escherichia coli (strains LY180, EMFR9, and MM160). With sodium metabisulfite (0.5mM), toxicity was sufficiently reduced that slurries of pretreated biomass (10% dry weight including fiber and solubles) could be fermented by E. coli strain MM160 without solid-liquid separation or cleanup of sugars. A 6-h liquefaction step was added to improve mixing. Sodium metabisulfite also caused spectral changes at wavelengths corresponding to furfural and soluble products from lignin. Glucose and cellobiose were rapidly metabolized. Xylose utilization was improved by sodium metabisulfite but remained incomplete after 144 h. The overall ethanol yield for this liquefaction plus simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process was 0.20 g ethanol/g bagasse dry weight, 250 L/tonne (61 gal/US ton). PMID:21353535

  10. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-01-31

    Revised maps and associated data show potential mercury, sulfur, and chlorine emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin. Existing coal mining and coal washing practices result in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hot-side ESP, cold-side ESP, or hot-side ESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cold-side ESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum net mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions.

  11. Awareness of folic acid use increases its consumption, and reduces the risk of spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Atsuo; Morota, Nobuhito; Date, Hiroaki; Yoshifuji, Kazuhisa; Morishima, Toshibumi; Miyazato, Minoru; Shirane, Reizo; Sakai, Hideki; Pooh, Kyong Hon; Watanabe, Tomoyuki

    2015-07-14

    The majority of neural tube defects were believed to be folic acid (FA)-preventable in the 1990s. The Japanese government recommended women planning pregnancy to take FA supplements of 400 μg/d in 2000, but the incidence of spina bifida has not decreased. We aimed to evaluate the OR of having an infant with spina bifida for women who periconceptionally took FA supplements and the association between an increase in supplement use and possible promoters for the increase. This is a case-control study which used 360 case women who gave birth to newborns afflicted with spina bifida, and 2333 control women who gave birth to healthy newborns during the first 12 years of this century. They were divided into two 6-year periods; from 2001 to 2006 and from 2007 to 2012. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to compute OR between cases and controls. The adjusted OR of having an infant with spina bifida for supplement users was 0.48 in the first period, and 0.53 in the second period. The proportion of women who periconceptionally consumed supplements significantly increased from 10 % in the first period to 30 % in the second period. Awareness of the preventive role of FA was a promoter for an increase in supplement use, and thus an FA campaign in high school seems rational and effective. The failure of the current public health policy is responsible for an epidemic of spina bifida. Mandatory food fortification with FA is urgent and long overdue in Japan. PMID:25999131

  12. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid Restores Estrogen Reduced-cTnI Expression in Neonatal Hearts of Mice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chang; Luo, Xiaomei; Xing, Qianlu; Sun, Huichao; Huang, Xupei

    2016-10-01

    Diastolic cardiac dysfunction can be caused by abnormality in cTnI expression during cardiogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of estrogen on the abnormal expression of cTnI in the hearts of neonatal mice and its potential epigenetic mechanisms. We then evaluated suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a HDAC inhibitor, as a new target treatment of diastolic cardiac dysfunction. Postnatal day 0.5 C57BL/6 mice were injected with estrogen for 1 week, then the hearts of 7-day-old neonatal mice were retrieved for examination. The activities of HDAC and HAT were assayed by colorimetry, and the interaction of cTnI with HDAC5 in mice hearts were examined using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. The expression of cTnI was tested by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. Estrogen treated groups displayed a significantly increased HDAC activity in the hearts of neonatal mice while HAT activity remained unchanged. Additionally, HDAC5 was higher at the cTnI promoter, as compared to the saline treated control groups. The acetylation of histone H3K9ac on cTnI promoter significantly decreased in the hearts of neonatal mice treated with estrogen, and the expression of cTnI at transcriptional and protein levels also decreased. SAHA was shown to increase the acetylation of histone H3K9ac and upregulate the expression of cTnI. The data demonstrated that SAHA can correct cTnI expression abnormality caused by estrogen through inhibiting the binding of HDAC5 to the promoter of cTnI. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2377-2384, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27379430

  13. Echinocystic acid reduces reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Han, Jing; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Feng, Bin; Deng, Ya-Ting; Wang, Xin-Shang; Yang, Qi; Zhao, Ming-Gao

    2016-04-01

    Chronic pain has consistently been correlated with depression. Echinocystic acid (EA), a natural triterpone enriched in various herbs and used for medicinal purpose in many Asian countries, exhibits anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. However, little is known the effects of EA on the depression. In present study, we investigated the anti-depression activities in the mouse model of reserpine-induced pain-depression dyad. Reserpine (1 mg/kg subcutaneously daily for 3 days) caused significant depression-like behaviors and pain sensation. Subsequent treatment of EA (5 mg/kg intragastrically daily for 5 days) attenuated the reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad as shown by the increase of pain threshold and the behaviors in forced swimming test, tail suspension test, and open field test. Furthermore, treatment of EA reversed the decrease of biogenic amines (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin) in the brain region of hippocampus, a structure involved in the formation of emotional disorders. Levels of serotonin receptor 5-HT1A were decreased and levels of 5-HT2A were increased in the reserpine-injected mice. Treatment of EA could restore the alterations of serotonin receptors. At the same time, the increase in GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors, p-GluA1-Ser831, PSD-95 and CaMKII were integrated with the increase in caspase-3 and iNOS levels in the hippocampus of the reserpine-injected mice. EA significantly reversed the changes of above proteins. However, EA did not affect the levels of GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors and the total levels of GluA1 and p-GluA1-Ser845. Our study provides strong evidence that EA attenuates reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad partially through regulating the biogenic amines levels and GluN2B receptors in the hippocampus. PMID:26729203

  14. Distinct nucleic acid interaction properties of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein precursor NCp15 explain reduced viral infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Naiyer, Nada; Mitra, Mithun; Li, Jialin; Williams, Mark C.; Rouzina, Ioulia; Gorelick, Robert J.; Wu, Zhengrong; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2014-01-01

    During human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) maturation, three different forms of nucleocapsid (NC) protein—NCp15 (p9 + p6), NCp9 (p7 + SP2) and NCp7—appear successively. A mutant virus expressing NCp15 shows greatly reduced infectivity. Mature NCp7 is a chaperone protein that facilitates remodeling of nucleic acids (NAs) during reverse transcription. To understand the strict requirement for NCp15 processing, we compared the chaperone function of the three forms of NC. NCp15 anneals tRNA to the primer-binding site at a similar rate as NCp7, whereas NCp9 is the most efficient annealing protein. Assays to measure NA destabilization show a similar trend. Dynamic light scattering studies reveal that NCp15 forms much smaller aggregates relative to those formed by NCp7 and NCp9. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies suggest that the acidic p6 domain of HIV-1 NCp15 folds back and interacts with the basic zinc fingers. Neutralizing the acidic residues in p6 improves the annealing and aggregation activity of NCp15 to the level of NCp9 and increases the protein–NA aggregate size. Slower NCp15 dissociation kinetics is observed by single-molecule DNA stretching, consistent with the formation of electrostatic inter-protein contacts, which likely contribute to the distinct aggregate morphology, irregular HIV-1 core formation and non-infectious virus. PMID:24813443

  15. Reactivity of partially reduced arylhydroxylamine and nitrosoarene metabolites of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) toward biomass and humic acids.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farrukh; Hughes, Joseph B

    2002-10-15

    Sequential anaerobic/aerobic treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) generally results in the incorporation of residues into biomass and natural organic matter fractions of a system. To better understand the potential contribution of hydroxylamine and nitroso moieties in these reactions, studies were conducted using model systems taking advantage of the biocatalytic-activity of Clostridium acetobutylicum that does not produce aminated TNT derivatives. To evaluate binding to biomass only, systems containing cell-free extracts of C. acetobutylicum and molecular hydrogen as a reductant were employed. At the end of treatment, mass balance studies showed that 10% of the total 14C was associated with an insoluble protein-containing precipitate that could not be extracted with organic solvents. Model reactions were conducted between a mixture of 2,4-dihydroxylamino-6-nitrotoluene (DHA6NT) and 4-hydroxylamino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4HADNT) and 1-thioglycerol to test the involvement of the nitroso-thiol reaction in binding to biomass. It was demonstrated that DHA6NT formed a new and relatively polar product with 1-thioglycerol only in the presence of oxygen. The oxygen requirement confirmed that the nitroso functionality was responsible for the binding reaction. The reactivity of arylhydroxylamino and nitrosoarene functionalities toward International Humic Substance Society (IHSS) peat humic acid was evaluated under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. 4HADNT showed no appreciable reactivity toward peat humic acid. Conversely, the nitrosoarene compound, nitrosobenzene, showed rapid reactivity with peat humic acid (50% removal in 48 h). When tested with two other humic acids (selected on the basis of their protein content), it became apparent that the proteinaceous fraction was responsible at least in part for the nitrosoarene's removal from solution. Furthermore, the pretreatment of the humic acids with a selective thiol derivatizing agent had a considerable effect

  16. Treatments with acetic acid followed by curing reduce postharvest decay on Citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Venditti, T; Angiolino, C; Dore, A; Molinu, M G; Petretto, A; D'Hallewin, G

    2009-01-01

    Citrus fruit are susceptible to many postharvest diseases and disorders, but Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum are the most common and serious pathogens during storage and marketing. The continuous employ in packing houses of synthetic fungicides such as imazalil (IMZ) or thiabendazote for the control of these pathogens is promoting the selection of resistant biotypes. These considerations together with an increased attention for human health and the environment have multiplied the studies on new ecological technologies. In recent years researchers studies focused on alternatives to the chemical control of post-harvest decay, such as the utilization of GRAS compounds as well as physical methods. In the present study is reported the sequential use of acetic acid (AAC) followed by curing. The lemon variety "Verna" and the orange variety "Jaffa", naturally inoculated, were treated with vapours of AAC performed at three different concentration (15, 25 and 50 microL/L) for 15 minutes, after an incubation period of 24 hours at 27 degrees C and 90% relative humidity (RH). After treatments fruits were cured at 36 degrees C for 36 hours with 90% RH and subsequently stored at 8 degrees C and 90% of RH for eight weeks. Both citrus varieties were also treated with IMZ at a concentration of 200 mL/HL. At the end of the experiment decay and weight loss were evaluated. After 8 weeks of storage, in the lemon variety, the lowest percentage of infected wounds was 1.5% for both the fruit treated with IMZ or with AAC at 25 microL/L. Fruit treated with 15 mciroL/L or untreated (control) showed similar results with 13.6% and 16.6% of rotted fruit respectively. Different results were obtained with the orange variety, in this case the synthetic fungicide was the most effective at the end of the storage period, with 18.0% of decay. AAC treatments were not a successful as on lemons, the best result was achieved even in this case with AAC performed at 25 pL/L, but with 39.9% of

  17. Isohumulones, bitter acids derived from hops, activate both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma and reduce insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Hiroaki; Ikeshima, Emiko; Shiraki, Maho; Kanaya, Tomoka; Fujiwara, Daisuke; Odai, Hideharu; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Ezaki, Osamu; Oikawa, Shinichi; Kondo, Keiji

    2004-08-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are dietary lipid sensors that regulate fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism. The hypolipidemic effects of fibrate drugs and the therapeutic benefits of the thiazolidinedione drugs are due to their activation of PPARalpha and -gamma, respectively. In this study, isohumulones, the bitter compounds derived from hops that are present in beer, were found to activate PPARalpha and -gamma in transient co-transfection studies. Among the three major isohumulone homologs, isohumulone and isocohumulone were found to activate PPARalpha and -gamma. Diabetic KK-Ay mice that were treated with isohumulones (isohumulone and isocohumulone) showed reduced plasma glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels (65.3, 62.6, and 73.1%, respectively, for isohumulone); similar reductions were found following treatment with the thiazolidinedione drug, pioglitazone. Isohumulone treatment did not result in significant body weight gain, although pioglitazone treatment did increase body weight (10.6% increase versus control group). C57BL/6N mice fed a high fat diet that were treated with isohumulones showed improved glucose tolerance and reduced insulin resistance. Furthermore, these animals showed increased liver fatty acid oxidation and a decrease in size and an increase in apoptosis of their hypertrophic adipocytes. A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study for studying the effect of isohumulones on diabetes suggested that isohumulones significantly decreased blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels after 8 weeks (by 10.1 and 6.4%, respectively, versus week 0). These results suggest that isohumulones can improve insulin sensitivity in high fat diet-fed mice with insulin resistance and in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:15178687

  18. Palmitic Acid Reduces Circulating Bone Formation Markers in Obese Animals and Impairs Osteoblast Activity via C16-Ceramide Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Alsahli, Ahmad; Kiefhaber, Kathryn; Gold, Tziporah; Muluke, Munira; Jiang, Hongfeng; Cremers, Serge; Schulze-Späte, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    Obesity and impaired lipid metabolism increase circulating and local fatty acid (FA) levels. Our previous studies showed that a high high-saturated -fat diet induced greater bone loss in mice than a high high-unsaturated-fat diet due to increased osteoclast numbers and activity. The impact of elevated FA levels on osteoblasts is not yet clear. We induced obesity in 4 week old male mice using a palmitic acid (PA)- or oleic acid (OA)-enriched high fat high-fat diet (HFD) (20 % of calories from FA), and compared them to mice on a normal (R) caloric diet (10 % of calories from FA). We collected serum to determine FA and bone metabolism marker levels. Primary osteoblasts were isolated; cultured in PA, OA, or control (C) medium; and assessed for mineralization activity, gene expression, and ceramide levels. Obese animals in the PA and OA groups had significantly lower serum levels of bone formation markers P1NP and OC compared to normal weight animals (*p < 0.001), with the lowest marker levels in animals on an PA-enriched HFD (*p < 0.001). Accordingly, elevated levels of PA significantly reduced osteoblast mineralization activity in vitro (*p < 0.05). Elevated PA intake significantly increased C16 ceramide accumulation. This accumulation was preventable through inhibition of SPT2 (serine palmitoyl transferase 2) using myriocin. Elevated levels of PA reduce osteoblast function in vitro and bone formation markers in vivo. Our findings suggest that saturated PA can compromise bone health by affecting osteoblasts, and identify a potential mechanism through which obesity promotes bone loss. PMID:26758875

  19. Reduced prefrontal dopaminergic activity in valproic acid-treated mouse autism model.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yuta; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Takano, Erika; Katashiba, Keisuke; Taruta, Atsuki; Higashino, Kosuke; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Ago, Yukio; Matsuda, Toshio

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that dysfunction of neurotransmitter systems is associated with the pathology of autism in humans and the disease model rodents, but the precise mechanism is not known. Rodent offspring exposed prenatally to VPA shows autism-related behavioral abnormalities. The present study examined the effect of prenatal VPA exposure on brain monoamine neurotransmitter systems in male and female mice. The prenatal VPA exposure did not affect the levels of dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites in the prefrontal cortex and striatum, while it significantly reduced methamphetamine (METH) (1.0 mg/kg)-induced hyperlocomotion in male offspring. In vivo microdialysis study demonstrated that prenatal VPA exposure attenuated METH-induced increases in extracellular DA levels in the prefrontal cortex, while it did not affect those in extracellular NA and 5-HT levels. Prenatal VPA exposure also decreased METH-induced c-Fos expression in the prefrontal cortex and the mRNA levels of DA D1 and D2 receptors in the prefrontal cortex. These effects of VPA were not observed in the striatum. In contrast to male offspring, prenatal VPA exposure did not affect METH-induced increases in locomotor activity and prefrontal DA levels and the D1 and D2 receptor mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex in female offspring. These findings suggest that prenatal VPA exposure causes hypofunction of prefrontal DA system in a sex-dependent way. PMID:25907743

  20. Effect of reduced dietary protein and supplementation with a docosahexaenoic acid product on broiler performance and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, T; Lordelo, M M; Costa, P; Alves, S P; Benevides, W S; Bessa, R J B; Lemos, J P C; Pinto, R M A; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A; Prates, J A M

    2014-01-01

    1. Chicken breast meat is a lean meat due to its low content of intramuscular fat (IMF) resulting in an overall lower acceptability by consumers due to a decrease in juiciness, flavour and increased chewiness. Recently, studies performed in pigs suggested the possibility of increasing IMF by decreasing dietary crude protein (CP) content, an effect possibly mediated through an increased lipogenesis. 2. Dietary supplementation with lipids rich in omega 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) may modulate an increase in the content of these fatty acids in meat from monogastric animals and, thus, promote the daily intake of n-3 LC-PUFA by humans. 3. LC-PUFA are very susceptible to oxidation, resulting in off-flavours that affect meat quality and consumers' acceptability. 4. This trial was conducted to assess the effect of reducing dietary CP, from 21% to 17%, on chicken's meat IMF content and, simultaneously, to evaluate if a complementary supplementation with a proprietary n-3 LC-PUFA source (DHA Gold™) could improve meat quality. These effects were assessed by measuring productive performance and meat quality, oxidative stability, sensory traits and fatty acid profile. 5. A reduction in CP content of broiler diets, from 21% to 17%, balanced for lysine, improved performance while it was not sufficient to increase IMF content in chicken meat. In contrast, DHA Gold™ supplementation had a positive impact both in broiler productive parameters and in meat fatty acid profile. 6. In addition, incorporation of 7.4% of DHA Gold™ in the diet promoted carcass yield but negatively affected chicken meat acceptability by consumers, due to a decrease of meat oxidative stability. 7. Overall the data suggest that neither a dietary supplementation with DHA Gold™ nor a reduction in CP have a direct positive effect in the levels of IMF present in broiler meat. PMID:25277689

  1. Increased Biomass Yield of Lactococcus lactis by Reduced Overconsumption of Amino Acids and Increased Catalytic Activities of Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Seiman, Andrus; Vilu, Raivo

    2012-01-01

    Steady state cultivation and multidimensional data analysis (metabolic fluxes, absolute proteome, and transcriptome) are used to identify parameters that control the increase in biomass yield of Lactococcus lactis from 0.10 to 0.12 C-mol C-mol−1 with an increase in specific growth rate by 5 times from 0.1 to 0.5 h−1. Reorganization of amino acid consumption was expressed by the inactivation of the arginine deiminase pathway at a specific growth rate of 0.35 h−1 followed by reduced over-consumption of pyruvate directed amino acids (asparagine, serine, threonine, alanine and cysteine) until almost all consumed amino acids were used only for protein synthesis at maximal specific growth rate. This balanced growth was characterized by a high glycolytic flux carrying up to 87% of the carbon flow and only amino acids that relate to nucleotide synthesis (glutamine, serine and asparagine) were consumed in higher amounts than required for cellular protein synthesis. Changes in the proteome were minor (mainly increase in the translation apparatus). Instead, the apparent catalytic activities of enzymes and ribosomes increased by 3.5 times (0.1 vs 0.5 h−1). The apparent catalytic activities of glycolytic enzymes and ribosomal proteins were seen to follow this regulation pattern while those of enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism increased more than the specific growth rate (over 5.5 times). Nucleotide synthesis formed the most abundant biomonomer synthetic pathway in the cells with an expenditure of 6% from the total ATP required for biosynthesis. Due to the increase in apparent catalytic activity, ribosome translation was more efficient at higher growth rates as evidenced by a decrease of protein to mRNA ratios. All these effects resulted in a 30% decrease of calculated ATP spilling (0.1 vs 0.5 h−1). Our results show that bioprocesses can be made more efficient (using a balanced metabolism) by varying the growth conditions. PMID:23133574

  2. Sensitive electrochemical sensors for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine, and uric acid based on Au@Pd-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingjing; Du, Xuezhong

    2014-10-01

    Sensitive electrochemical sensors were fabricated with reduced graphene oxide-supported Au@Pd (Au@Pd-RGO) nanocomposites by one-step synthesis for individual and simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) with low detection limits and wide concentration ranges. From the Au@Pd-RGO-modified electrodes, well-separated oxidation peaks and enhanced peak currents of AA, DA, and UA were observed owing to the superior conductivity of RGO and the excellent catalytic activity of Au@Pd nanoparticles. For individual detection, the linear responses of AA, DA, and UA were in the concentration ranges of 0.1-1000, 0.01-100, and 0.02-500 μM with detection limits of 0.02, 0.002, and 0.005 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. For simultaneous detection by synchronous change of the concentrations of AA, DA, and UA, the linear response ranges were 1-800, 0.1-100, and 0.1-350 μM with detection limits of 0.28, 0.024, and 0.02 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. The fabricated sensors were further applied to the detection of AA, DA, and UA in urine samples. The Au@Pd-RGO nanocomposites have promising applications in highly sensitive and selective electrochemical sensing. PMID:25137352

  3. Anti-diabetic effect of 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, an endoplasmic reticulum stress-reducing chemical chaperone.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun-Mi; Choi, Jungsook; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Ku, Jin-Mo; Jeong, Kwiwan

    2016-05-15

    Lots of experimental and clinical evidences indicate that chronic exposure to saturated fatty acids and high level of glucose is implicated in insulin resistance, beta cell failure and ultimately type 2 diabetes. In this study, we set up cell-based experimental conditions to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and insulin resistance using high concentration of palmitate (PA). Hydroxynaphthoic acids (HNAs) were formerly identified as novel chemical chaperones to resolve ER stress induced by tunicamycin. In this study, we found the compounds have the same suppressive effect on PA-induced ER stress in HepG2 cells. The representing compound, 3-HNA reduced PA-induced phosphorylation of JNK, IKKβ and IRS1 (S307) and restored insulin signaling cascade which involves insulin receptor β, IRS1 and Akt. The insulin sensitizing effect of 3-HNA was confirmed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, where the compound augmented insulin signaling and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) membrane translocation. 3-HNA also protected the pancreatic beta cells from PA-induced apoptosis by reducing ER stress. Upon 3-HNA treatment to ob/ob mice at 150mg/kg/day dosage, the diabetic parameters including glucose tolerance and systemic insulin sensitivity were significantly improved. Postmortem examination showed that 3-HNA markedly reduced ER stress and insulin resistance in the liver tissues and it sensitized insulin signaling in the liver and the skeletal muscle. Our results demonstrated that 3-HNA can sensitize insulin signaling by coping with lipotoxicity-induced ER stress as a chemical chaperone and suggested it holds therapeutic potential for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26983645

  4. Performance and microbial community dynamics of a sulfate-reducing bioreactor treating coal generated acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Burns, Andrew S; Pugh, Charles W; Segid, Yosief T; Behum, Paul T; Lefticariu, Liliana; Bender, Kelly S

    2012-06-01

    The effectiveness of a passive flow sulfate-reducing bioreactor processing acid mine drainage (AMD) generated from an abandoned coal mine in Southern Illinois was evaluated using geochemical and microbial community analysis 10 months post bioreactor construction. The results indicated that the treatment system was successful in both raising the pH of the AMD from 3.09 to 6.56 and in lowering the total iron level by 95.9%. While sulfate levels did decrease by 67.4%, the level post treatment (1153 mg/l) remained above recommended drinking water levels. Stimulation of biological sulfate reduction was indicated by a +2.60‰ increase in δ(34)S content of the remaining sulfate in the water post-treatment. Bacterial community analysis targeting 16S rRNA and dsrAB genes indicated that the pre-treated samples were dominated by bacteria related to iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, while the post-treated water directly from the reactor outflow was dominated by sequences related to sulfur-oxidizing Epsilonproteobacteria and complex carbon degrading Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phylums. Analysis of the post-treated water, prior to environmental release, revealed that the community shifted back to predominantly iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria. DsrA analysis implied limited diversity in the sulfate-reducing population present in both the bioreactor outflow and oxidation pond samples. These results support the use of passive flow bioreactors to lower the acidity, metal, and sulfate levels present in the AMD at the Tab-Simco mine, but suggest modifications of the system are necessary to both stimulate sulfate-reducing bacteria and inhibit sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:22083105

  5. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  6. Phenolic acids inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end products in food simulation systems depending on their reducing powers and structures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hengye; Virk, Muhammad Safiullah; Chen, Fusheng

    2016-06-01

    The concentration of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in foods, which are formed by Maillard reaction, has demonstrated as risk factors associated with many chronic diseases. The AGEs inhibitory activities of five common phenolic acids (protocatechuic acid, dihydroferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and salicylic acid) with different chemical properties had been investigated in two food simulation systems (glucose-bovine serum albumin (BSA) and oleic acid-BSA). The results substantiated that the AGEs inhibitory abilities of phenolic acids in the oleic acid BSA system were much better than the glucose-BSA system for their strong reducing powers and structures. Among them, dihydrogenferulic acid showed strong inhibition of AGEs formation in oleic acid-BSA system at 0.01 mg/mL compared to nonsignificant AGEs inhibitory effect in oleic acid-BSA system at 10-fold higher concentration (0.1 mg/mL). This study suggests that edible plants rich in phenolic acids may be used as AGEs inhibitor during high-fat cooking. PMID:27102241

  7. Competitive Oxidation of Volatile Fatty Acids by Sulfate- and Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria from an Oil Field in Argentina▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Grigoryan, Aleksandr A.; Cornish, Sabrina L.; Buziak, Brenton; Lin, Shiping; Cavallaro, Adriana; Arensdorf, Joseph J.; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    Acetate, propionate, and butyrate, collectively referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFA), are considered among the most important electron donors for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) in oil fields. Samples obtained from a field in the Neuquén Basin, western Argentina, had significant activity of mesophilic SRB, hNRB, and nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). In microcosms, containing VFA (3 mM each) and excess sulfate, SRB first used propionate and butyrate for the production of acetate, which reached concentrations of up to 12 mM prior to being used as an electron donor for sulfate reduction. In contrast, hNRB used all three organic acids with similar kinetics, while reducing nitrate to nitrite and nitrogen. Transient inhibition of VFA-utilizing SRB was observed with 0.5 mM nitrite and permanent inhibition with concentrations of 1 mM or more. The addition of nitrate to medium flowing into an upflow, packed-bed bioreactor with an established VFA-oxidizing SRB consortium led to a spike of nitrite up to 3 mM. The nitrite-mediated inhibition of SRB led, in turn, to the transient accumulation of up to 13 mM of acetate. The complete utilization of nitrate and the incomplete utilization of VFA, especially propionate, and sulfate indicated that SRB remained partially inhibited. Hence, in addition to lower sulfide concentrations, an increase in the concentration of acetate in the presence of sulfate in waters produced from an oil field subjected to nitrate injection may indicate whether the treatment is successful. The microbial community composition in the bioreactor, as determined by culturing and culture-independent techniques, indicated shifts with an increasing fraction of nitrate. With VFA and sulfate, the SRB genera Desulfobotulus, Desulfotignum, and Desulfobacter as well as the sulfur-reducing Desulfuromonas and the NR-SOB Arcobacter were detected. With VFA and nitrate, Pseudomonas spp. were

  8. All-trans retinoic acid reduces membrane fluidity of human dermal fibroblasts. Assessment by fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching.

    PubMed Central

    Varani, J.; Burmeister, W.; Bleavins, M. R.; Johnson, K.

    1996-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (RA) preserves human dermal fibroblast viability and stimulates proliferation in vitro. These effects are mediated, at least in part, by reducing the extracellular Ca2+ requirement. The same concentrations of RA that reduce the extracellular Ca2+ requirement also interrupt movement of Ca 2+ across the fibroblast plasma membrane. Based on these observations, we have examined the effects of RA on membrane properties that could influence Ca2+ movement. Fibroblasts were labeled with 1-acyl-2-(N-4- nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3 diazole)-amino-caproyl phosphatidyl-choline (a fluorescent phospholipid analogue) and examined for fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching (FRAP) with a pulse of intense light as a measure of membrane fluidity. Using this approach, we observed that membrane fluidity was higher when the cells were incubated in medium containing a low (sub-optimal) level of extracellular Ca2+ (0.15 mmol/L) than in a medium containing an optimal concentration (1.4 mmol/L). Treatment of the cells with 3 micromol/L RA reduced membrane fluidity of the cells under both high- and low-Ca2+ conditions. These findings demonstrate that RA has a direct effect on the plasma membrane of human dermal fibroblasts. This provides a possible mechanism for the previously identified inhibition of Ca2+ movement across the membrane of the same cells and for the previously identified protective effects against lysis under low-Ca2+ conditions. PMID:8644871

  9. Reduction of Cr(VI) under acidic conditions by the facultative Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Acidiphilium cryptum

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Cummings; Scott Fendorf; Rajesh K. Sani; Brent M. Peyton; Timothy S. Magnuson

    2007-01-01

    The potential for biological reduction of Cr(VI) under acidic conditions was evaluated with the acidophilic, facultatively metal-reducing bacterium Acidiphilium cryptum strain JF-5 to explore the role of acidophilic microorganisms in the Cr cycle in low-pH environments. An anaerobic suspension of washed A. cryptum cells rapidly reduced 50 M Cr(VI) at pH 3.2; biological reduction was detected from pH 1.7-4.7. The reduction product, confirmed by XANES analysis, was entirely Cr(III) that was associated predominantly with the cell biomass (70-80%) with the residual residing in the aqueous phase. Reduction of Cr(VI) showed a pH optimum similar to that for growth and was inhibited by 5 mM HgCl2, suggesting that the reaction was enzyme-mediated. Introduction of O2 into the reaction medium slowed the reduction rate only slightly, whereas soluble Fe(III) (as ferric sulfate) increased the rate dramatically, presumably by the shuttling of electrons from bioreduced Fe(II) to Cr(VI) in a coupled biotic-abiotic cycle. Starved cells could not reduce Cr(VI) when provided as sole electron acceptor, indicating that Cr(VI) reduction is not an energy-conserving process in A. cryptum. We speculate, rather, that Cr(VI) reduction is used here as a detoxification mechanism.

  10. Involvement of aberrant DNA methylation on reduced expression of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1 gene in rat tumor cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi . E-mail: ttujiuch@life.kindai.ac.jp; Shimizu, Kyoko; Onishi, Mariko; Sugata, Eriko; Fujii, Hiromasa; Mori, Toshio; Honoki, Kanya; Fukushima, Nobuyuki

    2006-10-27

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive phospholipid that stimulates cell proliferation, migration, and protects cells from apoptosis. It interacts with specific G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors. Recently, it has been reported that alterations of LPA receptor expression might be important in the malignant transformation of tumor cells. Therefore, to assess an involvement of DNA methylation in reduced expression of the LPA receptor-1 (lpa1) gene, we investigated the expression of the lpa1 gene and its DNA methylation patterns in rat tumor cell lines. Both rat brain-derived neuroblastoma B103 and liver-derived hepatoma RH7777 cells used in this study indicated no expression of lpa1. For the analysis of methylation status, bisulfite sequencing was performed with B103 and RH7777 cells, comparing with other lpa1 expressed cells and normal tissues of brain and liver. The lpa1 expressed cells and tissues were all unmethylated in this region of lpa1. In contrast, both B103 and RH7777 cells were highly methylated, correlating with reduced expression of the lpa1. Treatment with 5-aza 2'-deoxycytidine induced expression of lpa1 gene in B103 and RH7777 cells after 24 h. In RH7777 cells treated with 5-aza 2'-deoxycytidine, stress fiber formation was also observed in response to LPA in RH7777 cells, but not in untreated RH7777 cells. These results suggest that aberrant DNA methylation of the lpa1 gene may be involved in its reduced expression in rat tumor cells.

  11. The omega-3 fatty acid DHA dose-dependently reduces atherosclerosis: a putative role for F4-neuroprostanes a specific class of peroxidized metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective. Consumption of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease but the role of their oxygenated metabolites remains unclear. We hypothesized that peroxidized metabolites of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) could play a role in ...

  12. Caprylic acid reduces Salmonella Enteritidis populations in various segments of digestive tract and internal organs of three- and six-week-old broiler chickens, therapeutically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic acid, a natural, 8-carbon fatty acid for reducing Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in commercial broiler chickens. In two separate 3- and 6-wk trials, day-old straight run (N=70 per trial), chicks were assigned to 5 treatment groups ...

  13. Managing potential drug-drug interactions between gastric acid-reducing agents and antiretroviral therapy: experience from a large HIV-positive cohort.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J M; Stott, K E; Monnery, D; Seden, K; Beeching, N J; Chaponda, M; Khoo, S; Beadsworth, M B J

    2016-02-01

    Drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral therapy and other drugs are well described. Gastric acid-reducing agents are one such class. However, few data exist regarding the frequency of and indications for prescription, nor risk assessment in the setting of an HIV cohort receiving antiretroviral therapy. To assess prevalence of prescription of gastric acid-reducing agents and drug-drug interaction within a UK HIV cohort, we reviewed patient records for the whole cohort, assessing demographic data, frequency and reason for prescription of gastric acid-reducing therapy. Furthermore, we noted potential drug-drug interaction and whether risk had been documented and mitigated. Of 701 patients on antiretroviral therapy, 67 (9.6%) were prescribed gastric acid-reducing therapy. Of these, the majority (59/67 [88.1%]) were prescribed proton pump inhibitors. We identified four potential drug-drug interactions, which were appropriately managed by temporally separating the administration of gastric acid-reducing agent and antiretroviral therapy, and all four of these patients remained virally suppressed. Gastric acid-reducing therapy, in particular proton pump inhibitor therapy, appears common in patients prescribed antiretroviral therapy. Whilst there remains a paucity of published data, our findings are comparable to those in other European cohorts. Pharmacovigilance of drug-drug interactions in HIV-positive patients is vital. Education of patients and staff, and accurate data-gathering tools, will enhance patient safety. PMID:25721922

  14. Weekly iron and folic acid supplementation as a tool to reduce anemia among primary school children in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Longfils, Philippe; Heang, Ung Kim; Soeng, Hay; Sinuon, Muth

    2005-12-01

    The prevalence of anemia decreased from 62% to 12% and from 57% to 26% in children 5 to 11 years of age in two rural primary schools in Kampot Province, Cambodia, after oral weekly supplementation with iron-folic acid tablets for 20 weeks and with vitamin A and mebendazole twice per year. In 12- to 15-year-old children, success was less marked. The prevalence of hookworm infestation did not change, but the number of eggs in the stool decreased drastically. The intervention had no significant influence on stunting and wasting. An integrated community approach including mass deworming, health education, and multi-micronutrient supplementation was very effective in reducing anemia in Cambodian schoolchildren and should be adopted on a larger scale. PMID:16466090

  15. Exogenous malic and acetic acids reduce cadmium phytotoxicity and enhance cadmium accumulation in roots of sunflower plants.

    PubMed

    Hawrylak-Nowak, Barbara; Dresler, Sławomir; Matraszek, Renata

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing evidence showing that low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) are involved in heavy metal resistance mechanisms in plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous malic (MA) or acetic (AA) acids on the toxicity and accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). For this purpose, plants were grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions. Single Cd stress (5 μM Cd for 14 days) induced strong phytotoxic effects, as indicated by a decrease in all growth parameters, concentration of photosynthetic pigments, and root activity, as well as a high level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation. Exogenous MA or AA (250 or 500 μM) applied to the Cd-containing medium enhanced the accumulation of Cd by the roots and limited Cd translocation to the shoots. Moreover, the MA or AA applied more or less reduced Cd phytotoxicity by increasing the growth parameters, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, decreasing accumulation of H2O2, and improving the root activity. Of the studied organic acids, MA was much more efficient in mitigation of Cd toxicity than AA, probably by its antioxidant effects, which were stronger than those of AA. Plant response to Cd involved decreased production of endogenous LMWOA, probably as a consequence of severe Cd toxicity. The addition of MA or AA to the medium increased endogenous accumulation of LMWOA, especially in the roots, which could be beneficial for plant metabolism. These results imply that especially MA may be involved in the processes of Cd uptake, translocation, and tolerance in plants. PMID:26115548

  16. Increased fatty acid β-oxidation as a possible mechanism for fat-reducing effect of betaine in broilers.

    PubMed

    Leng, Zhixian; Fu, Qin; Yang, Xue; Ding, Liren; Wen, Chao; Zhou, Yanmin

    2016-08-01

    Two hundred and forty 1-day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chickens were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments with six replicates of eight chickens per replicate cage for a 42-day feeding trial. Broiler chickens were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 250, 500, 750 or 1000 mg/kg betaine, respectively. Growth performance was not affected by betaine. Incremental levels of betaine decreased the absolute and relative weight of abdominal fat (linear P < 0.05, quadratic P < 0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) (linear P < 0.05), and increased concentration of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) (linear P = 0.038, quadratic P = 0.003) in serum of broilers. Moreover, incremental levels of betaine increased linearly (P < 0.05) the proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), the carnitine palmitoyl transferase-I (CPT-I) and 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HADH) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, but decreased linearly (P < 0.05) the fatty acid synthase (FAS) and 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMGR) mRNA expression in liver of broilers. In conclusion, this study indicated that betaine supplementation did not affect growth performance of broilers, but was effective in reducing abdominal fat deposition in a dose-dependent manner, which was probably caused by combinations of a decrease in fatty acid synthesis and an increase in β-oxidation. PMID:27071487

  17. Increased Hepatic Fatty Acids Uptake and Oxidation by LRPPRC-Driven Oxidative Phosphorylation Reduces Blood Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shi; Sun, Run-zhu; Wang, Di; Gong, Mei-zhen; Su, Xiang-ping; Yi, Fei; Peng, Zheng-wu

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of leucine rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC)-driven hepatic oxidative phoshorylation on blood lipid levels. The hepatic LRPPRC level was modulated by liver-specific transgenic or adeno-associated virus 8 carried shRNA targeting Lrpprc (aav-shLrpprc). Mice were fed with a high fat diet to induce obesity. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and / or western blot. The hepatic ATP level, hepatic and serum lipids contents, and mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) complex activities were measured using specific assay kits. The uptake and oxidation of fatty acid by hepatocytes were assessed using 14C-palmitate. LRPPRC regulated the expression of genes encoded by mitochondrial genome but not those by nuclear genome involved in mitochondria biogenesis, OxPhos, and lipid metabolism. Increased OxPhos in liver mediated by LRPPRC resulted in the increase of hepatic ATP level. Lrpprc promoted palmitate uptake and oxidation by hypatocytes. The hepatic and serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the hepatic LRPPRC level. These data demonstrated that LRPPRC-driven hepatic OxPhos could promote fatty acids uptake and oxidation by hepatocytes and reduce both hepatic and circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels. PMID:27462273

  18. Increased Hepatic Fatty Acids Uptake and Oxidation by LRPPRC-Driven Oxidative Phosphorylation Reduces Blood Lipid Levels.

    PubMed

    Lei, Shi; Sun, Run-Zhu; Wang, Di; Gong, Mei-Zhen; Su, Xiang-Ping; Yi, Fei; Peng, Zheng-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of leucine rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC)-driven hepatic oxidative phoshorylation on blood lipid levels. The hepatic LRPPRC level was modulated by liver-specific transgenic or adeno-associated virus 8 carried shRNA targeting Lrpprc (aav-shLrpprc). Mice were fed with a high fat diet to induce obesity. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and / or western blot. The hepatic ATP level, hepatic and serum lipids contents, and mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) complex activities were measured using specific assay kits. The uptake and oxidation of fatty acid by hepatocytes were assessed using (14)C-palmitate. LRPPRC regulated the expression of genes encoded by mitochondrial genome but not those by nuclear genome involved in mitochondria biogenesis, OxPhos, and lipid metabolism. Increased OxPhos in liver mediated by LRPPRC resulted in the increase of hepatic ATP level. Lrpprc promoted palmitate uptake and oxidation by hypatocytes. The hepatic and serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the hepatic LRPPRC level. These data demonstrated that LRPPRC-driven hepatic OxPhos could promote fatty acids uptake and oxidation by hepatocytes and reduce both hepatic and circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels. PMID:27462273

  19. Metabolic enrichment of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids does not reduce the onset of idiopathic knee osteoarthritis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Angela; Hutchison, Erin; Hudson, Joanna; Kawashima, Yusuke; Komori, Naoka; Singh, Anil; Brush, Richard S.; Anderson, Robert E.; Sonntag, William E.; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Griffin, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the effect of a reduction in the systemic ratio of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on changes in inflammation, glucose metabolism, and the idiopathic development of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in mice. We hypothesized that a lower ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFAs would protect against OA markers in cartilage and synovium, but not bone. Design Male and female fat-1 transgenic mice (Fat-1), which convert dietary n-6 to n-3 PUFAs endogenously, and their wild-type (WT) littermates were fed an n-6 PUFA enriched diet for 9-14 months. The effect of gender and genotype on serum PUFAs, IL-6, TNF-α, and glucose tolerance was tested by 2-factor analysis of variance. Cortical and trabecular subchondral bone changes were documented by micro-focal computed tomography, and knee OA was assessed by semi-quantitative histomorphometry grading. Results The n-6:n-3 ratio was reduced 12-fold and 7-fold in male and female Fat-1 mice, respectively, compared to WT littermates. IL-6 and TNF-α levels were reduced modestly in Fat-1 mice. However, these systemic changes did not reduce osteophyte development, synovial hyperplasia, or cartilage degeneration. Also the fat-1 transgene did not alter subchondral cortical or trabecular bone morphology or bone mineral density. Conclusions Reducing the systemic n-6:n-3 ratio does not slow idiopathic changes in cartilage, synovium, or bone associated with early-stage knee OA in mice. The anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects of n-3 PUFAs previously reported for cartilage may be more evident at later stages of disease or in post-traumatic and other inflammatory models of OA. PMID:25008209

  20. Tranexamic Acid Reduces Hidden Blood Loss in Patients Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Comparative Study and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guang-Ping; Jia, Xu-Feng; Xiang, Zhou; Ji, Yong; Wu, Guo-Yong; Tang, Yi; Li, Jian; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background To explore the efficacy of tranexamic acid (TXA) on reducing hidden blood loss (HBL) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) by conducting a comparative study and meta-analysis. Material/Methods A total of 108 patients underwent TKA was equally distributed to experimental and control groups. The only difference between two groups was the administrations of 15 mg of TXA mixed in 100 mL normal saline for experimental group and 100 mL of normal saline for control group. The volumes of blood loss, red blood loss (RBL) were recorded, calculated and analyzed. Stata 12.0 software was applied for data analysis. Results The intraoperative and postoperative blood loss volume in experimental group were remarkably reduced compared with those in control group (intraoperative: 105.1±12.1 mL vs. 185.5±20.3 mL, P<0.001; postoperative: 220.7±16.8 mL vs. 290.5±22.4 mL, P<0.001). Accordingly, the control group had significantly higher transfusion rate than experimental group (3.7% vs.25.9%, P=0.001). Our results also found that both the measured and hidden RBL were obviously reduced in experimental group compared with control group (measured RBL: 96.9±11.8 mL vs. 135.2±13.5 mL, P<0.001; hidden RBL: 170.8±37.2 mL vs. 364.2±41.5 mL, P<0.001). Furthermore, meta-analysis confirmed that TXA can notably decrease HBL (SMD=2.68, 95%CI=1.55~3.80, P<0.001). Conclusions TXA can significantly reduce the intraoperative and postoperative blood loss and HBL, therefore decreasing the transfusion need in TKA. PMID:26961597

  1. Ascorbic Acid Reduces the Adverse Effects of Delayed Administration of Tissue Plasminogen Activator in a Rat Stroke Model.

    PubMed

    Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Amin, Fatemeh; Esmaeeli-Nadimi, Ali; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Kazemi-Arababadi, Mohammad; Kennedy, Derek

    2015-11-01

    Delayed treatment of stroke with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) induces overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) which leads to breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and causes more injuries to the brain parenchyma. In this study, the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), an antioxidant agent, on the delayed administration of r-tPA in a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was investigated. Forty male rats were randomly divided into four groups: untreated control rats (ischaemic animals), AA-treated (500 mg/kg; 5 hr after stroke) rats, r-tPA-treated (5 hr after stroke 1 mg/kg) rats and rats treated with the combination of AA and r-tPA. Middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced by occluding the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). Infarct size, BBB, brain oedema and the levels of MMP-9 were measured at the end of study. Neurological deficits were evaluated at 24 and 48 hr after stroke. Compared to the control or r-tPA-treated animals, AA alone (p < 0.001) or in combination with r-tPA (p < 0.05) significantly decreased infarct volume. Ascorbic acid alone or r-tPA + AA significantly reduced BBB permeability (p < 0.05), levels of MMP-9 (p < 0.05 versus control; p < 0.01 versus r-tPA) and brain oedema (p < 0.001) when compared to either the control or the r-tPA-treated animals. Latency to the removal of sticky labels from the forepaw was also significantly decreased after the administration of AA + r-tPA (p < 0.05) at 24 or 48 hr after stroke. Based on our data, acute treatment with AA may be considered as a useful candidate to reduce the side effects of delayed application of r-tPA in stroke therapy. PMID:25899606

  2. Retinoic acid induces nuclear FAK translocation and reduces breast cancer cell adhesion through Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Angel Matías; Shortrede, Jorge Eduardo; Vargas-Roig, Laura María; Flamini, Marina Inés

    2016-07-15

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, with metastases being the cause of death in 98%. In previous works we have demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA), the main retinoic acid receptor (RAR) ligand, is involved in the metastatic process by inhibiting migration through a reduced expression of the specific migration-related proteins Moesin, c-Src, and FAK. At present, our hypothesis is that RA also acts for short periods in a non-genomic action to cooperate with motility reduction and morphology of breast cancer cells. Here we identify that the administration of 10(-6) M RA (10-20 min) induces the activation of the migration-related proteins Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin in T-47D breast cancer cells. The phosphorylation exerted by the selective agonists for RARα and RARβ, on Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin was comparable to the activation exerted by RA. The RARγ agonist only led to a weak activation, suggesting the involvement of RARα and RARβ in this pathway. We then treated the cells with different inhibitors that are involved in cell signaling to regulate the mechanisms of cell motility. RA failed to activate Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin in cells treated with Src inhibitor (PP2) and PI3K inhibitor (WM), suggesting the participation of Src-PI3K in this pathway. Treatment with 10(-6) M RA for 20 min significantly decreased cell adhesion. However, when cells were treated with 10(-6) M RA and FAK inhibitor, the RA did not significantly inhibit adhesion, suggesting a role of FAK in the adhesion inhibited by RA. By immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analysis we demonstrated that RA induced nuclear FAK translocation leading to a reduced cellular adhesion. These findings provide new information on the actions of RA for short periods. RA participates in cell adhesion and subsequent migration, modulating the relocation and activation of proteins involved in cell migration. PMID:27130522

  3. Sensitive electrochemical sensors for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine, and uric acid based on Au@Pd-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Du, Xuezhong

    2014-09-01

    Sensitive electrochemical sensors were fabricated with reduced graphene oxide-supported Au@Pd (Au@Pd-RGO) nanocomposites by one-step synthesis for individual and simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) with low detection limits and wide concentration ranges. From the Au@Pd-RGO-modified electrodes, well-separated oxidation peaks and enhanced peak currents of AA, DA, and UA were observed owing to the superior conductivity of RGO and the excellent catalytic activity of Au@Pd nanoparticles. For individual detection, the linear responses of AA, DA, and UA were in the concentration ranges of 0.1-1000, 0.01-100, and 0.02-500 μM with detection limits of 0.02, 0.002, and 0.005 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. For simultaneous detection by synchronous change of the concentrations of AA, DA, and UA, the linear response ranges were 1-800, 0.1-100, and 0.1-350 μM with detection limits of 0.28, 0.024, and 0.02 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. The fabricated sensors were further applied to the detection of AA, DA, and UA in urine samples. The Au@Pd-RGO nanocomposites have promising applications in highly sensitive and selective electrochemical sensing.Sensitive electrochemical sensors were fabricated with reduced graphene oxide-supported Au@Pd (Au@Pd-RGO) nanocomposites by one-step synthesis for individual and simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) with low detection limits and wide concentration ranges. From the Au@Pd-RGO-modified electrodes, well-separated oxidation peaks and enhanced peak currents of AA, DA, and UA were observed owing to the superior conductivity of RGO and the excellent catalytic activity of Au@Pd nanoparticles. For individual detection, the linear responses of AA, DA, and UA were in the concentration ranges of 0.1-1000, 0.01-100, and 0.02-500 μM with detection limits of 0.02, 0.002, and 0.005 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. For simultaneous detection by synchronous change of the

  4. Simultaneous determination of alpha-lipoic acid and its reduced form by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Soichiro; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa; Fukushima, Takeshi; Inagaki, Shinsuke

    2007-07-01

    The simultaneous determination of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and DHLA (reduced form of LA) was carried out by HPLC with fluorescence detection. DHLA in the sample was first labeled with ABD-F at room temperature for 10 min and then the LA was labeled with SBD-F at 50 degrees C for 1 h after conversion to DHLA using the reducing agent, TCEP. The resulting fluorophores, ABD-DHLA and SBD-DHLA, were separated by reversed-phase chromatography and detected at 510 nm (excitation at 380 nm). Both fluorophors were completely separated without any interference of endogenous thiols and disulfides in the sample and sensitively detected by fluorimetry. The proposed method was applied to the assay of the LA supplement and the determination in human plasma after the oral administration of LA tablets. The concentration (%) of LA in the tablet was reasonable to the stated amount. Furthermore, the result of a time course study in the plasma after the administration of LA did not differ from a previous report. Thus, the present method seems to be applicable to the simultaneous determination of LA and DHLA in various biological specimens. PMID:17462965

  5. Monounsaturated fatty acids reduce the barrier of stratum corneum lipid membranes by enhancing the formation of a hexagonal lateral packing.

    PubMed

    Mojumdar, Enamul H; Helder, Richard W J; Gooris, Gert S; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2014-06-10

    The effectiveness of the skin barrier underlies the outer layer of the skin: the stratum corneum (SC). However, in several skin diseases this barrier is impaired. In two inflammatory skin diseases, atopic eczema and Netherton syndrome, an increased level of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) has been observed as opposed to healthy skin. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of MUFAs on the lipid organization and skin lipid barrier using an in vitro model membrane system, the stratum corneum substitute (SCS), mimicking the SC lipid composition and organization. To achieve our goal, the SCS has been prepared with increasing levels of MUFAs using various chain length. Permeation studies and trans-epidermal water loss measurements show that an increment of MUFAs reduces the lipid barrier in the SCS. The increased level of unsaturation exerts its effect by reducing the packing density in the lipid organization, while the lamellar phases are not affected. Our findings indicate that increased levels of MUFAs may contribute to the impaired skin barrier in diseased skin. PMID:24818519

  6. Betulinic acid delivered in liposomes reduces growth of human lung and colon cancers in mice without causing systemic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mullauer, Franziska B; van Bloois, Louis; Daalhuisen, Joost B; Ten Brink, Marieke S; Storm, Gert; Medema, Jan Paul; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Kessler, Jan H

    2011-03-01

    Betulinic acid (BetA) is a plant-derived pentacyclic triterpenoid with potent anticancer capacity that targets the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. BetA has a broad efficacy in vitro against prevalent cancer types, including lung, colorectal, prostate, cervix and breast cancer, melanomas, neuroblastomas, and leukemias. The cytotoxic effects of the compound against healthy cells are minimal, rendering BetA a promising potential anticancer drug. However, because of the weak hydrosolubility of BetA, it has been difficult to study its efficacy in vivo and a pharmaceutical formulation is not yet available. We report the development of a liposome formulation of BetA and show its successful application in mice. Large liposomes, assembled without cholesterol to reduce their rigidity, efficiently incorporated BetA. Nude mice xenografted with human colon and lung cancer tumors were treated intravenously with the BetA-containing liposomes. Tumor growth was reduced to more than 50% compared with the control treatment, leading to an enhanced survival of the mice. Oral administration of the liposomal formulation of BetA also slowed tumor growth. Any signs of systemic toxicity caused by BetA treatment were absent. Thus, liposomes are an efficient formulation vehicle for BetA, enabling its preclinical development as a nontoxic compound for the treatment of cancers. PMID:21263311

  7. High serum levels of proinflammatory markers during epileptogenesis. Can omega-3 fatty acid administration reduce this process?

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Telma Luciana Furtado; Vieira de Sousa, Paula Viviane; de Almeida, Sandro Soares; Nejm, Mariana Bocca; Vieira de Brito, Joíse Marques; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo; de Brito, Marlon Vilela; Salu, Bruno Ramos; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Scorza, Fúlvio Alexandre; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, Maria da Graça

    2015-10-01

    During the epileptogenic process, several events may occur, such as an important activation of the immune system in the central nervous system. The response to seizure activity results in an inflammation in the brain as well as in the periphery. Moreover, CRP and cytokines may be able to interact with numerous ligands in response to cardiac injury caused by sympathetic stimulation in ictal and postictal states. Based on this, we measured the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and cytokines during acute, silent, and chronic phases of rats submitted to the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. We have also analyzed the effect of a chronic treatment of these rats with omega-3 fatty acid in CRP and cytokine levels, during an epileptic focus generation. C-reactive protein and cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α presented high concentration in the blood of rats, even well after the occurrence of SE. We found reduced levels of CRP and all proinflammatory cytokines in the blood of animals with chronic seizures, treated with omega-3, when compared with those treated with vehicle solution. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the omega-3 is an effective treatment to prevent SUDEP occurrence due to its capability to act as an anti-inflammatory compound, reducing the systemic inflammatory parameters altered by seizures. PMID:26318793

  8. Gibberellic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation and expression of IRT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao Fang; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Zhi Wei; Lei, Gui Jie; Shi, Yuan Zhi; Li, Gui Xin; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2012-11-15

    Gibberellic acid (GA) is involved in not only plant growth and development but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here it was found that treating the plants with GA concentrations from 0.1 to 5 μM for 24 h had no obvious effect on root elongation in the absence of cadmium (Cd), whereas in the presence of Cd2+, GA at 5 μM improved root growth, reduced Cd content and lipid peroxidation in the roots, indicating that GA can partially alleviate Cd toxicity. Cd2+ increased nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in the roots, but GA remarkably reduced it, and suppressed the up-regulation of the expression of IRT1. In contrary, the beneficial effect of GA on alleviating Cd toxicity was not observed in an IRT1 knock-out mutant irt1, suggesting the involvement of IRT1 in Cd2+ absorption. Furthermore, the GA-induced reduction of NO and Cd content can also be partially reversed by the application of a NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione [GSNO]). Taken all these together, the results showed that GA-alleviated Cd toxicity is mediated through the reduction of the Cd-dependent NO accumulation and expression of Cd2+ uptake related gene-IRT1 in Arabidopsis. PMID:23021314

  9. Administration of Tranexamic Acid Reduces Postoperative Blood Loss in Calcaneal Fractures: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bing; Tian, Jing; Zhou, Da-peng

    2015-01-01

    The present randomized controlled trial was undertaken to evaluate the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) on reducing postoperative blood loss in calcaneal fractures. A total of 90 patients with a unilateral closed calcaneal fracture were randomized to the TXA (n = 45) and control (n = 45) groups. The corresponding groups received 15 mg/kg body weight of TXA or placebo (0.9% sodium chloride solution) intravenously before the skin incision was made. Open reduction and internal fixation was performed for all patients and selective bone grafting was performed. The patients were examined 3 months after surgery. The intraoperative and postoperative blood loss, blood test results, and wound complications were compared between the 2 groups. The complications of TXA were also investigated. No statistically significant differences were found in the baseline characteristics between the TXA and control groups. Also, no significant difference was noted in the intraoperative blood loss between the 2 groups. However, in the TXA group, the postoperative blood loss during the first 24 hours was significantly lower than that in the control group (110.0 ± 160.0 mL versus 320.0 ± 360.0 mL; p < .001). The incidence of wound complications was also reduced compared with that in the control group (7.3% versus 23.8%; p = .036). No significant difference was found in the incidence of thromboembolic events or adverse drug reactions between the 2 groups. We concluded that preoperative single-dose TXA can effectively reduce postoperative blood loss and wound complications in patients with calcaneal fractures and that no significant side effects developed compared with the control group. PMID:26310621

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid reduces ER stress and abnormal protein accumulation and improves neuronal function following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Begum, Gulnaz; Yan, Hong Q; Li, Liaoliao; Singh, Amneet; Dixon, C Edward; Sun, Dandan

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the development of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the efficacy of post-TBI administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in reducing ER stress. TBI was induced by cortical contusion injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. Either DHA (16 mg/kg in DMSO) or vehicle DMSO (1 ml/kg) was administered intraperitoneally at 5 min after TBI, followed by a daily dose for 3-21 d. TBI triggered sustained expression of the ER stress marker proteins including phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor-2α, activating transcription factor 4, inositol requiring kinase 1, and C/EBP homologous protein in the ipsilateral cortex at 3-21 d after TBI. The prolonged ER stress was accompanied with an accumulation of abnormal ubiquitin aggregates and increased expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and phosphorylated tau (p-Tau) in the frontal cortex after TBI. The ER stress marker proteins were colocalized with APP accumulation in the soma. Interestingly, administration of DHA attenuated all ER stress marker proteins and reduced the accumulation of both ubiquitinated proteins and APP/p-Tau proteins. In addition, the DHA-treated animals exhibited early recovery of their sensorimotor function after TBI. In summary, our study demonstrated that TBI induces a prolonged ER stress, which is positively correlated with abnormal APP accumulation. The sustained ER stress may play a role in chronic neuronal damage after TBI. Our findings illustrate that post-TBI administration of DHA has therapeutic potentials in reducing ER stress, abnormal protein accumulation, and neurological deficits. PMID:24599472

  11. Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid reduces retinal angiogenesis in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Lulli, Matteo; Cammalleri, Maurizio; Fornaciari, Irene; Casini, Giovanni; Dal Monte, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    Retinal diseases characterized by pathologic retinal angiogenesis are the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Although therapies directed toward vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) represent a significant step forward in the treatment of proliferative retinopathies, further improvements are needed. In the last few years, an intense research activity has focused around the use of herbal and traditional natural medicines as an alternative for slowing down the progression of proliferative retinopathies. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic effects of acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), one of the active principles derived from the plant Boswellia serrata, used in Ayurvedic systems of medicine. We studied the antiangiogenic properties of AKBA using the mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), which mimics the neovascular response seen in human retinopathy of prematurity. We first evaluated the effects of subcutaneously administered AKBA on the expression/activity of proteins which are known to play a role in the OIR model. In the retina, AKBA increased expression and activity of Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 and reduced the phosphorylation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) as well as VEGF expression and VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2 phosphorylation. Likely as a result of these effects, AKBA significantly reduced retinal neovascularization in OIR mice without affecting retinal cell survival and retinal function. Using retinal explants cultured in hypoxia and an activator of STAT3 phosphorylation, we showed that the AKBA-induced inhibition of VEGFR-2 phosphorylation is likely to be mediated by a mechanism depending on an SHP-1/STAT3/VEGF axis. In the OIR model, neovascularization results from the activation of retinal endothelial cells, therefore we evaluated whether AKBA affected the angiogenic response of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs

  12. A high-fat, high-oleic diet, but not a high-fat, saturated diet, reduces hepatic alpha-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid content in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerable research centers upon the role of linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2n6) as a competitive inhibitor of a-linolenic (ALA; 18:3n3) metabolism; however, little data exist as to the impact of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) on ALA metabolism. We tested the hypothesi...

  13. Novel long chain fatty acid derivatives of quercetin-3-O-glucoside reduce cytotoxicity induced by cigarette smoke toxicants in human fetal lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Warnakulasuriya, Sumudu N; Ziaullah; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2016-06-15

    Smoking has become a global health concern due to its association with many disease conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer. Flavonoids are plant polyphenolic compounds, studied extensively for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) is a flavonoid which is widely found in plants. Six novel long chain fatty acid [stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] derivatives of Q3G were evaluated for their potential in protecting human lung fibroblasts against cytotoxicity induced by selected cigarette smoke toxicants: 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridinyl)-1-butanone (NNK), benzo-α-pyrene (BaP), nicotine and chromium (Cr[VI]). Nicotine and Cr[VI] induced toxicity in fibroblasts and reduced the percentage of viable cells, while BaP and NNK did not affect cell viability. The fatty acid derivatives of Q3G provided protection against nicotine- and Cr[VI]-induced cell death and membrane lipid peroxidation. Based on the evaluation of inflammatory markers of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the fatty acid derivatives of Q3G were found to be effective in lowering the inflammatory response. Overall, these novel fatty acid esters of Q3G warrant further investigation as potential cytoprotective agents. PMID:27071958

  14. The xanthine oxidase inhibitor Febuxostat reduces tissue uric acid content and inhibits injury-induced inflammation in the liver and lung.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Yang, Ke; Rock, Kenneth L

    2015-01-01

    Necrotic cell death in vivo induces a robust neutrophilic inflammatory response and the resulting inflammation can cause further tissue damage and disease. Dying cells induce this inflammation by releasing pro-inflammatory intracellular components, one of which is uric acid. Cells contain high levels of intracellular uric acid, which is produced when purines are oxidized by the enzyme xanthine oxidase. Here we test whether a non-nucleoside xanthine oxidase inhibitor, Febuxostat (FBX), can reduce intracellular uric acid levels and inhibit cell death-induced inflammation in two different murine tissue injury models; acid-induced acute lung injury and acetaminophen liver injury. Infiltration of inflammatory cells induced by acid injection into lungs or peritoneal administration of acetaminophen was evaluated by quantification with flow cytometry and tissue myeloperoxidase activity in the presence or absence of FBX treatment. Uric acid levels in serum and tissue were measured before giving the stimuli and during inflammation. The impact of FBX treatment on the peritoneal inflammation caused by the microbial stimulus, zymosan, was also analyzed to see whether FBX had a broad anti-inflammatory effect. We found that FBX reduced uric acid levels in acid-injured lung tissue and inhibited acute pulmonary inflammation triggered by lung injury. Similarly, FBX reduced uric acid levels in the liver and inhibited inflammation in response to acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury. In contrast, FBX did not reduce inflammation to zymosan, and therefore is not acting as a general anti-inflammatory agent. These results point to the potential of using agents like FBX to treat cell death-induced inflammation. PMID:25449036

  15. Photoresponsive fluorescent reduced graphene oxide by spiropyran conjugated hyaluronic acid for in vivo imaging and target delivery.

    PubMed

    Nahain, Abdullah-Al; Lee, Jung-Eun; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Park, Sung Young

    2013-11-11

    This present article demonstrates the strategy to prepare photoresponsive reduced graphene oxide with mussel inspired adhesive material dopamine (DN) and photochromic dye spiropyran (SP) conjugated to the backbone of the targeting ligand hyaluronic acid (HA; HA-SP). Graphene oxide (GO) was reduced by prepared HA-SP accepting the advantages of catechol chemistry under mildly alkaline condition enabling to achieve functionalized graphene (rGO/HA-SP) as fluorescent nanoparticles. Due to containing HA, rGO/HA-SP can bind to the CD44 cell receptors. The prepared rGO/HA-SP is able to retain its photochromic features and can be converted to merocyanine (MC) form upon irradiation with UV light (wavelength: 365 nm) displaying purple color. Photochromic behavior of rGO/HA-SP was monitored by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. In vitro fluorescence behavior, examined by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), of rGO/HA-SP in cancerous A549 cell lines assured that efficient delivery of rGO/HA-SP was gained due to HA as targeting ligand. In this work, we have shown that in vivo fluorescence image of spiropyran is possible by administrating MC form solution of rGO/HA-SP using Balb/C mice as in vivo modal. Accumulation of rGO/HA-SP in tumor tissue from biodistribution analysis strongly supports the specific delivery of prepared graphene to the target destination. The well tuned drug release manner from the surface of rGO/HA-SP strongly recommends the developed material not only as fluorescent probe for diagnosis but also as a drug carrier in drug delivery system. PMID:24106989

  16. Liposome encapsulated all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has enhanced immunomodulatory and inflammation reducing activities in mice model.

    PubMed

    Grace, V M Berlin; Siddikuzzaman; Rimashree, B

    2015-01-01

    The all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is found to have a promising regulatory effect on immune system and inflammatory responses in experimental research. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether this therapeutic efficiency of ATRA could be enhanced by encapsulating into a liposome formulation composed of Distearoyl-L-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) and cholesterol utilizing a well-established mice model. The humoral antibody titer (HA), delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), bone marrow cellularity, hematology, and levels of α- esterase-positive cells, were taken as parameters to assess the level of immunomodulation in the sheep red blood cells (SRBC) immunized and challenged BALB/c mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of encapsulated ATRA was evaluated by the size changes in the induced inflammation edema in the mice paw as well as its histopathology. The results showed a significant immunostimulatory effect for both the free and encapsulated ATRA as indicated by the increase in the levels of total leukocyte, bone marrow and α-esterase positive cells and decreased Hb level respectively. We have also observed an enhanced specific antibody hemagglutinin titre value and the DTH response developed in response to SRBC challenge in these treatments. Both the immunostimulatory as well as inflammation reducing property were significantly higher in encapsulated ATRA treated group of mice over that of in free ATRA treated group of mice. Based on these results, we conclude that the encapsulated ATRA has a higher potency over free ATRA in its immunomodulatory activity and also has a significant impact on reducing inflammation in BALB/c mice model. PMID:25594892

  17. Dietary methionine and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio reduce adverse effects of infectious bursal disease in broilers.

    PubMed

    Maroufyan, E; Kasim, A; Ebrahimi, M; Loh, T C; Hair-Bejo, M; Soleimani, A F

    2012-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio on immune response and performance of infectious bursal disease (IBD)-challenged broiler chickens. In total, 350 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 1 of the 6 dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were 3 n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios (45, 5.5, and 1.5) and 2 levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendation). The results showed that birds fed with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 had higher BW, lower feed intake, and superior FCR than other groups. However, the highest antibody response was observed in birds with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 1.5. Lowering n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio reduced bursa lesion score equally in birds fed with n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 and 1.5. Supplementation of methionine by twice the recommendation also improved FCR and reduced feed intake and bursa lesion score. However, in this study, the optimum performance (as measured by BW, feed intake, and FCR) did not coincide with the optimum immune response (as measured by antibody titer). It seems that dietary n-3 PUFA modulates the broiler chicken performance and immune response in a dose-dependent but nonlinear manner. Therefore, it can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (5.5) and methionine level (twice recommendation) might enhance immune response together with performance in IBD-challenged broiler chickens. PMID:22912451

  18. Medium-chain triglycerides and conjugated linoleic acids in beverage form increase satiety and reduce food intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Hannah; Quinn, Paul; Clegg, Miriam E

    2016-06-01

    Both developed and developing countries are seeing increasing trends of obesity in people young and old. It is thought that satiety may play a role in the prevention of obesity by increasing satiety and reducing energy intake. We hypothesized that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) would increase satiety and decrease food intake compared with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and a control oil. Nineteen healthy participants were tested on 3 separate occasions, where they consumed a beverage test breakfast containing (1) vegetable oil (control), (2) CLA, or (3) MCT. Participants self-requested an ad libitum sandwich buffet lunch. Time between meals, satiety from visual analog scales, energy intake at lunch, and intake for the rest of the day using weighed food diaries were measured. The results indicated that the time until a meal request was significantly different between the 3 meals (P=.016); however, there were no differences in intakes at the ad libitum lunch (P>.05). The CLA breakfast generated the greatest delay in meal time request. There was a difference between the control lipid compared with both the CLA and MCT for energy intake over the remainder of the test day and for total energy intake on the test day (P<.001 for both), with the CLA and MCT resulting in a lower intake than the control throughout the day. There were no significant differences in satiety from visual analog scale scores (P>.05). Both CLA and MCT increased satiety and reduced energy intake, indicating a potential role in aiding the maintenance of energy balance. PMID:27188898

  19. The contribution of sulphate reducing bacteria and 5-aminosalicylic acid to faecal sulphide in patients with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Pitcher, M; Beatty, E; Cummings, J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Butyrate oxidation within the colonocyte is selectively inhibited by hydrogen sulphide, reproducing the metabolic lesion observed in active ulcerative colitis.
AIMS—To study generation of hydrogen sulphide by sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and the effects of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in patients with ulcerative colitis in order to identify a role of this noxious agent in pathogenesis.
PATIENTS—Fresh faeces were obtained from 37 patients with ulcerative colitis (23 with active disease) and 16 healthy controls.
METHODS—SRB were enumerated from fresh faecal slurries and measurements made of sulphate reducing activity, and sulphate and hydrogen sulphide concentrations. The effect of 5-ASA on hydrogen sulphide production was studied in vitro.
RESULTS—All controls and patients with active ulcerative colitis carried SRB and total viable counts were significantly related to the clinical severity grade. SRB were of two distinct types: rapidly growing strains (desulfovibrios) which showed high sulphate reduction rates, present in 30% of patients with ulcerative colitis and 44% of controls; and slow growing strains which had little activity. In vitro, 5-ASA inhibited sulphide production in a dose dependent manner; in patients with ulcerative colitis not on these drugs faecal sulphide was significantly higher than in controls (0.55 versus 0.25 mM, p=0.027).
CONCLUSIONS—Counts and carriage rates of SRB in faeces of patients with ulcerative colitis are not significantly different from those in controls. SRB metabolism is not uniform between strains and alternative sources of hydrogen sulphide production exist in the colonic lumen which may be similarly inhibited by 5-ASA. The evidence for hydrogen sulphide as a metabolic toxin in ulcerative colitis remains circumstantial.


Keywords: colitis; sulphate; sulphide; bacteria; fermentation; salicylate PMID:10601057

  20. Origin of saline, neutral-pH, reduced epithermal waters by reaction of acidic magmatic gas condensates with wall rock

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, M.H. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Fluid inclusions in quartz and sphalerite of epithermal veins containing galena, sphalerite and chalcopyrite with silver sulfides and electrum commonly have salinities of 2 to 10 weight percent NaCl equivalent. Examples include Bohemia, OR, Comstock, NV, and Creede, CO. Salinities in such base metal-rich systems are apparently greater than those in gold-adularia, base metal-poor systems such as Sleeper, NV, Republic, WA, and Hishikare, Kyushu. Saline epithermal fluids are commonly assumed to have been derived from saline magmatic brines, from local host formations, as has been suggested for Creede, or from evaporative concentration (boiling) of more dilute meteoric ground water. Another possibility, which may be the most common origin, is reaction of wall rocks with magmatic gas condensates rich in HCl and sulfuric acid. A mixture of one part Augustine Volcanic gas condensate in 10 parts cold ground water has a pH of 0.7 and the dominant cation is H[sup +] by a factor of 10[sup 4]. Calculated reaction of this condensate mixture with andesite at 300 C to a water/rock ratio (w/r) of 4.6 yields an NaCl-dominated fluid with a total salinity of 2.1 wt %. and pH 3.7. Further reaction, to w/r 0.14 yields a fluid salinity of 2.6 wt % and pH of 5.7; this fluid is in equilibrium with a propylitic alteration assemblage. Aqueous sulfide accumulates during the rock reaction as sulfate is reduced to sulfide when ferrous iron is oxidized to ferric iron. Sulfide concentration in the latter fluid is 32 ppm, far exceeding sulfate concentration. In the overall reaction, hydrogen ion is exchanged for base cations (including base metals) and sulfate is reduced to sulfide.

  1. The chloride-channel blocker 9-anthracenecarboxylic acid reduces the nonlinear capacitance of prestin-associated charge movement.

    PubMed

    Harasztosi, Csaba; Gummer, Anthony W

    2016-04-01

    The basis of the extraordinary sensitivity and frequency selectivity of the cochlea is a chloride-sensitive protein called prestin which can produce an electromechanical response and which resides in the basolateral plasma membrane of outer hair cells (OHCs). The compound 9-anthracenecarboxylic acid (9-AC), an inhibitor of chloride channels, has been found to reduce the electromechanical response of the cochlea and the OHC mechanical impedance. To elucidate these 9-AC effects, the functional electromechanical status of prestin was assayed by measuring the nonlinear capacitance of OHCs from the guinea-pig cochlea and of prestin-transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells. Extracellular application of 9-AC caused reversible, dose-dependent and chloride-sensitive reduction in OHC nonlinear charge transfer, Qmax . Prestin-transfected cells also showed reversible reduction in Qmax . For OHCs, intracellular 9-AC application as well as reduced intracellular pH had no detectable effect on the reduction in Qmax by extracellularly applied 9-AC. In the prestin-transfected cells, cytosolic application of 9-AC approximately halved the blocking efficacy of extracellularly applied 9-AC. OHC inside-out patches presented the whole-cell blocking characteristics. Disruption of the cytoskeleton by preventing actin polymerization with latrunculin A or by decoupling of spectrin from actin with diamide did not affect the 9-AC-evoked reduction in Qmax . We conclude that 9-AC acts on the electromechanical transducer principally by interaction with prestin rather than acting via the cytoskeleton, chloride channels or pH. The 9-AC block presents characteristics in common with salicylate, but is almost an order of magnitude faster. 9-AC provides a new tool for elucidating the molecular dynamics of prestin function. PMID:26869218

  2. Branched Chain Fatty Acids Reduce the Incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Alter Gastrointestinal Microbial Ecology in a Neonatal Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Ran-Ressler, Rinat R.; Khailova, Ludmila; Arganbright, Kelly M.; Adkins-Rieck, Camille K.; Jouni, Zeina E.; Koren, Omry; Ley, Ruth E.; Brenna, J. Thomas; Dvorak, Bohuslav

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are found in the normal term human newborn's gut, deposited as major components of vernix caseosa ingested during late fetal life. We tested the hypothesis that premature infants' lack of exposure to gastrointestinal (GI) BCFA is associated with their microbiota and risk for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) using a neonatal rat model. Methods Pups were collected one day before scheduled birth. The pups were exposed to asphyxia and cold stress to induce NEC. Pups were assigned to one of three experimental treatments. DF (dam-fed) ; Control, hand-fed rat milk substitute ; BCFA, hand-fed rat milk substitute with 20%w/w BCFA. Total fat was equivalent (11%wt) for both the Control and BCFA groups. Cecal microbiota were characterized by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, and intestinal injury, ileal cytokine and mucin gene expression, interleukin-10 (IL-10) peptide immunohistochemistry, and BCFA uptake in ileum phospholipids, serum and liver were assessed. Results NEC incidence was reduced by over 50% in the BCFA group compared to the Control group as assessed in ileal tissue; microbiota differed among all groups. BCFA-fed pups harbored greater levels of BCFA-associated Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to Controls. Bacillus subtilis levels were five-fold greater in healthy pups compared to pups with NEC. BCFA were selectively incorporated into ileal phospholipids, serum and liver tissue. IL-10 expression increased three-fold in the BCFA group versus Controls and no other inflammatory or mucosal mRNA markers changed. Conclusion At constant dietary fat level, BCFA reduce NEC incidence and alter microbiota composition. BCFA are also incorporated into pup ileum where they are associated with enhanced IL-10 and may exert other specific effects. PMID:22194981

  3. Mutations in y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase genes in plants or Pseudomonas syringae reduce bacterial virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is a bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis and tomato that grows in the apoplast. The non-protein amino acid '-amino butyric acid (GABA) is produced by Arabidopsis and tomato and is the most abundant amino acid in the apoplastic fluid of tomato. The DC3000 genome h...

  4. Baking reduces prostaglandin, resolvin, and hydroxy-fatty acid content of farm-raised Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature t...

  5. Sulfur alleviates arsenic toxicity by reducing its accumulation and modulating proteome, amino acids and thiol metabolism in rice leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Deeba, Farah; Kumar, Smita; Suman, Shankar; Adhikari, Bijan; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of water is a global concern and rice consumption is the biggest dietary exposure to human posing carcinogenic risks, predominantly in Asia. Sulfur (S) is involved in di-sulfide linkage in many proteins and plays crucial role in As detoxification. Present study explores role of variable S supply on rice leaf proteome, its inclination towards amino acids (AA) profile and non protein thiols under arsenite exposure. Analysis of 282 detected proteins on 2-DE gel revealed 113 differentially expressed proteins, out of which 80 were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. The identified proteins were mostly involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle, AA biosynthesis, photosynthesis, protein metabolism, stress and energy metabolism. Among these, glycolytic enzymes play a major role in AA biosynthesis that leads to change in AAs profiling. Proteins of glycolytic pathway, photosynthesis and energy metabolism were also validated by western blot analysis. Conclusively S supplementation reduced the As accumulation in shoot positively skewed thiol metabolism and glycolysis towards AA accumulation under AsIII stress.

  6. Trans Fatty Acid Derived Phospholipids Show Increased Membrane Cholesterol and Reduced Receptor Activation as Compared to Their Cis Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Shui-Lin; Mitchell, Drake C.; Litman, Burton J.

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of trans fatty acid (TFA) is linked to the elevation of LDL cholesterol and is considered to be a major health risk factor for coronary heart disease. Despite several decades of extensive research on this subject, the underlying mechanism of how TFA modulates serum cholesterol levels remains elusive. In this study, we examined the molecular interaction of TFA-derived phospholipid with cholesterol and the membrane receptor rhodopsin in model membranes. Rhodopsin is a prototypical member of the G-protein coupled receptor family. It has a well-characterized structure and function and serves as a model membrane receptor in this study. Phospholipid–cholesterol affinity was quantified by measuring cholesterol partition coefficients. Phospholipid–receptor interactions were probed by measuring the level of rhodopsin activation. Our study shows that phospholipid derived from TFA had a higher membrane cholesterol affinity than their cis analogues. TFA phospholipid membranes also exhibited a higher acyl chain packing order, which was indicated by the lower acyl chain packing free volume as determined by DPH fluorescence and the higher transition temperature for rhodopsin thermal denaturation. The level of rhodopsin activation was diminished in TFA phospholipids. Since membrane cholesterol level and membrane receptors are involved in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis, the combination of higher cholesterol content and reduced receptor activation associated with the presence of TFA–phospholipid could be factors contributing to the elevation of LDL cholesterol. PMID:15766276

  7. Oxalic acid under adhesive restorations as a means to reduce dentin sensitivity: a four-month clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Claudia; Xaus, Gloria; Leighton, Catherine; Martin, Javier; Gordan, Valeria V; Moncada, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the reduction of dentin sensitivity using an oxalate-based compound, placed under adhesive restorations, during a four-month period. One hundred three preoperatively sensitive teeth, on 36 patients aged 25-66 years (mean, 40.3±7), were included in the study. Group A (experimental) was treated with oxalic acid (BisBlock) before resin-based composite (RBC) restorations (n=52), and group B (control) was treated with distilled water before RBC restorations (n=51). The first tooth in each patient was randomly assigned to group A, and the second tooth received group B. Clinical evaluation as made by a thermal/evaporation test with an air syringe and measurement by visual analog scale (VAS) at baseline and four months after treatment. The results showed sensitivity reduction during the evaluation period (expressed in VAS values): group A, 7.6 to 0.8; group B, 7.3 to 2.6. We concluded from this study that both treatments reduced dentin sensitivity during the evaluation period, with group A showing significantly less dentin sensitivity after four months (p<0.05). PMID:21777095

  8. Valproic acid reduces insulin-resistance, fat deposition and FOXO1-mediated gluconeogenesis in type-2 diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sabbir; Kumar, Sandeep; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidences highlighted the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in insulin-resistance, gluconeogenesis and islet function. HDACs can modulate the expression of various genes, which directly or indirectly affect glucose metabolism. This study was aimed to evaluate the role of valproic acid (VPA) on fat deposition, insulin-resistance and gluconeogenesis in type-2 diabetic rat. Diabetes was developed in Sprague-Dawley rats by the combination of high-fat diet and low dose streptozotocin. VPA at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg/day and metformin (positive control) 150 mg/kg twice daily for 10 weeks were administered by oral gavage. Insulin-resistance, dyslipidemia and glycemia were evaluated by biochemical estimations, while fat accumulation and structural alteration were assessed by histopathology. Protein expression and insulin signaling were evaluated by western blot and immunohistochemistry. VPA treatment significantly reduced the plasma glucose, HbA1c, insulin-resistance, fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue and liver, which are comparable to metformin treatment. Further, VPA inhibited the gluconeogenesis and glucagon expression as well as restored the histopathological alterations in pancreas and liver. Our findings provide new insights on the anti-diabetic role of VPA in type-2 diabetes mellitus by the modulation of insulin signaling and forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1)-mediated gluconeogenesis. Since VPA is a well established clinical drug, the detailed molecular mechanisms of the present findings can be further investigated for possible clinical use. PMID:26944797

  9. Lactobionic acid reduces body weight gain in diet-induced obese rats by targeted inhibition of galectin-1.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Rajib; Yun, Jong Won

    2015-08-01

    Galectin-1 (GAL1), an animal lectin with a carbohydrate recognition domain, is known for its roles in cancer, tumor progression, as well as obesity and related complications. Here, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of lactobionic acid (LBA), a GAL1 inhibitor, both in vitro and in vivo. LBA treatment significantly reduced lipogenic capacity of both 3T3-L1 and HIB1B adipocytes through down-regulation of major adipogenic transcription factors at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, oral administration and intraperitoneal injection of LBA in Sprague-Dawley male rats fed a high fat diet caused marked reduction of body weight gain as well as improvement of related metabolic parameters. Important lipogenic transcription factors were also down-regulated in LBA-treated rats, resulting in attenuated lipogenesis and fat accumulation. Collectively, pharmaceutical targeting of GAL1 using LBA would be a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity. PMID:26116537

  10. Sulfur alleviates arsenic toxicity by reducing its accumulation and modulating proteome, amino acids and thiol metabolism in rice leaves

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Deeba, Farah; Kumar, Smita; Suman, Shankar; Adhikari, Bijan; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of water is a global concern and rice consumption is the biggest dietary exposure to human posing carcinogenic risks, predominantly in Asia. Sulfur (S) is involved in di-sulfide linkage in many proteins and plays crucial role in As detoxification. Present study explores role of variable S supply on rice leaf proteome, its inclination towards amino acids (AA) profile and non protein thiols under arsenite exposure. Analysis of 282 detected proteins on 2-DE gel revealed 113 differentially expressed proteins, out of which 80 were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. The identified proteins were mostly involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle, AA biosynthesis, photosynthesis, protein metabolism, stress and energy metabolism. Among these, glycolytic enzymes play a major role in AA biosynthesis that leads to change in AAs profiling. Proteins of glycolytic pathway, photosynthesis and energy metabolism were also validated by western blot analysis. Conclusively S supplementation reduced the As accumulation in shoot positively skewed thiol metabolism and glycolysis towards AA accumulation under AsIII stress. PMID:26552588

  11. Chlorine-doped reduced graphene oxide nanosheets as an efficient and stable electrode for supercapacitor in acidic medium.

    PubMed

    Kakaei, Karim; Hamidi, Milad; Husseindoost, Somayeh

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate the efficient doping of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by Chlorine and its capacitive performance was calculated by cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycling in 1M H2SO4 solution. In this regard, we are prepared RGO nanosheets through a simple, eco-friendly and efficient electrochemical method, with selectively functionalized edges by chlorine which involves added the RGO to the halogen-containing acid solution and dispersed by ultrasonic. After synthesis, Cl-RGO is characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and tunneling electron microscopy. FTIR spectra show the chlorine-containing functional groups. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of doped chlorine in RGO. Raman spectroscopy shows a high density of defects in the RGO layer. Electrochemical characteristics of Cl-RGO are characterized by cyclic voltammetery, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. According to the galvanostatic charge/discharge analysis, Cl-RGO represents specific capacitance (Cs) of 178.4Fg(-1) at current density of 1Ag(-1), which is higher than that of RGO (100.5Fg(-1)) in H2SO4 solution. PMID:27388125

  12. Reduced PCR Sensitivity Due to Impaired DNA Recovery with the MagNA Pure LC Total Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit

    PubMed Central

    Schuurman, Tim; van Breda, Alex; de Boer, Richard; Kooistra-Smid, Mirjam; Beld, Marcel; Savelkoul, Paul; Boom, René

    2005-01-01

    The increasing demand for molecular diagnostics in clinical microbiology laboratories necessitates automated sample processing. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of the MagNA Pure LC total nucleic acid isolation kit (M extraction) in comparison with the manual method (Si extraction) according to Boom et al. (R. Boom, C. J. A. Sol, M. M. M. Salimans, C. L. Jansen, P. M. Wertheim-van Dillen, and J. van der Noordaa, J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:495-503, 1990) for the detection of viral DNA by competitive quantitative PCR. Reconstruction experiments with HindIII-digested phage lambda DNA and HaeIII-digested φX174 DNA showed that the recovery of DNA from phosphate-buffered saline, cerebrospinal fluid, EDTA-anticoagulated plasma, and EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood by M extraction is, on average, 6.6-fold lower compared to Si extraction. PCR signals of spiked PCR control DNAs for Epstein-Barr virus and varicella-zoster virus were also between 1.9- and 14.2-fold lower after M extraction compared to Si extraction, also suggesting impaired DNA recovery. M extraction of spiked cytomegalovirus strain AD 169 in whole blood showed a 5- to 10-fold reduction in PCR sensitivity compared to Si extraction. This reduction of PCR sensitivity was also observed when clinical whole blood samples were processed by M extraction. Before implementing M extraction, the clinical consequences of the reduced recovery should first be considered, especially when maximal sensitivity is required. PMID:16145116

  13. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Supplementation Reduces Oxidative Stress and Prolongs Survival in Rats with Advanced Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Mifuji-Moroka, Rumi; Hara, Nagisa; Miyachi, Hirohide; Sugimoto, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Hideaki; Fujita, Naoki; Gabazza, Esteban C.; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Long-term supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) is associated with prolonged survival and decreased frequency of development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, the pharmaceutical mechanism underlying this association is still unclear. We investigated whether continuous BCAA supplementation increases survival rate of rats exposed to a fibrogenic agent and influences the iron accumulation, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and gluconeogenesis in the liver. Further, the effects of BCAA on gluconeogenesis in cultured cells were also investigated. A significant improvement in cumulative survival was observed in BCAA-supplemented rats with advanced cirrhosis compared to untreated rats with cirrhosis (P<0.05). The prolonged survival due to BCAA supplementation was associated with reduction of iron contents, reactive oxygen species production and attenuated fibrosis in the liver. In addition, BCAA ameliorated glucose metabolism by forkhead box protein O1 pathway in the liver. BCAA prolongs survival in cirrhotic rats and this was likely the consequences of reduced iron accumulation, oxidative stress and fibrosis and improved glucose metabolism in the liver. PMID:23936183

  14. Efficient Catalytic Ozonation over Reduced Graphene Oxide for p-Hydroxylbenzoic Acid (PHBA) Destruction: Active Site and Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuxian; Xie, Yongbing; Sun, Hongqi; Xiao, Jiadong; Cao, Hongbin; Wang, Shaobin

    2016-04-20

    Nanocarbons have been demonstrated as promising environmentally benign catalysts for advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) upgrading metal-based materials. In this study, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with a low level of structural defects was synthesized via a scalable method for catalytic ozonation of p-hydroxylbenzoic acid (PHBA). Metal-free rGO materials were found to exhibit a superior activity in activating ozone for catalytic oxidation of organic phenolics. The electron-rich carbonyl groups were identified as the active sites for the catalytic reaction. Electron spin resonance (ESR) and radical competition tests revealed that superoxide radical ((•)O2(-)) and singlet oxygen ((1)O2) were the reactive oxygen species (ROS) for PHBA degradation. The intermediates and the degradation pathways were illustrated from mass spectroscopy. It was interesting to observe that addition of NaCl could enhance both ozonation and catalytic ozonation efficiencies and make ·O2(-) as the dominant ROS. Stability of the catalysts was also evaluated by the successive tests. Loss of specific surface area and changes in the surface chemistry were suggested to be responsible for catalyst deactivation. PMID:27007603

  15. Improvement of the reverse tetracycline transactivator by single amino acid substitutions that reduce leaky target gene expression to undetectable levels.

    PubMed

    Roney, Ian J; Rudner, Adam D; Couture, Jean-François; Kærn, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Conditional gene expression systems that enable inducible and reversible transcriptional control are essential research tools and have broad applications in biomedicine and biotechnology. The reverse tetracycline transcriptional activator is a canonical system for engineered gene expression control that enables graded and gratuitous modulation of target gene transcription in eukaryotes from yeast to human cell lines and transgenic animals. However, the system has a tendency to activate transcription even in the absence of tetracycline and this leaky target gene expression impedes its use. Here, we identify single amino-acid substitutions that greatly enhance the dynamic range of the system in yeast by reducing leaky transcription to undetectable levels while retaining high expression capacity in the presence of inducer. While the mutations increase the inducer concentration required for full induction, additional sensitivity-enhancing mutations can compensate for this effect and confer a high degree of robustness to the system. The novel transactivator variants will be useful in applications where tight and tunable regulation of gene expression is paramount. PMID:27323850

  16. Reduced oocyte and embryo quality in response to elevated non-esterified fatty acid concentrations: a possible pathway to subfertility?

    PubMed

    Van Hoeck, Veerle; Bols, Peter E J; Binelli, Mario; Leroy, Jo L M R

    2014-09-01

    Reproductive performance is increasingly considered as a 'barometer' of general well-being of the mother. A normal maternal 'metabolic health' status is essential to safeguard successful ovulation, conception and further embryo development. When alterations in serum metabolites are reflected in the oocyte and embryonic micro-environment, these metabolic changes can affect follicle health, oocyte development and even subsequent embryo physiology. The search continues for signals that may be critically affecting the early developmental stages in life. Years of expertise in animal in vitro embryo culture models contribute to the awareness on the influence of elevated non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations on follicle cells, oocyte and embryo quality. High NEFA concentrations in the blood are known to alter the follicular micro-environment. The latter alterations in NEFA concentrations have been associated with a disappointing fertility outcome through disabled ovarian cell function and reduced oocyte's developmental competence. Even more, elevated NEFA concentrations during bovine oocyte maturation influence the subsequent embryo characteristics. This review provides a cross-species overview on the consequences of elevated NEFA concentrations, originating from maternal lipolytic conditions, on female fertility, with particular focus on the early stages in life. Thereby, we will describe to what extent elevated serum NEFA concentrations are a potential threat around the period of conception. PMID:25129636

  17. Improvement of the reverse tetracycline transactivator by single amino acid substitutions that reduce leaky target gene expression to undetectable levels

    PubMed Central

    Roney, Ian J.; Rudner, Adam D.; Couture, Jean-François; Kærn, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Conditional gene expression systems that enable inducible and reversible transcriptional control are essential research tools and have broad applications in biomedicine and biotechnology. The reverse tetracycline transcriptional activator is a canonical system for engineered gene expression control that enables graded and gratuitous modulation of target gene transcription in eukaryotes from yeast to human cell lines and transgenic animals. However, the system has a tendency to activate transcription even in the absence of tetracycline and this leaky target gene expression impedes its use. Here, we identify single amino-acid substitutions that greatly enhance the dynamic range of the system in yeast by reducing leaky transcription to undetectable levels while retaining high expression capacity in the presence of inducer. While the mutations increase the inducer concentration required for full induction, additional sensitivity-enhancing mutations can compensate for this effect and confer a high degree of robustness to the system. The novel transactivator variants will be useful in applications where tight and tunable regulation of gene expression is paramount. PMID:27323850

  18. Effects of reducing dietary protein on the expression of nutrition sensing genes (amino acid transporters) in weaned piglets*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li; He, Liu-qin; Cui, Zhi-jie; Liu, Gang; Yao, Kang; Wu, Fei; Li, Jun; Li, Tie-jun

    2015-01-01

    The effects of crude protein (CP) levels in the diet on the mRNA expression of amino acid (AA) transporters were studied in a 45-d trial. Eighteen piglets with an initial body weight (BW) of 9.57 kg were assigned to three groups (14%, 17%, and 20% CP in the diet) in a completely randomized design (six replicates per treatment). Diets were supplemented with crystalline AA to achieve equal standardized ileal digestible contents of Lys, Met plus Cys, Thr, and Trp, and were provided ad libitum. After 45 d, all piglets were slaughtered to collect small intestine samples. Compared with the values in the 14% CP group, the expressions of ASCT2, 4F2hc, and ATB0 mRNA in the jejunum were increased by 23.00%, 12.00%, 6.00% and 48.00%, 47.00%, 56.00% in the 17% and 20% CP groups, respectively. These results indicate that a 14% CP diet supplemented with crystalline AA may not transport enough AA into the body and maintain growth performance of piglets. However, a reduction of dietary 17% CP may reduce the excretion of nitrogen into the environment while supporting the development of piglets. Therefore, the 17% CP level is more suitable than 14% CP level. PMID:26055911

  19. The Value of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Blood Loss following Hip Reconstruction in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Majid, I.; Alshryda, S.; Somanchi, B.; Morakis, E.; Foster, A.

    2015-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of 51 consecutive hip reconstructions in children with cerebral palsy performed between 2011 and 2013. Tranexamic acid (TXA) was used in 14 hip reconstructions only. Transfusion rate was higher, postoperative Hb was lower, and patients stayed longer in the TXA group. This did not reach a statistical significance (P = 0.75, 0.5, and 0.71, resp.). More than half of the patients who had TXA underwent bilateral hip reconstructions in comparison with 27% only in the non-TXA group. Bilateral hip reconstructions mean more surgery, more blood loss, and more blood transfusion. The patients who had TXA were significantly more disabled as evident by the higher proportions of patient with worse GMFCS levels. Although we have not been able to demonstrate the value of TXA in reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in children with CP who underwent hip reconstruction, it is hoped that an interest in exploring the value of TXA in paediatric orthopaedic surgery is generated. Ideally this should be explored further in an adequately powered, randomised controlled trial where risk of bias is minimized. PMID:26664830

  20. Gut microbiota regulates bile acid metabolism by reducing the levels of tauro-beta-muricholic acid, a naturally occurring FXR antagonist.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Sama I; Wahlström, Annika; Felin, Jenny; Jäntti, Sirkku; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Bamberg, Krister; Angelin, Bo; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Orešič, Matej; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2013-02-01

    Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and further metabolized by the gut microbiota into secondary bile acids. Bile acid synthesis is under negative feedback control through activation of the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in the ileum and liver. Here we profiled the bile acid composition throughout the enterohepatic system in germ-free (GF) and conventionally raised (CONV-R) mice. We confirmed a dramatic reduction in muricholic acid, but not cholic acid, levels in CONV-R mice. Rederivation of Fxr-deficient mice as GF demonstrated that the gut microbiota regulated expression of fibroblast growth factor 15 in the ileum and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in the liver by FXR-dependent mechanisms. Importantly, we identified tauro-conjugated beta- and alpha-muricholic acids as FXR antagonists. These studies suggest that the gut microbiota not only regulates secondary bile acid metabolism but also inhibits bile acid synthesis in the liver by alleviating FXR inhibition in the ileum. PMID:23395169

  1. Strong electrochemiluminescent interactions between carbon nitride nanosheet-reduced graphene oxide nanohybrids and folic acid, and ultrasensitive sensing for folic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chen; Chen, Yingmei; Shang, Pengxiang; Chi, Yuwu

    2016-05-23

    Graphite-like carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C3N4 NSs) have recently emerged as electrochemiluminescent (ECL) nanomaterials and have attracted more and more attention due to their excellent ECL properties and promising applications in ECL sensing. However, the ECL study of g-C3N4 NSs is still in the early stages. Many studies are required to reveal the exact ECL mechanisms of g-C3N4 NSs and thus boost their sensing applications. In this paper, we have investigated ECL interactions between folic acid (FA) and a g-C3N4 NS/S2O8(2-) ECL system at a g-C3N4 NS-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanohybrid/glassy carbon electrode in aqueous solutions. Compared with bare g-C3N4 NSs, the nanohybrids of g-C3N4 NS-rGO give a much stable ECL emission due to the prevention of over electrochemical reduction of g-C3N4 by rGO. The stable ECL emission from the g-C3N4 NS-rGO/S2O8(2-) ECL system can be strongly quenched by FA, even in a very low concentration (pM levels). The ECL quenching mechanisms are investigated and discussed in detail. Based on the strong interactions between FA and g-C3N4 NSs, a novel, sensitive, stable and selective ECL sensor has been constructed for the detection of FA, with a wide linear response range from 0.1 to 90 nM, and an excellent detection limit (62 pM). This work not only further clarifies ECL mechanisms of g-C3N4 NSs, but also suggests a promising application of the newly emerging ECL nanomaterial. PMID:27127810

  2. Activation of human neutrophil nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced (triphosphopyridine nucleotide, reduced) oxidase by arachidonic acid in a cell-free system.

    PubMed Central

    Curnutte, J T

    1985-01-01

    Sonicates from unstimulated human neutrophils produce no measurable superoxide since the superoxide-generating enzyme, NADPH oxidase, is inactive in these preparations. Previous attempts to activate the oxidase in disrupted cells with conventional neutrophil stimuli have been unsuccessful. This report describes a cell-free system in which arachidonic acid (82 microM) was able to activate superoxide generation that was dependent upon the presence of NADPH and the sonicate. For activation to occur, both the particulate and supernatant fractions of the sonicate must be present. Calcium ions, which are required for activation of intact neutrophils by arachidonate, were not necessary in the cell-free system. In quantitative terms, the superoxide-generating activity in the cell-free system could account for at least 20-50% of the superoxide rate observed in intact neutrophils stimulated with arachidonate. Sonicates from patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) could not be activated by arachidonic acid in the cell-free system. In three patients representing both genetic forms of CGD, the defect appeared to reside in the particulate fraction. The soluble cofactor was normal in all three patients and could be used to activate normal neutrophil pellets in the presence of arachidonic acid. Thus, at least a portion of the activation mechanism in the neutrophil, that residing in the soluble phase, appeared to be normal in patients with CGD. PMID:2987311

  3. Investigation of the prebiotic synthesis of amino acids and RNA bases from CO2 using FeS/H2S as a reducing agent.

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, A D; Miller, S L; McDonald, G; Bada, J

    1995-01-01

    An autotrophic theory of the origin of metabolism and life has been proposed in which carbon dioxide is reduced by ferrous sulfide and hydrogen sulfide by means of a reversed citric acid cycle, leading to the production of amino acids. Similar processes have been proposed for purine synthesis. Ferrous sulfide is a strong reducing agent in the presence of hydrogen sulfide and can produce hydrogen as well as reduce alkenes, alkynes, and thiols to saturated hydrocarbons and reduce ketones to thiols. However, the reduction of carbon dioxide has not been demonstrated. We show here that no amino acids, purines, or pyrimidines are produced from carbon dioxide with the ferrous sulfide and hydrogen sulfide system. Furthermore, this system does not produce amino acids from carboxylic acids by reductive amination and carboxylation. Thus, the proposed autotrophic theory, using carbon dioxide, ferrous sulfide, and hydrogen sulfide, lacks the robustness needed to be a geological process and is, therefore, unlikely to have played a role in the origin of metabolism or the origin of life. PMID:8524872

  4. Investigation of the Prebiotic Synthesis of Amino Acids and RNA Bases from CO2 using FeS/H2S as a Reducing Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.; McDonald, Gene; Bada, Jeffrey

    1995-01-01

    An autotrophic theory of the origin of metabolism and life has been proposed in which carbon dioxide is reduced by ferrous sulfide and hydrogen sulfide by means of a reversed citric acid cycle, leading to the production of amino acids. Similar processes have been proposed for purine synthesis. Ferrous sulfide is a strong reducing agent in the presence of hydrogen sulfide and can produce hydrogen as well as reduce alkenes, alkynes, and thiols to saturated hydrocarbons and reduce ketones to thiols. However, the reduction of carbon dioxide has not been demonstrated. We show here that no amino acids, purines, or pyrimidines are produced from carbon dioxide with the ferrous sulfide and hydrogen sulfide system. Furthermore, this system does not produce amino acids from carboxylic acids by reductive amination and carboxylation. Thus, the proposed autotrophic theory, using carbon dioxide, ferrous sulfide, and hydrogen sulfide, lacks the robustness needed to be a geological process and is, therefore, unlikely to have played a role in the origin of metabolism or the origin of life.

  5. Investigation of the Prebiotic Synthesis of Amino Acids and RNA Bases from CO2 Using FeS/H2S As a Reducing Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.; McDonald, Gene; Bada, Jeffrey

    1995-01-01

    An autotrophic theory of the origin of metabolism and life has been proposed in which carbon dioxide is reduced by ferrous sulfide and hydrogen sulfide by means of a reversed citric acid cycle, leading to the production of amino acids. Similar processes have been proposed for purine synthesis. Ferrous sulfide is a strong reducing agent in the presence of hydrogen sulfide and can produce hydrogen as well as reduce alkenes, alkynes, and thiols to saturated hydrocarbons and reduce ketones to thiols. However, the reduction of carbon dioxide has not been demonstrated. We show here that no amino acids, purities, or pyrimidines are produced from carbon dioxide with the ferrous sulfide and hydrogen sulfide system. Furthermore, this system does not produce amino acids from carboxylic acids by reductive amination and carboxylation. Thus, the proposed autotrophic theory, using carbon dioxide, ferrous sulfide, and hydrogen sulfide, lacks the robustness needed to be a geological process and is, therefore, unlikely to have played a role In the origin of metabolism or the origin of life.

  6. The potential for military diets to reduce depression, suicide, and impulsive aggression: a review of current evidence for omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Hibbeln, Joseph R; Gow, Rachel V

    2014-11-01

    The current burden of psychological distress and illness poses as a significant barrier to optimal force efficacy. Here we assess nutrients in military diets, specifically highly unsaturated essential fatty acids, in the reduction of risk or treatment of psychiatric distress. Moderate to strong evidence from several meta-analyses of prospective cohort trials indicate that Mediterranean diet patterns reduce risk of clinical depressions. Specific nutrients and foods of biological interest in relation to mental health outcomes are then discussed and evaluated. Moderate evidence indicates that when fish consumption decreases and simultaneously omega-6 increases, the risk of clinical depressive symptoms are elevated. One meta-analysis examining tissue compositions provides moderate to strong evidence that higher levels of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) (eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) are associated with decreased risk of clinical depressions. Other meta-analytic reviews of randomized placebo-controlled trials provide moderate to strong evidence of significantly improving clinically depressive symptoms when the formulation given was >50% in eicosapentaenoic acid. Finally, a meta-analysis of omega-3 HUFAs provides modest evidence of clinical efficacy for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. This article recommends that a rebalancing of the essential fatty acid composition of U.S. military diets, achieve tissue compositions of HUFAs consistent with traditional Mediterranean diets, may help reduce military psychiatric distress and simultaneously increase force efficacy substantially. PMID:25373095

  7. Dietary saturated fatty acids reduce hepatic lipid accumulation but induce fibrotic change in alcohol-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-Ling; Peng, Hsiang-Chi; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Background In this study, we evaluated the influence of an ethanol-containing diet with high saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats weighing about 160 g were divided into four groups: an ethanol (E) group fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet with 36% total calories as fat (corn oil, olive oil and safflower oil); a control (C) group pair-fed an isoenergetic diet without ethanol; an ethanol with saturated fat (EHS) group fed an ethanol-containing diet which contained 40% total calories as fat (90% lard); and a control with saturated fat (CHS) group fed an isoenergetic diet without ethanol, which contained 40% total calories as fat. Results After 8 weeks of treatment, the liver weight and plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in E and EHS groups were significantly higher than those of C group. Significantly higher scores of inflammation, necrosis, and fatty changes were found in E group, whereas significantly higher scores of necrosis, bile duct hyperplasia, and fibrosis were found in EHS group. Although significantly lower plasma adiponectin concentrations were observed in both E and EHS groups, compared to C group, plasma adiponectin in EHS group was significantly higher than that in E group. There was no change in hepatic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α expression between E and C groups, and rats in EHS group showed a significantly elevated level compared to the other groups. A lower hepatic sirtuins (SIRT)-1 level was found in E group, but it did not reach statistical significance. Moreover, the highest plasma TGF-β1 level was found in EHS group. Compared to C group, the hepatic reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio and thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive substance level were significantly increased in E and EHS groups; however, there was no significant difference between E and EHS groups. Significantly increased hepatic CYP2E1 expression was observed in both E and

  8. Glycoursodeoxycholic acid reduces matrix metalloproteinase-9 and caspase-9 activation in a cellular model of superoxide dismutase-1 neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Ana Rita; Cunha, Carolina; Gomes, Cátia; Schmucki, Nadja; Barbosa, Marta; Brites, Dora

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects mainly motor neurons (MNs). NSC-34 MN-like cells carrying the G93A mutation in human superoxide dismutase-1 (hSOD1(G93A)) are a common model to study the molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration in ALS. Although the underlying pathways of MN failure still remain elusive, increased apoptosis and oxidative stress seem to be implicated. Riluzole, the only approved drug, only slightly delays ALS progression. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), as well as its glycine (glycoursodeoxycholic acid, GUDCA) and taurine (TUDCA) conjugated species, have shown therapeutic efficacy in neurodegenerative models and diseases. Pilot studies in ALS patients indicate safety and tolerability for UDCA oral administration. We explored the mechanisms associated with superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) accumulation and MN degeneration in NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells differentiated for 4 days in vitro (DIV). We examined GUDCA efficacy in preventing such pathological events and in restoring MN functionality by incubating cells with 50 μM GUDCA at 0 DIV and at 2 DIV, respectively. Increased cytosolic SOD1 inclusions were observed in 4 DIV NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells together with decreased mitochondria viability (1.2-fold, p < 0.01), caspase-9 activation (1.8-fold, p < 0.05), and apoptosis (2.1-fold, p < 0.01). GUDCA exerted preventive effects (p < 0.05) while also reduced caspase-9 levels when added at 2 DIV (p < 0.05). ATP depletion (2-fold, p < 0.05), increased nitrites (1.6-fold, p < 0.05) and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activation (1.8-fold, p < 0.05), but no changes in MMP-2, were observed in the extracellular media of 4 DIV NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells. GUDCA inhibited nitrite production (p < 0.05) while simultaneously prevented and reverted MMP-9 activation (p < 0.05), but not ATP depletion. Data highlight caspase-9 and MMP-9 activation as key pathomechanisms in ALS and GUDCA

  9. Practical applications of sulfate-reducing bacteria to control acid mine drainage at the Lilly/Orphan Boy Mine near Elliston, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Canty, M.

    1994-12-31

    The overall purpose of this document is to provide a detailed technical description of a technology, biological sulfate reduction, which is being demonstrated under the Mine Waste Technology Pilot Program, and provide the technology evaluation process undertaken to select this technology for demonstration. In addition, this document will link the use of the selected technology to an application at a specific site. The purpose of this project is to develop technical information on the ability of biological sulfate reduction to slow the process of acid generation and, thus, improve water quality at a remote mine site. Several technologies are screened for their potential to treat acid mine water and to function as a source control for a specific acid-generating situation: a mine shaft and associated underground workings flooded with acid mine water and discharging a small flow from a mine opening. The preferred technology is the use of biological sulfate reduction. Sulfate-reducing bacteria are capable of reducing sulfate to sulfide, as well as increasing the pH and alkalinity of water affected by acid generation. Soluble sulfide reacts with the soluble metals in solution to form insoluble metal sulfides. The environment needed for efficient sulfate-reducing bacteria growth decreases acid production by reducing the dissolved oxygen in water and increasing pH. A detailed technical description of the sulfate-reducing bacteria technology, based on an extensive review of the technical literature, is presented. The field demonstration of this technology to be performed at the Lilly/Orphan Boy Mine is also described. Finally, additional in situ applications of biological sulfate reduction are presented.

  10. Azelaic acid reduced senescence-like phenotype in photo-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts: possible implication of PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Briganti, Stefania; Flori, Enrica; Mastrofrancesco, Arianna; Kovacs, Daniela; Camera, Emanuela; Ludovici, Matteo; Cardinali, Giorgia; Picardo, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Azelaic acid (AzA) has been used for the treatment for inflammatory skin diseases, such as acne and rosacea. Interestingly, an improvement in skin texture has been observed after long-time treatment with AzA. We previously unrevealed that anti-inflammatory activity of AzA involves a specific activation of PPARγ, a nuclear receptor that plays a relevant role in inflammation and even in ageing processes. As rosacea has been considered as a photo-aggravated disease, we investigated the ability of AzA to counteract stress-induced premature cell senescence (SIPS). We employed a SIPS model based on single exposure of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) to UVA and 8-methoxypsoralen (PUVA), previously reported to activate a senescence-like phenotype, including long-term growth arrest, flattened morphology and increased synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal). We found that PUVA-treated HDFs grown in the presence of AzA maintained their morphology and reduced MMP-1 release and SA-β-galactosidase-positive cells. Moreover, AzA induced a reduction in ROS generation, an up-modulation of antioxidant enzymes and a decrease in cell membrane lipid damages in PUVA-treated HDFs. Further evidences of AzA anti-senescence effect were repression of p53 and p21, increase in type I pro-collagen and abrogation of the enhanced expression of growth factors, such as HGF and SCF. Interestingly, PUVA-SIPS showed a decreased activation of PPARγ and AzA counteracted this effect, suggesting that AzA effect involves PPARγ modulation. All together these data showed that AzA interferes with PUVA-induced senescence-like phenotype and its ability to activate PPAR-γ provides relevant insights into the anti-senescence mechanism. PMID:23278893

  11. Salicylic acid modulates arsenic toxicity by reducing its root to shoot translocation in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit P.; Dixit, Garima; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Tiwari, Manish; Mallick, Shekhar; Pandey, Vivek; Trivedi, Prabodh K.; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tripathi, Rudra D.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is posing serious health concerns in South East Asia where rice, an efficient accumulator of As, is prominent crop. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signaling molecule and plays a crucial role in resistance against biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In present study, ameliorative effect of SA against arsenate (AsV) toxicity has been investigated in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Arsenate stress hampered the plant growth in terms of root, shoots length, and biomass as well as it enhanced the level of H2O2 and MDA in dose dependent manner in shoot. Exogenous application of SA, reverted the growth, and oxidative stress caused by AsV and significantly decreased As translocation to the shoots. Level of As in shoot was positively correlated with the expression of OsLsi2, efflux transporter responsible for root to shoot translocation of As in the form of arsenite (AsIII). SA also overcame AsV induced oxidative stress and modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes in a differential manner in shoots. As treatment hampered the translocation of Fe in the shoot which was compensated by the SA treatment. The level of Fe in root and shoot was positively correlated with the transcript level of transporters responsible for the accumulation of Fe, OsNRAMP5, and OsFRDL1, in the root and shoot, respectively. Co-application of SA was more effective than pre-treatment for reducing As accumulation as well as imposed toxicity. PMID:26042132

  12. Reducing N2O Emission from a Domestic-Strength Nitrifying Culture by Free Nitrous Acid-Based Sludge Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongbo; Wang, Qilin; Laloo, Andrew Elohim; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-07-19

    An increase of nitrite in the domestic-strength range is generally recognized to stimulate nitrous oxide (N2O) production by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). It was found in this study, however, that N2O emission from a mainstream nitritation system (cyclic nitrite = 25-45 mg of N/L) that was established by free nitrous acid (FNA)-based sludge treatment was not higher but much lower than that from the initial nitrifying system with full conversion of NH4(+)-N to NO3(-)-N. Under dissolved oxygen (DO) levels of 2.5-3.0 mg/L, N2O emission from the nitritation stage was 76% lower than that from the initial stage. Even when the DO level was reduced to 0.3-0.8 mg/L, N2O emission from the nitritation stage was still 40% lower. An investigation of the mechanism showed that FNA treatment caused a shift of the stimulation threshold of nitrite on N2O emission. At the nitritation stage, the maximal N2O emission factor occurred at ∼16 mg of N/(L of nitrite). However, it increased with increasing nitrite in the range of 0-56 mg of N/L at the initial stage. FNA treatment decreased the biomass-specific N2O production rate, suggesting that the enzymes relevant to nitrifier denitrification were inhibited. Microbial analysis revealed that FNA treatment decreased the microbial community diversity but increased the abundances of AOB and denitrifiers. PMID:27294698

  13. Continuous Taurocholic Acid Exposure Promotes Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Progression Due to Reduced Cell Loss Resulting from Enhanced Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Sho; Yamamoto, Hiroto; Mukaisho, Ken-ichi; Saito, Shota; Hattori, Takanori; Yamamoto, Gaku; Sugihara, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Background Refluxogenic effects of smoking and alcohol abuse may be related to the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The present study attempts to clarify the effects of continuous taurocholic acid (TCA) exposure, which is neither mutagenic nor genotoxic, on ESCC progression. Methods A squamous carcinoma cell line (ESCC-DR) was established from a tumor induced in a rat model of gastroduodenal reflux. ESCC-DR cells were incubated with 2 mM TCA for ≥2 months. The effects of continuous TCA exposure were evaluated in vitro on cell morphology, growth, and invasion and in vivo on xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Moreover, the mean level of secreted transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins in cell culture supernatants and mRNA synthesis of TGF-β1 and VEGF-A of ESCC cells were measured. The angiogenic potential was further examined by a migration assay using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results Continuous TCA exposure induced marked formation of filopodia in vitro. Expression levels of angiogenic factors were significantly higher in the cells treated with TCA than in control cells. Tumor xenografts derived from cells pre-exposed to TCA were larger and more vascularized than those derived from control cells. In addition, TCA exposure increased HUVEC migration. Conclusion Continuous TCA exposure enhanced ESCC progression due to reduced cell loss in vivo. Cell loss was inhibited by TCA-induced vascular endothelial cell migration, which was mediated by TGF-β1 and VEGF-A released from ESCC cells. PMID:24551170

  14. Black soybean extract reduces fatty acid contents in subcutaneous, but not in visceral adipose triglyceride in high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Daisuke; Kusunoki, Masataka; Seino, Narumi; Nishina, Atsuyoshi; Feng, Zhonggang; Tsutsumi, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Takao

    2015-01-01

    It is known that black soybean (BS) extract, rich in polyphenols, has beneficial effects against obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. However, detailed effects of BS on lipid metabolism have not been documented well. In the present study, we compared fatty acid composition in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues of high-fat fed (HFF) rats and BS administered HFF rats. Black soybean administration for 6 weeks influenced neither body nor adipose tissue weights, blood glucose, plasma insulin levels, or insulin sensitivity. However, BS reduced several saturated (C14:0 and C16:0), monounsaturated (C14:1n-5 and C18:1n-9) and n-6 polyunsaturated (C18:2n-6, C20:3n-6, C20:4n-6 and C22:4n-6) fatty acid contents in subcutaneous fat without any change in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents. No such effect was observed in fatty acid composition in visceral fat. Long-chain fatty acids are involved in regulation of inflammation. Therefore, those reduced fatty acids may be linked to the effects on suppressing inflammation. PMID:25830948

  15. ASCORBIC ACID TREATMENT TO REDUCE RESIDUAL HALOGEN-BASED OXIDANTS PRIOR TO THE DETERMINATION OF HALOGENATED DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN POTABLE WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treatment of potable water samples with ascorbic acid has been investigated as a means for reducing residual halogen-based oxidants (disinfectants)i.e., HOCl, Cl2, Brw and BrCl, prior to determination of EPA Method 551.1A and 551.1B analytes. These disinfection byproducts include...

  16. COMPARISON OF PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS BASED ON PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID PROFILES AND RIBOSOMAL RNA SEQUENCE SIMILARITIES AMONG DISSIMILATORY SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-five isolates of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria were clustered based on similarity analysis of their phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids (PLFA). f these, twenty-three showed the phylogenetic relationships based on the sequence similarity of their 16S rRNA direct...

  17. A high-fat, high-oleic diet, but not a high-fat, saturated diet, reduces hepatic n3 fatty acid content in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While considerable research has centered upon the role of linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2n6) as a competitive inhibitor of alpha-linolenic (ALA; 18:3n3) metabolism, a growing literature indicates that the amount of fat consumed can reduce the elongation and desaturation process. However, little data exist ...

  18. Burdock fermented by Aspergillus awamori elevates cecal Bifidobacterium, and reduces fecal deoxycholic acid and adipose tissue weight in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Sitanggang, Novita Vivi; Sato, Satoko; Ohnishi, Nanae; Inoue, Junji; Iguchi, Takafumi; Watanabe, Toshiro; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Harada, Kazuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with burdock powder and Aspergillus awamori-fermented burdock powder at 5% on the intestinal luminal environment and body fat in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Food intake and growth were unaffected by dietary manipulation. Consumption of the burdock and fermented burdock diets significantly elevated fecal IgA and mucins (indices of intestinal immune and barrier functions) and reduced fecal lithocholic acid (a risk factor for colon cancer) (p<0.05). The fermented burdock diet markedly elevated cecal Bifidobacterium and organic acids, including lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, and reduced fecal deoxycholic acid (a risk factor for colon cancer) and perirenal adipose tissue weight (p<0.05), but the burdock diet did not. These results suggest that consumption of fermented burdock improves the intestinal luminal environment and suppresses obesity in rats fed a HF diet. PMID:23291748

  19. Local sustained delivery of acetylsalicylic acid via hybrid stent with biodegradable nanofibers reduces adhesion of blood cells and promotes reendothelialization of the denuded artery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Hung; Lin, Yu-Huang; Chang, Shang-Hung; Tai, Chun-Der; Liu, Shih-Jung; Chu, Yen; Wang, Chao-Jan; Hsu, Ming-Yi; Chang, Hung; Chang, Gwo-Jyh; Hung, Kuo-Chun; Hsieh, Ming-Jer; Lin, Fen-Chiung; Hsieh, I-Chang; Wen, Ming-Shien; Huang, Yenlin

    2014-01-01

    Incomplete endothelialization, blood cell adhesion to vascular stents, and inflammation of arteries can result in acute stent thromboses. The systemic administration of acetylsalicylic acid decreases endothelial dysfunction, potentially reducing thrombus, enhancing vasodilatation, and inhibiting the progression of atherosclerosis; but, this is weakened by upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study proposes a hybrid stent with biodegradable nanofibers, for the local, sustained delivery of acetylsalicylic acid to injured artery walls. Biodegradable nanofibers are prepared by first dissolving poly(D,L)-lactide-co-glycolide and acetylsalicylic acid in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol. The solution is then electrospun into nanofibrous tubes, which are then mounted onto commercially available bare-metal stents. In vitro release rates of pharmaceuticals from nanofibers are characterized using an elution method, and a highperformance liquid chromatography assay. The experimental results suggest that biodegradable nanofibers release high concentrations of acetylsalicylic acid for three weeks. The in vivo efficacy of local delivery of acetylsalicylic acid in reducing platelet and monocyte adhesion, and the minimum tissue inflammatory reaction caused by the hybrid stents in treating denuded rabbit arteries, are documented. The proposed hybrid stent, with biodegradable acetylsalicylic acid-loaded nanofibers, substantially contributed to local, sustained delivery of drugs to promote re-endothelialization and reduce thrombogenicity in the injured artery. The stents may have potential applications in the local delivery of cardiovascular drugs. Furthermore, the use of hybrid stents with acetylsalicylic acid-loaded nanofibers that have high drug loadings may provide insight into the treatment of patients with high risk of acute stent thromboses. PMID:24421640

  20. Utilization of acetic acid-rich pyrolytic bio-oil by microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: reducing bio-oil toxicity and enhancing algal toxicity tolerance.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yi; Zhao, Xuefei; Chi, Zhanyou; Rover, Marjorie; Johnston, Patrick; Brown, Robert; Jarboe, Laura; Wen, Zhiyou

    2013-04-01

    This work was to utilize acetic acid contained in bio-oil for growth and lipid production of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The acetic acid-rich bio-oil fraction derived from fast pyrolysis of softwood contained 26% (w/w) acetic acid, formic acid, methanol, furfural, acetol, and phenolics as identified compounds, and 13% (w/w) unidentified compounds. Among those identified compounds, phenolics were most inhibitory to algal growth, followed by furfural and acetol. To enhance the fermentability of the bio-oil fraction, activated carbon was used to reduce the toxicity of the bio-oil, while metabolic evolution was used to enhance the toxicity tolerance of the microalgae. Combining activated carbon treatment and using evolved algal strain resulted in significant algal growth improvement. The results collectively showed that fast pyrolysis-fermentation process was a viable approach for converting biomass into fuels and chemicals. PMID:23455221

  1. Radiation synthesis of eco-friendly water reducing sulfonated starch/acrylic acid hydrogel designed for cement industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Rehim, H. A.; Hegazy, El-Sayed A.; Diaa, D. A.

    2013-04-01

    Starch was treated with chlorosulfonic acid to obtain sulfonated starch. Acrylic acid/sulfonated starch semi-interpenetrated network IPN of different compositions was prepared using ionizing radiation. Swelling of prepared IPNs at different environmental conditions was studied. The possible use of sulfonated starch/acrylic acid IPN as a water-retarding agent in the cement industry was investigated. ζ-potential measurements were used to determine the stability of the colloidal cement—SS/AA and cement -poly-naphthalene sulfonic acid (SNF) water retarding mixtures. Sulfonated starch/acrylic acid water-retarding property was influenced by hydrogel concentration and composition. Sulfonated starch/acrylic acid IPN admixture has a great effect on the cement initial setting time. Using 2% of SS/AA or SNF resulted in an increase in initial setting time by 2 and 1 h respectively, if compared with native cement initial setting time. The results showed that the synthetic commercial super-plasticizers could be replaced by an eco-friendly water-retarding sulfonated starch/acrylic acid IPN in the cement industry.

  2. SureCure ®-A new material to reduces curing time and improve curing reproducibility of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, David P.; Loosemore, Daniel V.; Botts, G. Dean

    This paper introduces a technology that considerably reduces the time to cure the positive plates of lead-acid batteries. In each of several full-scale trials at automotive and industrial battery manufacturers, the simple replacement of 1 wt.% of leady oxide with finely-divided tetrabasic lead sulfate (SureCure™ by Hammond Group Inc.) is shown to accelerate significantly the conversion of tribasic lead sulfate (3BS) to tetrabasic lead sulfate (4BS) in the curing process while improving crystal structure and reproducibility. Shorter curing times result in reduced labour and energy costs, as well as reduced fixed (curing chambers and plant footprint) and working (plate inventory) capital investment.

  3. Can a standard dose of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation reduce the symptoms of delayed onset of muscle soreness?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Unaccustomed exercise can result in delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) which can affect athletic performance. Although DOMS is a useful tool to identify muscle damage and remodelling, prolonged symptoms of DOMS may be associated with the over-training syndrome. In order to reduce the symptoms of DOMS numerous management strategies have been attempted with no significant effect on DOMS-associated cytokines surge. The present study aimed to investigate the acute and chronic effects of a 2 × 180 mg per day dose of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated inflammatory response and symptoms associated with DOMS. Methods Seventeen healthy non-smoking females (age 20.4 ± 2.1 years, height 161.2 ± 8.3 cm and mass 61.48 ± 7.4 kg) were randomly assigned to either placebo (N = 10) or EPA (N = 7). Serum IL-6, isometric and isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) strength, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded on four occasions: i-prior to supplementation, ii-immediately after three weeks of supplementation (basal effects), iii-48 hours following a single bout of resistance exercise (acute training response effects), and iv-48 hours following the last of a series of three bouts of resistance exercise (chronic training response effects). Results There was only a group difference in the degree of change in circulating IL-6 levels. In fact, relative to the first baseline, by the third bout of eccentric workout, the EPA group had 103 ± 60% increment in IL-6 levels whereas the placebo group only had 80 ± 26% incremented IL-6 levels (P = 0.020). We also describe a stable multiple linear regression model which included measures of strength and not IL-6 as predictors of RPE scale. Conclusion The present study suggests that in doubling the standard recommended dose of EPA, whilst this may still not be beneficial at ameliorating the symptoms of DOMS, it counter intuitively appears to enhance the cytokine response to exercise. In a

  4. Reduced burning and stinging associated with topical application of lactic acid 10% with strontium versus ammonium lactate 12%.

    PubMed

    Haddican, Madelaine; Gagliotti, Matthew; Lebwohl, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Burning and/or stinging is one of the most common concerns expressed by patients using topical therapies for treatment of dermatologic disorders. Topical lactic acid preparations often are used to treat dry scaly skin. In this study, we compared the level of burning/stinging reported by participants with application of lactic acid cream 10% containing strontium versus ammonium lactate lotion 12% and cetearyl alcohol lotion. The mean rating of burning/stinging reported for lactic acid cream 10% with strontium and cetearyl alcohol lotion was lower than ammonium lactate lotion 12% (P<.0001). Based on the study results, lactic acid cream 10% with strontium causes less burning/stinging than ammonium lactate lotion 12%. PMID:23772434

  5. Reduced gastric acid production in burn shock period and its significance in the prevention and treatment of acute gastric mucosal lesions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li; Yang, Zhong-Cheng; Li, Ao; Cheng, De-Chang

    2000-02-01

    AIM:To investigate the changes of gastric acid production and its mechanism in shock period of severe burn in rats.METHODS:A rat model with 30% TBSA full thickness burn injury was employed and the gastric acid production,together with gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and energy charge (EC) were measured serially within 48h postburn.RESULTS:The gastric acid production in the acute shock period was markedly inhibited after severe burn injury.At the 3rd h postburn,the gastric juice volume, total acidity and acid output were already significantly decreased (P < 0.01 =, and reached the lowest point, 0.63mL/L ± 0.20mL/L, 10.81mmol/L ± 2.58mmol/L and 2.23mmol/h ± 0.73mmol/h respectively, at the 12th h postburn. Although restored to some degree 24h after thermal injury, the variables above were still statistically lower, compared with those of control animals at the 48th h postburn. The GMBF and EC were also significantly reduced after severe burns, consistent with the trend of gastric acid production changes.CONCLUSION:Gastric acid production, as well as GMBF and EC was predominantly decreased in the early postburn stage, suggesting that gastric mucosal ischemia and hypoxia with resultant disturbance in energy metabolism, but not gastric acid proper, might be the decisive factor in the pathogenesis of AGML after thermal injury, and that the preventive use of anti-acid drugs during burn shock period was unreasonable in some respects. Therefore, taking effective measures to improve gastric mucosal blood perfusion as early as possible postburn might be more preferable for the AGML prevention and treatment. PMID:11819529

  6. Treatment of flaxseed to reduce biohydrogenation of a-linolenic acid by ruminal microbes in sheep and cattle and increase n-3 fatty acid concentrations in red meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study determined if flaxseed treated with a formaldehyde-free process increased n-3 fatty acid (FA) levels in ruminant muscle. Twenty-four lambs (initial BW 43.8 ± 4.4 kg) were randomly divided into 4 groups for a 90-d trial. One treatment group (FLX) was fed 136 g/d of non-treated ground flaxse...

  7. Responses of streams in central Appalachian Mountain region to reduced acidic deposition--comparisons with other regions in North America and Europe.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yushun; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2009-03-15

    Data from 5 wet deposition stations and 21 streams during 1980-2006 were analyzed to investigate chemical responses of streams to reduced acidic deposition in the central Appalachian Mountain region of West Virginia, USA. Wet deposition of acidic anions (i.e., sulfate, nitrate, and chloride) and hydrogen ions decreased significantly during the studied time period. Stream sulfate showed a delayed response to the reduced acidic deposition, and showed a decrease in the 2000s (-5.54 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)) and the whole period (-0.49 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)). No significant trend of stream nitrate+nitrite and chloride was observed. Stream alkalinity increased in the 1990s (+23.33 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)) and the whole period (+7.26 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)). Stream hydrogen ions decreased in the 1990s (-0.002 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)), 2000s (-0.001 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)), and the whole period (-0.001 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)). Compared with most acidic streams and lakes in the United States and Europe, a lower decreasing rate of hydrogen ions and higher increasing rate of alkalinity were observed in the alkaline West Virginian streams in the 1990s. However, due to their initial negative or zero alkalinity values, those acidic streams showed a higher percent increase in alkalinity than that in the alkaline West Virginian streams (from 800 microeq L(-1) yr(-1) to 1200 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)). Total aluminum in the West Virginian streams decreased in the 1990s (-0.67 micromol L(-1) yr(-1)) and the whole period (-0.22 micromol L(-1) yr(-1)). The current study advanced our understanding of streams' responses to the reduced acidic deposition in the Mid-Appalachians since the passage of the 1970 and 1990 Amendments to the United States Clean Air Act (US CAAA). PMID:19073337

  8. Draft genome sequence of the first acid-tolerant sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacterium Desulfovibrio sp. TomC having potential for minewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Karnachuk, Olga V; Mardanov, Andrey V; Avakyan, Marat R; Kadnikov, Vitaly V; Vlasova, Maria; Beletsky, Alexey V; Gerasimchuk, Anna L; Ravin, Nikolai V

    2015-02-01

    The sulfidogenic bacterium Desulfovibrio sp. TomC was isolated from acidic waste at the abandoned gold ore mining site in the Martaiga gold ore belt, Western Siberia. This bacterium, being the first reported acid-tolerant gram-negative sulfate-reducer of the order Deltaproteobacteria, is able to grow at pH as low as 2.5 and is resistant to high concentrations of metals. The draft 5.3 Mb genome sequence of Desulfovibrio sp. TomC has been established and provides the genetic basis for application of this microorganism in bioreactors and other bioremediation schemes for the treatment of metal-containing wastewater. PMID:25724779

  9. 15N NMR investigation of the covalent binding of reduced TNT amines to soil humic acid, model compounds, and lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Thorn, K A; Kennedy, K R

    2002-09-01

    The five major reductive degradation products of TNT-4ADNT (4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene), 2ADNT (2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene), 2,4DANT (2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene), 2,6DANT (2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene), and TAT (2,4,6-triaminotoluene)-labeled with 15N in the amine positions, were reacted with the IHSS soil humic acid and analyzed by 15N NMR spectrometry. In the absence of catalysts, all five amines underwent nucleophilic addition reactions with quinone and other carbonyl groups in the soil humic acid to form both heterocyclic and nonheterocyclic condensation products. Imine formation via 1,2-addition of the amines to quinone groups in the soil humic acid was significant with the diamines and TAT but not the monoamines. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalyzed an increase in the incorporation of all five amines into the humic acid. In the case of the diamines and TAT, HRP also shifted the binding away from heterocyclic condensation product toward imine formation. A comparison of quantitative liquid phase with solid-state CP/MAS 15N NMR indicated that the CP experiment underestimated imine and heterocyclic nitrogens in humic acid, even with contact times optimal for observation of these nitrogens. Covalent binding of the mono- and diamines to 4-methylcatechol, the HRP catalyzed condensation of 4ADNT and 2,4DANT to coniferyl alcohol, and the binding of 2,4DANT to lignocellulose with and without birnessite were also examined. PMID:12322752

  10. 15N NMR investigation of the covalent binding of reduced TNT amines to soil humic acid, model compounds, and lignocellulose

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Kennedy, K.R.

    2002-01-01

    The five major reductive degradation products of TNT-4ADNT (4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene), 2ADNT (2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene), 2,4DANT (2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene), 2,6DANT (2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene), and TAT (2,4,6-triaminotoluene)-labeled with 15N in the amine positions, were reacted with the IHSS soil humic acid and analyzed by 15N NMR spectrometry. In the absence of catalysts, all five amines underwent nucleophilic addition reactions with quinone and other carbonyl groups in the soil humic acid to form both heterocyclic and nonheterocyclic condensation products. Imine formation via 1,2-addition of the amines to quinone groups in the soil humic acid was significant with the diamines and TAT but not the monoamines. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalyzed an increase in the incorporation of all five amines into the humic acid. In the case of the diamines and TAT, HRP also shifted the binding away from heterocyclic condensation product toward imine formation. A comparison of quantitative liquid phase with solid-state CP/MAS 15N NMR indicated that the CP experiment underestimated imine and heterocyclic nitrogens in humic acid, even with contact times optimal for observation of these nitrogens. Covalent binding of the mono- and diamines to 4-methylcatechol, the HRP catalyzed condensation of 4ADNT and 2,4DANT to coniferyl alcohol, and the binding of 2,4DANT to lignocellulose with and without birnessite were also examined.

  11. Effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculum treatments in increasing pH and reducing sulfur-total of acid sulfate soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufieq, Nur Anny Suryaningsih; Rahim, Sahibin Abdul; Jamil, Habibah

    2013-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effectiveness ofsulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in using bran as a source of food and energy, and to see the effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculums treatments for pH and sulfur-total of acid sulfate reduction insoils. This study used two factors in group random designs with four treatments for bacteria inoculum of B1 (1%), B2 (5%), B3 (10%), B4 (15%) and two treatments for organic media (bran) of D1 (1:1) and D2 (1:19). Based on three replications, the combination resulted in a total of 24 treatments. Soil pH was measured using the Duddridge and Wainright method and determination of sulfate content in soil was conducted by the spectrophotometry method. The data obtained was analyzed for significance by Analysis of Variance and the Least Significant Difference Test. The pH of the initial acid sulfate soils ranged from 3 to 4 and the soil sulfur-total ranged from 1.4% to 10%. After mixing sulfate reducing bacteria with the bran mediaand incubated for four days, the pH of the acid sulfate soils increased from 3.67 to 4.20, while the soil sulfur-total contents had been reduced by 2.85% to 0.35%. This experiment has proven that an acid sulfate soil with low pH is a good growth medium for the sulfate reducing bacteria. The bestincubation period to achieve an effective bioremediation resultthrough sulfate percentage reduction by sulfate reducing bacteria was 10 days, while the optimum bran media dose was 1:19, and the bacteria inoculums dose was 10%.

  12. Tuna extract reduces serum uric acid in gout-free subjects with insignificantly high serum uric acid: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kubomura, Daiki; Yamada, Masanori; Masui, Ayano

    2016-01-01

    Long-term reduction of serum urate levels is vital in the treatment of gout. However, it is difficult to convince gout-free individuals of the necessity of treatment as few appropriate over-the-counter remedies and dietary supplements are available. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the antihyperuricemic efficacy and safety of a tuna extract containing the imidazole compounds to evaluate its potential as a functional food ingredient. A randomized, 4-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted. A total of 48 male gout-free subjects with insignificantly high serum uric acid were randomly assigned to low- and high-dose tuna extract groups or a placebo group. The efficacy of the extract was assessed by measuring serum uric acid levels. Furthermore, a safety assessment was performed by physical parameters, hematology, blood biochemistry and urinalysis. The results indicated that the uric acid level was decreased at week 4 during the intervention in the tuna extract groups (low and high dose, −0.23 and −0.34 mg/dl, respectively) compared to the placebo group (−0.07 mg/dl). At week 4 after the intervention, a significant reduction in uric acid levels (−0.41 mg/dl; P<0.05) was observed in the high-dose tuna extract group compared with the placebo group (+0.11 mg/dl). No dose-related adverse events were observed during and following the intervention. Therefore, the present results suggest that oral administration of tuna extract containing the imidazole compounds has hypouricemic activity with no undesirable side effects. PMID:27446553

  13. Increased ubiquitination and reduced plasma membrane trafficking of placental amino acid transporter SNAT-2 in human IUGR.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Yung; Rosario, Fredrick J; Shehab, Majida Abu; Powell, Theresa L; Gupta, Madhulika B; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Placental amino acid transport is decreased in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. We have shown that mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling regulates system A amino acid transport by modulating the ubiquitination and plasma membrane trafficking of sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT-2) in cultured primary human trophoblast cells. We hypothesize that IUGR is associated with (1) inhibition of placental mTORC1 and mTORC2 signalling pathways, (2) increased amino acid transporter ubiquitination in placental homogenates and (3) decreased protein expression of SNAT-2 in the syncytiotrophoblast microvillous plasma membrane (MVM). To test this hypothesis, we collected placental tissue and isolated MVM from women with pregnancies complicated by IUGR (n=25) and gestational age-matched women with appropriately grown control infants (n=19, birth weights between the twenty-fifth to seventy-fifth percentiles). The activity of mTORC1 and mTORC2 was decreased whereas the protein expression of the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-2 (neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 4-2; +72%, P<0.0001) and the ubiquitination of SNAT-2 (+180%, P<0.05) were increased in homogenates of IUGR placentas. Furthermore, IUGR was associated with decreased system A amino acid transport activity (-72%, P<0.0001) and SNAT-1 (-42%, P<0.05) and SNAT-2 (-31%, P<0.05) protein expression in MVM. In summary, these findings are consistent with the possibility that decreased placental mTOR activity causes down-regulation of placental system A activity by shifting SNAT-2 trafficking towards proteasomal degradation, thereby contributing to decreased fetal amino acid availability and restricted fetal growth in IUGR. PMID:26374858

  14. Validation comparing the effectiveness of a lactic acid dip with a lactic acid spray for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli on beef trim and ground beef.

    PubMed

    Wolf, M J; Miller, M F; Parks, A R; Loneragan, G H; Garmyn, A J; Thompson, L D; Echeverry, A; Brashears, M M

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the effectiveness of two application methods (dip versus spray) of 4.4% lactic acid for reducing pathogens on inoculated beef trim and in ground beef. Beef trim inoculated with cocktail mixtures of E. coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxigenic E. coli (STEC), or Salmonella (10(5) to 10(6) CFU/g) at separate times was subjected to five treatments: lactic acid spray (LS), lactic acid dip (LD), water spray (WS), water dip (WD), and untreated control (CTL). Intervention effectiveness for pathogen reduction was measured at 1 and 20 h after treatment on beef trim. Trim was then ground and intervention effectiveness was measured 1 h, 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days after grinding. The LD treatment reduced all pathogens significantly (P < 0.05); E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 0.91 to 1.41 log CFU/g on beef trim and ground beef, non-O157 STEC by 0.48 to 0.82 log CFU/g, and Salmonella by 0.51 to 0.81 log CFU/g. No other treatment significantly reduced any pathogen, although the WD treatment noticeably reduced (P > 0.05) both E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC populations compared with the CTL. The LS treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella by up to 0.5 log CFU/g on beef trim, but these reduced counts did not significantly differ (P > 0.05) from the CTL counts. Overall, the LD treatment was most effective for reducing all pathogens and is the best of these options for improving the safety of beef trim and subsequently produced ground beef. PMID:23127705

  15. Effectiveness of chlorine, organic acids and UV treatments in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica on apples.

    PubMed

    Escudero, M E; Velázquez, L; Favier, G; de Guzmán, A M

    2003-06-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of 200 and 500 ppm of chlorine and organic acids (0.5% lactic acid and 0.5% citric acid) in wash solutions, and UV radiation for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica on apples contaminated by two different methods. Residual levels of these pathogens after different treatments were compared. On dip inoculated apples, Y. enterocolitica reductions of 2.66 and 2.77 logs were obtained with 200 and 500 ppm chlorine combined with 0.5% lactic acid, respectively. The E. coli O157:H7 population decreased 3.35 log with 0.5% lactic acid wash solution, and 2.72 and 2.62 logs after 500 ppm chlorine and 500 ppm chlorine plus 0.5% lactic acid treatments, respectively. Similar reductions were obtained with UV radiation. On spot inoculated apples, significant (p < 0.05) decreases of 4.67 and 4.58 logs were observed in E. coli O157:H7 and Y. enterocolitica levels, respectively, after 500 ppm chlorine plus 0.5% lactic acid treatment as compared with the control. In sectioned apples, microorganisms infiltrated in inner core region and pulp were not significantly (p < 0.05) affected by disinfection treatments. No pathogens were detected in the natural microflora on apples. Reductions such as those obtained with 500 ppm chlorine plus 0.5% lactic acid solution were very proximal to the 5-log score required by FDA for apple disinfection. PMID:12884547

  16. Caprylic Acid supplemented in feed reduces enteric Campylobacter jejuni colonization in ten-day-old broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of human food-borne illness in the United States, and epidemiological evidence indicates poultry and poultry products to be a significant source of human Campylobacter infections. Reducing Campylobacter in the intestinal tract would reduce contamination of...

  17. Insertion Mutagenesis of wca Reduces Acid and Heat Tolerance of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Ying; Doyle, Michael P.; Chen, Jinru

    2001-01-01

    Strains of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serotype O157:H7 produce under stress copious amounts of exopolysaccharide (EPS) composed of colanic acid (CA). Studies were performed to evaluate the association of production of CA with survival of EHEC under adverse environmental conditions. A CA-deficient mutant, M4020, was obtained from a CA-proficient parental strain, E. coli O157:H7 W6-13, by inserting a kanamycin resistance gene cassette (kan) into wcaD and wcaE, 2 of the 21 genes required for CA biosynthesis. M4020 was defective in CA production as determined from the ratio of uronic acid to protein (UA/P) of cells grown from 1 to 4 days at 25°C on minimal glucose agar (MGA), MacConkey agar, and sorbitol-MacConkey agar, and by colony morphology on MGA. The results of stress treatment revealed that M4020 was substantially less tolerant to acid (pH 4.5 and 5.5) and heat (55 and 60°C) in comparison to W6-13, indicating that CA confers on E. coli O157:H7 a protective effect from the environmental stresses of acid and heat. PMID:11371548

  18. Characterization of prominent nitrate-reducing and amino acid-utilizing bacteria from nitrotoxin-enriched equine cecal populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the present study, populations of equine cecal microbes enriched for enhanced rates of 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA) or nitrate metabolism were diluted and cultured for NPA-metabolizing bacteria on a basal enrichment medium (BEM) or tryptose soy agar (TSA) medium supplemented with either 5 mM NP...

  19. Metabolism of lactic acid in fermented cucumbers by Lactobacillus buchneri and related species, potential spoilage organisms in reduced salt fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent evidence suggests that Lactobacillus buchneri may play an important role in spoilage-associated secondary fermentation of cucumbers. Lactic acid degradation during fermented cucumber spoilage is influenced by sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, pH, and presence of oxygen. Objectives were to...

  20. Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid, but not selenomethionine, reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid (MSeA), in comparison with selenomethionine (SeMet), on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male C57BL/6 mice using intramuscular and subcutaneous injection models. Mice were fed AIN9...

  1. An 11-bp insertion in Zea mays FatB reduces the palmitate content of fatty acids in maize grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids in maize kernels are important for human and livestock health. We combined linkage and association analysis to fine-map the major QTL-Pal9 to a 90-kb region, in which only one candidate gene was identified. The gene was named ZmFatB and is orthologous to FatB in Arabidopsis, with a simil...

  2. EVALUATION OF EMISSIONS AND CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR REDUCING FLUORIDE EMISSIONS FROM GYPSUM PONDS IN THE PHOSPHORIC ACID INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of gaseous emissions from gypsum disposal and cooling water ponds to determine their potential as sources of airborne fluorides from the manufacture of phosphoric acid. A model of the chemistry within the pond environment was developed. Previou...

  3. Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance by altering adipose tissue glycolytic and inflammatory function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)'s ability to prevent high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation. In this study, we dissected mechanisms mediating anti-inflammatory and anti-lipogenic actions of EPA, using histology/ immunohistochemistry, transcriptomi...

  4. Au-Pd/reduced graphene oxide composite as a new sensing layer for electrochemical determination of ascorbic acid, acetaminophen and tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Tadayon, Fariba; Vahed, Saba; Bagheri, Hasan

    2016-11-01

    An Au-Pd/reduced graphene oxide composite was employed as a novel electrode material for the sensitive and simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, acetaminophen and tyrosine. The electrochemical response characteristics of the modified electrode toward the analytes were investigated by differential pulse voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry. The responses of the electrochemical sensor for the target analytes were found to be improved significantly in comparison with those obtained using a conventional carbon paste electrode (CPE) and reduced graphene oxide/CPE. The experimental conditions for simultaneous determination of these species have been established. Ternary mixtures of analytes can be determined in the ranges of 0.03-9.50μM. Under optimal conditions, the limits of detection were 15.7, 7.6 and 11.1nM for ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, and tyrosine, respectively. The method was applied successfully to determine the analytes in urine, serum and pharmaceutical samples simultaneously. PMID:27524083

  5. Dietary long-chain unsaturated fatty acids acutely and differently reduce the activities of lipogenic enzymes and of citrate carrier in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Gnoni, Antonio; Giudetti, Anna M

    2016-09-01

    The activities of lipogenic enzymes appear to fluctuate with changes in the level and type of dietary fats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are known to induce on hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) the highest inhibitory effect, which occurs through a long-term adaptation. Data on the acute effects of dietary fatty acids on DNL are lacking. In this study with rats, the acute 1-day effect of high-fat (15 % w/w) diets (HFDs) enriched in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), i.e., monounsaturated (MUFA) and PUFA, of the ω-6 and ω-3 series on DNL and plasma lipid level was investigated; a comparison with a longer time feeding (21 days) was routinely carried out. After 1-day HFD administration UFA, when compared to SFA, reduced plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) level and the activities of the lipogenic enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), a decreased activity of the citrate carrier (CIC), a mitochondrial protein linked to lipogenesis, was also detected. In this respect, ω-3 PUFA was the most effective. On the other hand, PUFA maintained the effects at longer times, and the acute inhibition induced by MUFA feeding on DNL enzyme and CIC activities was almost nullified at 21 days. Mitochondrial fatty acid composition was slightly but significantly changed both at short- and long-term treatment, whereas the early changes in mitochondrial phospholipid composition vanished in long-term experiments. Our results suggest that in the early phase of administration, UFA coordinately reduced both the activities of de novo lipogenic enzymes and of CIC. ω-3 PUFA showed the greatest effect. PMID:27312217

  6. A method for measuring disease-specific iduronic acid from the non-reducing end of glycosaminoglycan in mucopolysaccharidosis type II mice.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yohta; Wakabayashi, Taichi; Akiyama, Kazumasa; Hoshina, Hiroo; Higuchi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Eto, Yoshikatsu; Ida, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Toya

    2016-02-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder arising from deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS), which results in progressive accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in multiple tissues. Accumulated GAGs are generally measured as the amount of total GAGs. However, we recently demonstrated that GAG accumulation in the brain of MPS II model mice cannot be reliably detected by conventional dye-binding assay measuring total GAGs. Here we developed a novel quantitative method for measurement of disease-specific GAGs based on the analysis of 2-sulfoiduronic acid levels derived from the non-reducing terminal end of the polysaccharides by using recombinant human IDS (rhIDS) and recombinant human iduronidase (rhIDUA). This method was evaluated on GAGs obtained from the liver and brain of MPS II mice. The GAGs were purified from tissue homogenates and then digested with rhIDS and rhIDUA to generate a desulfated iduronic acid from their non-reducing terminal end. HPLC analysis revealed that the generated iduronic acid levels were markedly increased in the liver and cerebrum of the MPS II mice, whereas the uronic acid was not detected in wild-type mice. These results indicate that this assay clearly detects the disease-specific GAGs in tissues from MPS II mice. PMID:26051019

  7. UVB radiation variably affects n-3 fatty acids but elevated temperature reduces n-3 fatty acids in juvenile Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Arts, Michael T; Palmer, Michelle E; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit; Jokinen, Ilmari E; Browman, Howard I

    2012-12-01

    Temperature and ultraviolet B radiation (UVB 290-320 nm) are inextricably linked to global climate change. These two variables may act separately, additively, or synergistically on specific aspects of fish biochemistry. We raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) parr for 54 days in outdoor tanks held at 12 and 19 °C and, at each temperature, we exposed them to three spectral treatments differing in UV radiation intensity. We quantified individual fatty acid (FA) mass fractions in four tissues (dorsal muscle, dorsal and ventral skin, and ocular tissue) at each temperature × UV combination. FA composition of dorsal muscle and dorsal and ventral skin was not affected by UV exposure. Mass fractions of 16:0, 18:0, and saturated fatty acids (SFA) were greater in dorsal muscle of warm-reared fish whereas 18:3n-3, 20:2, 20:4n-6, 22:5n-3, 22:6n-3, n-3, n-6, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and total FA were significantly higher in cold-reared fish. Mass fractions of most of the FA were greater in the dorsal and ventral skin of warm-reared fish. Cold-reared salmon exposed to enhanced UVB had higher ocular tissue mass fractions of 20:2, 20:4n-6, 22:6n-3, n-3, n-6, and PUFA compared to fish in which UV had been removed. These observations forecast a host of ensuing physiological and ecological responses of juvenile Atlantic Salmon to increasing temperatures and UVB levels in native streams and rivers where they mature before smolting and returning to the sea. PMID:23108959

  8. Chemical recovery of surface waters across the northeastern united states from reduced inputs of acidic deposition: 1984-2001.

    PubMed

    Warby, Richard A F; Johnson, Chris E; Driscoll, Charles T

    2005-09-01

    Changes in lake water chemistry between 1984 and 2001 at 130 stratified random sites across the northeastern United States were studied to evaluate the population-level effects of decreases in acidic deposition. Surface-water S04(2-) concentrations decreased across the region at a median rate of -1.53 microequiv L(-1) year(-1). Calcium concentrations also decreased, with a median rate of -1.73 microequiv L(-1) year(-1). This decrease in Ca2+ retarded the recovery of surface water acid neutralizing capacity (Gran ANC), which increased at a median rate of 0.66 microequiv L(-1) year(-1). There were small increases in pH in all subregions except central New England and Maine, where the changes were not statistically significant. Median NO3- trends were not significant except in the Adirondacks, where NO3- concentrations increased at a rate of 0.53 microequiv L(-1) year(-1). A regionwide decrease in the concentration of total Al, especially in ponds with low ANC values (ANC < 25 microequiv L(-1)), was observed in the Adirondack subregion. These changes in Al were consistent with the general pattern of increasing pH and ANC. Despite the general pattern of chemical recovery, many ponds remain chronically acidic or are susceptible to episodic acidification. The continued chemical and biological recovery at sites in the northeastern United States will depend on further controls on S and N emissions. PMID:16190211

  9. Co-administration of methyl donors along with guanidinoacetic acid reduces the incidence of hyperhomocysteinaemia compared with guanidinoacetic acid administration alone.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Niess, Barbara; Stojanovic, Marko; Obrenovic, Milos

    2013-09-14

    Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is the natural biosynthetic precursor of creatine, in a metabolic reaction that requires only a methyl group transfer. The use of GAA as a food additive for restoring creatine load in human tissues is rather unexplored and data on efficacy and safety are limited. In particular, an increase in serum homocysteine after GAA administration can be regarded as critical and should be prevented. The present study evaluated the effects of orally administered GAA with and without methyl group donors on serum and urine creatine concentrations, and the occurrence of adverse events during an intervention in healthy human subjects. A total of twenty male and female volunteers were randomised in a double-blind design to receive either GAA (2.4 g/d) or GAA with methyl donors (2.4 g/d of GAA and 1.6 g/d of betaine HCl, 5 μg/d of vitamin B12, 10 mg/d of vitamin B6 and 600 μg/d of folic acid) by oral administration for 8 weeks. Serum and urine creatine increased significantly from before to after administration in both groups (P< 0.001). The proportion of participants who reported minor adverse events was 33.3 % in the GAA group, and 10.0 % in the GAA with methyl donors group (P= 0.30). Hyperhomocysteinaemia was found in 55.6 % of participants supplemented with GAA, while no participant experienced hyperhomocysteinaemia in the group supplemented with GAA and methyl donors (P= 0.01). In summary, both interventions strongly influenced creatine metabolism, resulting in a significant increase in fasting serum creatine. The concomitant supplementation of methyl donors along with GAA largely precluded the elevation of serum homocysteine caused by GAA administration alone. PMID:23351309

  10. Combination of 5-aminolevulinic acid and ferrous ion reduces plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Hara, Takeshi; Koda, Aya; Nozawa, Naoko; Ota, Urara; Kondo, Hikaru; Nakagawa, Hitoshi; Kamiya, Atsuko; Miyashita, Kazutoshi; Itoh, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a natural amino acid produced only in the mitochondria, is a precursor of heme. Cytochromes that contain heme play an important role in aerobic energy metabolism. Thus, ALA may help reduce T2DM-associated hyperglycemia. In this study, we investigated the effect of ALA combined with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) on hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. We found that the gavage administration of ALA combined with SFC (ALA/SFC) for 6 weeks reduced plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in rats without affecting plasma insulin levels. The glucose-lowering effect depended on the amount of ALA/SFC administered per day. Furthermore, the glucose tolerance was also significantly improved by ALA/SFC administration. Although food intake was slightly reduced in the rats administered ALA/SFC, there was no effect on their body weight. Importantly, ALA/SFC administration induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in white adipose tissue and liver, and the induced expression levels of HO-1 correlated with the glucose-lowering effects of ALA/SFC. Taken together, these results suggest that ALA combined with ferrous ion is effective in reducing hyperglycemia of T2DM without affecting plasma insulin levels. HO-1 induction may be involved in the mechanisms underlying the glucose-lowering effect of ALA/SFC. PMID:27239432

  11. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation had no effect on body weight but reduced energy intake in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Harden, Charlotte J; Dible, Victoria A; Russell, Jean M; Garaiova, Iveta; Plummer, Sue F; Barker, Margo E; Corfe, Bernard M

    2014-01-01

    Longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may have greater appetite-suppressing effects than shorter-chain, monosaturated, and saturated fatty acids. Because fish oils are predominantly composed of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid and may assist in the treatment of obesity comorbidities, their effect on body weight and body mass index is of interest. We hypothesized that daily supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil would reduce energy intake and body weight in overweight and obese women compared with supplementation with oleic acid (OA) rich oil. A double-blinded, randomized, parallel intervention was conducted. Body mass index (in kilograms per meter squared), body weight (in kilograms), body fat (in percent), and lean tissue (in kilograms) were measured at baseline and 12 weeks after intervention with DHA or OA. Diet diaries were also completed at these time points for estimation of energy and macronutrient intake. Subjects reported significantly lower energy (P = .020), carbohydrate (g) (P = .037), and fat (g) (P = .045) intake after DHA compared with OA. Body mass or composition was not affected by treatment, although a fall in body weight in the DHA group approached statistical significance (P = .089). Daily ingestion of DHA over a 12-week period may reduce energy intake in overweight and obese females, but longer-term and adequately powered studies using subjects of both sexes are needed. Other factors that should be considered include the following: the choice of control, the body mass index category of subjects, and ways of improving the compliancy and accuracy of dietary assessment. PMID:24418242

  12. Protolichesterinic Acid, Isolated from the Lichen Cetraria islandica, Reduces LRRC8A Expression and Volume-Sensitive Release of Organic Osmolytes in Human Lung Epithelial Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur Arna; Thorsteinsdottir, Margret; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2016-01-01

    We have tested the effect of protolichesterinic acid (PA) on the activity of the volume-sensitive release pathway for the organic osmolyte taurine (VSOAC) and the expression of the leucine-rich-repeat-channel 8A (LRRC8A) protein, which constitutes an essential VSOAC component. Exposing human lung cancer cells (A549) to PA (20 µg/mL, 24 h) reduces LRRC8A protein expression by 25% and taurine release following osmotic cell swelling (320 → 200 mOsm) by 60%. C75 (20 µg/mL, 24 h), a γ-lactone with a C8 carbon fatty acid chain, reduces VSOAC activity by 30%, i.e. less than PA. Stearic acid (20 µg/mL, 24 h) has no effect on VSOAC. Hence, length of PA's fatty acid chain adds to γ-lactone's inhibitory action. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) activity is essential for swelling-induced activation of VSOAC. PA has no effect on cellular concentration of leukotrienes (5-HETE/LTB4 ) under hypotonic conditions, excluding that PA mediated inhibition of VSOAC involves 5-LO inhibition. A549 cells exposed to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin (10 μM, 24 h) reveal signs of apoptosis, i.e. 25% reduction in cell viability as well as 1.3-, 1.5- and 3.3-fold increase in the expression of LRRC8A, Bax (regulator of apoptosis) and p21 (regulator of cell cycle progression), respectively. PA reduces cell viability by 30% but has no effect on p21/Bax expression. This excludes PA as a pro-apoptotic drug in A549 cells. PMID:26549524

  13. Chemical recovery of surface waters across the Northeastern United States from reduced inputs of acidic deposition: 1984-2001

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A.F. Warby; Chris E. Johnson; Charles T. Driscoll

    2005-09-01

    Changes in lake water chemistry between 1984 and 2001 at 130 stratified random sites across the northeastern United States were studied to evaluate the population-level effects of decreases in acidic deposition. Surface-water SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations decreased across the region at a median rate of -1.53 {mu}equiv L{sup -1} year{sup -1}. Calcium concentrations also decreased, with a median rate of -1.73 {mu}equiv L{sup -1} year{sup -1}. This decrease in Ca{sub 2+} retarded the recovery of surface water acid neutralizing capacity (Gran ANC), which increased at a median rate of 0.66 {mu}equiv L{sup -1} year{sup -1}. There were small increases in pH in all subregions except central New England and Maine, where the changes were not statistically significant. Median NO{sub 3}{sup -} trends were not significant except in the Adirondacks, where NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations increased at a rate of 0.53 equiv L{sup -1} year{sup -1}. A regionwide decrease in the concentration of total Al, especially in ponds with low ANC values (ANC {lt} 25 {mu}equiv L{sup -1}), was observed in the Adirondack subregion. These changes in Al were consistent with the general pattern of increasing pH and ANC. Despite the general pattern of chemical recovery, many ponds remain chronically acidic or are susceptible to episodic acidification. The continued chemical and biological recovery at sites in the northeastern United States will depend on further controls on S and N emissions. 27 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Quantifying Heavy Metals Sequestration by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in an Acid Mine Drainage-Contaminated Natural Wetland

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, John W.; Fournelle, John H.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation strategies that depend on bacterial sulfate reduction for heavy metals remediation harness the reactivity of these metals with biogenic aqueous sulfide. Quantitative knowledge of the degree to which specific toxic metals are partitioned into various sulfide, oxide, or other phases is important for predicting the long-term mobility of these metals under environmental conditions. Here we report the quantitative partitioning into sedimentary biogenic sulfides of a suite of metals and metalloids associated with acid mine drainage contamination of a natural estuarine wetland for over a century. PMID:23487496

  15. Reducing mechanical activation-induced amorphisation of salbutamol sulphate by co-processing with selected carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Vincent; Amharar, Youness; Gallagher, Kieran H; Corcoran, Sarah; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2013-11-18

    The unintentional generation of amorphous character in crystalline active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is an adverse consequence of mechanical activation during dosage form manufacture. In this study, we assess and compare the ability of low glass transition temperature (Tg) dicarboxylic acids to mitigate amorphisation of a model API, salbutamol sulphate (SS), on both co-milling and co-mixing. SS processed alone, as well as co-milled and co-mixed composites of the API with glutaric acid (GA), adipic acid (AA) and pimelic acid (PA) were characterised by powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). Milling and dry mixing of SS both resulted in pXRD amorphous materials. No amorphous content of SS was detected by DVS on co-milling with 50% (w/w) GA, while amorphisation was more than halved, relative to the API milled alone, on co-milling with 50% (w/w) AA and PA, respectively. Co-mixing with each excipient also resulted in a decrease in API amorphicity, although the extent of reduction was considerably less compared to the co-milling experiments. The solubility (Solexcipient) of each excipient in amorphous SS was determined by thermal methods. No further reduction in API amorphisation was achieved on co-mixing with 50% (w/w) excipient, compared to concentrations corresponding to the solubility of each excipient in the amorphous API (SolGA=36%, SolAA=21%, SolPA=22%). PXRD confirmed gradual dissolution over time of GA in amorphous SS on co-mixing. In contrast to co-mixing, co-milling SS at excipient weight fractions above their respective solubilities in the amorphous drug resulted in further reductions in API amorphisation. This is thought to be due to the generation of a molecular dispersion of amorphous API, supersaturated with excipient, thereby leading to a more pronounced composite Tg lowering effect. The results indicate that co-processing with low Tg excipients is an effective strategy at

  16. Studies on the high-sulphur proteins of reduced Merino wool. Amino acid sequence of protein SCMKB-IIIB4

    PubMed Central

    Swart, L. S.; Haylett, T.

    1971-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of protein SCMKB-IIIB4 is presented. It is closely related to the sequence of protein SCMKB-IIIB3 (Haylett, Swart & Parris, 1971) differing in only four positions. The peptic and thermolysin peptides of protein SCMKB-IIIB4 were analysed by the dansyl–Edman method (Gray, 1967) and by tritium-labelling of C-terminal residues (Matsuo, Fujimoto & Tatsuno, 1966). This protein is the third member of a group of high-sulphur wool proteins with molecular weight of about 11400. It consists of 98 residues and has acetylalanine and carboxymethylcysteine as N- and C-terminal residues respectively. PMID:4942536

  17. Reduced Symptoms of Inattention after Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Boys with and without Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bos, Dienke J; Oranje, Bob; Veerhoek, E Sanne; Van Diepen, Rosanne M; Weusten, Juliette Mh; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique Gm; Eilander, Ans; Hoeksma, Marco; Durston, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common child psychiatric disorders, and is often treated with stimulant medication. Nonpharmacological treatments include dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, although their effectiveness remains to be shown conclusively. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on ADHD symptoms and cognitive control in young boys with and without ADHD. A total of 40 boys with ADHD, aged 8-14 years, and 39 matched, typically developing controls participated in a 16-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Participants consumed 10 g of margarine daily, enriched with either 650 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) each or placebo. Baseline and follow-up assessments addressed ADHD symptoms, fMRI of cognitive control, urine homovanillic acid, and cheek cell phospholipid sampling. EPA/DHA supplementation improved parent-rated attention in both children with ADHD and typically developing children. Phospholipid DHA level at follow-up was higher for children receiving EPA/DHA supplements than placebo. There was no effect of EPA/DHA supplementation on cognitive control or on fMRI measures of brain activity. This study shows that dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids reduces symptoms of ADHD, both for individuals with ADHD and typically developing children. This effect does not appear to be mediated by cognitive control systems in the brain, as no effect of supplementation was found here. Nonetheless, this study offers support that omega-3 supplementation may be an effective augmentation for pharmacological treatments of ADHD (NCT01554462: The Effects of EPA/DHA Supplementation on Cognitive Control in Children with ADHD; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01554462). PMID:25790022

  18. LA and ALA prevent glucose intolerance in obese male rats without reducing reactive lipid content, but cause tissue-specific changes in fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Matravadia, Sarthak; Zabielski, Piotr; Chabowski, Adrian; Mutch, David M; Holloway, Graham P

    2016-04-01

    While the cause of Type 2 diabetes remains poorly defined, the accumulation of reactive lipids within white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver have been repeatedly implicated as underlying mechanisms. The ability of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to prevent the development of insulin resistance has gained considerable interest in recent years; however, the mechanisms-of-action remain poorly described. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of diets supplemented with either linoleic acid (LA) or α-linolenic acid (ALA) in preventing insulin resistance and reactive lipid accumulation in key metabolic tissues of the obese Zucker rat. Obese Zucker rats displayed impaired glucose homeostasis and reduced n-3 and n-6 PUFA content in the liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT). After the 12-wk feeding intervention, both LA- and ALA-supplemented diets prevented whole body glucose and insulin intolerance; however, ALA had a more pronounced effect. These changes occurred in association with n-3 and n-6 accumulation in all tissues studied, albeit to different extents (EWAT > liver > muscle). Triacylglycerol (TAG), diacylglycerol (DAG), ceramide, and sphingolipid accumulation were not attenuated in obese animals supplemented with either LA or ALA, suggesting that preservation of glucose homeostasis occurred independent of changes in reactive lipid content. However, PUFA-supplemented diets differentially altered the fatty acid composition of TAGs, DAGs, and PLs in a tissue-specific manner, suggesting essential fatty acid metabolism differs between tissues. Together, our results indicate that remodeling of the fatty acid composition of various lipid fractions may contribute to the improved glucose tolerance observed in obese rats fed PUFA-supplemented diets. PMID:26764053

  19. Elevated blood pressure in cytochrome P4501A1 knockout mice is associated with reduced vasodilation to omega − 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Agbor, Larry N.; Walsh, Mary T.; Boberg, Jason R.; Walker, Mary K.

    2012-11-01

    In vitro cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) metabolizes omega − 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n − 3 PUFAs); eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), primarily to 17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (17,18-EEQ) and 19,20-epoxydocosapentaenoic acid (19,20-EDP), respectively. These metabolites have been shown to mediate vasodilation via increases in nitric oxide (NO) and activation of potassium channels. We hypothesized that genetic deletion of CYP1A1 would reduce vasodilatory responses to n − 3 PUFAs, but not the metabolites, and increase blood pressure (BP) due to decreases in NO. We assessed BP by radiotelemetry in CYP1A1 wildtype (WT) and knockout (KO) mice ± NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor. We also assessed vasodilation to acetylcholine (ACh), EPA, DHA, 17,18-EEQ and 19,20-EDP in aorta and mesenteric arterioles. Further, we assessed vasodilation to an NO donor and to DHA ± inhibitors of potassium channels. CYP1A1 KO mice were hypertensive, compared to WT, (mean BP in mm Hg, WT 103 ± 1, KO 116 ± 1, n = 5/genotype, p < 0.05), and exhibited a reduced heart rate (beats per minute, WT 575 ± 5; KO 530 ± 7; p < 0.05). However, BP responses to NOS inhibition and vasorelaxation responses to ACh and an NO donor were normal in CYP1A1 KO mice, suggesting that NO bioavailability was not reduced. In contrast, CYP1A1 KO mice exhibited significantly attenuated vasorelaxation responses to EPA and DHA in both the aorta and mesenteric arterioles, but normal vasorelaxation responses to the CYP1A1 metabolites, 17,18-EEQ and 19,20-EDP, and normal responses to potassium channel inhibition. Taken together these data suggest that CYP1A1 metabolizes n − 3 PUFAs to vasodilators in vivo and the loss of these vasodilators may lead to increases in BP. -- Highlights: ► CYP1A1 KO mice are hypertensive. ► CYP1A1 KO mice exhibit reduced vasodilation responses to n-3 PUFAs. ► Constitutive CYP1A1 expression regulates blood pressure and vascular function.

  20. Diclofenac acid nanocrystals as an effective strategy to reduce in vivo skin inflammation by improving dermal drug bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Pireddu, Rosa; Caddeo, Carla; Valenti, Donatella; Marongiu, Francesca; Scano, Alessandra; Ennas, Guido; Lai, Francesco; Fadda, Anna Maria; Sinico, Chiara

    2016-07-01

    In this work a diclofenac acid nanosuspension formulation was produced as a novel approach for the treatment of skin inflammation. Drug nanocrystals, prepared by the wet media milling technique and stabilized using Poloxamer 188, were characterized by different techniques: scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy. The ability of nanocrystals to improve dermal drug bioavailability was investigated ex vivo by using Franz diffusion vertical cells and mouse skin, in comparison with both diclofenac acid coarse suspensions and a commercial formulation. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of the drug nanosuspension was assessed in vivo by testing its effect compared to common inflammatory endpoints: i.e. the inhibition of chemically induced oedema and leucocyte infiltration (reflected in myeloperoxidase activity). Following the milling procedure, diclofenac nanocrystals exhibited a mean diameter of approximately 279nm, a low polydispersity index (∼0.17) and maintained the same polymorphic form of the starting bulk powder. When the drug nanosuspension was applied on the mouse skin it produced a higher accumulation of diclofenac in the skin compared to both the coarse suspensions and the commercial formulation, as demonstrated by ex vivo transdermal delivery experiments. Moreover, the nanosuspension provided an in vivo oedema inhibition of 50%, which was not statistically different from the commercial formulation. On the contrary, the nanosuspension showed a higher inhibition of myeloperoxidase activity in the damaged tissue (86%) than the commercial formulation (16%). PMID:26998867

  1. Amaranth oil increased fecal excretion of bile Acid but had no effect in reducing plasma cholesterol in hamsters.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Luíla Ivini Andrade; Soares, Rosana Aparecida Manólio; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Ferrari, Roseli A; Miguel, Ana M R O; Almeida, Claudia A S; Arêas, José Alfredo Gomes

    2013-06-01

    Hamsters were fed for 4 weeks on four different diets: control (C) (balanced diet containing 20 % corn oil as the lipid source), hypercholesterolemic (H) (identical to C but containing 12 % coconut oil, 8 % corn oil and 0.1 % cholesterol as the lipid source), amaranth oil (A) (identical to H without corn oil but with amaranth oil), and squalene (S) (identical to H but admixed with squalene in the ratio found in amaranth oil). There were no significant differences in lipid profile, and in the cholesterol excreted in the animals' feces from amaranth oil (A) and squalene (S) groups. Fecal excretion of bile acids was greater in the amaranth oil (A) and squalene groups (S) as compared to the other groups. The scores of steatosis and parenchymal inflammation observed in the amaranth oil (A) and squalene groups (S) were superior to the ones observed in the other groups. Our findings demonstrated that amaranth oil, and its component squalene, increased the excretion of bile acids but did not have a hypocholesterolemic effect in hamsters fed on a diet containing high amounts of saturated fat and cholesterol. PMID:23456975

  2. Essential oil from leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum acts as a xanthine oxidase inhibitor and reduces the serum uric acid levels in oxonate-induced mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Yang, C W; Liao, J W; Zhen, W W; Chu, F H; Chang, S T

    2008-11-01

    The xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitory activity and anti-hyperuricemia effect in mice of Cinnamomum osmophloeum, which is an endemic tree in Taiwan, were evaluated in this study. The results demonstrated that the essential oil of C. osmophloeum leaves presented the strongest XOD inhibition activity (IC(50)=16.3 μg/ml); however, no significant XOD inhibition activities were found in ethanolic and hot water extracts. Furthermore, among the main compounds of essential oil, the cinnamaldehyde exhibited the potent XOD inhibition activity with an IC(50)=8.4 μg/ml. Besides, the reducing serum uric acid levels in oxonate-induced mice by cinnamaldehyde were further investigated. The hyperuricemic mice were oral administrated cinnamaldehyde at a dosage of 150 mg/kg, the uric acid value in serum was reduced from 5.25±0.63 to 2.10±0.04 mg/dl, the levels of serum uric acid in mice was lowered down by 84.48% as compared to the hyperuricemic control group. Based on the results obtained in this study, cinnamaldehyde may be a potential lead compound for developing the pharmaceutic for anti-hyperuricemia agent. PMID:18693097

  3. Tranexamic acid in hip fracture patients: a protocol for a randomised, placebo controlled trial on the efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss in hip fracture patients

    PubMed Central

    Gausden, Elizabeth Bishop; Garner, Matthew R; Warner, Stephen J; Levack, Ashley; Nellestein, Andrew M; Tedore, Tiffany; Flores, Eva; Lorich, Dean G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a high incidence of blood transfusion following hip fractures in elderly patients. Tranexamic acid (TXA) has proven efficacy in decreasing blood loss in general trauma patients as well as patients undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery. A randomised controlled trial will measure the effect of TXA in a population of patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. Methods This is a double-blinded, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Patients admitted through the emergency room that are diagnosed with an intertrochanteric or femoral neck fracture will be eligible for enrolment and randomised to either treatment with 1 g of intravenous TXA or intravenous saline at the time of skin incision. Patients undergoing percutaneous intervention for non-displaced or minimally displaced femoral neck fractures will not be eligible for enrolment. Postoperative transfusion rates will be recorded and blood loss will be calculated from serial haematocrits. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and is registered with clinicaltrials.gov. The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. Trial registration number NCT01940536. PMID:27329438

  4. Promoting endothelial recovery and reducing neointimal hyperplasia using sequential-like release of acetylsalicylic acid and paclitaxel-loaded biodegradable stents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Hung; Yu, Chia-Ying; Chang, Shang-Hung; Hung, Kuo-Chun; Liu, Shih-Jung; Wang, Chao-Jan; Hsu, Ming-Yi; Hsieh, I-Chang; Chen, Wei-Jan; Ko, Yu-Shien; Wen, Ming-Shien

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This work reports on the development of a biodegradable dual-drug-eluting stent with sequential-like and sustainable drug-release of anti-platelet acetylsalicylic acid and anti-smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferative paclitaxel. Methods To fabricate the biodegradable stents, poly-L-lactide strips are first cut from a solvent-casted film. They are rolled onto the surface of a metal pin to form spiral stents. The stents are then consecutively covered by acetylsalicylic acid and paclitaxel-loaded polylactide-polyglycolide nanofibers via electrospinning. Results Biodegradable stents exhibit mechanical properties that are superior to those of metallic stents. Biodegradable stents sequentially release high concentrations of acetylsalicylic acid and paclitaxel for more than 30 and 60 days, respectively. In vitro, the eluted drugs promote endothelial cell numbers on days 3 and 7, and reduce the proliferation of SMCs in weeks 2, 4, and 8. The stents markedly inhibit the adhesion of platelets on days 3, 7, and 14 relative to a non-drug-eluting stent. In vivo, the implanted stent is intact, and no stent thrombosis is observed in the stent-implanted vessels without the administration of daily oral acetylsalicylic acid. Promotion of endothelial recovery and inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia are also observed on the stented vessels. Conclusion The work demonstrates the efficiency and safety of the biodegradable dual-drug-eluting stents with sequential and sustainable drug release to diseased arteries. PMID:25206303

  5. Crystal Structures of the Reduced, Sulfenic Acid, and Mixed Disulfide Forms of SarZ, a Redox Active Global Regulator in Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Poor, Catherine B.; Chen, Peng R.; Duguid, Erica; Rice, Phoebe A.; He, Chuan

    2010-01-20

    SarZ is a global transcriptional regulator that uses a single cysteine residue, Cys{sup 13}, to sense peroxide stress and control metabolic switching and virulence in Staphylococcus aureus. SarZ belongs to the single-cysteine class of OhrR-MgrA proteins that play key roles in oxidative resistance and virulence regulation in various bacteria. We present the crystal structures of the reduced form, sulfenic acid form, and mixed disulfide form of SarZ. Both the sulfenic acid and mixed disulfide forms are structurally characterized for the first time for this class of proteins. The Cys{sup 13} sulfenic acid modification is stabilized through two hydrogen bonds with surrounding residues, and the overall DNA-binding conformation is retained. A further reaction of the Cys{sup 13} sulfenic acid with an external thiol leads to formation of a mixed disulfide bond, which results in an allosteric change in the DNA-binding domains, disrupting DNA binding. Thus, the crystal structures of SarZ in three different states provide molecular level pictures delineating the mechanism by which this class of redox active regulators undergoes activation. These structures help to understand redox-mediated virulence regulation in S. aureus and activation of the MarR family proteins in general.

  6. Gallic acid reduces the effect of LPS on apoptosis and inhibits the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps.

    PubMed

    Haute, Gabriela Viegas; Caberlon, Eduardo; Squizani, Eamim; de Mesquita, Fernanda Cristina; Pedrazza, Leonardo; Martha, Bianca Andrade; da Silva Melo, Denizar Alberto; Cassel, Eduardo; Czepielewski, Rafael Sanguinetti; Bitencourt, Shanna; Goettert, Márcia Inês; de Oliveira, Jarbas Rodrigues

    2015-12-25

    Apoptosis and NETosis of neutrophils are two major mechanisms of programmed cell death that differ in their morphological characteristics and effects on the immune system. Apoptosis can be delayed by the presence of pathogens or chemical components such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Neutrophils have other antimicrobial strategy, called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which contributes to the elimination and control of the pathogen. NETosis is induced by infection, inflammation or trauma and represents an innate immune activation mechanism. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of gallic acid (GA) in the modulation of apoptosis and NETs release. The results show that GA decreased the anti-apoptotic effect of LPS, blocked the induction of NETs and prevented the formation of free radicals induced by LPS. These findings demonstrate that the GA is a novel therapeutic agent for decreasing the exacerbated response of the body against an infectious agent. PMID:26475966

  7. Quinolinic acid lesion of nucleus accumbens reduces D sub 1 but not D sub 2 dopamine receptors: An autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Filloux, F.; Richards, T.J.; Huff, G.F. ); Wamsley, J.K. )

    1991-01-01

    Information concerning the cellular localization of dopamine receptor subtypes in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) was obtained using receptor autoradiographic analysis. Unilateral, stereotaxic injection of the axonsparing neurotoxin, quinolinic acid, into the NAcc resulted in a prominent loss of dopamine D{sub 1} receptors (as labeled by ({sup 3}H)SCH 23390). Contrarily, no appreciable decrement in D{sub 2} receptors (labeled by ({sup 3}H)raclopride) could be identified within the same region of the NAcc. The findings support the view that accumbens D{sub 1} receptors are located postsynaptically on neurons or their processes, while D{sub 2} receptors within this nucleus are primarily located on afferent terminals.

  8. MoS2/reduced graphene oxide as active hybrid material for the electrochemical detection of folic acid in human serum.

    PubMed

    Chekin, Fereshteh; Teodorescu, Florina; Coffinier, Yannick; Pan, Guo-Hui; Barras, Alexandre; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2016-11-15

    In this study, a new matrix based on a molybdenum disulfide-reduced graphene oxide hybrid (MoS2-rGO) was prepared and characterized. Modification of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with MoS2-rGO (MG) using drop casting allowed for the selective analysis of folic acid in the presence of a variety of interference species with a limit of detection of 10nM, a linear range between 0.01μM and 100μM with a sensitivity of 14µAµM(-1). In addition, the analytical performance of the proposed sensor was successfully conducted for the determination of folic acid in human serum samples, making MG-GC electrodes promising interfaces for bio-electrochemical applications. PMID:27288713

  9. Quality of diet and potential renal acid load as risk factors for reduced bone density in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Pedone, Claudio; Napoli, Nicola; Lauretani, Fulvio; Pozzilli, Paolo; Ferrucci, Luigi; Antonelli-Incalzi, Raffaele

    2010-01-01

    Background Bone mass density (BMD) may be influenced by the general dietary pattern and the potential renal acid load (PRAL). Objective To evaluate the association between PRAL and BMD. Methods We evaluated BMD using computed tomography and dietary intake using the EPIC questionnaire in 543 community-living women aged 60 years and older. We grouped the participants according to tertiles of total, trabecular and cortical BMD, and compared demographic, anthropometric and nutritional characteristics across groups. Analyses were repeated using tertiles of BMD variation over a 6-years follow-up. Results Total BMD was inversely associated with age, time since menopause, and creatinine clearance. The intake of PUFAs was slightly higher among women with the highest total BMD, none of the other nutrients taken into account nor PRAL was associated with total BMD. Similar results were found for trabecular BMD, with the exception that alcohol intake was associated with lower bone density. Cortical BMD was associated with vitamin D intake (1.6, 1.8, and 1.8 mcg/day in first, second and third tertile, respectively) and serum 25-OH vitamin D (38.8, 43.2, and 49.5 nmol/L in the first, second, and third tertile, respectively). In the longitudinal analysis, a lower BMI was associated with greater loss of total BMD, while lower serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D at baseline was associated with smaller loss of cortical BMD. Conclusions We found no relationship between dietary acid load and BMD. We also confirmed the role of well recognized risk factor for osteoporosis and found a possible protective effect of PUFA intake on BMD. PMID:20005315

  10. Long-term exposure to nicotine markedly reduces kynurenic acid in rat brain - In vitro and ex vivo evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinska, Elzbieta; Kuc, Damian; Zgrajka, Wojciech; Turski, Waldemar A.; Dekundy, Andrzej

    2009-10-15

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a recognized broad-spectrum antagonist of excitatory amino acid receptors with a particularly high affinity for the glycine co-agonist site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex. KYNA is also a putative endogenous neuroprotectant. Recent studies show that KYNA strongly blocks {alpha}7 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The present studies were aimed at assessing effects of acute and chronic nicotine exposure on KYNA production in rat brain slices in vitro and ex vivo. In brain slices, nicotine significantly increased KYNA formation at 10 mM but not at 1 or 5 mM. Different nAChR antagonists (dihydro-{beta}-erythroidine, methyllycaconitine and mecamylamine) failed to block the influence exerted by nicotine on KYNA synthesis in cortical slices in vitro. Effects of acute (1 mg/kg, i.p.), subchronic (10-day) and chronic (30-day) administration of nicotine in drinking water (100 {mu}g/ml) on KYNA brain content were evaluated ex vivo. Acute treatment with nicotine (1 mg/kg i.p.) did not affect KYNA level in rat brain. The subchronic exposure to nicotine in drinking water significantly increased KYNA by 43%, while chronic exposure to nicotine resulted in a reduction in KYNA by 47%. Co-administration of mecamylamine with nicotine in drinking water for 30 days reversed the effect exerted by nicotine on KYNA concentration in the cerebral cortex. The present results provide evidence for the hypothesis of reciprocal interaction between the nicotinic cholinergic system and the kynurenine pathway in the brain.

  11. Caffeic Acid Reduces the Viability and Migration Rate of Oral Carcinoma Cells (SCC-25) Exposed to Low Concentrations of Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Dziedzic, Arkadiusz; Kubina, Robert; Kabała-Dzik, Agata; Wojtyczka, Robert D.; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Bułdak, Rafał J.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol increases the risk of carcinoma originated from oral epithelium, but the biological effects of ultra-low doses of ethanol on existing carcinoma cells in combination with natural substances are still unclear. A role for ethanol (EtOH), taken in small amounts as an ingredient of some beverages or mouthwashes to change the growth behavior of established squamous cell carcinoma, has still not been examined sufficiently. We designed an in vitro study to determine the effect of caffeic acid (CFA) on viability and migration ability of malignant oral epithelial keratinocytes, exposed to ultra-low concentrations (maximum 100 mmol/L) EtOH. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-dimethyltetrazolium bromide) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) assays were used to assess the cytotoxic effect of EtOH/CFA and the viability of squamous carcinoma SCC-25 cells (ATCC CRL-1628, mobile part of the tongue). Tested EtOH concentrations were: 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mmol/L, along with an equal CFA concentration of 50 μmol/L. Carcinoma cells’ migration was investigated by monolayer “wound” healing assay. We demonstrated that very low concentrations of EtOH ranging between 2.5 and 10 mmol/L may induce the viability of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, while the results following addition of CFA reveal an antagonistic effect, attenuating pro-proliferative EtOH activity. The migration rate of oral squamous carcinoma cells can be significantly inhibited by the biological activity of caffeic acid. PMID:25329614

  12. Sildenafil reduces signs of oxidative stress in pulmonary arterial hypertension: Evaluation by fatty acid composition, level of hydroxynonenal and heart rate variability

    PubMed Central

    Semen, Khrystyna; Yelisyeyeva, Olha; Jarocka-Karpowicz, Iwona; Kaminskyy, Danylo; Solovey, Lyubomyr; Skrzydlewska, Elzbieta; Yavorskyi, Ostap

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare multifactorial disease with an unfavorable prognosis. Sildenafil therapy can improve functional capacity and pulmonary hemodynamics in PAH patients. Nowadays, it is increasingly recognized that the effects of sildenafil are pleiotropic and may also involve changes of the pro-/antioxidant balance, lipid peroxidation and autonomic control. In present study we aimed to assess the effects of sildenafil on the fatty acids (FAs) status, level of hydroxynonenal (HNE) and heart rate variability (HRV) in PAH patients. Patients with PAH were characterized by an increase in HNE and changes in the FAs composition with elevation of linoleic, oleic, docosahexanoic acids in phospholipids as well as reduced HRV with sympathetic predominance. Sildenafil therapy improved exercise capacity and pulmonary hemodynamics and reduced NT-proBNP level in PAH. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of sildenafil were noted from the significant lowering of HNE level and reduction of the phopholipid derived oleic, linoleic, docosahexanoic, docosapentanoic FAs. That was also associated with some improvement of HRV on account of the activation of the neurohumoral regulatory component. Incomplete recovery of the functional metabolic disorders in PAH patients may be assumed from the persistent increase in free FAs, reduced HRV with the sympathetic predominance in the spectral structure after treatment comparing to control group. The possibilities to improve PAH treatment efficacy through mild stimulation of free radical reactions and formation of hormetic reaction in the context of improved NO signaling are discussed. PMID:26654977

  13. Lipolysis, lipogenesis, and adiposity are reduced while fatty acid oxidation is increased in visceral and subcutaneous adipocytes of endurance-trained rats

    PubMed Central

    Pistor, Kathryn E; Sepa-Kishi, Diane M; Hung, Steven; Ceddia, Rolando B

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the alterations in triglyceride (TG) breakdown and storage in subcutaneous inguinal (SC Ing) and epididymal (Epid) fat depots following chronic endurance training. Male Wistar rats were either kept sedentary (Sed) or subjected to endurance training (Ex) at 70–85% peak VO2 for 6 weeks. At weeks 0, 3, and 6 blood was collected at rest and immediately after a bout of submaximal exercise of similar relative intensity to assess whole-body lipolysis. At week 6, adipocytes were isolated from Epid and SC Ing fat pads for the determination of lipolysis under basal or isoproterenol- and forskolin-stimulated conditions, basal and insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into lipids, and fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Body weight, fat pad mass, and insulin were reduced by endurance training. Also, circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were 33% lower in Ex than Sed rats when exercising at the same relative intensity. This coincided with reduced isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in the Epid (27%) and SC Ing (25%) adipocytes in Ex rats. Similarly, forskolin-stimulated lipolysis was reduced in Epid (51%) and SC Ing (49%) adipocytes from Ex rats. Insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into lipids in adipocytes from both fat depots from Ex rats was also lower (∼43%) than Sed controls. Conversely, FAO was increased in Epid (1.71-fold) and SC Ing (1.82-fold) adipocytes of Ex rats. In conclusion, chronic endurance exercise reduced lipolysis and lipogenesis while increasing FAO in Epid and SC Ing adipocytes. These are compatible with an energy-sparing adaptive response to reduced adiposity under chronic endurance training conditions. PMID:26167399

  14. Improved ethanol yield and reduced minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 2) Techno-economic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Our companion paper discussed the yield benefits achieved by integrating deacetylation, mechanical refining, and washing with low acid and low temperature pretreatment. To evaluate the impact of the modified process on the economic feasibility, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was performed based on the experimental data presented in the companion paper. Results The cost benefits of dilute acid pretreatment technology combined with the process alternatives of deacetylation, mechanical refining, and pretreated solids washing were evaluated using cost benefit analysis within a conceptual modeling framework. Control cases were pretreated at much lower acid loadings and temperatures than used those in the NREL 2011 design case, resulting in much lower annual ethanol production. Therefore, the minimum ethanol selling prices (MESP) of the control cases were $0.41-$0.77 higher than the $2.15/gallon MESP of the design case. This increment is highly dependent on the carbohydrate content in the corn stover. However, if pretreatment was employed with either deacetylation or mechanical refining, the MESPs were reduced by $0.23-$0.30/gallon. Combing both steps could lower the MESP further by $0.44 ~ $0.54. Washing of the pretreated solids could also greatly improve the final ethanol yields. However, the large capital cost of the solid–liquid separation unit negatively influences the process economics. Finally, sensitivity analysis was performed to study the effect of the cost of the pretreatment reactor and the energy input for mechanical refining. A 50% cost reduction in the pretreatment reactor cost reduced the MESP of the entire conversion process by $0.11-$0.14/gallon, while a 10-fold increase in energy input for mechanical refining will increase the MESP by $0.07/gallon. Conclusion Deacetylation and mechanical refining process options combined with low acid, low severity pretreatments show improvements in ethanol yields and calculated MESP for cellulosic

  15. Comparison of water wash, trimming, and combined hot water and lactic acid treatments for reducing bacteria of fecal origin on beef carcasses.

    PubMed

    Castillo, A; Lucia, L M; Goodson, K J; Savell, J W; Acuff, G R

    1998-07-01

    Cleaning treatments, such as high-pressure water wash at 35 degrees C or trim, alone and combined with sanitizing treatments, such as hot water (95 degrees C at the source), warm (55 degrees C) 2% lactic acid spray, and combinations of these two sanitizing methods, were compared for their effectiveness in reducing inoculated numbers (5.0 to 6.0 log CFU/cm2) of Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, aerobic plate counts, Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and generic E. coli on hot beef carcass surface areas in a model carcass spray cabinet. Log reductions in numbers of all tested organisms by water wash or trim alone were significantly smaller than the log reductions obtained by the different combined treatments. Regardless of the cleaning treatment (water wash or trim) or surface area, the range for mean log reductions by hot water was from 4.0 to > 4.8 log CFU/cm2, by lactic acid spray was from 4.6 to > 4.9 log CFU/cm2, by hot water followed by lactic acid spray was from 4.5 to > 4.9 log CFU/cm2, and by lactic acid spray followed by hot water was from 4.4 to > 4.6 log CFU/cm2, for S. typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7. Identical reductions were obtained for thermotolerant coliforms and generic E. coli. No differences in bacterial reductions were observed for different carcass surface regions. Water wash and trim treatments caused spreading of the contamination to other areas of the carcass surface while providing an overall reduction in fecal or pathogenic contamination on carcass surface areas. This relocated contamination after either water wash or trim was most effectively reduced by following with hot water and then lactic acid spray. This combined treatment yielded 0% positive samples for S. typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7, thermotolerant coliforms, and generic E. coli on areas outside the inoculated areas, whereas percent positive samples after applying other combined treatments ranged from 22 to 44% for S. typhimurium, 0 to

  16. Nitro-Oleic Acid Reduces J774A.1 Macrophage Oxidative Status and Triglyceride Mass: Involvement of Paraoxonase2 and Triglyceride Metabolizing Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Rosenblat, Mira; Rom, Oren; Volkova, Nina; Aviram, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Nitro-fatty acids possess anti-atherogenic properties, but their effects on macrophage oxidative status and lipid metabolism that play important roles in atherosclerosis development are unclear. This study compared the effects of nitro-oleic acid (OLA-NO2) with those of native oleic acid (OLA) on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, anti-oxidants and metabolism of triglycerides and cholesterol in J774A.1 macrophages. Upon incubating the cells with physiological concentrations of OLA-NO2 (0-1 µM) or with equivalent levels of OLA, ROS levels measured by 2, 7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, decreased dose-dependently, but the anti-oxidative effects of OLA-NO2 were significantly augmented. Copper ion addition increased ROS generation in OLA treated macrophages without affecting OLA-NO2 treated cells. These effects could be attributed to elevated glutathione levels and to increased activity and expression of paraoxonase2 that were observed in OLA-NO2 vs OLA treated cells. Beneficial effects on triglyceride metabolism were noted in OLA-NO2 vs OLA treated macrophages in which cellular triglycerides were reduced due to attenuated biosynthesis and accelerated hydrolysis of triglycerides. Accordingly, OLA-NO2 treated cells demonstrated down-regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1, the key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis, and increased expression of hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase that regulate triglyceride hydrolysis. Finally, OLA-NO2 vs OLA treatment resulted in modest but significant beneficial effects on macrophage cholesterol metabolism, reducing cholesterol biosynthesis rate and low density lipoprotein influx into the cells, while increasing high density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux from the macrophages. Collectively, compared with OLA, OLA-NO2 modestly but significantly reduces macrophage oxidative status and cellular triglyceride content via modulation of cellular anti-oxidants and triglyceride

  17. Reduced folate and serum vitamin metabolites in patients with rectal carcinoma: an open-label feasibility study of pemetrexed with folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Odin, Elisabeth A.; Carlsson, Göran U.; Kurlberg, Göran K.; Björkqvist, Hillevi G.; Tångefjord, Maria T.; Gustavsson, Bengt G.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this single-center, open-label, phase II study were to evaluate (a) the feasibility and safety of neoadjuvant administration of pemetrexed with oral folic acid and vitamin B12 (FA/B12) in newly diagnosed patients with resectable rectal cancer and (b) intracellular and systemic vitamin metabolism. Patients were treated with three cycles of pemetrexed (500 mg/m2, every 3 weeks) and FA/B12 before surgery. The reduced folates tetrahydrofolate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate were evaluated from biopsies in tumor tissue and in adjacent mucosa. Serum levels of homocysteine, cystathionine, and methylmalonic acid were also measured. All 37 patients received three cycles of pemetrexed; 89.2% completed their planned dosage within a 9-week feasibility time frame. Neither dose reductions nor study drug-related serious adverse events were reported. Reduced folate levels were significantly higher in tumor tissue compared with adjacent mucosa at baseline. After FA/B12 administration, tissue levels of reduced folates increased significantly and remained high during treatment in both tumor and mucosa until surgery. Serum levels of cystathionine increased significantly compared with baseline after FA/B12 administration, but then decreased, fluctuating cyclically during pemetrexed therapy. Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels decreased significantly after FA/B12 administration, and remained below baseline levels during the study. These results indicate that administration of three neoadjuvant cycles of single-agent pemetrexed, every 3 weeks, with FA/B12 in patients with resectable rectal cancer is feasible and tolerable. Tissue and serum vitamin metabolism results demonstrate the influence of pemetrexed and FA/B12 on vitamin metabolism and warrant further study. PMID:26825869

  18. Temperature evolution of structure and bonding of formic acid and formate on fully oxidized and highly reduced CeO2(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Wesley O; Xu, Ye; Mullins, David R; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H

    2009-01-01

    Adsorption of formate on oxide surfaces plays a role in water-gas shift (WGS) and other reactions related to H2 production and CO2 utilization. CeO2 is of particular interest because its reducibility affects the redox of organic molecules. In this work, the adsorption and thermal evolution of formic acid and formate on highly ordered films of fully oxidized CeO2(111) and highly reduced CeOx(111) surfaces have been studied using reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) under ultra-high vacuum conditions, and the experimental results are combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations to probe the identity, symmetry, and bonding of the surface intermediates. Disordered ice, ordered a-polymorph and molecular formic acid bonded through the carbonyl are observed at low temperatures. By 250 K, desorption and deprotonation lead to formate coexisting with hydroxyl on CeO2(111), identified to be a bridging bidentate formate species that is coordinated to Ce cations in nearly C2v symmetry and interacting strongly with neighboring H. Changes in the spectra at higher temperatures are consistent with additional tilting of the formate, resulting in Cs(2) or lower symmetry. This change in bonding is caused primarily by interaction with oxygen vacancies introduced by water desorption at 300 K. On reduced CeOx, multiple low-symmetry formate states exist likewise due to interactions with oxygen vacancies. Isotopic studies demonstrate that the formyl hydrogen does not contribute to H incorporated in hydroxyl on the surface, and that both formate oxygen atoms may exchange with lattice oxygen at 400 K. The combined experimental and theoretical results thus provide important insights on the surface reaction pathways of formic acid on ceria.

  19. Reduced folate and serum vitamin metabolites in patients with rectal carcinoma: an open-label feasibility study of pemetrexed with folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation.

    PubMed

    Stoffregen, Clemens C; Odin, Elisabeth A; Carlsson, Göran U; Kurlberg, Göran K; Björkqvist, Hillevi G; Tångefjord, Maria T; Gustavsson, Bengt G

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this single-center, open-label, phase II study were to evaluate (a) the feasibility and safety of neoadjuvant administration of pemetrexed with oral folic acid and vitamin B12 (FA/B12) in newly diagnosed patients with resectable rectal cancer and (b) intracellular and systemic vitamin metabolism. Patients were treated with three cycles of pemetrexed (500 mg/m, every 3 weeks) and FA/B12 before surgery. The reduced folates tetrahydrofolate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate were evaluated from biopsies in tumor tissue and in adjacent mucosa. Serum levels of homocysteine, cystathionine, and methylmalonic acid were also measured. All 37 patients received three cycles of pemetrexed; 89.2% completed their planned dosage within a 9-week feasibility time frame. Neither dose reductions nor study drug-related serious adverse events were reported. Reduced folate levels were significantly higher in tumor tissue compared with adjacent mucosa at baseline. After FA/B12 administration, tissue levels of reduced folates increased significantly and remained high during treatment in both tumor and mucosa until surgery. Serum levels of cystathionine increased significantly compared with baseline after FA/B12 administration, but then decreased, fluctuating cyclically during pemetrexed therapy. Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels decreased significantly after FA/B12 administration, and remained below baseline levels during the study. These results indicate that administration of three neoadjuvant cycles of single-agent pemetrexed, every 3 weeks, with FA/B12 in patients with resectable rectal cancer is feasible and tolerable. Tissue and serum vitamin metabolism results demonstrate the influence of pemetrexed and FA/B12 on vitamin metabolism and warrant further study. PMID:26825869

  20. Distribution of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria across a coastal acid sulfate soil (CASS) environment: implications for passive bioremediation by tidal inundation

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Yu-Chen; Bush, Richard; Grice, Kliti; Tulipani, Svenja; Berwick, Lyndon; Moreau, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal acid sulfate soils (CASS) constitute a serious and global environmental problem. Oxidation of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air generates sulfuric acid with consequently negative impacts on coastal and estuarine ecosystems. Tidal inundation represents one current treatment strategy for CASS, with the aim of neutralizing acidity by triggering microbial iron- and sulfate-reduction and inducing the precipitation of iron-sulfides. Although well-known functional guilds of bacteria drive these processes, their distributions within CASS environments, as well as their relationships to tidal cycling and the availability of nutrients and electron acceptors, are poorly understood. These factors will determine the long-term efficacy of “passive” CASS remediation strategies. Here we studied microbial community structure and functional guild distribution in sediment cores obtained from 10 depths ranging from 0 to 20 cm in three sites located in the supra-, inter- and sub-tidal segments, respectively, of a CASS-affected salt marsh (East Trinity, Cairns, Australia). Whole community 16S rRNA gene diversity within each site was assessed by 454 pyrotag sequencing and bioinformatic analyses in the context of local hydrological, geochemical, and lithological factors. The results illustrate spatial overlap, or close association, of iron-, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in an environment rich in organic matter and controlled by parameters such as acidity, redox potential, degree of water saturation, and mineralization. The observed spatial distribution implies the need for empirical understanding of the timing, relative to tidal cycling, of various terminal electron-accepting processes that control acid generation and biogeochemical iron and sulfur cycling. PMID:26191042

  1. Distribution of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria across a coastal acid sulfate soil (CASS) environment: implications for passive bioremediation by tidal inundation.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yu-Chen; Bush, Richard; Grice, Kliti; Tulipani, Svenja; Berwick, Lyndon; Moreau, John W

    2015-01-01

    Coastal acid sulfate soils (CASS) constitute a serious and global environmental problem. Oxidation of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air generates sulfuric acid with consequently negative impacts on coastal and estuarine ecosystems. Tidal inundation represents one current treatment strategy for CASS, with the aim of neutralizing acidity by triggering microbial iron- and sulfate-reduction and inducing the precipitation of iron-sulfides. Although well-known functional guilds of bacteria drive these processes, their distributions within CASS environments, as well as their relationships to tidal cycling and the availability of nutrients and electron acceptors, are poorly understood. These factors will determine the long-term efficacy of "passive" CASS remediation strategies. Here we studied microbial community structure and functional guild distribution in sediment cores obtained from 10 depths ranging from 0 to 20 cm in three sites located in the supra-, inter- and sub-tidal segments, respectively, of a CASS-affected salt marsh (East Trinity, Cairns, Australia). Whole community 16S rRNA gene diversity within each site was assessed by 454 pyrotag sequencing and bioinformatic analyses in the context of local hydrological, geochemical, and lithological factors. The results illustrate spatial overlap, or close association, of iron-, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in an environment rich in organic matter and controlled by parameters such as acidity, redox potential, degree of water saturation, and mineralization. The observed spatial distribution implies the need for empirical understanding of the timing, relative to tidal cycling, of various terminal electron-accepting processes that control acid generation and biogeochemical iron and sulfur cycling. PMID:26191042

  2. Inhibition of citric acid accumulation by manganese ions in Aspergillus niger mutants with reduced citrate control of phosphofructokinase

    SciTech Connect

    Schreferl, G.; Kubicek, C.P.; Roehr, M.

    1986-03-01

    Mutant strains of Aspergillus niger with reduced citrate control of carbohydrate catabolism (cic mutants) grow faster than the parent strain on media containing 5% (wt/vol) citrate. The mutants tolerated a higher intracellular citrate concentration than the parent strain. One mutant (cic-7/3) contained phosphofructokinase activity significantly less sensitive towards citrate than the enzyme from the parent strain. When this mutant was grown under citrate accumulating conditions, acidogenesis was far less sensitive to inhibition by Mn/sup 2 +/ than in the parent strain. Some of the cic mutants also showed altered citrate inhibition of NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase.

  3. Insulin resistance reduces arterial prostacyclin synthase and eNOS activities by increasing endothelial fatty acid oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xueliang; Edelstein, Diane; Obici, Silvana; Higham, Ninon; Zou, Ming-Hui; Brownlee, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Insulin resistance markedly increases cardiovascular disease risk in people with normal glucose tolerance, even after adjustment for known risk factors such as LDL, triglycerides, HDL, and systolic blood pressure. In this report, we show that increased oxidation of FFAs in aortic endothelial cells without added insulin causes increased production of superoxide by the mitochondrial electron transport chain. FFA-induced overproduction of superoxide activated a variety of proinflammatory signals previously implicated in hyperglycemia-induced vascular damage and inactivated 2 important antiatherogenic enzymes, prostacyclin synthase and eNOS. In 2 nondiabetic rodent models — insulin-resistant, obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats and high-fat diet–induced insulin-resistant mice — inactivation of prostacyclin synthase and eNOS was prevented by inhibition of FFA release from adipose tissue; by inhibition of the rate-limiting enzyme for fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I; and by reduction of superoxide levels. These studies identify what we believe to be a novel mechanism contributing to the accelerated atherogenesis and increased cardiovascular disease risk occurring in people with insulin resistance. PMID:16528409

  4. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid reduces ethanol consumption and ethanol-conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Al Ameri, Mouza; Al Mansouri, Shamma; Al Maamari, Alyazia; Bahi, Amine

    2014-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms such as chromatin modification (specifically histone acetylation) may play a crucial role in the development of addictive behavior. However, little is known about the role of epigenetic modifications in the rewarding properties of ethanol. In the current study, we studied the effects of systemic injection of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA) on ethanol consumption and ethanol-elicited conditioned place preference (CPP). The effect of VPA (300 mg/kg) on voluntary ethanol intake and preference was assessed using continuous two-bottle choice procedure with escalating concentrations of alcohol (2.5-20% v/v escalating over 4 weeks). Taste sensitivity was studies using saccharin (sweet; 0.03% and 0.06%) and quinine (bitter; 20 µM and 40 µM) tastants solutions. Ethanol conditioned reward was investigated using an unbiased CPP model. Blood ethanol concentration (BEC) was also measured. Compared to vehicle, VPA-injected rats displayed significantly lower preference and consumption of ethanol in a two-bottle choice paradigm, with no significant difference observed with saccharin and quinine. More importantly, 0.5 g/kg ethanol-induced-CPP acquisition was blocked following VPA administration. Finally, vehicle- and VPA-treated mice had similar BECs. Taken together, our results implicated HDAC inhibition in the behavioral and reinforcement-related effects of alcohol and raise the question of whether specific drugs that target HDAC could potentially help to tackle alcoholism in humans. PMID:25108044

  5. Overexpression of hydroxynitrile lyase in cassava roots elevates protein and free amino acids while reducing residual cyanogen levels.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Narayanan N; Ihemere, Uzoma; Ellery, Claire; Sayre, Richard T

    2011-01-01

    Cassava is the major source of calories for more than 250 million Sub-Saharan Africans, however, it has the lowest protein-to-energy ratio of any major staple food crop in the world. A cassava-based diet provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein. Moreover, both leaves and roots contain potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides. The major cyanogen in cassava is linamarin which is stored in the vacuole. Upon tissue disruption linamarin is deglycosylated by the apolplastic enzyme, linamarase, producing acetone cyanohydrin. Acetone cyanohydrin can spontaneously decompose at pHs >5.0 or temperatures >35°C, or is enzymatically broken down by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) to produce acetone and free cyanide which is then volatilized. Unlike leaves, cassava roots have little HNL activity. The lack of HNL activity in roots is associated with the accumulation of potentially toxic levels of acetone cyanohydrin in poorly processed roots. We hypothesized that the over-expression of HNL in cassava roots under the control of a root-specific, patatin promoter would not only accelerate cyanogenesis during food processing, resulting in a safer food product, but lead to increased root protein levels since HNL is sequestered in the cell wall. Transgenic lines expressing a patatin-driven HNL gene construct exhibited a 2-20 fold increase in relative HNL mRNA levels in roots when compared with wild type resulting in a threefold increase in total root protein in 7 month old plants. After food processing, HNL overexpressing lines had substantially reduced acetone cyanohydrin and cyanide levels in roots relative to wild-type roots. Furthermore, steady state linamarin levels in intact tissues were reduced by 80% in transgenic cassava roots. These results suggest that enhanced linamarin metabolism contributed to the elevated root protein levels. PMID:21799761

  6. A mixed polyunsaturated fatty acid diet normalizes hippocampal neurogenesis and reduces anxiety in serotonin transporter knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Schipper, Pieter; Kiliaan, Amanda J; Homberg, Judith R

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a mixed dietary intervention on behavioral symptoms in serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT⁻/⁻) rats modeling the human 5-HTT length polymorphic region short-allele. Twenty female 5-HTT⁻/⁻ and 19 wild-type (5-HTT⁺/⁺) rats were fed for 3 months on a mixed polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) diet comprising n-3 PUFAs, B vitamins and phospholipids, or an isocaloric control diet, and a subgroup was subsequently tested in an array of anxiety-related behavioral tests. All brains were harvested and immunostained for doublecortin, a neurogenesis marker. In addition, hippocampal volume was measured. 5-HTT⁻/⁻ rats on the control diet displayed increased anxiety-related behavioral responses, and impaired fear extinction. These effects were completely offset by the mixed PUFA diet, whereas this diet had no behavioral effect in 5-HTT⁺/⁺ rats. In parallel, dentate gyrus doublecortin immunoreactivity was increased in 5-HTT⁻/⁻ rats fed on the control diet, which was reversed by the mixed PUFA diet. Hippocampal volume was unaffected by the mixed PUFA diet in 5-HTT⁻/⁻ subjects, whereas it increased in 5-HTT⁺/⁺ rats. We conclude that a mixed n-3 PUFA diet ameliorates anxiety-related symptoms in a genotype-dependent manner, potentially by normalizing neurogenesis. We suggest that such a mixed diet may serve as an attractive adjuvant to treat anxiety in 5-HTT length polymorphic region short-allele carriers. PMID:21606840

  7. UV erythema reducing capacity of mizolastine compared to acetylsalicylic acid or both combined in comparison to indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, J U; Böckelmann, R; Bonnekoh, B; Gollnick, H P

    2001-10-01

    UV light exerts hazardous effects such as induction of skin cancer and premature skin aging. In this study we evaluated an assumptive anti-inflammatory effect of the nonsedative histamine H1-receptor antagonist, mizolastine, on UV-induced acute sunburn reaction. Therefore, a clinical, randomized, double-blind, four-arm, crossover study was conducted in healthy young female volunteers (skin type II) comparing the UV sensitivity under mizolastine, acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA), indomethacin or a mizolastine/ASA combination. Moreover, HaCaT keratinocytes were incubated with mizolastine under various UV treatment modalities in vitro to study its effect on the release of inflammatory cytokines, i.e. interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). All three drugs were effective in suppressing the UVB-, UVA- and combined UVA/UVB-erythema. However, the strongest effects were observed using the combined treatment with both 250 mg ASA and 10 mg mizolastine. An inhibitory effect in vitro of 10 nM mizolastine upon UV-induced cytokine release from HaCaT keratinocytes was observed for IL-1 alpha at 24 h after 10 J/cm2 UVA1, for IL-6 at 48 h after 10 J/cm2 UVA1 and 30 mJ/cm2 UVB, and also for TNF-alpha at 4 h after 10 J/cm2 UVA, 10 J/cm2 UVA1 and 30 mJ/cm2 UVB, respectively. The combination of mizolastine and ASA can be strongly recommended as a protective measure against UV erythema development with a lower unwanted side effect profile than that of the hitherto treatment modality, i.e. indomethacin. PMID:11683039

  8. The role of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in reducing lipid peroxidation among elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lai Kuan; Shahar, Suzana; Rajab, NorFadilah; Yusoff, Noor Aini Mohd; Jamal, Rahman A; Then, Sue Mian

    2013-05-01

    The present work explores the effect of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) intake on lipid peroxidation among mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. The plasma lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) levels in 67 MCI patients were compared to those of 134 healthy elderly controls. Omega-3 PUFA intake was assessed using an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Apolipoprotein E genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion. The association between various confounders and lipid peroxidation was evaluated using regression analysis. The influence of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) intake on LPO level was investigated. The results revealed that LPO levels were significantly higher in the MCI group than in the control group. Inverse correlations were found between DHA and EPA intake and LPO level among the MCI group. LPO levels decreased significantly with increasing DHA and EPA intake. In summary, the findings revealed that DHA and EPA can play a role in alleviating oxidative stress and reducing the risk of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22898566

  9. Positive effect of reduced aeration rate on growth and stereospecificity of DL-malic acid consumption by Azospirillum brasilense: improving the shelf life of a liquid inoculant formulation.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Espinosa, Karen; García-Cabrera, Ramsés I; Bedoya-López, Andrea; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A

    2015-02-10

    Azospirillum brasilense has significance as a growth promoter in plants of commercial interest. Two industrial native strains (Start and Calf), used as a part of an inoculant formulation in Mexico during the last 15 years, were incubated in laboratory-scale pneumatic bioreactors at different aeration rates. In both strains, the positive effect of decreased aeration was observed. At the lowest (0.1 vvm, air volume/liquid volume×minute), the highest biomass were obtained for Calf (7.8 × 10(10)CFU/ml), and Start (2.9 × 10(9)CFU/ml). These were higher in one magnitude order compared to cultures carried out at 0.5 vvm, and two compared to those at 1.0 vvm. At lower aeration, both stereoisomeric forms of malic acid were consumed, but at higher aeration, just L-malate was consumed. A reduction in aeration allows an increase of the shelf life and the microorganism saved higher concentrations of polyhydroxybutyrate. The selected fermentation conditions are closely related to those prevalent in large-scale bioreactors and offer the possibility of achieving high biomass titles with high shelf life at a reduced costs, due to the complete use of a carbon source at low aeration of a low cost raw material as DL-malic acid mixture in comparison with the L-malic acid stereoisomer. PMID:25556026

  10. Further studies on the use of allopurinol to reduce plasma uric acid concentrations in the Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) hyperuricaemic model.

    PubMed

    Poffers, J; Lumeij, J T; Timmermans-Sprang, E P M; Redig, P T

    2002-12-01

    The present paper reports the effects of allopurinol in a raptor hyperuricaemic model. The study was performed as a follow-up to previous experiments wherein allopurinol was used in doses of 100 and 50 mg/kg, and was proved to be toxic at these higher dose rates. To investigate whether 25 mg/kg (semel in die) s.i.d. allopurinol is a safe and effective dose in Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) to reduce plasma uric acid concentrations, experimental studies were performed using the physiologically occurring postprandial hyperuricaemia. Preprandial and postprandial plasma concentrations of xanthine, hypoxanthine, allopurinol, oxypurinol and uric acid were established by high-performance liquid chromatography at various time intervals after receiving allopurinol (25 mg/kg SID) or placebo. No significant differences were observed between the experimental and the control group. These results indicate that this dose is safe to administer; however, this dose failed to cause a significant effect on plasma uric acid concentrations. Because of the low therapeutic ratio of allopurinol in Red-tailed Hawks, follow-up studies have concentrated on an alternative for the treatment of hyperuricaemia, namely urate oxidase. PMID:12593739

  11. Oral Delivery of Particulate Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 and All-Trans Retinoic Acid Reduces Gut Inflammation in Murine Models of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Thomas F.; Hammer, Laura; Furtado, Stacia; Mathiowitz, Edith; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Mangano, Katia; Auci, Dominick L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims: We investigated oral delivery of transforming growth factor beta 1 [TGFβ]- and all-trans retinoic acid [ATRA]-loaded microspheres as therapy for gut inflammation in murine models of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Methods: ATRA and TGFβ were separately encapsulated in poly [lactic-co-glycolic] acid or polylactic acid microspheres [respectively]. TGFβ was encapsulated using proprietary phase-inversion nanoencapsulation [PIN®] technology. Results: PIN® particles provided sustained release of bioactive protein for at least 4 days and were stable for up to 52 weeks when stored at either 40C or -200C. In the SCID mouse CD4 + CD25- T cell transfer model of IBD, oral treatment starting at disease onset prevented weight loss, significantly reduced average disease score [~ 50%], serum amyloid A levels [~ 5-fold], colon weight-to-length ratio [~ 50%], and histological score [~ 5-fold]. Conclusions: Both agents given together outperformed either separately. Highest TGFβ doses and most frequent dose schedule were most effective. Activity was associated with a significant increase [45%] in Foxp3 expression by colonic lamina propria CD4+ CD25+ T-cells. Activity was also demonstrated in dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis. The data support development of the combination product as a novel, targeted immune based therapy for treatment for IBD. PMID:25987350

  12. Medium-chain fatty acid reduces lipid accumulation by regulating expression of lipid-sensing genes in human liver cells with steatosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baogui; Fu, Jing; Li, Lumin; Gong, Deming; Wen, Xuefang; Yu, Ping; Zeng, Zheling

    2016-05-01

    Accumulation of lipids in the liver can lead to cell dysfunction and steatosis, an important factor in pathogenesis causing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The mechanisms related to lipid deposition in the liver, however, remain poorly understood. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) on the lipolysis and expression of lipid-sensing genes in human liver cells with steatosis. A cellular steatosis model, which is suitable to experimentally investigate the impact of fat accumulation in the liver, was established in human normal liver cells (LO2 cells) with a mixture of free fatty acids (oleate/palmitate, 2:1) at 200 μm for 24 h incubation. MCFA was found to down-regulate expression of liver X receptor-α, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, CD 36 and lipoprotein lipase in this cellular model, and have positive effects on adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. These results suggest that MCFA may reduce lipid accumulation by regulating key lipid-sensing genes in human liver cells with steatosis. PMID:26932533

  13. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and need of blood transfusion in total knee arthroplasty: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study in Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, Abhishek; Sobti, Anshul; Maniar, Shriji; Mishra, Amit; Gite, Raju; Shetty, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: For quite a few years, tranexamic acid (TEA) has been used during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to reduce blood loss. However, no consensus exits regarding its timing and doses. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized double-blinded study of 56 patients in the Indian population undergoing TKA from 2011 to 2012. A dose of 10 mg/kg body weight of TEA (three doses) was given in one group and normal saline was administered in the other. Results: The mean blood loss in the TEA unilateral group was 295 mL ± 218 mL and in the placebo group was 482 mL ± 186 mL (P < 0.005). In the bilateral TEA group, the mean blood loss was 596 mL ± 235 mL and in the placebo group was 1349 mL ± 41 mL (P < 0.005). Conclusion: The number of patients requiring blood transfusion reduced substantially. There was no increase in the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism. TEA reduces intraoperative and postoperative blood loss and thus reduces the need of allogenic blood transfusion. PMID:26420938

  14. Dietary supplementation with phytosterol and ascorbic acid reduces body mass accumulation and alters food transit time in a diet-induced obesity mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that animals fed a high fat (HF) diet supplemented with disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphate (DAPP) exhibit reduced mass accumulation when compared to HF control. This compound is a water-soluble phytostanol ester and consists of a hydrophobic plant stanol covalently bonded to ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). To provide insight into the mechanism of this response, we examined the in vivo effects of a high fat diet supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA) in the presence and absence of unesterified phytosterols (PS), and set out to establish whether the supplements have a synergistic effect in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. Our data indicate that HF diet supplementation with a combination of 1% w/w phytosterol and 1% w/w ascorbic acid results in reduced mass accumulation, with mean differences in absolute mass between PSAA and HF control of 10.05%; and differences in mass accumulation of 21.6% (i.e. the PSAA group gained on average 21% less mass each week from weeks 7-12 than the HF control group). In our previous study, the absolute mass difference between the 2% DAPP and HF control was 41%, while the mean difference in mass accumulation between the two groups for weeks 7-12 was 67.9%. Mass loss was not observed in animals supplemented with PS or AA alone. These data suggest that the supplements are synergistic with respect to mass accumulation, and the esterification of the compounds further potentiates the response. Our data also indicate that chronic administration of PS, both in the presence and absence of AA, results in changes to fecal output and food transit time, providing insight into the possibility of long-term changes in intestinal function related to PS supplementation. PMID:21711516

  15. Glycomacropeptide is a prebiotic that reduces Desulfovibrio bacteria, increases cecal short-chain fatty acids, and is anti-inflammatory in mice.

    PubMed

    Sawin, Emily A; De Wolfe, Travis J; Aktas, Busra; Stroup, Bridget M; Murali, Sangita G; Steele, James L; Ney, Denise M

    2015-10-01

    Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a 64-amino acid (AA) glycophosphopeptide with application to the nutritional management of phenylketonuria (PKU), obesity, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). GMP is a putative prebiotic based on extensive glycosylation with sialic acid, galactose, and galactosamine. Our objective was to determine the prebiotic properties of GMP by characterizing cecal and fecal microbiota populations, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and immune responses. Weanling PKU (Pah(enu2)) and wild-type (WT) C57Bl/6 mice were fed isoenergetic AA, GMP, or casein diets for 8 wk. The cecal content and feces were collected for microbial DNA extraction to perform 16S microbiota analysis by Ion Torrent PGM sequencing. SCFA were determined by gas chromatography, plasma cytokines via a Bio-Plex Pro assay, and splenocyte T cell populations by flow cytometry. Changes in cecal and fecal microbiota are primarily diet dependent. The GMP diet resulted in a reduction from 30-35 to 7% in Proteobacteria, genera Desulfovibrio, in both WT and PKU mice with genotype-dependent changes in Bacteroidetes or Firmicutes. Cecal concentrations of the SCFA acetate, propionate, and butyrate were increased with GMP. The percentage of stimulated spleen cells producing interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was significantly reduced in mice fed GMP compared with casein. In summary, plasma concentrations of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-2 were reduced in mice fed GMP. GMP is a prebiotic based on reduction in Desulfovibrio, increased SCFA, and lower indexes of inflammation compared with casein and AA diets in mice. Functional foods made with GMP may be beneficial in the management of PKU, obesity, and IBD. PMID:26251473

  16. Substituting CF2 for O4' in Components of Nucleic Acids: Towards Systems with Reduced Propensity to Form Abasic Lesions.

    PubMed

    Yurenko, Yevgen P; Novotný, Jan; Sklenář, Vladimir; Marek, Radek

    2015-12-01

    Intrinsic structural features and energetics of nucleotides containing variously fluorinated sugars as potential building blocks of DNA duplexes and quadruplexes are explored systematically using the modern methods of density functional theory (DFT) and quantum chemical topology (QCT). Our results suggest that fluorination at the 2'-β or 2'-α,β positions somewhat stabilizes in vacuo the AI relative to the BI conformations. In contrast, substitution of the CF2 group for the O4' atom (O4'-CF2 modification) leads to a preference of the BI relative to AI DNA-like conformers. All the studied modifications result in a noticeable increase in the stability of the glycosidic bond [estimated by the relaxed force constants (RFC) approach], with particularly encouraging results for the O4'-CF2 derivative. Consequently, the O4'-CF2 modified systems are suggested and explored as promising scaffolds for the development of duplex and quadruplex structures with reduced propensity to form abasic lesions and to undergo DNA damage. PMID:26493955

  17. Trans-chalcone and quercetin down-regulate fatty acid synthase gene expression and reduce ergosterol content in the human pathogenic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a promising antifungal target due to its marked structural differences between fungal and mammalian cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of flavonoids described in the scientific literature as FAS inhibitors (quercetin, trans-chalcone, ellagic acid, luteolin, galangin, and genistein) against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and their effects on fatty acid and ergosterol synthesis. Methods The antifungal activity of the natural products was tested by the microdilution assay for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The effect of the compounds on the cell membrane was evaluated using a protoplast regeneration assay. Ergosterol content was quantified by spectrophotometry. Inhibition of FAS by flavonoids was evaluated by an enzymatic assay to determine IC50 values. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure transcription levels of the FAS1 and ERG6 genes involved in fatty acid and ergosterol biosynthesis, respectively, during exposure of T. rubrum to the flavonoids tested. Results The flavonoids quercetin and trans-chalcone were effective against T. rubrum, with MICs of 125 and 7.5 μg/mL for the wild-type strain (MYA3108) and of 63 and 1.9 μg/mL for the ABC transporter mutant strain (ΔTruMDR2), respectively. The MICs of the fluconazole and cerulenin controls were 63 and 125 μg/mL for the wild-type strain and 30 and 15 μg/mL for the mutant strain, respectively. Quercetin and trans-chalcone also reduced ergosterol content in the two strains, indicating that interference with fatty acid and ergosterol synthesis caused cell membrane disruption. The MIC of quercetin reduced the number of regenerated protoplasts by 30.26% (wild-type strain) and by 91.66% (mutant strain). Half the MIC (0.5 MIC) of quercetin did not reduce the number of regenerated wild-type fungal colonies, but caused a 36.19% reduction in the number of mutant strain protoplasts. In contrast, the MIC and 0

  18. Long-term consumption of dried bonito dashi (a traditional Japanese fish stock) reduces anxiety and modifies central amino acid levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Funatsu, Shoichiro; Kondoh, Takashi; Kawase, Takahiro; Ikeda, Hiromi; Nagasawa, Mao; Denbow, D Michael; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Dried bonito dashi, a traditional Japanese fish stock, enhances palatability of various dishes because of its specific flavor. Daily intake of dashi has also been shown to improve mood status such as tension-anxiety in humans. This study aimed at investigating beneficial effects of dashi ingestion on anxiety/depression-like behaviors and changes in amino acid levels in the brain and plasma in rats. Male Wistar rats were given either dried bonito dashi or water for long-term (29 days; Experiment 1) or single oral administration (Experiment 2). Anxiety and depression-like behaviors were tested using the open field and forced swimming tests, respectively. Concentrations of amino acids were measured in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and jugular vein. During the long-term (29 days) consumption, rats given 2% dashi frequently entered the center zone and spent more time compared with the water controls in the open field test. However, the dashi was ineffective on depression-like behavior. In the hippocampus, concentrations of hydroxyproline, anserine, and valine were increased by dashi while those of asparagine and phenylalanine were decreased. In the hypothalamus, the methionine concentration was decreased. In a single oral administration experiment, the dashi (1%, 2% or 10%) showed no effects on behaviors. Significance was observed only in the concentrations of α-aminoadipic acid, cystathionine, and ornithine in the hippocampus. Dried bonito dashi is a functional food having anxiolytic-like effects. Daily ingestion of the dashi, even at lower concentrations found in the cuisine, reduces anxiety and alters amino acid levels in the brain. PMID:24701973

  19. Selenate mitigates arsenite toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by reducing arsenic uptake and ameliorates amino acid content and thiol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Mishra, Kumkum; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2016-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic element with the potential to cause health effects in humans. Besides rice is a source of both amino acids (AAs) and mineral nutrients, it is undesired source of As for billions of people consuming rice as the staple food. Selenium (Se) is an essential metalloid, which can regulate As toxicity by strengthening antioxidant potential. The present study was designed to investigate As(III) stress mitigating effect of Se(VI) in rice. The level of As, thiolic ligands and AAs was analyzed in rice seedlings after exposure to As(III)/Se(VI) alone and As(III)+Se(VI) treatments. Selenate supplementation (As(III) 25μM+Se(VI) 25μM) decreased total As accumulation in both root and shoot (179 & 144%) as compared to As(III) alone treatment. The As(III)+Se(VI) treatment also induced the levels of non-protein thiols (NPTs), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) as compared to As(III) alone treatment and also modulated the activity of enzymes of thiol metabolism. The content of amino acids (AAs) was significantly altered with Se(VI) supplementation. Importantly, essential amino acids (EAAs) were enhanced in As(III)+Se(VI) treatment as compared to As(III) alone treatment. In contrast, stress related non-essential amino acids (NEAAs) like GABA, Glu, Gly, Pro and Cys showed enhanced levels in As(III) alone treatment. In conclusion, rice supplemented with Se(VI) tolerated As toxicity with reduced As accumulation and increased the nutrition quality by increasing EAAs. PMID:27497079

  20. Improved ethanol yield and reduced Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP) by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 1) Experimental

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Historically, acid pretreatment technology for the production of bio-ethanol from corn stover has required severe conditions to overcome biomass recalcitrance. However, the high usage of acid and steam at severe pretreatment conditions hinders the economic feasibility of the ethanol production from biomass. In addition, the amount of acetate and furfural produced during harsh pretreatment is in the range that strongly inhibits cell growth and impedes ethanol fermentation. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment with lower acid concentrations and temperatures incorporated with deacetylation and mechanical refining. Results The results showed that deacetylation with 0.1 M NaOH before acid pretreatment improved the monomeric xylose yield in pretreatment by up to 20% while keeping the furfural yield under 2%. Deacetylation also improved the glucose yield by 10% and the xylose yield by 20% during low solids enzymatic hydrolysis. Mechanical refining using a PFI mill further improved sugar yields during both low- and high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis. Mechanical refining also allowed enzyme loadings to be reduced while maintaining high yields. Deacetylation and mechanical refining are shown to assist in achieving 90% cellulose yield in high-solids (20%) enzymatic hydrolysis. When fermentations were performed under pH control to evaluate the effect of deacetylation and mechanical refining on the ethanol yields, glucose and xylose utilizations over 90% and ethanol yields over 90% were achieved. Overall ethanol yields were calculated based on experimental results for the base case and modified cases. One modified case that integrated deacetylation, mechanical refining, and washing was estimated to produce 88 gallons of ethanol per ton of biomass. Conclusion The current work developed a novel bio-ethanol process that features pretreatment with lower acid concentrations and temperatures incorporated with deacetylation and mechanical refining. The

  1. Effect of reducing and replacing pork fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics throughout storage time of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Serra, Xavier; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Arnau, Jacint

    2014-05-01

    The effect of pork fat reduction (from 44% to 20% final fat content) and its partial substitution by sunflower oil (3% addition) on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory properties throughout storage time of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) with reduced sodium content (with partial substitution of NaCl by KCl and K-lactate) and without direct addition of nitrate and nitrite (natural nitrate source used instead) was studied. Results showed that sausages with reduced fat (10% initial fat content) and with acceptable sensory characteristics can be obtained by adding to the shoulder lean (8% fat content) during the grinding, either 3.3% backfat (3% fat content) or 3% sunflower oil, both previously finely comminuted with lean. Furthermore, sunflower oil showed to be suitable for partial pork backfat substitution in very lean fermented sausages, conferring desirable sensory properties similar to those of sausages with standard fat content. The sensory quality of the sausages was maintained after three-month cold storage in modified atmosphere. PMID:24530990

  2. Quantification of Tinto River Sediment Microbial Communities: Importance of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Their Role in Attenuating Acid Mine Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Knittel, Katrin; Amann, Rudolf; Amils, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Tinto River (Huelva, Spain) is a natural acidic rock drainage (ARD) environment produced by the bio-oxidation of metallic sulfides from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. This study quantified the abundance of diverse microbial populations inhabiting ARD-related sediments from two physicochemically contrasting sampling sites (SN and JL dams). Depth profiles of total cell numbers differed greatly between the two sites yet were consistent in decreasing sharply at greater depths. Although catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization with domain-specific probes showed that Bacteria (>98%) dominated over Archaea (<2%) at both sites, important differences were detected at the class and genus levels, reflecting differences in pH, redox potential, and heavy metal concentrations. At SN, where the pH and redox potential are similar to that of the water column (pH 2.5 and +400 mV), the most abundant organisms were identified as iron-reducing bacteria: Acidithiobacillus spp. and Acidiphilium spp., probably related to the higher iron solubility at low pH. At the JL dam, characterized by a banded sediment with higher pH (4.2 to 6.2), more reducing redox potential (−210 mV to 50 mV), and a lower solubility of iron, members of sulfate-reducing genera Syntrophobacter, Desulfosporosinus, and Desulfurella were dominant. The latter was quantified with a newly designed CARD-FISH probe. In layers where sulfate-reducing bacteria were abundant, pH was higher and redox potential and levels of dissolved metals and iron were lower. These results suggest that the attenuation of ARD characteristics is biologically driven by sulfate reducers and the consequent precipitation of metals and iron as sulfides. PMID:22544246

  3. Plastid casein kinase 2 knockout reduces abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity, thermotolerance, and expression of ABA- and heat-stress-responsive nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Chang, Hongping; Hu, Shuai; Lu, Xiutao; Yuan, Congying; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Ping; Xiao, Wenjun; Xiao, Langtao; Xue, Gang-Ping; Guo, Xinhong

    2014-08-01

    Plastid casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a major Ser/Thr-specific enzyme for protein phosphorylation in the chloroplast stroma and its kinase activity is regulated by redox signals. To understand the role of CK2 phosphorylation of chloroplast proteins in abiotic stress signalling, an Arabidopsis plastid CK2 (CKA4) knockout mutant was investigated in terms of the plant response to abscisic acid (ABA) and heat stress. CKA4 expression was upregulated by ABA and heat treatment. The cka4 mutant showed reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and seedling growth, and increased stomatal aperture and leaf water loss with a slightly reduced leaf ABA level. The cka4 mutant was more sensitive to heat stress than the wild-type Columbia-0. The expression levels of a number of genes in the ABA regulatory network were reduced in the cka4 mutant. Many heat-upregulated genes (heat-shock factors and heat-shock proteins) were also reduced in the cka4 mutant. The cka4 mutant showed reduced expression levels of plastid-encoded RNA polymerase target genes (atpB and psbA). CKA4 knockout mutation also resulted in a reduction in expression of some critical genes (PTM, ABI4, and PRS1) involved in retrograde signalling from the chloroplast to the nucleus. Similar results were observed in mutant plants with the knockout mutation in both CKA4 and CKA3, which encodes a nuclear CK2 α3 subunit. CKA3 expression was not responsive to ABA and heat stress. These results suggest that CKA4 is an enhancing factor in abiotic stress signalling through modulating the expression of some molecular players in retrograde signalling. PMID:24803505

  4. Plastid casein kinase 2 knockout reduces abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity, thermotolerance, and expression of ABA- and heat-stress-responsive nuclear genes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Chang, Hongping; Hu, Shuai; Lu, Xiutao; Yuan, Congying; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Ping; Xiao, Wenjun; Xiao, Langtao; Xue, Gang-Ping; Guo, Xinhong

    2014-01-01

    Plastid casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a major Ser/Thr-specific enzyme for protein phosphorylation in the chloroplast stroma and its kinase activity is regulated by redox signals. To understand the role of CK2 phosphorylation of chloroplast proteins in abiotic stress signalling, an Arabidopsis plastid CK2 (CKA4) knockout mutant was investigated in terms of the plant response to abscisic acid (ABA) and heat stress. CKA4 expression was upregulated by ABA and heat treatment. The cka4 mutant showed reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and seedling growth, and increased stomatal aperture and leaf water loss with a slightly reduced leaf ABA level. The cka4 mutant was more sensitive to heat stress than the wild-type Columbia-0. The expression levels of a number of genes in the ABA regulatory network were reduced in the cka4 mutant. Many heat-upregulated genes (heat-shock factors and heat-shock proteins) were also reduced in the cka4 mutant. The cka4 mutant showed reduced expression levels of plastid-encoded RNA polymerase target genes (atpB and psbA). CKA4 knockout mutation also resulted in a reduction in expression of some critical genes (PTM, ABI4, and PRS1) involved in retrograde signalling from the chloroplast to the nucleus. Similar results were observed in mutant plants with the knockout mutation in both CKA4 and CKA3, which encodes a nuclear CK2 α3 subunit. CKA3 expression was not responsive to ABA and heat stress. These results suggest that CKA4 is an enhancing factor in abiotic stress signalling through modulating the expression of some molecular players in retrograde signalling. PMID:24803505

  5. Identification of the molecular genetic basis of the low palmitic acid seed oil trait in soybean mutant line RG3 and association analysis of molecular markers with elevated seed stearic acid and reduced seed palmitic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid composition of vegetable oil is becoming increasingly critical for the ultimate functionality and utilization in foods and industrial products. Partial chemical hydrogenation of soybean oil increases oxidative stability and shelf life but also results in the introduction of trans fats...

  6. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase-containing rhizobacteria protect Ocimum sanctum plants during waterlogging stress via reduced ethylene generation.

    PubMed

    Barnawal, Deepti; Bharti, Nidhi; Maji, Deepamala; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Kalra, Alok

    2012-09-01

    Ocimum sanctum grown as rain-fed crop, is known to be poorly adapted to waterlogged conditions. Many a times the crop suffers extreme damages because of anoxia and excessive ethylene generation due to waterlogging conditions present under heavy rain. The usefulness of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase-containing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria was investigated under waterlogging stress. The comparison of herb yield and stress induced biochemical changes of waterlogged and non-waterlogged plants with and without ACC deaminase-containing microbiological treatments were monitored in this study. Ten plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strains containing ACC-deaminase were isolated and characterized. Four selected isolates Fd2 (Achromobacter xylosoxidans), Bac5 (Serratia ureilytica), Oci9 (Herbaspirillum seropedicae) and Oci13 (Ochrobactrum rhizosphaerae) had the potential to protect Ocimum plants from flood induced damage under waterlogged glass house conditions. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of these ACC deaminase-containing selected strains for reducing the yield losses caused by waterlogging conditions. Bacterial treatments protected plants from waterlogging induced detrimental changes like stress ethylene production, reduced chlorophyll concentration, higher lipid peroxidation, proline concentration and reduced foliar nutrient uptake. Fd2 (A. xylosoxidans) induced maximum waterlogging tolerance as treated waterlogged plants recorded maximum growth and herb yield (46.5% higher than uninoculated waterlogged plants) with minimum stress ethylene levels (53% lower ACC concentration as compared to waterlogged plants without bacterial inoculation) whereas under normal non-waterlogged conditions O. rhizosphaerae was most effective in plant growth promotion. PMID:22846334

  7. The efficacy of combined use of intraarticular and intravenous tranexamic acid on reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sung-Yen; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Fu, Yin-Chih; Huang, Peng-Ju; Chang, Je-Ken; Huang, Hsuan-Ti

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of preoperative intravenous (IV) and intraoperative topical administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A total of 120 patients were and randomly allocated to either topical group, combined group, or control group. The mean total blood loss was lower in the combined and topical groups (705 mL and 579 mL, respectively) in comparison with control group (949 mL, P < 0.001). There was a significant difference in transfusion rate among groups (P = 0.009). The postoperative hemoglobin drop and total drain amount were significantly less in the combined group compared to other groups. In conclusion, combining preoperative IV injection and topical administration of TXA can effectively reduce blood loss and transfusion rate. PMID:25534864

  8. pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles induces apoptosis via reduced fatty acid synthesis in MDA-MB-231 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliaperumal, Jagatheesh; Hari, Natarajan; Pavankumar, Padarthi; Elangovan, Namasivayam

    2015-06-01

    The development of formulations with therapeutic peptides has been restricted to poor cell penetration and in this attempt; we developed pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized with FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TEM. In addition, the suitable formulation was evaluated for hemocompatibility, plasma stability and embryo toxicity using Danio rerio embryo model. The results showed that pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles were compatible with plasma. They possess sustained release pattern and also found to be safe up to 300 mg/L in embryo toxicity tests. Cytotoxicity assays with MDA-MB-231 cell lines suggested that, pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles were capable of enhanced cellular penetration and reduced palmitic acid content, which was confirmed by H1 NMR. Hence, these nanoparticles could be employed as excellent adjuvant therapeutics while treating solid tumors with multi-drug resistance.

  9. Efficient removal of herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid from water using Ag/reduced graphene oxide co-decorated TiO2 nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yanhong; Luo, Shenglian; Teng, Yarong; Liu, Chengbin; Xu, Xiangli; Zhang, Xilin; Chen, Liang

    2012-11-30

    A new photocatalyst, Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) co-decorated TiO(2) nanotube arrays (NTs) (Ag/RGO-TiO(2) NTs), was designed and facilely produced by combining electrodeposition and photoreduction processes. The structures and properties of the photocatalysts were characterized. The ternary catalyst exhibited almost 100% photocatalytic removal efficiency of typical herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) from water under simulated solar light irradiation. The photodegradation rate toward 2,4-D over Ag/RGO-TiO(2) NTs is 11.3 times that over bare TiO(2) NTs. After 10 successive cycles with 1600 min of irradiation, Ag/RGO-TiO(2) NTs maintained as high 2,4-D removal efficiency as 97.3% with excellent stability and easy recovery, which justifies the photocatalytic system a promising application for herbicide removal from water. PMID:23062512

  10. pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles induces apoptosis via reduced fatty acid synthesis in MDA-MB-231 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliaperumal, Jagatheesh; Hari, Natarajan; Pavankumar, Padarthi; Elangovan, Namasivayam

    2016-06-01

    The development of formulations with therapeutic peptides has been restricted to poor cell penetration and in this attempt; we developed pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized with FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TEM. In addition, the suitable formulation was evaluated for hemocompatibility, plasma stability and embryo toxicity using Danio rerio embryo model. The results showed that pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles were compatible with plasma. They possess sustained release pattern and also found to be safe up to 300 mg/L in embryo toxicity tests. Cytotoxicity assays with MDA-MB-231 cell lines suggested that, pACC1 peptide loaded chitosan nanoparticles were capable of enhanced cellular penetration and reduced palmitic acid content, which was confirmed by H1 NMR. Hence, these nanoparticles could be employed as excellent adjuvant therapeutics while treating solid tumors with multi-drug resistance.

  11. Combined iron and folic acid supplementation with or without zinc reduces time to walking unassisted among Zanzibari infants 5- to 11-mo old.

    PubMed

    Olney, Deanna K; Pollitt, Ernesto; Kariger, Patricia K; Khalfan, Sabra S; Ali, Nadra S; Tielsch, James M; Sazawal, Sunil; Black, Robert; Allen, Lindsay H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2006-09-01

    Iron and zinc deficiencies have been associated with delayed motor development in nutritionally at-risk children, albeit inconsistently. In this community-based, randomized double-blind trial, iron+folic acid (FeFA) (12.5 mg Fe + 50 mug folic acid), zinc (Zn) (10 mg), and iron+folic acid+zinc (FeFA+Zn) supplements or a placebo were given daily for 1 y to nutritionally at-risk children in Pemba, Zanzibar. The effects of these treatments on attaining unassisted walking were evaluated using survival analysis for 354 children aged 5-11 mo at the start of supplementation. Treatment effects on changes in hemoglobin (Hb) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) Z scores were evaluated using linear regression. Attained motor milestone was recorded every 2 wk for 1 y. Hb, ZPP, HAZ, and WAZ were measured at baseline and after 6 mo of treatment. FeFA with or without Zn reduced the time it took for children to walk assisted. Children who received any iron walked unassisted sooner than those who received no iron [median difference approximately 15 d, P = 0.035, risk ratio (RR) = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.61] and this effect was stronger in those who had iron deficiency anemia (IDA) at baseline (median difference was approximately 30 d; P = 0.002; RR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.21, 2.32). FeFA alone and Zn alone improved Hb and ZPP compared with placebo. There were no significant treatment effects on changes in HAZ or WAZ. The effects of treatment on time to walking may have been mediated by improvements in iron status or hemoglobin, but were not mediated through improvements in growth. PMID:16920865

  12. Potential for dietary ω-3 fatty acids to prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and reduce the risk of primary liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Jump, Donald B; Depner, Christopher M; Tripathy, Sasmita; Lytle, Kelli A

    2015-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased in parallel with central obesity, and its prevalence is anticipated to increase as the obesity epidemic remains unabated. NAFLD is now the most common cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries and is defined as excessive lipid accumulation in the liver, that is, hepatosteatosis. NAFLD ranges in severity from benign fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and NASH is characterized by hepatic injury, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. NASH can progress to cirrhosis, and cirrhosis is a risk factor for primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The prevention of NASH will lower the risk of cirrhosis and NASH-associated HCC. Our studies have focused on NASH prevention. We developed a model of NASH by using mice with the LDL cholesterol receptor gene ablated fed the Western diet (WD). The WD induces a NASH phenotype in these mice that is similar to that seen in humans and includes robust induction of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. With the use of transcriptomic, lipidomic, and metabolomic approaches, we examined the capacity of 2 dietary ω-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω-3; EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω-3; DHA), to prevent WD-induced NASH. Dietary DHA was superior to EPA at attenuating WD-induced changes in plasma lipids and hepatic injury and at reversing WD effects on hepatic metabolism, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. The outcome of these studies suggests that DHA may be useful in preventing NASH and reducing the risk of HCC. PMID:26567194

  13. Early Low-Fat Diet Enriched With Linolenic Acid Reduces Liver Endocannabinoid Tone and Improves Late Glycemic Control After a High-Fat Diet Challenge in Mice.

    PubMed

    Demizieux, Laurent; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Troy-Fioramonti, Stephanie; Iannotti, Fabio Arturo; Borrino, Simona; Gresti, Joseph; Muller, Tania; Bellenger, Jerome; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Degrace, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    Evidence suggests that alterations of glucose and lipid homeostasis induced by obesity are associated with the elevation of endocannabinoid tone. The biosynthesis of the two main endocannabinoids, N-arachidonoylethanolamine and 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol, which derive from arachidonic acid, is influenced by dietary fatty acids (FAs). We investigated whether exposure to n-3 FA at a young age may decrease tissue endocannabinoid levels and prevent metabolic disorders induced by a later high-fat diet (HFD) challenge. Three-week-old mice received a 5% lipid diet containing lard, lard plus safflower oil, or lard plus linseed oil for 10 weeks. Then, mice were challenged with a 30% lard diet for 10 additional weeks. A low n-6/n-3 FA ratio in the early diet induces a marked decrease in liver endocannabinoid levels. A similar reduction was observed in transgenic Fat-1 mice, which exhibit high tissue levels of n-3 FA compared with wild-type mice. Hepatic expression of key enzymes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism was concomitantly changed. Interestingly, some gene modifications persisted after HFD challenge and were associated with improved glycemic control. These findings indicate that early dietary interventions based on n-3 FA may represent an alternative strategy to drugs for reducing endocannabinoid tone and improving metabolic parameters in the metabolic syndrome. PMID:27207550

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce obesity-induced tumor progression independent of GPR120 in a mouse model of postmenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chung, H; Lee, Y S; Mayoral, R; Oh, D Y; Siu, J T; Webster, N J; Sears, D D; Olefsky, J M; Ellies, L G

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and inflammation are both risk factors for a variety of cancers, including breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) decreases the risk of breast cancer, and also reduces obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance, but whether the two effects are related is currently unknown. We tested this hypothesis in a postmenopausal breast cancer model using ovariectomized, immune-competent female mice orthotopically injected with Py230 mammary tumor cells. Obesity, whether triggered genetically or by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding, increased inflammation in the mammary fat pad and promoted mammary tumorigenesis. The presence of tumor cells in the mammary fat pad further enhanced the local inflammatory milieu. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was the most highly upregulated cytokine in the obese mammary fat pad, and we observed that TNF-α dose-dependently stimulated Py230 cell growth in vitro. An ω-3 PUFA-enriched HFD (referred to as fish oil diet, FOD) reduced inflammation in the obese mammary fat pad in the absence of tumor cells and inhibited Py230 tumor growth in vivo. Although some anti-inflammatory effects of ω-3 PUFAs were previously shown to be mediated by the G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120), the FOD reduced Py230 tumor burden in GPR120-deficient mice to a similar degree as observed in wild-type mice, indicating that the effect of FOD to reduce tumor growth does not require GPR120 in the host mouse. Instead, in vitro studies demonstrated that ω-3 PUFAs act directly on tumor cells to activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase, inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis. Our results show that obesity promotes mammary tumor progression in this model of postmenopausal breast cancer and that ω-3 PUFAs, independent of GPR120, inhibit mammary tumor progression in obese mice. PMID:25220417

  15. PPARα (Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor α) Activation Reduces Hepatic CEACAM1 Protein Expression to Regulate Fatty Acid Oxidation during Fasting-refeeding Transition.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K; Khuder, Saja S; Al-Share, Qusai Y; Russo, Lucia; Abdallah, Simon L; Patel, Payal R; Heinrich, Garrett; Muturi, Harrison T; Mopidevi, Brahma R; Oyarce, Ana Maria; Shah, Yatrik M; Sanchez, Edwin R; Najjar, Sonia M

    2016-04-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is expressed at high levels in the hepatocyte, consistent with its role in promoting insulin clearance in liver. CEACAM1 also mediates a negative acute effect of insulin on fatty acid synthase activity. Western blot analysis reveals lower hepatic CEACAM1 expression during fasting. Treating of rat hepatoma FAO cells with Wy14,643, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), rapidly reduces Ceacam1 mRNA and CEACAM1 protein levels within 1 and 2 h, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay shows a decrease in the promoter activity of both rat and mouse genes by Pparα activation, and 5'-deletion and block substitution analyses reveal that the Pparα response element between nucleotides -557 and -543 is required for regulation of the mouse promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrates binding of liganded Pparα toCeacam1promoter in liver lysates ofPparα(+/+), but notPparα(-/-)mice fed a Wy14,643-supplemented chow diet. Consequently, Wy14,643 feeding reduces hepatic Ceacam1 mRNA and CEACAM1 protein levels, thus decreasing insulin clearance to compensate for compromised insulin secretion and maintain glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in wild-type mice. Together, the data show that the low hepatic CEACAM1 expression at fasting is mediated by Pparα-dependent mechanisms. Changes in CEACAM1 expression contribute to the coordination of fatty acid oxidation and insulin action in the fasting-refeeding transition. PMID:26846848

  16. Reduced linoleic acid intake in early postnatal life improves metabolic outcomes in adult rodents following a Western-style diet challenge.

    PubMed

    Oosting, Annemarie; Kegler, Diane; van de Heijning, Bert J M; Verkade, Henkjan J; van der Beek, Eline M

    2015-09-01

    The global increase in dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake has been suggested to contribute to the rise in obesity incidence. We hypothesized that reduced n-6 PUFA intake during early postnatal life improves adult body composition and metabolic phenotype upon a Western diet challenge. Male offspring of C57Bl/6j mice and Wistar rats were subjected to a control diet (CTRL; 3.16 En% linoleic acid [LA]) or a low n-6 PUFA diet (low LA; 1.36 En% LA) from postnatal days (PNs) 2 to 42. Subsequently, all animals were switched to a Western-style diet (2.54 En% LA) until PN98. We monitored body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and glucose homeostasis by an intravenous glucose and insulin tolerance test in rats and by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in mice. At PN98, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, and adipokines were measured and adipocyte number and size were analyzed. In mice, the postnatal low-LA diet decreased fat accumulation during the adult Western-style diet challenge (-27% compared with CTRL, P < .001). Simultaneously, it reduced fasting triglyceride levels and lowered fasting resistin and leptin levels. In rats, the low-LA diet did not affect adult body composition, but decreased the number of retroperitoneal adipocytes and increased the number of large adipocytes. In conclusion, lowering dietary n-6 PUFA intake in early life protected against detrimental effects of an obesogenic diet in adulthood on metabolic homeostasis and fat mass accumulation. PMID:26239950

  17. Acute augmentation of epoxygenated fatty acid levels rapidly reduces pain-related behavior in a rat model of type I diabetes.

    PubMed

    Inceoglu, Bora; Wagner, Karen M; Yang, Jun; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Schebb, Nils H; Hwang, Sung Hee; Morisseau, Christophe; Haj, Fawaz G; Hammock, Bruce D

    2012-07-10

    The nerve damage occurring as a consequence of glucose toxicity in diabetes leads to neuropathic pain, among other problems. This pain dramatically reduces the quality of life in afflicted patients. The progressive damage to the peripheral nervous system is irreversible although strict control of hyperglycemia may prevent further damage. Current treatments include tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and opioids, depending on the severity of the pain state. However, available therapeutics have drawbacks, arguing for the need to better understand the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain and develop novel treatments. Here we demonstrate that stabilization of a class of bioactive lipids, epoxygenated fatty acids (EpFAs), greatly reduces allodynia in rats caused by streptozocin-induced type I diabetes. Inhibitors of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEHI) elevated and stabilized the levels of plasma and spinal EpFAs, respectively, and generated dose-dependent antiallodynic effects more potently and efficaciously than gabapentin. In acute experiments, positive modulation of EpFAs did not display differences in insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, or insulin secretion, indicating the efficacy of sEHIs are not related to the glycemic status. Quantitative metabolomic analysis of a panel of 26 bioactive lipids demonstrated that sEHI-mediated antiallodynic effects coincided with a selective elevation of the levels of EpFAs in the plasma, and a decrease in degradation products coincided with the dihydroxy fatty acids in the spinal cord. Overall, these results argue that further efforts in understanding the spectrum of effects of EpFAs will yield novel opportunities in treating neuropathic pain. PMID:22733772

  18. Reduced expression of intestinal N-acetylglutamate synthase in suckling piglets: a novel molecular mechanism for arginine as a nutritionally essential amino acid for neonates.

    PubMed

    Geng, Meimei; Li, Tiejun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Song, Xiaoyan; Chu, Wuying; Huang, Ruilin; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine developmental changes in mRNA and protein levels for N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS; a key enzyme in synthesis of citrulline and arginine from glutamine/glutamate and proline) in the small intestine of suckling piglets. The porcine NAGS gene was cloned using the real-time polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. The porcine NAGS gene encoded 368 amino acid residues and had a high degree of sequence similarity to the "conserved domain" of human and mouse NAGS genes. The porcine NAGS gene was expressed in E. coli BL21 and a polyclonal antibody against the porcine NAGS protein was developed. Real-time RT-PCR and western-blot analyses were performed to quantify NAGS mRNA and protein, respectively, in the jejunum and ileum of 1- to 28-day-old pigs. Results indicated that intestinal NAGS mRNA levels were lower in 7- to 28-day-old than in 1-day-old pigs. Immunochemical analysis revealed that NAGS protein was localized in enterocytes of the gut. Notably, intestinal NAGS protein abundance declined progressively during the 28-day suckling period. The postnatal decrease in NAGS protein levels was consistent with the previous report of reduced NAGS enzymatic activity as well as reduced synthesis of citrulline and arginine in the small intestine of 7- to 28-day-old pigs. Collectively, these results suggest that intestinal NAGS expression is regulated primarily at the post-transcriptional level. The findings also provide a new molecular basis to explain that endogenous synthesis of arginine is impaired in sow-reared piglets and arginine is a nutritionally essential amino acid for the neonates. PMID:20931344

  19. Biomineralization of lepidocrocite and goethite by nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria: Effect of pH, bicarbonate, phosphate, and humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larese-Casanova, Philip; Haderlein, Stefan B.; Kappler, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Fe(III) solid phases are the products of Fe(II) oxidation by Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria, but the Fe(III) phases reported to form within growth experiments are, at times, poorly crystalline and therefore difficult to identify, possibly due to the presence of ligands (e.g., phosphate, carbonate) that complex iron and disrupt iron (hydr)oxide precipitation. The scope of this study was to investigate the influences of geochemical solution conditions (pH, carbonate, phosphate, humic acids) on the Fe(II) oxidation rate and Fe(III) mineralogy. Fe(III) mineral characterization was performed using 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy and μ-X-ray diffraction after oxidation of dissolved Fe(II) within Mops-buffered cell suspensions of Acidovorax sp. BoFeN1, a nitrate-reducing, Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium. Lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) (90%), which also forms after chemical oxidation of Fe(II) by dissolved O 2, and goethite (α-FeOOH) (10%) were produced at pH 7.0 in the absence of any strongly complexing ligands. Higher solution pH, increasing concentrations of carbonate species, and increasing concentrations of humic acids promoted goethite formation and caused little or no changes in Fe(II) oxidation rates. Phosphate species resulted in Fe(III) solids unidentifiable to our methods and significantly slowed Fe(II) oxidation rates. Our results suggest that Fe(III) mineralogy formed by bacterial Fe(II) oxidation is strongly influenced by solution chemistry, and the geochemical conditions studied here suggest lepidocrocite and goethite may coexist in aquatic environments where nitrate-reducing, Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are active.

  20. Moderate doses of conjugated linoleic acid reduce fat gain, maintain insulin sensitivity without impairing inflammatory adipose tissue status in mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The enrichment of diet with nutrients with potential benefits on body composition is a strategy to combat obesity. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) due its beneficial effects on body composition and inflammatory processes becomes an interesting candidate, since the promotion and impairment of obesity is closely linked to a low-grade inflammation state of adipose tissue. Previously we reported the favourable effects of moderate doses of CLA mixture on body composition and inflammatory status of adipose tissue in mice fed a standard-fat diet. In the present study we assessed the potential beneficial effects of CLA mixture (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12, 50:50) in mice fed a high-fat diet. Methods Two doses were assayed: 0.15 g (CLA1) and 0.5 g CLA/kg body weight (CLA2) for the first 30 days of the study and then animals received a double amount for another 35 days. Results The lowest dose (CLA1) had minor effects on body composition, plasma parameters and gene expression. However, a clear reduction in fat accumulation was achieved by CLA2, accompanied by a reduction in leptin, adiponectin and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) plasma concentrations. Insulin sensitivity was maintained despite a slight increase in fasting glucose and insulin plasma concentrations. The study of gene expression both in adipocytes and in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) suggested that CLA may reduce either the infiltration of macrophages in adipose tissue or the induction of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion In conclusion, the use of moderate doses of an equimolar mix of the two main CLA isomers reduces body fat content, improves plasma lipid profile, maintains insulin sensitivity (despite a moderate degree of hyperinsulinaemia) without the promotion of inflammatory markers in adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet. PMID:20180981

  1. Adjunctive β2-agonist treatment reduces glycogen independently of receptor-mediated acid α-glucosidase uptake in the limb muscles of mice with Pompe disease

    PubMed Central

    Farah, Benjamin L.; Madden, Lauran; Li, Songtao; Nance, Sierra; Bird, Andrew; Bursac, Nenad; Yen, Paul M.; Young, Sarah P.; Koeberl, Dwight D.

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme or gene replacement therapy with acid α-glucosidase (GAA) has achieved only partial efficacy in Pompe disease. We evaluated the effect of adjunctive clenbuterol treatment on cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR)-mediated uptake and intracellular trafficking of GAA during muscle-specific GAA expression with an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector in GAA-knockout (KO) mice. Clenbuterol, which increases expression of CI-MPR in muscle, was administered with the AAV vector. This combination therapy increased latency during rotarod and wirehang testing at 12 wk, in comparison with vector alone. The mean urinary glucose tetrasaccharide (Glc4), a urinary biomarker, was lower in GAA-KO mice following combination therapy, compared with vector alone. Similarly, glycogen content was lower in cardiac and skeletal muscle following 12 wk of combination therapy in heart, quadriceps, diaphragm, and soleus, compared with vector alone. These data suggested that clenbuterol treatment enhanced trafficking of GAA to lysosomes, given that GAA was expressed within myofibers. The integral role of CI-MPR was demonstrated by the lack of effectiveness from clenbuterol in GAA-KO mice that lacked CI-MPR in muscle, where it failed to reverse the high glycogen content of the heart and diaphragm or impaired wirehang performance. However, the glycogen content of skeletal muscle was reduced by the addition of clenbuterol in the absence of CI-MPR, as was lysosomal vacuolation, which correlated with increased AKT signaling. In summary, β2-agonist treatment enhanced CI-MPR-mediated uptake and trafficking of GAA in mice with Pompe disease, and a similarly enhanced benefit might be expected in other lysosomal storage disorders.—Farah, B. L., Madden, L., Li, S., Nance, S., Bird, A., Bursac, N., Yen, P. M., Young, S. P., Koeberl, D. D. Adjunctive β2-agonist treatment reduces glycogen independently of receptor-mediated acid α-glucosidase uptake in the limb muscles of mice with

  2. Dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) application in acidic sandy soil in reducing leaching of phosphorus and heavy metals-a column leaching study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuangen; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe; Stoffella, Peter J

    2013-06-01

    A column leaching study was designed to investigate the leaching potential of phosphorus (P) and heavy metals from acidic sandy soils applied with dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) fertilizers containing varying amounts of DPR material and N-Viro soils. DPR fertilizers were made from DPR materials mixing with N-Viro soils at the ratios of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 %, and applied in acidic sandy soils at the level of 100 mg available P per kilogram soil. A control and a soluble P chemical fertilizer were also included. The amended soils were incubated at room temperature with 70 % field water holding capacity for 21 days before packed into a soil column and subjected to leaching. Seven leaching events were conducted at days 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 70, respectively, and 258.9 mL of deionized water was applied at each leaching events. The leachate was collected for the analyses of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), major elements, and heavy metals. DPR fertilizer application resulted in elevations up to 1 unit in pH, 7-10 times in EC, and 20-40 times in K and Ca concentrations, but 3-10 times reduction in P concentration in the leachate as compared with the chemical fertilizer or the control. After seven leaching events, DPR fertilizers with adequate DPR materials significantly reduced cumulative leaching losses of Fe, P, Mn, Cu, and Zn by 20, 55, 3.7, 2.7, and 2.5 times than chemical fertilizer or control. Even though higher cumulative losses of Pb, Co, and Ni were observed after DPR fertilizer application, the loss of Pb, Co, and Ni in leachate was <0.10 mg (in total 1,812 mL leachate). Significant correlations of pH (negative) and DOC (positive) with Cu, Pb, and Zn (P<0.01) in leachate were observed. The results indicated that DPR fertilizers had a great advantage over the soluble chemical fertilizer in reducing P loss from the acidic sandy soil with minimal likelihood of heavy metal risk to the water environment. pH elevation and high

  3. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 2 knockdown leads to decreased fatty acid oxidation in fat body and reduced reproductive capacity in the insect Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Alves-Bezerra, Michele; Klett, Eric L; De Paula, Iron F; Ramos, Isabela B; Coleman, Rosalind A; Gondim, Katia C

    2016-07-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA esters are important intermediates in lipid metabolism and are synthesized from fatty acids by long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL). The hematophagous insect Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas' disease, produces glycerolipids in the midgut after a blood meal, which are stored as triacylglycerol in the fat body and eggs. We identified twenty acyl-CoA synthetase genes in R. prolixus, two encoding ACSL isoforms (RhoprAcsl1 and RhoprAcsl2). RhoprAcsl1 transcripts increased in posterior midgut on the second day after feeding, and RhoprAcsl2 was highly transcribed on the tenth day. Both enzymes were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant RhoprACSL1 and RhoprACSL2 had broad pH optima (7.5-9.5 and 6.5-9.5, respectively), were inhibited by triacsin C, and were rosiglitazone-insensitive. Both showed similar apparent Km for palmitic and oleic acid (2-6 μM), but different Km for arachidonic acid (0.5 and 6 μM for RhoprACSL1-Flag and RhoprACSL2-Flag, respectively). The knockdown of RhoprAcsl1 did not result in noticeable phenotypes. However, RhoprACSL2 deficient insects exhibited a 2.5-fold increase in triacylglycerol content in the fat body, and 90% decrease in fatty acid β-oxidation. RhoprAcsl2 knockdown also resulted in 20% increase in lifespan, delayed digestion, 30% reduced oviposition, and 50% reduction in egg hatching. Laid eggs and hatched nymphs showed remarkable alterations in morphology. In summary, R. prolixus ACSL isoforms have distinct roles on lipid metabolism. Although RhoprACSL1 functions remain unclear, we propose that RhoprACSL2 is the main contributor for the formation of the intracellular acyl-CoA pool channeled for β-oxidation in the fat body, and is also required for normal reproduction. PMID:27091636

  4. Characterization and activity studies of highly heavy metal resistant sulphate-reducing bacteria to be used in acid mine drainage decontamination.

    PubMed

    Martins, Mónica; Faleiro, M Leonor; Barros, Raúl J; Veríssimo, A Raquel; Barreiros, M Alexandra; Costa, M Clara

    2009-07-30

    Biological treatment with sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has been considered as the most promising alternative for acid mine drainage (AMD) decontamination. Normally, these wastewaters contain high concentrations of sulphate and heavy metals, so the search for SRB highly resistant to metals is extremely important for the development of a bioremediation technology. A SRB consortium resistant to high concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Cu and Zn), similar to those typically present in AMD, was obtained among several environmental samples, from a wastewater treatment plant. The phylogenetic analysis of the dsr gene sequence revealed that this consortium contains species of SRB affiliated to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Desulfobulbus rhabdoformis. The results show that the presence of usually lethal concentrations of Fe (400mg/L), Zn (150 mg/L) and Cu (80 mg/L) is not toxic for the sulphate-reducing bacteria present in this sample. As a consequence, a very good efficiency in terms of sulphate reduction and metals removal was obtained. Both ethanol and lactate can be used by this inoculum as carbon source. With the other samples tested sulphate reduction was inhibited by the presence of copper and zinc. This highly metal resistant consortium will be used to inoculate a bioreactor to carry out AMD decontamination. PMID:19135795

  5. Oral nimodipine reduces prostaglandin and thromboxane production by arteries chronically exposed to a periarterial haematoma and the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid.

    PubMed

    Pickard, J D; Walker, V; Vile, J; Perry, S; Smythe, P J; Hunt, R

    1987-06-01

    The calcium antagonist nimodipine blocks the effects of many vasoconstrictors of cerebrovascular smooth muscle and may reduce the incidence of delayed cerebral ischaemia following subarachnoid haemorrhage though not necessarily by inhibiting the development of angiographic cerebral vasospasm. Post-haemorrhagic CSF contains abnormally large quantities of various eicosanoids that partly reflect enhanced production by cerebral arteries. Does nimodipine affect this process? The extra-arterial and intra-arterial production of PG6 keto-F1 alpha, PGE2, PGF2 alpha and TXB2 were measured in perfused common carotid arteries taken from rabbits in which the arteries had been ensheathed by blood clot in vivo for 7 days. All rabbits were given the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid to retard resolution of the clot, and half were given oral nimodipine (2 mg/kg/day) for 10 days. Nimodipine significantly reduced the extra-arterial production of TXB2 during the third and fourth hours of perfusion and, less consistently, the production of PGF2 alpha, PGE2 and PG6 keto-F1 alpha. Lutrol, the solvent for nimodipine, had no such effect. PMID:3475405

  6. Reducing-Agent-Free Instant Synthesis of Carbon-Supported Pd Catalysts in a Green Leidenfrost Droplet Reactor and Catalytic Activity in Formic Acid Dehydrogenation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Jin, Min-Ho; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Ju-Hyoung; Lee, Chun-Boo; Park, Jong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The development of green synthesis methods for supported noble metal catalysts remains important challenges to improve their sustainability. Here we first synthesized carbon-supported Pd catalysts in a green Leidenfrost droplet reactor without reducing agents, high-temperature calcination and reduction procedures. When the aqueous solution containing Pd nitrate precursor, carbon support, and water is dripped on a hot plate, vapor layer is formed between a solution droplet and hot surface, which allow the solution droplet to be levitated on the hot surface (Leidenfrost phenomena). Subsequently, Pd nanoparticles can be prepared without reducing agents in a weakly basic droplet reactor created by the Leidenfrost phenomena, and then the as-prepared Pd nanoparticles are loaded on carbon supports during boiling down the droplet on hot surface. Compared to conventional incipient wetness and chemical synthetic methods, the Leidenfrost droplet reactor does not need energy-consuming, time-consuming, and environmentally unfriendly procedures, which leads to much shorter synthesis time, lower carbon dioxide emission, and more ecofriendly process in comparison with conventional synthesis methods. Moreover, the catalysts synthesized in the Leidenfrost droplet reactor provided much better catalytic activity for room-temperature formic acid decomposition than those prepared by the incipient wetness method. PMID:27198855

  7. Reducing-Agent-Free Instant Synthesis of Carbon-Supported Pd Catalysts in a Green Leidenfrost Droplet Reactor and Catalytic Activity in Formic Acid Dehydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Jin, Min-Ho; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Ju-Hyoung; Lee, Chun-Boo; Park, Jong-Soo

    2016-05-01

    The development of green synthesis methods for supported noble metal catalysts remains important challenges to improve their sustainability. Here we first synthesized carbon-supported Pd catalysts in a green Leidenfrost droplet reactor without reducing agents, high-temperature calcination and reduction procedures. When the aqueous solution containing Pd nitrate precursor, carbon support, and water is dripped on a hot plate, vapor layer is formed between a solution droplet and hot surface, which allow the solution droplet to be levitated on the hot surface (Leidenfrost phenomena). Subsequently, Pd nanoparticles can be prepared without reducing agents in a weakly basic droplet reactor created by the Leidenfrost phenomena, and then the as-prepared Pd nanoparticles are loaded on carbon supports during boiling down the droplet on hot surface. Compared to conventional incipient wetness and chemical synthetic methods, the Leidenfrost droplet reactor does not need energy-consuming, time-consuming, and environmentally unfriendly procedures, which leads to much shorter synthesis time, lower carbon dioxide emission, and more ecofriendly process in comparison with conventional synthesis methods. Moreover, the catalysts synthesized in the Leidenfrost droplet reactor provided much better catalytic activity for room-temperature formic acid decomposition than those prepared by the incipient wetness method.

  8. In ovo delivery of Toll-like receptor 2 ligand, lipoteichoic acid induces pro-inflammatory mediators reducing post-hatch infectious laryngotracheitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Thapa, S; Nagy, E; Abdul-Careem, M F

    2015-04-15

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands are pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) recognized by the TLRs resulting in induction of host innate immune responses. One of the PAMPs that binds to TLR2 and cluster of differentiation (CD) 14 is lipotechoic acid (LTA), which activates downstream signals culminating in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we investigated whether in ovo LTA delivery leads to the induction of antiviral responses against post-hatch infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) infection. We first delivered the LTA into embryo day (ED)18 eggs via in ovo route so that the compound is available at the respiratory mucosa. Then the LTA treated and control ED18 eggs were allowed to hatch and the hatched chicken was infected with ILTV intratracheally on the day of hatch. We found that in ovo delivered LTA reduces ILTV infection post-hatch. We also found that in ovo delivery of LTA significantly increases mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in pre-hatch embryo lungs as well as mononuclear cell infiltration, predominantly macrophages, in lung of post-hatch chickens. Altogether, the data suggest that in ovo delivered LTA could be used to reduce ILTV infection in newly hatched chickens. PMID:25764942

  9. Mercury methylation in Sphagnum moss mats and its association with sulfate-reducing bacteria in an acidic Adirondack forest lake wetland.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ri-Qing; Adatto, Isaac; Montesdeoca, Mario R; Driscoll, Charles T; Hines, Mark E; Barkay, Tamar

    2010-12-01

    Processes leading to the bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) in northern wetlands are largely unknown. We have studied various ecological niches within a remote, acidic forested lake ecosystem in the southwestern Adirondacks, NY, to discover that mats comprised of Sphagnum moss were a hot spot for mercury (Hg) and MeHg accumulation (190.5 and 18.6 ng g⁻¹ dw, respectively). Furthermore, significantly higher potential methylation rates were measured in Sphagnum mats as compared with other sites within Sunday Lake's ecosystem. Although MPN estimates showed a low biomass of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), 2.8 × 10⁴ cells mL⁻¹ in mat samples, evidence consisting of (1) a twofold stimulation of potential methylation by the addition of sulfate, (2) a significant decrease in Hg methylation in the presence of the sulfate reduction inhibitor molybdate, and (3) presence of dsrAB-like genes in mat DNA extracts, suggested that SRB were involved in Hg methylation. Sequencing of dsrB genes indicated that novel SRB, incomplete oxidizers including Desulfobulbus spp. and Desulfovibrio spp., and syntrophs dominated the sulfate-reducing guild in the Sphagnum moss mat. Sphagnum, a bryophyte dominating boreal peatlands, and its associated microbial communities appear to play an important role in the production and accumulation of MeHg in high-latitude ecosystems. PMID:20955196

  10. Reducing-Agent-Free Instant Synthesis of Carbon-Supported Pd Catalysts in a Green Leidenfrost Droplet Reactor and Catalytic Activity in Formic Acid Dehydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Jin, Min-Ho; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Ju-Hyoung; Lee, Chun-Boo; Park, Jong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The development of green synthesis methods for supported noble metal catalysts remains important challenges to improve their sustainability. Here we first synthesized carbon-supported Pd catalysts in a green Leidenfrost droplet reactor without reducing agents, high-temperature calcination and reduction procedures. When the aqueous solution containing Pd nitrate precursor, carbon support, and water is dripped on a hot plate, vapor layer is formed between a solution droplet and hot surface, which allow the solution droplet to be levitated on the hot surface (Leidenfrost phenomena). Subsequently, Pd nanoparticles can be prepared without reducing agents in a weakly basic droplet reactor created by the Leidenfrost phenomena, and then the as-prepared Pd nanoparticles are loaded on carbon supports during boiling down the droplet on hot surface. Compared to conventional incipient wetness and chemical synthetic methods, the Leidenfrost droplet reactor does not need energy-consuming, time-consuming, and environmentally unfriendly procedures, which leads to much shorter synthesis time, lower carbon dioxide emission, and more ecofriendly process in comparison with conventional synthesis methods. Moreover, the catalysts synthesized in the Leidenfrost droplet reactor provided much better catalytic activity for room-temperature formic acid decomposition than those prepared by the incipient wetness method. PMID:27198855

  11. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J.; Aguayo, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used. PMID:26828515

  12. A non-reducing terminal fragment from tracheal cartilage keratan sulphate chains contains alpha (2-3)-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Dickenson, J M; Huckerby, T N; Nieduszynski, I A

    1991-01-01

    Keratan sulphate chains were isolated from bovine tracheal ring cartilage (15-18-month-old animals) after papain digestion of the tissue followed by ethanol fractionation, chondroitinase ABC digestion and alkaline borohydride reduction. The keratan sulphate chains were further purified by anion-exchange chromatography on a Pharmacia Mono-Q column in order to remove any contaminating chondroitin sulphate and O-linked oligosaccharides. The chains were then treated with keratanase and the digest was subjected to alkaline borohydride reduction, producing oligosaccharides with galactitol at their reducing ends. The reduced digest was chromatographed on a Nucleosil 5 SB anion-exchange column and individual oligosaccharides were isolated. One of these, oligosaccharide (I), was shown by 500 MHz 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy to have the following structure: NeuAc alpha 2-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc(6SO4) beta 1-3Gal-ol (I) The structure of this oligosaccharide shows that keratan sulphate chains from bovine tracheal ring cartilage may be terminated with N-acetylneuraminic acid linked alpha (2-3) to an unsulphated galactose. Keratan sulphate chains were also isolated from bovine femoral head cartilage (15-18-month-old animals) using an identical protocol, but with keratanase which was subsequently shown to have sialidase activity. This yielded oligosaccharide (II), the unsialyated version of (I): Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc(6SO4) beta 1-3Gal-ol (II). PMID:1910336

  13. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid reduces neutral lipid content and may affect cryotolerance of in vitro-produced crossbred bovine embryos

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to high neutral lipids accumulation in the cytoplasm, in vitro-produced embryos from Bos primigenius indicus and their crosses are more sensitive to chilling and cryopreservation than those from Bos primigenius taurus. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the development and cryotolerance of crossbred Bos primigenius taurus x Bos primigenius indicus embryos produced in vitro, and cultured in the presence of fetal calf serum. Bovine zygotes (n = 1,692) were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: 1) Control, zygotes cultured in Charles Rosenkrans 2 amino acid (CR2aa) medium (n = 815) or 2) CLA, zygotes cultured in CR2aa medium supplemented with 100 μmol/L of trans-10, cis-12 CLA (n = 877). Embryo development (cleavage and blastocyst rates evaluated at days 3 and 8 of culture, respectively), lipid content at morula stage (day 5) and blastocyst cryotolerance (re-expansion and hatching rates, evaluated 24 and 72 h post-thawing, respectively) were compared between groups. Additionally, selected mRNA transcripts were measured by Real–Time PCR in blastocyst stage. Results The CLA treatment had no effect on cleavage and blastocyst rates, or on mRNA levels for genes related to cellular stress and apoptosis. On the other hand, abundance of mRNA for the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate 0-acyltransferase-encoding gene (AGPAT), which is involved in triglycerides synthesis, and consequently neutral lipid content, were reduced by CLA treatment. A significant increase was observed in the re-expansion rate of embryos cultured with trans-10, cis-12 CLA when compared to control (56.3 vs. 34.4%, respectively, P = 0.002). However, this difference was not observed in the hatching rate (16.5 vs. 14.0%, respectively, P = 0.62). Conclusions The supplementation with trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer in culture medium reduced the lipid content of in vitro produced

  14. N-Glycosylation Improves the Pepsin Resistance of Histidine Acid Phosphatase Phytases by Enhancing Their Stability at Acidic pHs and Reducing Pepsin's Accessibility to Its Cleavage Sites

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Canfang; Luo, Huiying; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Wang, Yaru; Yang, Peilong

    2015-01-01

    N-Glycosylation can modulate enzyme structure and function. In this study, we identified two pepsin-resistant histidine acid phosphatase (HAP) phytases from Yersinia kristensenii (YkAPPA) and Yersinia rohdei (YrAPPA), each having an N-glycosylation motif, and one pepsin-sensitive HAP phytase from Yersinia enterocolitica (YeAPPA) that lacked an N-glycosylation site. Site-directed mutagenesis was employed to construct mutants by altering the N-glycosylation status of each enzyme, and the mutant and wild-type enzymes were expressed in Pichia pastoris for biochemical characterization. Compared with those of the N-glycosylation site deletion mutants and N-deglycosylated enzymes, all N-glycosylated counterparts exhibited enhanced pepsin resistance. Introduction of the N-glycosylation site into YeAPPA as YkAPPA and YrAPPA conferred pepsin resistance, shifted the pH optimum (0.5 and 1.5 pH units downward, respectively) and improved stability at acidic pH (83.2 and 98.8% residual activities at pH 2.0 for 1 h). Replacing the pepsin cleavage sites L197 and L396 in the immediate vicinity of the N-glycosylation motifs of YkAPPA and YrAPPA with V promoted their resistance to pepsin digestion when produced in Escherichia coli but had no effect on the pepsin resistance of N-glycosylated enzymes produced in P. pastoris. Thus, N-glycosylation may improve pepsin resistance by enhancing the stability at acidic pH and reducing pepsin's accessibility to peptic cleavage sites. This study provides a strategy, namely, the manipulation of N-glycosylation, for improvement of phytase properties for use in animal feed. PMID:26637601

  15. Combined Effect of Thermosonication and Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water to Reduce Foodborne Pathogens and Spoilage Microorganisms on Fresh-cut Kale.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of individual treatments (thermosonication [TS+DW] and slightly acidic electrolyzed water [SAcEW]) and their combination on reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and spoilage microorganisms (total bacterial counts [TBC], Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and yeast and mold counts [YMC]) on fresh-cut kale. For comparison, the antimicrobial efficacies of sodium chlorite (SC; 100 mg/L) and sodium hypochlorite (SH; 100 mg/L) were also evaluated. Each 10 g sample of kale leaves was inoculated to contain approximately 6 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes. Each inoculated or uninoculated samples was then dip treated with deionized water (DW; control), TS+DW, and SAcEW at various treatment conditions (temperature, physicochemical properties, and time) to assess the efficacy of each individual treatment. The efficacy of TS+DW or SAcEW was enhanced at 40 °C for 3 min, with an acoustic energy density of 400 W/L for TS+DW and available chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L for SAcEW. At 40 °C for 3 min, combined treatment of thermosonication 400 W/L and SAcEW 5 mg/L (TS+SAcEW) was more effective in reducing microorganisms compared to the individual treatments (SAcEW, SC, SH, and TS+DW) and combined treatments (TS+SC and TS+SH), which significantly (P < 0.05) reduced E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, TBC, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and YMC by 3.32, 3.11, 3.97, 3.66, 3.62, and >3.24 log CFU/g, respectively. The results suggest that the combined treatment of TS+SAcEW has the potential as a decontamination process in fresh-cut industry. PMID:25944413

  16. Green tea, phytic acid, and inositol in combination reduced the incidence of azoxymethane-induced colon tumors in Fisher 344 male rats.

    PubMed

    Khatiwada, Janak; Verghese, Martha; Davis, Shurrita; Williams, Leonard L

    2011-11-01

    Experimental as well as epidemiologic studies in human populations provide evidence that consumption of phytochemicals reduces the incidence of degenerative diseases. Green tea (GT) catechins are known for their antioxidative potential. Phytic acid (PA) also acts as a natural antioxidant and may have numerous health benefits. This experiment was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of combinations of 1% and 2% GT, PA, and inositol (I) in reducing the incidence of azoxymethane-induced colon tumors in Fisher 344 male rats. After an acclimatization period of 1 week, nine groups of rats (15 rats per group) were initially assigned to consume AIN 93 G diet and later AIN 93 M diet after 20 weeks of age. Treatments were given in drinking water. All rats received azoxymethane injections (16 mg/kg of body weight) subcutaneously at 7 and 8 weeks of age. Rats were killed at 45 weeks of age by CO(2) euthanasia. Tumor incidence (93.76%) and the number of tumors per tumor-bearing rat ratio (2.25) were significantly (P<.05) higher in the control group compared with treatment groups. Glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly (P<.05) higher in rats fed combinations of 2% GT+PA+I and GT+PA (33.25 ± 1.23 and 29.83 ± 1.10 μmol/mL, respectively) compared with other groups. These findings suggest that the synergistic effect of the 2% level of GT, PA, and I may reduce the incidence of colon tumors and therefore have potential as a chemopreventive agent. PMID:21501094

  17. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Desulfovibrio carbinoliphilus FW-101-2B, an Organic Acid-Oxidizing Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from Uranium(VI)-Contaminated Groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Bradley D.; Hwang, Chiachi; Carroll, Sue L.; Lucas, Susan; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla L.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Samuel; Peters, Lin; Chertkov, Olga; Held, Brittany; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff S.; Tapia, Roxanne; Land, Miriam L.; Hauser, Loren J.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Woyke, Tanja; Arkin, Adam P.; Dehal, Paramvir; Chivian, Dylan; Criddle, Craig S.; Wu, Weimin; Chakraborty, Romy

    2015-01-01

    Desulfovibrio carbinoliphilus subsp. oakridgensis FW-101-2B is an anaerobic, organic acid/alcohol-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing δ-proteobacterium. FW-101-2B was isolated from contaminated groundwater at The Field Research Center at Oak Ridge National Lab after in situ stimulation for heavy metal-reducing conditions. The genome will help elucidate the metabolic potential of sulfate-reducing bacteria during uranium reduction. PMID:25767232

  18. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Desulfovibrio carbinoliphilus FW-101-2B, an Organic Acid-Oxidizing Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from Uranium(VI)-Contaminated Groundwater

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ramsay, Bradley D.; Hwang, Chiachi; Woo, Hannah L.; Carroll, Sue L.; Lucas, Susan; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla L.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Samuel; et al

    2015-03-12

    Desulfovibrio carbinoliphilus subsp. oakridgensis FW-101-2B is an anaerobic, organic acid/alcohol-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing δ-proteobacterium. FW-101-2B was isolated from contaminated groundwater at The Field Research Center at Oak Ridge National Lab after in situ stimulation for heavy metal-reducing conditions. The genome will help elucidate the metabolic potential of sulfate-reducing bacteria during uranium reduction.

  19. Flower-like ZnO decorated polyaniline/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for simultaneous determination of dopamine and uric acid.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Kh; Moloudi, M

    2016-11-01

    A novel sensor was fabricated by electrochemical deposition of ZnO flower-like/polyaniline nanofiber/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite (ZnO/PANI/RGO) on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for direct detection of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) in the presence of fixed concentration of ascorbic acid (AA). Surface morphology and characterization of the modified electrodes were confirmed by field emission scanning microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and FT-IR spectroscopies. For individual detection, the linear responses were in the two concentration ranges of 0.001-1 μM and 1-1000 μM with detection limit 0.8 nM (S/N = 3) for DA, and also 0.1-100 μM and 100-1000 μM with detection limit 0.042 μM (S/N = 3) for UA. Simultaneous determination of these species in their mixture solution showed the linear responses in the two concentration ranges of 0.1-90 μM and 90-1000 μM with detection limit 0.017 μM (S/N = 3) for DA and also showed two linear range of 0.5-90 μM and 100-1000 μM with detection limit 0.12 μM (S/N = 3) for UA, with coexistence of 1000 μM AA. The applicability of sensor for the analysis of DA, and UA in dopamine injection solution, human serum and human urine samples was successfully demonstrated. PMID:27555438

  20. Infrared spectroscopy study of adsorption and photodecomposition of formic acid on reduced and defective rutile TiO{sub 2} (110) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mattsson, Andreas Österlund, Lars; Hu, Shuanglin; Hermansson, Kersti

    2014-11-01

    Adsorption and photodecomposition of formic acid on rutile TiO{sub 2} (110) have been investigated with infrared reflection–absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) employing p- and s-polarized light along the [001] and [11{sup ¯}0] crystal directions. The single crystal surfaces were prepared either by sputtering and annealing in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) to obtain a reduced surface (r-TiO{sub 2}), or by sputtering without annealing to create a rough, highly defective surface (sp-TiO{sub 2}). Results are compared with corresponding measurements on rutile nanocrystals performed in synthetic air. IRRAS spectra obtained on r-TiO{sub 2} and rutile nanocrystals are very similar, and show that in both cases formic acid dissociates and is predominately adsorbed as a bridging bidentate formate species, and that the formate adsorption structure on the nanocrystals is dominated by interactions with majority (110) surfaces. In contrast, the IRRAS spectra on sp-TiO{sub 2} are different, with only minor spectral features associated with (110) surfaces and lost azimuthal symmetry, both of which imply changed adsorption geometry due to bonding to low-coordinated Ti atoms with lower valences. The UV-induced rate of formate photodecomposition is about 30 times higher on rutile nanocrystals in synthetic air compared with sp-TiO{sub 2} under UHV conditions, and even larger than on r-TiO{sub 2}. These differences are explained by the lack of oxygen and limited hydroxyl coverage under UHV conditions. The difference in reactivity between the r-TiO{sub 2} and sp-TiO{sub 2} surfaces is attributed to a high concentration of strongly bonded bridging bidentate formate species on the (110) surface, which lowers its reactivity. The results point to a pressure gap where the availability of molecular oxygen and the hydroxyl concentration limit the photoreactivity in UHV leading to an almost 20-fold decrease of the formate degradation rate in UHV. In contrast, the structure represented by the single

  1. Tetrahydro Iso-Alpha Acids and Hexahydro Iso-Alpha Acids from Hops Inhibit Proliferation of Human Hepatocarcinoma Cell Lines and Reduce Diethylnitrosamine Induced Liver Tumor Formation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Stärkel, Peter; De Saeger, Christine; Delire, Bénédicte; Magat, Julie; Jordan, Bénédicte; Konda, Veera R; Tripp, Mathew L; Borbath, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation plays important role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To date, no antiinflammatory approach has shown its efficacy in preventing HCC occurrence in humans. Because tetra- and hexahydro isoalpha acids (THIAA and HHIAA) from hops elicit antiinflammatory properties, we evaluated these compounds for antitumor effects in vitro in human HCC cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, Huh7) and in vivo in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced animal model of HCC. In human HCC cell lines, THIAA and HHIAA reduced cell proliferation and viability which was associated with the inhibition of the NF-κB-DNA binding and tumor necrosis factor α mRNA expression. Both compounds also inhibited phosphorylation of the mTOR effector p70S6 kinase without affecting ERK, AKT, JNK, and GSK3β phosphorylation or activator protein-1 activation. In DEN-treated rats, administration of THIAA and HHIAA in food reduced the tumor numbers and the expression of the cellular transformation marker glutathione-S-transferase in the liver. In conclusion, THIAA and HHIAA show antitumor properties in vitro in human HCC cell lines as well as in vivo in a chemically induced animal model of HCC. PMID:25941903

  2. Low Dietary c9t11-Conjugated Linoleic Acid Intake from Dairy Fat or Supplements Reduces Inflammation in Collagen-Induced Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Shane M; Olson, Jake M; Campbell, James P; Bishop, Jeffrey W; Crump, Peter M; Cook, Mark E

    2016-07-01

    Dietary cis-9,trans-11 (c9t11) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fed at 0.5 % w/w was previously shown to attenuate inflammation in the murine collagen-induced (CA) arthritis model, and growing evidence implicates c9t11-CLA as a major anti-inflammatory component of dairy fat. To understand c9t11-CLA's contribution to dairy fat's anti-inflammatory action, the minimum amount of dietary c9t11-CLA needed to reduce inflammation must be determined. This study had two objectives: (1) determine the minimum dietary anti-inflammatory c9t11-CLA intake level in the CA model, and (2) compare this to anti-inflammatory effects of dairy fat (non-enriched, naturally c9t11-CLA-enriched, or c9t11-CLA-supplemented). Mice received the following dietary fat treatments (w/w) post arthritis onset: corn oil (6 % CO), 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, and 0.5 % c9t11-CLA, control butter (6 % CB), c9t11-enriched butter (6 % EB), or c9t11-CLA-supplemented butter (6 % SB, containing 0.2 % c9t11-CLA). Paw arthritic severity and pad swelling were scored and measured, respectively, over an 84-day study period. All c9t11-CLA and butter diets decreased the arthritic score (25-51 %, P < 0.01) and paw swelling (8-11 %, P < 0.01). Throughout the study, plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) was elevated in CO-fed arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic (NA) mice but was reduced in 0.5 % c9t11-CLA- and EB-fed mice. Interleukin-1β and IL-6 were increased in arthritic CO-fed mice compared to NA mice but were reduced in 0.5 % c9t11-CLA- and EB-fed mice through day 42. In conclusion, 0.125 % c9t11-CLA reduced clinical arthritis as effectively as higher doses, and decreased arthritis in CB-fed mice suggested that the minimal anti-inflammatory levels of c9t11-CLA might be below 0.125 %. PMID:27270404

  3. Influenza A virus drift variants reduced the detection sensitivity of a commercial multiplex nucleic acid amplification assay in the season 2014/15.

    PubMed

    Huzly, Daniela; Korn, Klaus; Bierbaum, Sibylle; Eberle, Björn; Falcone, Valeria; Knöll, Antje; Steininger, Philipp; Panning, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    The influenza season 2014/15 was dominated by drift variants of influenza A(H3N2), which resulted in a reduced vaccine effectiveness. It was not clear if the performance of commercial nucleic-acid-based amplification (NAT) assays for the detection of influenza was affected. The purpose of this study was to perform a real-life evaluation of two commercial NAT assays. During January-April 2015, we tested a total of 665 samples from patients with influenza-like illness using the Fast Track Diagnostics Respiratory pathogens 21, a commercial multiplex kit, (cohorts 1 and 2, n = 563 patients) and the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay (cohort 3, n = 102 patients), a single-use cartridge system. An in-house influenza real-time RT-PCR (cohort 1) and the RealStar Influenza RT-PCR 1.0 Kit (cohort 2 and 3) served as reference tests. Compared to the reference assay, an overall agreement of 95.9 % (cohort 1), 95 % (cohort 2), and 98 % (cohort 3) was achieved. A total of 24 false-negative results were observed using the Fast Track Diagnostics Respiratory pathogens 21 kit. No false-negative results occurred using the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay. The Fast Track Diagnostics Respiratory pathogens 21 kit and the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay had sensitivities of 90.7 % and 100 % and specificities of 100 % and 94.1 %, respectively, compared to the RealStar 1.0 kit. Upon modification of the Fast Track Diagnostics Respiratory pathogens 21 kit, the sensitivity increased to 97.3 %. Influenza virus strains circulating during the 2014/15 season reduced the detection sensitivity of a commercial NAT assay, and continuous monitoring of test performance is therefore necessary. PMID:27316440

  4. Low simvastatin concentrations reduce oleic acid-induced steatosis in HepG2 cells: An in vitro model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    ALKHATATBEH, MOHAMMAD J.; LINCZ, LISA F.; THORNE, RICK F.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an inflammatory condition caused by hepatic lipid accumulation that is associated with insulin resistance, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Although statins should be used with caution in liver diseases, they are increasingly investigated as a possible treatment for NAFLD. The present study recreated an in vitro model of NAFLD using HepG2 cells exposed to oleic acid (OA), which was used to quantify OA-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells treated with various concentrations of simvastatin. In addition, the effect of simvastatin on HepG2 cell morphology and microparticle generation as a marker of cell apoptosis was assessed. OA-induced lipid accumulation was quantified by Oil Red O staining and extraction for optical density determination. Stained lipid droplets were visualized using phase contrast microscopy. Furthermore, HepG2 cell-derived microparticles were counted by flow cytometry subsequent to staining for Annexin V. HepG2 cells treated with 0–1 mM OA showed dose-dependent lipid accumulation. Treatment of HepG2 cells with increasing concentrations of simvastatin followed by treatment with 1 mM OA showed that low simvastatin concentrations (4–10 µM) were able to reduce lipid accumulation by ~40%, whereas high simvastatin concentrations (20 and 30 µM) induced apoptotic changes in cell morphology and increased the production of Annexin V+ microparticles. This suggests that low simvastatin doses may have a role in preventing NAFLD. However, further investigations are required to confirm this action in vivo and to determine the underlying mechanism by which simvastatin reduces hepatic steatosis. PMID:27073470

  5. Manganese [III] Tetrakis [5,10,15,20]-Benzoic Acid Porphyrin Reduces Adiposity and Improves Insulin Action in Mice with Pre-Existing Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Brestoff, Jonathan R.; Brodsky, Tim; Sosinsky, Alexandra Z.; McLoughlin, Ryan; Stansky, Elena; Fussell, Leila; Sheppard, Aaron; DiSanto-Rose, Maria; Kershaw, Erin E.; Reynolds, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    The superoxide dismutase mimetic manganese [III] tetrakis [5,10,15,20]-benzoic acid porphyrin (MnTBAP) is a potent antioxidant compound that has been shown to limit weight gain during short-term high fat feeding without preventing insulin resistance. However, whether MnTBAP has therapeutic potential to treat pre-existing obesity and insulin resistance remains unknown. To investigate this, mice were treated with MnTBAP or vehicle during the last five weeks of a 24-week high fat diet (HFD) regimen. MnTBAP treatment significantly decreased body weight and reduced white adipose tissue (WAT) mass in mice fed a HFD and a low fat diet (LFD). The reduction in adiposity was associated with decreased caloric intake without significantly altering energy expenditure, indicating that MnTBAP decreases adiposity in part by modulating energy balance. MnTBAP treatment also improved insulin action in HFD-fed mice, a physiologic response that was associated with increased protein kinase B (PKB) phosphorylation and expression in muscle and WAT. Since MnTBAP is a metalloporphyrin molecule, we hypothesized that its ability to promote weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity was regulated by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in a similar fashion as cobalt protoporphyrins. Despite MnTBAP treatment increasing HO-1 expression, administration of the potent HO-1 inhibitor tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) did not block the ability of MnTBAP to alter caloric intake, adiposity, or insulin action, suggesting that MnTBAP influences these metabolic processes independent of HO-1. These data demonstrate that MnTBAP can ameliorate pre-existing obesity and improve insulin action by reducing caloric intake and increasing PKB phosphorylation and expression. PMID:26397111

  6. Manganese [III] Tetrakis [5,10,15,20]-Benzoic Acid Porphyrin Reduces Adiposity and Improves Insulin Action in Mice with Pre-Existing Obesity.

    PubMed

    Brestoff, Jonathan R; Brodsky, Tim; Sosinsky, Alexandra Z; McLoughlin, Ryan; Stansky, Elena; Fussell, Leila; Sheppard, Aaron; DiSanto-Rose, Maria; Kershaw, Erin E; Reynolds, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    The superoxide dismutase mimetic manganese [III] tetrakis [5,10,15,20]-benzoic acid porphyrin (MnTBAP) is a potent antioxidant compound that has been shown to limit weight gain during short-term high fat feeding without preventing insulin resistance. However, whether MnTBAP has therapeutic potential to treat pre-existing obesity and insulin resistance remains unknown. To investigate this, mice were treated with MnTBAP or vehicle during the last five weeks of a 24-week high fat diet (HFD) regimen. MnTBAP treatment significantly decreased body weight and reduced white adipose tissue (WAT) mass in mice fed a HFD and a low fat diet (LFD). The reduction in adiposity was associated with decreased caloric intake without significantly altering energy expenditure, indicating that MnTBAP decreases adiposity in part by modulating energy balance. MnTBAP treatment also improved insulin action in HFD-fed mice, a physiologic response that was associated with increased protein kinase B (PKB) phosphorylation and expression in muscle and WAT. Since MnTBAP is a metalloporphyrin molecule, we hypothesized that its ability to promote weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity was regulated by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in a similar fashion as cobalt protoporphyrins. Despite MnTBAP treatment increasing HO-1 expression, administration of the potent HO-1 inhibitor tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) did not block the ability of MnTBAP to alter caloric intake, adiposity, or insulin action, suggesting that MnTBAP influences these metabolic processes independent of HO-1. These data demonstrate that MnTBAP can ameliorate pre-existing obesity and improve insulin action by reducing caloric intake and increasing PKB phosphorylation and expression. PMID:26397111

  7. A novel doxorubicin loaded folic acid conjugated PAMAM modified with borneol, a nature dual-functional product of reducing PAMAM toxicity and boosting BBB penetration.

    PubMed

    Xu, XiuLing; Li, JingJing; Han, ShunPing; Tao, ChengHao; Fang, Luo; Sun, Yue; Zhu, JiaZhen; Liang, ZeHua; Li, FanZhu

    2016-06-10

    Effective targeting drug delivery system for glioma treatment is still greatly challenged by the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the intracranial overspreading of anti-tumor drug. Herein, we presented a dual-functional glioma targeting delivery of doxorubicin based on the PAMAM G5 dendrimer, modified with folic acid (FA) to target tumor cell, also borneol (BO), a well known safe material derived from traditional Chinese medicine, to facilitate the BBB permeability and reduce the toxicity of naked PAMAM. The intracranial transportation and glioma targeting ability were evaluated on the BBB model and C6 glioma cells in vitro. Also, pharmacokinetics and biodistribution were studied on C6 glioma-bearing rats in vivo. It indeed reduced the cytotoxicity of PAMAM against both HBMEC and C6 cells by coupling BO on the surface, while efficiently boosted BBB permeability with the improvement of transportation ratio by 2 folds to the BO-unmodified conjugates. Furthermore, conjugated FA increased total uptake amount by C6 cells leading to strong inhibition with the 3-fold lower IC50 value than FA-unmodified DOX conjugate. In comparison with DOX solution, FA-BO-PAMAM/DOX exhibited significantly prolonged half-life time and increased area under the curve and improved DOX accumulation in brain tumor. The tumor growth inhibition, in vivo, was significantly increased up to 57.4%. The median survival time of xenograft rats after administering FA-BO-PAMAM/DOX (28days) was significantly prolonged compared to free DOX (18days, P<0.05) or other controls. In conclusion, this strategy of novel targeting nanocarrier provides a promising method to increase the drug accumulation in the tumor site for therapy of glioma. PMID:26965003

  8. A facile one-pot synthesis of carbon nitride dots-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for simultaneous enhanced detecting of dopamine and uric acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ziyin; Zheng, Xiaohui; Li, Zhi; Zheng, Jianbin

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we described the facile synthesis of carbon nitride dots-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (CNDs-rGO) and their application for the enhanced electrochemical determination of dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). CNDs-rGO were synthesized for the first time through a green and facile one-step approach, carried out by hydrothermal heat-treatment of an aqueous solution containing GO and chitosan without introduction of other reducing agents or surface modifier. Then, the morphology and composition of CNDs-rGO nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TEM observations revealed that CNDs with a size of about 5.0 nm were homogeneously and densely distributed on the surface of rGO. Electrochemical investigations indicated that CNDs-rGO nanocomposites exhibited an excellent performance toward DA and UA. The linear range for DA was estimated to be from 80 nM to 227 μM with a sensitivity of 154.3 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) and a low detection limit of 0.03 μM. Meanwhile, the linear range for UA was estimated to be from 80 nM to 328 μM with a high sensitivity of 178.1 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) and a low detection limit of 0.05 μM. Therefore, CNDs-rGO nanocomposites showed great application potential for constructing electrochemical sensors for the detection of DA and UA. PMID:27284588

  9. Blocking TGF-β Signaling Pathway Preserves Mitochondrial Proteostasis and Reduces Early Activation of PDGFRβ+ Pericytes in Aristolochic Acid Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Wistar Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pozdzik, Agnieszka A.; Giordano, Laetitia; Li, Gang; Antoine, Marie-Hélène; Quellard, Nathalie; Godet, Julie; De Prez, Eric; Husson, Cécile; Declèves, Anne-Emilie; Arlt, Volker M.; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Brochériou-Spelle, Isabelle; Ledbetter, Steven R.; Caron, Nathalie; Nortier, Joëlle L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ)+ perivascular cell activation becomes increasingly recognized as a main source of scar-associated kidney myofibroblasts and recently emerged as a new cellular therapeutic target. Aims In this regard, we first confirmed the presence of PDGFRβ+ perivascular cells in a human case of end-stage aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) and thereafter we focused on the early fibrosis events of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) inhibition in a rat model of AAN. Materials and Methods Neutralizing anti-TGFβ antibody (1D11) and its control isotype (13C4) were administered (5 mg/kg, i.p.) at Days -1, 0, 2 and 4; AA (15 mg/kg, sc) was injected daily. Results At Day 5, 1D11 significantly suppressed p-Smad2/3 signaling pathway improving renal function impairment, reduced the score of acute tubular necrosis, peritubular capillaritis, interstitial inflammation and neoangiogenesis. 1D11 markedly decreased interstitial edema, disruption of tubular basement membrane loss of brush border, cytoplasmic edema and organelle ultrastructure alterations (mitochondrial disruption and endoplasmic reticulum edema) in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Moreover, 1D11 significantly inhibited p-PERK activation and attenuated dysregulation of unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial proteostasis in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions The early inhibition of p-Smad2/3 signaling pathway improved acute renal function impairment, partially prevented epithelial-endothelial axis activation by maintaining PTEC proteostasis and reduced early PDGFRβ+ pericytes-derived myofibroblasts accumulation. PMID:27379382

  10. Combined iron and folic acid supplementation with or without zinc reduces time to walking unassisted among Zanzibari infants 5-11 months old

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron and zinc deficiencies have been associated with delayed motor development in nutritionally at-risk children, albeit inconsistently. In this community-based, randomized double-blind trial, iron+folic acid (FeFA) (12.5 mg Fe + 50 'g folic acid), zinc (Zn) (10 mg), and iron+folic acid+zinc (FeFA+Z...

  11. Hyaluronic Acid (800 kDa) Supplementation of University of Wisconsin Solution Improves Viability of Osteochondral Grafts and Reduces Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression during Cold Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Takuya; Uchida, Kentaro; Onuma, Kenji; Inoue, Gen; Aikawa, Jun; Takano, Shotaro; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Fujimaki, Hisako; Miyagi, Masayuki; Takaso, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Osteochondral allografting is a promising option for the treatment of large cartilage defects. However, because the cell viability of osteochondral tissues (OCTs) gradually reduces during storage at 4°C, methods for maintaining the cell viability of fresh OCTs are needed to improve transplantation outcomes. Here, we evaluated whether the supplementation of preservation solution with one of three different molecular weight forms of hyaluronic acid (HA) improved the viability of rat OCTs during long-term cold storage. The supplementation of University of Wisconsin (UW) solution with 800 kDa significantly improved the cell viability of OCT after 14 days at 4°C compared to nonsupplemented UW solution. In contrast, UW solution supplemented with either 1900 or 6000 kDa HA did not markedly improve the cell viability of the OCT. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the levels of matrix metalloproteinases 2, 3, and 9 were significantly decreased in OCT stored in UW solution supplemented with 800 kDa HA. Although further studies in human OCT are warranted, these findings demonstrate that the use of 800 kDa HA in place of serum may be a suitable approach for the long-term preservation of osteochondral allografts designated for the repair of large cartilage defects in the clinical setting. PMID:26199955

  12. Structural tailoring of hydrogen-bonded poly(acrylic acid)/poly(ethylene oxide) multilayer thin films for reduced gas permeability.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Fangming; Ward, Sarah M; Givens, Tara M; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2015-02-01

    Hydrogen bonded poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) layer-by-layer assemblies are highly elastomeric, but more permeable than ionically bonded thin films. In order to expand the use of hydrogen-bonded assemblies to applications that require a better gas barrier, the effect of assembling pH on the oxygen permeability of PAA/PEO multilayer thin films was investigated. Altering the assembling pH leads to significant changes in phase morphology and bonding. The amount of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between PAA and PEO is found to increase with increasing pH due to reduction of COOH dimers between PAA chains. This improved bonding leads to smaller PEO domains and lower gas permeability. Further increasing the pH beyond 2.75 results in higher oxygen permeability due to partial deprotonation of PAA. By setting the assembling pH at 2.75, the negative impacts of COOH dimer formation and PAA ionization on intermolecular hydrogen bonding can be minimized, leading to a 50% reduction in the oxygen permeability of the PAA/PEO thin film. A 20 bilayer coating reduces the oxygen transmission rate of a 1.58 mm natural rubber substrate by 20 ×. These unique nanocoatings provide the opportunity to impart a gas barrier to elastomeric substrates without altering their mechanical behavior. PMID:25519816

  13. Combining Nitrilotriacetic Acid and Permeable Barriers for Enhanced Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals from Municipal Solid Waste Compost by and Reduced Metal Leaching.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shulan; Jia, Lina; Duo, Lian

    2016-05-01

    Phytoextraction has the potential to remove heavy metals from contaminated soil, and chelants can be used to improve the capabilities of phytoextraction. However, environmentally persistent chelants can cause metal leaching and groundwater pollution. A column experiment was conducted to evaluate the viability of biodegradable nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) to increase the uptake of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Zn) by L. in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost and to evaluate the effect of two permeable barrier materials, bone meal and crab shell, on metal leaching. The application of NTA significantly increased the concentrations and uptake of heavy metals in . The enhancement was more pronounced at higher dosages of NTA. In the 15 mmol kg NTA treatment using a crab shell barrier, the Cr and Ni concentrations in the plant shoots increased by approximately 8- and 10-fold, respectively, relative to the control. However, the addition of NTA also caused significant heavy metal leaching from the MSW compost. Bone meal and crab shell barriers positioned between the compost and the subsoil were effective in preventing metal leaching down through the soil profile by the retention of metals in the barrier. The application of a biodegradable chelant and the use of permeable barriers is a viable form of enhanced phytoextraction to increase the removal of metals and to reduce possible leaching. PMID:27136160

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Uric Acid and Xanthine Using a Poly(Methylene Blue) and Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Film Modified Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gen; Ma, Wei; Luo, Yan; Sun, Deng-ming; Shao, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    Poly(methylene blue) and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite film modified electrode (PMB-ERGO/GCE) was successfully fabricated by electropolymerization and was used for simultaneous determination of uric acid (UA) and xanthine (Xa). Based on the excellent electrocatalytic activity of PMB-ERGO/GCE, the electrochemical behaviors of UA and Xa were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). Two anodic sensitive peaks at 0.630 V (versus Ag/AgCl) for UA and 1.006 V (versus Ag/AgCl) for Xa were given by CV in pH 3.0 phosphate buffer. The calibration curves for UA and Xa were obtained in the range of 8.00 × 10−8~4.00 × 10−4 M and 1.00 × 10−7~4.00 × 10−4 M, respectively, by SWV. The detection limits for UA and Xa were 3.00 × 10−8 M and 5.00 × 10−8 M, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was applied to simultaneously determine UA and Xa in human urine with good selectivity and high sensitivity. PMID:25436174

  15. An electrochemical sensor for gallic acid based on Fe₂O₃/electro-reduced graphene oxide composite: Estimation for the antioxidant capacity index of wines.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Zheng, Delun; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Zhan, Fengping; Yuan, Xiaoning; Gao, Fei; Wang, Qingxiang

    2015-12-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for gallic acid (GA), an important polyphenolic compound, was fabricated using the hybrid material of chitosan (CS), fishbone-shaped Fe2O3 (fFe2O3), and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) as the sensing matrix. The electrochemical characterization experiments showed that the CS-fFe2O3-ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (CS-fFe2O3-ERGO/GCE) had large surface area, excellent electronic conductivity and high stability. The GA presented a superior electrochemical response on CS-fFe2O3-ERGO/GCE in comparison with the single-component modified electrode. The electrochemical mechanism and optimal test conditions of GA on the electrode surface were carefully investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak currents in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) experiments exhibited a good linear relationship with the logarithmic values of GA concentration over the range from 1.0×10(-6)M to 1.0×10(-4)M. Based on signal-to-noise (S/N) characteristic of 3, the detection limit was estimated to be 1.5×10(-7)M. The proposed sensor has also been applied for estimating the antioxidant capacity index of real samples of red and white wines. PMID:26354265

  16. Permanent draft genome sequence of Desulfurococcus mobilis type strain DSM 2161, a thermoacidophilic sulfur-reducing crenarchaeon isolated from acidic hot springs of Hveravellir, Iceland.

    PubMed

    Susanti, Dwi; Johnson, Eric F; Lapidus, Alla; Han, James; Reddy, T B K; Pilay, Manoj; Ivanova, Natalia N; Markowitz, Victor M; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the permanent draft genome sequence of Desulfurococcus mobilis type strain DSM 2161, an obligate anaerobic hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon that was isolated from acidic hot springs in Hveravellir, Iceland. D. mobilis utilizes peptides as carbon and energy sources and reduces elemental sulfur to H2S. A metabolic construction derived from the draft genome identified putative pathways for peptide degradation and sulfur respiration in this archaeon. Existence of several hydrogenase genes in the genome supported previous findings that H2 is produced during the growth of D. mobilis in the absence of sulfur. Interestingly, genes encoding glucose transport and utilization systems also exist in the D. mobilis genome though this archaeon does not utilize carbohydrate for growth. The draft genome of D. mobilis provides an additional mean for comparative genomic analysis of desulfurococci. In addition, our analysis on the Average Nucleotide Identity between D. mobilis and Desulfurococcus mucosus suggested that these two desulfurococci are two different strains of the same species. PMID:26767090

  17. A surfactant-free strategy for synthesizing reduced graphene oxide supported palladium nanoparticles with enhanced electrocatalytic performance towards formic acid oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xueqing; Li, Fumin; Li, Yumei; Li, Shuni; Chen, Yu; Lee, Jong-Min

    2015-04-01

    A simple noncovalent method is used to graft sulfonate (-SO3H) groups on a graphene oxide (GO) surface by the π-π stacking interaction between 1-propylsulfonic-3-methylimidazolium chloride and GO. The immobilization of sulfonate groups on the GO surface is confirmed by various physical techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy, and zeta potential analysis, etc. The as-prepared sulfonate functionalized GO composites (GO-SO3H) are further used as supporting material to anchor PdO·H2O nanoparticles through the slow hydrolysis of PdCl2. The sulfonate functionalized reduced GO composites (rGO-SO3H) supported Pd nanoparticles composites (Pd/rGO-SO3H) are obtained through the simultaneous reduction of PdO·H2O and the GO-SO3H with sodium borohydride. As shown by transmission electron microscopy, Pd nanoparticles with good dispersity effectively anchor on the rGO-SO3H surface. The as-prepared Pd/rGO-SO3H composites display the improved electrocatalytic activity and long-term stability towards the formic acid oxidation reaction compared to the un-sulfonated counterpart.

  18. Reduced naphthylphthalamic acid binding in the tir3 mutant of Arabidopsis is associated with a reduction in polar auxin transport and diverse morphological defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruegger, M.; Dewey, E.; Hobbie, L.; Brown, D.; Bernasconi, P.; Turner, J.; Muday, G.; Estelle, M.

    1997-01-01

    Polar auxin transport plays a key role in the regulation of plant growth and development. To identify genes involved in this process, we have developed a genetic procedure to screen for mutants of Arabidopsis that are altered in their response to auxin transport inhibitors. We recovered a total of 16 independent mutants that defined seven genes, called TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE (TIR) genes. Recessive mutations in one of these genes, TIR3, result in altered responses to transport inhibitors, a reduction in polar auxin transport, and a variety of morphological defects that can be ascribed to changes in indole-3-acetic acid distribution. Most dramatically, tir3 seedlings are strongly deficient in lateral root production, a process that is known to depend on polar auxin transport from the shoot into the root. In addition, tir3 plants display a reduction in apical dominance as well as decreased elongation of siliques, pedicels, roots, and the inflorescence. Biochemical studies indicate that tir3 plants have a reduced number of N-1-naphthylphthalamic (NPA) binding sites, suggesting that the TIR3 gene is required for expression, localization, or stabilization of the NPA binding protein (NBP). Alternatively, the TIR3 gene may encode the NBP. Because the tir3 mutants have a substantial defect in NPA binding, their phenotype provides genetic evidence for a role for the NBP in plant growth and development.

  19. Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation reduces mTORC1 signaling in skeletal muscle from high fat fed, obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuyun; Dungan, Cory M; Carrier, Bradley; Rideout, Todd C; Williamson, David L

    2014-12-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is hyperactive in liver, adipose and skeletal muscle tissues of obese rodents. Alpha-lipoic acid (αLA) has been well accepted as a weight-loss treatment, though there are limited studies on its effect on mTOR signaling in high-fat fed, obese rodents. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine mTOR signaling and oxidative protein alterations in skeletal muscle of high-fat fed, obese rats after αLA supplementation. Phosphorylation of the mTOR substrate, eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and eIF4B were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in muscle from αLA supplemented rats. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an mTOR inhibitory kinase, was higher (p < 0.05) in the αLA group. Protein expression of markers of oxidative metabolism, acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), cytochrome c oxidase IV (COX IV), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and PPAR gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) after αLA supplementation compared to non-supplemented group. Our findings show that αLA supplementation limits the negative ramifications of consuming a high fat diet on skeletal muscle markers of oxidative metabolism and mTORC1 signaling. PMID:25366515

  20. Synthesis and characterization of reduced graphene oxide supported gold nanoparticles-poly(pyrrole-co-pyrrolepropylic acid) nanocomposite-based electrochemical biosensor.

    PubMed

    Puri, Nidhi; Niazi, Asad; Srivastava, Avanish K; Rajesh

    2014-10-01

    A conducting poly(pyrrole-co-pyrrolepropylic acid) copolymer nanocomposite film (AuNP-PPy-PPa) incorporating gold nanoparticles (AuNP) was electrochemically grown using a single step procedure over electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) flakes deposited on a silane-modified indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass plate. The RGO support base provided excellent mechanical and chemical stability to the polymer nanocomposite matrix. The porous nanostructure of AuNP-PPy-PPa/RGO provided a huge accessible area to disperse AuNP, and it avoided metallic agglomeration within the polymer matrix. The AuNP-PPy-PPa/RGO was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and electrochemical techniques. The pendant carboxyl group of AuNP-PPy-PPa/RGO was covalently bonded with myoglobin protein antibody, Ab-Mb, for the construction of a bioelectrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique was used for the characterization of the bioelectrode and as an impedimetric biosensor for the detection of human cardiac biomarker, Ag-cMb. The bioelectrode exhibited a linear impedimetric response to Ag-cMb in the range of 10 ng mL(-1) to 1 μg mL(-1), in phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) (pH 7.4, 0.1 M KCl) with a sensitivity of 92.13 Ω cm(2) per decade. PMID:24928550

  1. Reduced naphthylphthalamic acid binding in the tir3 mutant of Arabidopsis is associated with a reduction in polar auxin transport and diverse morphological defects.

    PubMed Central

    Ruegger, M; Dewey, E; Hobbie, L; Brown, D; Bernasconi, P; Turner, J; Muday, G; Estelle, M

    1997-01-01

    Polar auxin transport plays a key role in the regulation of plant growth and development. To identify genes involved in this process, we have developed a genetic procedure to screen for mutants of Arabidopsis that are altered in their response to auxin transport inhibitors. We recovered a total of 16 independent mutants that defined seven genes, called TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE (TIR) genes. Recessive mutations in one of these genes, TIR3, result in altered responses to transport inhibitors, a reduction in polar auxin transport, and a variety of morphological defects that can be ascribed to changes in indole-3-acetic acid distribution. Most dramatically, tir3 seedlings are strongly deficient in lateral root production, a process that is known to depend on polar auxin transport from the shoot into the root. In addition, tir3 plants display a reduction in apical dominance as well as decreased elongation of siliques, pedicels, roots, and the inflorescence. Biochemical studies indicate that tir3 plants have a reduced number of N-1-naphthylphthalamic (NPA) binding sites, suggesting that the TIR3 gene is required for expression, localization, or stabilization of the NPA binding protein (NBP). Alternatively, the TIR3 gene may encode the NBP. Because the tir3 mutants have a substantial defect in NPA binding, their phenotype provides genetic evidence for a role for the NBP in plant growth and development. PMID:9165751

  2. A Staphylococcus aureus ypfP mutant with strongly reduced lipoteichoic acid (LTA) content: LTA governs bacterial surface properties and autolysin activity

    PubMed Central

    Fedtke, Iris; Mader, Diana; Kohler, Thomas; Moll, Hermann; Nicholson, Graeme; Biswas, Raja; Henseler, Katja; Götz, Friedrich; Zähringer, Ulrich; Peschel, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Many Gram-positive bacteria produce lipoteichoic acid (LTA) polymers whose physiological roles have remained a matter of debate because of the lack of LTA-deficient mutants. The ypfP gene responsible for biosynthesis of a glycolipid found in LTA was deleted in Staphylococcus aureus SA113, causing 87% reduction of the LTA content. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that the mutant LTA contained a diacylglycerol anchor instead of the glycolipid, whereas the remaining part was similar to the wild-type polymer except that it was shorter. The LTA mutant strain revealed no major changes in patterns of cell wall proteins or autolytic enzymes compared with the parental strain indicating that LTA may be less important in S. aureus protein attachment than previously thought. However, the autolytic activity of the mutant was strongly reduced demonstrating a role of LTA in controlling autolysin activity. Moreover, the hydrophobicity of the LTA mutant was altered and its ability to form biofilms on plastic was completely abrogated indicating a profound impact of LTA on physicochemical properties of bacterial surfaces. We propose to consider LTA and its biosynthetic enzymes as targets for new antibiofilm strategies. PMID:17640274

  3. Salicylic acid treatment reduces the rot of postharvest citrus fruit by inducing the accumulation of H2O2, primary metabolites and lipophilic polymethoxylated flavones.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Chen, Jiajing; Xiao, Xue; Zhang, Mingfei; Yun, Ze; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Juan; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2016-09-15

    To comprehensively analyze the effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the storability of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu), fruits were treated with 2mM SA. The disease incidence of control/SA-treated fruit at 50d and 120d after treatment was 23.3%/10% and 67.3%/23.3%, respectively, suggesting that SA treatment can significantly reduce the rot rate of postharvest citrus fruit. Fruit quality assays revealed that the treatment can maintain fruit firmness without affecting the inner quality. Furthermore, the contents of H2O2 and some defense-related metabolites, such as ornithine and threonine, in citrus pericarp, were significantly increased by SA treatment. Moreover, it was lipophilic polymethoxylated flavones, rather than flavanone glycosides, that accumulated in SA-treated fruits and these can directly inhibit pathogen development. These results suggest that the effects of SA on postharvest citrus fruit may be attributed to the accumulation of H2O2 and defense-related metabolites. PMID:27080881

  4. 18β-Glycyrrhetinic Acid, a Novel Naturally Derived Agent, Suppresses Prolactin Hyperactivity and Reduces Antipsychotic-Induced Hyperprolactinemia in In Vitro and In Vivo Models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Zhang, Yongfeng; Wang, Chunyue; Jia, Dongxu; Cai, Guangsheng; Lu, Jiahui; Wang, Di; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), a novel naturally derived agent, in suppressing prolactin (PRL) hyperactivity and reducing antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) and the underlying mechanisms in in vitro and in vivo models. GA treatment for 24 h inhibited PRL synthesis and secretion in MMQ cells and cultured pituitary cells in a dose-dependent fashion; but this effect was not reproduced in GH3 cells that lack the expression of functional dopamine D2 receptors. GA suppressed elevated PRL level and growth hormone, and normalized several sex hormones in a rat model of hyperPRL, produced by repeated injection of the dopamine blocker metoclopramide. GA also modulated the expression 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in both in vivo and in vitro models. These results indicate that GA is effective in suppressing PRL hyperactivity caused by the blockade of dopamine D2 receptors. This suppressive effect of GA may be related to its modulation of the serotonergic system. This study provides additional evidence in support of GA as an adjunct for the treatment of hyperPRL. PMID:27161375

  5. Saponins, especially platyconic acid A, from Platycodon grandiflorum reduce airway inflammation in ovalbumin-induced mice and PMA-exposed A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Ho; Jin, Sun Woo; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Choi, Chul Yung; Lee, Hyun Sun; Ryu, Shi Yong; Chung, Young Chul; Hwang, Young Jung; Um, Yeon Ji; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2015-02-11

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponins (Changkil saponins: CKS) on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in mice. CKS suppressed leukocytes number, IgE, Th1/Th2 cytokines, and MCP-1 chemokine secretion in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Also, ovalbumin-increased MUC5AC, MMP-2/9, and TIMP-1/-2 mRNA expression, NF-κB activation, leukocytes recruitment, and mucus secretion were inhibited by CKS treatment. Moreover, the active component of CKS, platyconic acid A (PA), suppressed PMA-induced MUC5AC mRNA expression (from 2.1 ± 0.2 to 1.1 ± 0.1) by inhibiting NF-κB activation (from 2.3 ± 0.2 to 1.2 ± 0.1) via Akt (from 3.7 ± 0.3 to 2.1 ± 0.2) (p < 0.01) in A549 cells. Therefore, we demonstrate that CKS or PA suppressed the development of respiratory inflammation, hyperresponsiveness, and remodeling by reducing allergic responses, and they may be potential herbal drugs for allergen-induced respiratory disease prevention. PMID:25590691

  6. Permanent draft genome sequence of Desulfurococcus mobilis type strain DSM 2161, a thermoacidophilic sulfur-reducing crenarchaeon isolated from acidic hot springs of Hveravellir, Iceland

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Susanti, Dwi; Johnson, Eric F.; Lapidus, Alla; Han, James; Reddy, T. B. K.; Pilay, Manoj; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Markowitz, Victor M.; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; et al

    2016-01-13

    Our report presents the permanent draft genome sequence of Desulfurococcus mobilis type strain DSM 2161, an obligate anaerobic hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon that was isolated from acidic hot springs in Hveravellir, Iceland. D. mobilis utilizes peptides as carbon and energy sources and reduces elemental sulfur to H2S. A metabolic construction derived from the draft genome identified putative pathways for peptide degradation and sulfur respiration in this archaeon. Existence of several hydrogenase genes in the genome supported previous findings that H2 is produced during the growth of D. mobilis in the absence of sulfur. Interestingly, genes encoding glucose transport and utilization systems alsomore » exist in the D. mobilis genome though this archaeon does not utilize carbohydrate for growth. The draft genome of D. mobilis provides an additional mean for comparative genomic analysis of desulfurococci. In addition, our analysis on the Average Nucleotide Identity between D. mobilis and Desulfurococcus mucosus suggested that these two desulfurococci are two different strains of the same species.« less

  7. 4-Phenylbutyric acid reduces mutant-TGFBIp levels and ER stress through activation of ERAD pathway in corneal fibroblasts of granular corneal dystrophy type 2.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung-Il; Lee, Eunhee; Jeong, Jang Bin; Akuzum, Begum; Maeng, Yong-Sun; Kim, Tae-Im; Kim, Eung Kweon

    2016-09-01

    Granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2) is caused by a point mutation (R124H) in the transforming growth factor β-induced (TGFBI) gene. In GCD2 corneal fibroblasts, secretion of the accumulated mutant TGFBI-encoded protein (TGFBIp) is delayed via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi-dependent secretory pathway. However, ER stress as the pathogenic mechanism underlying GCD2 has not been fully characterized. The aim of this study was to confirm whether ER stress is linked to GCD2 pathogenesis and whether the chemical chaperone, 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), could be exploited as a therapy for GCD2. We found that the ER chaperone binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) and the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) were elevated in GCD2. Western bolt analysis also showed a significant increase in both the protein levels and the phosphorylation of the key ER stress kinases, inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) and double stranded RNA activated protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase, as well as in levels of their downstream targets, X box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) and activating transcription factor 4, respectively, in GCD2 corneal fibroblasts. GCD2 cells were found to be more susceptible to ER stress-induced cell death than were wild-type corneal fibroblasts. Treatment with 4-PBA considerably reduced the levels of BiP, IRE1α, and XBP1 in GCD2 cells; notably, 4-PBA treatment significantly reduced the levels of TGFBIp without change in TGFBI mRNA levels. In addition, TGFBIp levels were significantly reduced under ER stress and this reduction was considerably suppressed by the ubiquitin proteasome inhibitor MG132, indicating TGFBIp degradation via the ER-associated degradation pathway. Treatment with 4-PBA not only protected against the GCD2 cell death induced by ER stress but also significantly suppressed the MG132-mediated increase in TGFBIp levels under ER stress. Together, these results suggest that ER stress might comprise an important factor in GCD2 pathophysiology and

  8. 3-iodothyroacetic acid, a metabolite of thyroid hormone, induces itch and reduces threshold to noxious and to painful heat stimuli in mice

    PubMed Central

    Laurino, Annunziatina; De Siena, Gaetano; Resta, Francesco; Masi, Alessio; Musilli, Claudia; Zucchi, Riccardo; Raimondi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Itch is associated with increased sensitization to nociceptive stimuli. We investigated whether 3-iodothyroacetic acid (TA1), by releasing histamine, induces itch and increases sensitization to noxious and painful heat stimuli. Experimental Approach Itch was evaluated after s.c. administration of TA1 (0.4, 1.32 and 4 μg·kg−1). Mice threshold to noxious (NHT) and to painful heat stimuli were evaluated by the increasing-temperature hot plate (from 45.5 to 49.5°C) or by the hot plate (51.5°C) test, respectively, 15 min after i.p. injection of TA1 (0.4, 1.32 and 4 μg·kg−1). Itch, NHT and pain threshold evaluation were repeated in mice pretreated with pyrilamine. Itch and NHT were also measured in HDC+/+ and HDC−/− following injection of saline or TA1 (1.32, 4 and 11 μg·kg−1; s.c. and i.p.). pERK1/2 levels were determined by Western blot in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) isolated from CD1 mice 15 min after they received (i.p.): saline, saline and noxious heat stimulus (46.5°C), TA1 (0.1, 0.4, 1.32, 4 μg·kg−1) or TA1 1.32 μg·kg−1 and noxious heat stimulus. Key Results TA1 0.4 and 1.32 μg·kg−1 induced itch and reduced NHT; pyrilamine pretreatment prevented both of these effects. TA1 4 μg·kg−1 (i.p.) reduced pain threshold without inducing itch or modifying NHT. In HDC−/− mice, TA1 failed to induce itch and to reduce NHT. In DRG, pERK1/2 levels were significantly increased by noxious heat stimuli and by TA1 0.1, 0.4 and 1.32 μg·kg−1; i.p. Conclusions and Implications Increased TA1 levels induce itch and an enhanced sensitivity to noxious heat stimuli suggesting that TA1 might represent a potential cause of itch in thyroid diseases. PMID:25439265

  9. Reduced levels of hydroxylated, polyunsaturated ultra long-chain fatty acids in the serum of colorectal cancer patients: implications for early screening and detection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are currently no accurate serum markers for detecting early risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We therefore developed a non-targeted metabolomics technology to analyse the serum of pre-treatment CRC patients in order to discover putative metabolic markers associated with CRC. Using tandem-mass spectrometry (MS/MS) high throughput MS technology we evaluated the utility of selected markers and this technology for discriminating between CRC and healthy subjects. Methods Biomarker discovery was performed using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Comprehensive metabolic profiles of CRC patients and controls from three independent populations from different continents (USA and Japan; total n = 222) were obtained and the best inter-study biomarkers determined. The structural characterization of these and related markers was performed using liquid chromatography (LC) MS/MS and nuclear magnetic resonance technologies. Clinical utility evaluations were performed using a targeted high-throughput triple-quadrupole multiple reaction monitoring (TQ-MRM) method for three biomarkers in two further independent populations from the USA and Japan (total n = 220). Results Comprehensive metabolomic analyses revealed significantly reduced levels of 28-36 carbon-containing hydroxylated polyunsaturated ultra long-chain fatty-acids in all three independent cohorts of CRC patient samples relative to controls. Structure elucidation studies on the C28 molecules revealed two families harbouring specifically two or three hydroxyl substitutions and varying degrees of unsaturation. The TQ-MRM method successfully validated the FTICR-MS results in two further independent studies. In total, biomarkers in five independent populations across two continental regions were evaluated (three populations by FTICR-MS and two by TQ-MRM). The resultant receiver-operator characteristic curve AUCs ranged from 0.85 to 0.98 (average = 0.91 ± 0.04). Conclusions A

  10. Enhanced biocidal activity of Au nanoparticles synthesized in one pot using 2, 4-dihydroxybenzene carbodithioic acid as a reducing and stabilizing agent

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The conjugation of gold nanoparticles with biocides such as natural products, oligosaccharides, DNA, proteins has attracted great attention of scientists recently. Gold NPs covered with biologically important molecules showed significant enhancement in biological activity in comparison with the activity of the free biocides. However, these reports are not very systematic and do not allow to draw definitive conclusions. We therefore embarked in a systematic study related to the synthesis and characterization of biocidal activities of Au nanoparticles conjugated to a wide variety of synthetic and natural biomolecules. In this specific report, we investigated the activity of a synthetic biocide, 2-4, Dihydroxybenzene carbodithioic acid (DHT). Results Au nanoparticles (NP) with a mean size of about 20 nm were synthesized and functionalized in one pot with the help of biocide 2,4-Dihydroxybenzene carbodithioic acid (DHT) to reduce HAuCl4 in aqueous solution. Conjugation of DHT with gold was confirmed by FT-IR and the amount of DHT conjugated to the Au nanoparticles was found to be 7% by weight by measuring the concentration of DHT in the supernatant after centrifugation of the Au NPs. To ascertain the potential for in vivo applications, the stability of the suspensions was investigated as a function of pH, temperature and salt concentration. Antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal and cytotoxic activities of the Au-DHT conjugates were compared with those of pure DHT and of commercially available biocides. In all cases, the biocidal activity of the Au-DHT conjugates was comparable to that of commercial products and of DHT. Conclusions Since the DHT concentration in the Au-DHT conjugates was only about 7%, our results indicate that conjugation to the Au NPs boosts the biocidal activity of DHT by about 14 times. The suspensions were found to be stable for several days at temperatures of up to 100°C, salt concentrations up to 4 mol/L and a pH range of 2

  11. The rapid identification and quantification of iso-α-acids and reduced iso-α-acids in blood using UHPLC-MS/MS: validation of a novel marker for beer consumption.

    PubMed

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2013-12-01

    A method for the detection of iso-α-acid (IAA) type ingredient congeners that are derived from the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.) was developed to detect recent consumption of beer in blood. Three structurally similar but chemically altered IAA, also used as beer-specific ingredients, are known as "reduced IAA", consisting of the rho-, tetrahydro-, and hexahydro-IAA were also targeted. The use of a simple protein precipitation extraction and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography system coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer system enabled detection of these analytes in both antemortem and postmortem blood. Extracts were injected onto a C18 solid-core column under gradient elution to achieve separation of isobaric analogs and isomers within a 10-min run time. Electrospray ionization in negative multiple reaction monitoring mode was used to monitor three transitions for each of the analytes that were ultimately grouped together to form a calibration curve for quantification of each of the four IAA groups. The method was fully validated according to international guidelines that included extraction efficiency, matrix effects, process efficiency, ion suppression/enhancement of co-eluting analytes, selectivity, crosstalk, accuracy and precision, stabilities, and lower limits of quantification. Finally, applicability of the method described was demonstrated by the detection of IAA ingredient congeners in the blood of a volunteer following the consumption of a relatively small amount of beer in a pilot study. PMID:24177342

  12. Effects of Long-Term Acid-Mine Drainage Contamination on Diversity and Activity of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in a Natural Salt Marsh.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, J. W.; Banfield, J. F.

    2003-12-01

    Constructed wetlands have been studied as sites or analogs for in situ bioremediation of metal contaminants from acid mine drainage (AMD) or industrial sources (e.g. Webb et al. 1998). Wetlands bioremediation necessarily invokes the ubiquity and robustness of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to sequester dissolved metals into various poorly soluble metal-sulfides (e.g. PbS, CdS). However, few studies of natural wetlands under long-term ecological forcing by AMD or other contaminant sources are available for context. We are investigating the microbial diversity, mineralogy and geochemistry of a highly contaminated salt marsh along the East Central San Francisco Bay. For nearly a half-century, areas within this marsh have received acidic and/or metal-rich groundwaters from near-surface pyrite tailings (transported there from Iron Mountain Mine, near Redding, CA) and local industrial sources (e.g. paint and explosives manufacturers). Sediment cores (30-40 cm long) were taken from six contaminated sites in the marsh with pH range of ˜2 to ˜8. Previous analyses (URS Corp. 2001) reported As, Cd, Cu, Se, Zn, and Pb present in sediments at extremely high concentrations (100s of ppm), yet our ICP-AES analyses of pore waters showed only As present at concentrations of 10-50 ppb. We infer, from high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) studies of biogenic (SRB biofilm) ZnS (Moreau et al. 2003, in review) and marsh sediments, that contaminant metals have been sequestered into aggregates of nanocrystalline metal-sulfides. Continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS) analyses of pore-water sulfate and sedimentary sulfides allow resolution of contributions to dissolved sulfate and sulfide from tailings oxidation and dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Sulfate analyses from subsections of three cores (pH 2-3, 6-7, 7-8, respectively) all yield δ 34S values consistent with bacterial sulfate reduction. We note that all three cores also contain very fine

  13. Body condition loss and increased serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids enhance progesterone levels at estrus and reduce estrous activity and insemination rates in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lüttgenau, J; Purschke, S; Tsousis, G; Bruckmaier, R M; Bollwein, H

    2016-03-01

    Data from 96 Holstein Friesian cows on a commercial dairy farm were used to investigate whether body condition and serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) postpartum (pp) affect progesterone (P4) levels, estrous activity, and fertility in dairy cows. The examination period started 14 days before the expected calving date and ended either when a cow was inseminated or at a maximum of 90 days pp. Body condition score (BCS; 1-5 scale) and backfat thickness (BFT) were determined every 2 weeks. Blood for analysis of NEFA