Sample records for acid resin tulsion

  1. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section...Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely...

  2. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section...Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely...

  3. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section...Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely...

  4. Reactivity of Trametes laccases with fatty and resin acids.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, S; Holmbom, B; Spetz, P; Mustranta, A; Buchert, J

    2001-04-01

    Lipophilic extractives commonly referred to as wood pitch or wood resin can have a negative impact on paper machine runnability and product quality. The lipophilic extractives are composed mainly of fatty acids, resin acids, sterols, steryl esters and triglycerides. In this work, the suitability of laccases for the modification of fatty and resin acids was studied, using two model fractions. In the treatments, resin and fatty acid dispersions were treated with two different laccases, i.e. laccases from Trametes hirsuta and T. villosa. Different chromatographic methods were used to elucidate the effects of laccase treatments on the chemistry of the fatty and resin acids. Both laccases were able to modify the fatty and resin acids to some extent. In the case of fatty acids, a decrease in the amount of linoleic, oleic and pinolenic acids was observed, whereas the modification of resin acids resulted in a reduced amount of conjugated resin acids. PMID:11341313

  5. Enhanced vanillin production from ferulic acid using adsorbent resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongliang Hua; Cuiqing Ma; Lifu Song; Shan Lin; Zhaobin Zhang; Zixin Deng; Ping Xu

    2007-01-01

    High vanillin productivity was achieved in the batch biotransformation of ferulic acid by Streptomyces sp. strain V-1. Due to the toxicity of vanillin and the product inhibition, fed-batch biotransformation with high concentration\\u000a of ferulic acid was unsuccessful. To solve this problem and improve the vanillin yield, a biotransformation strategy using\\u000a adsorbent resin was investigated. Several macroporous adsorbent resins were chosen

  6. Separation of resin acids using cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Luong, J H; Rigby, T; Male, K B; Bouvrette, P

    1999-06-01

    A cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoretic method has been developed for the analysis of eleven common resin acids using a pH 4.5, 20 mM sodium acetate buffer containing 10% acetonitrile, 20 mM methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MECD) and 30 mM sulfobutylether-beta-cyclodextrin (SBCD) as buffer modifiers. At pH below their pKa (< 5.7-6.4) the resin acids were virtually unionized and insoluble; however, they formed water-soluble inclusion complexes with MECD (20 mM) or SBCD (30 mM) even at pH 4.5. The analytes were separated in 25 min and, with the exception of two pairs, 12- or 14-chlorodehydroabietic/12,14-dichlorodehydroabietic acid and dehydroabietic/palustric acid, the remaining resin acids were baseline-separated. Analysis time was significantly shortened (< 12 min) at pH 9.25 using 30 mM SBCD and 20 mM MECD in 20 mM sodium borate. Resin acids were baseline-separated with the exception of two pairs, pimaric/sandaracopimaric acid and 12- or 14-chlorodehydroabietic/abietic acid. The addition of 7.5% methanol to the running buffer resolved the abietic acid peak. Both HPLC and micellar capillary electrokinetic chromatography using 20 mM deoxycholic acid, 10% acetonitrile in 20 mM sodium borate, pH 9.25, failed to resolve the resin acids. The simple capillary electrophoretic method developed would be useful for the rapid separation and characterization of several important resin acids in pulp mill effluents and other contaminated samples. PMID:10424479

  7. Usage of methyl ester of tall oil fatty acids and resinic acids as alternative diesel fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Keskin; Abdulkadir Ya?ar; Metin Gürü; Duran Alt?parmak

    2010-01-01

    In the experimental study, tall oil fatty and resinic acids were investigated as alternative diesel fuels. The fatty acids, obtained by distilling the crude tall oil, were esterified with methanol in order to obtain tall oil methyl ester (biodiesel). Blends of the methyl ester, resinic acids and diesel fuel were prepared for test fuels. Performance and emission tests of the

  8. REACTIVITY OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE RESIN WITH NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    King, W; Fernando Fondeur, F; Bill Wilmarth, B; Myra Pettis, M; Shirley Mccollum, S

    2006-06-14

    Solid-state infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and elemental analysis have been used to evaluate the reactivity of resorcinol formaldehyde resin with nitric acid and characterize the solid product. Two distinct reactions were identified within the temperature range 25-55 C. The first reaction is primarily associated with resin nitration, while the second involves bulk oxidation and degradation of the polymer network leading to dissolution and off-gassing. Reaction was confirmed with nitric acid concentrations as low as 3 M at 25 C applied temperature and 0.625 M at 66 C. Although a nitrated resin product can be isolated under appropriate experimental conditions, calorimetry testing indicates no significant hazard associated with handling the dry material.

  9. Reactivity of Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin with Nitric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    King, William D.; Fondeur, Fernando F.; Wilmarth, William R.; Pettis, Myra E.

    2005-10-25

    Solid-state infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and elemental analysis have been used to evaluate the reactivity of resorcinol formaldehyde resin with nitric acid and characterize the solid product. Two distinct reactions were identified within the temperature range 25-55 C. The first reaction is primarily associated with resin nitration, while the second involves bulk oxidation and degradation of the polymer network leading to dissolution and off-gassing. The threshold conditions promoting reaction have been identified. Reaction was confirmed with nitric acid concentrations as low as 3 M at 25 C applied temperature and 0.625 M at 66 C. Although a nitrated resin product can be isolated under appropriate experimental conditions, calorimetry testing indicates no significant hazard associated with handling the dry material.

  10. Comparison of XAD macroporous resins for the concentration of fulvic acid from aqueous solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    Five macroreticular, nonlonlc AmberlHe XAD resins were evaluated for concentration and Isolation of fulvlc acid from aqueous solution. The capacity of each resin for fulvlc acid was measured by both batch and column techniques. Elution efficiencies were determined by desorptlon with 0.1 N NaOH. Highest recoveries were obtained with the acrylic ester resins which proved to be most efficient for both adsorption and elution of fulvlc acid. Compared to the acrylic ester resins, usefulness of the styrene dvlnybenzene resins to remove fulvlc acid is limited because of slow diffusion-controlled adsorption and formation of charge-transfer complexes, which hinders elution. ?? 1979 American Chemical Society.

  11. Solidification and leaching of boric acid and resin LWR wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Arora; R. Dayal

    1984-01-01

    Leach testing was conducted on two types of reactor wastes (resin beads from a BWR and boric acid concentrate from a PWR) solidified in cement. In these wastes, Cs-14,137 isotopes were the most mobile constituents followed by Sr-90. Co-60 was found to be the least mobile. Effective diffusivities of these radionuclides were approx. 10⁻⁹ cm²\\/s for Cs-isotopes, approx. 10⁻¹¹ cm²\\/s

  12. Semisynthesis of the antiviral abietane diterpenoid jiadifenoic acid C from callitrisic acid (4-epidehydroabietic acid) isolated from sandarac resin.

    PubMed

    González, Miguel A; Zaragozá, Ramón J

    2014-09-26

    The semisynthesis of the antiviral abietane diterpenoid (+)-jiadifenoic acid C starting from the available methyl ester of callitrisic acid (4-epidehydroabietic acid) isolated from sandarac resin is reported. A protocol for the isolation of methyl callitrisate (methyl 4-epidehydroabietate) in gram quantities from sandarac resin is also described. Allylic C-17 oxygenation was introduced by regioselective dehydrogenation of the isopropyl group of methyl callitrisate with DDQ followed by selenium-catalyzed allylic oxidation. Ester hydrolysis afforded (+)-jiadifenoic acid C in 22% overall yield from methyl callitrisate. This semisynthetic route provides a convenient source of this anti-Coxsackie virus B natural product for further biological studies. PMID:25166492

  13. Elimination of resin acids by advanced oxidation processes and their impact on subsequent biodegradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanislaw Ledakowicz; Malgorzata Michniewicz; Agnieszka Jagiella; Jadwiga Stufka-Olczyk; Maria Martynelis

    2006-01-01

    Wood pulping and paper production generate a considerable amount of wastewater, containing many pollutants among them resin and fatty acids. Resin acids contribute substantially to effluent toxicity and were identified to be detrimental to microorganisms of activated sludge and in particular to bacteria in anaerobic wastewater treatment system and other forms of aquatic life.The objective of the present study was

  14. Isolation of organic acids from large volumes of water by adsorption on macroporous resins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, George R.

    1987-01-01

    Adsorption on synthetic macroporous resins, such as the Amberlite XAD series and Duolite A-7, is routinely used to isolate and concentrate organic acids from forge volumes of water. Samples as large as 24,500 L have been processed on site by using these resins. Two established extraction schemes using XAD-8 and Duolite A-7 resins are described. The choice of the appropriate resin and extraction scheme is dependent on the organic solutes of interest. The factors that affect resin performance, selectivity, and capacity for a particular solute are solution pH, resin surface area and pore size, and resin composition. The logistical problems of sample handling, filtration, and preservation are also discussed.

  15. Photolysis and biodegradation of selected resin acids in River Saale water, Germany.

    PubMed

    McMartin, Dena W; Headley, John V; Neu, Thomas R; Friesen, Duane A

    2003-01-01

    The River Saale is the Elbe's major tributary flowing through the state of Thuringia, Germany and receives organics inputs from several industrial facilities including pulp and paper mills. Resin acids constitute a major class of polar organics and environmental toxins derived primarily from pulp and paper processing of softwoods. Since wastewater treatment methods at pulp and paper mills are not always capable of removing the persistent resin acids prior to effluent discharge, alternative or complementary degradation methods may be required. Here, the facile photodegradation of four resin acids--abietic, dehydroabietic, isopimaric, and pimaric--was observed with pseudo-first-order kinetics when exposed to broad band and UV254-radiation. Further experimentation in rotating annular biofilm reactors with UV-exposed and unexposed River Saale water spiked with abietic and dehydroabietic acids indicated that photolysis is an effective pretreatment method for resin acid biodegradation. The bacterial toxicity of the aqueous resin acids solutions as measured with Microtox luminescence assays decreased with exposure time. Consequently, photo- and biodegradation of the resin acids did not generate any notable amounts of toxic intermediates and/or the intermediates formed were further degraded into compounds of lower toxicity than the parents. With tandem photo- and biological treatment at pulp and paper mills, as well as in-situ degradation by solar radiation and natural biofilms within the River Saale, resin acid inputs can be reduced in both concentration and toxicity to near undetectable levels with little or no ecological significance. PMID:14672312

  16. UPTAKE OF GOLD FROM HYDROCHLORIC ACID SOLUTIONS BY POLYMERIC RESINS BEARING VARIOUS PHOSPHORUS CONTAINING LIGANDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej W. Trochimczuk

    2002-01-01

    Polymeric resins with phosphonate esters, phosphinate esters, and phosphine oxide ligands are synthesized via Arbusov reaction, characterized and used in the removal of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. It is found that phosphonate ethyl and butyl esters are able to adsorb as much as 100–120 mg Au\\/g of the resin. Affinity of these two resins towards gold, measured as the logarithm

  17. SELECTIVE RECOVERY OF GOLD FROM ACIDIC SOLUTIONS USING RESINS WITH METHYLENEDIPHOSPHONATE AND CARBOXYMETHYLPHOSPHONATE LIGANDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej W. Trochimczuk

    2001-01-01

    The polymeric resins with methylenediphosphonate and carboxymethylphosphonate ligands in the ethyl ester form have been synthesized, characterized and used in the removal of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. It has been found that they are able to adsorb as much as 130–166 mg Au\\/g of the resin at high concentration of the external solutions. At low concentrations affinity of resins

  18. Bifunctional phenyl monophosphonic/sulfonic acid ion exchange resin and process for using the same

    DOEpatents

    Alexandratos, Spiro (Knoxville, TN); Shelley, Christopher A. (Knoxville, TN); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Renato (Elmhurst, IL); Gula, Michael J. (Chicago, IL); Xue, Sui (Darien, IL); Harvey, James T. (Naperville, IL)

    2002-01-01

    A cross-linked water-insoluble ion exchange resin comprised of polymerized monomers having a phenyl ring is disclosed. A contemplated resin contains (i) polymerized phenyl ring-containing monomers having a phosphonic acid ligand linked to the phenyl ring, (ii) about 2 to about 5 millimoles per gram (mmol/g) of phosphorus as phosphonic acid ligands, and (iii) a sufficient amount of a sulfonic acid ligand such that the ratio of mmol/g of phosphonic acid to mmol/g sulfonic acid is up to 3:1. A process for removing polyvalent metal cations from aqueous solution, and a process for removing iron(III) cations from acidic copper(II) cation-containing solutions that utilize the contemplated resin or other resins are disclosed.

  19. Bifunctional phenyl monophosphonic/sulfonic acid ion exchange resin and process for using the same

    DOEpatents

    Alexandratos, Spiro (Knoxville, TN); Shelley, Christopher A. (Knoxville, TN); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Renato (Elmhurst, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A cross-linked water-insoluble ion exchange resin comprised of polymerized monomers having a phenyl ring is disclosed. A contemplated resin contains (i) polymerized phenyl ring-containing monomers having a phosphonic acid ligand linked to the phenyl ring, (ii) about 2 to about 5 millimoles per gram (mmol/g) of phosphorus as phosphonic acid ligands, and (iii) a sufficient amount of a sulfonic acid ligand such that the ratio of mmol/g of phosphonic acid to mmol/g sulfonic acid is up to 3:1. A process for removing polyvalent metal cations from aqueous solution, and a process for removing iron(III) cations from acidic copper(II) cation-containing solutions that utilize the contemplated resin or other resins are disclosed.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and applications of a new cation exchanger tamarind sulphonic acid (TSA) resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Singh; Naresh Kumar Sharma; Abhay S. Rathore

    2011-01-01

    A new composite cation exchanger, tamarind sulphonic acid (TSA) resin has been synthesized. The chemically modified TSA ion exchange resin has been used for the removal and preconcentration of Zn, Cd, Fe, Co and Cu ions in aqueous solution and effluent from the Laxmi steel plant in Jodhpur, India. This type of composite represents a new class of hybrid ion

  1. Synthesis, characterization and applications of a new cation exchanger tamarind sulphonic acid (TSA) resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Singh; Naresh Kumar Sharma; Abhay S. Rathore

    2012-01-01

    A new composite cation exchanger, tamarind sulphonic acid (TSA) resin has been synthesized. The chemically modified TSA ion exchange resin has been used for the removal and preconcentration of Zn, Cd, Fe, Co and Cu ions in aqueous solution and effluent from the Laxmi steel plant in Jodhpur, India. This type of composite represents a new class of hybrid ion

  2. Dermal Exposure to Terpenic Resin Acids in Swedish Carpentry Workshops and Sawmills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KÅRE ERIKSSON; LEIF WIKLUND; CECILIA LARSSON

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate dermal exposure to the resin acids abietic acid, dehydroabietic acid and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid during collecting in sawmills and during sawing in carpentry workshops, respectively. Methods: Sampling was performed by fastening patches at 12 different areas on a sampling overall, one patch on the front of a cap, one patch on the

  3. Responses of Neodiprion sertifer (Hym., Diprionidae) larvae to variation in needle resin acid concentration in Scots pine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stig Larsson; Christer Björkman; Rolf Gref

    1986-01-01

    We have studied how differences in needle resin acid concentrations between two clones of Scots pine influenced larval survival, larval developmental time, and cocoon weight in Neodiprion sertifer. Larvae were reared under controlled conditions in the laboratory on needles showing a three-fold difference, in resin acid concentration. Larval developmental time was significantly longer for larvae fed needles high in resin

  4. Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Resin-m-Amino Benzoic Acid Composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Thakkar

    1995-01-01

    The curing behaviour of epoxy resin-m-amino benzoic acid, the condensation product of epoxy resin namely; diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) and m-amino benzoic acid (m-ABA) was studied by differential scanning calaorimetry (DSC). The resultant neat products of DGEBA-m-ABA were characterised by infrared (IR) spectral studies and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The glass fiber reinforced composites were prepared and evaluated for their

  5. Effects of Saturated Acids on Physical Properties of UPE Resins Prepared from Recycled PET Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Puangsansuk; M. Opaprakasit; W. Udomkichdecha; P. Potiyaraj

    2009-01-01

    In this study, effects of saturated acids on physical properties, including hardness, impact strength, flexural properties\\u000a and thermal properties, of unsaturated polyester or UPE resins prepared from recycled PET bottles and fabrics were investigated.\\u000a PET was depolymerized by glycolysis reaction with the excess propylene glycol in the presence of zinc acetate as a catalyst.\\u000a UPE resins were then synthesized by

  6. Isolation of hydrophilic organic acids from water using nonionic macroporous resins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, G.R.; McKnight, D.M.; Thorn, K.A.; Thurman, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    A method has been developed for the isolation of hydrophilic organic acids from aquatic environments using Amberlite* * Use of trade names in this report is for identification purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey. XAD-4 resin. The method uses a two column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins in series. The hydrophobic organic acids, composed primarily of aquatic fulvic acid, are removed from the sample on XAD-8, followed by the isolation of the more hydrophilic organic acids on XAD-4. For samples from a number of diverse environments, more of the dissolved organic carbon was isolated on the XAD-8 resin (23-58%) than on the XAD-4 resin (7-25%). For these samples, the hydrophilic acids have lower carbon and hydrogen contents, higher oxygen and nitrogen contents, and are lower in molecular weight than the corresponding fulvic acids. 13C NMR analyses indicate that the hydrophilic acids have a lower concentration of aromatic carbon and greater heteroaliphatic, ketone and carboxyl content than the fulvic acid. ?? 1992.

  7. Microscale separation of mixtures of acids using ion-exchange resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Lawson; J. W. Purdie

    1961-01-01

    Summary Mixtures of carboxylic acids, containing about 200µg of each, may be fractionated by gradient elution from micro-columns of ion-exchange resins. The fractions are collected successively on filter paper and further separated by paper chromatography. Using this method the components of a mixture of twelve acids were readily identified.

  8. Determination of resin acid composition in rosin samples using cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mckeon, Louise; Regan, Fiona; Burns, Barry; Leonard, Ray

    2014-10-01

    Rosins are used in a wide variety of industries in varnishes, adhesives, drug coatings, etc. In this project a novel capillary electrophoresis method was developed to investigate the resin acid composition of rosins. The acids were separated and the concentrations of individual acids present in gum rosin samples determined in order to investigate any links between the presence and concentration of these acids and the tendency of rosins to crystallize. The capillary electrophoresis method successfully separated nine resin acids in various rosin samples where previously they could not all be separated. Calibration curves were created to determine acid concentration. Abietic, dehydroabietic, neoabietic, pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, sandaracopimaric, palustric, and 7-oxo-dehydroabietic acids were separated using a 20 mM tris buffer at pH 9 containing 15% methanol 5 mM (2-hydroxypropyl)-?-cyclodextrin 10 mM sulfobutylether-?-cyclodextrin. Their concentrations in a crystallizing and a noncrystallizing rosin sample were determined. PMID:25066937

  9. Large scale purification of puerarin from Puerariae Lobatae Radix through resins adsorption and acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hai-Dong; Zhang, Qing-Feng; Chen, Ji-Guang; Shangguang, Xin-Cheng; Guo, Yu-Xian

    2015-02-01

    Puerarin is the major isoflavone of Puerariae Lobatae Radix. A method for large scale purification of puerarin was developed through resins adsorption and acid hydrolysis. The adsorption properties of six macroporous resins (D101, S-8, H103, X-5, HPD600, AB-8) were compared through the adsorption kinetics and equilibrium adsorption isotherms. Results showed that H103 resin had the best adsorption rate and capacity. The mass transfer zone motion model was further used for analyzing the fixed bed adsorption of H103 resin. Its length of mass transfer zone with 2mg/ml of puerarin in water and 10% ethanol at flow rate of 10ml/min were 41.6 and 47.5cm, while the equilibrium adsorption capacity was 165.03 and 102.88mg/g, respectively. By using 75% ethanol, puerarin could be well desorbed from the resin with recovery of 97.4%. Subsequently, H103 resin was successfully used for puerarin purification from Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The content of total isoflavones and puerarin in the resin adsorption product were 69.25% and 41.78%, respectively, which were about three times increased compared to the crude extract. Then, the product was hydrolyzed by 2.5M HCl at 90°C for 1h. Puerarin with purity of 90% and a byproduct daidzein with purity of 78% were obtained. PMID:25553536

  10. Esterification of formic acid, acrylic acid and methacrylic acid with cyclohexene in batch and distillation column reactors: ion-exchange resins as catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Basudeb Saha; Man Mohan Sharma

    1996-01-01

    Esterification of formic acid, acrylic acid and methacrylic acid with cyclohexene was carried out in the presence of cation-exchange resins as catalysts. Effect of various parameters, e.g. speed of agitation, catalyst particle size, catalyst loading, types of catalyst, temperature, mole ratio of the reactants, was studied to optimise the reaction conditions. The reaction of formic acid, with different concentrations in

  11. Evaluation of flowable resin composite surfaces eroded by acidic and alcoholic drinks.

    PubMed

    Han, Linlin; Okamoto, Akira; Fukushima, Masayoshi; Okiji, Takashi

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of the surfaces of flowable resins eroded by orange juice and alcohol drinks. The tested products were Beautifil Flow BF02 and BF10, Clearfil Majesty LV, Filtek Supreme XT Flowable Restorative, Unifil LoFlo Plus and Filtek Supreme. Filler percentages of flowable resins were calculated after the latter were incinerated at 750 degrees C. Specimens were shaped into a disk form with a diameter of 10 mm and a thickness of 1 mm. Morphological changes were evaluated for the following types of flowable resin surfaces: polished surface, surfaces eroded by 100% orange juice, wine and whisky. Filler percentages of the tested flowable resins ranged between 42 and 78%. Surface degradation was observed for the specimens immersed in acidic and alcoholic drinks, and it was thought that the lower the filler percentage, the greater was the surface degradation. Decomposition of the matrix resin and fallout of the fillers were observed in flowable resins that eroded with acidic and alcoholic drinks. PMID:18717176

  12. Paal–Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis Using Recyclable Amberlite IR 120 Acidic Resin: A Green Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aarti Devi; Shallu; M. L. Sharma; Jasvinder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Amberlite IR 120 acidic resin, a polymer matrix, has been demonstrated as a catalyst for Paal-Knorr condensation of 2,5-hexadione with primary amines under solvent-free conditions. This is an efficient, mild, and green methodology for N-substituted pyrrole derivatives.

  13. Paal-Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis Using Recyclable Amberlite IR 120 Acidic Resin: A Green Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aarti Devi; Shallu; M. L. Sharma; Jasvinder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Amberlite IR 120 acidic resin, an age old polymer matrix, has been demonstrated as a catalyst for Paal-Knorr condensation of 2,5-hexadione with primary amines under solvent free conditions. This is an efficient, mild and green methodology for N-substituted pyrrole derivatives.

  14. Exposure to Wood Dust, Resin Acids, and Volatile Organic Compounds During Production of Wood Pellets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katja Hagström; Sara Axelsson; Helena Arvidsson; Ing-Liss Bryngelsson; Cecilia Lundholm; Kåre Eriksson

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate exposure to airborne substances that are potentially harmful to health during the production of wood pellets, including wood dust, monoterpenes, and resin acids, and as an indicator of diesel exhaust nitrogen dioxide. In addition, area measurements were taken to assess background exposure levels of these substances, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and

  15. Encapsulated Fatty Acids in an Acrylic Resin as Shape-stabilized Phase Change Materials for Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kaygusuz; C. Alkan; A. Sari; O. Uzun

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to prepare novel shape-stabilized phase change materials (PCMs) by encapsulating fatty acids (stearic acid [SA], palmitic acid [PA], and myristic acid [MA]) as a PCM in an acrylic resin (Eudragit E) as supporting material and to determine latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) properties. The maximum percentage of all fatty acids in the shape-stabilized PCMs was found

  16. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  17. Preparation of Dicarboxylic Acid Containing Sulfonamide Based Resin and Removal of Basic Dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erdem Yavuz; Emir Tugrul Tekin; Mehmet Kandaz; Bahire Filiz Senkal

    2010-01-01

    Polymer and dye interaction leading to polymer-dye complex formation exhibits many interesting and important practical features. For this purpose, dicarboxylic acid containing resin was prepared in two steps starting from poly (styrene-divinyl benzene) (PS-DVB) (10% crosslinking) based beads with a particle size of 400-590 µm, according to the synthetic protocol; chlorosulfonation, sulfamidation with iminodiacetic acid. Dye extraction experiments were carried out

  18. Acute effects of chlorinated resin acid exposure on juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.J.; Sweeting, R.M.; Farrell, A.P.; McKeown, B.A. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Johansen, J.A. [BioWest Environmental Research Consultants, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1995-06-01

    The effects of an acute exposure to either 14-monochlorodehydroabietic acid (MCDHAA) or 12,14-dichlorodehydroabietic acid (DCDHAA) were examined in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The experimentally determined 96-h LC50 values (and their 95% confidence limits) were 1.03 (0.72, 1.48) and 0.91 (0.70, 1.21) mg/L, for MCDHAA and DCDHAA, respectively. To measure effects on several biochemical parameters, swimming performance, and disease resistance, juvenile trout were exposed for 24 h to sublethal concentrations of one or the other resin acid in an intermittent-flow respirometer. Hematocrit, plasma lactate, and liver protein were significantly affected by exposure to the highest dose (80% of the 96-h LC50 value) of either of the resin acids. Plasma cortisol levels were 14- and 3-fold higher than were controls. Resistance to infection by Aeromonas salmonicida was significantly reduced; the cumulative percent mortalities due to furunculosis in fish exposed to MCDHAA or DCDHAA reached 20 and 26%, respectively. Swimming performance, measured as critical swimming speed (mean values 6.32 {+-} 0.20 and 5.93 {+-} 0.15 body lengths per second for MCDHAA and DCDHAA, respectively), was not significantly affected by resin acid exposure.

  19. Effect of acidic solutions on the surface degradation of a micro-hybrid composite resin.

    PubMed

    Münchow, Eliseu A; Ferreira, Ana Cláudia A; Machado, Raissa M M; Ramos, Tatiana S; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval A; Zanchi, Cesar H

    2014-01-01

    Composite resins may undergo wear by the action of chemical substances (e.g., saliva, alcohol, bacterial acids) of the oral environment, which may affect the material's structure and surface properties. This study evaluated the effect of acidic substances on the surface properties of a micro-hybrid composite resin (Filtek Z-250). Eighty specimens were prepared, and baseline hardness and surface roughness (KMN0 and Ra0, respectively) were measured. The specimens were subjected to sorption (SO) and solubility (SL) tests according to ISO 4049:2009, but using different storage solutions: deionized water; 75/25 vol% ethanol/water solution; lactic acid; propionic acid; and acetic acid. The acids were used in two concentrations: PA and 0.02 N. pH was measured for all solutions and final hardness (KMN1) and surface roughness (Ra1) were measured. Data were analyzed with paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=5%). All solutions decreased hardness and increased the Ra values, except for the specimens stored in water and 0.02 N lactic acid, which maintained the hardness. All solutions produced similar SO and SL phenomena, except for the 0.02 N lactic acid, which caused lower solubility than the other solutions. Ethanol showed the highest pH (6.6) and the 0.02 N lactic acid the lowest one (2.5). The solutions affected negatively the surface properties of the composite resin; in addition, an acidic pH did not seem to be a significant factor that intensifies the surface degradation phenomena. PMID:25250496

  20. Addition reactions of thiophenol to ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds using organic acid radical basic anion-exchange resins as catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingxia Li; Jinxia Huang; Wanxuan Zhang

    2001-01-01

    A series of organic acid radical basic anion-exchange resins were prepared from strongly basic quarternary ammonium I type anion-exchange resins, using as the catalysts in addition reactions of thiophenol to ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The catalytic activity are influenced by exchange capacity, reaction temperature, solvent and molecular structure.

  1. Diterpenoid resin acid biosynthesis in conifers: enzymatic cyclization of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to abietadiene, the precursor of abietic acid.

    PubMed

    LaFever, R E; Vogel, B S; Croteau, R

    1994-08-15

    Abietic acid is a major component of the rosin fraction of oleoresin synthesized by conifer species, such as grand fir (Abies grandis) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), as a defensive secretion against insect and pathogen attack. This diterpenoid resin acid is derived from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate by conversion to abietadiene and sequential oxidation of the C18-methyl group of the precursor olefin to a carboxyl function. Resin acid biosynthesis is constitutively expressed at high levels in lodgepole pine stem and is induced to these levels by stem wounding in grand fir. Soluble enzyme extracts of lodgepole pine stem and of mechanically wounded grand fir stem catalyzed the divalent metal ion-dependent cyclization of [1-3H]geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to (-)-abieta-7(8),13(14)-diene. The wound-inducible enzyme was partially purified and identified as an 80-kDa protein with general characteristics typical of those of other terpenoid cyclases. Although the enzymatic cyclization sequence almost certainly involves the formation of copalyl pyrophosphate and a pimaradiene as stable intermediates, no evidence for the separation of the corresponding partial activities was obtained. A pathway involving the production of various pimaradiene and abietadiene isomers is proposed to account for the origin of several common resin acids. PMID:8053674

  2. An improved extraction chromatographic resin for the separation of uranium from acidic nitrate media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark L Dietz; E. Philip Horwitz; Larry R Sajdak; Renato Chiarizia

    2001-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of a new extraction chromatographic resin exhibiting extraordinarily strong retention of hexavalent uranyl ion over a wide range of nitric acid concentrations and very high selectivity for U(VI) over Fe(III) and numerous other cations is described. This new material (designated U\\/TEVA-2) comprises a novel liquid stationary phase consisting of an equimolar mixture of diamyl amylphosphonate (DA[AP])

  3. ION EXCHANGE STUDIES IN CONCENTRATED SOLUTIONS. I. THE ALKALI CATIONS WITH A SULFONIC ACID RESIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Whitney; R. M. Diamond

    1962-01-01

    An investigation of the cation exchange behavior on Dowex-50W (sulfonic-; acid type) resin of Na, Rb, and Cs traccrs in 0.1 M to saturated solutions of ; HClOâ, HCl, HNOâ, HCâHgOâ, the corresponding Li salts, ; and CsCl was made. The exchange in dilute solutions is discussed in terms of the ; competition for solvation of the cation between water

  4. Adsorption Studies of Divalent Metal Ions with Extraction Resin Containing 1Hexyl4-ethyloctyl Isopropylphosphonic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiong Jia; Zhonghuai Wang; Deqian Li; Chunji Niu

    2003-01-01

    Equilibrium distributions of cobalt(II), nickel(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II), and copper(II) have been studied in the adsorption with extraction resin containing 1-hexyl-4-ethyloctyl isopropylphosphonic acid (HEOPPA) as an extractant from chloride medium. The distribution coefficients are determined as a function of pH. The data are analyzed both graphically and numerically. The extraction of the metal ions can be explained assuming the formation of

  5. Study on elution ability of salicylic acid on ion exchange resins in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Yuan; Jianguo Cai; Junjie Gong; Xiu Deng

    2009-01-01

    The elution ability of salicylic acid on ion exchange resins in supercritical carbon dioxide has been studied. Some factors\\u000a influencing elution recovery, including entrainer, temperature, pressure and the flow rate of supercritical fluid CO2 are discussed in this work. The addition of a small amount of entrainer, such as ethanol, triethanolamine and their mixture\\u000a to supercritical CO2 can cause dramatic

  6. Screening analyses of pinosylvin stilbenes, resin acids and lignans in Norwegian conifers.

    PubMed

    Hovelstad, Hanne; Leirset, Ingebjorg; Oyaas, Karin; Fiksdahl, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The content and distribution of stilbenes and resin acids in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies), sampled in central Norway, have been examined. The contents of pinosylvin stilbenes in pine heartwood/living knots were 0.2-2/2-8 %(w/w). No stilbenes could be detected in spruce (Picea abies). The resin acid contents of pine sapwood/heartwood and knots were 1-4 and 5-10 % (w/w), respectively. Minor amounts of resin acids (<0.2/<0.04 %w/w) were identified in spruce wood/knots. The lignan content in knots of Norwegian spruce was 6.5 % (w/w). Diastereomerically pure hydroxymatairesinol (HMR, 84 % of total lignans) was readily isolated from this source since only minor quantities (2.6 % of total lignans) of the allo-HMR diastereomer was detected. Insignificant amounts of lignans were present in the sapwood. Lignans could not be detected in the sapwood or knots of Norwegian sallow (Salix caprea), birch(Betula pendula) or juniper (Juniperus communis). PMID:17962750

  7. EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL ELUANTS FOR NON-ACID ELUTION OF CESIUM FROM RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K.; Pennebaker, F.

    2010-12-22

    Small-column ion exchange (SCIX) units installed in high-level waste tanks to remove Cs-137 from highly alkaline salt solutions are among the waste treatment plans in the DOE-complex. Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF) is the ion exchange resin selected for use in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). It is also the primary ion exchange material under consideration for SCIX at the Hanford site. The elution step of the multi-step ion exchange process is typically done with 0.5 M nitric acid. An acid eluant is a potential hazard in the event of a spill, leak, etc. because the high-level waste tanks are made of carbon steel. Corrosion and associated structural damage may ensue. A study has been conducted to explore non-acid elution as an alternative. Batch contact sorption equilibrium screening tests have been conducted with 36 potential non-acid eluants. The sorption tests involve equilibrating each cesium-containing eluant solution with the sRF resin for 48 hours at 25 C in a shaker oven. In the sorption tests, an eluant is deemed to have a high cesium elution potential if it minimizes cesium sorption onto the sRF resin. The top candidates (based on lowest cesium sorption distribution coefficients) include ammonium carbonate, ammonium carbonate/ammonium hydroxide, ammonium bicarbonate, rubidium carbonate, ammonium acetate, ammonium acetate/ammonium hydroxide, ammonium bicarbonate/ammonium hydroxide, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride. A select few of the top candidate eluants from the screening tests were subjected to actual sorption (loading) and elution tests to confirm their elution ability. The actual sorption (loading) and elution tests mimicked the typical sRF-cesium ion exchange process (i.e., sorption or loading, caustic wash, water rinse, and elution) via batch contact sorption and quasi column caustic wash/water rinse/elution. The eluants tested included ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, and nitric acid. Calcium acetate and magnesium acetate were substitutes for calcium chloride and magnesium chloride respectively due to corrosion concerns. Nitric acid was selected for benchmarking since it is the baseline cesium eluant for sRF resin. The cesium elution performance of ammonium carbonate and ammonium acetate was approximately the same as the benchmark eluant, nitric acid. Ninety-seven (97), 94, and 100% percent of the cesium sorbed or loaded were eluted by ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, and nitric acid was respectively. The performance of calcium acetate and magnesium acetate, on the other hand, was mediocre. Percent elution was 16 and 8 respectively.

  8. Shear bond strength of resin cement to an acid etched and a laser irradiated ceramic surface

    PubMed Central

    Motro, Pelin Fatma Karagoz; Yurdaguven, Haktan

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of hydrofluoric acid etching and Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on the shear bond strength of resin cement to lithium disilicate ceramic. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty-five ceramic blocks (5 mm × 5 mm × 2 mm) were fabricated and embedded in acrylic resin. Their surfaces were finished with 1000-grit silicon carbide paper. The blocks were assigned to five groups: 1) 9.5% hydrofluoric-acid etching for 60 s; 2-4), 1.5-, 2.5-, and 6-W Er,Cr:YSGG laser applications for 60 seconds, respectively; and 5) no treatment (control). One specimen from each group was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Ceramic primer (Rely X ceramic primer) and adhesive (Adper Single Bond) were applied to the ceramic surfaces, followed by resin cement to bond the composite cylinders, and light curing. Bonded specimens were stored in distilled water at 37? for 24 hours. Shear bond strengths were determined by a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests (?=0.05). RESULTS Adhesion was significantly stronger in Group 2 (3.88 ± 1.94 MPa) and Group 3 (3.65 ± 1.87 MPa) than in Control group (1.95 ± 1.06 MPa), in which bonding values were lowest (P<.01). No significant difference was observed between Group 4 (3.59 ± 1.19 MPa) and Control group. Shear bond strength was highest in Group 1 (8.42 ± 1.86 MPa; P<.01). CONCLUSION Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation at 1.5 and 2.5 W increased shear bond strengths between ceramic and resin cement compared with untreated ceramic surfaces. Irradiation at 6 W may not be an efficient ceramic surface treatment technique. PMID:23755333

  9. Highly Pb(II)-selective resin based on crosslinked poly(acrylamido glycolic acid) copolymer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. L. Rivas; H. A. Maturana; S. Villegas; E. Pereira

    1998-01-01

    SUMMARY  \\u000a The crosslinked poly(acrylamido glycolic acid) (180-250 µm) was used in the adsorption\\/desorption studies. Adsorption rate,\\u000a capacity of the resin for the selected metal ions, i.e. Cd(III), Zn(II), Hg(II), Pb(II), and Cr(III) were investigated in\\u000a aqueous media. At different pH values (1.0–5.0) very high adsorption was observed for Pb(II) at pH 3 and 5. The adsorption\\u000a equilibrium was rapidly achieved

  10. Negative resist systems using acid-catalyzed pinacol rearrangement reaction in a phenolic resin matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, Shou-ichi; Iwayanagi, Takao; Ueno, Takumi; Hayashi, Nobuaki

    1991-06-01

    Acid-catalyzed dehydration of pinacols known as pinacol rearrangement has been utilized in the design of alkali developable, negative working resist systems. The resist systems are composed of a pinacol compound used as a dissolution inhibitor precursor, diphenyliodonium triflate and a novolak resin. The resist system using hydrobenzoin (HB) shows better lithographic performance than the resist systems using other pinacol compounds such as 1,1,2,2-tetramethylethylene glycol (TMEG), benzopinacole (BP), DL-(alpha) ,(beta) -di-(4-pyridyl) glycol (DPG), and 2,3-di-2-pyridyl-2,3-butanediol (DPB). In the unexposed region, HB acts as a dissolution promoter of novolak resin due to its hydrophilic property. HB reacts with acid to produce hydrophobic materials such as diphenyl-acetaldehyde. Therefore, the solubility of the HB resist film in alkaline developers decrease upon exposure to deep UV radiation and subsequent heating. The resist system has high contrast and high resolution capability. Line-and-space patterns of 0.3 micrometers are obtained using a KrF excimer laser stepper with a 5 mJ/cm2 dose.

  11. Self-assembly of resins and asphaltenes facilitates asphaltene dissolution by an organic acid.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Sara M; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2013-03-15

    Asphaltene precipitation occurs in petroleum fluids under certain unfavorable conditions, but can be controlled by tuning composition. Aromatic solvents in large quantities can prevent precipitation entirely and can dissolve already precipitated asphaltenes. Some polymeric surfactants can dissolve asphaltenes when added at much lower concentrations than required by aromatic solvents. Other dispersants can truncate asphaltene precipitation at the sub-micron length scale, creating stable colloidal asphaltene dispersants. One particular asphaltene dispersant, dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA), can do both, namely: (1) stabilize asphaltene colloids and (2) dissolve asphaltenes to the molecular scale. Acid-base interactions are responsible for the efficiency of DBSA in dissolving asphaltenes compared to aromatic solvents. However, many details remain to be quantified regarding the action of DBSA on asphaltenes, including the effect of petroleum fluid composition. For instance, resins, naturally amphiphilic components of petroleum fluids, can associate with asphaltenes, but it is unknown whether they cooperate or compete with DBSA. Similarly, the presence of metals is known to hinder asphaltene dissolution by DBSA, but its effect on colloidal asphaltene stabilization has yet to be considered. We introduce the concepts of cooperativity and competition between petroleum fluid components and DBSA in stabilizing and dissolving asphaltenes. Notably, we find that resins cooperatively interact with DBSA in dissolving asphaltenes. We use UV-vis spectroscopy to investigate the interactions responsible for the phase transitions between unstable suspensions, stable suspensions, and molecular solutions of asphaltenes. PMID:23351475

  12. Identification of dehydroabietc acid from Boswellia thurifera resin as a positive GABAA receptor modulator.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Diana C; Raith, Melanie; De Mieri, Maria; Schöffmann, Angela; Hering, Steffen; Hamburger, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    In a two-microelectrode voltage clamp assay with Xenopus laevis oocytes, a petroleum ether extract (100 ?g/mL) of the resin of Boswellia thurifera (Burseraceae) potentiated GABA-induced chloride currents (IGABA) through receptors of the subtype ??????s by 319.8% ± 79.8%. With the aid of HPLC-based activity profiling, three known terpenoids, dehydroabietic acid (1), incensole (2), and AKBA (3), were identified in the active fractions of the extract. Structure elucidation was achieved by means of HR-MS and microprobe 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. Compound 1 induced significant receptor modulation in the oocyte assay, with a maximal potentiation of IGABA of 397.5% ± 34.0%, and EC?? of 8.7 ?M ± 1.3 ?M. This is the first report of dehydroabietic acid as a positive GABAA receptor modulator. PMID:25200370

  13. Analysis of pentacyclic triterpenic acids from frankincense gum resins and related phytopharmaceuticals by high-performance liquid chromatography. Identification of lupeolic acid, a novel pentacyclic triterpene.

    PubMed

    Büchele, Berthold; Zugmaier, Waltraud; Simmet, Thomas

    2003-07-01

    An HPLC gradient method with photodiode array detection was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 12 different pentacyclic triterpenic acids in Indian and African frankincense gum resins as well as in related phytopharmaceuticals. The triterpenic acids were obtained by an exhaustive extraction procedure. Identification of the compounds was based on retention times, UV-spectra and add on technique with standards isolated from African frankincense. The method allows differentiation of frankincense of different origin and standardization of frankincense-based phytopharmaceuticals. Further, this is the first report identifying a novel pentacyclic triterpene, lupeolic acid, as a constituent of frankincense gum resins. PMID:12798161

  14. Determination of some aliphatic carboxylic acids in anaerobic digestion process waters by ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuaki Ito; Yohichi Takayama; Mikaru Ikedo; Masanobu Mori; Hiroshi Taoda; Qun Xu; Wenzhi Hu; Hiroshi Sunahara; Tsuneo Hayashi; Shinji Sato; Takeshi Hirokawa; Kazuhiko Tanaka

    2004-01-01

    The determination of seven aliphatic carboxylic acids, formic, acetic, propionic, isobutyric, n-butyric, isovaleric and n-valeric acids in anaerobic digestion process waters was examined using ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection. The analysis of these biologically important carboxylic acids is necessary as a measure for evaluating and controlling the process. The ion-exclusion chromatography system employed consisted of polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin

  15. New sulfonic acid ion-exchange resins for the preesterification of different oils and fats with high content of free fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard M. E. Russbueldt; Wolfgang F. Hoelderich

    2009-01-01

    The preesterification of free fatty acid (FFA) containing vegetable oils by strong acid ion-exchange resins was studied. The catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ion-exchange capacity. Based on a simple kinetic model the rate constants were determined. The effect of the catalyst structure, particle size, stirring speed, oil properties and water removal method on the reaction rate

  16. Affinity purification of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel from electroplax with resins selective for sialic acid

    SciTech Connect

    James, W.M.; Emerick, M.C.; Agnew, W.S. (Yale Univ. School of medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1989-07-11

    The voltage-sensitive sodium channel present in the eel (Electrophorus electricus) has an unusually high content of sialic acid, including {alpha}-(2{yields}8)-linked polysialic acid, not found in other electroplax membrane glycopeptides. Lectins from Limax flavus (LFA) and wheat germ (WGA) proved the most effective of 11 lectin resins tried. The most selective resin was prepared from IgM antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis {alpha}-(2{yields}8)-polysialic acid which were affinity purified and coupled to Sepharose 4B. The sodium channel was found to bind to WGA, LFA, and IgM resins and was readily eluted with the appropriate soluble carbohydrates. Experiments with LFA and IgM resins demonstrated binding and unbinding rates and displacement kinetics, which suggest highly specific binding at multiple sites on the sodium channel protein. In preparative-scale purification of protein previously fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, without stabilizing TTX, high yields were reproducibly obtained. Further, when detergent extracts were prepared from electroplax membranes fractionated by low-speed sedimentation, a single step over the IgM resin provided a 70-fold purification, yielding specific activities of 3,200 pmol of ({sup 3}H)TTX-binding sites/mg of protein and a single polypeptide of {approximately}285,000 Da on SDS-acrylamide gels. No small peptides were observed after this 5-h isolation. The authors describe a cation-dependent stabilization with millimolar levels of monovalent and micromolar levels of divalent species.

  17. Low pressure process for continuous fiber reinforced polyamic acid resin matrix composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyun, Darleen A. (inventor); Hou, Tan-Hung (inventor); Kidder, Paul W. (inventor); Reddy, Rakasi M. (inventor); Baucom, Robert M. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A low pressure processor was developed for preparing a well-consolidated polyimide composite laminate. Prepreg plies were formed from unidirectional fibers and a polyamic acid resin solution. Molding stops were placed at the sides of a matched metal die mold. The prepreg plies were cut shorter than the length of the mold in the in-plane lateral direction and were stacked between the molding stops to a height which was higher than the molding stops. The plies were then compressed to the height of the stops and heated to allow the volatiles to escape and to start the imidization reaction. After removing the stops from the mold, the heat was increased and 0 - 500 psi was applied to complete the imidization reaction. The heat and pressure were further increased to form a consolidated polyimide composite laminate.

  18. Fixed bed adsorption of 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid from aqueous solution by composite resin.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dong M; Li, Ya P; Li, Yue J; Li, Yong G; Li, Chang H

    2014-02-01

    Adsorption behavior of the iron impregnated, weakly basic resin D301 (Fe-D301) for removal of 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid (2-NSA) from aqueous solution was studied by using a fixed-bed column. The effects of process variables such as bed height, flow rate, and coexisting ions were investigated. The results indicated that the breakpoint and exhaustion point increased with increasing bed height and decreased with increasing 2-NSA flowrate. Experimental data showed a strong fit to the Bed Depth Service Time model. The coexisting ions in the 2-NSA solution had a clear effect on the breakthrough volume. The high extent of recovery of 2-NSA with good reproducibility provided an effective method for the separation of 2-NSA by the adsorbent Fe-D301. PMID:24645539

  19. Influence of hydrofluoric acid on extraction of thorium using a commercially available extraction chromatographic resin.

    PubMed

    Shimada-Fujiwara, Asako; Hoshi, Akiko; Kameo, Yutaka; Nakashima, Mikio

    2009-05-01

    The dependence of Th recovery on hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentration in nitric acid (HNO(3)) solutions (1-5 mol/dm(3)) containing 1x10(-6) mol/dm(3) of Th and various concentrations of HF and the elution behavior were studied using a commercially available UTEVA (for uranium and tetravalent actinide) resin column. Thorium recovery decreased with an increase in HF concentration in the sample solutions. The concentration of HF at which Th recovery started to decrease was approximately 1x10(-4) mol/dm(3) in 1 mol/dm(3) HNO(3) solution, approximately 1x10(-3) mol/dm(3) in 3 mol/dm(3) HNO(3) solution, and approximately 1x10(-2) mol/dm(3) in 5 mol/dm(3) HNO(3) solution. When Al(NO(3))(3) (0.2 mol/dm(3)) or Fe(NO(3))(3) (0.6 mol/dm(3)) was added as a masking agent for F(-) to the Th solution containing 1x10(-1) mol/dm(3) HF and 1 mol/dm(3) HNO(3), Th recovery improved from 1.4+/-0.3% to 95+/-5% or 93+/-3%. Effective extraction of Th using UTEVA resin was achieved by selecting the concentration of HNO(3) and/or adding masking agents such as Al(NO(3))(3) according to the concentration of HF in the sample solution. PMID:19327779

  20. Isolation and separation of transplutonium elements from other actinides on ion exchange resins from aqueous and aqueous ethanol solutions of sulfuric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Guseva, L.I.; Tikhomirova, G.S.; Stepushkina, V.V.

    1987-11-01

    The behavior of Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, and other actinides, as well as Zr, on an anion exchange resin and a cation exchange resin in aqueous and aqueous alcohol solutions of sulfuric acid was investigated as a function of the concentration of various components of the solution. It was found that the presence of alcohol in sulfuric acid solutions leads to an increase in the distribution coefficients both on cation exchange resins and on anion exchange resins. The possibility of using ion exchange resins for the concentration and separation of transplutonium elements from U, Np, Pu, Zr, and other elements that form strong complexes with sulfate ions in a wide range of sulfuric acid concentrations was demonstrated.

  1. Using resin supported nano zero-valent iron particles for decoloration of Acid Blue 113 azo dye solution.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hung-Yee; Chang, Ming-Chin; Chen, Chi-Chun; Chen, Po-En

    2010-12-15

    In this study, a synthesized cation exchange resin supported nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) complex forming NZVI-resin was proposed for the decoloration of an azo dye Acid Blue 113 (AB 113), taking into account reaction time, initial dye concentration, NZVI dose and pH. From results, the successful decoloration of the AB 113 solution was observed using a NZVI-resin. Increasing the iron load to 50.8 mg g(-1), the removal efficiencies of the AB 113 concentration increased exponentially. With an initial dye concentration of 100 mg l(-1) and nano iron load of 50.8 mg g(-1), the best removal efficiencies were obtained at 100 and 12.6% for dye concentration and total organic carbon, respectively. Color removal efficiency was dependent on initial dye concentration and iron load. Moreover, the removal rates followed modified pseudo-first order kinetic equations with respect to dye concentration. Thus, the observed removal rate constants (k) were 0.137-0.756 min(-1) by NZVI loads of 4.9-50.8 mg g(-1). Consequently, the NZVI-resin performed effectively for the decoloration of AB 113 azo dye, offering great potential in the application of NZVI-resins in larger scale column tests and further field processes. PMID:20833471

  2. The sorption of boric acid on anion exchange resins from solutions simulating the circuit waters of atomic reactors and conditions of its desorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. V. Rauzen; E. A. Shakhov

    1972-01-01

    Filtration of the solution through the ion exchange resins was stopped when the concentration of boric acid in the filtrate and that in the initial solution were equal. The results obtained are cited in Table 1. Just as we shouldhave expected, of the solutions cited, close to neutral, greater capacity is possessed by the anion exchange resin with a quaternary

  3. Bile Acid Binding Resin Improves Metabolic Control through the Induction of Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Morimoto, Kohkichi; Houten, Sander M.; Kaneko-Iwasaki, Nao; Sugizaki, Taichi; Horai, Yasushi; Mataki, Chikage; Sato, Hiroyuki; Murahashi, Karin; Arita, Eri; Schoonjans, Kristina; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Itoh, Hiroshi; Auwerx, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Background Besides well-established roles of bile acids (BA) in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homeostasis, it has recently become clear that BA is also a biological signaling molecule. We have shown that strategies aimed at activating TGR5 by increasing the BA pool size with BA administration may constitute a significant therapeutic advance to combat the metabolic syndrome and suggest that such strategies are worth testing in a clinical setting. Bile acid binding resin (BABR) is known not only to reduce serum cholesterol levels but also to improve glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in animal models and humans. However, the mechanisms by which BABR affects glucose homeostasis have not been established. We investigated how BABR affects glycemic control in diet-induced obesity models. Methods and Findings We evaluated the metabolic effect of BABR by administrating colestimide to animal models for the metabolic syndrome. Administration of BABR increased energy expenditure, translating into significant weight reduction and insulin sensitization. The metabolic effects of BABR coincide with activation of cholesterol and BA synthesis in liver and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. Interestingly, these effects of BABR occur despite normal food intake and triglyceride absorption. Administration of BABR and BA had similar effects on BA composition and thermogenesis, suggesting that they both are mediated via TGR5 activation. Conclusion Our data hence suggest that BABR could be useful for the management of the impaired glucose tolerance of the metabolic syndrome, since they not only lower cholesterol levels, but also reduce obesity and improve insulin resistance. PMID:22952571

  4. Separation of Technetium in Nitric Acid Solution With an Extractant Impregnated Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Jei Kwon Moon; Eil Hee Lee; Chong-Hun Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, P.O.Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon, Korea, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Byung Chul Lee [Hannam University, 133, Ojeong-dong Daedeok-gu, Daejeon 306-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    An extractant impregnated resin (EIR) was prepared by impregnation of Aliquat 336 into Amberlite XAD-4 for separation of technetium from rhodium in nitric acid solution. The prepared EIR showed high preference for rhenium (chemical analogue of technetium) over rhodium. The adsorption isotherms for rhenium were described well by Langmuir equation in both the single and multi-component systems. Maximum adsorption capacities obtained by modelling the isotherms of rhenium were 2.01 meq g{sup -1} and 1.97 meq g{sup -1} for the single and the multi-component systems, respectively. Column tests were also performed to confirm the separation efficiency of rhenium using a jacketed glass column (diam. 11 x L 150). The EIR column showed successful separation of rhenium with the breakthrough volume of about 122 BV for the breakthrough concentration of 0.08. Also the breakthrough data were modelled successfully by assuming a homogeneous diffusion model in the particle phase. The diffusivities obtained from the modelling were in the order of 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} min{sup -1} for a rhenium. The rhenium adsorbed on the bed could be eluted with a high purity by using a nitric acid solution. (authors)

  5. Kinetics of esterification of propionic acid with n-amyl alcohol in the presence of cation exchange resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beyhan Erdem; Mustafa Cebe

    2006-01-01

    Esterifications of n-amyl alcohol with propionic acid catalyzed by macroporous (Amberlyst-15) and microporous (Dowex 50 W\\u000a and Amberlite IR-120) polymeric ion-exchange resins were carried out between 333–348 K. When these catalysts were used as\\u000a commercially available, Amberlyst-15 was observed to be the most effective catalyst with respect to rate constants, but after\\u000a drying it became the less effective one. The

  6. Determination of the rate of cure of epoxy resin\\/maleic anhydride\\/Lewis acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Glavchev; K Petrova; I Devedjiev

    2002-01-01

    The rates of cure of bisphenol A based epoxy resin and its mixtures with diethylene glycole based epoxy resin with maleic anhydride and accelerator BF3 etherate were measured from dependences of degree of cure with time. The degree of cure was calculated using the following methods: amount of gel fraction, calorimetry and IR spectroscopy. The activity of the accelerator BF3

  7. Mechanism of adhesion between 4-META resin and alloys based on Bolger's acid-base interaction.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Y; Ohno, H; Endo, K

    2001-03-01

    The water durability at adhesion interfaces between 4-META resin and Au-In or Au-Si alloys was investigated by the peeling test and by surface analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as theoretical consideration based on Bolger's acid-base theory. XPS spectra demonstrated that several-nm thick layers of In2O3 and SiO2 were formed on the Au-In and Au-Si alloys. The water durability of the Au-In alloys increased with increases in In content. The Au-Si alloy and quartz glass specimens showed a total absence of water durability. Bolger's theory suggested that the interaction of 4-MET with In2O3 was considered to be ionic and stable in the presence of water while that of 4-MET with SiO2 was due to hydrogen bonds, which can easily be dissociated in the presence of water. These findings suggest that Bolger's theory is useful for evaluating chemical interactions between an adhesive monomer and oxides on a precious metal alloy. PMID:11441489

  8. Relative sensitivity of five benthic invertebrate species to reference toxicants and resin-acid contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, C.W.; Martin, M.L. [National Inst. of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton (New Zealand). NIWA Ecosystems

    1995-08-01

    Five sediment-dwelling native New Zealand freshwater invertebrate species (amphipod, Chaetocorophium c.f. lucasi; clam, Sphaerium novaezelandiae; oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus; tanaid, Tanais standfordi; and the burrowing mayfly, Ichthybotus hudsoni) were assessed for their suitability for sediment toxicity testing by comparison of sensitivity to reference toxicants [phenol and pentachlorophenol (PCP)] and contaminated sediments. The 96-h EC50 values at 20 C showed a greater range in test sensitivity for phenol (30-fold range) from the most sensitive test, amphipod (8.1 mg/L), to the least sensitive one, clam (243 mg/L), compared with PCP (14-fold range), with amphipod the most sensitive test species (0.13 mg/L) and tanaid the least sensitive (1.8 mg/L). Clam reburial was a more sensitive end point than was lethality for phenol (by 20-fold) and PCP (by 2.4-fold). Four of the test species, excluding the tanaid, showed good 10-d survival in reference muds ({ge}87%) but lower survival in sand sediments ({ge}79%). Bleached kraft mill sediment containing high resin-acid concentrations (total 1,900 mg/kg dry weight) showed significant reductions in amphipod survival (15%), clam reburial (30%), and oligochaete survival (17%), and reproduction (49%). Amphipods, clams, and oligochaetes were the most promising species for sublethal test development.

  9. Oxazoline polyester coating resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. deJarlais; L. E. Gast; J. C. Cowan

    1967-01-01

    Oxazoline polyester resins were prepared by reaction of oxazoline diols from linseed acids and tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane\\u000a with each of five dibasic acids (adipic, dimer, fumaric, itaconic and maleic). Certain resins were dissolved in isopropyl\\u000a alcohol to give solutions infinitely water dilutable when the free carboxyl was neutralized with an amine. Film properties\\u000a of resins cast on steel plates were

  10. Selected resin acids in effluent and receiving waters derived from a bleached and unbleached kraft pulp and paper mill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, B.P.; Booth, M.M.; Delfino, J.J.; Holm, S.E.; Gross, T.S.

    2003-01-01

    Water samples were collected on three dates at 24 sites influenced by effluent from Georgia-Pacific's Palatka Pulp and Paper Mill Operation, a bleached and unbleached kraft mill near Palatka, Florida, USA. The sampling sites were located within the mill retention ponds, Rice Creek, and the St. John's River. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids, all of which are potentially toxic by-products of pulp production. Isopimaric acid concentrations greater than 12 mg/L were measured at the mill's effluent outfall but were less than 20 ??g/L at the end of Rice Creek. This result indicates that the waters of Rice Creek provide dilution or conditions conducive for degradation or sorption of these compounds. Large differences in resin acid concentrations were observed between sampling events. In two sampling events, the maximum observed concentrations were less than 2 mg/L for each analyte. In a third sampling event, all of the compounds were detected at concentrations greater than 10 mg/L. Data from the three sample dates showed that resin acid concentrations were below 20 ??g/L before the confluence of Rice Creek and the St. John's River in all cases.

  11. Selective recovery of Cr and Cu in leachate from chromated copper arsenate treated wood using chelating and acidic ion exchange resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amélie Janin; Jean-François Blais; Guy Mercier; Patrick Drogui

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to selectively remove chromium and copper from CCA-treated wood acid leachates (initial concentrations of 447–651mg As l?1, 374–453mg Cu l?1 and 335–622mg Cr l?1) using ion exchange resins and precipitation techniques. Batch experiments revealed that the chelating resin Dowex M4195 had a high copper selectivity in the presence of chromium while the Amberlite IR120

  12. PRELIMINARY REPORT ON EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL ELUANTS FOR NON-ACID ELUTION OF CESIUM FROM RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K.; Pennebaker, F.

    2010-09-01

    Small-column ion exchange (SCIX) units installed in high-level waste tanks to remove Cs-137 from highly alkaline salt solutions are among the waste treatment plans in the DOE-complex. Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF) is the ion exchange resin selected for use in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). It is also the primary ion exchange material under consideration for SCIX at the Hanford site. The elution step of the multi-step ion exchange process is typically done with 0.5 M nitric acid. An acid eluant is a potential hazard in the event of a spill, leak, etc. because the high-level waste tanks are made of carbon steel. Corrosion and associated structural damage may ensue. Studies are ongoing to explore non-acid elution as an alternative. Batch contact sorption equilibrium screening tests have been conducted with 36 potential non-acid eluants. The sorption tests involve equilibrating each cesium-containing eluant solution with the sRF resin for 48 hours at 25 C in a shaker oven. In the sorption tests, an eluant is deemed to have a high cesium elution potential if it minimizes cesium sorption onto the sRF resin. The top candidates (based on lowest cesium sorption distribution coefficients) include ammonium carbonate, ammonium carbonate/ammonium hydroxide, ammonium bicarbonate, rubidium carbonate, ammonium acetate, ammonium acetate/ammonium hydroxide, ammonium bicarbonate/ammonium hydroxide, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride. The next phase of testing for this work will focus on the following down selected eluants: Ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, nitric acid, and ammonium hydroxide. The next testing phase is a confirmation of the elution ability of the selected eluants. It will mimic a typical sRF cesium ion exchange process i.e., sorption or loading, caustic wash, water rinse, and elution via batch contact sorption and quasi column caustic wash/water rinse/elution. Due to corrosion concerns, calcium acetate and magnesium acetate will be tested instead of calcium chloride and magnesium chloride respectively. Nitric acid is for benchmarking since it is the baseline sRF eluant. The information at hand indicates ammonium hydroxide, while a weak base, may hold promise as an effective eluant. Hence, its inclusion among the eluants to be studied despite the fact that it was not tested as a stand-alone eluant earlier.

  13. Separation of Bk(IV) and Ce(IV) from trivalent transplutonium and rare earth elements on ion exchange resins in solutions of sulfuric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Guseva, L.I.; Stepushkina, V.V.

    1987-11-01

    Th behavior of Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Ce, Eu, and Pr on an anion exchange resin and a cation exchange resin in a mixture with PbO/sub 2/ was investigated in sulfuric acid solutions. A substantial difference was detected in the distribution coefficients of Bk and Ce, on the one hand, and the remaining transplutonium and rare earth elements, on the other, associated with oxidation of the first two elements to the tetravalent state. Methods are proposed for the concentration and separation of Bk(IV) and Ce(IV) from the other transplutonium and rare earth elements on an anion exchange resin in solution of 0.01-0.25 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and a cation exchange resin in 0.75-1.0 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/.

  14. EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL ELUANTS FOR NON-ACID ELUTION OF CESIUM FROM SPHERICAL RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K.; Nash, C.; Pennebaker, F.

    2011-10-23

    Ion Exchange column loading and elution of cesium from spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde resin have been conducted for two potential non-acid eluants -(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4}. The results revealed encouraging cesium elution performance. 100% elution was achieved in at most 22 hours ({approx}28 bed volumes) of elution. Elution performance was fairly high at 6 hours ({approx}8 bed volumes) of elution for some of the eluants and also practically comparable to the benchmark acid eluant (HNO{sub 3}). Hence, it is quite possible 100% percent elution will be closer to the 6th hour than the 22nd hour. Elution is generally enhanced by increasing the concentration and pH of the eluants, and combining the eluants.

  15. Diterpenoid resin acid biosynthesis in conifers: characterization of two cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases and an aldehyde dehydrogenase involved in abietic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Funk, C; Croteau, R

    1994-01-01

    Abietic acid is a major component of the rosin fraction of oleoresin synthesized by grand fir (Abies grandis), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), and many other conifer species as a defensive secretion against insect and pathogen attack. The diterpenoid resin acid is derived from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate via abietadiene, with subsequent oxidation of the C18-methyl of this olefin to abietadienol, abietadienal, and abietic acid. The pathway was confirmed by administering [1,2-14C]acetic acid to grand fir stems which incorporated the radiolabel into abietadiene, the corresponding alcohol and aldehyde, as well as abietic acid. Three different enzymatic activities, catalyzing the sequential oxidation of the olefin to abietic acid, were demonstrated in cell-free stem extracts of both grand fir and lodgepole pine. The first two oxidation steps were catalyzed by the microsomal fraction and required both oxygen and a reduced pyridine nucleotide (NADPH preferred). Both activities were strongly inhibited by CO (blue light reversible) and were differentially sensitive to several substituted N-heterocyclic inhibitors, suggesting that these two enzymes are distinct, microsomal cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases. A third enzymatic activity, catalyzing the oxidation of abietadienal to abietic acid, was located in the soluble protein fraction. This oxidation reaction employed NAD+ as cofactor, but did not require oxygen and was not inhibited by CO, indicating that this last step of abietic acid biosynthesis is catalyzed by an operationally soluble aldehyde dehydrogenase. PMID:8311462

  16. Biochemical and Genotoxic Responses of Adult Eel ( Anguilla anguillaL.) to Resin Acids and Pulp Mill Effluent: Laboratory and Field Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Pacheco; M. A. Santos

    1999-01-01

    The potential of a secondary-treated bleached kraft pulp mill effluent (BKPME) and resin acids (RAs) to induce liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) in adultAnguilla anguillaL. was investigated in laboratory and field experiments. Hepatic health was assessed by measurement of liver alanine transaminase (ALT). One single intraperitoneal injection of abietic acid (AA) or dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), at

  17. EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL ELUANTS FOR NON-ACID ELUTION OF CESIUM FROM RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Adu-Wusu; F. Pennebaker

    2010-01-01

    Small-column ion exchange (SCIX) units installed in high-level waste tanks to remove Cs-137 from highly alkaline salt solutions are among the waste treatment plans in the DOE-complex. Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF) is the ion exchange resin selected for use in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). It is also the primary ion exchange material under consideration for SCIX at

  18. Effect of adhesive hydrophilicity and curing-time on the permeability of resins bonded to water vs. ethanol-saturated acid-etched dentin

    PubMed Central

    Cadenaro, Milena; Breschi, Lorenzo; Rueggeberg, Frederick A.; Agee, Kelli; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Carrilho, Marcela; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study examined the ability of five comonomer blends (R1-R5) of methacrylate-based experimental dental adhesives solvated with 10 mass% ethanol, at reducing the permeability of acid-etched dentin. The resins were light-cured for 20, 40 or 60 s. The acid-etched dentin was saturated with water or 100% ethanol. Method Human unerupted third molars were converted into crown segments by removing the occlusal enamel and roots. The resulting crown segments were attached to plastic plates connected to a fluid-filled system for quantifying fluid flow across smear layer-covered dentin, acid-etched dentin and resin-bonded dentin. The degree of conversion of the resins was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Result Application of the most hydrophobic comonomer blend (R1) to water-saturated dentin produced the smallest reductions in dentin permeability (31.9, 44.1 and 61.1% after light-curing for 20, 40 or 60 s respectively). Application of the same blend to ethanol-saturated dentin reduced permeability of 74.1, 78.4 and 81.2%, respectively (p<0.05). Although more hydrophilic resins produced larger reductions in permeability, the same trend of significantly greater reductions in ethanol-saturated dentin over that of water-saturated dentin remained. This result can be explained by the higher solubility of resins in ethanol vs. water. Significance The largest reductions in permeability produced by resins were equivalent but not superior, to those produced by smear layers. Resin sealing of dentin remains a technique-sensitive step in bonding etch-and-rinse adhesives to dentin. PMID:18571228

  19. Highly efficient co-removal of copper (II) and phthalic acid with self-synthesized polyamine resin.

    PubMed

    Ling, Chen; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Long, Chao; Wei, Meng-Meng; Li, Aimin

    2014-01-01

    A novel method was proposed for efficient co-removal of Cu (II) and phthalic acid (PA) using self-synthesized polyamine resin (R-NH(2)). The adsorption properties of R-NH(2) were thoroughly investigated by equilibrium, kinetic and dynamic tests in sole and binary systems at pH 5.0. The Freundlich model was a good fit for all the isotherm data, showing higher Kf values in the binary system than the sole system. The pseudo-second-order kinetic equation showed a better correlation to the experimental data in all cases and PA uptake was much faster than that of Cu (II). R-NH(2) showed highest adsorption capacities to both Cu (II) and PA among the five tested resins. Moreover, the presence of PA markedly enhanced the adsorption of Cu (II), being around 3.5 times of that of the sole system. The adsorption of PA was also slightly increased when Cu (II) was coexistent. Furthermore, using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and species calculations, possible mechanisms were proposed that Cu (II) coordinated with -NH(2) and negative PA species interacted with -NH(3)(+) by electrostatic attraction. [Cu-PA] complex in the binary system possessed a much higher affinity than free Cu (II) to chelating with -NH(2), resulting in mutual enhancement. PMID:24804663

  20. Catalytic Upgrading of bio-oil using 1-octene and 1-butanol over sulfonic acid resin catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Qingwen; Tripathi, Prabhat; Pittman, Charles U.

    2011-02-04

    Raw bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass must be refined before it can be used as a transporation fuel, a petroleum refinery feed or for many other fuel uses. Raw bio-oil was upgraded with the neat model olefin, 1-octene, and with 1-octene/1-butanol mixtures over sulfonic acid resin catalysts frin 80 to 150 degrees celisus in order to simultaneously lower water content and acidity and to increase hydrophobicity and heating value. Phase separation and coke formation were key factors limiting the reaction rate during upgrading with neat 1-octene although octanols were formed by 1-octene hydration along with small amounts of octyl acetates and ethers. GC-MS analysis confirmed that olefin hydration, carboxylic acid esterification, acetal formation from aldehydes and ketones and O- and C-alkylations of phenolic compounds occurred simultaneously during upgrading with 1-octene/1-butanol mixtures. Addition of 1-butanol increased olefin conversion dramatically be reducing mass transfer restraints and serving as a cosolvent or emulsifying agent. It also reacted with carboxylic acids and aldehydes/ketones to form esters, and acetals, respectively, while also serving to stabilize bio-oil during heating. 1-Butanol addition also protected the catalysts, increasing catalyst lifetime and reducing or eliminationg coking. Upgrading sharply increased ester content and decreased the amounts of levoglucosan, polyhydric alcohols and organic acids. Upgrading lowered acidity (pH value rise from 2.5 to >3.0), removed the uppleasant ordor and increased hydrocarbon solubility. Water content decreased from 37.2% to < 7.5% dramatically and calorific value increased from 12.6 MJ kg to about 30.0 MJ kg.

  1. Recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid solutions using chelating ion-exchange resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Kabay; M. Demircioglu; S. Yayh; E. Guenay; M. Yueksel; M. Saglam; M. Streat

    1998-01-01

    In fertilizer manufacture, calcium phosphate in phosphate rock is rendered soluble by sulfuric acid attack. The phosphoric acid obtained in this way usually contains 26%--28% PâOâ. Several novel processes have been developed for the recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid. Experimental measurements have been made on the batch extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid solutions using various chelating ion-exchange

  2. Chromium (III) recovery from waste acid solution by ion exchange processing using Amberlite IR-120 resin: batch and continuous ion exchange modelling.

    PubMed

    Alguacil, Francisco José; Alonso, Manuel; Lozano, Luis Javier

    2004-11-01

    The use of ion exchange technology was studied to remove chromium (III) from acidic waste solution by Amberlite IR-120 resin. Batch and column experimental tests were conducted to provide data for theoretical models and verify the system performance of the adsorption process. Results of batch equilibrium tests indicated that Langmuir isotherm describes well the adsorption process, whereas experimental data also provide evidence that, under the present experimental conditions, chromium (III) adsorption by Amberlite IR-120 resin is film-diffusion controlled; on the other hand, the theoretical model used in the present investigation was found to predict reasonably well the ion exchange breakthrough performance. PMID:15488570

  3. Synthesis of multifunctional Ag@Au@phenol formaldehyde resin particles loaded with folic acids for photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Xu, Qi-Zhi; Jin, Sheng-Yu; Lu, Yang; Zhao, Yang; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2012-07-23

    Multifunctional Ag@Au@ phenol formaldehyde resin (PFR) particles loaded with folic acids (FA) have been designed for killing tumor cells through photothermy conversion under the irradiation of near-infrared (NIR) light. Possessing the virtue of good fluorescence, low toxicity, and good targeting, the nanocomposite consists of an Ag core, an Au layer, a PFR shell, and folic acids on the PFR shell. The Ag@PFR core-shell structure can be prepared with a simple hydrothermal method after preheating. We then filled the PFR shell with a layer of Au by heating and modified the shell with polyelectrolyte to change its surface charge state. To capture tumor cells actively, FA molecules were attached onto the surface of the Ag@Au@PFR particles in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethly aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Owing to the excellent property of Au NPs and Ag NPs as photothermal conversion agents, the Ag@Au@ PFR@FA particles can be utilized to kill tumor cells when exposed to NIR light. PMID:22744779

  4. Characterization of Group V Dubnium Homologs on DGA Extraction Chromatography Resin from Nitric and Hydrofluoric Acid Matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Despotopulos, J D; Sudowe, R

    2012-02-21

    Studies of the chemical properties of superheavy elements (SHE) pose interesting challenges due to their short half-lives and low production rates. Chemical systems must have extremely fast kinetics, fast enough kinetics to be able to examine the chemical properties of interest before the SHE decays to another nuclide. To achieve chemistry on such time scales, the chemical system must also be easily automated. Most importantly however, a chemical system must be developed which provides suitable separation and kinetics before an on-line study of a SHE can be performed. Relativistic effects make studying the chemical properties of SHEs interesting due to the impact these effects could have on the SHEs chemical properties. Relativistic effects arise when the velocity of the s orbital electrons approach the speed of light. As this velocity increases, the Bohr radius of the inner electron orbitals decreases and there is an increase in the particles mass. This contraction results in a destabilization of the energy of the outer d and f electron orbitals (5f and 6d in the case of SHE), which can cause these to expand due to their increased shielding from the nuclear charge. Another relativistic effect is the spin-orbit splitting for p, d, and f orbitals into j = 1 {+-} 1/2 states. This can lead most interestingly to a possible increased stability of element 114, which due to large spin-orbit splitting of the 7p orbital and the relativistically stabilized 7p{sub 1/2} and 7s orbital gives rise to a closed shell ground state of 7s{sup 2}7p{sub 1/2}{sup 2}. The homologs of element 105, dubnium (Db), Ta and Nb and the pseudo-homolog Pa, are well known to hydrolyze and form both neutral and non-neutral monoatomic and polyatomic species that may cause issues with extraction from a given chemical system. Early ion-exchange and solvent-extraction studies show mixed results for the behavior of Db. Some studies show Db behaving most similar to Ta, while others show it behaving somewhere between Nb and Pa. Much more recent studies have examined the properties of Db from HNO{sub 3}/HF matrices, and suggest Db forms complexes similar to those of Pa. Very little experimental work into the behavior of element 114 has been performed. Thermochromatography experiments of three atoms of element 114 indicate that the element 114 is at least as volatile as Hg, At, and element 112. Lead was shown to deposit on gold at temperatures about 1000 C higher than the atoms of element 114. Results indicate a substantially increased stability of element 114. No liquid phase studies of element 114 or its homologs (Pb, Sn, Ge) or pseudo-homologs (Hg, Cd) have been performed. Theoretical predictions indicate that element 114 is should have a much more stable +2 oxidation state and neutral state than Pb, which would result in element 114 being less reactive and less metallic than Pb. The relativistic effects on the 7p{sub 1/2} electrons are predicted to cause a diagonal relationship to be introduced into the periodic table. Therefore, 114{sup 2+} is expected to behave as if it were somewhere between Hg{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+}. In this work two commercially available extraction chromatography resins are evaluated, one for the separation of Db homologs and pseudo?homologs from each other as well as from potential interfering elements such as Group IV Rf homologs and actinides, and the other for separation of element 114 homologs. One resin, Eichrom's DGA resin, contains a N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide extractant, which separates analytes based on both size and charge characteristics of the solvated metal species, coated on an inert support. The DGA resin was examined for Db chemical systems, and shows a high degree of selectivity for tri-, tetra-, and hexavalent metal ions in multiple acid matrices with fast kinetics. The other resin, Eichrom's Pb resin, contains a di-t-butylcyclohexano 18-crown-6 extractant with isodecanol solvent, which separates analytes based on steric interactions between the cavity of the crown ether and electrostatic interac

  5. The ion chromatographic separation of high valence metal cations using a neutral polystyrene resin dynamically modified with dipicolinic acid.

    PubMed

    Cowan, J; Shaw, M J; Achterberg, E P; Jones, P; Nesterenko, P N

    2000-12-01

    A neutral polystyrene resin column, dynamically loaded with dipicolinic acid at a concentration of 0.1 mM in 1 M potassium nitrate eluent, was investigated for the separation characteristics of a number of high valence metal cations over the pH range 0-3. The metal species studied were Th(IV), U(VI), Zr(IV), Hf(IV), Ti(IV), Sn(IV), V(IV) and V(V), Fe(III) and Bi(III), of which Ti(IV), Sn(IV), V(IV) and Fe(III) did not show any retention. For the remaining metal ions, significant retention was obtained with good peak shapes, except for Th(IV), which moved only slightly from the solvent front with some tailing. The retention order at pH 0.3 was Th(IV) < V(V) < Bi(III) < U(VI) < Hf(IV) < Zr(IV). A notable feature of this separation system was the high selectivity shown for uranium, zirconium and hafnium, the last two being nearly resolved in 15 min on the relatively short 10 cm column. PMID:11219043

  6. Solid particle erosion behaviour of glass fibre reinforced boric acid filled epoxy resin composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Bagci; Huseyin Imrek

    2011-01-01

    The tests which involved angular aluminium (Al2O3) particles with two different sizes of approximately 200 and 400?m were conducted at the operating conditions namely different impact velocities of approximately 23, 34 and 53m\\/s, two different fibre directions [0° (0\\/90) and 45° (45\\/?45)] and three different impingement angles of 30°, 60° and 90°. New composites with addition of Boric Acid filler

  7. Pistacia lentiscus resin regulates intestinal damage and inflammation in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Gioxari, Aristea; Kaliora, Andriana C; Papalois, Apostolos; Agrogiannis, George; Triantafillidis, John K; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2011-11-01

    Mastic (Pistacia lentiscus) of the Anacardiaceae family has exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in patients with Crohn's disease. This study was based on the hypothesis that mastic inhibits intestinal damage in inflammatory bowel disease, regulating inflammation and oxidative stress in intestinal epithelium. Four different dosages of P. lentiscus powder in the form of powder were administered orally to trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitic rats. Eighty-four male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to seven groups: A, control; B, colitic; C-F, colitic rats daily supplemented with P. lentiscus powder at (C) 50 mg/kg, (D) 100 mg/kg, (E) 200 mg/kg, and (F) 300 mg/kg of body weight; and G, colitic rats treated daily with cortisone (25 ?g/kg of body weight). Colonic damage was assessed microscopically. The cytokines tumor necrosis factor-?, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10 and malonaldehyde were measured in colonic specimens. Results were expressed as mean ± SE values. Histological amelioration of colitis (P?.001) and significant differences in colonic indices occurred after 3 days of treatment. Daily administration of 100 mg of P. lentiscus powder/kg of body weight decreased all inflammatory cytokines (P?.05), whereas 50 mg of P. lentiscus powder/kg of body weight and cortisone treatment reduced only ICAM-1 (P?.05 and P?.01, respectively). Malonaldehyde was significantly suppressed in all treated groups (P?.01). IL-10 remained unchanged. Cytokines and malonaldehyde remained unaltered after 6 days of treatment. Thus P. lentiscus powder could possibly have a therapeutic role in Crohn's disease, regulating oxidant/antioxidant balance and modulating inflammation. PMID:21612460

  8. Design and characterization of an efficient CYP105A1-based whole-cell biocatalyst for the conversion of resin acid diterpenoids in permeabilized Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Janocha, Simon; Bernhardt, Rita

    2013-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes exhibit a tremendous potential for biotechnological applications due to their ability to introduce oxygen into non-activated carbon atoms. Their catalytic diversity is complemented by a broad substrate range covering many natural compounds. Especially the functionalization of terpenoids by P450s becomes increasingly interesting due to the diverse biological effects of these compounds. The bacterial CYP105A1 from Streptomyces griseolus was recently identified to carry out a one-step hydroxylation of several abietane-type resin acids. In this work, a whole-cell system for CYP105A1 with its heterologous electron transfer proteins Arh1 and Etp1(fd) from Schizosaccharomyces pombe was designed in Escherichia coli JM109 cells. Additionally, an enzyme-coupled cofactor regeneration system was integrated by co-expression of alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus brevis. In order to overcome mass transfer limitations of substrate into the cell, different agents were tested towards their permeabilizing activity on the E. coli membrane. The peptide antibiotic polymyxin B proved to be the most effective permeabilizer. After optimising the expression and conversion conditions, the cells were able to completely convert 200 ?M of abietic acid into 15-hydroxyabietic acid within 2 h, exhibiting an initial conversion rate of 125 ?M/h. These results demonstrate the high potential of this whole-cell system for the synthesis of functionalized resin acid diterpenoids. PMID:23793341

  9. Combination treatment of tribochemical treatment and phosphoric acid ester monomer of zirconia ceramics enhances the bonding durability of resin-based luting cements.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Kenichiro; Fujishima, Akihiro; Manabe, Atsufumi; Kuriyama, Soichi; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bonding durability of resin-based luting cement to partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) achieved by combination treatment of tribochemical (TBC) treatment and two different phosphate acid ester monomers. Two phosphate acid ester monomers (EP: Epricord opaque primer, AZ: AZ primer) were applied to each surface modification followed by application of resin-based luting cement (Rely-X ARC). Bonding specimens were placed in deionized water at 37 degrees C and stored for 24 h. The other groups were subjected to 30,000 cycles of a thermal stress for the durability test. Shear bond tests were done using a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min. Shear bond strengths of combination treatments using EP and AZ on TBC treatment after thermal stress showed no significant difference (p>0.05) compared with those of storage after 24 h. Combination treatment using phosphoric acid ester monomer could achieve a durable bond. PMID:20484831

  10. SORPTION BEHAVIOR OF PERRHENATE ION ON REILLEX™HP ANION EXCHANGE RESIN FROM NITRIC ACID AND SODIUM NITRATE\\/HYDROXIDE SOLUTIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth R. Ashley; Stephen L. Cobb; Susan D. Radzinski; Norman C. Schroeder

    1996-01-01

    The distribution coefficients (K' d) are reported for perrhenate on the nitrate form of Reillex™-HP, a weak base anion exchange resin, as a function of nitric acid concentration from 0.100 to 10.0 M. Perrhenate K' d values were determined in 1.00 M NaNO3 from pH 2 to 13. The K'd values were determined in solutions containing 1.35 M NaNO3 and variable NaOH, 0.155

  11. Lignin pyrolysis products, lignans, and resin acids as specific tracers of plant classes in emissions from biomass combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd R. T. Simoneit; W. F. Rogge; G. R. Cass; M. A. Mazurek; L. J. Standley; L. M. Hildemann

    1993-01-01

    Biomass smoke aerosols contain thermally unaltered and partially altered biomarker compounds from major vegetation taxa. These compounds range from C[sub 8] to C[sub 31] and include phytosterols, lignans, phenolic products from lignin, and diterpenoids from resins. Certain of the higher molecular weight biomarkers are vaporized from the parent plant material and subsequently condense unaltered into the particle phase. Other compounds

  12. Exposure of Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar) to a combination of resin acids and a water soluble fraction of diesel fuel oil: A model to investigate the chemical causes of pigmented salmon syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Croce, B. [Scottish Office Agriculture, Environment, and Fisheries Dept., Aberdeen (United Kingdom). Marine Lab.]|[Scottish Environmental Protection Agency, Aberdeen (United Kingdom). North East River Purification Board; Stagg, R.M. [Scottish Office Agriculture, Environment, and Fisheries Dept., Aberdeen (United Kingdom). Marine Lab.

    1997-09-01

    Pigmented salmon syndrome is a pollutant-induced hemolytic anemia and hyperbilirubinemia. As part of an investigation of this condition, S2 Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar) were exposed to a diesel fuel oil, water soluble fraction (WSF) in combination with a mixture of three resin acids (isopimaric, dehydroabietic, and abietic acids) in a continuous-flow freshwater system. The total nominal concentrations of resin acids in the exposure tanks were 10, 50, and 100 {micro}g/L; the diesel WSF was generated in situ and provided a mean hydrocarbon concentration of 2.0 {+-} 0.1 mg/L (n = 12) during the 9-d exposure period. Exposure to the diesel WSF alone depressed liver bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UDPGT) activity and induced phenol UDPGT activity. Exposure to the diesel WSF in the absence or presence of resin acids induced liver cytochrome P4501A and increased the concentrations in the plasma of the enzymes lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase. The combined exposure to diesel WSF with either 50 or 100 {micro}g/L total resin acid caused significant elevations in the concentrations of bilirubin in the plasma and many of these fish had yellow pigmentation on the ventral surface and around the gill arches. The results demonstrate that exposure to combinations of two groups of contaminants can result in the manifestation of toxic effects not apparent from exposure to either of these chemicals in isolation.

  13. Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on sorption of uranium and thorium from aqueous solutions by a selective impregnated resin containing carminic acid.

    PubMed

    Rahmani-Sani, Abolfazl; Hosseini-Bandegharaei, Ahmad; Hosseini, Seyyed-Hossein; Kharghani, Keivan; Zarei, Hossein; Rastegar, Ayoob

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the removal of uranium and thorium ions from aqueous solutions was studied by solid-liquid extraction using an advantageous extractant-impregnated resin (EIR) prepared by loading carminic acid (CA) onto Amberlite XAD-16 resin beads. Batch sorption experiments using CA/XAD-16 beads for the removal of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions were carried out as a function of several parameters, like equilibration time, metal ion concentration, etc. The equilibrium data obtained from the sorption experiments were adjusted to the Langmuir isotherm model and the calculated maximum sorption capacities in terms of monolayer sorption were in agreement with those obtained from the experiments. The experimental data on the sorption behavior of both metal ions onto the EIR beads fitted well in both Bangham and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models, indicating that the intra-particle diffusion is the rate-controlling step. The thermodynamic studies at different temperatures revealed the feasibility and the spontaneous nature of the sorption process for both uranium and thorium ions. PMID:25576783

  14. Abietadiene synthase from grand fir (Abies grandis). cDNA isolation, characterization, and bacterial expression of a bifunctional diterpene cyclase involved in resin acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Vogel, B S; Wildung, M R; Vogel, G; Croteau, R

    1996-09-20

    (-)-Abietic acid, the principal diterpenoid resin acid of the wound-induced oleoresin secreted by grand fir (Abies grandis), is synthesized by the cyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to (-)-abieta-7(8),13(14)-diene, followed by sequential three-step oxidation of the C-18 methyl group of the olefin to a carboxyl function. The enzyme catalyzing the cyclization reaction, abietadiene synthase, was purified from stems of wounded grand fir saplings and was digested with trypsin. Amino acid sequence information from the resulting peptides allowed construction of degenerate oligonucleotide primers, which amplified a 551-base pair fragment from a wound-induced stem cDNA library. This hybridization probe was then utilized to screen the wound-induced stem cDNA library, from which three cDNA clones were isolated that were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, thereby confirming that a single protein catalyzes the complex, multistep cyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to abietadiene. cDNA isolate Ac22.1, which yielded the highest expressed level of cyclase activity, was 2861 base pairs in length and encoded an 868-amino acid open reading frame that included a putative plastidial transit peptide. Deduced amino acid sequence comparison to other terpene cyclases revealed an amino-terminal region of the abietadiene synthase, which resembles those of enzymes that employ substrate double bond protonation to initiate the carbocationic reaction cascade, and a carboxyl-terminal region of the synthase, which resembles those of enzymes that employ ionization of the substrate allylic diphosphate ester function to initiate the cyclization reaction. This apparent fusion of segments of the two distinct terpenoid cyclase types is consistent with the novel mechanism of the bifunctional abietadiene synthase in catalyzing both protonation-initiated and ionization-initiated cyclization steps. PMID:8798524

  15. Lignin pyrolysis products, lignans, and resin acids as specific tracers of plant classes in emissions from biomass combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Simoneit, B.R.T. (Oregon State Univ., Corvaleis, OR (United States)); Rogge, W.F.; Cass, G.R. (California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)); Mazurek, M.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Standley, L.J. (Academy of Natural Sciences, Avondale, PA (United States)); Hildemann, L.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Biomass smoke aerosols contain thermally unaltered and partially altered biomarker compounds from major vegetation taxa. These compounds range from C[sub 8] to C[sub 31] and include phytosterols, lignans, phenolic products from lignin, and diterpenoids from resins. Certain of the higher molecular weight biomarkers are vaporized from the parent plant material and subsequently condense unaltered into the particle phase. Other compounds undergo pyrolytic alteration and possibly dimerization. In both cases it is possible to assign many of these compounds to the plant taxa of the unburned fuel. The diterpenoids are good indicators for smoke from burning of gymnosperm wood. The relative distribution of the OH/OCH[sub 3] substituent patterns on the phenolic products indicates the plant class of the biomass that was burned. Application of these relationships to the interpretation of ambient smoke aerosols may permit further evaluation of the sources that contribute to regional biomass burning. 80 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Resin composite restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Ilie, N; Hickel, R

    2011-06-01

    This paper surveys the most important developments in resin-based dental composites and focuses on the deficits (e.g. polymerization shrinkage) and strengths of the materials and their clinical implications. Moreover, differences between composite categories, such as hybrid, nanohybrid, microfilled, packable, ormocer-based, silorane-based, polyacid-modified composites (compomers) and flowable composites are highlighted, especially in view of their mechanical behaviour. In addition to the classical dimethacrylate-based composites, special attention is given to alternative monomers, such as siloranes, ormocers or high-molecular-weight dimethacrylate monomers (e.g. dimer acid-based dimethacrylates and tricyclodecane (TCD)-urethane), analysing their advantages, behaviour and abilities. Finally, the paper attempts to establish the needs and wishes of clinicians for further development of resin-based composites. PMID:21564116

  17. Gold recovery with ion exchange used resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen P. Gomes; Manuel F. Almeida; José M. Loureiro

    2001-01-01

    In this paper one strong acidic, one strong basic and one weak basic ion-exchange resins, considered as exhausted in an industrial demineralizing plant, are screened for gold recovery from cyanide solutions. Based on the observed ability for the recovery and on the ease of regeneration, the weak base anion exchanger Purolite A-100 is selected. This spent resin is stable until

  18. Resin Chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis Pilato

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a During the ensuing years since the last phenolic resins book was published, many new and remarkable developments have occurred\\u000a in the realm of phenolic chemistry and are given in this chapter.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a A critical examination of the first step or addition step (methylolation) in the preparation of resoles is described and how\\u000a it can be controlled and compared with the typical

  19. On-line preconcentration with a novel alkyl phosphinic acid extraction resin coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for determination of trace rare earth elements in seawater.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Yang, Limin; Wang, Qiuquan

    2007-06-15

    A newly synthesized alkyl phosphinic acid resin (APAR) was used for on-line preconcentration of trace rare earth elements (REES, lanthanides including yttrium) and then determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. REEs in seawater could be on-line concentrated on the APAR packed column (4.6mm i.d.x50mm in length), and eluted from the column with 0.5mL 0.1molL(-1) nitric acid within 30s. An enrichment factor of nearly 400 was achieved for all REEs when the seawater sample volume was 200mL, while the matrix and coexisting spectrally interfering ions such as barium, tin and antimony could be simultaneously separated. The detection limits of this proposed method for REEs were in the range from 1.43pgL(-1) of holmium to 12.7pgL(-1) of lanthanum. The recoveries of REEs were higher than 97.9%, and the precision of the relative standard deviation (R.S.D., n=6) was less than 5%. The method has been applied to the determination of soluble REEs in seawater. PMID:19071752

  20. ELUTION OF URANIUM VALUES FROM ION EXCHANGE RESINS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1959-01-01

    A process is described for eluting complex uranium ions absorbed on ion ; exchange resins. The resin is subjected to the action of an aqueous eluting ; solution contuining sulfuric acid and an alkali metal, ammonium, or magnesium ; chloride or nitrate, the elution being carried out until the desired amount of ; the uranium is removed from the resin.

  1. Engineering Plastics from Lignin. IX. Phenolic Resin Synthesis and Characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Muller; Stephen S. Kelley; Wolfgang G. Glasser

    1984-01-01

    The performance of phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins, formulated with lignin derivatives previously synthesized as phenolic resin prepolymers, was evaluated by thermal analysis of the curing process, and by a hard maple shear block test. At 54 and 60% phenol replacement levels, respectively, kraft (KL) and steam explosion lignin (SEL)-based resoles exhibited cure behavior very similar to a standard PF resin. Acid

  2. Reusable chelating resins concentrate metal ions from highly dilute solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, A. J.; Weetal, H. H.; Weliky, N.

    1966-01-01

    Column chromatographic method uses new metal chelating resins for recovering heavy-metal ions from highly dilute solutions. The absorbed heavy-metal cations may be removed from the chelating resins by acid or base washes. The resins are reusable after the washes are completed.

  3. Photosensitive filler minimizes internal stresses in epoxy resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon, J. N.

    1967-01-01

    Photosensitive filler is added to curable epoxy resins to minimize stress from internal shrinkage during curing or polymerization. Cinnamic acid resins and cinnamal ketones may be added in the amount of 1 to 3 percent by weight of the resin mixture.

  4. Synthesis of activated carbon-based amino phosphonic acid chelating resin and its adsorption properties for Ce(III) removal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Yan, Chunjie; Wang, Yixia; Tang, Conghai; Zhou, Sen; Zhao, Yuan; Ma, Rui; Duan, Ping

    2015-09-01

    This work aims to investigate the adsorption of Ce(III) onto chelating resin based on activated carbon (CRAC). The CRAC adsorbent was prepared from activated carbon (AC) followed by oxidation, silane coupling, ammoniation and phosphorylation, and characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectrometry, nitrogen adsorption measurements and scanning electron microscopy. The effects of solution pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time were studied by batch technique. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to describe the adsorption behaviour of Ce(III) by CRAC, and the results showed that the adsorption behaviour well fitted the Langmuir model. The maximum uptake capacity (qmax) calculated by using the Langmuir equation for cerium ions was found to be 94.34?mg/g. A comparison of the kinetic models and the overall experimental data was best fitted with the type 1 pseudo second-order kinetic model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (?G°, ?H° and ?S°) showed that the adsorption for Ce(III) was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic at 25-45?°C. The CRAC showed an excellent adsorptive selectivity towards Ce(III). Moreover, more than 82% of Ce(III) adsorbed onto CRAC could be desorbed with HCl and could be used several times. PMID:25730666

  5. Methyl Jasmonate Induces Traumatic Resin Ducts, Terpenoid Resin Biosynthesis, and Terpenoid Accumulation in Developing Xylem of Norway Spruce Stems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane Martin; Dorothea Tholl; Jonathan Gershenzon; Jorg Bohlmann

    2002-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) produces an oleoresin characterized by a diverse array of terpenoids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpene resin acids that can protect conifers against potential herbivores and pathogens. Oleoresin accumulates constitutively in resin ducts in the cortex and phloem (bark) of Norway spruce stems. De novo formation of traumatic resin ducts (TDs) is observed in the developing

  6. [Composite resin inlays and onlays].

    PubMed

    Vougiouklakis, G; Mountouris, G; Adritsakis, D

    1990-08-01

    The establishment and development of composite resins has led to their use as a posterior restorative material. Although posterior composites have evolved considerably, both clinical studies and experience have confirmed that several problems still remain concerning their clinical properties and the relative complexity of handling the material. In order to resolve these problems, two different manufacturers have introduced composite resin systems for the fabrication of direct or indirect resin inlays and onlays which are cemented into the acid-etched preparation with a modified composite resin. Both systems are based on the same concept: the polymerization of the resin takes place out of the mouth in a special oven where a specific heat-curing procedure is followed. There is an essential difference between the two systems. When the direct resin system is used, the inlay is formed and partly light-cured into the tooth preparation, then it is removed for further polymerization. When the indirect system is used the procedure takes place in the lab where the inlay is formed on the die. This article presents both systems, the step-by-step procedure that has been followed in several clinical cases as well as their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:2130341

  7. Stability Of A Carbon-Dioxide-Removing Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, Theodore; Wood, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experiments determing long-term chemical stability of IRA-45, commerical ion-exchange resin candidate for use in removing CO2 from atmosphere of Space Station. In proposed system, cabin air passes through resin, and acidic CO2 absorbed by weakly-basic hydrated diethylenetriamine bonded to porous resin substrate. When resin absorbs all CO2, disconnects from airstream and heated with steam to desorb CO2. Resin reuseable. Removed by post-treating process air with phosphoric acid on charcoal. Other chemicals removed by trace-contaminant-control subsystem of Space Station.

  8. Ligand-Exchange Chromatography of Some Amino Acids on Co(II)Loaded CMDAE-Sporopollenin Resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ayar; S. Yildiz; E. Pehlivan

    1995-01-01

    Sporopollenin obtained from Lycopodium clavatum has been modified as an ligand-exchange material. In this study, the possibility of using sporopollenin as a ligand exchanger in the chromatographic separation of amino acids is examined. Since sporopollenin has important advantages (it is stable to chemicals and has a constant mesh size), it can be used as a column packing material. By first

  9. Combination of on-line preconcentration by di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid resin in the presence of complexing agent with microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry for the determination of rare earths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaowei ZHAO; Xiangfei KONG; Qiong JIA; Weihong ZHOU; Xiaogang QU

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of rare earths, lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, and yttrium by di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) resin in the presence of a complexing agent, EDTA, was investigated. Flow injection was selected as the injecting method. Various parameters, sample pH, sample loading time, sample flow rate, EDTA concentration, EDTA flow rate, eluent concentration, and eluent flow rate, were studied and optimized. Under

  10. Influence of air-abrasion executed with polyacrylic acid-Bioglass 45S5 on the bonding performance of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement.

    PubMed

    Sauro, Salvatore; Watson, Timothy F; Thompson, Ian; Toledano, Manuel; Nucci, Cesare; Banerjee, Avijit

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the microtensile bond strength (?TBS), after 6 months of storage in PBS, of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) bonded to dentine pretreated with Bioglass 45S5 (BAG) using various etching and air-abrasion techniques. The RMGIC (GC Fuji II LC) was applied onto differently treated dentine surfaces followed by light curing for 30 s. The specimens were cut into matchsticks with cross-sectional areas of 0.9 mm(2). The ?TBS of the specimens was measured after 24 h or 6 months of storage in PBS and the results were statistically analysed using two-way anova and the Student-Newman-Keuls test (? = 0.05). Further RMCGIC-bonded dentine specimens were used for interfacial characterization, micropermeability, and nanoleakage analyses by confocal microscopy. The RMGIC-dentine interface layer showed no water absorption after 6 months of storage in PBS except for the interdiffusion layer of the silicon carbide (SiC)-abraded/polyacrylic acid (PAA)-etched bonded dentine. The RMGIC applied onto dentine air-abraded with BAG/H(2)O only or with BAG/PAA-fluid followed by etching procedures (10% PAA gel) showed no statistically significant reduction in ?TBS after 6 months of storage in PBS. The abrasion procedures performed using BAG in combination with PAA might be a suitable strategy to enhance the bonding durability and the healing ability of RMGIC bonded to dentine. PMID:22409224

  11. Ion exchange resins of high loading capacity, high chloride tolerance and rapid elution for uranium recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan

    1982-01-01

    Ion exchange process for the recovery of uranium from a pregnant carbonate lixiviant employed in uranium leaching operations in which the lixiviant is passed over a precipitation inducing anionic ion exchange resin under conditions to load the resin predominantly with non-exchangeable uranium. Non-exchangeable uranium is then recovered from the resin by eluting the resin with an aqueous acid solution having

  12. Characterization and utilization in phenolic resins of lignin from wood saccharification by mineral acids. Annual report, October 1, 1984-September 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    This research is to explore conditions under which the lignin-rich residue from TVA's two stage hardwood based wood saccharification pilot plant can be used as a prepolymer for phenol-formaldehyde resin products and other thermosetting plastics. Six specific tasks studied were to isolate a uniform polymer fraction from the lignin-rich pilot plant residue; to characterize the chemical and molecular structure of the useful lignin fraction; to test the reactivity of this fraction with phenol, with formaldehyde and phenol in sequence, and with propylene oxide, and to analyze the reaction products; to synthesize phenolic resins with substitution levels in excess of 50% of phenol, and to evaluate these resins by thermal analysis; to test selected resins by shear block testing and to prepare polyurethane thermosets by crosslinking with diisocyanates; and to compare the performance of the phenolic resins and polyurethanes with those obtained with other lignins. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENTS AND ION EXCHANGE BEHAVIOUR OF SOME CHLORIDE COMPLEX FORMING ELEMENTS WITH BIO RAD AG50W-XB CATION EXCHANGE RESIN IN MIXED NITRIC-HYDROCHLORIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. W. E. Strelow

    1989-01-01

    Cation exchange equilibrium distribution coefficients are presented for the chloride complex forming elements Au(III), Tl(III), Hg(II), Bi(III), In, Cd, Zn, Pb(II), Fe(III) and Ga with a microporous (gel-type) resin of 8% DVB crosslinkage in hydrochloric-nitric acid mixtures ranging from 0.02M to 0.50M and from 0.20M to 2.0M concentrations, respectively. Separations which are possible by using mixtures and pure hydrochloric acid

  14. Hydrolyzable polyester resins, varnishes and coating compositions containing the same

    DOEpatents

    Yamamori, Naoki (Minoo, JP); Yokoi, Junji (Nara, JP); Yoshikawa, Motoyoshi (Nara, JP)

    1984-01-01

    Preparation of hydrolyzable polyester resin comprising reacting polycarboxylic acid and polyhydric alcohol components, which is characterized by using, as at least part of said polyhydric alcohol component, a metallic salt of hydroxy carboxylic acid of the formula defined and effecting the polycondensation at a temperature which is no more than the decomposition temperature of said metallic salt. The polyester resins are useful as resinous vehicle of varnishes and antifouling paints.

  15. Cloning and expression of a CYP720B orthologue involved in the biosynthesis of diterpene resin acids in Pinus brutia.

    PubMed

    Semiz, Asli; Sen, Alaattin

    2015-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases mediate a broad range of oxidative reactions involved in the biosynthesis of both primary and secondary metabolites in plants. Until now, only two P450 genes, CYP720B1 from Pinus taeda and CYP720B4 from Picea sitchensis, have been functionally characterised and described in the literature. The purpose of this study was to describe the cloning and expression of CYP720B from Pinus brutia due to its suggested role in the synthesis of bioactive compounds used for chemical defence against insects. A PCR product of the P. brutia CYP720B gene was cloned into the pCR8/GW/TOPO cloning vector. After optimising the sequence for codon usage in yeast, it was transferred into the inducible expression vector pYES-DEST52 and transfected into the S. cerevisiae INVSc1 strain. Sequence analysis showed that the P. brutia CYP720B gene contains an open reading frame of 1,464 nucleotides, which encodes a 53,570 Da putative protein of 487 amino acid residues. The putative protein contains the classic heme-binding sequence motif that is conserved in all P450 enzymes. It shares 99 and 61% identity with the deduced amino acid sequences of CYP720B1 from Pinus taeda and CYP720B4 from Picea sitchensis, respectively. Recombinant CYP720B protein expression was confirmed using western blot analysis. Furthermore, recombinant CYP720B was functionally active, showing a Soret peak at approximately 448 nm in the reduced CO difference spectra. These data suggest that the cloned gene is an orthologue of CYP720B in P. brutia and might be involved in DRA biosynthesis. PMID:25394757

  16. Comparison of the irritation potentials of Boswellia serrata gum resin and of acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid by in vitro cytotoxicity tests on human skin-derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Burlando, Bruno; Parodi, Alessandro; Volante, Andrea; Bassi, Anna Maria

    2008-03-15

    Indian frankincense is a gum resin from Boswellia serrata of Burseraceae used in Ayurveda and Western medicine for the antinflammatory effects of boswellic acids, particularly 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA). We evaluated in vitro cytotoxicities of B. serrata extract and AKBA on differentiated and undifferentiated keratinocytes (HaCaT and NCTC 2544), and foetal dermal fibroblasts (HFFF2), using neutral red uptake (NRU), MTT, and DNA assays. Comparison between NRU and MTT, and between the extract and AKBA, suggested a relatively higher toxicity of both substances on lysosomes respect to mitochondria. Extract cytotoxicity on lysosomes was higher in NCTC and HFFF2 than on the more differentiated HaCaT. DNA assay showed low extract inhibition on HFFF2 proliferation, possibly due to lower growth rate, and a stronger effect on NCTC than on HaCaT, possibly related to higher proapoptotic effect on the less differentiated NCTC, as also suggested by higher AKBA toxicity on NCTC than on HaCaT. In general, gum resin and AKBA toxicities were slightly lower or higher than that of the reference compound SDS. Our in vitro model allowed to compare the sensitivities of different human skin cells to B. serrata, and indicated that the gum resin and AKBA exert moderate to low toxicity on the skin. PMID:18304763

  17. EPICOR-II resin degradation results from first resin samples of PF-8 and PF-20

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Sanders, R.D. Sr.

    1985-12-01

    The 28 March 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 released approximately 560,000 gallons of contaminated water to the Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Buildings. The water was decontaminated using a demineralization system called EPICOR-II developed by Epicor, Inc. The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Project is studying the chemical and physical conditions of the synthetic ion exchange resins found in several EPICOR-II prefilters. This report summarizes results and analyses of the first sampling of ion exchange resins from EPICOR-II prefilters PE-8 and -20. Results are compared with baseline data from tests performed on unirradiated Epicor, Inc. resins to determine if degradation has occurred due to the high internal radiation dose received by the EPICOR-II resins. Results also are compared with recent findings on resin degradation by Battelle Columbus Laboratories and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Analyses comparing test results of resins from EPICOR-II prefilters PF-8 and -20 with unirradiated resins obtained from Epicor, Inc. show resin degradation has occurred in some of the EPICOR-II resins examined. The mechanism of degradation is compared with work of other researchers and is consistent with their findings. The strong acid cation resins (divinylbenzene, styrene base structure) are losing effective cross-linking along with scission of functional groups and are experiencing first an increase and eventually a decrease in total exchange capacity as the absorbed radiation dose increases. The phenolic cation resins (phenol-formaldehyde base structure) show a loss of effective cross-linking and oxidation of the polymer chain. Analyses of resins removed from EPICOR-II prefilters PF-8 and -20 over the next several years should show a further increase in degradation.

  18. Evolution of conifer diterpene synthases: diterpene resin acid biosynthesis in lodgepole pine and jack pine involves monofunctional and bifunctional diterpene synthases.

    PubMed

    Hall, Dawn E; Zerbe, Philipp; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet; Madilao, Lina L; Yuen, Macaire; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-02-01

    Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are major components of pine (Pinus spp.) oleoresin. They play critical roles in conifer defense against insects and pathogens and as a renewable resource for industrial bioproducts. The core structures of DRAs are formed in secondary (i.e. specialized) metabolism via cycloisomerization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) by diterpene synthases (diTPSs). Previously described gymnosperm diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the initial bicyclization of GGPP followed by rearrangement of a (+)-copalyl diphosphate intermediate at two discrete class II and class I active sites. In contrast, similar diterpenes of gibberellin primary (i.e. general) metabolism are produced by the consecutive activity of two monofunctional class II and class I diTPSs. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we discovered 11 diTPS from jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Three of these were orthologous to known conifer bifunctional levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthases. Surprisingly, two sets of orthologous PbdiTPSs and PcdiTPSs were monofunctional class I enzymes that lacked functional class II active sites and converted (+)-copalyl diphosphate, but not GGPP, into isopimaradiene and pimaradiene as major products. Diterpene profiles and transcriptome sequences of lodgepole pine and jack pine are consistent with roles for these diTPSs in DRA biosynthesis. The monofunctional class I diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis form a new clade within the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d3 subfamily that evolved from bifunctional diTPS rather than monofunctional enzymes (TPS-c and TPS-e) of gibberellin metabolism. Homology modeling suggested alterations in the class I active site that may have contributed to their functional specialization relative to other conifer diTPSs. PMID:23370714

  19. Resin-bonded retainers. Part I: Resin bond to electrolytically etched nonprecious alloys.

    PubMed

    Thompson, V P; Del Castillo, E; Livaditis, G J

    1983-12-01

    Nonprecious Ni-Cr casting alloys can be electrolytically etched to yield a highly retentive surface for micromechanical bonding of dental resins. The acid, current density, and etching time to achieve the retentive features are specific for each alloy. Conditions for etching one beryllium-containing and one non-beryllium-containing alloy are described. The tensile strength of a resin system to these alloys has been determined to be over two times the accepted value of the resin bond to acid-etched enamel. PMID:6361240

  20. Epoxy resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn R. Wilson; Ival O. Salyer; Ball; George L

    1976-01-01

    By mixing one part of a prepolymer containing a polyamine partially polymerized with an organic epoxide and subsequently reacted with a fatty acid containing from 8 to 32 carbon atoms, and then reacting this prepolymer mixture with 3 parts of an organic epoxide, a composition was obtained which made a gas frothable, shear-stable, room temperature curing, low density foam. A

  1. Phenolic resin syntactic foams

    SciTech Connect

    McIlroy, H.M.

    1980-06-01

    Syntactic foams were prepared from blends of six phenolic resins and carbon microbubbles. The compressive strength of the phenolic resin foams is equivalent to the strength of foams made from a polyimide resin. Ammonia evolved during the cure diffuses rapidly and is not bound by the foam.

  2. Extraction chromatography of neodymium by an organophosphorous extractant supported on various polymeric resins

    SciTech Connect

    Takigawa, D.Y.

    1993-04-01

    Fifteen resins coated with dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethyl phosphonate (CMP) were studied for their extraction of neodymium (Nd) in 4.0 and 7.0 M nitric acid. Resin properties, such as chemical composition and physical morphology, which can influence Nd extraction as well as subsequent resin regeneration (Nd stripping), were identified. Hydrophilic or polar resins coated with CMP efficiently extracted the Nd. Resins initially washed free of residual monomer and solvent before CMP coating outperformed their untreated counterparts. The macroporous styrene-divinylbenzene hydrophobic resins that were high in surface area were less effective supports compared with hydrophilic microporous Aurorez, polybenzimidazole (PBI) and macroporous Amberlite polyacrylic resins. Only one resin, Duolite C-467, showed no measurable improvement in Nd extraction with CMP coating. CMP-coated Aurorez PBI, a microporous and hydrophilic polymeric resin with an average surface area, showed the best overall efficiency for Nd removal and resin regeneration.

  3. Denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Winkler, S

    1984-04-01

    Numerous investigations have concluded that the conventional acrylic resins, processed with the usual technique of compression molding, produce dentures that are just as stable in dimension and as satisfactory as dentures produced with special resins and elaborate processing equipment. The physical properties of injection molded dentures are not superior to those of acrylic resin dentures produced by the usual carefully controlled compression molding techniques. Cold-curing acrylic resins produce dentures that are as satisfactory as those made from heat-curing resins. PMID:6373408

  4. Acetoxylation of methyl oleate with a resin catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. T. Black; R. E. Beal

    1967-01-01

    The reaction of methyl oleate with acetic acid in the presence of a reticulated cation exchange resin produces methyl acetoxystearate.\\u000a Saponification of this compound and subsequent acidification yields hydroxystearic acid. Time, temperature, acetic acid:ester\\u000a ratio, and resin:ester ratio were examined for their effect on yield of methyl acetoxystearate. A yield of approximately 45%\\u000a of theory was reached under the best

  5. High Temperature Transfer Molding Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    High temperature resins containing phenylethynyl groups that are processable by transfer molding have been prepared. These phenylethynyl containing oligomers were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynlphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form a mixture of imide compounds in one step. This synthetic approach is advantageous since the products are a mixture of compounds and consequently exhibit a relatively low melting temperature. In addition, these materials exhibit low melt viscosities which are stable for several hours at 210-275 C, and since the thermal reaction of the phenylethynyl group does not occur to any appreciable extent at temperatures below 300 C, these materials have a broad processing window. Upon thermal cure at approximately 300-350 C, the phenylethynyl groups react to provide a crosslinked resin system. These new materials exhibit excellent properties and are potentially useful as adhesives, coatings, films, moldings and composite matrices.

  6. Resin catalysts and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1986-12-16

    Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  7. Cleanup of TMI-2 demineralizer resins

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, W.D.; King, L.J.; Knauer, J.B.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Thompson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Radiocesium is being removed from Demineralizers A and B (DA and DB by a process that was developed from laboratory tests on small samples of resin from the demineralizers. The process was designed to elute the radiocesium from the demineralizer resins and then to resorb it onto the zeolite ion exchangers contained in the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS). The process was also required to limit the maximum cesium activities in the resin eluates (SDS feeds) so that the radiation field surrounding the pipelines would not be excessive. The process consists of 17 stages of batch elution. In the initial stage, the resin is contacted with 0.18 M boric acid. Subsequent stages subject the resin to increasing concentrations of sodium in NaH/sub 2/BO/sub 3/-H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ solution (total B = 0.35 M) and then 1 M sodium hydroxide in the final stages. Results on the performance of the process in the cleanup of the demineralizers at TMI-2 are compared to those obtained from laboratory tests with small samples of the DA and DB resins. To date, 15 stages of batch elution have been completed on the demineralizers at TMI-2 which resulted in the removal of about 750 Ci of radiocesium from DA and about 3300 Ci from DB.

  8. Reillex/trademark/ HPQ: A new, macroporous polyvinylpyridine resin for separating plutonium using nitrate anion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    Anion exchange in nitric acid is the major aqueous process used to recover and purify plutonium from impure scrap materials. Most strong-base anion exchange resins incorporate a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer. A newly available, macroporous anion exchange resin based on a copolymer of 1-methyl-4-vinylpyridine and divinylbenzene has been evaluated. Comparative data for Pu(IV) sorption kinetics and capacity are presented for this new resin and two other commonly used anion exchange resins. The new resin offers high capacity and rapid sorption kinetics for Pu(IV) from nitric acid, as well as greater stability to chemical and radiolytic degradation. 8 refs., 12 figs.

  9. 21 CFR 177.2500 - Polyphenylene sulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...resin produced by reacting polyphenylene sulfide with peracetic acid such that the finished...of this section. The polyphenylene sulfide used to manufacture polyphenylene sulfone is prepared by the reaction of sodium sulfide and p -dichlorobenzene, and has...

  10. 21 CFR 177.2500 - Polyphenylene sulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...resin produced by reacting polyphenylene sulfide with peracetic acid such that the finished...of this section. The polyphenylene sulfide used to manufacture polyphenylene sulfone is prepared by the reaction of sodium sulfide and p -dichlorobenzene, and has...

  11. 21 CFR 177.2500 - Polyphenylene sulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...resin produced by reacting polyphenylene sulfide with peracetic acid such that the finished...of this section. The polyphenylene sulfide used to manufacture polyphenylene sulfone is prepared by the reaction of sodium sulfide and p -dichlorobenzene, and has...

  12. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...prescribed conditions: (a) The additive consists of one of the following: (1) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin (hydrolyzed polyacrylamide) is produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of...

  13. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...prescribed conditions: (a) The additive consists of one of the following: (1) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin (hydrolyzed polyacrylamide) is produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of...

  14. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...prescribed conditions: (a) The additive consists of one of the following: (1) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin (hydrolyzed polyacrylamide) is produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of...

  15. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...prescribed conditions: (a) The additive consists of one of the following: (1) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin (hydrolyzed polyacrylamide) is produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of...

  16. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...prescribed conditions: (a) The additive consists of one of the following: (1) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin (hydrolyzed polyacrylamide) is produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of...

  17. Delayed cure bismaleimide resins

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-08-12

    Prior art polybismaleimides begin to polymerize at or just above the melting point of the monomer. This patent describes new bismaleimide resins which have an increased pot life and provide longer time periods in which the monomer remains fluid. The resins can be polymerized into molded articles with a high uniformity of properties. (DLC)

  18. Radiation testing of organic ion exchange resins

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, C.D.; Bray, L.A.; Bryan, S.A. [and others

    1995-09-01

    A number of ion exchange materials are being evaluated as part of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Pretreatment Project for the removal of {sup 137}Cs from aqueous tank wastes. Two of these materials are organic resins; a phenol-formaldehyde resin (Duolite CS-100) produced by Rohm and Haas Co. (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) and a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin produced by Boulder Scientific Co. (Mead, Colorado). One of the key parameters in the assessment of the organic based ion exchange materials is its useful lifetime in the radioactive and chemical environment that will be encountered during waste processing. The focus of the work presented in this report is the radiation stability of the CS-100 and the RF resins. The scope of the testing included one test with a sample of the CS-100 resin and testing of two batches of the RF resin (BSC-187 and BSC-210). Samples of the exchangers were irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source to a total absorbed dose of 10{sup 9} R over a period of 5 months in a static (no flow) and a flowing configuration with neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) simulant as a feed. Based on a maximum concentration of {sup 137}Cs on the resin that would result from processing NCAW, this dose represents an operational period of at least 150 days for the RF resin and at least 1260 days for the CS-100 resin. Gas generation in the static experiment was continuously monitored and G values (molecules of gas per 100 eV) were determined for each species. Resin samples were obtained periodically and the equilibrium behavior of the resins was assessed by determining the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}s). Structural information was also obtained by {sup 13}C cross polarization magic angle (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy so that changes to the chemical structure could be correlated with changes in K{sub d}.

  19. Ion exchange resins for the treatment of cyanidation tailings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Fernando; F. Lucien; T. Tran; M. L. Carter

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative acid eluents comprising of H2O2 and H2SO4 have been proven to be effective in eluting base metal cyanide complexes from strong base resins. This study found that the repeated cycling between alkaline cyanide conditions and oxidative acid conditions does not affect the strong base or the total base capacity of strong base resins. However, it was found that a

  20. Diterpene resin acid biosynthesis in loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda): Functional characterization of abietadiene\\/levopimaradiene synthase ( PtTPS- LAS) cDNA and subcellular targeting of PtTPS-LAS and abietadienol\\/abietadienal oxidase (PtAO, CYP720B1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dae-Kyun Ro; Jörg Bohlmann

    2006-01-01

    Diterpene resin acids are prominent defense compounds against insect pests and pathogens in conifers. Biochemical and molecular analyses in grand fir (Abies grandis), Norway spruce (Picea abies), and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) have identified two classes of genes and enzymes that generate much of the structural diversity of terpenoid defense compounds: The terpenoid synthases (TPS) and cytochrome P450 monooxgenases (P450).

  1. Maleimide Functionalized Siloxane Resins

    SciTech Connect

    Loy, D.A.; Shaltout, R.M.

    1999-04-01

    Polyorganosiloxanes are a commercially important class of compounds. They exhibit many important properties, including very low glass transition temperatures, making them useful over a wide temperature range. In practice, the polysiloxane polymer is often mixed with a filler material to help improve its mechanical properties. An alternative method for increasing polymer mechanical strength is through the incorporation of certain substituents on the polymer backbone. Hard substituents such as carbonates and imides generally result in improved mechanical properties of polysiloxanes. In this paper, we present the preparation of novel polysiloxane resins modified with hard maleimide substituents. Protected ethoxysilyl-substituted propyl-maleimides were prepared. The maleimide substituent was protected with a furanyl group and the monomer polymerized under aqueous acidic conditions. At elevated temperatures (>120 C), the polymer undergoes retro Diels-Alder reaction with release of foran (Equation 1). The deprotected polymer can then be selectively crosslinked by a forward Diels-Alder reaction (in the presence of a co-reactant having two or more dime functionalities).

  2. Development of resins for composites by resin transfer molding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Edmund P.; Puckett, Paul M.; Maynard, Shawn J.

    1991-01-01

    Designed to cover a wide range of resin technology and to meet the near-term and long-term needs of the aircraft industry, this research has three objectives: to produce resin transfer molding (RES) resins with improved processability, to produce prepreg systems with high toughness and service temperature, and to produce new resin systems. Progress on reaching the objectives is reported.

  3. Easy flat embedding of oriented samples in hydrophilic resin (LR White) under controlled atmosphere: application allowing both nucleic acid hybridizations (CARD-FISH) and ultrastructural observations.

    PubMed

    Gros, Olivier; Maurin, Leslie C

    2008-01-01

    Hydrophilic resins present the advantage of making possible both hybridization experiments involving either antibodies or oligonucleotide probes and ultrastructural observations. Whereas various embedding protocols are available, only very few concern flat-embedded preparations. In this study we describe an easy protocol for flat embedding of small-oriented biological samples in hydrophilic resins (LR White). The most important constraints are (i) to polymerize the samples under argon-saturated atmosphere (avoiding oxygen which is an inhibitor of LR White polymerization) and (ii) to use transparent flat embedding molds. Two kinds of samples were analyzed: small pieces of large tissue that need to be accurately oriented for a valuable analysis and very small organisms such as free-living nematodes, which are very hard to investigate with conventional paraffin wax embedding techniques. Semi-thin sections strongly reinforce the quality of the observations from oligonucleotidic in situ hybridization experiments by reducing the background usually encountered in oligonucleotide probe hybridization experiments from sections. Such protocols could also permit a cheap alternative to the use of laser scanning confocal microscopes for oligonucleotidic in situ hybridization as in FISH and CARD-FISH experiments from histological sections. The interest of this embedding protocol is reinforced by the fact that molecular in situ hybridization experiments and ultrastructural observations from thin sections can be carried out from a single-small individual (<1mm in length) sample. PMID:18187186

  4. Use of Cation Exchange Resins for Production of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} Suitable for the Al-U{sub 3}O{sub 8} Powder Metallurgy Process

    SciTech Connect

    Mosley, W.C.

    2001-09-17

    This report describes the production of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powders from three types of cation exchange resins: Dowex 50W, a strong acid, sulfonate resin; AG MP-50, a macroporous form of sulfonate resin; and Bio-Rex 70, a weak acid, carboxylic resin.

  5. Benzonorbornadiene end caps for PMR resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panigot, Michael J.; Waters, John F.; Varde, Uday; Sutter, James K.; Sukenik, Chaim N.

    1992-01-01

    Several ortho-disubstituted benzonorbornadiene derivatives are described. These molecules contain acid, ester, or anhydride functionality permitting their use as end caps in PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants) polyimide systems. The replacement of the currently used norbornenyl end caps with benzonorbornadienyl end caps affords resins of increased aromatic content. It also allows evaluation of some mechanistic aspects of PMR cross-linking. Initial testing of N-phenylimide model compounds and of actual resin formulations using the benzonorbornadienyl end cap reveals that they undergo efficient thermal crosslinking to give oligomers with physical properties and thermal stability comparable to commercial norbornene-end-capped PMR systems.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF CYCLED SPHERICAL RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.; Duignan, M.

    2010-02-23

    This report presents characterization data for two spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin beds that had processed cesium in non-radioactive and radioactive cycles. All column cycle operations for the resin beds including loading, displacements, elution, regeneration, breakthroughs, and solution analyses are reported in Nash and Duignan, 2009a. That report covered four ion exchange (IX) campaigns using the two {approx}11 mL beds in columns in a lead-lag arrangement. The first two campaigns used Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 2F nonradioactive simulant while the latter two were fed with actual dissolved salt in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells. Both radioactive cycles ran to cesium breakthrough of the lead column. The resin beds saw in excess of 400 bed volumes of feed in each cycle. Resin disposal plans in tank farm processing depend on characterizations of resin used with actual tank feed. Following a final 30 bed volume (BV) elution with nitric acid, the resin beds were found to contain detectable chromium, barium, boron, aluminum, iron, sodium, sulfur, plutonium, cesium, and mercury. Resin affinity for plutonium is important in criticality safety considerations. Cesium-137 was found to be less than 10E+7 dpm/g of resin, similar to past work with sRF resin. Sulfur levels are reasonably consistent with other work and are expected to represent sulfur chemistry used in the resin manufacture. There were low but detectable levels of technetium, americium, and curium. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) work on the used (eluted) resin samples showed significant contents of mercury, barium, and chromium. One resin sample exceeded the TCLP level for mercury while the other metals were below TCLP levels. TCLP organics measurements indicated measurable benzene in one case, though the source was unknown. Results of this work were compared with other work on similar sRF resin characterizations in this report. This is the first work to quantify mercury on sRF resin. Resin mercury content is important in plans for the disposition of used sRF resin. Mercury speciation in high level waste (HLW) is unknown. It may be partly organic, one example being methyl mercury cation. Further study of the resin's affinity for mercury is recommended.

  7. Conversion of ion exchange resin to various functional resins and the application in the field of pharmaceutical sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Morio

    Ion exchange resins are widely used for separating ions in the solution, desalination, removal of impurities, and etc. Giving a new function to these ion exchange resins enables the application in more various fields. Until now, we carried out the research work about the following 5 project.: (1) Conversion of ion exchange resins into selective adsorbents by using low molecular reagents, which possess capabilities of a selective reaction with target ions, ion exchange reaction with the ion exchange resin and strong physical adsorption to the ion exchange resin. (2) Synthesis of resins for ion exchange high performance liquid chromatography (IEHPLC) and the analysis of biomaterials. (3) Development of insoluble macromolecular Sn(II) complex based on the aminophosphonic acid type ion exchange resin and its application to the 99mTc labeling of proteins. (4) Development of a new 68Ge-68Ga generator using N-methylglucamine type organic polymer as the adsorbent for 68Ge and production of 68Ga for PET. (5) Preparation of an ion-exchangeable polymer bead wrapped with bilayer membrane structures. In this paper, the application of various functional resins prepared based on ion exchange resin in the field of pharmaceutical sciences has been summarized.

  8. Biocidal quaternary ammonium resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janauer, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Activated carbon (charcoal) and polymeric resin sorbents are widely used in the filtration and treatment of drinking water, mainly to remove dissolved organic and inorganic impurities and to improve the taste. Earlier hopes that activated carbon might "disinfect' water proved to be unfounded. The feasibility of protecting against microbial infestation in charcoal and resin beds such as those to be incorporated into total water reuse systems in spacecraft was investigated. The biocidal effect of IPCD (insoluable polymeric contact disinfectants) in combination with a representative charcoal was assessed. The ion exchange resins (IPCD) were shown to adequately protect charcoal and ion exchange beds.

  9. Biocompatibility of composite resins

    PubMed Central

    Mousavinasab, Sayed Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Dental materials that are used in dentistry should be harmless to oral tissues, so they should not contain any leachable toxic and diffusible substances that can cause some side effects. Reports about probable biologic hazards, in relation to dental resins, have increased interest to this topic in dentists. The present paper reviews the articles published about biocompatibility of resin-restorative materials specially resin composites and monomers which are mainly based on Bis-GMA and concerns about their degradation and substances which may be segregated into oral cavity. PMID:23372592

  10. Improved resin infiltration of natural caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Lueckel, H; Paris, S

    2008-12-01

    In artificial lesions, improved penetration and the caries-inhibiting properties of infiltrating resins could be observed with increasing penetration coefficients (PCs). The aim of the present study was to compare the penetration abilities of an experimental 'infiltrant' into natural lesions with those of an adhesive in vitro. Extracted human molars and premolars showing proximal white spots were cut across the lesions perpendicular to the surface. Corresponding lesion halves were etched for 120 sec with 15% hydrochloric acid gel and were subsequently treated with either an adhesive (PC: 31 cm/sec) or an infiltrant (PC: 273 cm/sec). Specimens were observed by confocal microscopy and transverse microradiography. Penetration depths of the adhesive were significantly lower compared with those of the infiltrant (p < 0.001; Wilcoxon). It can be concluded that resins with higher PCs (infiltrants) show superior ability to penetrate natural lesions compared with resins with lower PCs. PMID:19029077

  11. Novel strontium-selective extraction chromatographic resin

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The effect of nitric acid concentration on the selectivity of a novel extraction chromatographic resin consisting of an octanol solution of 4,4`(5`)-bis(t-butyl-cyclohexano)-18-crown-6 sorbed on an inert polymeric support for strontium over a number of alkali, alkaline earth, and other metal cations was evaluated. The effect of macro quantities of selected elements on strontium retention by the resin was also examined. The resin is shown to exhibit excellent selectivity for strontium over nearly all of the test elements; only lead and tetravalent neptunium, polonium, and plutonium show significant affinity for the material. In addition, concentrations of calcium or sodium ion up to approx.0.1 M are shown not to diminish the sorption of strontium appreciably. Several useful radiochemical separation schemes devised on the basis of the results obtained are described. 35 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Applications of fossil resin studies to an understanding of depositional and paleoenvironments

    SciTech Connect

    Bellis, D.; Wolberg, D.L. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Fossil resins are polymerized terpene (isoprenoid) acids. Because of their complexity and resulting variability, isoprenoids have been useful for their information content and geochemical signatures. Fossil resin occurs throughout a 304-ft continuous core and correlated outcrops from the Late Cretaceous Fruitland Formation in the Fossil Forest study area, San Juan basin, New Mexico, in associated with coal, sandstone, shale, and petrified wood. Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectra of resin from throughout the sequence reveal oxidative and chemical variation. FTIR spectra of resin incorporated in petrified wood differ from those of resin exposed to the paleoatmosphere in the same individual tree. This study was initiated to complement previous studies related to analyses of fluid inclusions in fossil resin and to elucidate reactions between the resin matrix and possible atmospheric inclusions. It was done in conjunction with extensive trace-element, palynological, and mineralogical analyses. Understanding the biogeochemistry of fossil resin may elucidate the origin, diagenesis, and depositional environment of smaller concentrations of isoprenoids.

  13. On-line gross alpha radiation monitoring of natural waters with extractive scintillating resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lara Hughes; Timothy A. DeVol

    2003-01-01

    Extractive scintillating resins, which are used to simultaneously separate and quantify radioactivity in aqueous solutions, were developed for low-level alpha radiation monitoring of natural waters. Resins were investigated with bis(2-ethylhexyl)methane-diphosphonic acid (H2DEH[MDP], Dipex®) extractant, which has a strong affinity for tri-, tetra- and hexavalent actinides in dilute acids. Extractive scintillating resins were manifested (1) as a mixed bed of scintillating

  14. Acetylene terminated matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfarb, I. J.; Lee, Y. C.; Arnold, F. E.; Helminiak, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis of resins with terminal acetylene groups has provided a promising technology to yield high performance structural materials. Because these resins cure through an addition reaction, no volatile by-products are produced during the processing. The cured products have high thermal stability and good properties retention after exposure to humidity. Resins with a wide variety of different chemical structures between the terminal acetylene groups are synthesized and their mechanical properties studied. The ability of the acetylene cured polymers to give good mechanical properties is demonstrated by the resins with quinoxaline structures. Processibility of these resins can be manipulated by varying the chain length between the acetylene groups or by blending in different amounts of reactive deluents. Processing conditions similar to the state-of-the-art epoxy can be attained by using backbone structures like ether-sulfone or bis-phenol-A. The wide range of mechanical properties and processing conditions attainable by this class of resins should allow them to be used in a wide variety of applications.

  15. Making High Performance Unsaturated Polyester Resins With 2Methyl1,3-Propanediol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lau Yang; Mac Puckett

    Unsaturated polyester resins (UPR's) have been made by reaction of 2-methyl-1,3- propanediol (MPDiol) with all three of the common aromatic acids, ortho-, iso-, and terephthalic acid. The use of this unique glycol allows production of polymers with improved strength and elongation and better caustic corrosion resistance than the resins more routinely made from propylene glycol (PG). Additionally, formation of a

  16. Fiber reinforced thermoplastic resin matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert J. (Inventor); Chang, Glenn E. C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Polyimide polymer composites having a combination of enhanced thermal and mechanical properties even when subjected to service temperatures as high as 700.degree. F. are described. They comprise (a) from 10 to 50 parts by weight of a thermoplastic polyimide resin prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane and (b) from 90 to 50 parts by weight of continuous reinforcing fibers, the total of (a) and (b) being 100 parts by weight. Composites based on polyimide resin formed from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane and pyromellitic dianhydride and continuous carbon fibers retained at least about 50% of their room temperature shear strength after exposure to 700.degree. F. for a period of 16 hours in flowing air. Preferably, the thermoplastic polyimide resin is formed in situ in the composite material by thermal imidization of a corresponding amide-acid polymer prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane. It is also preferred to initially size the continuous reinforcing fibers with up to about one percent by weight of an amide-acid polymer prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane. In this way imidization at a suitable elevated temperature results in the in-situ formation of a substantially homogeneous thermoplastic matrix of the polyimide resin tightly and intimately bonded to the continuous fibers. The resultant composites tend to have optimum thermo-mechanical properties.

  17. Comparison of terpenes in extracts from the resin and the bark of the resinous stem canker of Chamaecyparis obtusa and Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuyasu Hanari; Hiroshi Yamamoto; Ken-ichi Kuroda

    2002-01-01

    A monoterpene and 15 diterpenes were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of the bark-glued resin from the resinous stem\\u000a canker ofThujopsis dolabrata var.hondae Makino. A monoterpene (nezukone20) and 4 diterpenes (acetyl torulosol5, acetyl isocupressic acid8, acetyl abietinol11, and 7?-methoxytotarol18) were characteristic constituents of the ethyl acetate extracts but were absent in then-hexane extracts from the resinous stem canker ofT.

  18. Graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanical properties of neat resin samples and graphite fiber reinforced samples of thermoplastic resins were characterized with particular emphasis directed to the effects of environmental exposure (humidity, temperature and ultraviolet radiation). Tensile, flexural, interlaminar shear, creep and impact strengths were measured for polysulfone, polyarylsulfone and a state-of-the-art epoxy resin samples. In general, the thermoplastic resins exhibited environmental degradation resistance equal to or superior to the reference epoxy resin. Demonstration of the utility and quality of a graphite/thermoplastic resin system was accomplished by successfully thermoforming a simulated compressor blade and a fan exit guide vane.

  19. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  20. The effects of ionizing radiation on Reillex trademark HPQ, a new macroporous polyvinylpyridine resin, and on four conventional polystyrene anion exchange resins

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.

    1990-11-01

    This study compares the effects of ionizing radiation on Reillex{trademark} HPQ, a recently available macroporous copolymer of 1-methyl-4-vinylpyridine/divinylbenzene, and on four conventional strong-base polystyrene anion exchange resins. The polystyrene resins investigated included one gel type, Dowex{trademark} 1 {times} 4, and three macroporous resins: Dow{trademark} MSA-1, Amberlite{trademark} IRA-900, and Lewatit{trademark} MP-500-FK. Each resin, in 7 M nitric acid, was subjected to seven different levels of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation ranging from 100 to 1000 megarads. Irradiated resins were measured for changes in dry weight, wet volume, chloride and Pu(IV) exchange capacities, and thermal stability. In separate experiments, each resin was subjected to approximately 340 megarads of in situ alpha particles from sorbed plutonium. Resin damage from alpha particles was less than half that caused by gamma rays, which may be a consequence of different production rates of radiolytic nitrite and nitro radicals in the two systems. Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin provided the greatest radiation stability, whereas Lewatit{trademark} MP-500-FK was the least stable of the resins tested. Thermogravimetric analyses of dry, nitrate-form resin revealed that dry Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin offered the best thermal stability for absorbed gamma doses to 370 megarads, but the worst thermal stability after exposures of 550 megarads or more. 25 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. A new synthetic route to tert-butyloxycarbonylaminoacyl-4-(oxymethyl)phenylacetamidomethyl-resin, an improved support for solid-phase peptide synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander R. Mitchell; Stephen B. H. Kent; Martin Engelhard; R. B. Merrifield

    1978-01-01

    The preferred route to the aminoacylated 4-(oxymethyl)phenylacetamidomethyl-resin (-0CH2-Pam-resin) in- volves the condensation of a Boc-aminoacyl-4-(oxymethyl)phenylacetic acid (Boc = tert -butyloxycarbonyl) with aminomethyl-resin. Aminomethyl-resin was synthesized by direct amidoalkylation of polystyrene resin to give the phthalimidomethyl-resin. The extent of reaction was monitored by IR, allowing the reaction to be stopped at any chosen level of substitution. Hydrazinolysis gave aminomethyl-resin. The Boc-amino

  2. Resin/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques were developed that provided thermo-oxidatively stable A-type polyimide/graphite fiber composites using the approach of in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants directly on reinforcing fibers, rather than employing separately prepared prepolymer varnish. This was accomplished by simply mixing methylene dianiline and two ester-acids and applying this solution to the fibers for subsequent molding. Five different formulated molecular weight resins were examined, and an optimized die molding procedure established for the 1500 formulated molecular weight system. Extensive ultrasonic inspection of composites was successfully utilized as a technique for monitoring laminate quality. Composite mechanical property studies were conducted with this polyimide resin at room temperature and after various time exposures in a thermo-oxidative environment at 561 K (550 F), 589 K (600 F) and 617 K (650 F). It was determined that such composites have a long term life in the temperature range of 561 K to 589 K. The final phase involved the fabrication and evaluation of a series of demonstration airfoil specimens.

  3. Apparent Interfacial Fracture Toughness of Resin\\/Ceramic Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Della Bona; K. J. Anusavice; J. J. Mecholsky

    2006-01-01

    We suggest that the apparent interfacial fracture toughness (KA) may be estimated by fracture mechanics and fractography. This study tested the hypothesis that the KA of the adhesion zone of resin\\/ceramic systems is affected by the ceramic microstructure. Lithia disilicate-based (Empress2-E2) and leucite-based (Empress-E1) ceramics were surface-treated with hydrofluoric acid (HF) and\\/or silane (S), followed by an adhesive resin. Microtensile

  4. A NOVEL STRONTIUM-SELECTIVE EXTRACTION CHROMATOGRAPHIC RESIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Philip Horwitz; Renato Chiarizia; Mark L. Dietz

    1992-01-01

    The effect of nitric acid concentration on the selectivity of a novel extraction chromatographic resin consisting of an octanol solution of 4,4?(5?)-bis(t-butyl-cyclohexano)-18-crown-6 sorbed on an inert polymeric support for strontium over a number of alkali, alkaline earth, and other metal cations was evaluated. The effect of macro quantities of selected elements on strontium retention by the resin was also examined.

  5. Effects of blood contamination on resin–resin bond strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sigurdur O Eiriksson; Patricia N. R Pereira; Edward J Swift; Harald O Heymann; Asgeir Sigurdsson

    2004-01-01

    Objective. Incremental placement and curing of resin composites has been recommended. However, this requires longer operating time, and therefore, increased risk of contamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of blood contamination on microtensile bond strengths (?TBS) between resin interfaces and to determine the best decontamination method to re-establish the original resin–resin bond strength.Materials. The top

  6. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  7. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  8. Long term stability of cannabis resin and cannabis extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Lindholst

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the stability of cannabinoids in cannabis resin slabs and cannabis extracts upon long-term storage. The levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) on both neutral and acidic form were measured at room temperature, 4°C and ?20°C for up to 4 years. Acidic THC degrades exponentially via decarboxylation

  9. Diterpene resin acid biosynthesis in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda): functional characterization of abietadiene/levopimaradiene synthase (PtTPS-LAS) cDNA and subcellular targeting of PtTPS-LAS and abietadienol/abietadienal oxidase (PtAO, CYP720B1).

    PubMed

    Ro, Dae-Kyun; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2006-08-01

    Diterpene resin acids are prominent defense compounds against insect pests and pathogens in conifers. Biochemical and molecular analyses in grand fir (Abies grandis), Norway spruce (Picea abies), and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) have identified two classes of genes and enzymes that generate much of the structural diversity of terpenoid defense compounds: The terpenoid synthases (TPS) and cytochrome P450 monooxgenases (P450). Using a single substrate, geranylgeranyl diphosphate, families of single-product and multi-product diterpene synthases generate an array of cyclic diterpene olefins. These diterpenes are converted to diterpene resin acids by activity of one or more P450 enzymes. A few conifer diterpene synthases have previously been cloned and characterized in grand fir and in Norway spruce. We have also previously shown that the loblolly pine P450 abietadienol/abietadienal oxidase (PtAO) catalyzes multiple oxidations of several diterpene alcohols and aldehydes. Conifer diterpene synthases are thought to function in plastids while P450s can also be localized to plastids or to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we show that a loblolly pine cDNA (PtTPS-LAS) encodes a typical multi-product conifer diterpene synthase that forms levopimaradiene, abietadiene, palustradiene, and neoabietadiene similar to the grand fir abietadiene synthase and Norway spruce levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase. Subcellular targeting of PtTPS-LAS and PtAO to plastids and ER, respectively, was shown with green fluorescent fusion protein expression in tobacco cells. These data suggest that enzymes for conifer diterpene resin acid biosynthesis are localized to at least two different subcellular compartments, plastids and ER, requiring efficient transport of intermediates and secretion of diterpene resin acids into the extracelluar space. PMID:16497345

  10. Method for digesting spent ion exchange resins and recovering actinides therefrom using microwave radiation

    DOEpatents

    Maxwell, III, Sherrod L. (Aiken, SC); Nichols, Sheldon T. (Augusta, GA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for digesting diphosphonic acid substituted cation exchange resins that have become loaded with actinides, rare earth metals, or heavy metals, in a way that allows for downstream chromatographic analysis of the adsorbed species without damage to or inadequate elution from the downstream chromatographic resins. The methods of the present invention involve contacting the loaded diphosphonic acid resin with concentrated oxidizing acid in a closed vessel, and irradiating this mixture with microwave radiation. This efficiently increases the temperature of the mixture to a level suitable for digestion of the resin without the use of dehydrating acids that can damage downstream analytical resins. In order to ensure more complete digestion, the irradiated mixture can be mixed with hydrogen peroxide or other oxidant, and reirradiated with microwave radiation.

  11. Resin-salve from Norway spruce--a potential method to treat infected chronic skin ulcers?

    PubMed

    Sipponen, Arno; Rautio, Merja; Jokinen, Janne J; Laakso, Tapio; Saranpää, Pekka; Lohi, Jouni

    2007-04-01

    The home-made resin salve from Norway spruce is traditionally and widely used in folk medicine to heal various skin infections and wounds in Northern Finland. We have performed laboratory studies to solve the mechanism of resin salve. The resin salve exhibited a bacteriostatic effect against all tested Gram-positive bacteria important in human medicine including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), but was not effective against Gram-negative bacteria. An exception among the Gram-negative bacteria was Proteus vulgaris against which resin salve was effective. High amounts of lipophilic extractives, like resin acids were dissolved into water from the resin salve. Also, a large proportion of lignans and cinnamic acid were found in the water extract. PMID:19356034

  12. Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

  13. Fumaric Acid Monoethyl Ester-Functionalized Poly(d,l-lactide)\\/N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone Resins for the Preparation of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds by Stereolithography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janine Jansen; Ferry P. W. Melchels; Dirk W. Grijpma; Jan Feijen

    2009-01-01

    Polymer networks were prepared by photocross-linking fumaric acid monoethyl ester (FAME) functionalized, three-armed poly(d,l-lactide) oligomers using N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) as diluent and comonomer. The use of NVP together with FAME-functionalized oligomers resulted in copolymerization at high rates, and networks with gel contents in excess of 90% were obtained. The hydrophilicity of the poly(d,l-lactide) networks increases with increasing amounts of NVP, networks

  14. Nontoxic Resins Advance Aerospace Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year, PETI-330, is a polyimide matrix resin that performs well at high temperatures and is easily processed into composites in a simple, short curing cycle. Invented by scientists at Langley Research Center, PETI-330 is now licensed to Ube Industries, based in Japan with its American headquarters in New York. In addition to being durable and lightweight, the resin is also nontoxic, which makes it safe for workers to handle. PETI-330 was created specifically for heat-resistant composites formed with resin transfer molding and resin infusion, which formerly could only be used with low temperature resin systems.

  15. Management of Spent Organic Ion-Exchange Resins by Photochemical Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivas, C.; Sugilal, S.; Wattal, P. K.

    2003-02-26

    Management of spent ion-exchange resin waste arising from nuclear reactor operations by traditional practice of encapsulation in cement is associated with problems such as swelling and disintegration. Complete oxidation (mineralization) is an attractive alternative option. This paper reports the development of photochemical mineralization process for organic ion-exchange resins of poly (styrene-divinyl benzene) type with sulfonic acid and quaternary ammonium functional groups. It is a two-step process consisting of dissolution (conversion of solid resin into water-soluble reaction products) and photo-Fenton mineralization of the dissolved resin. Cation and anion resin dissolution was effected by reaction of the resin with H2O2 at 50-60 C in the presence of ferrous/copper sulphate catalyst. Direct dissolution of mixed resin was not efficient. However, the cation resin portion in the mixed resin could be selectively dissolved without affecting the anion portion. The solid anion resin after separation from the cation resin solution could be dissolved. About 0.5 liters of 50% H2O2 was required for dissolution of one kg of wet resin. The reaction time was 4-5 hours. Dissolution experiments were conducted on up to 8 liters of wet resin. The second step, viz., photo-Fenton mineralization of the dissolved resin was effected at ambient temperature(25-35 C). Kinetic results of laboratory scale experiments in immersion type photo-reactor and pilot scale experiments in tubular flow photo-reactor were presented. These results clearly demonstrated the photo-Fenton mineralization of dissolved resin at ambient temperature with stoichiometric quantity of H2O2 as against 70-200% excess H2O2 requirement in chemical mineralization experiments under Fenton oxidation conditions at 90-95 C. Based on these studies, a treatment scheme was developed and presented in this paper.

  16. MODELING RESULTS FROM CESIUM ION EXCHANGE PROCESSING WITH SPHERICAL RESINS

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.; Hang, T.; Aleman, S.

    2011-01-03

    Ion exchange modeling was conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory to compare the performance of two organic resins in support of Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX). In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal at Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The spherical forms of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) as well as a hypothetical spherical SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 (SL644) are evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake wastes (supernates). Both SuperLig{reg_sign} and resorcinol formaldehyde resin beds can exhibit hydraulic problems in their granular (nonspherical) forms. SRS waste is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. Using VERSE-LC Version 7.8 along with the cesium Freundlich/Langmuir isotherms to simulate the waste decontamination in ion exchange columns, spherical SL644 was found to reduce column cycling by 50% for high-potassium supernates, but sRF performed equally well for the lowest-potassium feeds. Reduced cycling results in reduction of nitric acid (resin elution) and sodium addition (resin regeneration), therefore, significantly reducing life-cycle operational costs. These findings motivate the development of a spherical form of SL644. This work demonstrates the versatility of the ion exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. The value of a resin with increased selectivity for cesium over potassium can be assessed for further development.

  17. The adsorption of basic dyes from aqueous solution on modified peat–resin particle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingye Sun; Linzhang Yang

    2003-01-01

    Modified peat was prepared by mixing thoroughly raw peat with sulfuric acid, and modified peat–resin particle was obtained, by mixing modified peat with solutions of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) and formaldehyde. In this paper, the adsorption of Basic Magenta and Basic Brilliant Green onto modified peat–resin particle is examined. The adsorption isotherm showed that the adsorption of basic dyes on modified peat–resin

  18. Synthesis and characterization of polyesteramide resins from Nahar seed oil for surface coating applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Singha Mahapatra; N. Karak

    2004-01-01

    Three polyesteramide resins have been synthesized for the first time from purified Nahar oil (Mesua ferrea) with phthalic anhydride, maleic anhydride and adipic acid, separately. The polyesteramide resins have been synthesized from N,N-bis-(2-hydroxyethyl) M. ferrea fatty amide, obtained from methyl ester of the oil by treatment with diethanol amine. The synthesized intermediates and resins have been characterized by IR and

  19. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Different Ratios of Palm Oil-Based Alkyd\\/Epoxy Resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Issam; A. K. Nurul Khizrien; I. Mazlan

    2011-01-01

    Epoxy resin was prepared by reaction of bisphenol-A and epichlorohydrin. The alkyd resin was prepared by reaction of palm oil as mono fatty acid, glycerol, and phthalic anhydride. The two resins were mixed in ratios of epoxy\\/alkyd of 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, and 80:20 and showed excellent dispersion. The physical and mechanical properties were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and

  20. Quantitative analysis of PMR-15 polyimide resin by HPLC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Lauver, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of individual components and of total solids of 50 wt pct PMR-15 resin solutions was determined using reverse-phase HPLC to within + or - 8 percent accuracy. Acid impurities, the major source of impurities in 3,3', 4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid (BTDE), were eliminated by recrystallizing the BTDE prior to esterification. Triester formation was not a problem because of the high rate of esterification of the anhydride relative to that of the carboxylic acid. Aging of PMR-15 resin solutions resulted in gradual formation of the mononadimide and bisnadimide of 4,4'-methylenedianiline, with the BTDE concentration remaining constant. Similar chemical reactions occurred at a reduced rate in dried films of PMR-15 resin.

  1. Removal of CdTe in acidic media by magnetic ion-exchange resin: a potential recycling methodology for cadmium telluride photovoltaic waste.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Teng; Dong, Zebin; Qu, Fei; Ding, Fazhu; Peng, Xingyu; Wang, Hongyan; Gu, Hongwei

    2014-08-30

    Sulfonated magnetic microspheres (PSt-DVB-SNa MPs) have been successfully prepared as adsorbents via an aqueous suspension polymerization of styrene-divinylbenzene and a sulfonation reaction successively. The resulting adsorbents were confirmed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The leaching process of CdTe was optimized, and the removal efficiency of Cd and Te from the leaching solution was investigated. The adsorbents could directly remove all cations of Cd and Te from a highly acidic leaching solution of CdTe. The adsorption process for Cd and Te reached equilibrium in a few minutes and this process highly depended on the dosage of adsorbents and the affinity of sulfonate groups with cations. Because of its good adsorption capacity in strong acidic media, high adsorbing rate, and efficient magnetic separation from the solution, PSt-DVB-SNa MPs is expected to be an ideal material for the recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste. PMID:25128764

  2. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  3. Environment and Genotype Affect Sweetpotato Storage Root Periderm Resin Glycoside Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resin glycosides are complex compounds composed primarily of fatty acids and sugars that contribute to allelopathic potential and pest resistance in sweetpotato. Total periderm resin glycoside (PRG) contents of 10 sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) clones grown in three different field trials was det...

  4. Method for digesting spent ion exchange resins and recovering actinides therefrom using microwave radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherrod L; Sheldon T. Nichols

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for digesting diphosphonic acid substituted cation exchange resins that have become loaded with actinides, rare earth metals, or heavy metals, in a way that allows for downstream chromatographic analysis of the adsorbed species without damage to or inadequate elution from the downstream chromatographic resins. The methods of the present invention involve contacting the loaded

  5. Regeneration of strong-base anion-exchange resins by sequential chemical displacement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilbert M. Brown; Baohua Gu; Bruce A. Moyer; Peter V. Bonnesen

    2002-01-01

    A method for regenerating strong-base anion exchange resins utilizing a sequential chemical displacement technique with new regenerant formulation. The new first regenerant solution is composed of a mixture of ferric chloride, a water-miscible organic solvent, hydrochloric acid, and water in which tetrachloroferrate anion is formed and used to displace the target anions on the resin. The second regenerant is composed

  6. Modified resin-intermediate processing of perovskite powders:Part I. Optimization of polymeric precursors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lone-Wen Tai; Paul A. Lessing

    1992-01-01

    The formation of a polyester between citric acid (CA) and ethylene glycol (EG) was found to be a decisive factor for the foaming of resin intermediates in a Pechini-type powder process. This process was modified by changing the organic mass ratio of CA\\/EG which results in ceramic powders with different morphologies. The most porous resin intermediate (with or without chelated

  7. Influence of metals on the phenol–formaldehyde resin degradation in friction composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika K???stková; Peter Filip; Zden?k Weiss; Rudolf Peter

    2004-01-01

    Degradation process and influence of metal particles (Cu, Fe, CuZn) on the stability of acid catalyzed (novolak) phenolic resin during curing and friction process in friction composites have been studied. Using TGA, FTIR and Py-GC methods, the significant influence of copper and iron chips, in case of high metal concentrations, on degradation process during curing of novolac phenolic resin has

  8. Applications of fossil resin studies to an understanding of depositional and paleoenvironments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Bellis; D. L. Wolberg

    1989-01-01

    Fossil resins are polymerized terpene (isoprenoid) acids. Because of their complexity and resulting variability, isoprenoids have been useful for their information content and geochemical signatures. Fossil resin occurs throughout a 304-ft continuous core and correlated outcrops from the Late Cretaceous Fruitland Formation in the Fossil Forest study area, San Juan basin, New Mexico, in associated with coal, sandstone, shale, and

  9. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  10. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  11. On-resin synthesis of an acylated and fluorescence-labeled cyclic integrin ligand for modification of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid).

    PubMed

    Hassert, Rayk; Hoffmeister, Peter-Georg; Pagel, Mareen; Hacker, Michael; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2012-11-01

    Cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides show remarkable affinity and specificity to integrin receptors and mediate important physiological effects in tumor angiogenesis. Additionally, they are one of the keyplayers in improving the biocompatibility of biomaterials. The fully biodegradable polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is frequently used for biomedical implants and can be applied as nanoparticles for drug delivery. The aim of this work was the generation of a lipidated c[RGDfK] peptide including a second functionality for coating of hydrophobic PLGA. Therefore, we established a general and straightforward strategy for the introduction of two different modifications into the same c[RGDfK] peptide. This allowed the generation of a palmitoylated integrin-binding lipopeptide that shows high affinity to PLGA. Additionally, we coupled 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein to the second site for modification to enable sensitive quantification of the immobilized lipopeptide on PLGA. In conclusion, we present a synthesis protocol that enables the preparation of c[RGDfK] lipopeptides with a strong affinity to PLGA and an additional site for modifications. This will provide the opportunity to introduce a variety of effector molecules site-specifically to the c[RGDfK] lipopeptide, which will enable the introduction of multifunctionality into c[RGDfK]-coated PLGA devices or nanoparticles. PMID:23161641

  12. Vitrification of ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Workman, Rhonda Jackson (North Augusta, SC)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to vitrification of ion exchange resins that have become loaded with hazardous or radioactive wastes, in a way that produces a homogenous and durable waste form and reduces the disposal volume of the resin. The methods of the present invention involve directly adding borosilicate glass formers and an oxidizer to the ion exchange resin and heating the mixture at sufficient temperature to produce homogeneous glass.

  13. Fast kinetic and efficient removal of As(V) from aqueous solution using anion exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Donia, Ahmed M; Atia, Asem A; Mabrouk, Dalia H

    2011-07-15

    Glycidyl methacrylate/methelenebisacrylamide resin with immobilized tetraethylenepentamine ligand was prepared. This pentamine containing resin was transformed to two anion exchange resins through treatment by glycidyl trimethylammonium chloride to give (RI) or hydrochloric acid giving (RII). The resins were used to adsorb As(V) at different experimental conditions using batch and column methods. Kinetics and thermodynamic properties as well as the mechanism of interaction between As(V) and resin active sites were discussed. The maximum adsorption capacities of As(V) on RI and RII were found to be 1.83 and 1.12 mmol/g, respectively. The regeneration and the durability of the loaded resin towards the successive reuse were also investigated. PMID:21601358

  14. Quantitative evaluation of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins used in tandem for removing organic solutes from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malcolm, R.L.; MacCarthy, P.

    1992-01-01

    The combined XAD-8 and XAD-4 resin procedure for the isolation of dissolved organic solutes from water was found to isolate 85% or more of the organic solutes from Lake Skjervatjern in Norway. Approximately 65% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was first removed on XAD-8 resin, and then an additional 20% of the DOC was removed on XAD-4 resin. Approximately 15% of the DOC solutes (primarily hydrophilic neutrals) were not sorbed or concentrated by the procedure. Of the 65% of the solutes removed on XAD-8 resin, 40% were fulvic acids, 16% were humic acids, and 9% were hydrophobic neutrals. Approximately 20% of the hydrophilic solutes that pass through the XAD-8 resin were sorbed solutes on the second resin, XAD-4 (i.e., they were hydrophobic relative to the XAD-4 resin). The fraction sorbed on XAD-4 resin was called XAD-4 acids because it represented approximately 85-90% of the hydrophilic XAD-8 acid fraction according to the original XAD-8 fractionation procedure. The recovery of hydrophobic acids (fulvic acids and humic acids) and the hydrophobic neutral fraction from XAD-8 resin was essentially quantitative at 96%, 98%, and 86%, respectively. The recovery of XAD-4 acids from the XAD-4 resin was only about 50%. The exact reason for this moderately low recovery is unknown, but could result from ??-?? bonding between these organic solutes and the aromatic matrix of XAD-4. The hydrophobic/hydrophilic solute separation on XAD-8 resin for water from background Side A and Side B of the lake was almost identical at 65 and 67%, respectively. This result suggested that both sides of the lake are similar in organic chemical composition even though the DOC variation from side to side is 20%.

  15. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3930 Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this...

  16. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3930 Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this...

  17. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3930 Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this...

  18. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3930 Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this...

  19. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3930 Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this...

  20. Four new triterpenoids isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Min; Liu, Qun-Fang; Zhao, Yi-Wu; Liu, Shuang-Zhu; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Ru-Jun; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei; Zhao, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    Four new triterpenoids, 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(4'-O-acetyl)-?-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (1), 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3'-O-acetyl)-?-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (2), 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3',4'-O-diacetyl)-?-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (3), and 3-O-(3'-O-acetyl)-?-l-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid (4), together with six known triterpenoids, 3-O-(4'-O-acetyl)-?-l-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid (5), maslinic acid (6), 2-O-acetylmaslinic acid (7), 3-O-acetylmaslinic acid (8), betulinic acid (9), and 2?-hydroxy-3?-O-acetylbetulinic acid (10), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Garcinia hanburyi resin. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of the spectroscopic data and chemical methods. PMID:24392659

  1. Modified melamine resins for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Joachim; Rafler, Gerald

    1999-06-01

    A new four-step synthetic-route for combining chromophores with melamine resins was developed and their use for optical applications was demonstrated. Despite other melamine resins, the basic molecule of this system is the 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine, the cyanuric chloride. In the first step, the azochromophore was bonded to the s-triazine-ring. Then the residual chlorines of this triazine-chromophore were substituted by ammonia or primary amines. In the third step formaldehyde was added, leading to melamine-chromophore precondensates. For increasing the stability and the solubility of these precondensates, the reactive methylolgroups were etherificated with methyl or butyl alcohol. One example of such a crosslinkable melamine-chromophore was illustrated and characterized by NMR- and mass-spectroscopy. The mass-spectrum gives evidence that the modified melamine precondensates are monomers and not a mixture of different oligomers like else in melamine-aldehyde prepolymers. The result of these systems is a crosslinkable melamine-chromophore monomer which is converted in a resin by thermal treating or by acids. It is remarkable that these polymers show an excellent thermal stability with a de-composition temperature beyond 300°C, a great advantage for using them as optical materials. Their usability as second-order nonlinear optical material was investigated by corona poling.

  2. Uptake of actinides and other ions by Diphosil, a new silica-based chelating ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; D`Arcy, K.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Alexandratos, S.D.; Trochimczuk [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-06-01

    After adsorption of actinides on a phosphonic acid resin, it may be desirable to leave the actinides on the resin. It may be preferable that the polymeric resin matrix be replaced by an inorganic material, in order to prevent formation of radiolytic gases from the organic polymer. A new version of the Diphonix resin has been prepared, where the chelating diphosphonic acid groups are grafted to a silica support. This material is called Diphosil, for Diphonix on silica. This paper reports some results on equilibrium and kinetics of uptake of a number of actinide species and other metal ions of nuclear, environmental, or hydrometallurgical interest by Diphosil.

  3. Methyl Jasmonate Induces Traumatic Resin Ducts, Terpenoid Resin Biosynthesis, and Terpenoid Accumulation in Developing Xylem of Norway Spruce Stems1

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Diane; Tholl, Dorothea; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2002-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) produces an oleoresin characterized by a diverse array of terpenoids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpene resin acids that can protect conifers against potential herbivores and pathogens. Oleoresin accumulates constitutively in resin ducts in the cortex and phloem (bark) of Norway spruce stems. De novo formation of traumatic resin ducts (TDs) is observed in the developing secondary xylem (wood) after insect attack, fungal elicitation, and mechanical wounding. Here, we characterize the methyl jasmonate-induced formation of TDs in Norway spruce by microscopy, chemical analyses of resin composition, and assays of terpenoid biosynthetic enzymes. The response involves tissue-specific differentiation of TDs, terpenoid accumulation, and induction of enzyme activities of both prenyltransferases and terpene synthases in the developing xylem, a tissue that constitutively lacks axial resin ducts in spruce. The induction of a complex defense response in Norway spruce by methyl jasmonate application provides new avenues to evaluate the role of resin defenses for protection of conifers against destructive pests such as white pine weevils (Pissodes strobi), bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytidae), and insect-associated tree pathogens. PMID:12114556

  4. Indirect resin composites

    PubMed Central

    Nandini, Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Aesthetic dentistry continues to evolve through innovations in bonding agents, restorative materials, and conservative preparation techniques. The use of direct composite restoration in posterior teeth is limited to relatively small cavities due to polymerization stresses. Indirect composites offer an esthetic alternative to ceramics for posterior teeth. This review article focuses on the material aspect of the newer generation of composites. This review was based on a PubMed database search which we limited to peer-reviewed articles in English that were published between 1990 and 2010 in dental journals. The key words used were ‘indirect resin composites,’ composite inlays,’ and ‘fiber-reinforced composites.’ PMID:21217945

  5. Resin diterpenoids as tracers for biomass combustion aerosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurel J. Standley; Bernd R. T. Simoneit

    1994-01-01

    Diterpenoids present in atmospheric particles produced by slash burns were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This suite of compounds, originating in the resinous higher plants which were combusted, was comprised of reaction intermediates in the thermal transformation sequence of components such as abietic acid and dehydroabietin to retene. This sequence parallels the diagenetic alteration\\/decomposition processes noted in sedimentary records.

  6. Three new diterpenoids from the resin of Liquidambar formosana.

    PubMed

    Shang, Hong-Jie; Li, Dan-Yi; Wang, Wen-Jing; Li, Zhan-Lin; Hua, Hui-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Three new diterpenoids, liquidambolide A (1) and liquiditerpenoic acids A (2) and B (3), together with 10 known diterpenes were isolated from the resin of Liquidambar formosana Hance, whose structures were elucidated by detailed analysis on the NMR and HR-ESI-MS spectra. PMID:23962240

  7. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.; Pater, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    High char yield epoxy using novel bisimide amines (BIA's) as curing agents with a state of the art epoxy resin was developed. Stoichiometric quantities of the epoxy resin and the BIA's were studied to determine the cure cycle required for preparation of resin specimens. The bisimide cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). The physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these novel resins were determined. The levels of moisture absorption exhibited by the bisimide amine cured expoxies (IME's) were considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies. The strain-to-failure of the control resin system was improved 25% by replacement of DDS with 6F-DDS. Each BIA containing resin exhibited twice the char yield of the control resin MY 720/DDS. Graphite fiber reinforced control (C) and IME resins were fabricated and characterized. Two of the composite systems showed superior properties compared to the other Celion 6000/IME composite systems and state of the art graphite epoxy systems. The two systems exhibited excellent wet shear and flexural strengths and moduli at 300 and 350 F.

  8. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Hou, T. H.; Bai, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A chemoviscosity model, which describes viscosity rise profiles accurately under various cure cycles, and correlates viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with structural transformations of the thermosetting resin system during cure, was established. Work completed on chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins is reported.

  9. High performance phenolic pultrusion resin

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, S.P.; Ingram, W.H. [Georgia-Pacific Resins, Inc., Decatur, GA (United States); Smith, C. [Morrison Molded Fiber Glass, Bristol, VA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Today, Phenol-Formaldehyde (PF) resins are the materials of choice for aerospace interior applications, primarily due to low FST (flame, smoke and toxicity). Since 1990, growth of PF resins has been steadily increasing in non-aerospace applications (which include mass transit, construction, marine, mine ducting and offshore oil) due to low FST and reasonable cost. This paper describes one component phenol-formaldehyde resin that was jointly developed with Morrison Molded Fiber Glass for their pultrusion process. Physical properties of the resin with flame/smoke/toxicity, chemical resistance and mechanical performance of the pultruded RP are discussed. Neat resin screening tests to identify high-temperature formulations are explored. Research continues at Georgia-Pacific to investigate the effect of formulation variables on processing and mechanical properties.

  10. WEAK-ACID ION EXCHANGE FOR REMOVING BARIUM, RADIUM, AND HARDNESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Weak-acid resin in the hydrogen form was found to effectively remove barium, radium, and hardness, without increasing the sodium content of the product water. The maximum capacity of the weak-acid resin was about 2.3 times that of strong-acid resin, and much less spent regenerant...

  11. Antibiotic Activity of Various Types of Cannabis Resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Radosevic; M. Kupinic; Lj. Grlic

    1962-01-01

    SEVERAL methods of characterizing cannabis resin have been previously reported. Thus, methods have been developed based on indophenol reaction with 2,6-dichloroquinonechlorimide1, on a test with peroxide and sulphuric acid2, on determining the content of the acid fraction3 as well as on direct ultra-violet spectrophotometry4. It has been shown in the course of this work that the differences in chemical composition

  12. Tubular Occlusion Optimizes Bonding of Hydrophobic Resins to Dentin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. T. Sadek; D. H. Pashley; M. Ferrari; F. R. Tay

    2007-01-01

    Although hydrophobic resins may be bonded to acid-etched dentin with an ethanol wet-bonding technique, the protocol is sensitive to moisture contamination when bonding is performed in deep dentin. This study tested the hypothesis that the use of oxalate or poly(glutamic) acid-modified, diluted ceramicrete (PADC) for dentinal tubule occlusion prevents fluid contamination and improves the bonding of an experimental hydrophobic adhesive

  13. Resin composite repair: Quantitative microleakage evaluation of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces with different surface treatments

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Cigdem; Cehreli, Sevi Burcak; Arhun, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of different adhesive systems and surface treatments on the integrity of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces after partial removal of preexisting resin composites using quantitative image analysis for microleakage testing protocol. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 human molar teeth were restored with either of the resin composites (Filtek Z250/GrandioSO) occlusally. The teeth were thermocycled (1000×). Mesial and distal 1/3 parts of the restorations were removed out leaving only middle part. One side of the cavity was finished with course diamond bur and the other was air-abraded with 50 ?m Al2O3. They were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10) to receive: Group 1: Adper Single Bond 2; Group 2: All Bond 3; Group 3: ClearfilSE; Group 4: BeautiBond, before being repaired with the same resin composite (Filtek Z250). The specimens were re-thermocycled (1000×), sealed with nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin, sectioned mesiodistally and photographed digitally. The extent of dye penetration was measured by image analysis software (ImageJ) for both bur-finished and air-abraded surfaces at resin-tooth and resin-resin interfaces. The data were analyzed statistically. Results: BeautiBond exhibited the most microleakage at every site. Irrespective of adhesive and initial composite type, air-abrasion showed less microleakage except for BeautiBond. The type of initial repaired restorative material did not affect the microleakage. BeautiBond adhesive may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention. Conclusions: Surface treatment with air-abrasion produced the lowest microleakage scores, independent of the adhesive systems and the pre-existing resin composite type. Pre-existing composite type does not affect the microleakage issue. All-in-one adhesive resin (BeautiBond) may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention. PMID:25713491

  14. In vitro color change of three dental veneering resins in tea, coffee and tamarind extracts

    PubMed Central

    Subramanya, J.K.; Muttagi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the in vitro color changes of three dental resin veneering materials when immersed in tea, coffee and tamarind extracts. Materials and Methods The color changes of heat polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin (Stellondetrey, B, F14, DPI Dental products of India Ltd, Mumbai), auto polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin (DPI, B, QV5, DPI Dental products of India Ltd, Mumbai) and light polymerized resin composite (Herculite XRV, Enamel A2, part no. 22860, lot no. 910437, Kerr Corporation, West Collins Avenue, Orange, CA, USA) when immersed in water extracts of tea (Tata Tea Ltd. Bangalore, India), coffee (Tata Coffee Ltd. Coorg, India) and tamarind were evaluated using computer vision systems. The color images were recorded in R (red), G (green) and B (blue) form and converted into H (hue), S (saturation) and V (value). Results Significant color change occurred for auto polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin in tamarind extract, for heat polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin in tea extract and for light polymerized resin composite in coffee extract. Auto polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin samples showed an overall higher color change. However, for all the material samples coffee extract produced more color change. Conclusion These results suggest that the color stability of the resins is influenced by the presence of secondary metabolites such as tartaric acid, tannins, caffeine, saponins and phenols in tamarind, tea and coffee extracts. PMID:22457841

  15. Resin reinforced expansion anchor system

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.A.; Wright, R.L.

    1988-08-16

    An expansion anchor assembly is described in combination with a dual compartment resin and cartridge inserted into a mine roof opening, the anchor assembly including: (a) an elongated bolt having a head at one end and threaded for a portion of its length at the other end; (b) an expansion member engaged with the threaded end of the bolt; (c) the expansion member including an expansion shell having a plurality of leaf segments; (d) a first means for engaging the expansion shell with the elongated bolt; (e) a wedge threaded on the elongated bolt for engagement with the expansion shell to urge the latter into gripping engagement with the mine roof; (f) a first resin passageway means on the outer surface of the wedge for permitting resin to gravitate therethrough; (g) the leaf segments of the expansion shell being separated to form a second resin passageway means aligned with the first resin passageway means, whereby resin may gravitate downwardly through substantially the entire length of the assembly, and (h) a second means within the first passageway and engageable with one of the leaf segments to prevent relative rotation of the wedge member with respect to the expansion shell; (i) the resin being mixed upon rotation of the bolt and expansion member and gravitating downwardly through the first and second passageway means into engagement with that portion of the mine roof defining the mine roof opening.

  16. DIRECT ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING

    E-print Network

    Mamishev, Alexander

    . ABSTRACT Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) is a manufacturing process that involves injection of liquid resin involves injection of a liquid resin into a closed mold cavity containing preset fiber mats (also calledDIRECT ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING B. Minaie1,* , W. Li, J. Gou1 , Y. Chen2 , A

  17. Process analysis of compression resin transfer molding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prabhas Bhat; Justin Merotte; Pavel Simacek; Suresh G. Advani

    2009-01-01

    Compression resin transfer molding process (CRTM) combines features of compression molding with traditional Resin Transfer Molding (RTM). The CRTM process is described in three stages, with resin being injected into the gap in Stage I, closing of the gap in Stage II and actual compression of preform and re-distribution of the resin in Stage III. To fabricate a void free

  18. Constraints on monitoring resin flow in the resin transfer molding (RTM) process by using thermocouple sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Goker Tuncol; Murat Danisman; Alper Kaynar; E. Murat Sozer

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a thermocouple sensor system was used to monitor the resin transfer molding (RTM) process. These sensors are low-cost and durable; and they do not disturb the resin flow. They can be used if the inlet resin is either hotter or colder than the mold walls. In experiments of this study, much of the hot resin’s internal energy

  19. Radiofrequency activation of epoxy resins

    SciTech Connect

    Palumbo, M.; Vallet, Y.; Alazard, P. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Toulouse (France)

    1995-12-01

    A DGEBA epoxy resin in presence of Diaminodiphenylmethane used as curing agent is crosslinked under radiofrequency (27.12 MHz) irradiation, at given electrical power or voltage. The mechanisms of the polymerization reaction are explained through the study of the time dependence of the electrical parameters and of the average temperature of the chemical medium. The determination of the glassy transition temperatures of the polymeric networks, initial and stabilized after intensive postcure, respectively correlated with the extent of conversion of the epoxy resin and the structural homogeneity shows that the radiofrequency irradiation is as efficient as the microwaves as for the activation of the cure of the epoxy resins.

  20. Resin/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.; Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    High temperature resin matrices suitable for use in advanced graphite fiber composites for jet engine applications were evaluated. A series of planned, sequential screening experiments with resin systems in composite form were performed to reduce the number of candidates to a single A-type polyimide resin that repetitively produced void-free, high strength and modulus composites acceptable for use in the 550 F range for 1000 hours. An optimized processing procedure was established for this system. Extensive mechanical property studies characterized this single system, at room temperature, 500 F, 550 F and 600 F, for various exposure times.

  1. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Trochimcznk, A.W.; Gatrone, R.C.; Alexandratos, S.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1997-04-08

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorus. The pendent groups have the formula as shown in the patent wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R{sup 1} is hydrogen or an C{sub 1}-C{sub 2} alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

  2. Alkyd-amino resins based on waste PET for coating applications.

    PubMed

    Torlako?lu, A; Güçlü, G

    2009-01-01

    Waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flakes were depolymerized by using propylene glycol (PG) in the presence of zinc acetate as catalyst. Glycolysis reaction products of waste PET obtained by using PET/glycol molar ratio 1/2. Two short oil alkyd resins of high acid values (30-40mgKOH/g) were prepared from phthalic anhydride (PA), glycerin (G), coconut oil fatty acids (COFA) and glycolyzed products of waste PET (PET-based alkyd resins) or glycols (PG) (reference alkyd resins). These alkyd resins were blended with 30%, 40%, and 50% of a commercial urea-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde/melamine-formaldehyde mixture (1/1 weight ratio) and heated at 140 degrees C. The physical and chemical properties such as drying time, hardness, abrasion resistance, adhesion strength, water resistance, alkaline resistance, acid resistance, gelation time, and thermal oxidative degradation resistance (with thermogravimetric analysis, TGA) of these alkyd-amino resins were investigated. The properties of the waste PET-based resins were found to be compatible with the properties of the reference resins. PMID:18424023

  3. Alkyd-amino resins based on waste PET for coating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Torlakoglu, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Istanbul University, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey); Gueclue, G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Istanbul University, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: gguclu@istanbul.edu.tr

    2009-01-15

    Waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flakes were depolymerized by using propylene glycol (PG) in the presence of zinc acetate as catalyst. Glycolysis reaction products of waste PET obtained by using PET/glycol molar ratio 1/2. Two short oil alkyd resins of high acid values (30-40 mgKOH/g) were prepared from phthalic anhydride (PA), glycerin (G), coconut oil fatty acids (COFA) and glycolyzed products of waste PET (PET-based alkyd resins) or glycols (PG) (reference alkyd resins). These alkyd resins were blended with 30%, 40%, and 50% of a commercial urea-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde/melamine-formaldehyde mixture (1/1 weight ratio) and heated at 140 deg. C. The physical and chemical properties such as drying time, hardness, abrasion resistance, adhesion strength, water resistance, alkaline resistance, acid resistance, gelation time, and thermal oxidative degradation resistance (with thermogravimetric analysis, TGA) of these alkyd-amino resins were investigated. The properties of the waste PET-based resins were found to be compatible with the properties of the reference resins.

  4. Methane production using resin-wafer electrodeionization

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Seth W; Lin, YuPo; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2014-03-25

    The present invention provides an efficient method for creating natural gas including the anaerobic digestion of biomass to form biogas, and the electrodeionization of biogas to form natural gas and carbon dioxide using a resin-wafer deionization (RW-EDI) system. The method may be further modified to include a wastewater treatment system and can include a chemical conditioning/dewatering system after the anaerobic digestion system. The RW-EDI system, which includes a cathode and an anode, can either comprise at least one pair of wafers, each a basic and acidic wafer, or at least one wafer comprising of a basic portion and an acidic portion. A final embodiment of the RW-EDI system can include only one basic wafer for creating natural gas.

  5. Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan in Support of BNFL Part B: Studies of Ion Exchange Resin Integrity under Flowsheet Extremes: Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.A.

    2000-08-23

    This task will address four items related to ion exchange stability: (1) process upset evaluation of resin in contact with 1 molar sodium permanganate at 25 and 40 degrees C, (2) accelerated aging with nitric acid solution used during normal regeneration operations, (3) prolonged contacting of SuperLig 644 resin with 5 molar nitric acid at room temperature, and (4) prolonged contacting of SuperLig 644 resin with deionized water at 60 plus/minus 5 degrees C.

  6. Alternative alloys for resin-bonded retainers.

    PubMed

    Lawson, J R

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, resin-bonded fixed partial dentures have been made with nickel-chrome-beryllium alloys and cemented with conventional resin luting cements. However, alternative alloys for resin-bonded retainers offer improved physical and biocompatible properties, and resin-metal bond strengths twice that of traditional methods can be achieved. The superior bonds obtained with etched base metals bonded with adhesive resins and silica-coated alloys bonded with silane-coupling agents make these the most desirable techniques available. PMID:2033556

  7. Phenoxy Resins Containing Pendent Ethynyl Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    Ethynyl-containing phenoxy resins have excellent shelf life in solution or in bulk. Cured ethynyl-containing phenoxy resins offer lower moisture absorption, higher use temperatures, and better thermal stability over stateof-the-art cross-linked phenoxy resins. Depending upon cross-link density, cured ethynyl-modified phenoxy resins are solvent resistant but still thermoformable and relatively tough. Modified resins show potential for use as adhesives, composite matrices, solvent-resistant coatings, membranes, insulators, and films.

  8. Retrofit for Plastic Resin Driers 

    E-print Network

    Joseph, B.; Thuro, G.

    1991-01-01

    Plastic resins used in injection molding have to be dried to specified levels prior to feeding them to the molding machines. Excess moisture if present could cause damage to the injection nozzle and also could cause polymer degradations within...

  9. Silicone resins and their composites

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yuhong, 1972-

    2003-01-01

    Addition cure (X1-2672) and condensation cure (4-3136) silicone resins have been studied for their mechanical property change with temperature. Properties include maximum flexural stress, flexural modulus and fracture ...

  10. Production of coumaric acid from sugarcane bagasse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Y. Ou; Y. L. Luo; C. H. Huang; M. Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic acids were released from sugarcane bagasse by alkaline hydrolysis at 30 °C for 4 h; The alkaline hydrolysates were ultrafiltrated, the permeates purified with anion exchange resin. The phenolic acids bound by the resin were desorbed by a mixture of water–ethanol–HCl solution (36: 60: 4) after washing the resin with water, ethanol and dilute HCl respectively. The combined eluents were concentrated

  11. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    DOEpatents

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  12. Regenerating Water-Sterilizing Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Iodine-dispensing resin can be regenerated after iodine content has been depleted, without being removed from water system. Resin is used to make water potable by killing bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Regeneration technique may be come basis of water purifier for very long space missions. Enough crystalline iodine for multiple regenerations during mission can be stored in one small cartridge. Cartridge could be inserted in waterline as necessary on signal from iodine monitor or timer.

  13. Guayule resin separation and purification

    E-print Network

    Bajwa, Mohinder P.S.

    1992-01-01

    fraction and reducing the presence of these terpenes to practically non-detectable levels in the polar fraction. A single component, as identified by gas chromatograph (GC) was also effectively extracted from the Texas A&M resins. Saponification... as little as two GC peaks. Chromatography of the resins over silica gel yielded a fraction from which white crystals were obtained. GC analysis showed that these crystals could be a compound of the germacrene family. Column chromatography of the Firestone...

  14. TGR5 potentiates GLP-1 secretion in response to anionic exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Harach, Taoufiq; Pols, Thijs W H; Nomura, Mitsunori; Maida, Adriano; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Auwerx, Johan; Schoonjans, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Anionic exchange resins are bona fide cholesterol-lowering agents with glycemia lowering actions in diabetic patients. Potentiation of intestinal GLP-1 secretion has been proposed to contribute to the glycemia lowering effect of these non-systemic drugs. Here, we show that resin exposure enhances GLP-1 secretion and improves glycemic control in diet-induced animal models of "diabesity", effects which are critically dependent on TGR5, a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by bile acids. We identified the colon as a major source of GLP-1 secretion after resin treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the boost in GLP-1 release by resins is due to both enhanced TGR5-dependent production of the precursor transcript of GLP-1 as well as to the local enrichment of TGR5 agonists in the colon. Thus, TGR5 represents an essential component in the pathway mediating the enhanced GLP-1 release in response to anionic exchange resins. PMID:22666533

  15. TGR5 potentiates GLP-1 secretion in response to anionic exchange resins

    PubMed Central

    Harach, Taoufiq; Pols, Thijs W. H.; Nomura, Mitsunori; Maida, Adriano; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Auwerx, Johan; Schoonjans, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Anionic exchange resins are bona fide cholesterol-lowering agents with glycemia lowering actions in diabetic patients. Potentiation of intestinal GLP-1 secretion has been proposed to contribute to the glycemia lowering effect of these non-systemic drugs. Here, we show that resin exposure enhances GLP-1 secretion and improves glycemic control in diet-induced animal models of “diabesity”, effects which are critically dependent on TGR5, a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by bile acids. We identified the colon as a major source of GLP-1 secretion after resin treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the boost in GLP-1 release by resins is due to both enhanced TGR5-dependent production of the precursor transcript of GLP-1 as well as to the local enrichment of TGR5 agonists in the colon. Thus, TGR5 represents an essential component in the pathway mediating the enhanced GLP-1 release in response to anionic exchange resins. PMID:22666533

  16. Phenolic cation-exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Ebra, M.A.; Wallace, R.M.

    1982-05-05

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear wate solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs/sup +/ and Sr/sup 2 +/ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  17. Phenolic cation exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium

    SciTech Connect

    Ebra, Martha A. (Aiken, SC); Wallace, Richard M. (Aiken, SC)

    1983-01-01

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear waste solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs.sup.+ and Sr.sup.2+ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  18. Phenolic cation exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium

    SciTech Connect

    Ebra, M.A.; Wallace, R.M.

    1983-12-27

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear waste solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs/sup +/ and Sr/sup 2 +/ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  19. Demineralizer operation with morpholine and boric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Siegwarth, D.P. (NWT Corp., San Jose, CA (United States))

    1992-07-01

    The effect on condensate and blowdown deep bed demineralizer performance of morpholine and boric acid are examined. The high concentration of morpholine required to reduce corrosion product transport exhausts demineralizer cation resin too fast to allow hydrogen cycle demineralizer operation. Extremely efficient resin separation and high crosslinked cation resins will be required to minimize sodium leakage during demineralizer morpholine cyde operation. Organic anions formed by morpholine decomposition tend to leak through demineralizers during amine cycle operation. Concentrations of these species vary markedly between plants. The anion resin selectivity coefficient for borate is low, and only a fraction of hydroxide form anion resin is converted to the borate form. Borate has little effect on condensate demineralizer sodium, chloride and sulfate leakage during hydrogen/borate cycle operation. However, sodium leakage increases during amine/borate cycle resin operation. In addition, silica is not effectively removed by anion resin in the presence of boric acid.

  20. Humic matter isolated from soils and water by the XAD?8 resin and conventional NaOH methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Lobartini; K. H. Tan; L. E. Asmussen; R. A. Leonard; D. Himmelsbach; A. R. Gingle

    1989-01-01

    Differences were studied in humic (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) extracted from soils and streams in South Georgia by the Amberlite XAD?8 resin and conventional NaOH method. Characterization analysis was performed by liquid C NMR, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The NMR spectra indicated that the resin method yielded black water HA and FA with

  1. Diphonix-CS : a novel combined cesium and strontium selective ion exchange resin.

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Horwitz, E. P.; Beauvais, R. A.; Alexandratos, S. D.; Chemistry; Univ. of Tennessee

    1998-01-01

    The recently developed Diphonix{reg_sign} resin contains the geminally substituted diphosphonic acid ligand chemically bonded to a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer. The resin exhibits an extraordinarily strong affinity for actinides, especially in the terra- and hexavalent oxidation states. Therefore the resin has potential for application in TRU removal from nuclear wastes. The Diphonix-CS resin is a Diphonix-type resin that contains also phenolic groups chemically attached to the polymeric matrix. The phenolic groups exhibit high affinity for Cs{sup +} ions from highly alkaline media. Thanks to the combined action of the diphosphonic acid and the phenolic groups, the Diphonix-CS resin can simultaneously remove actinide species, Cs and Sr from alkaline media. In this paper the results obtained in the characterization of the new resin are reported, with regard to the uptake equilibrium and kinetics of Cs+ and Sr+2 removal from NaOH solutions and from synthetic alkaline wastes. The chemical and radiolytic stability of the resin has been investigated. The results have indicated that the Diphonix-CS resin is remarkably stable under the experimental conditions of this work (up to 35 days in I to 4 M NaOH, and up to 200 MRad gamma ray absorbed dose). The possibility of stripping the Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup +2} from the resin has been investigated in column experiments by using 1 M HNO{sub 3} as the stripping agent. Some problems encountered in the stripping of Sr{sup +2} and possible ways to improve the stripping performance are discussed.

  2. Modeling Ion-Exchange Processing With Spherical Resins For Cesium Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, T.; Nash, C. A.; Aleman, S. E.

    2012-09-19

    The spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde and hypothetical spherical SuperLig(r) 644 ion-exchange resins are evaluated for cesium removal from radioactive waste solutions. Modeling results show that spherical SuperLig(r) 644 reduces column cycling by 50% for high-potassium solutions. Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde performs equally well for the lowest-potassium wastes. Less cycling reduces nitric acid usage during resin elution and sodium addition during resin regeneration, therefore, significantly decreasing life-cycle operational costs. A model assessment of the mechanism behind ''cesium bleed'' is also conducted. When a resin bed is eluted, a relatively small amount of cesium remains within resin particles. Cesium can bleed into otherwise decontaminated product in the next loading cycle. The bleed mechanism is shown to be fully isotherm-controlled vs. mass transfer controlled. Knowledge of residual post-elution cesium level and resin isotherm can be utilized to predict rate of cesium bleed in a mostly non-loaded column. Overall, this work demonstrates the versatility of the ion-exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. This evaluation justifies further development of a spherical form of the SL644 resin.

  3. Synthesis and characteristics of macroporous epoxy resin-triethylenetetramine polymer modified by sodium chloroacetate for copper chelation in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Hou, Linxi; Jiang, Feng; Wang, Sui

    2007-10-01

    A novel macroporous resin was prepared from an epoxy resin and triethylenetetramine (TETA) via a polymerization using micro-phase separation. In this novel method the polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) was used as solvent in the initial stage and a phase-separation reagent at later stage of the polymerization was firstly adopted. The resin was modified by sodium chloroacetate and the carboxyl groups were introduced. Its structure was characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectra (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The adsorption-desorption characteristics of the resin for Cu(II) in aqueous solution were investigated in detail using ICP-AES. The interaction between the metal ion and the resin was found to be depended upon the acidity of the medium. The prepared resin is strongly chelating and exhibits a chelating ability that can remove cupric ion in waste water treatment. PMID:18153994

  4. Distribution Coefficients (Kd Values) for Waste Resins Generated from the K and L Disassembly Basin Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2002-12-02

    The objective of this study was to measure 14C, 129I, and 99Tc Kd values of spent resin generated from the K and L Disassembly Basin Facilities. The scope of the work was to conduct Kd measurements of resins combined in the ratio that they are disposed, 42:58 cation:anion. Because it was not known how these spent resins would be buried, it was necessary to measure the Kd values in such a manner as to simulate both trench and vault disposal. This was accomplished by using an acid-rain simulant (a standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency protocol) and a cement leachate simulant .

  5. 76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade...resin (``granular PTFE resin'') from Italy...duty orders on granular PTFE resin from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and...

  6. Low Melt Viscosity Resins for Resin Transfer Molding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, resin transfer molding (RTM) has become one of the methods of choice for high performance composites. Its cost effectiveness and ease of fabrication are major advantages of RTM. RTM process usually requires resins with very low melt viscosity (less than 10 Poise). The optimum RTM resins also need to display high thennal-oxidative stability, high glass transition temperature (T(sub g)), and good toughness. The traditional PMR-type polyimides (e.g. PMR-15) do not fit this requirement, because the viscosities are too high and the nadic endcap cures too fast. High T(sub g), low-melt viscosity resins are highly desirable for aerospace applications and NASA s Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. The objective of this work is to prepare low-melt viscosity polyimide resins for RTM or resin film infusion (RFI) processes. The approach involves the synthesis of phenylethynyl-terminated imide oligomers. These materials have been designed to minimize their melt viscosity so that they can be readily processed. During the cure, the oligomers undergo both chain extension and crosslinking via the thermal polymerization of the phenylethynyl groups. The Phenylethynyl endcap is preferred over the nadic group due to its high curing temperature, which provides broader processing windows. This work involved the synthesis and polymerization of oligomers containing zig-zag backbones and twisted biphenyl structures. Some A-B type precursors which possessed both nitro and anhydride functionality, or both nitro and amine functionality, were also synthesized in order to obtain the well defined oligomers. The resulting zig-zag structured oligomers were then end-capped with 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA) for further cure. The properties of these novel imide oligomers are evaluated.

  7. Optical properties of composite resins.

    PubMed

    Grajower, R; Wozniak, W T; Lindsay, J M

    1982-09-01

    The translucency and colour of a composite resin are characterized by two wavelength-dependent parameters: the absorption coefficient, K and the scattering coefficient, S. These parameters were calculated according to the Kubelka-Munk (1931) equations for two commercial resins. The calculations were based on reflectance spectra of samples of different thicknesses which were placed on a black and a white background. Employing the values of these parameters, calculated spectra were obtained of samples on the same as well as different backgrounds. The difference between the experimental and the calculated spectra was evaluated in terms of Friele-MacAdam-Chickering (Hemmendinger, 1970) colour differences. The Munsell colour values, corresponding to the spectra were evaluated. It was found that the colour of a resin sample of a specified thickness which is placed on a particular background may be predicted to a fair degree of accuracy from calculations employing the K and S values of the resin and the reflectance spectrum of the background. It has been demonstrated that illuminating the sample at 45 degrees instead of using diffuse illumination, affected the results only to a small extent. The effect of internal reflections at the resin surface on the relfectivity on the sample is discussed. An expression has been derived for computing the reflectivity of a sample on any background from its transmittance and reflectivity on a completely absorbing background. PMID:6957570

  8. Mechanistic modeling of epoxy resins

    SciTech Connect

    Chiao, L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-06-16

    Epoxy resins are an important class of materials, particularly when used as the matrix for advanced fiber composites. Because material performance is directly related to processing, it is useful to study the cure kinetics of these resins for use in process modeling, design and control. Mechanistic modeling of the cure reactions are shown to offer more flexibility than the empirical rate laws currently used, without being cumbersome or impractical. In this work, amine- catalyzed epoxy reactions are studied. A kinetic model is developed, based on an accepted reaction mechanism, and applied to experimental data from the literature. This model is shown to be able to describe the cure of real-world'' systems, and unlike the empirical rate laws, can account for variations in the resin formulations. Moreover, the mechanistic model, unlike the empirical ones, is capable of estimating the concentrations of linkages formed during the cure reactions. These data offer insight into the cured resin morphology, which determines the chemical and physical properties of the material. A composite cure model is developed using the mechanistic kinetics. Results from the model are compared to experimental data from the literature, and the effects of resin formulation and cure cycle changes are investigated. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Improved and selective platinum recovery from spent alpha-alumina supported catalysts using pretreated anionic ion exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Shams, K; Goodarzi, F

    2006-04-17

    Improved and selective recovery of platinum from a spent dehydrogenation platinum alpha-alumina supported catalyst using a strong basic ion exchange resin is reported. Platinum and other precious metal group (PMG) complexes are leached using concentrated hydrochloric acid along with about 0.20 vol.% nitric acid as an oxidizing agent from de-coked and crushed spent catalyst. Effects of hydrochloric acid concentration, time, and temperature in leaching stage are investigated. The strong basic anionic resin is treated by sodium hydroxide solution to replace chloride anion by hydroxyl group ion. The supernatant of the leaching process is passed through a fixed column of hydroxylated strong base anionic resin. The treated resin on which the platinum complex is adsorbed is dried and burned in an oxidizing atmosphere at 750-800 degrees C. The recovered gray metallic powder is mainly platinum. Results compared with those obtained from untreated anionic resin show that adsorption of platinum complexes onto the treated anionic resin is more selective and the yield of separation is considerably improved. The breakthrough curves of the pretreated anion exchanger and that of untreated exchange resin reveals that the capacity of the hyroxilated resin is decreased by about 14%. These breakthrough curves can be used for calculation of height of a practical exchange plate (HPEP) for design purposes. PMID:16260084

  10. Drying of uranium-loaded cation exchange resin with microwave heating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Drago; P. A. Haas

    1976-01-01

    The reference fuel kernel for recycle of ²³³U to HTGRs (High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors) is prepared by loading carboxylic acid cation exchange resin with uranium and carbonizing it at controlled conditions. The wet, uranium-loaded resin must be dried to a water content of 10 to 16 wt percent prior to carbonization to minimize handling problems. Microwave heating was demonstrated to give

  11. Resin-based preparation of HTGR fuels: operation of an engineering-scale uranium loading system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haas

    1977-01-01

    The fuel particles for recycle of ²³³U to High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors are prepared from uranium-loaded carboxylic acid ion exchange resins which are subsequently carbonized, converted, and refabricated. The development and operation of individual items of equipment and of an integrated system are described for the resin-loading part of the process. This engineering-scale system was full scale with respect to a

  12. Heavy metal ion uptake properties of polystyrene-supported chelating polymer resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ravikumar Reddy; K. Hussain Reddy

    2003-01-01

    Metal ion uptake properties of polystyrene-supported chelating polymer resins functionalized with (i) glycine, (ii) hydroxy\\u000a benzoic acid, (iii) Schiff base and (iv) diethanol amine have been investigated. The effects of pH, time and initial concentration\\u000a on the uptake of metal ions have been studied. The uptake of metal ion depends on pH. The resins are more selective at pH\\u000a 10

  13. Stable aqueous dispersions of some cataphoretically applicable film-forming resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minodora Leca; M. Micutz; R. Serban

    1997-01-01

    Dispersion of two film-forming resins with amine functional groups in water was studied: a quaternary copolymer with 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate as amine co-monomer (Trak) and an aminated epoxy resin (Romhydrol). Their concentrated solutions, about 72% by weight, in coupler solvents were dispersed in water containing formic or acetic acids to provide different degrees of neutralization and concentrations of 13–15%, as required

  14. The effect of adhesives with various degrees of hydrophilicity on resin ceramic bond durability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed A El Zohairy; Anton J De Gee; Fayez M Hassan; Albert J Feilzer

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the role of different acid surface-treatments and hydrophilic and hydrophobic bonding agents on resin ceramic bond durability. Methods: Two resin cements, Tetric Flow and Nexus 2, were applied to CAD\\/CAM Cerec Vitablocs with six bonding strategies: (1) HF-etching and silanization, (2) HF-etching, silanization and application of a hydrophilic bonding agent, (3) HF-etching, silanization and application of a

  15. Management of Spent Organic Ion-Exchange Resins by Photochemical Oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Srinivas; S. Sugilal; P. K. Wattal

    2003-01-01

    Management of spent ion-exchange resin waste arising from nuclear reactor operations by traditional practice of encapsulation in cement is associated with problems such as swelling and disintegration. Complete oxidation (mineralization) is an attractive alternative option. This paper reports the development of photochemical mineralization process for organic ion-exchange resins of poly (styrene-divinyl benzene) type with sulfonic acid and quaternary ammonium functional

  16. Comparison of bond strengths of three denture base resins to treated nickel-chromium-beryllium alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darunee P. NaBadalung; John M. Powers; Mark E. Connelly

    1998-01-01

    Purpose. In-vitro bond strengths of 3 denture base resins (Trutone, Lucitone 199, and Triad) to a nickel-chromium-beryllium removable partial denture alloy (Ticonium) were tested with 3 surface pretreatments: sandblast, acid etch, and Rocatec (silica blasting), with or without primers (Dentsply, CR inlay cement, and Super Bond).Material and methods. Lucitone 199 denture base resin bonded to the nonprimed sandblasted alloy specimen

  17. Dielectric response of an epoxy resin when exposed to high temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Boudefel; P. Gonon

    2006-01-01

    Epoxy resins are popular insulators that are used for the encapsulation of integrated circuits and for the fabrication of\\u000a printed circuits boards. As such, it is important to evaluate their reliability when exposed to an environmental stress. This\\u000a work reports on the influence of a high-temperature thermal stress (400 ?C) on the dielectric properties of an acid-anhydride cured DGEBA resin.

  18. Role of metal ion incorporation in ion exchange resin on the selectivity of fluoride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natrayasamy Viswanathan; S. Meenakshi

    2009-01-01

    Indion FR 10 resin has sulphonic acid functional group (H+ form) possesses appreciable defluoridation capacity (DC) and its DC has been enhanced by chemical modification into Na+ and Al3+ forms by loading respective metal ions in H+ form of resin. The DCs of Na+ and Al3+ forms were found to be 445 and 478mgF?\\/kg, respectively, whereas the DC of H+

  19. Alternate Methods for Eluting Cesium from Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL; Johnson, Heather Lauren [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2009-02-01

    A small-column ion exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removing cesium from the supernate and dissolved salt solutions in the high-level-waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX system could use either crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an inorganic, non-regenerable sorbent, or spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), a new regenerable resin, to remove cesium from the waste solutions. The baseline method for eluting the cesium from the RF resin uses 15 bed volumes (BV) of 0.5 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). The nitric acid eluate, containing the radioactive cesium, would be combined with the sludge from the waste tanks and would be converted into glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The amount of nitric acid that would be used to elute the RF resin, using the current elution protocol, exceeds the capacity of DWPF to destroy the nitrate ions and maintain the required chemical reducing environment in the glass melt. Installing a denitration evaporator at SRS is technically feasible but would add considerable cost to the project. Alternate methods for eluting the resin have been tested, including using lower concentrations of nitric acid, other acids, and changing the flow regimes. About 4 BV of 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} are required to remove the sodium (titrate the resin) and most of the cesium from the resin, so the bulk of the acid used for the baseline elution method removes a very small quantity of cesium from the resin. A summary of the elution methods that have been tested are listed.

  20. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR THE ISOLATION OR CONCENTRATION OF ORGANIC SUBSTANCES FROM WATER USING XAD-4 QUATERNARY RESIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A synthetic resin (Amberlite XAD-4 Quaternary in the OH- form) was evaluated as an adsorption medium for the concentration/isolation of acids, amines, aldehydes, carbohydrates, chlorobiphenyls, esters, hydrocarbons, ketones, phenols, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and trihalo...

  1. Poisoning of resin supported catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, D.L.; Moore, S.E.

    1987-02-10

    A method is described of enhancing performance of a combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction of an olefin liquid feed in the presence of a resin-supported transition metal complex catalyst. The method comprises: (a) preparing a resin-supported transition metal complex catalyst for use in a combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction substantially free of halides and halide salts in the metal complex catalyst; and (b) introducing an olefin liquid feed to the resin-supported catalyst for conducting a combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction, in the presence of CO and H/sub 2/. The olefin feed has a specified maximum limit of halide concentration sufficiently low to enable continued indefinite operation of the combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction process without halide poisoning.

  2. Control of resin production in Araucaria angustifolia, an ancient South American conifer.

    PubMed

    Perotti, J C; da Silva Rodrigues-Corrêa, K C; Fett-Neto, A G

    2015-07-01

    Araucaria angustifolia is an ancient slow-growing conifer that characterises parts of the Southern Atlantic Forest biome, currently listed as a critically endangered species. The species also produces bark resin, although the factors controlling its resinosis are largely unknown. To better understand this defence-related process, we examined the resin exudation response of A. angustifolia upon treatment with well-known chemical stimulators used in fast-growing conifers producing both bark and wood resin, such as Pinus elliottii. The initial hypothesis was that A. angustifolia would display significant differences in the regulation of resinosis. The effect of Ethrel(®) (ET - ethylene precursor), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), sulphuric acid (SuA) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP - nitric oxide donor) on resin yield and composition in young plants of A. angustifolia was examined. In at least one of the concentrations tested, and frequently in more than one, an aqueous glycerol solution applied on fresh wound sites of the stem with one or more of the adjuvants examined promoted an increase in resin yield, as well as monoterpene concentration (?-pinene, ?-pinene, camphene and limonene). Higher yields and longer exudation periods were observed with JA and ET, another feature shared with Pinus resinosis. The results suggest that resinosis control is similar in Araucaria and Pinus. In addition, A. angustifolia resin may be a relevant source of valuable terpene chemicals, whose production may be increased by using stimulating pastes containing the identified adjuvants. PMID:25545585

  3. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin...is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin...is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin...is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin...is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin...is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth...

  8. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0...per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0...per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0...per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by a...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0...per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0...per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by...

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of actinide imprinted resins

    E-print Network

    Noyes, Karen Lynn, 1977-

    2003-01-01

    Organic resins have previously shown good results with application to actinide separations. Large portions of recent research have been dedicated to the synthesis and evaluation of resins with phenolic-type functional ...

  14. Method of recovering hazardous waste from phenolic resin filters

    SciTech Connect

    Meikrantz, D.H.; Bourne, G.L.; McFee, J.N.; Burdge, B.G.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.

    1991-02-26

    This patent describes a process for the recovery of hazardous wastes such as heavy metals and radioactive elements from phenolic resin filter by circulating a solution of 8 to 16 molar nitric acid at a temperature of 110 to 190 degrees F. through the filter. The hot solution dissolves the filter material and releases the hazardous material so that it can be recovered or treated for long-term storage in an environmentally safe manner.

  15. BENCH SCALE EVALUATION OF RESINS AND ACTIVATED CARBONS FOR WATER PURIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adsorption isotherms and bench scale column studies were used to compare the performance of five types of commercially available activated carbon and four types of resin for the removal of humic acids, fulvic acids, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), and chloroform from water. For the ads...

  16. Devices using resin wafers and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Lin, YuPo J. (Naperville, IL); Henry, Michael P. (Batavia, IL); Snyder, Seth W. (Lincolnwood, IL); St. Martin, Edward (Libertyville, IL); Arora, Michelle (Woodridge, IL); de la Garza, Linda (Woodridge, IL)

    2009-03-24

    Devices incorporating a thin wafer of electrically and ionically conductive porous material made by the method of introducing a mixture of a thermoplastic binder and one or more of anion exchange moieties or cation exchange moieties or mixtures thereof and/or one or more of a protein capture resin and an electrically conductive material into a mold. The mixture is subjected to temperatures in the range of from about 60.degree. C. to about 170.degree. C. at pressures in the range of from about 0 to about 500 psig for a time in the range of from about 1 to about 240 minutes to form thin wafers. Devices include electrodeionization and separative bioreactors in the production of organic and amino acids, alcohols or esters for regenerating cofactors in enzymes and microbial cells.

  17. Diclofenac removal in urine using strong-base anion exchange polymer resins.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kelly A; Boyer, Treavor H

    2013-11-01

    One of the major sources of pharmaceuticals in the environment is wastewater effluent of which human urine contributes the majority of pharmaceuticals. Urine source separation has the potential to isolate pharmaceuticals at a higher concentration for efficient removal as well as produce a nutrient byproduct. This research investigated the efficacy of using strong-base anion exchange polymer resins to remove the widely detected and abundant pharmaceutical, diclofenac, from synthetic human urine under fresh and ureolyzed conditions. The majority of experiments were conducted using a strong-base, macroporous, polystyrene resin (Purolite A520E). Ion-exchange followed a two-step removal rate with rapid removal in 1 h and equilibrium removal in 24 h. Diclofenac removal was >90% at a resin dose of 8 mL/L in both fresh and ureolyzed urine. Sorption of diclofenac onto A520E resin was concurrent with desorption of an equivalent amount of chloride, which indicates the ion-exchange mechanism is occurring. The presence of competing ions such as phosphate and citrate did not significantly impact diclofenac removal. Comparisons of three polystyrene resins (A520E, Dowex 22, Dowex Marathon 11) as well as one polyacrylic resin (IRA958) were conducted to determine the major interactions between anion exchange resin and diclofenac. The results showed that polystyrene resins provide the highest level of diclofenac removal due to electrostatic interactions between quaternary ammonium functional groups of resin and carboxylic acid of diclofenac and non-electrostatic interactions between resin matrix and benzene rings of diclofenac. Diclofenac was effectively desorbed from A520E resin using a regeneration solution that contained 4.5% (m/m) NaCl in an equal-volume mixture of methanol and water. The greater regeneration efficiency of the NaCl/methanol-water mixture over the aqueous NaCl solution supports the importance of non-electrostatic interactions between resin matrix and benzene rings of diclofenac. Experiments with ketoprofen, in addition to diclofenac, suggest that polystyrene anion exchange resins can be used to selectively remove other acidic pharmaceuticals from urine. PMID:24029637

  18. NEW ION EXCHANGE RESIN FOR URANIUM RECOVERY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Greer; A. B. Mindler; J. P. Termini

    1958-01-01

    A new resin, developed specifically for U recovery from HâSOâ; leach liquors, is available commercially-- Permutit SK for resin-in-column ; operation and Permutite SKB for resin-in-pulp operation. These resins hnve a ; fast U adsorption rate and a fast and a complete U elution rate. They have good ; physical and chemical stability which will mean a minimum of physical

  19. Siloxane-modified epoxy resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Yorkgitis; N. S. Eiss; C. Tran; G. L. Wilkes; J. E. McGrath

    Epoxy resins chemically modified with functionally terminated poly (dimethyl siloxane), poly(dimethyl-co-methyltrifluoropropyl\\u000a siloxane), and poly(dimethyl-co-diphenyl siloxane) oligomers are described in terms of their synthesis, morphology, solid-state\\u000a properties, and friction and wear properties. The compatibility between the epoxy resin and the siloxane modifiers can be\\u000a enhanced by increasing the percentage of methyltrifluoropropyl (TFP) siloxane or diphenyl (DP) siloxane relative to dimethyl\\u000a siloxane.

  20. An investigation of the applicability of the new ion exchange resin, Reillex{trademark}-HPQ, in ATW separations. Milestone 4, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, K.R.; Ball, J.; Grissom, M.; Williamson, M.; Cobb, S.; Young, D.; Wu, Yen-Yuan J.

    1993-09-07

    The investigations with the anion exchange resin Reillex{trademark}-HPQ is continuing along several different paths. The topics of current investigations that are reported here are: The sorption behavior of chromium(VI) on Reillex{trademark}-HPQ from nitric acid solutions and from sodium hydroxide/sodium nitrate solutions; sorption behavior of F{sup {minus}} on Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resin in acidic sodium nitrate solution; sorption behavior of Cl{sup {minus}} on Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resin in acidic sodium nitrate solution; sorption behavior of Br{sup {minus}} on Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resin in acidic sodium nitrate solution; and the Honors thesis by one of the students is attached as Appendix II (on ion exchange properties of a new macroperous resin using bromide as the model ion in aqueous nitrate solutions).

  1. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  2. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  3. SRM filament wound case resin characterization studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    The amine cured epoxy wet winding resin used in fabrication of the SRM filament wound case is analyzed. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPSC) is utilized extensively to study lot-to-lot variation in both resin and curing agent. The validity of quantitative hplc methodology currently under development in-process resin/catalyst assay is assessed.

  4. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert,George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand,Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); Delaurentiis,Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  5. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and...Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used in accordance with...

  6. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and...Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used in accordance with...

  7. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and...Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used in accordance with...

  8. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and...Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used in accordance with...

  9. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and...Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used in accordance with...

  10. Terpene-anhydride resin based coatings II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Giddings; David L. Trumbo

    1997-01-01

    Terpinolene-maleic anhydride or terpinolene-itaconic anhydride resins were used in thermoset coatings crosslinked with an epoxidized soybean oil. As the films produced were brittle, attempts were made to increase the molecular weight of the terpene anhydride resins by using a purer grade of terpinolene monomer or a terpinolene analog, ?-phellandrene, as the terpene part of the resins. The purer grade of

  11. Considering RTM... 1 Considering Resin Transfer Molding?

    E-print Network

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    is closed and clamped; The resin is injected into the mold cavity under pressure. The motive force in RTMConsidering RTM... 1 CFA 1995 Considering Resin Transfer Molding? Here is what you need to know than traditional open molding. Resin Transfer Molding stands in the gap - able to produce mid

  12. High Temperature VARTM of Phenylethynyl Terminated Imides (PETI) Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghose, Sayata; Cano, Roberto J.; Britton, Sean M.; Watson, Kent A.; Jensen, Brian J.; Connell, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Fabrication of composite structures using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is generally more affordable than conventional autoclave techniques. Recent efforts have focused on adapting VARTM for the fabrication of high temperature composites. Due to their low melt viscosity and long melt stability, certain phenylethynyl terminated imides (PETI) can be processed into composites using high temperature VARTM (HT-VARTM). However, one of the disadvantages of the current HT-VARTM resin systems has been the high porosity of the resultant composites. For aerospace applications a void fraction of less than 2% is desired. In the current study, two PETI resins, LARCTM PETI-330 and LARCTM PETI-8 have been used to fabricate test specimens using HT-VARTM. The resins were infused into carbon fiber preforms at 260 C and cured between 316 C and 371 C. Modifications to the thermal cycle used in the laminate fabrication have reduced the void content significantly (typically < 3%) for carbon fiber biaxially woven fabric. Photomicrographs of the panels were taken and void contents were determined by acid digestion. For carbon fiber uniaxial fabric, void contents of less than 2% have been obtained using both PETI-8 and PETI-330. Mechanical properties of the panels were determined at both room and elevated temperatures. These include short beam shear and flexure tests. The results of this work are presented herein.

  13. The use of Diphonix{sup {trademark}} ion exchange resin as a preconcentration step for the lanthanides and actinides in analytical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rollins, A.N.; Thakkar, A.H.; Fern, M.J. [Eichrom Industries, Inc., Darien, IL (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Diphonix ion exchange resin is a chelating ion exchange resin containing sulfonic and gemdiphosphonic acid groups. This resin has a high specificity for the lanthanides and actinides, especially at acidities below pH = 3. Currently, we are investigating new ways to use Diphonix resin as a preconcentration step to separate the lanthanides and actinides from interfering elements present in a variety of environmental matrices. Once the lanthanides and actinides have been separated from the interfering matrix constituents, the elements are removed from the resin and passed through subsequent separation schemes. This presentation will outline the use of Diphonix resin with a variety of problem matrices, and demonstrate its usefulness for analysis of the lanthanides and actinides.

  14. Synthesis of improved phenolic resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, C. B.; Mcleod, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty seven addition cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to give char residues comparable to state-of-the-art phenolic resins. Cyanate, epoxy, allyl, acrylate, methacrylate and ethynyl derivatized phenolic oligomers were investigated. The novolac-cyanate and propargyl-novolac resins provided anaerobic char yields at 800 C of 58 percent. A 59 percent char yield was obtained from modified epoxy novolacs. A phosphonitrilic derivative was found to be effective as an additive for increasing char yields. The novolac-cyanate, epoxy-novolac and methacrylate-epoxy-novolac systems were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. All three resins showed good potential as composite matrices. The free radical cured methacrylate-epoxy-novolac graphite composite provided short beam shear strengths at room temperature of 93.3 MPa (13.5 ksi). The novolac-cyanate graphite composite produced a short beam shear strength of 74 MPa (10.7 ksi) and flexural strength of 1302 MPa (189 ksi) at 177 C. Air heat aging of the novolac-cyanate and epoxy novolac based composites for 12 weeks at 204 C showed good property retention.

  15. Resin transfer molding process optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Y. Lin; M. J. Murphy; H. T. Hahn

    2000-01-01

    The art of process optimization requires a clear understanding of the differences between each of the widely different optimization strategies available. Often, a sophisticated method that has been well tested in other fields is not applicable at all to problems in resin transfer molding (RTM). This work discusses the strength and weakness of the genetic algorithm and the gradient based

  16. Oxygen index tests of thermosetting resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The flammability characteristics of nine thermosetting resins under evaluation for use in aircraft interiors are described. These resins were evaluated using the Oxygen Index (ASTM 2863) testing procedure. The test specimens consisted of both neat resin and glass reinforced resin. When testing glass-reinforced samples it was observed that Oxygen Index values varied inversely with resin content. Oxygen values were also obtained on specimens exposed to temperatures up to 300 C. All specimens experienced a decline in Oxygen Index when tested at an elevated temperature.

  17. A Method for Characterizing PMR-15 Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, G. D.; Lauver, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative analysis technique based on reverse-phase, highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and paired-ion chromatography (PIC) developed for PMR-15 resins. In reverse-phase HPLC experiment, polar solvent containing material to be analyzed passed through column packed with nonpolar substrate. Composition of PMR-15 Resin of 50 weight percent changes as resin ages at room temperature. Verification of proper resin formulation and analysis of changes in resin composition during storage important to manufacturers of PMR-15 polymer matrix composite parts. Technique especially suitable for commercial use by manufacturers of high-performance composite components.

  18. The use of ion exchange resins for the treatment of cyanidation tailings part 1––process development of selective base metal elution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Fernando; T Tran; S Laing; M. J Kim

    2002-01-01

    This work investigates the use of oxidative acid eluents for the elution of base metals from strong base ion exchange resins. Eluents composed of a mixture of H2O2 and H2SO4 were tested for eluting base metals from resins loaded with mixtures of base and precious metal cyanides. This process removed 100% of Cu and Zn loaded on the resin, without

  19. Regeneration of strong-base anion-exchange resins by sequential chemical displacement

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Gilbert M. (Knoxville, TN); Gu, Baohua (Oak Ridge, TN); Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method for regenerating strong-base anion exchange resins utilizing a sequential chemical displacement technique with new regenerant formulation. The new first regenerant solution is composed of a mixture of ferric chloride, a water-miscible organic solvent, hydrochloric acid, and water in which tetrachloroferrate anion is formed and used to displace the target anions on the resin. The second regenerant is composed of a dilute hydrochloric acid and is used to decompose tetrachloroferrate and elute ferric ions, thereby regenerating the resin. Alternative chemical displacement methods include: (1) displacement of target anions with fluoroborate followed by nitrate or salicylate and (2) displacement of target anions with salicylate followed by dilute hydrochloric acid. The methodology offers an improved regeneration efficiency, recovery, and waste minimization over the conventional displacement technique using sodium chloride (or a brine) or alkali metal hydroxide.

  20. Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J.; Havens, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    As part of an effort on tougher/solvent resistant matrix resins for composites, research was directed towards exploring methods to improve the solvent resistance of linear amorphous thermoplastics. Ethyl reactive groups were placed on the ends of oligomers and pendent along the polymer chain and subsequently thermally reacted to provide crosslinking and thus improvement in solvent resistance. This concept is extended to another thermoplastic, a phenoxy resin. A commercially available phenoxy resin (PKHH) was systematically modified by reaction of the pendent hydroxyl groups on the phenoxy resin with various amounts of 4-ethynylbenzoyl chloride. As the pendent ethynyl group content in the phenoxy resin increased, the cured resin exhibited a higher glass transition temperature, better solvent resistance and less flexibility. The solvent resistance was further improved by correcting a low molecular weight diethynyl compound, 2,2-bis(4-ethynylbenzoyloxy-4'-phenyl)propane, with a phenoxy resin containing pendent ethynyl groups.

  1. Studies on sorption of radiocesium on copper-hexacyanoferrate-loaded resins

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, I.J.; Misra, B.M. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1996-07-01

    Copper hexacyanoferrate(II) was incorporated in the matrix of the strongly basic anion-exchange resin Indion-810 for the sorption of radiocesium from aqueous solutions. Its efficiency for the removal of cesium was tested under both static and dynamic conditions. The resin was found to be highly selective for radiocesium from a variety of salt and acid solutions. With the help of X-ray diffraction patterns, infrared spectrometry, thermal gravimetry, and differential thermal analysis, the interaction of copper hexacyanoferrate(II) with the quaternary amine of Indion-810 resin was investigated. Pilot-scale studies using this resin indicated that radiocesium can be effectively removed from thousands of bed volumes of spent fuel storage bay water.

  2. Fast removal of uranium from aqueous solutions using tetraethylenepentamine modified magnetic chitosan resin.

    PubMed

    Elwakeel, Khalid Z; Atia, Asem A; Guibal, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Chitosan was cross-linked using glutaraldehyde in the presence of magnetite. The resin was chemically modified through the reaction with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) to produce amine bearing chitosan. The resin showed a higher affinity towards the uptake of UO2(2+) ions from aqueous medium: maximum sorption capacity reached 1.8 mmol g(-1) at pH 4 and 25 °C. The nature of interaction of UO2(2+) ions with the resin was identified. Kinetics were carried out at different temperatures and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated. Breakthrough curves for the removal of UO2(2+) were studied at different flow rates, bed heights and after 3 regeneration cycles. Hydrochloric acid (0.5 M) was used for desorbing UO2(2+) from loaded resin: desorption yield as high as 98% was obtained. PMID:24503051

  3. Seasonal variation and resin composition in the Andean tree Austrocedrus chilensis.

    PubMed

    Olate, Verónica Rachel; Soto, Alex; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the changes in resin composition in South American gymnosperms associated with the different seasons of the year. The diterpene composition of 44 resin samples from seven Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupressaceae) trees, including male and female individuals, was investigated in three different seasons of the year (February, June and November). Twelve main diterpenes were isolated by chromatographic means and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The diterpene composition was submitted to multivariate analysis to find possible associations between chemical composition and season of the year. The principal component analysis showed a clear relation between diterpene composition and season. The most characteristic compounds in resins collected in summer were Z-communic acid (9) and 12-oxo-labda-8(17),13E-dien-19 oic acid methyl ester (10) for male trees and 8(17),12,14-labdatriene (7) for female trees. For the winter samples, a clear correlation of female trees with torulosic acid (6) was observed. In spring, E-communic acid (8) and Z-communic acid (9) were correlated with female trees and 18-hydroxy isopimar-15-ene (1) with male tree resin. A comparison between percent diterpene composition and collection time showed p < 0.05 for isopimara-8(9),15-diene (2), sandaracopimaric acid (4), compound (7) and ferruginol (11). PMID:24853713

  4. Foam, Foam-resin composite and method of making a foam-resin composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranston, John A. (Inventor); MacArthur, Doug E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a foam, a foam-resin composite and a method of making foam-resin composites. The foam set forth in this invention comprises a urethane modified polyisocyanurate derived from an aromatic amino polyol and a polyether polyol. In addition to the polyisocyanurate foam, the composite of this invention further contains a resin layer, wherein the resin may be epoxy, bismaleimide, or phenolic resin. Such resins generally require cure or post-cure temperatures of at least 350.degree. F.

  5. Phenol-formaldehyde resin substitutes from biomass tars

    SciTech Connect

    Himmelblau, D.A. [Biocarbons Corporation, Woburn, MA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Approximately 320,000 tonnes of phenol and formaldehyde are currently used annually in North America to make adhesive resins that are used to make exterior-grade structural panels. The demand for phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins is growing faster than the demand for panels, because more adhesive is required to join/coat the surface of wood flakes (for oriented strand board - OSB) than is required to join veneer; OSB is replacing plywood as logs large enough for veneer become scarcer. Also, competitive uses for phenol and methanol (for making formaldehyde) have increased raw materials cost and threatened availability. Production of adhesive resins from biomass to reduce reliance on raw materials derived from commodity petrochemicals and to lower resin cost looks attractive. A simple fluidized-bed reactor system can be used to produce tars that can substitute for a major portion of the phenol and formaldehyde in PF resin adhesives. This can be done in an air-fluidized, single-bed reactor; no inert gas or dual-bed system is required. The key is recognizing that optimum phenolic character in the tar is not produced at the maximum tar yield, but at reactor temperatures around 600{degrees}C and short gas-phase residence times that produce a yield of about 25 to 30 weight percent. A wide range of phenols, aldehydes and other compounds capable of polymerization are produced. Feedstock can be any wood waste larger than sander dust; low cost agricultural wastes such as bagasse are also suitable. Adhesive resin is produced from the entire tar product by shifting the pH from acidic to basic with NaOH, and combining and heating the resulting resole with phenol and formaldehyde, similarly to conventional resins. Approximately half of the phenol and formaldehyde by weight can be replaced with tar. A plant producing 13,865,000 kg (30,566,000 lb) annually from 308 tonnes (340 tons) per day of green wood chips would cost approximately $8,400,000.

  6. Improved synthesis and aminoacylation of p-nitrobenzophenone oxime polystyrene resin for solid-phase synthesis of protected peptides.

    PubMed

    Scarr, R B; Findeis, M A

    1990-01-01

    Procedures for the synthesis and acylation of p-nitrobenzophenone oxime polystyrene resin for the preparation of protected peptide segments have been reexamined. Friedel-Crafts acylation with p-nitrobenzoyl chloride is complete in less than one hour at room temperature. Conversion of the ketoresin to the corresponding oxime requires less than six hours at 85 degrees C. Carbodiimide-mediated coupling of tert-butyloxycarbonyl-amino acids to the oxime resin requires less than one hour. By varying the quantity of p-nitrobenzoyl chloride and aluminum chloride used for acylation, the oxime substitution level of the resulting resin can be controlled between 0.2 and 0.8 milliequivalents per gram of resin. Aminoacyl oxime resin can thus be prepared in one day. PMID:2134067

  7. Accurate determination of ¹²?I concentrations and ¹²?I/¹³?Cs ratios in spent nuclear resins by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Bienvenu, Philippe; Labet, Alexandre; Bourlès, Didier; Arnold, Maurice; Bertaux, Maité

    2014-04-01

    Determining long-lived radionuclide concentrations in radioactive waste has fundamental implications for the long-term management of storage sites. This paper focuses on the measurement of low (129)I contents in ion exchange resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR). Iodine-129 concentrations were successfully determined using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) following a chemical procedure which included (1) acid digestion of resin samples in HNO3/HClO4, (2) radioactive decontamination by selective iodine extraction using a new chromatographic resin (CL Resin), and (3) AgI precipitation. Measured (129)I concentrations ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g, i.e. from 0.03 to 0.08 Bq/g. The calculation of (129)I/(137)Cs activity ratios used for routine waste management produced values in agreement with the few available data for PWR resin samples. PMID:24525301

  8. Petroleum resins and their production

    SciTech Connect

    Luvinh, Q.

    1989-04-25

    A process is described for the production of petroleum resins compatible with base polymers in hot melt formulations and having a softening point of from about 60/sup 0/C. to about 120/sup 0/C. and Gardner color of about 4 or less, comprising copolymerizing using a Friedel-Crafts catalyst. The mixture is substantially free form cyclopentadiene and dicyclopentadiene. This patent also describes a resin consisting essentially of a copolymer containing from 5 to 80 wt. % of units derived from an olefinically unsaturated aromatic compound form 5 to 80 wt. % of units derived from C/sub 5/ olefines or diolefines or C/sub 6/ olefines diolefines or a mixture of C/sub 5/ and C/sub 6/ olefines or diolefines and from 7 to 45 wt. % of units derived from a terpene.

  9. UPTAKE OF METAL IONS BY A NEW CHELATING ION EXCHANGE RESIN. PART 3: PROTONATION CONSTANTS VIA POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION AND SOLID STATE 31P NMR SPECTROSCOPY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Nash; P. G. Rickert; J. V. Muntean; S. D. Alexandratos

    1994-01-01

    A new chelating ion exchange resin which incorporates methylenediphosphonate, carboxylate, and sulfonate functional groups in a polystyrene-divinylbenzene matrix has been prepared. This resin exhibits exceptionally high affinity for polyvalent cations even from moderately acidic aqueous media. Metal ion coordination occurs primarily at the diphosphonate group with the secondary binding sites contributing to charge neutralization when necessary and possible, and to

  10. Fixation of magnet assembly to denture base using alternative resins.

    PubMed

    Okayama, Shotaro; Suzuki, Yasunori; Shimpo, Hidemasa; Ohkubo, Chikahiro

    2015-06-01

    The fixation strengths between conventional/modified magnetic assemblies and denture base resins were evaluated using six alternative resins. Magnetic assemblies with three different undercut wings were prepared. Soft lining materials with added PMMA resin polymer, two photopolymerization denture relining resins, an experimental resin, and a temporary filling resin were used to fix the magnetic assemblies to the denture bases. As a control, a commercially available magnetic assembly without undercut wings and a conventional autopolymerized resin were also prepared. After surface treatments, the magnetic assemblies were fixed using fixation resins, and tensile strengths and attractive forces were measured using an autography. The experimental resin and the temporary filling resin showed retentive forces comparable to those of conventional autopolymerized resins. Although the experimental resin demonstrated satisfactory fixation strengths, it should be necessary to improve its mechanical strength. The temporary filling resin could be used as a permanent fixation material. PMID:25904166

  11. Phosphorus-containing imide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (inventors)

    1984-01-01

    Flame-resistant reinforced bodies are disclosed which are composed of reinforcing fibers, filaments or fabrics in a cured body of bis- and tris-imide resins derived from tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides by reaction with maleic anhydride or its derivatives, or of addition polymers of such imides, including a variant in which a mono-imide is condensed with a dianhydride and the product is treated with a further quantity of maleic anhydride.

  12. Factorial experimental design for recovering heavy metals from sludge with ion-exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Lee, I Hsien; Kuan, Yu-Chung; Chern, Jia-Ming

    2006-12-01

    Wastewaters containing heavy metals are usually treated by chemical precipitation method in Taiwan. This method can remove heavy metals form wastewaters efficiently, but the resultant heavy metal sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and becomes another environmental problem. If we can remove heavy metals from sludge, it becomes non-hazardous waste and the treatment cost can be greatly reduced. This study aims at using ion-exchange resin to remove heavy metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium from sludge generated by a PCB manufacturing plant. Factorial experimental design methodology was used to study the heavy metal removal efficiency. The total metal concentrations in the sludge, resin, and solution phases were measured respectively after 30 min reaction with varying leaching agents (citric acid and nitric acid); ion-exchange resins (Amberlite IRC-718 and IR-120), and temperatures (50 and 70 degrees C). The experimental results and statistical analysis show that a stronger leaching acid and a higher temperature both favor lower heavy metal residues in the sludge. Two-factors and even three-factor interaction effects on the heavy metal sorption in the resin phase are not negligible. The ion-exchange resin plays an important role in the sludge extraction or metal recovery. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the heavy metal profiles with satisfactory results. PMID:16843592

  13. New modified hydrocarbon resins; An alternative to styrenated terpene resins in hot melts

    SciTech Connect

    Carper, J.D. (Hercules Inc., Wilmington, DE (US))

    1990-06-01

    This paper reports on the development of two hydrocarbon-based resin formulations that could be used with different thermoplastic block copolymers to formulate pressure-sensitive adhesives. Results are examined with one of these resins in formulations with styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) and styrene-butadiene (SB) compounds. The new modified hydrocarbon resin, with a softening point of 98{degrees} C, matches the adhesive performance of a terpene resin with a softening point of 105{degrees} C. The resin performs as well as the modified terpene in SIS-, SB-, and EVA-based adhesives. The new hydrocarbon resin is especially well suited for hot-melt adhesives. It exhibits low volatility, good color stability, and excellent melt viscosity stability. Since the new resin is based on petroleum hydrocarbon feedstocks, it should be available at moderate, stable prices. The other hydrocarbon resin, with a softening point of 85{degrees} C, produced comparable results.

  14. Development of tough, moisture resistant laminating resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, R. A.; Harrison, E. S.

    1982-01-01

    Tough, moisture resistant laminating resins for employment with graphite fibers were developed. The new laminating resins exhibited cost, handleability and processing characteristics equivalent to 394K (250 F) curing epoxies. The laminating resins were based on bisphenol A dicyanate and monofunctional cyanates with hydrophobic substituents. These resins sorb only small quantities of moisture at equilibrium (0.5% or less) with minimal glass transition temperature depression and represent an improvement over epoxies which sorb around 2% moisture at equilibrium. Toughening was accomplished by the precipitation of small diameter particles of butadiene nitrile rubber throughout the resin matrix. The rubber domains act as microcrack termini and energy dissipation sites, allowing increased stress accommodation prior to catastrophic failure. A unique blend of amine terminated butadiene nitrile elastomer (MW 2,000) and a high nitrile content butadiene nitrile rubber yielded the desired resin morphology.

  15. Synthesis of perrhenic acid using ion exchange method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Leszczy?ska-Sejda; G. Benke; A. Chmielarz; S. Krompiec; S. Michalik; M. Krompiec

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents results of the study for obtaining perrhenic acid from aqueous ammonium perrhenate solutions by ion exchange. Two ways of perrhenic acid synthesis have been examined: sorption of perrhenate anion on selected anion exchange resins (followed by elution of the sorbed rhenium as HReO4), and sorption of ammonium ion on selected cation exchange resins. The method of ammonium

  16. Phenolic resin and battery separator impregnated therewith

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1975-01-01

    Battery separators comprising a cellulose substrate thoroughly impregnated with an admixture of resole resin and a polyol antimigratory agent are described. The resole resin is a one-stage resin with a formaldehyde to phenol mol ratio between 1.6:1 and 2.8:1 and a molecular weight in the range of 130 to 300. After the cellulose substrate is impregnated with the admixture, it

  17. Resin selection criteria for tough composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Smith, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    Resin selection criteria are derived using a structured methodology consisting of an upward integrated mechanistic theory and its inverse (top-down structured theory). These criteria are expressed in a "criteria selection space" which are used to identify resin bulk properties for improved composite "toughness". The resin selection criteria correlate with a variety of experimental data including laminate strength, elevated temperature effects and impact resistance.

  18. Porous Ceramic Spheres from Ion Exchange Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred

    2005-01-01

    A commercial cation ion exchange resin, cross-linked polystyrene, has been successfully used as a template to fabricate 20 to 50 micron porous ceramic spheres. Ion exchange resins have dual template capabilities. Pore architecture of the ceramic spheres can be altered by changing the template pattern. Templating can be achieved by utilizing the internal porous structure or the external surface of the resin beads. Synthesis methods and chemical/physical characteristics of the ceramic spheres will be reported.

  19. Comparison of chromatographic ion-exchange resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne Staby; Maj-Britt Sand; Ronni G. Hansen; Jan H. Jacobsen; Line A. Andersen; Michael Gerstenberg; Ulla K. Bruus; Inge Holm Jensen

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study was performed on heparin resins and strong and weak cation exchangers to investigate the pH dependence, efficiency, binding strength, particle size distribution, static and dynamic capacity, and scanning electron microscopy pictures of chromatographic resins. The resins tested include: Heparin Sepharose FF, SP Sepharose FF, CM Sepharose FF, Heparin Toyopearl 650m, SP Toyopearl 650m, CM Toyopearl 650m, Ceramic

  20. Evaluating ion exchange resin efficiency and oxidative capacity for the separation of uranium(IV) and uranium(VI)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previously described methods to separate dissolved U(IV) from dissolved U(VI) under acidic anoxic conditions prior to laboratory analysis were ineffective with materials currently available commercially. Three strong anion exchange resins were examined for their efficiency in separating, recovering, and preserving both redox states during separation. Results Under oxic conditions, recovery of U(VI) from three exchange resins (Bio-Rad AG® 1x8 Poly-Prep® prefilled columns, Bio-Rad AG® 1x8 powder, and Dowex® 1x8 powder) ranged from 72% to 100% depending on the dosed mass, eluent volume, and resin selected. Dowex® 1x8 resin was the only resin found to provide 100% recovery of U(VI) with fewer than 5 bed volumes of eluent. Under anoxic conditions, all three resins oxidized U(IV) in aqueous solutions with relatively low U(IV) concentrations (<3x10-6 M). Resin-induced oxidation was observed visually using a leuco dye, safranin-o. Oxidants associated with the resin were irreversibly reduced by the addition of Ti(III). After anoxic resin pre-treatment, a series of U(IV)/U(VI) mixtures at micro-molar levels were prepared and separated using the Dowex® 1x8 resin with 100% recovery of both U(IV) and U(VI) with no resin-induced changes in oxidation state. Conclusions Currently available anion exchange resins with apparently identical physical properties were found to have significantly different recoveries for hexavalent uranium at micro-molar concentrations. A novel qualitative technique was developed to visually assess oxidative capacities of anion exchange resins under acidic anoxic conditions. A protocol was developed for pre-treatment and use of currently available anion exchange resins to achieve quantitative separation of U(IV) and U(VI) in aqueous solutions with low U(IV) concentrations. This method can be applied to future work to quantitatively assess dissolved U(IV) and U(VI) concentrations in both laboratory and field samples. PMID:23363052

  1. Interferometric study of epoxy resin gelation

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschbuehler, K.R.

    1981-01-01

    The transition of epoxy resins from a mobile liquid to a rubbery gel is a complex process depending on chemical reaction kinetics and both heat and mass transfer. The purpose of this study is to determine the locus of initial gelation in an epoxy resin, and the course of gelatin through both neat resins and glass fiber/epxoy resin composites. This was accomplished by monitoring the local changes in refractive index in transparent epoxy castings using laser interferometry, supplemented by temperature profiles obtained from thermocouple arrays. These experiments were carried out on pure DGEBA epoxy (DOW DER-332) cured with a variety of primary amine, secondary amine, and anhydride curing agents.

  2. Graphite composites with advanced resin matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of processing variables on the flammability and mechanical properties for state-of-the-art and advanced resin matrices for graphite composites were studied. Resin matrices which were evaluated included state-of-the-art epoxy, phenolic-novolac, phenolic-xylok, two types of bismaleimides, benzyl, polyethersulfone, and poly(p-phenylene sulfone). Comparable flammability and thermochemical data on graphite-reinforced laminates prepared with these resin matrices are presented, and the relationship of some of these properties to the anaerobic char yield of the resins is described.

  3. Sulfate ion (SO4(2-)) release from old and new cation exchange resins used in condensate polishing systems for power plants.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhi-Ping; Tang, Xue-Ying; Yin, Zhao-Hui; Yu, Wei-Wei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a dynamic cycle test, a static immersion method and a pyrolysis experiment were combined to examine the characteristics of SO4(2-) released from several new and old cation exchange resins used in condensate polishing systems for power plants. The results show that the quantity and velocity of SO4(2-) released from new and old resins tend to balance in a short time during the dynamic cycle experiment. SO4(2-) is released by 1500H (monosphere super gel type cation exchange resins) and 001 × 7 (gel type cation exchange resins) new and old cation exchange resins, the quantity of which increases according to immersion time. In the pyrolysis experiment, the quantity of SO4(2-) released from resins increases and the pH of the pyrolysis solution transforms from alkaline to acidic with an increase in temperature. PMID:25325543

  4. Monitoring of resin flow in the resin transfer molding (RTM) process using point-voltage sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murat Danisman; Goker Tuncol; Alper Kaynar; E. Murat Sozer

    2007-01-01

    Multiple point-voltage sensors were used to monitor the mold filling stage of the resin transfer molding (RTM) process. Both lineal- and point-voltage sensors are electrical circuits in which the two poles of the sensor are closed when liquid thermoset resin arrives at the sensor location in the mold cavity. The electrical conductance of the liquid resin causes an increase in

  5. Development of solvent-free offset ink using vegetable oil esters and high molecular-weight resin.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Min; Kim, Young Han; Kim, Sung Bin

    2013-01-01

    In the development of solvent-free offset ink, the roles of resin molecular weight and used solvent on the ink performance were evaluated by examining the relationship between the various properties of resin and solvent and print quality. To find the best performing resin, the soy-oil fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was applied to the five modified-phenolic resins having different molecular weights. It is found from the experimental results that the ink made of higher molecular weight and better solubility resin gives better printability and print quality. It is because larger molecular weight resin with better solubility gives higher rate of ink transfer. From the ink application of different esters to high molecular weight resin, the best printing performance was yielded from the soy-oil fatty acid butyl ester (FABE). It is due to its high kinematic viscosity resulting in the smallest change of ink transfer weight upon multiple number of printing, which improves the stability of ink quality. PMID:23728325

  6. 76 FR 39896 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ...Review)] Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy Determination On the basis of...order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to continuation...entitled Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin from Italy: Investigation No....

  7. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

  12. 21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...polyacrylamide resin is produced by the copolymerization of acrylamide with not more than 5-mole percent ?-methacrylyloxyethy-ltrimethylammonium...polyacrylamide resin contains not more than 0.05 percent residual acrylamide. (c) The modified polyacrylamide resin is used as...

  13. 21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...polyacrylamide resin is produced by the copolymerization of acrylamide with not more than 5-mole percent ?-methacrylyloxyethy-ltrimethylammonium...polyacrylamide resin contains not more than 0.05 percent residual acrylamide. (c) The modified polyacrylamide resin is used as...

  14. 21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...polyacrylamide resin is produced by the copolymerization of acrylamide with not more than 5-mole percent ?-methacrylyloxyethy-ltrimethylammonium...polyacrylamide resin contains not more than 0.05 percent residual acrylamide. (c) The modified polyacrylamide resin is used as...

  15. 21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...polyacrylamide resin is produced by the copolymerization of acrylamide with not more than 5-mole percent ?-methacrylyloxyethy-ltrimethylammonium...polyacrylamide resin contains not more than 0.05 percent residual acrylamide. (c) The modified polyacrylamide resin is used as...

  16. Microwave-assisted preparation of functionalized resins for combinatorial synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Yang; Yanqing Peng; Gonghua Song; Xuhong Qian

    2001-01-01

    A series of functionalized resins were synthesized from Merrifield resin by virtue of microwave irradiation. A significant reduction in reaction time was achieved. This method provides a rapid transformation of functionalized resin in solid-phase synthesis.

  17. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). 721.5762 Section...721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). 721.5762 Section...721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5905 Section...Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as a modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-441) is...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5908 Section...Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-561) is...

  1. 21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410 Section...Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles. Phenolic resins identified in this section may be...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5905 Section...Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as a modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-441) is...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). 721.5762 Section...721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). 721.5762 Section...721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). 721.5762 Section...721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5905 Section...Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as a modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-441) is...

  7. 21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410 Section...Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles. Phenolic resins identified in this section may be...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5905 Section...Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as a modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-441) is...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5905 Section...Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as a modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-441) is...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5908 Section...Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-561) is...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5908 Section...Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-561) is...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5908 Section...Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-561) is...

  13. 21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410 Section...Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles. Phenolic resins identified in this section may be...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5908 Section...Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-561) is...

  15. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section 177.2510...Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles...

  16. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section 177.2510...Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles...

  17. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section 177.2510...Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles...

  18. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section 177.2510...Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles...

  19. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section 177.2510...Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles...

  20. A comparative study of two chelating ion-exchange resins for the removal of chromium(III) from aqueous solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Gode; E. Pehlivan

    2003-01-01

    Macroporous resins containing iminodiacetic acid (IDA) groups (Lewatit TP 207 and Chelex-100) were investigated as a function of concentration, temperature and pH for their sorption properties towards chromium(III). The chromium(III) ions sorbed onto the resin and in the equilibrium concentration were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometer. The maximum sorption for chromium ions was observed at pH 4.5. Solution pH

  1. Weibull analysis of bond strength of orthodontic buccal tubes bonded to resin composite surface with various techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nita Viwattanatipa; Walaitip Jermwiwatkul; Rochaya Chintavalakorn; Widchaya Kanchanavasita

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the survival probabilities of various surface preparation techniques for bonding buccal tubes on resin composite surface. Resin composite specimens (hybrid), 33 per group were prepared. 8 experimental groups were (1) sandblast 90?m; (2) sandblast 50?m; (3) abrasion using diamond bur; (4) hydrofluoric acid etching for 1min (HF 1min); (5) HF 2min; (6)

  2. Sulfinylcalix[4]arene-impregnated amberlite XAD-7 resin for the separation of niobium(V) from tantalum(V).

    PubMed

    Matsumiya, Hiroaki; Yasuno, Shizu; Iki, Nobuhiko; Miyano, Sotaro

    2005-10-01

    Amberlite XAD-7 resin was impregnated with p-tert-butylsulfinylcalix[4]arene. Niobium(V) was collected on the impregnated resin in yields of more than 90% around pH 5.4, whereas tantalum(V) was negligibly collected. The collected niobium(V) was desorbed with 9 M sulfuric acid nearly quantitatively, hence the separation of niobium(V) from tantalum(V) was successfully achieved. PMID:16196151

  3. Novel Syntheses Method of Phenol Type Benzo-15Crown5 Ether Resin and its Application for Lithium Isotope Separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kohei OTAKE; Tatsuya SUZUKI; Hyun-Jun KIM; Masao NOMURA; Yasuhiko FUJII

    2006-01-01

    The novel synthesis method of phenol type benzo-15-crown-5 ether resin was proposed. The chemical bonding of benzo-crown ether and phenol was succeeded by using hexamethylenetetramine and trichloroacetic acid as the condensing agent and solvent, respectively. The control of the diameter and shape of resin was also succeeded by using the high porous silica beads support. The isotope fractionation by chromatography

  4. Water-dependent Interfacial Transition Zone in Resin-modified Glass-ionomer Cement\\/Dentin Interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. R. Tay; S. K. Sidhu; T. F. Watson; D. H. Pashley

    2004-01-01

    The function of the interfacial transition zone (absorption layer) in resin-modified glass-ionomer cements bonded to deep dentin remains obscure. This study tested the hypotheses that the absorption layer is formed only in the presence of water derived from hydrated dentin and allows for better bonding of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements to dentin. Ten percent polyacrylic acid-conditioned, hydrated, and dehydrated deep dentin

  5. Synthesis and characterization of amphoteric resins and its use for treatment of radioactive liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Siyam, T.; El-Naggar, I.M.; Aly, H.F. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-12-31

    Amphoteric resins such as poly (acrylamide-acrylic acid-diallylamine-hydrochloride) {open_quotes}P(AH-AA-DAA){sup +}Cl{close_quotes} and poly (acrylamide-acrylic acid-dially-ethylamine-hydrochloride) {open_quotes}P(AM-AA-DAEA){sup +} Cl{close_quotes} were prepared by gamma radiation-induced polymerization of acrylic acid {open_quotes}AA{close_quotes} in the presence of poly(amidoamines) such as poly(acryl-amide-diallyamine-hydrochloride) {open_quotes}P(AM- DAAH){sup +}Cl{close_quotes} and poly(acrylamide-dially-ethylamine-hydrochloride){close_quotes}P(AM-DAEAH){sup +} Cl{sup -}{close_quotes} it as template polymers using a template polymerization technique. Spectroscopic studies showed that resins contain both amide- and carboxylic groups, and the peak of {r_angle}NH of amine salts at (3000-2700 cm{sup {minus}1}) and (2700-2500 cm{sup {minus}1}) is disappeared. This indicates that the addition of acrylic acid monomer on ammonium groups. These ammonium groups in template polymers are converted into acrylic acid chain ends in the obtained resins accordingly, the probability of the polymer degradation of decreases may be attributed to the high radiation stability of these chain ends of acrylic acid units. The capacities of the obtained resins increase by increasing the absorbed doses of about {approximately}20 kGy, but at high doses the capacities decrease. On increasing the amines ratio in template polymers the capacities of resins for cation decreased but increased for anions. The capacities of the product materials to some heavy metal ions decrease with increasing the hydrogen ion concentrations and the selectivity is decreased in the order Cu{sup 2+} > Co{sup 2+} > Cs{sup +}.

  6. Therapeutic effects of novel resin bonding systems containing bioactive glasses on mineral-depleted areas within the bonded-dentine interface.

    PubMed

    Sauro, Salvatore; Osorio, Raquel; Watson, Timothy F; Toledano, Manuel

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed in evaluating the effects of two experimental resin bonding systems containing conventional Bioglass 45S5 (BAG) or Zinc-polycarboxylated bioactive glass (BAG-Zn) micro-fillers on the resin-bonded dentine interface after storage in a simulated body fluid solution (SBFS). Three resin bonding systems were formulated: Resin-A: (BAG containing); Resin-B; (BAG-Zn containing); Resin-C (no filler). The ability of the experimental resins to evoke apatite formation was evaluated using confocal Raman spectroscopy. Acid-etched dentine specimens were bonded, and prepared for AFM/nano-indentation analysis in a fully-hydrated status to evaluate the modulus of elasticity (Ei) and hardness (Hi) across the interface at different SBFS storage periods. Further resin-dentine specimens were tested for microtensile bond strength after 24 h or 3 months of SBFS storage. SEM examination was performed after de-bonding and confocal laser microscopy was used to evaluate the ultramorphology of the interfaces and micropermeability. The resin A and B showed a consistent presence of apatite (967 cm(-1)), reduced micropermeability within the resin-dentine interface and a significant increase of the Ei and Hi along the bonded-dentine interface after prolonged SBFS storage. Bond strength values were affected by the resin system (P < 0.0001) and by storage time (P < 0.0001) both after 24 h and 3 months of SBFS storage. In conclusion, resin bonding systems containing bioactive fillers may a have therapeutic effect on the nano-mechanical properties and sealing ability of mineral-depleted resin-dentine interface. PMID:22466816

  7. Effect of resin rheology on macro- and micro-flows in resin transfer molding

    SciTech Connect

    Chih-Hsin Shih; Lee, L.J.; Koelling, K. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Resin transfer molding (RTM) is a relatively new and high potential process for near net shape composite manufacturing because of its short cycle time, low labor requirements and low equipment cost. The major material variables in the RTM process are the resin rheology and the fiber reinforcement structure. The presence of low profile additives or fillers tends to change the resin mixture from a Newtonian fluid to a Non-Newtonian fluid. Different fiber architectures may result in different flow patterns that will influence the mold filling and curing processes. This paper will discuss how the resin rheology and fiber structure effect the resin transfer molding process.

  8. Phosphorus-containing imide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (inventors)

    1985-01-01

    Cured polymers of bis and tris-imides derived from tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides by reaction with maleic anhydride or its derivatives, and addition polymers of such imides, including a variant in which a monoimide is condensed with a dianhydride and the product is treated with a further quantity of maleic anhydride prior to curing are disclosed and claimed. Such polymers are flame resistant. Also disclosed are an improved method of producing tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides from the nitro analogues by reduction with hydrazine hydrate using palladized charcoal or Raney nickel as the catalyst and fiber reinforced cured resin composites.

  9. High refractive index photocurable resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morford, Robert V.; Mercado, Ramil L.; Planje, Curtis E.; Flaim, Tony D.

    2005-04-01

    The performance of optoelectronic devices can be increased by incorporating a high refractive index layer into the system. This paper describes several potential high refractive index resin candidates. Our materials include the added advantages over other systems because the new materials are cationically photocurable and free flowing, have low shrinkage upon cure, have no (or little) volatile organic components, are applicable by a variety of methods (dip coating, roller coating, injection molding, or film casting), can be applied in a variety of thicknesses (10-100 m), are fast-curing, and possess robust physical properties. Particular attention focuses on the refractive index in the visible spectrum, light transmission, and formulation viscosity.

  10. Polyimide Resins Resist Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft and aerospace engines share a common threat: high temperature. The temperatures experienced during atmospheric reentry can reach over 2,000 F, and the temperatures in rocket engines can reach well over 5,000 F. To combat the high temperatures in aerospace applications, Dr. Ruth Pater of Langley Research Center developed RP-46, a polyimide resin capable of withstanding the most brutal temperatures. The composite material can push the service temperature to the limits of organic materials. Designed as an environmentally friendly alternative to other high-temperature resins, the RP-46 polyimide resin system was awarded a 1992 "R&D 100" award, named a "2001 NASA Technology of the Year," and later, due to its success as a spinoff technology, "2004 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year." The technology s commercial success also led to its winning the Langley s "Paul F. Holloway Technology Transfer Award" as well as "Richard T. Whitcom Aerospace Technology Transfer Award" both for 2004. RP-46 is relatively inexpensive and it can be readily processed for use as an adhesive, composite, resin molding, coating, foam, or film. Its composite materials can be used in temperatures ranging from minus 150 F to 2,300 F. No other organic materials are known to be capable of such wide range and extreme high-temperature applications. In addition to answering the call for environmentally conscious high-temperature materials, RP-46 provides a slew of additional advantages: It is extremely lightweight (less than half the weight of aluminum), chemical and moisture resistant, strong, and flexible. Pater also developed a similar technology, RP-50, using many of the same methods she used with RP-46, and very similar in composition to RP-46 in terms of its thermal capacity and chemical construction, but it has different applications, as this material is a coating as opposed to a buildable composite. A NASA license for use of this material outside of the Space Agency as well as additional government-funded testing proved that RP-46 is even more exceptional than originally thought.

  11. MOLD FILLING PARAMETERS IN RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING OF COMPOSITES

    E-print Network

    MOLD FILLING PARAMETERS IN RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING OF COMPOSITES by Charles William Hedley A thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Pultrusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Resin Transfer Molding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Compression Molding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Filament Winding

  12. POLYAMIDE-EPICHLOROHYDRIN RESINS FOR UNION DYEING WOOL/COTTON BLENDED FABRICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cationic amine polyamide-epichlorohydrin (PAE) resins were applied as pretreatments to all-wool, all-cotton, and blends of wool/cotton for subsequent one-step union dyeing with acid dyes following the conventional wool dyeing process. Compared to cationic biguanide and dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneur...

  13. SYTHEIS AND PURIFICATON OF NSP4150-175 THROUGHT THE USE OF SOLID PHASE RESIN 

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Christopher 1989-

    2012-05-08

    and piperidine as the deblocking solution. Peptides will be cleaved from the solid-phase resin using tri-fluoroacetic acid with free-radical scavengers. Purification will be accomplished through gel filtration and HPLC reverse-phase chromatography and verified...

  14. PURIFICATION AND CONCENTRATION OF URANIUM IN RIVER WATER USING AN ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Shoaf; H. L. Galloway; F. S. Voss

    1956-01-01

    An analytical method is presented for the determination of uranium in ; river water containing a high solid content. The uranium is concentrated and ; purified by adsorption of the uranyl sulfate ion on an union exchange resin, ; followed by elution with a small amount of nitric acid solution. The purified ; uranium is then determined fluorimetricelly. This method

  15. Zoledronate and ion-releasing resins impair dentin collagen degradation.

    PubMed

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, A; Seseogullari-Dirihan, R; Feitosa, V P; Tay, F R; Watson, T F; Pashley, D H; Sauro, S

    2014-10-01

    This study analyzed the amounts of solubilized telopeptides cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and C-terminal crosslinked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) derived from matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins (CTPs) subsequent to application of a filler-free (Res.A) or an ion-releasing resin (Res.B) to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-demineralized dentin with or without zoledronate-containing primer (Zol-primer) pre-treatment. The chemical modification induced following treatments and artificial saliva (AS) storage was also analyzed through attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Totally EDTA-demineralized specimens were infiltrated with Res.A or Res.B with or without Zol-primer pre-treatment, light-cured, and immersed in AS for up to 4 wk. ICTP release was reduced following infiltration with Res.B and further reduced when Res.B was used with Zol-primer; remarkable phosphate mineral uptake was attained after AS storage. CTX release was increased in Res.A- and Res.B-treated dentin. However, when Zol-primer was used with Res.A, the CTX release fell significantly compared to the other tested resin-infiltration methods. In conclusion, zoledronate offers an additional inhibitory effect to the ion-releasing resins in MMP-mediated collagen degradation. However, Zol-primer induces a modest reduction in CTX release only when used with resin-based systems containing no ion-releasing fillers. PMID:25074494

  16. Characterization of a Linear Melamine Formaldehyde Resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela Leidl; Werner F. Huber; Clemens Schwarzinger; Andreas Endesfelder

    2007-01-01

    A novel linear melamine formaldehyde resin on the basis of the bifunctional tetramethylmelamine was created. It was found to posses several promising properties for industrial applications. Structural characterization of the material at its various production states was achieved with different mass spectrometric techniques. Liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry was used to completely separate the resins and identify the individual components.

  17. Disinfection of denture base acrylic resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Lin; Stephen M. Cameron; Dennis A. Runyan; David W. Craft

    1999-01-01

    Statement of problem. During repair or adjustments of acrylic resin removable complete and partial dentures, particles of the acrylic resin from the interior of the prosthesis may expose dental personnel to microbial health hazards if the prosthesis has not been thoroughly disinfected. Purpose. This study investigates the efficacy of a commercially prepared microbial disinfectant (Alcide) on the external and internal

  18. Fluorinated diamond bonded in fluorocarbon resin

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Gene W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01

    By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

  19. 21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins...1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not less than 104 poises at 380...ibr_locations.html. The melt viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins...

  20. 21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins...1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not less than 104 poises at 380...ibr_locations.html. The melt viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins...1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not less than 104 poises at 380...ibr_locations.html. The melt viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins...

  2. Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Six silicone modified resins were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 6-63%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 1,220 MPa and a modulus of 105 GPa. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 72 MPa.

  3. Sand control with resin and explosive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Dees; W. J. Begnaud; N. L. Sahr

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for treating a well having perforated casing to prevent solids movement through the perforations and into the wellbore. It comprises positioning a quantity of liquid resin solution such that the solution occupies the interval of the casing having perforations; positioning an explosive in proximity with the liquid resin solution; detonating the explosive; displacing the liquid

  4. A Fundamental Approach to Resin Cure Kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leroy Chiao; Richard E. Lyon

    1990-01-01

    Thermoset polymer resins are an important class of materials, particularly when used as the matrix for advanced fiber composites. Because material performance is directly related to processing, it is useful to study the cure kinetics of these resins for use in process modeling, design and control. Several workers have attacked this problem using empirical rate laws. However, a fundamental approach

  5. Feasibility of vitrifying EPICOR II organic resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Buelt

    1982-01-01

    Funded by the US Department of Energy under the EG and G\\/TMI Waste Immobilization Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has completed the first phase of a program in which a process designed to destroy EPICOR II resins was tested for its feasibility. These resins were utilized to remove cesium and strontium from radioactively contaminated water in the Auxiliary Building at

  6. FLUORESCENCE EFFECTS IN ION EXCHANGE RESINS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Flint; G. G. Eichholz

    1961-01-01

    Available as Can. Dept. Mines and Tech. Surveys, Mines Branch ; Resesrch Report R-91, 25. Fluorescence under ultraviolet illumination was ; observed in anion and cation exchange resins when in the unloaded state. The ; fluorescence decreases rapidly in intensity as the resin is loaded and this ; process is shown to offer a practical method for controlling the loading

  7. Phenolic-resin-derived activated carbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Tennison

    1998-01-01

    A novel binderless preparative route is described for the production of phenolic-resin-derived carbons for use as catalyst supports and adsorbents. The carbons can be produced in a wide variety of physical forms ranging from simple granules to large monolithic structures. The fully interconnected macropore structure of the carbons, which derives from the interconnected voids between the primary resin particles, can

  8. Advances in addition-cure phenolic resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Reghunadhan Nair

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in the area of addition curable phenolic resins are reviewed. The article highlights the chemistry of addition-cure phenolic resins and discusses the different strategies involved in their molecular design. Structural modification through incorporation of thermally stable, addition curable groups on the novolac backbone is one strategy. The transformation of phenolic hydroxyl groups to addition curable functions forms an

  9. Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Allen

    2010-01-01

    An ion exchange process using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, using large scale columns as part of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed small column ion exchange (SCIX) system,

  10. Prophylaxis with resin in wood ants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregoire Castella; Michel Chapuisat; Philippe Christe

    2008-01-01

    Animals may use plant compounds to defend themselves against parasites. Wood ants, Formica paralugub- ris, incorporate pieces of solidified conifer resin into their nests. This behaviour inhibits the growth of bac- teria and fungi in nest material and protects the ants against some detrimental microorganisms. Here, we studied the resin-collecting behaviour of ants under field and laboratory conditions. First, we

  11. Evaluation and application of anion exchange resins to measure groundwater uranium flux at a former uranium mill site.

    PubMed

    Stucker, Valerie; Ranville, James; Newman, Mark; Peacock, Aaron; Cho, Jaehyun; Hatfield, Kirk

    2011-10-15

    Laboratory tests and a field validation experiment were performed to evaluate anion exchange resins for uranium sorption and desorption in order to develop a uranium passive flux meter (PFM). The mass of uranium sorbed to the resin and corresponding masses of alcohol tracers eluted over the duration of groundwater installation are then used to determine the groundwater and uranium contaminant fluxes. Laboratory based batch experiments were performed using Purolite A500, Dowex 21K and 21K XLT, Lewatit S6328 A resins and silver impregnated activated carbon to examine uranium sorption and extraction for each material. The Dowex resins had the highest uranium sorption, followed by Lewatit, Purolite and the activated carbon. Recoveries from all ion exchange resins were in the range of 94-99% for aqueous uranium in the environmentally relevant concentration range studied (0.01-200 ppb). Due to the lower price and well-characterized tracer capacity, Lewatit S6328 A was used for field-testing of PFMs at the DOE UMTRA site in Rifle, CO. The effect on the flux measurements of extractant (nitric acid)/resin ratio, and uranium loading were investigated. Higher cumulative uranium fluxes (as seen with concentrations>1 ug U/gram resin) yielded more homogeneous resin samples versus lower cumulative fluxes (<1 ug U/gram resin), which caused the PFM to have areas of localized concentration of uranium. Resin homogenization and larger volume extractions yield reproducible results for all levels of uranium fluxes. Although PFM design can be improved to measure flux and groundwater flow direction, the current methodology can be applied to uranium transport studies. PMID:21798572

  12. Continuous metal removal technique for resist resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanat, Stan F.; McKenzie, Douglas S.; Rahman, M. D.

    2001-08-01

    Modern resists require very pure raw materials to insure highest quality images. Many methods have been developed to reduce metals in resins used to make photoresists. Extractive washing techniques and ion exchange methods have been the predominant methods used to reduce metal levels for these critical raw materials. This has been especially important for the novolak resins because of the generally poor quality of the starting materials used to make them and by the nature of the resin isolation steps traditionally used. Both of the commonly used cleaning methods are time consuming and are predominantly batch processes. Based upon techniques developed to efficiently fractionate resins, we have developed a technique for the rapid, continuous reduction of metal contaminants in film forming resin solutions by an extractive method using a double inlet liquid/liquid centrifuge.

  13. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    A new analytical model for simulating chemoviscosity of thermosetting resin was formulated. The model is developed by modifying the Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) theory in polymer rheology for thermoplastic materials. By assuming a linear relationship between the glass transition temperature and the degree of cure of the resin system under cure, the WLF theory can be modified to account for the factor of reaction time. Temperature dependent functions of the modified WLF theory constants were determined from the isothermal cure data of Lee, Loos, and Springer for the Hercules 3501-6 resin system. Theoretical predictions of the model for the resin under dynamic heating cure cycles were shown to compare favorably with the experimental data reported by Carpenter. A chemoviscosity model which is capable of not only describing viscosity profiles accurately under various cure cycles, but also correlating viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with the structural transformations of the thermosetting resin systems during cure was established.

  14. Composition and properties of acid tar and asphalt produced from acid tar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Frolov; A. N. Aminov; S. D. Timrot

    1981-01-01

    Acid tar is a waste material that is produced in large volumes in treating petroleum oils with concentrated sulfuric acid. The acid tar contains up to 80% petroleum oils and tars and resins. In current practice, the acid tar Ss dumped into holding ponds that take up large areas of land; this practice leads to pollution of the ground, water,

  15. Modification of Malonamide Ion-Exchange\\/Chelating Resins Using the Fields–Kabatschnik Reaction and Their Application to Metal Ion Removal from Aqueous Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej W. Trochimczuk; Julia Jezierska

    2000-01-01

    A resin containing 2-aminoethyl-substituted amides of malonic acid was modified in the Fields–Kabatschnik reaction using diethyl phosphite. The resultant ion-exchange\\/chelating resins have aminomethylphosphonate groups. Modification proceeds almost quantitatively, giving a resin with P=1.97 mmol\\/g, N=4.20 mmol\\/g, and water regain of 0.44 g\\/g. It can be selectively hydrolyzed by treatment with trimethylchlorosilane\\/potassium bromide in dry acetonitrile. Both acidic and ester forms

  16. Molecular Structure of Fumaric acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-11-05

    Fumaric acid is odorless and colorless or white crystalline powder with a fruit acid taste. Fumaric acid is used as a substitute of tartaric acid in beverages and baking powders and as a replacement for citric acid in fruits drinks. It is also used as antioxidant to prevent rancidity in butter, cheese, powdered milk, and other foodstuff. In addition, fumaric acid is a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, synthetic resins and plastics. Fumaric acid can be prepared by catalytic oxidation of benzene or by bacterial action on glucose and it is involved in the production of energy from food. Fumaric acid (known as trans-butanedioic acid) is the trans isomer of maleic acid (also called cis-butanedioic acid). Fumaric acid is more stable than maleic acid and can be prepared by heating maleic acid.

  17. Antimicrobial Activities of Amphiphilic Peptides Covalently Bonded to a Water-Insoluble Resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHARON L. HAYNIE; GRACE A. CRUM; ANDBRUCE A. DOELE

    1995-01-01

    A series of polymer-bound antimicrobial peptides was prepared, and the peptides were tested for their antimicrobial activities. The immobilized peptides were prepared by a strategy that used solid-phase peptide synthesis that linked the carboxy-terminal amino acid with an ethylenediamine-modified polyamide resin (PepsynK). The acid-stable, permanent amide bond between the support and the nascent peptide renders the peptide resistant to cleavage

  18. Versatile on-resin synthesis of high mannose glycosylated asparagine with functional handles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Pawlicki, Mark A; Tolbert, Thomas J

    2014-01-13

    Here we present a synthetic route for solid phase synthesis of N-linked glycoconjugates containing high mannose oligosaccharides which allows the incorporation of useful functional handles on the N-terminus of asparagine. In this strategy, the C-terminus of an Fmoc protected aspartic acid residue is first attached to a solid phase support. The side chain of aspartic acid is protected by a 2-phenylisopropyl protecting group, which allows selective deprotection for the introduction of glycosylation. By using a convergent on-resin glycosylamine coupling strategy, an N-glycosidic linkage is successfully formed on the free side chain of the resin bound aspartic acid with a large high mannose oligosaccharide, Man8GlcNAc2, to yield N-linked high mannose glycosylated asparagine. The use of on-resin glycosylamine coupling provides excellent glycosylation yield, can be applied to couple other types of oligosaccharides, and also makes it possible to recover excess oligosaccharides conveniently after the on-resin coupling reaction. Useful functional handles including an alkene (p-vinylbenzoic acid), an alkyne (4-pentynoic acid), biotin, and 5-carboxyfluorescein are then conjugated onto the N-terminal amine of asparagine on-resin after the removal of the Fmoc protecting group. In this way, useful functional handles are introduced onto the glycosylated asparagine while maintaining the structural integrity of the reducing end of the oligosaccharide. The asparagine side chain also serves as a linker between the glycan and the functional group and preserves the native presentation of N-linked glycan which may aid in biochemical and structural studies. As an example of a biochemical study using functionalized high mannose glycosylated asparagine, a fluorescence polarization assay has been utilized to study the binding of the lectin Concanavalin A (ConA) using 5-carboxyfluorescein labeled high mannose glycosylated asparagine. PMID:24326091

  19. Versatile On-Resin Synthesis of High Mannose Glycosylated Asparagine with Functional Handles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Pawlicki, Mark A.; Tolbert, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Here we present a synthetic route for solid phase synthesis of N-linked glycoconjugates containing high mannose oligosaccharides which allows the incorporation of useful functional handles on the N-terminus of asparagine. In this strategy, the C-terminus of an Fmoc protected aspartic acid residue is first attached to a solid phase support. The side chain of aspartic acid is protected by a 2-phenylisopropyl protecting group, which allows selective deprotection for the introduction of glycosylation. By using a convergent on-resin glycosylamine coupling strategy, an N-glycosidic linkage is successfully formed on the free side chain of the resin bound aspartic acid with a large high mannose oligosaccharide, Man8GlcNAc2, to yield N-linked high mannose glycosylated asparagine. The use of on-resin glycosylamine coupling provides excellent glycosylation yield, can be applied to couple other types of oligosaccharides, and also makes it possible to recover excess oligosaccharides conveniently after the on-resin coupling reaction. Useful functional handles including an alkene (p-vinylbenzoic acid), an alkyne (4-pentynoic acid), biotin, and 5-carboxyfluorescein are then conjugated onto the N-terminal amine of asparagine on-resin after the removal of the Fmoc protecting group. In this way, useful functional handles are introduced onto the glycosylated asparagine while maintaining the structural integrity of the reducing end of the oligosaccharide. The asparagine side chain also serves as a linker between the glycan and the functional group and preserves the native presentation of N-linked glycan which may aid in biochemical and structural studies. As an example of a biochemical study using functionalized high mannose glycosylated asparagine, a fluorescence polarization assay has been utilized to study the binding of the lectin Concanavalin A (ConA) using 5-carboxyfluorescein labeled high mannose glycosylated asparagine. PMID:24326091

  20. Gastroprotective effect of the Mapuche crude drug Araucaria araucana resin and its main constituents.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Astudillo, Luis; Rodríguez, Jaime; Theoduloz, Cristina; Yáñez, Tania

    2005-10-01

    The resin from the tree Araucaria araucana (Araucariaceae) has been used since pre-columbian times by the Mapuche amerindians to treat ulcers. The gastroprotective effect of the resin was assessed in the ethanol-HCl-induced gastric ulcer in mice showing a dose-dependent gastroprotective activity at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg per os. The main three diterpene constituents of the resin, namely imbricatolic acid, 15-hydroxyimbricatolal and 15-acetoxyimbricatolic acid were isolated and evaluated for gastroprotective effect at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. A dose-related gastroprotective effect with highly significant activity (P<0.01) was observed at doses up to 200 mg/kg. At 100 mg/kg, the highest gastroprotective activity was provided by 15-hydroxyimbricatolal and 15-acetoxyimbricatolic acid, all of them being as active as the reference drug lansoprazole at 20 mg/kg. The cytotoxicity of the main diterpenes as well as lansoprazole was studied towards human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) and determined by the MTT reduction assay. A concentration-dependent cell viability inhibition was found with IC50 values ranging from 125 up to 290 microM. Our results support the traditional use of the Araucaria araucana resin by the Mapuche culture. PMID:15985351

  1. Tc-99 Ion Exchange Resin Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2010-08-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by CHPRC to evaluate the release of 99Tc from spent resin used to treat water from well 299-W15-765 and stored for several years. The key questions to be answered are: 1) does 99Tc readily release from the spent ion exchange resin after being in storage for several years; 2) if hot water stripping is used to remove the co-contaminant carbon tetrachloride, will 99Tc that has been sequestered by the resin be released; and 3) can spent resin be encapsulated into a cementitious waste form; if so, how much 99Tc would be released from the weathering of the monolith waste form? The results from the long term stability leach test results confirm that the resin is not releasing a significant amount of the sequestered 99Tc, evident by the less than 0.02% of the total 99Tc loaded being identified in the solution. Furthermore, it is possible that the measured 99Tc concentration is the result of 99Tc contained in the pore spaces of the resin. In addition to these results, analyses conducted to examine the impact of hot water on the release of 99Tc suggest that only a small percentage of the total is being released. This suggest that hot water stripping to remove carbon tetrachloride will not have a significant affect on the resin’s ability to hold-on to sequestered 99Tc. Finally, encapsulation of spent resin in a cementitious material may be a viable disposal option, but additional tests are needed to examine the extent of physical degradation caused by moisture loss and the effect this degradation process can have on the release of 99Tc.

  2. Recycling of epoxy resin compounds for moulding electronic components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MASATOSHI Iji

    1998-01-01

    This study reports the recycling of the cured epoxy resin compounds containing silica filler and additives for moulding electronic components, which is generated as a mould residue in moulding process. The pulverized residue (moulding resin powder) showed good surface reactivity due to the functional groups contained (silanol, hydroxy and epoxy) and reacted with polar resins such as epoxy resin and

  3. Monitoring of Resin Transfer Molding Processes with Distributed Dielectric Sensors

    E-print Network

    Mamishev, Alexander

    Monitoring of Resin Transfer Molding Processes with Distributed Dielectric Sensors Michael Campbell___________________________________ #12;University of Washington Abstract Monitoring of Resin Transfer Molding Processes with Distributed-situ sensing in resin transfer molding (RTM) and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is designed

  4. Optimal control of accelerator concentration for resin transfer molding process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun K. Kim; Dae-Hwan Kim; Isaac M. Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Resin cure following mold filling is an essential element in resin transfer molding. To fabricate a composite part with high dimensional stability and minimize residual stress, uniform resin cure should be achieved. This study considers a three-part resin system composed of epoxy, hardener and accelerator. The cure kinetics can be controlled by the accelerator concentration at the injection gate. A

  5. Analysis of vacuum bag resin transfer molding process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Kang; W. I. Lee; H. T. Hahn

    2001-01-01

    An analytical model is developed to analyze the resin flow through a deformable fiber preform during vacuum bag resin transfer molding (VBRTM) process. The force balance between the resin and the fiber preform is used to account for the swelling of fiber preform inside a flexible vacuum bag. Mold filling through multiple resin inlets is analyzed under different vacuum conditions.

  6. In-depth disinfection of acrylic resins.

    PubMed

    Chau, V B; Saunders, T R; Pimsler, M; Elfring, D R

    1995-09-01

    This study demonstrated that bacteria penetrate three kinds of dental acrylic resin after a short time period. Samples of acrylic resin were contaminated with a variety of bacteria and were then placed in three different disinfecting solutions as directed by the manufacturers. After the specific dilution and immersion time, cultures were made from the resin samples. The only effective disinfectant was a 0.525% solution of sodium hypochlorite at a 10-minute immersion. It disinfected not only the surfaces but also the bacteria that penetrated the surfaces to a depth of 3 mm. PMID:7473287

  7. Resin flow/fiber deformation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gutowski, T.G.; Cai, Z.; Kingery, J.; Wineman, S.J.

    1986-07-01

    This paper reports on recent consolidation experiments taken on special prepregs made of aligned graphite fibers and constant viscosity oils. Three types of experiments are reported here: (1) Fiber Deformation, (2) Axial Permeability, and (3) Resin Pressure. Results show that the fibers carry a finite load at typical fiber volume fractions for advanced composites. Also, the axial permeability can be modeled by the Carman-Kozeny Theory, and Resin Flow/Fiber Deformation Theory can be used to model the resin pressure history. 5 references, 7 figures.

  8. Accurate determination of ?¹Ca concentrations in spent resins from the nuclear industry by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Bourlès, Didier; Bienvenu, Philippe; Labet, Alexandre; Arnold, Maurice; Bertaux, Maité

    2013-12-01

    The radiological characterisation of nuclear waste is essential for managing storage sites. Determining the concentration of Long-Lived RadioNuclides (LLRN) is fundamental for their long-term management. This paper focuses on the measurement of low (41)Ca concentrations in ions exchange resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR). (41)Ca concentrations were successfully measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) after the acid digestion of resin samples, followed by radioactive decontamination and isobaric suppression through successive hydroxide, carbonate, nitrate and final CaF2 precipitations. Measured (41)Ca concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 ng/g, i.e. from 0.06 to 0.09 Bq/g. The (41)Ca/(60)Co activity ratios obtained were remarkably reproducible and in good agreement with the current ratio used for resins management. PMID:24144617

  9. Sorption of beryllium from fluorine-containing solutions by amino-phosphonate amphoteric ion-exchange resins

    SciTech Connect

    Pakholkov, V.S.; Rychkov, V.N.

    1981-10-20

    Sorption of beryllium ions by a series of amino-phosphonate amphoteric ion-exchange resins from BeF/sub 2/ solutions containing HF, NH/sub 4/F.HF, and NH/sub 4/F has been studied. The influence of the salt form of the resin, concentration of fluoride ions, and beryllium content in the original solutions was demonstrated. The mechanism of ion exchange on amphoteric ion-exchangers was postulated on the basis of chemical analysis and sorption and IR-spectroscopic data. Conclusions are drawn regarding the participation of phosphorus-containing groups of the resins in exchange. Data are presented on desorption of complex fluoride ions and beryllium from amphoteric ion-exchange resins by solutions of hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, and sulfuric acids, ammonium fluoride, and ammonium hydrogenfluoride.

  10. New modified hydrocarbon resins; An alternative to styrenated terpene resins in hot melts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carper

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of two hydrocarbon-based resin formulations that could be used with different thermoplastic block copolymers to formulate pressure-sensitive adhesives. Results are examined with one of these resins in formulations with styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) and styrene-butadiene (SB) compounds. The new modified hydrocarbon resin, with a softening point of 98° C, matches the adhesive performance of a terpene

  11. Growth, Induction, and Substrate Specificity of Dehydroabietic Acid-Degrading Bacteria Isolated from a Kraft Mill Effluent Enrichment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. BICHO; V. MARTIN; N. SADDLER

    1995-01-01

    We investigated resin acid degradation infive bacteria isolated from a bleach kraft mill effluent enrichment. All of the bacteria grew on dehydroabietic acid (DHA), a resin acid routinely detected in pulping effluents, or glycerol as the sole carbon source. None of the strains grew on acetate or methanol. Glycerol-grown, high- density, resting-cell suspensions were found to undergo a lag for

  12. Curing kinetics of phenol formaldehyde resin and wood-resin interactions in the presence of wood substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangbo He; Bernard Riedl

    2004-01-01

    The curing kinetics of resol PF resin and resin–wood interactions in the presence of wood substrates have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The activation energy of cure of PF resin generally increases when PF resin is mixed with wood, mainly due to the decrease of the pH values resulting from the presence

  13. Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    An ion exchange process using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, using large scale columns as part of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed small column ion exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at Hanford and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A recirculating test loop with a small ion exchange column was used to measure the effect of oxygen uptake and radiation exposure on the permeability of a packed bed of the RF resin. The lab-scale column was designed to be prototypic of the proposed Hanford columns at the WTP. Although the test equipment was designed to model the Hanford ion exchange columns, the data on changes in the hydraulic permeability of the resin will also be valuable for determining potential pressure drops through the proposed SCIX system. The superficial fluid velocity in the lab-scale test (3.4-5.7 cm/s) was much higher than is planned for the full-scale Hanford columns to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in those columns (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity produced forces on the resin in the lab-scale tests that matched the design basis of the full-scale Hanford column. Any changes in the resin caused by the radiation exposure and oxygen uptake were monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and the physical properties of the resin. Three hydraulic test runs were completed, the first using fresh RF resin at 25 C, the second using irradiated resin at 25 C, and the third using irradiated resin at 45 C. A Hanford AP-101 simulant solution was recirculated through a test column containing 500 mL of Na-form RF resin. Known amounts of oxygen were introduced into the primary recirculation loop by saturating measured volumes of the simulant solution with oxygen and reintroducing the oxygenated simulant into the feed tank. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the recirculating simulant was monitored, and the amount of oxygen that reacted with the resin was determined from the change in the DO concentration of the recirculating simulant solution. Prior to hydraulic testing the resin for runs 2 and 3 was covered with the simulant solution and irradiated in a spent fuel element at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Both batches of resin were irradiated to a total gamma dose of 177 Mrad, but the resin for run 2 reached a maximum temperature during irradiation of 51 C, while the resin for run 3 reached a temperature of 38 C. The different temperatures were the result of the operating status of HFIR at the time of the irradiation and were not part of the test plan; however, the results clearly show the impact of the higher-temperature exposure during irradiation. The flow rate and pressure drop data from the test loop runs show that irradiating the RF resin reduces both the void fraction and the permeability of the resin bed. The mechanism for the reduction in permeability is not clear because irradiation increases the particle size of the resin beads and makes them deform less under pressure. Microscopic examination of the resin beads shows that they are all smooth regular spheres and that irradiation or oxygen uptake did not change the shape of the beads. The resin reacts rapidly with DO in the simulant solution, and the reaction with oxygen reduces the permeability of a bed of new resin by about 10% but has less impact on the permeability of irradiated resin. Irradiation increases the toughness of the resin beads, probably by initiating cross-linking reactions in them. Oxygen uptake reduces the crush strength of both new and irradiated resin; however, the pressures that caused the beads to crush are much higher than would be expected during the operation of an ion exchange column. There was no visible evidence of broken beads in any of the resin samples taken from the test loop. Reaction with oxygen red

  14. Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups and cured resins obtained therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M. (inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups, the process for preparing the same, and the cured resin products obtained therefrom are disclosed. Upon the application of heat, the ethynyl groups react to provide branching and crosslinking with the cure temperature being lowered by using a catalyst if desired but not required. The cured phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups have improved solvent resistance and higher use temperature than linear uncrosslinked phenoxy resins and are applicable for use as coatings, films, adhesives, composited matrices and molding compounds.

  15. Resin Flow Analysis in the Injection Cycle of a Resin Transfer Molded Radome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golestanian, Hossein; Poursina, Mehrdad

    2007-04-01

    Resin flow analysis in the injection cycle of an RTM process was investigated. Fiberglass and carbon fiber mats were used as reinforcements with EPON 826 epoxy resin. Numerical models were developed in ANSYS finite element software to simulate resin flow behavior into a mold of conical shape. Resin flow into the woven fiber mats is modeled as flow through porous media. The injection time for fiberglass/epoxy composite is found to be 4407 seconds. Required injection time for the carbon/epoxy composite is 27022 seconds. Higher injection time for carbon/epoxy part is due to lower permeability value of the carbon fibers compared to glass fiber mat.

  16. Adhesive properties and kinetic polymerization behavior of resins containing adhesion promoting monomers for precious metals.

    PubMed

    Kadoma, Yoshinori

    2005-09-01

    Adhesion promoting monomers -5-(4-vinylbenzyl)-2-thiobarbituric acid (5VS), 9,10-epithiodecyl methacrylate (EP8MA), 9,10-epithiodecyl 4-vinylbenzoate (EP8VB), and 3,4-epithiobutyl 2,2-bis(methacryloyloxymethyl)propionate (EP2BMA)--were added to the MMA liquid of a MMA-PMMA/TBBO resin. Three dental precious metal alloys were butt-jointed together with the MMA-PMMA/TBBO adhesive resin, and tensile bond strength was measured after 2,000 thermocycles in water. Polymerization kinetics of MMA by 2,2'-azobis (isobutyronitrile) at 70 degrees C in the presence of 5VS, EP8MA, EP8VB, or EP2BMA were examined quantitatively using a DSC to clarify the relationship between the adhesive properties of MMA-PMMA/TBBO adhesive resin and the kinetic polymerization behavior thereof. Obtained kinetic parameters indicated that 5VS was not suitable as an adhesive monomer for adhesive resin formulations and that EP2BMA possessed the latent potential as an adhesive monomer. Further, tensile test results revealed the applicability of EP8MA, EP8VB, and EP2BMA as an adhesive monomer component of adhesive resin formulations. PMID:16279723

  17. Influence of composition on rate of polymerization contraction of light-curing resin composites.

    PubMed

    Asmussen, Erik; Peutzfeldt, Anne

    2002-06-01

    A slow contraction may result in reduced gap formation when a restorative resin polymerizes in a dental cavity. It was the aim in the present work to investigate the rate of contraction in relation to composition of experimental light-curing resin composites. The monomer of the resin composites consisted of mixtures of BisGMA, TEGDMA, and in one series HEMA. The resins contained varying amounts of initiators, co-initiators, and inhibitor, and were made composite by adding a silanized glass filler to a content of 74% by weight of the composite paste. The polymerization contraction up to 120 sec was determined by means of the bonded-disk method. Within the ranges studied, the concentration of initiator and co-initiator in the monomer mixture had only an insignificant influence on rate of polymerization. In comparison to camphorquinone, the initiators 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione and benzil reduced the rate of polymerization without affecting the final contraction. In comparison to N,N-dimethyl-p-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester, N,N-cyanoethyl methylaniline was as effective, while N,N-diethanol-p-toluidine was less effective as co-initiator. A relatively high content of the inhibitor methoxyhydroquinone reduced the initial rate but not the final polymerization contraction. The rate of polymerization increased with the level of HEMA and TEGDMA in the monomer mixture. It was concluded that intrinsic slow cure may be obtained with certain compositions of resin composites without impairing the final extent of polymerization. PMID:12166907

  18. Improved high-temperature resistant matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, H. E.; Chang, G. E.; Wright, W. F.; Ueda, K.; Orell, M. K.

    1989-01-01

    A study was performed with the objective of developing matrix resins that exhibit improved thermo-oxidative stability over state-of-the-art high temperature resins for use at temperatures up to 644 K (700 F) and air pressures up to 0.7 MPa (100 psia). The work was based upon a TRW discovered family of polyimides currently licensed to and marketed by Ethyl Corporation as EYMYD(R) resins. The approach investigated to provide improved thermo-oxidative properties was to use halogenated derivatives of the diamine, 2, 2-bis (4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl) hexafluoropropane (4-BDAF). Polyimide neat resins and Celion(R) 12,000 composites prepared from fluorine substituted 4-BDAF demonstrated unexpectedly lower glass transition temperatures (Tg) and thermo-oxidative stabilities than the baseline 4-BDAF/PMDA polymer.

  19. Passifloricins, polyketides ?-pyrones from Passiflora foetida resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Echeverri; Victor Arango; Winston Quiñones; Fernando Torres; Gustavo Escobar; Yoni Rosero; Rosendo Archbold

    2001-01-01

    Three polyketides ?-pyrones, named passifloricins, were isolated from Passiflora foetida resin; their structures and relative configurations were assigned through 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses. These types of compounds were not detected in other passion flowers.

  20. Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    The development of silicon modified resins for graphite fiber laminates which will prevent the dispersal of graphite fibers when the composites are burned is discussed. Eighty-five silicone modified resins were synthesized and evaluated including unsaturated polyesters, thermosetting methacrylates, epoxies, polyimides, and phenolics. Neat resins were judged in terms of Si content, homogeneity, hardness, Char formation, and thermal stability. Char formation was estimated by thermogravimetry to 1,000 C in air and in N2. Thermal stability was evaluated by isothermal weight loss measurements for 200 hrs in air at three temperatures. Four silicone modified epoxies were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 25 to 50%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 140 kpsi and a modulus of 10 Mpsi. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 5.3 kpsi.

  1. Synthesis of improved phenolic and polyester resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-seven cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to provide improved char residues and moisture resistance over state of the art epoxy resin composite matrices. Cyanate, epoxy novolac and vinyl ester resins were investigated. Char promoter additives were found to increase the anaerobic char yield at 800 C of epoxy novolacs and vinyl esters. Moisture resistant cyanate and vinyl ester compositions were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. A cyanate composite matrix provided state of the art composite mechanical properties before and after humidity exposure and an anaerobic char yield of 46 percent at 800 C. The outstanding moisture resistance of the matrix was not completely realized in the composite. Vinyl ester resins showed promise as candidates for improved composite matrix systems.

  2. Comparison of chromatographic ion-exchange resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne Staby; Randi Holm Jensen; Matthias Bensch; Jürgen Hubbuch; Dorte L. Dünweber; Janus Krarup; Jacob Nielsen; Mette Lund; Steffen Kidal; Thomas Budde Hansen; Inge Holm Jensen

    2007-01-01

    A comparative study on weak anion exchangers was performed to investigate the pH dependence, binding strength, particle size distribution, and static and dynamic capacity of the chromatographic resins. The resins tested included: DEAE Sepharose FF, Poros 50 D, Fractogel EMD DEAE (M), MacroPrep DEAE Support, DEAE Ceramic HyperD 20, and Toyopearl DEAE 650 M. Testing was performed with five different

  3. Comparison of chromatographic ion-exchange resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne Staby; Inge Holm Jensen; Inger Mollerup

    2000-01-01

    A comparative study has been undertaken on various strong anion-exchangers to investigate the pH dependence, titration curves, efficiency, binding strength, and dynamic capacity of the chromatographic resins. The resins tested included: Macro-Prep 25Q, TSK-Gel Q-5PW-HR, Poros QE\\/M, Q Sepharose FF, Q HyperD 20, Q Zirconia, Source 30Q, Fractogel EMD TMAE 650s, and Express-Ion Q. Testing was performed with five different

  4. Comparison of chromatographic ion-exchange resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne Staby; Inge Holm Jensen

    2001-01-01

    A comparative study was performed on strong anion exchangers to investigate the pH dependence, titration curves, efficiency, binding strength, particle size distribution, and static and dynamic capacity of the chromatographic resins. The resins tested included Q Sepharose XL, UNO Q-1, Poros 50 HQ, Toyopearl QAE 550c, Separon HemaBio 1000Q, Q-Cellthru Bigbeads Plus, Q Sepharose HP and Toyopearl SuperQ 650s. Testing

  5. Studies on Cesium Uptake by Phenolic Resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Samanta; M. Ramaswamy; B. M. Misra

    1992-01-01

    The selective removal of cesium by phenolic ion-exchange resins from highly salted alkaline radioactive solutions was studied. The resins were synthesized by alkaline polycondensation of phenol, resorcinol, catechol, and a resorcinol-catechol mixture with formaldehyde and characterized for their moisture regain, ion-exchange (H?Na) capacity, and distribution coefficient (KD) for cesium. The effects of open and sealed curing of the polymers on

  6. Ion Exchange Temperature Testing with SRF Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Brown, Garrett N.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2012-03-01

    Ion exchange using the Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection for use in the Pretreatment Facility of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in an at-tank deployment for removing 137Cs. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that higher temperatures (50°C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues prior to reaching the ion exchange columns may be required. Therefore, it is important to understand the behavior of SRF resin performance under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes. This research examined the impact of elevated temperature on resin loading and resin degradation during extended solution flow using elevated temperature (45°, 50°, 55°, 60°, 65°, 75°C). Testing for extended times at elevated temperatures showed that the resin does degrade and loading capacity is reduced at and above 45°C. Above 60°C the resin appears to not load at all.

  7. The Case for Polylactic Acid as a Commodity Packaging Plastic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Sinclair

    1996-01-01

    Polylactide, sometimes called polylactic acid (PLA), meets many requirements as a packaging thermoplastic and is suggested as a commodity resin for general packaging applications. Its general physical properties and melt processing ease are similar to conventional packaging resins. PLA slowly degrades by hydrolysis in even a slightly moist environment over a period of several months to a year to environmentally-friendly

  8. Composite Properties of Polyimide Resins Made From "Salt-Like" Solution Precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Roberto J.; Weiser, Erik S.; SaintClair, Terry L.; Echigo, Yoshiaki; Kaneshiro, Hisayasu

    1997-01-01

    Recent work in high temperature materials at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC (trademark)) have led to the development of new polyimide resin systems with very attractive properties. The majority of the work done with these resin systems has concentrated on determining engineering mechanical properties of composites prepared from a poly(amide acid) precursor. Three NASA Langley-developed polyimide matrix resins, LaRC (trademark) -IA, LaRC (trademark) -IAX, and LaRC (trademark) -8515, were produced via a salt-like process developed by Unitika Ltd. The 'salt-like' solutions (sixty-five percent solids in NMP) were prepregged onto Hexcel IM7 carbon fiber using the NASA LaRC Multipurpose Tape Machine. Process parameters were determined and composite panels fabricated. Mechanical properties are presented for these three intermediate modulus carbon fiber/polyimide matrix composites and compared to existing data on the same polyimide resin systems and IM7 carbon fiber manufactured via poly(amide acid) solutions (thirty-five percent solids in NMP). This work studies the effects of varying the synthetic route on the processing and mechanical properties of polyimide composites.

  9. Qualification of Reillex{trademark} HPQ anion exchange resin for use in SRS processes

    SciTech Connect

    Crooks, W.J. III

    2000-05-18

    The Phase 2 portion of the HB-Line facility was built in the early 1980's to process plutonium and neptunium from nitric acid solutions into oxide suitable for storage in a vault. Although the other portions of HB-Line were started up in the mid 1980's and have operated since that time, the anion exchange and precipitation processes in Phase 2 were never started up. As part of the material stabilization efforts, Phase 2 is currently being started up. A new anion exchange resin is needed because the resins that were proposed for use 10 years ago are limited by performance characteristics, disposal requirements, or are no longer commercially available. SRTC is responsible for qualifying all resins prior to their use in Nuclear Materials Stabilization and Storage (NMSS) processes. Qualification consists of both process suitability and thermal stability with nitric acid. This report describes the thermal stability qualification of Reillex{trademark} HPQ, the new resin proposed for processing plutonium and neptunium in the HB Line facility.

  10. Influence of contamination on resin bond strength to nano-structured alumina-coated zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanchuan; Kocjan, Andraz; Lehmann, Frank; Kosmac, Tomaz; Kern, Matthias

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of contamination and subsequent cleaning on the bond strength and durability of an adhesive resin to nano-structured alumina-coated zirconia ceramic. Zirconia ceramic disks were coated with nano-structured alumina, utilizing the hydrolysis of aluminum nitride powder. After immersion in saliva or the use of a silicone disclosing agent, specimens were cleaned with phosphoric acid etching or with tap water rinsing only. Uncontaminated specimens served as controls. Plexiglas tubes filled with composite resin were bonded with a phosphate monomer [10-methacryloxydecyl-dihydrogenphosphate (MDP)]-containing resin (Panavia 21). Subgroups of eight specimens each were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C, either for 3 d without thermal cycling (TC) or for 150 d with 37,500 thermal cycles from 5 to 55 degrees C. The tensile bond strength (TBS) was determined using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 2 mm min(-1). The topography of the debonded surface was scrutinized for fractographic features, utilizing both optical and scanning electron microscopy. The TBS to uncontaminated nano-structured alumina-coated zirconia ceramic was durable, while contamination significantly reduced the TBS. Phosphoric acid cleaning was effective in removal of saliva contamination from the coated bonding surface but was not effective in removal of the silicone disclosing agent. Nano-structured alumina coating improves resin bonding to zirconia ceramic and eliminates the need for air-abrasion before bonding. PMID:20662914

  11. Epoxy resin system for in situ rehabilitation of pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, G.D.; Wilson, B.S.

    1992-04-14

    This patent describes a process for in situ pipe rehabilitation. It comprises: impregnating a fibrous substrate with a liquid epoxy resin composition comprising at least one liquid epoxy resin having epoxide equivalent weight within the range of about 165 to about 195; a minor amount, relative to the liquid epoxy resin, of an epoxide functional reactive diluent; a minor amount, relative to the liquid epoxy resin, of a thixotroping agent; and an effective amount of a liquid curing agent comprising a polyamide resin, a polyoxalkylenediamine, and from about 35 to about 55 weight percent, based on the weight of component, of 2-ethyl-4-methyl imidazole or derivatives thereof; positioning the resin-impregnated fibrous substrate within a pipe to be rehabilitated so that a surface of the resin-impregnated fibrous substrate is in contact with the interior surface of the pipe; and subjecting the thus-positioned resin-impregnated fibrous substrate to conditions effective to cure the liquid epoxy resin.

  12. Bonding of resin core materials to lithium disilicate ceramics: the effect of resin cement film thickness.

    PubMed

    Cekic-Nagas, Isil; Canay, Senay; Sahin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different resin cement film thicknesses on the shear bond strength of resin core materials to lithium disilicate ceramics. Forty IPS Empress 2 ceramic disks were bonded to the core materials (Bis-core and Smile) with resin cement film thicknesses of 50 or 100 ?m. Shear bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and independent t tests. The core material used and resin cement film thickness had a significant effect on shear bond strength values (P < .001). Greater resin cement film thickness resulted in decreased bond strength of the core materials to lithium disilicate ceramics. PMID:20859565

  13. Antibacterial properties of dentin bonding systems, polyacid-modified composite resins and composite resins.

    PubMed

    Karanika-Kouma, A; Dionysopoulos, P; Koliniotou-Koubia, E; Kolokotronis, A

    2001-02-01

    This study examined the antibacterial activities of the bonding systems Syntac, EBS and Scotchbond 1, the polyacid-modified composite resins Hytac and Compoglass, and the composite resins Tetric, Z100 and Scalp-it. They were evaluated using the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus salivarius, Streptococcus sorbinus and Actinomyces viscosus in vitro with a modified cylinder drop plate agar diffusion assay. All adhesives of the dentin bonding systems and the polyacid-modified composite resins exhibited various degrees of antibacterial activity against all of the test bacteria. On the contrary, composite resins did not affect bacterial growth. The data suggest that the use of these adhesives and polyacid-modified composite resins may reduce the consequences of microleakage owing to their antibacterial properties. PMID:11298264

  14. New bismaleimide matrix resins for graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, M.-T. S.; Chen, T. S.; Parker, J. A.; Heimbuch, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Two new bismaleimide resins based on the N,N'-m-phenylene-bis(m-amino-benzamide) structure have been synthesized and characterized. The mixtures of the two resins gave better handling, processing, mechanical, and thermal properties in graphite composites than did the individual resins. The mechanical strength of the cured graphite composites prepared from the 1:1 copolymer of the two bismaleimide resins was excellent at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The physical and mechanical properties of the composites from the new bismaleimide matrix resin systems are compared with conventional composites based on epoxy and other bismaleimide systems. The copolymer system provides another method for improving bismaleimide resins.

  15. New bismaleimide matrix resins for graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, M.-T. S.; Chen, T. S.; Parker, J. A.; Heimbuch, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Two new bismaleimide resins based on the N, N'-m-phenylene-bis(m-amino-benzamide) structure have been synthesized and characterized. The mixtures of the two resins gave better handling, processing, mechanical, and thermal properties in graphite composites than did the individual resins. The mechanical strength of the cured graphite composites prepared from the 1:1 copolymer of the two bismaleimide resins was excellent at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The physical and mechanical properties of the composites from the new bismaleimide matrix resin systems are compared with conventional composites based on epoxy and other bismaleimide systems. The copolymer system provides another method for improving bismaleimide resins.

  16. Resin flow monitoring in vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding using optical fiber distributed sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eum, Soohyun; Kageyama, Kazuro; Murayama, Hideaki; Ohsawa, Isamu; Uzawa, Kiyoshi; Kanai, Makoto; Igawa, Hirotaka

    2007-04-01

    In this study, we implemented resin flow monitoring by using an optical fiber sensor during vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VaRTM).We employed optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor for distributed sensing. Especially, long gauge FBGs (about 100mm) which are 10 times longer than an ordinary FBG were employed for more effective distributed sensing. A long gauge FBG was embedded in GFRP laminates, and other two ones were located out of laminate for wavelength reference and temperature compensation, respectively. During VaRTM, the embedded FBG could measure how the preform affected the sensor with vacuum pressure and resin was flowed into the preform. In this study, we intended to detect the gradient of compressive strain between impregnated part and umimpregnated one within long gauge FBG. If resin is infused to preform, compressive strain which is generated on FBG is released by volume of resin. We could get the wavelength shift due to the change of compressive strain along gauge length of FBG by using short-time Fourier transformation for signal acquired from FBG. Therefore, we could know the resin flow front with the gradient of compressive strain of FBG. In this study, we used silicon oil which has same viscosity with resin substitute for resin in order to reuse FBG. In order to monitor resin flow, the silicon oil was infused from one edge of preform, the silicon oil was flowed from right to left. Then, we made dry spot within gauge length by infusing silicon oil to both sides of preform to prove the ability of dry spot monitoring with FBG. We could monitor resin flow condition and dry spot formation successfully using by FBG based on OFDR.

  17. Fractionation of NaCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2 brines with a polyfunctional ion exchange resin 

    E-print Network

    Baker, Albert Byre

    1959-01-01

    (Dowex-l). Acryl1c acid has been polymerized ins1de the resin matrix giving the resin cationic exchange properties in addition to 1ts an1on1c exchange propert1es. The particular resin used in this work has equiva- lent quaternary ammonium (anionic... showing the effect of flow rate, column geometry, volume ratios and other factors on the separations obtained. Cohn and Kohn (4) applied the methods of Mayer and Tompkins to the separation of the alkali metals. They used a sulfonated polystyrene cation...

  18. 76 FR 42114 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order...polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``PTFE resin'') from Italy would likely lead to a continuation or...antidumping duty order on PTFE resin from Italy, pursuant to section 751(c)(2)...

  19. 76 FR 12939 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review...polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``PTFE resin'') from Italy. The Department has conducted an expedited...antidumping duty order on PTFE resin from Italy pursuant to section 751(c) of the...

  20. Factors affecting the bond strength of denture base and reline acrylic resins to base metal materials

    PubMed Central

    TANOUE, Naomi; MATSUDA, Yasuhiro; YANAGIDA, Hiroaki; MATSUMURA, Hideo; SAWASE, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Objective The shear bond strengths of two hard chairside reline resin materials and an auto-polymerizing denture base resin material to cast Ti and a Co-Cr alloy treated using four conditioning methods were investigated. Material and Methods Disk specimens (diameter 10 mm and thickness 2.5 mm) were cast from pure Ti and Co-Cr alloy. The specimens were wet-ground to a final surface finish of 600 grit, air-dried, and treated with the following bonding systems: 1) air-abraded with 50-70-µm grain alumina (CON); 2) 1) + conditioned with a primer, including an acidic phosphonoacetate monomer (MHPA); 3) 1) + conditioned with a primer including a diphosphate monomer (MDP); 4) treated with a tribochemical system. Three resin materials were applied to each metal specimen. Shear bond strengths were determined before and after 10,000 thermocycles. Results The strengths decreased after thermocycling for all combinations. Among the resin materials assessed, the denture base material showed significantly (p<0.05) greater shear bond strengths than the two reline materials, except for the CON condition. After 10,000 thermocycles, the bond strengths of two reline materials decreased to less than 10 MPa for both metals. The bond strengths of the denture base material with MDP were sufficient: 34.56 MPa for cast Ti and 38.30 for Co-Cr alloy. Conclusion Bonding of reline resin materials to metals assessed was clinically insufficient, regardless of metal type, surface treatment, and resin composition. For the relining of metal denture frameworks, a denture base material should be used. PMID:24037070

  1. Diffusion of residual monomer in polymer resins.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1976-01-01

    A simplified mathematical model which made use of Fick's laws of diffusion written in spherical coordinates was developed to describe the rate of diffusion of residual monomers from polymer resins. The properties of the monomer-polymer system which influenced the amount of monomer remaining in the polymer as a function of time were the diffusivity and solubility of the monomer in the polymer, and the particle size of the polymer resin. This model was used to analyze literature data on the diffusion of residual vinyl chloride monomer in polyvinyl chloride resins made by the suspension process. It was concluded that particle size of the resin was a significant parameter which should be taken advantage of in process equipment designed to remove residual monomer from PVC resins. The diffusivity of the monomer in the polymer was a function of the solubility of the monomer in the polymer. Monomer solubility can be determined from Henry's law. It was suggested that this model could be adapted to describe diffusion of monomers from any monomer-polymer system, and would be a useful approach to modeling the transport of nonreactive chemical additives from plastics. PMID:1026410

  2. Development of a heterogeneous laminating resin system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, T. F.; Hopper, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    The factors which effect the impact resistance of laminating resin systems and yet retain equivalent performance with the conventional 450 K curing epoxy matrix systems in other areas were studied. Formulation work was conducted on two systems, an all-epoxy and an epoxy/bismaleimide, to gain fundamental information on the effect formulation changes have upon neat resin and composite properties. The all-epoxy work involved formulations with various amounts and combinations of eight different epoxy resins, four different hardeners, fifteen different toughening agents, a filler, and a catalyst. The epoxy/bismaleimide effort improved formulations with various amounts and combinations of nine different resins, four different hardeners, eight different toughening agents, four different catalysts, and a filler. When a formulation appeared to offer the proper combination of properties required for a laminating resin Celion 3K-70P fabric was prepregged. Initial screening tests on composites primarily involved Gardner type impact and measurement of short beam shear strengths under dry and hot/wet conditions.

  3. Preparation of a chelating poly(?-diketone) resin from poly(vinyl alcohol) and its use in the reversible complexing of metal ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Solomon Marmor; Getachew Kidane

    1978-01-01

    A water-insoluble poly (ß-diketone) chelating resin has been prepared by the controlled oxidation of poly(vinyl alcohol) with chromic acid. The polymer forms stable complexes with divalent and trivalent cations, such as Co+2, Cu+2, Mn+2, Ni+2, Fe+3, Au+3, and UO2+2, and removes them completely from dilute aqueous solution. The ions may be recovered quantitatively from the resin complex by elution with

  4. Application of a macroporous resin containing imidazoline groups to preconcentration and separation of gold, platinum and palladium prior to ICP-AES determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-Xing Su; Qiao-Sheng Pu; Xing-Yin Luo; Xi-Jun Chang; Guang-Yao Zhan; Feng-Zhi Ren

    1995-01-01

    A new functional resin with a long functional side chain was synthesized by modification of aminated macroporous poly(vinyl chloride) resin with cyanoethylene and ethylenediamine. Traces of Au(III), Pt(IV) and Pd(II) in aqueous solution were quantitatively adsorbed in the acidity range of pH ? 4 and CH+ ? 3 M. The rate of equilibration is high; Cu2+, Fe3+, Ni2+, etc. exhibit

  5. Differential scanning calorimetry applied to cross-linking of a filled epoxy resin: Accuracy of the Borchardt and Daniels equation for describing the curing process kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Elegant; P. Tomi; G. Augier; J. P. Nicolas; G. Pecqueux

    1986-01-01

    From the point of view of the chemical reactions describing the curing process of a mixture epoxy resin-dicarboxylic acid anhydride-tertiary amine-polyol and silica filler, it is difficult to understand the network formation: several different reactions are involved, so that the interaction between the epoxy resin and the other components of the mixture is unquestionably complex. However, a linear plot is

  6. Ion-exchange-resin-catalyzed adamantylation of phenol derivatives with adamantanols: Developing a clean process for synthesis of 2-(1-adamantyl)-4-bromophenol, a key intermediate of adapalene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Wang, Ronghua; Shi, Xia; Zou, Gang

    2012-01-01

    A clean process has been developed for the synthesis of 2-adamantylphenol derivatives through adamantylation of substituted phenols with adamantanols catalyzed by commercially available and recyclable ion-exchange sulfonic acid resin in acetic acid. The sole byproduct of the adamantylation reaction, namely water, could be converted into the solvent acetic acid by addition of a slight excess of acetic anhydride during the work-up procedure, making the process waste-free except for regeneration of the ion-exchange resin, and facilitating the recycling of the resin catalyst. The ion-exchange sulfonic acid resin catalyst could be readily recycled by filtration and directly reused at least ten times without a significant loss of activity. The key intermediate of adapalene, 2-(1-adamantyl)-4-bromophenol, could be produced by means of this waste-free process. PMID:22423289

  7. Ion-exchange-resin-catalyzed adamantylation of phenol derivatives with adamantanols: Developing a clean process for synthesis of 2-(1-adamantyl)-4-bromophenol, a key intermediate of adapalene

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nan; Wang, Ronghua; Shi, Xia

    2012-01-01

    Summary A clean process has been developed for the synthesis of 2-adamantylphenol derivatives through adamantylation of substituted phenols with adamantanols catalyzed by commercially available and recyclable ion-exchange sulfonic acid resin in acetic acid. The sole byproduct of the adamantylation reaction, namely water, could be converted into the solvent acetic acid by addition of a slight excess of acetic anhydride during the work-up procedure, making the process waste-free except for regeneration of the ion-exchange resin, and facilitating the recycling of the resin catalyst. The ion-exchange sulfonic acid resin catalyst could be readily recycled by filtration and directly reused at least ten times without a significant loss of activity. The key intermediate of adapalene, 2-(1-adamantyl)-4-bromophenol, could be produced by means of this waste-free process. PMID:22423289

  8. FLUID FLOW MODELING OF RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING FOR COMPOSITE MATERIAL WIND TURBINE BLADE STRUCTURES

    E-print Network

    FLUID FLOW MODELING OF RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING FOR COMPOSITE MATERIAL WIND TURBINE BLADE STRUCTURES.................................................................................................8 Resin Systems

  9. Effect of different etching periods on the bond strength of a composite resin to a machinable porcelain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-H. Chen; H. Matsumura; M. Atsuta

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate microstructure changes of Cerec 2 Vitablocs Mark II porcelain etched by a 5% hydrofluoric acid and examine the effect of different etching times on the bond strength between the porcelain and a composite resin.Methods: Six different etching times (0, 5, 30, 60, 120 and 180 s) were used to etch the

  10. Characterization of resins and drying oils used to manufacture varnishes of ancient violins by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Benoit; J. P. Echard; J. Peris-Vicente; J. V. Gimeno-Adelantado

    2006-01-01

    A study for characterization of natural resins and drying oils employed in varnishes used in ancient violins was made using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. This method requires prior derivatization of the samples by methanolysis to release and volatilize the terpenic and fatty acids, and sylilation in order to volatilize the alcohols. Derivatization time and temperature were optimized and

  11. The Creep of Laminated Synthetic Resin Plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkuhn, H

    1941-01-01

    The long-time loading strength of a number of laminated synthetic resin plastics was ascertained and the effect of molding pressure and resin content determined. The best value was observed with a 30 to 40 percent resin content. The long-time loading strength also increases with increasing molding pressure up to 250 kg/cm(exp 2); a further rise in pressure affords no further substantial improvement. The creep strength is defined as the load which in the hundredth hour of loading produces a rate of elongation of 5 X 10(exp -4) percent per hour. The creep strength values of different materials were determined and tabulated. The effect of humidity during long-term tests is pointed out.

  12. Studies on cesium uptake by phenolic resins

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, S.K.; Ramaswamy, M.; Misra, B.M. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

    1992-02-01

    The selective removal of cesium by phenolic ion-exchange resins from highly salted alkaline radioactive solutions was studied. The resins were synthesized by alkaline polycondensation of phenol, resorcinol, catechol, and resorcinol-catechol mixture with formaldehyde and characterized for their moisture regain, ion-exchange (H{sup +} {yields} Na{sup +}) capacity, and distribution coefficient (K{sub D}) for cesium. The effects of open and sealed curing of the polymers on their properties were studied. The effect of Na{sup +}, NaOH, and Cs{sup +} concentration on the uptake of cesium by resorcinol-formaldehyde resin was investigated, in particular. The chemical, thermal, and radiation stabilities of the polymers were also studied.

  13. Standard tests for toughened resin composites, revised edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Several toughened resin systems are evaluated to achieve commonality for certain kinds of tests used to characterize toughened resin composites. Specifications for five tests were standardized; these test standards are described.

  14. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ...731-TA-386 (Third Review)] Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...the antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  15. Taste masking of Etoricoxib by using ion-exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Patra, Sradhanjali; Samantaray, Rakesh; Pattnaik, Saswat; Barik, B B

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out in order to mask the bitter taste of the Etoricoxib by complexation with cation-exchange resin, Indion 204. The drug resin complexes (DRC) were prepared by batch process and efficient drug loading was obtained by using inactivated form of resin in the drug-resin ratio 1:3.3 with 30 min swelling time of resin in 25 mL of water with 5 min stirring time. Drug-resin complexes were characterized for dissolution studies and spectral studies. Drug release from drug-resin complex in salivary pH was insufficient to impart bitter taste. Volunteers rated the drug resin complex as tasteless and agreeable. PMID:19845450

  16. Resin additive improves performance of high-temperature hydrocarbon lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Loomis, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Paraffinic resins, in high temperature applications, improve strength of thin lubricant film in Hertzian contacts even though they do not increase bulk oil viscosity. Use of resin circumvents corrosivity and high volatility problems inherent with many chemical additives.

  17. 21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...of the calcium silicate. (b) The mineral reinforced nylon resins may contain up to 0.2 percent by weight of titanium dioxide as an optional adjuvant substance. (c) The mineral reinforced nylon resins with or without the optional...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) intended to restore carious lesions or structural defects in teeth. (b)...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) intended to restore carious lesions or structural defects in teeth. (b)...

  20. Influence of resin coating materials on Porphyromonas gingivalis attachment.

    PubMed

    Kumada, Ai; Matsuka, Yoshizo; Mine, Atsushi; Ono, Mitsuaki; Uehara, Junji; Sonoi, Norihiro; Ito, Takashi; Takashiba, Shogo; Kuboki, Takuo

    2012-02-01

    Resin coating materials have been used for composite resin or provisional restoration in order to prevent plaque accumulation on their surfaces. However, it is not clear whether the coating materials influence attachment of periodontal bacteria. Therefore, we investigated the effect of resin coating materials on the attachment of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg). The polymerized auto cure resin plates were coated with two resin coating materials. To estimate the Pg attachment, each plate was immersed in brain heart infusion medium containing Pg. The quantity of bacteria attached on each plate was evaluated by crystal violet quantification. Morphological change of Pg was recorded using scanning electron microscopy. Both coating groups presented significantly lower Pg attachment compared to the control. The Pg shapes on the plates with resin coating materials were similar to the non-treated control plates. The resin coating materials clearly prevent Pg attachment on the polymerized auto cure resin plate. PMID:22277610

  1. Performance Properties of Graphite Reinforced Composites with Advanced Resin Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1980-01-01

    This article looks at the effect of different resin matrices on thermal and mechanical properties of graphite composites, and relates the thermal and flammability properties to the anaerobic char yield of the resins. The processing parameters of graphite composites utilizing graphite fabric and epoxy or other advanced resins as matrices are presented. Thermoset resin matrices studied were: aminecured polyfunctional glycidyl aminetype epoxy (baseline), phenolicnovolac resin based on condensation of dihydroxymethyl-xylene and phenol cured with hexamine, two types of polydismaleimide resins, phenolic resin, and benzyl resin. The thermoplastic matrices studied were polyethersulfone and polyphenylenesulfone. Properties evaluated in the study included anaerobic char yield, limiting oxygen index, smoke evolution, moisture absorption, and mechanical properties at elevated temperatures including tensile, compressive, and short-beam shear strengths. Generally, it was determined that graphite composites with the highest char yield exhibited optimum fire-resistant properties.

  2. Eucalyptus hydrolysate detoxification with activated charcoal adsorption or ion-exchange resins for xylitol production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larissa Canilha; João Batista de Almeida e Silva; Ana Irene Nápoles Solenzal

    2004-01-01

    Eucalyptus hemicellulosic hydrolysate used for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii FTI20037 was previously treated either with ion-exchange resins or with activated charcoal adsorption combined with pH adjustment, in order that acetic acid, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural could be removed. The best results for xylitol yield factor (0.76g\\/g) and volumetric productivity (0.68g\\/(lh) were attained when a three-fold concentrated hydrolysate was treated with

  3. Ion exchange equilibria of heavy metals in aqueous solution on new chelating resins of sporopollenin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ersoz; E. Pehlivan; H. J. Duncan; S. Yildiz; M. Pehlivan

    1995-01-01

    Studies have been conducted on the sorption of several heavy metal ions Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Al(III) from aqueous solutions on the new chelating exchangers of sporopollenin (Lycopodium clavatum) as a function of pH at several temperatures between 20 and 50°C. The novel metal-ligand exchange resins possessing oxime and carboxylic acid side arm functionality were prepared through the reaction

  4. Amine-randomised poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) as impact and adhesive modifier for epoxy resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kar; A. K. Banthia

    2003-01-01

    The adhesive and impact properties of cured epoxy resins, modified with amine-randomised poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) (ARPEHA) liquid rubber, as a function of the concentration of the liquid rubber, have been investigated. ARPEHA was synthesised by the reaction of the carboxyl-randomised poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) (CRPEHA) liquid rubber with 4,4?-diaminodiphenyl sulphone. CRPEHA was synthesised by solution co-polymerisation of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and acrylic acid. ARPEHA

  5. Effect of chemical modification of lignin on the gluebond performance of lignin-phenolic resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Vázquez; J. González; S. Freire; G. Antorrena

    1997-01-01

    Lignin obtained from eucalyptus wood by acetic acid pulping was methylolated or phenolated and used to prepare lignin-phenol-formaldehyde resins. The amount of formaldehyde consumed in the methylolation reaction, and supporting comparison of pre- and post-methylolation 1H and 13C NMR spectra, showed the reactivity of the crude acetosolv lignin with formaldehyde to be relatively high. Pine and eucalyptus plywood boards manufactured

  6. Bark extractives-based phenol–formaldehyde resins from beetle-infested lodgepole pine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Zhao; Ning Yan; Martin W. Feng

    2012-01-01

    In this study, phenol–formaldehyde (PF) resins derived from the bark extractives were synthesized and characterized. Bark of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) infested by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) was first extracted with 1% NaOH. The bark extractives with and without acid-neutralization were then dried to the solid state. The neutralized and non-neutralized extractives were used to partially replace

  7. Allylic substitution in water catalyzed by amphiphilic resin-supported palladium-phosphine complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Danjo; Daiki Tanaka; Tamio Hayashi; Yasuhiro Uozumi

    1999-01-01

    New amphiphilic resin-supported triarylphosphines PEP (1) were designed and prepared on polyethylene glycol-polystyrene graft copolymer (PEG-PS). Palladium complexes of 1, Pd(PEP)2 (4) and Pd(PEP) (5), catalyzed allylic alkylation of 3-acetoxy-1,3-diphenyl-1-propene (6) and cinnamyl acetate (7) with various nucleophiles including 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, amino acids, sodium azide, and sodium sulfinate, to give quantitative yields of corresponding allylic substituted products in water.

  8. Biphenyl liquid crystalline epoxy resin as a low-shrinkage resin-based dental restorative nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Chen, Rung-Shu; Chang, Yuan-Ling; Chen, Min-Huey; Cheng, Kuo-Chung; Su, Wei-Fang

    2012-11-01

    Low-shrinkage resin-based photocurable liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite has been investigated with regard to its application as a dental restoration material. The nanocomposite consists of an organic matrix and an inorganic reinforcing filler. The organic matrix is made of liquid crystalline biphenyl epoxy resin (BP), an epoxy resin consisting of cyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (ECH), the photoinitiator 4-octylphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate and the photosensitizer champhorquinone. The inorganic filler is silica nanoparticles (?70-100 nm). The nanoparticles were modified by an epoxy silane of ?-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane to be compatible with the organic matrix and to chemically bond with the organic matrix after photo curing. By incorporating the BP liquid crystalline (LC) epoxy resin into conventional ECH epoxy resin, the nanocomposite has improved hardness, flexural modulus, water absorption and coefficient of thermal expansion. Although the incorporation of silica filler may dilute the reinforcing effect of crystalline BP, a high silica filler content (?42 vol.%) was found to increase the physical and chemical properties of the nanocomposite due to the formation of unique microstructures. The microstructure of nanoparticle embedded layers was observed in the nanocomposite using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This unique microstructure indicates that the crystalline BP and nanoparticles support each other and result in outstanding mechanical properties. The crystalline BP in the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite was partially melted during exothermic photopolymerization, and the resin expanded via an order-to-disorder transition. Thus, the post-gelation shrinkage of the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite is greatly reduced, ?50.6% less than in commercialized methacrylate resin-based composites. This LC epoxy nanocomposite demonstrates good physical and chemical properties and good biocompatibility, comparable to commercialized composites. The results indicate that this novel LC nanocomposite is worthy of development and has potential for further applications in clinical dentistry. PMID:22842038

  9. Amino resins crosslinked polymer gels for permeability profile control

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, P.

    1989-05-30

    This patent describes a process for closing pores in a hydrocarbonaceous fluid bearing formation to obtain improved sweep efficiency during a waterflood oil recovery operation which comprises injecting a gellable composition comprising: (a) water; (b) 0.2 to 5.0 wt. percent of a cross linkable polymer which is a member selected from the group consisting of xanthan biopolymers, heteropolysaccharide S-130, poly (acrylamide-co-acrylamido-2-methyl-propanesulfonate), and acrylamide modified polyvinyl alcohol; and (c) 0.02 to 50.0 wt. percent of a partially methylated aminoplast resin which cross links with the polymer thereby forming a gel in the absence of a salt which is acid generating upon the application of heat which gel is of a strength sufficient to close pores in one or more permeable zones of the formation.

  10. Method of recovering hazardous waste from phenolic resin filters

    SciTech Connect

    Meikrantz, D.H.; Bourne, G.L.; McFee, J.N.; Burdge, B.G.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.

    1990-12-31

    A method has been found for treating phenolic resin filter, whereby the filter is solubilized within the filter cartridge housing so the filter material can be removed from the cartridge housing in a remote manner. The invention consists of contacting the filter within the housing with an aqueous solution of about 8 to 12M nitric acid, at a temperature from about 110 to 190{degree}F, maintaining the contact for a period of time sufficient to solubilize the phenolic material within the housing, and removing the solubilized phenolic material from the housing, thereby removing the filter cartridge from the housing. Any hazardous or other waste material can then be separated from the filter material by chemical or other means.

  11. Technical assessment for quality control of resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosnell, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Survey visits to companies involved in the manufacture and use of graphite-epoxy prepregs were conducted to assess the factors which may contribute to variability in the mechanical properties of graphite-epoxy composites. In particular, the purpose was to assess the contributions of the epoxy resins to variability. Companies represented three segments of the composites industry - aircraft manufacturers, prepreg manufacturers, and epoxy resin manufacturers. Several important sources of performance variability were identified from among the complete spectrum of potential sources which ranged from raw materials to composite test data interpretation.

  12. New phosphorus-containing bisimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Hsu, M.-T.; Parker, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorus-based flame retardants have been effectively used in a wide variety of polymeric materials. Such additives, however, may either influence the decomposition reaction in polymers or lack durability due to a tendency to be leached out by solvents. Attention is given to the synthesis, characterization, thermal stability and degradation mechanisms of bisimide resins, and an evaluation is conducted of the flammability and mechanical properties of graphite cloth-reinforced laminates fabricated from one of the six phosphorus-containing bisimide resins considered.

  13. Differential Curing In Fiber/Resin Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, Charles N.

    1989-01-01

    Modified layup schedule counteracts tendency toward delamination. Improved manufacturing process resembles conventional process, except prepregs partially cured laid on mold in sequence in degree of partial cure decreases from mold side to bag side. Degree of partial cure of each layer at time of layup selected by controlling storage and partial-curing temperatures of prepreg according to Arrhenius equation for rate of gel of resin as function of temperature and time from moment of mixing. Differential advancement of cure in layers made large enough to offset effect of advance bag-side heating in oven or autoclave. Technique helps prevent entrapment of volatile materials during manufacturing of fiber/resin laminates.

  14. Radiographic detection of overhangs formed by resin composite luting agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. O'Rourke; A. W. G. Walls; R. W. Wassell

    1995-01-01

    Objectives: An in vitro model was used to assess the ability of standard radiographic techniques to detect marginal overhangs of resin composite luting agents beside porcelain and resin composite inlays.Methods: The radiodensity of five commercially available luting resins was determined using ISO 4049 methodology. For four of the luting agents, artificial overhangs (0.5 × 0.5 × 2 mm) were created

  15. Shear and tensile bond testing for resin cement evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuichi Kitasako; Michael F. Burrow; Toru Nikaido; Naoko Harada; Shigehisa Inokoshi; Toshimoto Yamada; Toshio Takatsu

    1995-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to compare the tensile and shear bond strengths of one experimental and four commercially available resin cements following the ISO document TR 110405 for bond measurement.Methods. Tensile and shear bond tests were performed using bovine enamel and dentin as the tooth substrate with each of the resin cements. Resin composite rods were cemented

  16. Evaluation of Leachable Behavior from Ion Exchange Resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroo IGARASHI; Yusaku NISHIMURA; Katsumi OHSUMI; Shunsuke UCHIDA; Tsuneo MATSUI

    1999-01-01

    The elution rate of leachables from ion exchange resin, which is used in condensate demineralizers and is one of several major sources of organic compounds in BWR cooling water, was measured. Properties of the leachables and elution rate depended on the kind of ion exchange resin and the years of use. The organic compounds elution rate of cation exchange resin

  17. Epoxy resin system for in situ rehabilitation of pipes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Edwards; B. S. Wilson

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for in situ pipe rehabilitation. It comprises: impregnating a fibrous substrate with a liquid epoxy resin composition comprising at least one liquid epoxy resin having epoxide equivalent weight within the range of about 165 to about 195; a minor amount, relative to the liquid epoxy resin, of an epoxide functional reactive diluent; a minor amount,

  18. Modification of epoxy resin using reactive liquid (ATBN) rubber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Chikhi; S Fellahi; M Bakar

    2002-01-01

    Epoxy resins are widely utilised as high performance thermosetting resins for many industrial applications but unfortunately some are characterised by a relatively low toughness. In this respect, many efforts have been made to improve the toughness of cured epoxy resins by the introduction of rigid particles, reactive rubbers, interpenetrating polymer networks and engineering thermoplastics within the matrix.In the present work

  19. ACC Resin Statistics Annual Summary PRODUCTION, SALES & CAPTIVE USE

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    .1 (1) Except Phenolic resins, which are reported on a gross weight basis. (2) Sales & Captive Use dataACC Resin Statistics Annual Summary PRODUCTION, SALES & CAPTIVE USE (millions of pounds, dry weight basis)(1) Production Total Sales & Captive Use Resin % Chg % Chg 2008 2007 08/07 2008 2007 08/07 Epoxy

  20. Wood ants use resin to protect themselves against pathogens

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Laurent

    al. 2003b). Coniferous resin contains a complex mixture of terpenes that protects wounded treesWood ants use resin to protect themselves against pathogens Michel Chapuisat1,*, Anne Oppliger2. Wood ants, Formica paralugubris, commonly bring back pieces of solidified coniferous resin

  1. Remote Monitoring of Resin Transfer Molding Processes by Distributed

    E-print Network

    Mamishev, Alexander

    of cure of the resin as it is injected into the mold. Successful implementation of a sensing systemRemote Monitoring of Resin Transfer Molding Processes by Distributed Dielectric Sensors MICHAEL C, 2003) (Accepted November 8, 2004) ABSTRACT: Feed-forward adaptive control of resin transfer molding

  2. Enrichment of boron-10 by inverse-frontal chromatography using quaternized 4-vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene anion-exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Mardan, A. [Pinstech, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1997-08-01

    In order to enrich {sup 10}B, 40 meter band migration of boric acid-mannitol with hydrochloric acid solution was performed by inverse frontal chromatography on a porous, 25% crosslinked, 38% quaternized 4-vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene resin. The maximum enrichment (R{sub L}) of {sup 10}B was 94.15%. The overall process parameters, namely slope coefficient (k) and separation coefficient (e), were found to be 0.1282 cm{sup {minus}1} and 0.02967, respectively.

  3. Zirconium(IV) Loaded Diaion CRP200 Resin as a Specific Adsorbent to as(III) and as(V)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akinori Jyo; Shuko Kudo; Xiaoping Zhu; Kazunori Yamabe

    Performances of Zr(IV) loaded Diaion CRP200 (crosslinked polystyrene based methylenephosphonic acid resin) as specific adsorbent for phosphate, arsenate, and arsenite were evaluated by columnar approach. Phosphate and arsenate were adsorbed under weakly acidic conditions. Adsorbed phosphate and arsenate were quantitatively eluted by 0.1 M aqueous sodium hydroxide. After the elution operation, the adsorbent was able to regenerate by supplying a

  4. Investigation of the ion exchange equilibrium between NA+, Ca++, Mg++, and a sulfonated polystyrene resin at various concentrations

    E-print Network

    McIlhenny, William Franklin

    1958-01-01

    and McGarvey discuss the effect of regenerant composition on exchange capacity and the effect of' the influent water composition on capacity. Kunin and Barry give comparative equilibrium values for 27 a carboxylic type weai acid exchanger and a... and the electrolyte enter the structure. The water forms an internal solution, and the cations of the electrolyte undergo exchange with the cations originally attached to the sulfonic acid groups. Resins are good conductors of electricity, therefore the salt...

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF FLAKE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ZINC BORATE ON GEL TIME OF PHENOLIC RESIN FOR ORIENTEP) STRANDBOARD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brycm Strickland

    The pH and buffer capacity of dry wood flakes from eleven southern species and their effects on gel time of phenol formaldehyde (PF) oriented strandboard resin with and without zinc borate addition were investigated in this study. It was shown that the pH of the hardwood flakes was acidic, with white oak being the most acidic (pH = 4.60) and

  6. On the Fatigue Behavior of Resin-Dentin Bonds after Degradation by Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Mutluay, Mustafa Murat; Zhang, Ke; Ryou, Heonjune; Yahyazadefar, Mobin; Majd, Hessam; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Arola, Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    The durability of resin-dentin bonds is a growing concern in the placement of composite restorations. Most reported evaluations concerning the mechanical behavior of the bonded interface are conducted using static loading to failure only. They also do not account for the acid production of biofilms, which is one of the most common contributors to interfacial failures in vivo. In this investigation resin-dentin bonded interface specimens were exposed to S. mutans for 14 days and then subjected to quasi-static or cyclic four-point flexure to failure. Control specimens (without biofilm) were evaluated after aging for one and fourteen days. While no significant difference in flexure strength resulted from the duration of water aging (66.2 MPa vs 56.9 MPa), biofilm exposure caused a significant reduction in strength (29.3 MPa; p?0.000). After water aging for one and fourteen days the apparent endurance limits were 13.0 MPa and 13.1 MPa, respectively. Biofilm treatment caused a significant (p?0.001) reduction in fatigue resistance of the interface, and the endurance limit was reduced to 9.9 MPa. Fatigue failure of the control specimens initiated within the resin composite adjacent to the interface, whereas failure of the biofilm treated specimens initiated within the hybrid layer and appeared attributed to the localized demineralization of dentin. Biofilm degradation is an important consideration in assessing the durability of resin-dentin bonds. PMID:23276517

  7. Low-melt Viscosity Polyimide Resins for Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Criss, Jim M.; Mintz, Eric A.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Nguyen, Baochau N.; McCorkle, Linda S.

    2007-01-01

    A series of polyimide resins with low-melt viscosities in the range of 10-30 poise and high glass transition temperatures (Tg s) of 330-370 C were developed for resin transfer molding (RTM) applications. These polyimide resins were formulated from 2,3,3 ,4 -biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (a-BPDA) with 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride endcaps along with either 3,4 - oxyaniline (3,4 -ODA), 3,4 -methylenedianiline, (3,4 -MDA) or 3,3 -methylenedianiline (3,3 -MDA). These polyimides had pot lives of 30-60 minutes at 260-280 C, enabling the successful fabrication of T650-35 carbon fiber reinforced composites via RTM process. The viscosity profiles of the polyimide resins and the mechanical properties of the polyimide carbon fiber composites will be discussed.

  8. Technology development for phosphoric acid fuel cell powerplant (phase 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, L.

    1979-01-01

    The status of technology for the manufacturing and testing of 1200 sq. cm cell materials, components, and stacks for on-site integrated energy systems is assessed. Topics covered include: (1) preparation of thin layers of silicon carbide; (2) definition and control schemes for volume changes in phosphoric acid fuel cells; (3) preparation of low resin content graphite phenolic resin composites; (4) chemical corrosion of graphite-phenolic resin composites in hot phosphoric acid; (5) analysis of electrical resistance of composite materials for fuel cells; and (6) fuel cell performance and testing.

  9. Computational Modeling of theComputational Modeling of the Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer MoldingVacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding

    E-print Network

    Grujicic, Mica

    Computational Modeling of theComputational Modeling of the Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer MoldingVacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) Process(VARTM) Process April 2004April 2004 DepartmentMS Thesis Advisor: Dr. Grujicic #12;What is VARTM?What is VARTM? Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding

  10. Toughening of aromatic diamine-cured epoxy resins by poly(ethylene phthalate)s and the related copolyesters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takao Iijima; Noriyuki Arai; Wakichi Fukuda; Masao Tomoi

    1995-01-01

    Aromatic polyesters, prepared by the reaction of aromatic dicarboxylic acids and 1,2-ethanediol, were used to improve the toughness of bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether epoxy resin cured with p,p?-diaminodiphenyl sulphone. These polyesters contained poly(ethylene phthalate)s, poly(ethylene phthalate-co-ethylene isophthalate)s (PEPI), poly(ethylene phthalate-co-ethylene terephthalate)s, and poly (ethylene phthalate-co-ethylene 2,6-naphthalene dicarboxylate)s. All the aromatic polyesters used in this study were soluble in the epoxy resin

  11. Recovery of palladium(II) and gold(III) from diluted liquors using the resin duolite GT73

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Iglesias; E Anticó; V Salvadó

    1999-01-01

    The adsorption of Pd(II) and Au(III) on the Duolite GT-73 has been investigated. The results obtained in chloride media showed a higher adsorption for Au(III) (0.58±0.03mmol\\/g resin) than for Pd(II) (0.262±0.015mmol\\/g resin); however, the adsorption for Pd(II) is faster.The influence of several variables such as the hydrochloric acid concentration in both metals adsorption and the addition of thiocyanate and dioxan

  12. Eco-friendly Crosslinking Agent for Acid Functional Acrylic Resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARCHANA SHAH

    Oil from J. multifida was extracted and it was first converted into N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) Jatropha fatty amide (HEJFA). HEJFA has been synthesized by reaction between Jatropha oil and diethanol amine in presence of zinc oxide as a catalyst. The reaction is relatively rapid and proceeded to high yield at 200±5 OC. The resulting HEJFA was used to formulate thermosetting coating compositions.

  13. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...units. (b) The additive meets the following specifications: (1) A minimum molecular weight of 3 million. (2) Viscosity range: 3,000 to 6,000 centipoises at 77 °F in a 1 percent aqueous solution as determined by LVF Brookfield...

  14. Effect of resin thickness on the microhardness and optical properties of bulk-fill resin composites

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Ha; Jung, Kyoung-Hwa; Son, Sung-Ae; Hur, Bock; Kwon, Yong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the effects of the resin thickness on the microhardness and optical properties of bulk-fill resin composites. Methods Four bulk-fill (Venus Bulk Fill, Heraeus Kulzer; SDR, Dentsply Caulk; Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill, Ivoclar vivadent; SonicFill, Kerr) and two regular resin composites (Charisma flow, Heraeus Kulzer; Tetric N-Ceram, Ivoclar vivadent) were used. Sixty acrylic cylindrical molds were prepared for each thickness (2, 3 and 4 mm). The molds were divided into six groups for resin composites. The microhardness was measured on the top and bottom surfaces, and the colors were measured using Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* system. Color differences according to the thickness and translucency parameters and the correlations between the microhardness and translucency parameter were analyzed. The microhardness and color differences were analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffe's post hoc test, and a student t-test, respectively. The level of significance was set to ? = 0.05. Results The microhardness decreased with increasing resin thickness. The bulk-fill resin composites showed a bottom/top hardness ratio of almost 80% or more in 4 mm thick specimens. The highest translucency parameter was observed in Venus Bulk Fill. All resin composites used in this study except for Venus Bulk Fill showed linear correlations between the microhardness and translucency parameter according to the thickness. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, the bulk-fill resin composites used in this study can be placed and cured properly in the 4 mm bulk. PMID:25984474

  15. Micro-tensile bond testing of resin cements to dentin and an indirect resin composite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiu-Fai Mak; Shirley C. N Lai; Gary S. P Cheung; Alex W. K Chan; Franklin R Tay; David H Pashley

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Micro-tensile bond strength (?TBS) evaluation and fractographic analysis were used to compare four resin cement systems (AC: All-Bond 2\\/Choice; RX: Single Bond\\/RelyX ARC; SB: Super-Bond C&B; and PF: Panavia F) in indirect composite\\/dentin adhesive joints.Methods: Flat dentin surfaces were created on extracted human third molars. The resin cements were used according to the manufacturers' instructions for bonding silanized composite

  16. Modification of Epoxy Resin by Cyanate Ester Resin and Liquid Butadiene-Acrylonitrile Rubbers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xudong Sun; Minfeng Zeng; Cuiyun Lu; Fengyuan Yan; Chenze Qi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the results showed that the addition of an appropriate amount of reactive rubbers ((ie: carboxyl randomized butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (CRBN) and hydroxyl terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (HTBN)) to epoxy resin\\/cyanate ester resin (EP\\/CE) (70\\/30) improved both the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the resulting blends. CRBN and HTBN have different reactive activity and dispersion state in EP\\/CE\\/rubbers. No

  17. Resin char oxidation retardant for composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, K. J.; Gluyas, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Boron powder stabilizes char, so burned substances are shiny, smooth, and free of loose graphite fibers. Resin weight loss of laminates during burning in air is identical for the first three minutes for unfilled and boron-filled samples, then boron samples stabilize.

  18. Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, David

    2005-01-01

    The historical uses of ion-exchanged resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchanged process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange are provided that include drug stabilization, pharmaceutical excipients, taste-masking agents, oral sustained-release products, topical products for local application…

  19. Epoxy resins produce improved plastic scintillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. W.

    1967-01-01

    Plastic scintillator produced by the substitution of epoxy resins for the commonly used polystyrene is easy to cast, stable at room temperature, and has the desirable properties of a thermoset or cross-linked system. Such scintillators can be immersed directly in strong solvents, an advantage in many chemical and biological experiments.

  20. Novel processing of epoxy resin systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. May; W. Breitigam; R. S. Bauer

    1993-01-01

    The laminates that are used to prepare advanced composite parts generally require curing at high temperature and pressure, and their raw material shelf lives are limited. The epoxy resin systems that the authors describe here offer the potential of extended shelf life while curing at relatively low temperatures with a method the authors call rapid thermoset processing (RTP). A laminate