Science.gov

Sample records for acid sulfites

  1. OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION OF ORGANIC ACIDS CONJUGATED WITH SULFITE OXIDATION IN FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of organic acid degradation conjugated with sulfite oxidation under flue gas desulfurization (FGD) conditions. The oxidative degradation constant, k12, is defined as the ratio of organic acid degradation rate and sulfite oxidation rate times th...

  2. Corrosion of some chromium-nickel steels and alloys in sulfuric acid solutions of sodium sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeliovich, D.K.; Glagolenko, Yu.V.; Ermolinskii, S.P.

    1988-05-01

    Steels 12Kh18N1OT and 10Kh17N13M3T and alloys 06KhN28MDT and 46KhNM were studied in sulfuric acid solutions containing sodium sulfite and sulfur dioxide to determine the effects of different concentrations of the corrosive constituents on the anodic and cathodic active and passive corrosion behavior of the metals. Polarization curves were obtained with a P-5827 M potentiostat. Addition of sulfite facilitated both electrode processes and the region of the reactive state was broadened due to the shift of passivation potentials to more positive values. The activating effect of sulfite reduction products were confirmed by tests of alloys in spent solutions. This increased likelihood of activation and the decrease of the solutions's own corrosion potential were both attributed to retardation of the cathodic process by lower valence sulfur compounds.

  3. Oxidative degradation of organic acids conjugated with sulfite oxidation in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    Organic acid degradation conjugated with sulfite oxidation has been studied under flue gas desulfurization (EGD) conditions. The oxidative degradation constant, k/sub 12/, is defined as the ratio of organic acid degradation rate and sulfite oxidation rate after being normalized by the concentrations of organic acid and dissolved S(IV). K/sub 12/, not significantly affected by pH or dissolved oxygen, is around 10/sup -3/ in the absence of manganese or iron. However, k/sub 12/ is increased by certain transition metals such as Co, Ni, and Fe and is decreased by Mn and halides. Lower dissolved S(IV) magnified these effects. No k/sub 12/ greater than 4 x 10/sup -3/ or smaller than 0.1 x 10/sup -3/ has been observed. A free radical mechanism was proposed to describe the kinetics: (1) sulfate free radical is the major radical responsible to the degradation of organic acid; (2) ferrous generates sulfate radical by reacting with monoxypersulfate to enhance k/sub 12/; (3) manganous consumes sulfate radical to decrease k/sub 12/; (4) dissolved S(IV) competes with ferrous for monoxypersulfate and with manganous for sulfate radical to demonstrate the effects of dissolved S(IV) on k/sub 12/. Hydroxy and sulfonated carboxylic acids degrade approximately three times slower than saturated dicarboxylic acids; while maleic acid, an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid, degraded an order of magnitude faster. A wide spectrum of degradation products of adipic acid were found, including carbon dioxide - the major product, glutaric semialdehyde - the major retained product with low manganese, glutaric acid and valeric acids - the major retained product with high manganese, lower molecular weight mono- and dicarboxylic acids, other carbonyl compounds, and hydrocarbons.

  4. Effects of sulfhydryl compounds, carbohydrates, organic acids, and sodium sulfite on the formation of lysinoalanine in preserved egg.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xu-Ying; Tu, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Yan; Li, Jian-Ke; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-08-01

    To identify inhibitors for lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg, sulfhydryl compounds (glutathione, L-cysteine), carbohydrates (sucrose, D-glucose, maltose), organic acids (L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, DL-malic acid, lactic acid), and sodium sulfite were individually added at different concentrations to a pickling solution to prepare preserved eggs. Lysinoalanine formation as an index of these 10 substances was determined. Results indicate that glutathione, D-glucose, maltose, L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, and sodium sulfite all effectively diminished lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg albumen and yolk. When 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, citric acid, L-ascorbic acid, and D-glucose were individually added into the pickling solution, the inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the produced preserved egg albumen and yolk were higher. However, the attempt of minimizing lysinoalanine formation was combined with the premise of ensuring preserved eggs quality. Moreover, the addition of 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, 40 and 80 mmol/L of D-glucose, 40 mmol/L of citric acid, and 40 mmol/L of L-ascorbic acid was optimal to produce preserved eggs. The corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the albumen were approximately 76.3% to 76.5%, 67.6% to 67.8%, 74.6%, and 74.6%, and the corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the yolk were about 68.7% to 69.7%, 50.6% to 51.8%, 70.4%, and 57.8%. It was concluded that sodium sulfite, D-glucose, L-ascorbic, and citric acid at suitable concentrations can be used to control the formation of lysinoalanine during preserved egg processing. PMID:25047093

  5. Effect of trace metals and sulfite oxidation of adipic acid degradation in FGD systems. Final report Dec 81-May 82

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, J.B.; Terry, J.C.; Schubert, S.A.; Utley, B.L.

    1982-12-01

    The report gives results of the measurement of the adipic acid degradation rate in a bench-scale flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system, designed to simulate many of the important aspects of full-scale FGD systems. Results show that the adipic acid degradation rate depends on the sulfite oxidation rate, the adipic acid concentration, the presence of manganese in solution, and temperature. The degradation rate is also affected by pH, but only when manganese is present. Adipic acid degradation products identified in the liquid phase include valeric, butyric, propionic, succinic, and glutaric acids. When manganese was present, the predominant degradation products were succinic and glutaric acids. Analysis of solids from the bench scale tests shows large concentrations of coprecipitated adipic acid in low oxidation sulfite solids. By contrast, low quantities of coprecipitated adipic acid were found in high oxidation gypsum solids.

  6. An evaluation of Pt sulfite acid (PSA) as precursor for supported Pt catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Regalbuto, J.R.; Ansel, O.; Miller, J.T.

    2010-11-12

    As a catalyst precursor, platinum sulfite acid (PSA) is easy to use and not relatively expensive, and is a potentially attractive precursor for many types of supported catalysts. The ultimate usefulness for many catalyst applications will depend on the extent that Pt can be dispersed and sulfur eliminated. To our knowledge, there exists no detailed characterization in the catalysis literature of PSA and the nanoparticulate Pt phases derived from it during catalyst pretreatment. To this end a series of supports including alumina, silica, magnesia, niobia, titania, magnesia and carbon were contacted with PSA solutions and subsequently analyzed with extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to characterize the Pt species formed upon impregnation, calcination, and reduction. While all catalysts show retention of some S, reasonably small particle sizes with relatively little Pt-S can in some instances be produced using PSA. The amount of retained sulfur appears to decrease with decreasing surface acidity, although even the most acidic supports (niobia and silica) display some storage of S even while only Pt-O bands are observed after calcination or reoxidation. More sulfur was eliminated by high temperature calcinations followed by reduction in hydrogen, at the expense of increasing Pt particle size.

  7. Optimization of Sulfide/Sulfite Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Lactic Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Adnan, Ahmad; Qureshi, Fahim Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    Potential of sodium sulfide and sodium sulfite, in the presence of sodium hydroxide was investigated to pretreat the corncob (CC), bagasse (BG), water hyacinth and rice husk (RH) for maximum digestibility. Response Surface Methodology was employed for the optimization of pretreatment factors such as temperature, time and concentration of Na2S and Na2SO3, which had high coefficient of determination (R2) along with low probability value (P), indicating the reliable predictability of the model. At optimized conditions, Na2S and Na2SO3 remove up to 97% lignin, from WH and RH, along with removal of hemicellulose (up to 93%) during pretreatment providing maximum cellulose, while in BG and CC; 75.0% and 90.0% reduction in lignin and hemicellulose was observed. Saccharification efficiency of RH, WH, BG and CC after treatment with 1.0% Na2S at 130°C for 2.3–3.0 h was 79.40, 85.93, 87.70, and 88.43%, respectively. WH treated with Na2SO3 showed higher hydrolysis yield (86.34%) as compared to Na2S while other biomass substrates showed 2.0–3.0% less yield with Na2SO3. Resulting sugars were evaluated as substrate for lactic acid production, yielding 26.48, 25.36, 31.73, and 30.31 gL−1 of lactic acid with 76.0, 76.0, 86.0, and 83.0% conversion yield from CC, BG, WH, and RH hydrolyzate, respectively. PMID:24058918

  8. Optimization of sulfide/sulfite pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Muhammad; Adnan, Ahmad; Qureshi, Fahim Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    Potential of sodium sulfide and sodium sulfite, in the presence of sodium hydroxide was investigated to pretreat the corncob (CC), bagasse (BG), water hyacinth and rice husk (RH) for maximum digestibility. Response Surface Methodology was employed for the optimization of pretreatment factors such as temperature, time and concentration of Na₂S and Na₂SO₃, which had high coefficient of determination (R²) along with low probability value (P), indicating the reliable predictability of the model. At optimized conditions, Na₂S and Na₂SO₃ remove up to 97% lignin, from WH and RH, along with removal of hemicellulose (up to 93%) during pretreatment providing maximum cellulose, while in BG and CC; 75.0% and 90.0% reduction in lignin and hemicellulose was observed. Saccharification efficiency of RH, WH, BG and CC after treatment with 1.0% Na₂S at 130°C for 2.3-3.0 h was 79.40, 85.93, 87.70, and 88.43%, respectively. WH treated with Na₂SO₃ showed higher hydrolysis yield (86.34%) as compared to Na₂S while other biomass substrates showed 2.0-3.0% less yield with Na₂SO₃. Resulting sugars were evaluated as substrate for lactic acid production, yielding 26.48, 25.36, 31.73, and 30.31 gL⁻¹ of lactic acid with 76.0, 76.0, 86.0, and 83.0% conversion yield from CC, BG, WH, and RH hydrolyzate, respectively. PMID:24058918

  9. Concentrated sulfite-yeast fermenting mixture as a corrosion inhibitor of copper in mixtures of sulfuric and nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Agaev, N.M.; Smorodin, A.E.; Rzaev, E.R.; Tyr, S.G.; Shlimak, Ya.B.; Geidarova, G.D.; Eremeeva, R.A.; Nasirov, G.N.

    1987-03-01

    At the Baku factory of residential air conditioning systems both preliminary and final pickling of copper tubing is carried out in a solution of sulfuric and nitric acids. The authors of this study, in seeking an inhibitor to control this process, evaluate the protective properties of an inhibitor based on a concentrated sulfite-yeast fermenting mixture that is generated as a common waste product by the cellulose-pulp industry. It consists of calcium, sodium, and ammonium salts of lignin sulfonic acids. Tests revealed not only its inhibiting effectiveness but also its capacity to lower toxic gas levels of nitrogen oxides in the plant environment.

  10. Sulfite oxidizing enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Changjian; Tollin, Gordon; Enemark, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Sulfite oxidizing enzymes are essential mononuclear molybdenum (Mo) proteins involved in sulfur metabolism of animals, plants and bacteria. There are three such enzymes presently known: (1) sulfite oxidase (SO) in animals, (2) SO in plants, and (3) sulfite dehydrogenase (SDH) in bacteria. X-ray crystal structures of enzymes from all three sources (chicken SO, Arabidopsis thaliana SO, and Starkeya novella SDH) show nearly identical square pyramidal coordination around the Mo atom, even though the overall structures of the proteins and the presence of additional cofactors vary. This structural information provides a molecular basis for studying the role of specific amino acids in catalysis. Animal SO catalyzes the final step in the degradation of sulfur-containing amino acids and is critical in detoxifying excess sulfite. Human SO deficiency is a fatal genetic disorder that leads to early death, and impaired SO activity is implicated in sulfite neurotoxicity. Animal SO and bacterial SDH contain both Mo and heme domains, whereas plant SO only has the Mo domain. Intraprotein electron transfer (IET) between the Mo and Fe centers in animal SO and bacterial SDH is a key step in the catalysis, which can be studied by laser flash photolysis in the presence of deazariboflavin. IET studies on animal SO and bacterial SDH clearly demonstrate the similarities and differences between these two types of sulfite oxidizing enzymes. Conformational change is involved in the IET of animal SO, in which electrostatic interactions may play a major role in guiding the docking of the heme domain to the Mo domain prior to electron transfer. In contrast, IET measurements for SDH demonstrate that IET occurs directly through the protein medium, which is distinctly different from that in animal SO. Point mutations in human SO can result in significantly impaired IET or no IET, thus rationalizing their fatal effects. The recent developments in our understanding of sulfite oxidizing enzyme

  11. Adverse reactions to sulfites

    PubMed Central

    Yang, William H.; Purchase, Emerson C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfites are widely used as preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the United States more than 250 cases of sulfite-related adverse reactions, including anaphylactic shock, asthmatic attacks, urticaria and angioedema, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, seizures and death, have been reported, including 6 deaths allegedly associated with restaurant food containing sulfites. In Canada 10 sulfite-related adverse reactions have been documented, and 1 death suspected to be sulfite-related has occurred. The exact mechanism of sulfite-induced reactions is unknown. Practising physicians should be aware of the clinical manifestations of sulfite-related adverse reactions as well as which foods and pharmaceuticals contain sulfites. Cases should be reported to health officials and proper advice given to the victims to prevent further exposure to sulfites. The food industry, including beer and wine manufacturers, and the pharmaceutical industry should consider using alternative preservatives. In the interim, they should list any sulfites in their products. PMID:4052897

  12. Mass independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes during thermochemical reduction of native sulfur, sulfite and sulfate by amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Naraoka, H.; Ohmoto, H.

    2006-05-01

    Mass independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (MIF-S) is recognized when the Δ33S value (= δ33S-0.515xδ34S) of a sample falls outside the range of 0±0.2 permil and the 33-34θ value (= ln33α/ ln34α) lies outside the range of 0.515±.005 (Farquhar and Wing, 2003). Previous investigators have concluded that the only mechanisms to create MIF-S are photochemical reactions between sulfur-bearing gases (SO2, H2S) and UV. Based on comparisons of the geochemical characteristics of Archean sedimentary rocks between those with large MIF-S values (e.g., the 2.5 Ga McRae and 2.7 Ga Jeerinah shales) and those with no (or very small) MIF- S values (e.g., 2.76 Ga Hardey shales and 2.92 Ga Mosquito Creek shales), we have developed a hypothesis that MIF-S in sedimentary rocks may have been created by reactions among organic-rich sediments, sulfur- bearing solid compounds, and sulfur-bearing hydrothermal fluids at T = 100-200°C during the early diagenetic stage of sediments. Most abundant organic compounds in immature sediments are amino acids. For these reasons, we have conducted series of laboratory experiments to investigate sulfur isotope fractionations during reactions between a variety of amino acids (alanine, glycine, hystidine, etc.) and native sulfur, sodium sulfite or sodium sulfate at 150-200°C. Previous researchers used a variety of organic compounds (sugars, methane, xylene, etc) and/or ferrous- bearing minerals to investigate non-bacterial sulfate reduction, but they failed to demonstrate thermochemical sulfate reduction at temperatures below 230°C. However, we were able to reduce sulfate (S6+), as well as sulfite (S4+) and native sulfur (S0), to hydrogen sulfide (S2-) even at 150°C using simple and common amino acids (e.g., alanine and glycine). The reduction rates generally decreased: (a) from native sulfur, to sulfite, and to sulfate; (b) from simple amino acids to more complex amino acids (e.g., histidine); and (c) with decreasing temperatures. The

  13. [Ion chromatography of L-ascorbic acid, sulfite and thiosulfate using their postcolumn reactions with cerium (IV) and fluorescence detection of cerium (III)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Q; Hu, K; Miura, Y

    1999-09-01

    An ion chromatographic method was used to separate the species of L-ascorbic acid, sulfite and thiosulfate in their mixtures. This method is based on the separation of each anion in their mixtures by using a separation column, and then on the fluorimetric measurement of cerium (III) formed by a postcolumn reaction of cerium (IV) with the species of L-ascorbic acid, sulfite and thiosulfate in the effluent. The optimal conditions for separating and determining the above three species have been established. By using a 3 mmol/L carbonate eluent, the species of L-ascorbic acid, sulfite and thiosulfate could be eluted at the proper retention times of 1.7, 2.6 and 5.0 min, respectively, and these three anions could be separated completely. The effects of the concentrations of cerium (IV) and sulfuric acid in the postcolumn reaction solution on the chromatographic peak-height were tested in order to obtain the optimal peak-height. It was found that the peak-height at first increases rapidly with an increase in the concentration of cerium (IV) and sulfuric acid respectively up to a certain concertation, then increases slowly. These critical concentrations of cerium (IV) and sulfuric acid also depend on the amount of the analyte injected. Meanwhile the baseline signals of the sepectra increase with an increase in the concentration of cerium (IV). Some concentrations above the critical concentration of sulfuric acid could be selected as the optimal concentration of sulfuric acid, but the concentration of cerium (IV) should be optimized by establishing a compromise between the higher peak-height and the lower baseline signal. The detection limit of this method was found to be 1 mumol/L for thiosulfate when an amount of 100 microL analyte was injected. PMID:12552889

  14. EFFECT OF TRACE METALS AND SULFITE OXIDATION OF ADIPIC ACID DEGRADATION IN FGD SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the measurement of the adipic acid degradation rate in a bench-scale flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system, designed to simulate many of the important aspects of full-scale FGD systems. Results show that the adipic acid degradation rate depends on the ...

  15. Structural Insights into Sulfite Oxidase Deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Karakas,E.; Wilson, H.; Graf, T.; Xiang, S.; Jaramillo-Busquets, S.; Rajagopalan, K.; Kisker, C.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfite oxidase deficiency is a lethal genetic disease that results from defects either in the genes encoding proteins involved in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis or in the sulfite oxidase gene itself. Several point mutations in the sulfite oxidase gene have been identified from patients suffering from this disease worldwide. Although detailed biochemical analyses have been carried out on these mutations, no structural data could be obtained because of problems in crystallizing recombinant human and rat sulfite oxidases and the failure to clone the chicken sulfite oxidase gene. We synthesized the gene for chicken sulfite oxidase de novo, working backward from the amino acid sequence of the native chicken liver enzyme by PCR amplification of a series of 72 overlapping primers. The recombinant protein displayed the characteristic absorption spectrum of sulfite oxidase and exhibited steady state and rapid kinetic parameters comparable with those of the tissue-derived enzyme. We solved the crystal structures of the wild type and the sulfite oxidase deficiency-causing R138Q (R160Q in humans) variant of recombinant chicken sulfite oxidase in the resting and sulfate-bound forms. Significant alterations in the substrate-binding pocket were detected in the structure of the mutant, and a comparison between the wild type and mutant protein revealed that the active site residue Arg-450 adopts different conformations in the presence and absence of bound sulfate. The size of the binding pocket is thereby considerably reduced, and its position relative to the cofactor is shifted, causing an increase in the distance of the sulfur atom of the bound sulfate to the molybdenum.

  16. A novel photochemical system of ferrous sulfite complex: kinetics and mechanisms of rapid decolorization of Acid Orange 7 in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Danna; Chen, Long; Zhang, Changbo; Yu, Yingtan; Zhang, Li; Wu, Feng

    2014-06-15

    We previously reported the decolorization of the azo dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7) by sulfate radical (SO4(-)) in the presence of iron(II) sulfite complex and oxygen under UV-vis irradiation (photo-iron(II) sulfite system). This system, however, achieves very limited mineralization of AO7 (in terms of total organic carbon (TOC) removal), which is not in accordance with literature reports on the oxidation of organic contaminants by SO4(-). In the present work, kinetics and products under irradiation of xenon lamp (350 W) were analyzed to reveal the reaction pathway of decolorization of AO7. Steady-state approximation (SSA) of SO4(-) radicals and apparent kinetics of AO7 were examined. The reaction between AO7 and SO4(-) was found to proceed in two steps, namely, electron transfer and SO4(-) addition. The second-order rate constant for the reaction between AO7 and SO4(-) was found to be 8.07 ± 1.07 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) by SSA and 6.80 ± 0.68 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) by competition kinetics method. The apparent kinetics of the decolorization of AO7 under irradiation closely fits the mechanism of radical chain reactions of various reactive sulfur species. By liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified the sulfate adduct AO7-SO4 and confirmed the two-step reaction between AO7 and SO4(-). This stable sulfate adduct provides a good explanation of the poor TOC removal during decolorization of AO7 by the photo-iron(II) sulfite system. PMID:24704906

  17. Sulfite hypersensitivity. A critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnison, A.F.; Jacobsen, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Sulfiting agents (sulfur dioxide and the sodium and potassium salts of bisulfite, sulfite, and metabisulfite) are widely used as preservatives in foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. Within the past 5 years, there have been numerous reports of adverse reactions to sulfiting agents. This review presents a comprehensive compilation and discussion of reports describing reactions to ingested, inhaled, and parenterally administered sulfite. Sulfite hypersensitivity is usually, but not exclusively, found within the chronic asthmatic population. Although there is some disagreement on its prevalence, a number of studies have indicated that 5 to 10% of all chronic asthmatics are sulfite hypersensitive. This review also describes respiratory sulfur dioxide sensitivity which essentially all asthmatics experience. Possible mechanisms of sulfite hypersensitivity and sulfur dioxide sensitivity are discussed in detail. Sulfite metabolism and the role of sulfite oxidase in the detoxification of exogenous sulfite are reviewed in relationship to the etiology of sulfite hypersensitivity. 147 references.

  18. VOLATILE COMPONENT RECOVERY FROM SULFITE EVAPORATOR CONDENSATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is on the operation and modification of a demonstration unit to remove sulfur dioxide, methanol, furfural, and acetic acid from its sulfite evaporator condensate. This unit consisted of a steam stripper, vent tank SO2 recovery, activated carbon adsorption columns, and ...

  19. Limestone dissolution in flue gas scrubbing: Effect of sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Gage, C.L.; Rochelle, G.T. )

    1992-07-01

    Batch limestone dissolution experiments were carried out in a pH stat apparatus at 55 C with CO{sub 2} sparging and dissolved sulfite. Particle size distribution, utilization, sulfite in solution, limestone type, and the approach to calcite equilibrium were all found to contribute to the limestone reactivity. In the absence of sulfite, limestone dissolution was controlled solely by mass transfer. For a given stone under mass transfer control, film thickness was found to be independent of pH. The dissolution rate in the presence of sulfite was controlled by a combined surface kinetics/mass transfer regime. SEM micrographs supported this conclusion. A surface rate correlation was developed which accounted for observed inhibition by an inverse dependence on calcium sulfite concentration at the limestone dependence on calcium sulfite concentration at the limestone surface. While the form of the rate expression was applicable to all stones, the surface rate constant was stone dependent. A computer code which accounted for mass transfer with surface kinetics was tested against experimental observations of four limestone types. Changes in pH and the concentrations of calcium, carbonate, sulfite, sulfate, and adipic acid were accurately modeled.

  20. Strategies for overcoming temporary phytotoxic effects of calcium sulfite applied to agricultural soils

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchey, K.D.; Kinraide, T.B.; Wendell, R.R.; Clark, R.B.; Baligar, V.C.

    1994-12-31

    Calcium sulfite is a major component of scrubber residues produced by lime-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, widely used in the Ohio River Valley. Preliminary studies have shown that calcium sulfite severely decreased corn plant growth when incorporated into acid soils at moderate rates. Evidence is strong that the toxic effect on plant growth is due to generation of sulfur dioxide in acidic soil. Bioassay methods were used to demonstrate that raising soil pH reduced calcium sulfite toxicity. In solution and in soils, calcium sulfite oxidizes to calcium sulfate (gypsum), which is an agricultural soil amendment useful for increasing calcium levels in acidic subsoils. This potential for oxidation indicates the possibility of incorporating calcium sulfite several months before the crop is sown so that the calcium sulfite will transform to gypsum, which should, because of its relatively high solubility, leach below the plow layer and improve the subsoil.

  1. Factors Supporting Cysteine Tolerance and Sulfite Production in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Hennicke, Florian; Grumbt, Maria; Lermann, Ulrich; Ueberschaar, Nico; Palige, Katja; Böttcher, Bettina; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Staib, Claudia; Morschhäuser, Joachim; Monod, Michel; Hube, Bernhard; Hertweck, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The amino acid cysteine has long been known to be toxic at elevated levels for bacteria, fungi, and humans. However, mechanisms of cysteine tolerance in microbes remain largely obscure. Here we show that the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans excretes sulfite when confronted with increasing cysteine concentrations. Mutant construction and phenotypic analysis revealed that sulfite formation from cysteine in C. albicans relies on cysteine dioxygenase Cdg1, an enzyme with similar functions in humans. Environmental cysteine induced not only the expression of the CDG1 gene in C. albicans, but also the expression of SSU1, encoding a putative sulfite efflux pump. Accordingly, the deletion of SSU1 resulted in enhanced sensitivity of the fungal cells to both cysteine and sulfite. To study the regulation of sulfite/cysteine tolerance in more detail, we screened a C. albicans library of transcription factor mutants in the presence of sulfite. This approach and subsequent independent mutant analysis identified the zinc cluster transcription factor Zcf2 to govern sulfite/cysteine tolerance, as well as cysteine-inducible SSU1 and CDG1 gene expression. cdg1Δ and ssu1Δ mutants displayed reduced hypha formation in the presence of cysteine, indicating a possible role of the newly proposed mechanisms of cysteine tolerance and sulfite secretion in the pathogenicity of C. albicans. Moreover, cdg1Δ mutants induced delayed mortality in a mouse model of disseminated infection. Since sulfite is toxic and a potent reducing agent, its production by C. albicans suggests diverse roles during host adaptation and pathogenicity. PMID:23417561

  2. Sulfite Oxidation in Chlorobaculum Tepidum

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jesse; Hiras, Jennifer; Hanson, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum is proposed to oxidize sulfide and elemental sulfur via sulfite as an obligate intermediate. The sulfite pool is predicted to be contained in the cytoplasm and be oxidized by the concerted action of ApsBA, which directly oxidizes sulfite, and QmoABC, which transfers electrons from ApsBA to the quinone pool. Like other green sulfur bacteria, C. tepidum was unable to use exogenously provided sulfite as the sole electron donor. However, exogenous sulfite significantly stimulated the growth yield of sulfide limited batch cultures. The growth of C. tepidum mutant strains, CT0867/qmoB::TnOGm and CT0868/qmoC::TnOGm, was not increased by sulfite. Furthermore, these strains accumulated sulfite and displayed a growth yield decrease when grown on sulfide as the sole electron donor. These results support an obligate, cytoplasmic sulfite intermediate as part of the canonical sulfur oxidation pathway in C. tepidum that requires the Qmo complex for oxidation. PMID:21747809

  3. Evaluation of microbial diversity in sulfite-added and sulfite-free wine by culture-dependent and -independent methods.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Ohta, Tami; Masaki, Kazuo; Mizuno, Akihiro; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami

    2014-05-01

    The difference in microbiota including non-lactic acid bacteria, non-acetic acid bacteria, and wild yeast during winemaking and in the end-products between sulfite-added and sulfite-free wine, was investigated using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and a culture-dependent method. There were differences between the microorganisms detected by PCR-DGGE and those detected by the culture-dependent method, probably because of the selectivity of culture medium and the characteristics of PCR-based method. In both the red wine and white wine, the microbial diversity of the sulfite-added wine was lower than that of the sulfite-free wine during fermentation. Tatumella terrea was detected from the fermenting must by PCR-DGGE and by the culture-dependent method, even though sulfite inhibited its growth to some extent. We confirmed that the addition of sulfite plays an important role in winemaking by inhibiting the growth of unexpected microorganisms, but on the other hand, it was revealed that some microorganisms can survive and grow in sulfite-added fermenting must. We also analyzed 15 samples of commercial wines by the PCR-DGGE method and detected various microorganisms. Among them, Sphingomonas sp., Pseudozyma sp., Ochromonas sp. and Methylophilus sp. were found for the first time in wine as far as we know. We did not identify a specific microorganism that was detected only from wines without sulfite addition. Thus, the microbiota of end-products seemed to be influenced by other factors, such as filtration before bottling, the production equipment and the storage environment. PMID:24239025

  4. Labile sulfide and sulfite in phytochelatin complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Eannetta, N.T.; Steffens, J.C. )

    1989-04-01

    Heavy metals such as cadmium induce tomato cell cultures to synthesize the metal binding polypeptides ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub 3} and ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub 4}-Gly (phytochelatins). Tomato cells selected for growth on normally lethal concentrations of CdCl{sub 2} synthesize higher quantities of these polypeptides. Cd{sup r} cells are not cross-resistant to other heavy metals, and recent work suggests that metal detoxification by these peptides may be Cd-specific. The occurrence of labile sulfur as a component of the metal complex raises questions concerning possible functions of phytochelatins besides that of Cd binding. The presence of acid-labile sulfide ion in phytochelatin complexes has been reported by several groups. We report the additional finding that labile sulfite is also present in these complexes and in higher amounts than sulfide. Sulfide and sulfite are both released from the metal binding complex by acidification or by treatment with EDTA.

  5. Free-radical chemistry of sulfite.

    PubMed Central

    Neta, P; Huie, R E

    1985-01-01

    The free-radical chemistry of sulfite oxidation is reviewed. Chemical transformations of organic and biological molecules induced by sulfite oxidation are summarized. The kinetics of the free-radical oxidations of sulfite are discussed, as are the kinetics of the reactions of the sulfite-derived radicals SO3 and the peroxy derivative SO5 with organic compounds. PMID:3830699

  6. Critical Comparison between Modified Monier-Williams and Electrochemical Methods to Determine Sulfite in Aqueous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Montes, C.; Vélez, J. H.; Ramírez, G.; Isaacs, M.; Arce, R.; Aguirre, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, known concentration of sulfite aqueous solutions in the presence and absence of gallic acid was measured to corroborate the validity of modified Monier-Williams method. Free and bound-sulfite was estimated by differential pulse voltammetry. To our surprise, the modified Monier-Williams method (also known as aspiration method) showed to be very inaccurate for free-sulfite, although suitable for bound-sulfite determination. The differential pulse approach, using the standard addition method and a correction coefficient, proved to be swift, cheap, and very precise and accurate. PMID:22619610

  7. Electrocatalytic sulfite biosensor with human sulfite oxidase co-immobilized with cytochrome c in a polyelectrolyte-containing multilayer.

    PubMed

    Spricigo, Roberto; Dronov, Roman; Lisdat, Fred; Leimkühler, Silke; Scheller, Frieder W; Wollenberger, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    An efficient electrocatalytic biosensor for sulfite detection was developed by co-immobilizing sulfite oxidase and cytochrome c with polyaniline sulfonic acid in a layer-by-layer assembly. QCM, UV-Vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry revealed increasing loading of electrochemically active protein with the formation of multilayers. The sensor operates reagentless at low working potential. A catalytic oxidation current was detected in the presence of sulfite at the modified gold electrode, polarized at +0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl 1 M KCl). The stability of the biosensor performance was characterized and optimized. A 17-bilayer electrode has a linear range between 1 and 60 microM sulfite with a sensitivity of 2.19 mA M(-1) sulfite and a response time of 2 min. The electrode retained a stable response for 3 days with a serial reproducibility of 3.8% and lost 20% of sensitivity after 5 days of operation. It is possible to store the sensor in a dry state for more than 2 months. The multilayer electrode was used for determination of sulfite in unspiked and spiked samples of red and white wine. The recovery and the specificity of the signals were evaluated for each sample. PMID:18932024

  8. Comparative study of sulfite pretreatments for robust enzymatic saccharification of corn cob residue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Corn cob residue (CCR) is a kind of waste lignocellulosic material with enormous potential for bioethanol production. The moderated sulphite processes were used to enhance the hydrophily of the material by sulfonation and hydrolysis. The composition, FT-IR spectra, and conductometric titrations of the pretreated materials were measured to characterize variations of the CCR in different sulfite pretreated environments. And the objective of this study is to compare the saccharification rate and yield of the samples caused by these variations. Results It was found that the lignin in the CCR (43.2%) had reduced to 37.8%, 38.0%, 35.9%, and 35.5% after the sulfite pretreatment in neutral, acidic, alkaline, and ethanol environments, respectively. The sulfite pretreatments enhanced the glucose yield of the CCR. Moreover, the ethanol sulfite sample had the highest glucose yield (81.2%, based on the cellulose in the treated sample) among the saccharification samples, which was over 10% higher than that of the raw material (70.6%). More sulfonic groups and weak acid groups were produced during the sulfite pretreatments. Meanwhile, the ethanol sulfite treated sample had the highest sulfonic group (0.103 mmol/g) and weak acid groups (1.85 mmol/g) in all sulfite treated samples. In FT-IR spectra, the variation of bands at 1168 and 1190 cm-1 confirmed lignin sulfonation during sulfite pretreatment. The disappearance of the band at 1458 cm-1 implied the methoxyl on lignin had been removed during the sulfite pretreatments. Conclusions It can be concluded that the lignin in the CCR can be degraded and sulfonated during the sulfite pretreatments. The pretreatments improve the hydrophility of the samples because of the increase in sulfonic group and weak acid groups, which enhances the glucose yield of the material. The ethanol sulfite pretreatment is the best method for lignin removal and with the highest glucose yield. PMID:23206858

  9. Sulfite-sulfide-sulfate-carbonate equilibria with applications to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, G. M.; Kargel, J. S.; Crowley, J. K.; Catling, D. C.

    2013-07-01

    Mars volcanic SO2 and H2S gas emissions are likely the dominant source of martian sulfate, and the source of sulfuric acid. Until this work, the FREZCHEM model lacked SO2 and H2S gases and associated sulfite and sulfide minerals. The specific objectives of this paper were to add these components and associated sulfite and sulfide minerals and phases into FREZCHEM, and to explore some possible roles of these chemistries on Mars. New solid phases added included the sulfites: Na2SO3·7H2O, K2SO3, (NH4)2SO3·H2O, MgSO3·6H2O, CaSO3·0.5H2O, and FeSO3·1.5H2O, and the sulfide: FeS2. The lowest eutectic of these minerals was K2SO3 (= 6.57 m) at 228 K. Because sulfurous acid is stronger than carbonic acid, this causes a much larger fraction of S(IV) to exist as sulfite (SO32-) at acidic to mildly alkaline pH, whereas almost none of the C is present as carbonate anion. Model calculations show that small quantities of SO2 in an early CO2-rich martian atmosphere suppressed formation of carbonates because SO2 is much more water soluble than CO2 and a stronger acid, which may be a major reason why sulfates are much more common than carbonates on Mars. Also, perhaps equally important are low temperatures that favor sulfite mineral precipitation, the oxidation of which leads to sulfate minerals. Another potentially important factor that favors sulfite/sulfide mineral formation is low pH values that cannot allow carbonate minerals, but can allow sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2). The presence of pyrite, highly insoluble, would lead to sulfate minerals when oxygen becomes available in acidic environments. Major cations for both sulfites (or sulfates) and carbonates (Ca and Mg) can limit carbonates. Sulfite-sulfide volcanism on a cold, lower pH, Mars are the primary causes of high sulfate minerals (e.g., Ca and Mg sulfates), compared to volcanism on a warm, higher pH, Earth that led to more abundant carbonate minerals (e.g., Ca and Mg carbonates).

  10. The effect of ingested sulfite on visual evoked potentials, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant status of brain in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ozsoy, Ozlem; Aras, Sinem; Ozkan, Ayse; Parlak, Hande; Aslan, Mutay; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Agar, Aysel

    2016-07-01

    Sulfite, commonly used as a preservative in foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals, is a very reactive and potentially toxic molecule which is detoxified by sulfite oxidase (SOX). Changes induced by aging may be exacerbated by exogenous chemicals like sulfite. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ingested sulfite on visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and brain antioxidant statuses by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Brain lipid oxidation status was also determined via thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in normal- and SOX-deficient aged rats. Rats do not mimic the sulfite responses seen in humans because of their relatively high SOX activity level. Therefore this study used SOX-deficient rats since they are more appropriate models for studying sulfite toxicity. Forty male Wistar rats aged 24 months were randomly assigned to four groups: control (C), sulfite (S), SOX-deficient (D) and SOX-deficient + sulfite (DS). SOX deficiency was established by feeding rats with low molybdenum (Mo) diet and adding 200 ppm tungsten (W) to their drinking water. Sulfite in the form of sodium metabisulfite (25 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) was given by gavage. Treatment continued for 6 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, flash VEPs were recorded. Hepatic SOX activity was measured to confirm SOX deficiency. SOX-deficient rats had an approximately 10-fold decrease in hepatic SOX activity compared with the normal rats. The activity of SOX in deficient rats was thus in the range of humans. There was no significant difference between control and treated groups in either latence or amplitude of VEP components. Brain SOD, CAT, and GPx activities and brain TBARS levels were similar in all experimental groups compared with the control group. Our results indicate that exogenous administration of sulfite does not affect VEP components and the antioxidant/oxidant status of aged rat brains. PMID:25342669

  11. Improvements in amperometric detection of sulfite in food matrixes.

    PubMed

    Wygant, M B; Statler, J A; Henshall, A

    1997-01-01

    Sulfite is added to foods as an antimicrobial, antibrowning agent, or antioxidant. It also can occur naturally, and is often used in the production of beer and wine. For years the standard methodology for determination of sulfite in foods has been the Monier-Williams method, which is a combination of acid distillation and titration. Recently, AOAC adopted a chromatographic method based on a method developed by Kim and Kim for the determination of sulfite. The method combines ion exclusion chromatography with direct-current (DC) amperometric detection to provide more convenient and accurate quantitation of sulfite. However, fouling of the platinum working electrode results in a rapid decrease in method sensitivity. As a result, standards must be injected before and after every sample, and the electrode must be polished frequently to maintain adequate detection limits. Pulsed amperometric detection overcomes electrode fouling problems by repeatedly and continuously applying cleaning potentials to the working electrode. Using this technique, a reproducible electrode surface can be maintained, and injection-to-injection repeatability is greatly improved. A comparison of method performance for both DC and pulsed amperometric detection is presented. Also investigated was the stability of sulfite samples at varying pH, and in the presence or absence of a preservative. PMID:9419871

  12. DISSOLUTION AND CRYSTALLIZATION OF CALCIUM SULFITE PLATELETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the dissolution and crystallization of calcium sulfite platelets. The rates of calcium sulfite dissolution and crystallization are important in slurry scrubbing processes for flue gas desulfurization. The rates affect the scrubber solution composition, SO2 abs...

  13. Free-radical chemistry of sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Neta, P.; Huie, R.E.

    1985-12-01

    The free-radical chemistry of sulfite oxidation is reviewed. Chemical transformations of organic and biological molecules induced by sulfite oxidation are summarized. The kinetics of the free-radical oxidations of sulfite are discussed, as are the kinetics of the reactions of the sulfite-derived radicals SO/sub 3/ and the peroxy derivative SO/sub 5/ with organic compounds. 98 references.

  14. Actinide sulfite tetrahydrate and actinide oxysulfite tetrahydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Baugh, D.; Watt, G.

    1980-07-08

    A compound is prepared that comprises an actinide sulfite tetrahydrate selected from the group consisting of uranium (IV) sulfite tetrahydrate and plutonium (IV) sulfite tetrahydrate. A compound is also prepared that comprises an actinide oxysulfite tetrahydrate selected from the group consisting of uranium (IV) oxysulfite tetrahydrate and plutonium (IV) oxysulfite tetrahydrate

  15. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  17. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  20. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  1. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  2. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  3. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  4. Physicochemical effects on sulfite transformation in a lipid-rich Chlorella sp. strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Fang; Wen, Xiaobin; Luo, Liming; Geng, Yahong; Li, Yeguang

    2014-11-01

    SO2 is very rapidly hydrated to sulfurous acid in water solution at pH value above 6.0, whereby sulfite is yielded from the disassociation of protons. We aimed to improve the sulfite transformation efficiency and provide a basis for the direct utilization of SO2 from flue gas by a microalgal suspension. Chlorella sp. XQ-20044 was cultured in a medium with 20 mmol/L sodium sulfite under different physicochemical conditions. Under light conditions, sulfite concentration in the algal suspension reduced linearly over time, and was completely converted into sulfate within 8 h. The highest sulfite transformation rate (3.25 mmol/(L·h)) was obtained under the following conditions: 35°C, light intensity of 300 μmol/(m2·s), NaHCO3 concentration of 6 g/L, initial cell density (OD540) of 0.8 and pH of 9-10. There was a positive correlation between sulfite transformation rate and the growth of Chlorella, with the conditions favorable to algal growth giving better sulfite transformation. Although oxygen in the air plays a role in the transformation of SO2- 3 to SO2- 4, the transformation is mainly dependent on the metabolic activity of algal cells. Chlorella sp. XQ-20044 is capable of tolerating high sulfite concentration, and can utilize sulfite as the sole sulfur source for maintaining healthy growth. We found that sulfite ≤20 mmol/L had no obvious effect on the total lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the algae. Thus, the results suggest it is feasible to use flue gas for the mass production of feedstock for biodiesel using Chlorella sp. XQ-20044, without preliminary removal of SO2, assuming there is adequate control of the pH.

  5. Immunological comparison of sulfite oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, V.; Barber, M.J. )

    1991-03-11

    Polyclonal antibodies (rabbit), elicited against FPLC-purified chicken and rat liver sulfite oxidase (SO), have been examined for inhibition and binding to purified chicken (C), rat (R), bovine (B), alligator (A) and shark (S) liver enzymes. Anti-CSO IgG cross-reacted with all five enzymes, with varying affinities, in the order CSO=ASO{gt}RSO{gt}BSO{gt}SSO. Anti-ROS IgG also cross-reacted with all five enzymes in the order RSO{gt}CSO=ASO{gt}BSO{gt}SSO. Anti-CSO IgG inhibited sulfite:cyt. c reductase (S:CR), sulfite:ferricyanide reductase (S:FR) and sulfite:dichlorophenolindophenol reductase (S:DR) activities of CSO to different extents (S:CR{gt}S:FR=S:DR). Similar differential inhibition was found for anti-ROS IgG and RSO S:CR, S:FR and S:DR activities. Anti-CSO IgG inhibited S:CR activities in the order CSO=ASO{much gt}SSO{gt}BSO. RSO was uninhibited. For anti-RSO IgG the inhibition order was RSO{gt}SSO{gt}BSO{gt}ASO. CSO was uninhibited. Anti-CSO and RSO IgGs partially inhibited Chlorella nitrate reductase (NR). Minor cross-reactivity was found for xanthine oxidase. Common antigenic determinants for all five SO's and NR are indicated.

  6. An Essential Role for Tomato Sulfite Oxidase and Enzymes of the Sulfite Network in Maintaining Leaf Sulfite Homeostasis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Brychkova, Galina; Grishkevich, Vladislav; Fluhr, Robert; Sagi, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the homeostasis of sulfite levels, a cytotoxic by-product of plant sulfur turnover. By employing extended dark to induce catabolic pathways, we followed key elements of the sulfite network enzymes that include adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate reductase and the sulfite scavengers sulfite oxidase (SO), sulfite reductase, UDP-sulfoquinovose synthase, and β-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferases. During extended dark, SO was enhanced in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) wild-type leaves, while the other sulfite network components were down-regulated. SO RNA interference plants lacking SO activity accumulated sulfite, resulting in leaf damage and mortality. Exogenous sulfite application induced up-regulation of the sulfite scavenger activities in dark-stressed or unstressed wild-type plants, while expression of the sulfite producer, adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate reductase, was down-regulated. Unstressed or dark-stressed wild-type plants were resistant to sulfite applications, but SO RNA interference plants showed sensitivity and overaccumulation of sulfite. Hence, under extended dark stress, SO activity is necessary to cope with rising endogenous sulfite levels. However, under nonstressed conditions, the sulfite network can control sulfite levels in the absence of SO activity. The novel evidence provided by the synchronous dark-induced turnover of sulfur-containing compounds, augmented by exogenous sulfite applications, underlines the role of SO and other sulfite network components in maintaining sulfite homeostasis, where sulfite appears to act as an orchestrating signal molecule. PMID:23148079

  7. Comparison of the ion exclusion chromatographic method with the Monier-Williams method for determination of total sulfite in foods.

    PubMed

    Kim, H J

    1989-01-01

    Experimental data comparing the alkali extraction/ion exclusion chromatographic method with the Monier-Williams method for determination of total sulfite are presented in (a) enzymatic and nonenzymatic browning systems, (b) vegetables containing naturally occurring sulfite, and (c) a carbohydrate-type food additive, erythorbic acid. Excellent agreement, with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.99, was observed in fresh potato samples homogenized with sulfite and allowed to react for different time intervals (enzymatic browning system). A good overall correlation was observed in dehydrated, sulfited apple samples heated for different times (nonenzymatic browning system); however, as heating time increased, higher results were obtained by the Monier-Williams method than by the alkali extraction/ion exclusion chromatographic method. The results of determining sulfite in the alkali trapping solution following acid distillation or acid treatment without heat suggested that this deviation was due to a fraction of sulfite bound to the browning reaction products in such a way that it was released by acid distillation but not by alkali extraction or acid treatment without heat. Similar behavior was demonstrated in cabbage with naturally occurring sulfite, which was released by acid distillation but not by alkali extraction or acid treatment without heat. The ion exclusion chromatographic method could overcome interference by the volatile caramelization reaction products in the Monier-Williams determination of erythorbic acid. PMID:2708275

  8. Synergetic Transformations of Multiple Pollutants Driven by Cr(VI)-Sulfite Reactions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Liu, Yukun; Zheng, Jingtang; Tan, Minghui; Wang, Zhaohui; Wu, Mingbo

    2015-10-20

    Reduction of Cr(VI) is often deemed necessary to detoxify chromium contaminants; however, few investigations utilized this reaction for the purpose of treating other industrial wastewaters. Here a widely used Cr(VI)-sulfite reaction system was upgraded to simultaneously transform multiple pollutants, namely, the reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidation of sulfite and other organic/inorganic pollutants in an acidic solution. As(III) was selected as a probe pollutant to examine the oxidation capacity of a Cr(VI)-sulfite system. Both (•)OH and SO4(•-) were considered as the primary oxidants for As(III) oxidation, based on the results of electron spin resonance, fluorescence spectroscopy, and specific radicals quenching. As(III)-scavenging, oxidative radicals greatly accelerated Cr(VI) reduction and simultaneously consumed less sulfite. In comparison with a Cr(VI)-H2O2 system with 50 μM Cr(VI), Cr(VI), the sulfite system had excellent performance for both As(III) oxidation and Cr(VI) reduction at pH 3.5. Moreover, in this escalated process, less sulfite was required to reduce Cr(VI) than the traditional Cr(VI) reduction by sulfite process. This effectively improves the environmental compatibility of this Cr(VI) detoxification process, alleviating the potential for SO2 release and sulfate ion production in water. Generally, this study provides an excellent example of a "waste control by waste" strategy for the detoxification of multiple industrial pollutants. PMID:26384045

  9. Use of sulfite and hydrogen peroxide to control bacterial contamination in ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, I S; Kim, B H; Shin, P K

    1997-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria isolated from an industrial-scale ethanol fermentation process were used to evaluate sulfite as a bacterial-contamination control agent in a cell-recycled continuous ethanol fermentation process. The viabilities of bacteria were decreased by sulfite at concentrations of 100 to 400 mg liter-1, while sulfite at the same concentrations did not change the viability of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain used in this process. Sulfite was effective only in the presence of oxygen. Bacteria showed differences in their susceptibilities to sulfite. Facultatively heterofermentative Lactobacillus casei 4-3 was more susceptible than was obligatory heterofermentative Lactobacillus fermentum 7-1. The former showed higher enzyme activities involved in the production and consumption of hydrogen peroxide than did the latter. The viability of L. fermentum 7-1 could be selectively controlled by hydrogen peroxide at concentrations of 1 to 10 mM. Based on these findings, it is hypothesized that the sulfur trioxide radical anions formed by peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide are responsible for the control of contaminating bacteria. Sulfite did not kill the yeast strain, which has catalase to degrade hydrogen peroxide. A cell-recycled continuous ethanol fermentation process was run successfully with sulfite treatments. PMID:8979332

  10. Characterization of anaerobic sulfite reduction by Salmonella typhimurium and purification of the anaerobically induced sulfite reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Hallenbeck, P.C. ); Clark, M.A.; Barrett, E.L. )

    1989-06-01

    Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium that lack the biosynthetic sulfite reductase (cysI and cysJ mutants) retain the ability to reduce sulfite for growth under anaerobic conditions. Here we report studies of sulfite reduction by a cysI mutant of S. typhimurium and purification of the associated anaerobic sulfite reductase. Sulfite reduction for anaerobic growth did not require a reducing atmosphere but was prevented by an argon atmosphere contaminated with air (<0.33%). It was also prevented by the presence of 0.1 mM nitrate. Anaerobic growth in liquid minimal medium, but not on agar, was found to require additions of trace amounts (10{sup {minus}7} M) of cysteine. Spontaneous mutants that grew under the argon contaminated with air also lost the requirement for 10{sup {minus}7}M cysteine for anaerobic growth in liquid. A role for sulfite reduction in anaerobic energy generation was contraindicated by the findings that sulfite reduction did not improve cell yields, and anaerobic sulfite reductase activity was greatest during the stationary phase of growth. Sulfite reductase was purified from the cytoplasmic fraction of the anaerobically grown cysI mutant and was purified 190-fold. The most effective donor in crude extracts was NADH. NADHP and methyl viologen were, respectively, 40 and 30% as effective as NADH. Oxygen reversibly inhibited the enzyme. The anaerobic sulfite reductase showed some resemblance to the biosynthetic sulfite reductase, but apparently it has a unique, as yet unidentified function.

  11. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium...

  12. Sulfite Reductase Protects Plants against Sulfite Toxicity1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Brychkova, Galina; Fluhr, Robert; Sagi, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    Plant sulfite reductase (SiR; Enzyme Commission 1.8.7.1) catalyzes the reduction of sulfite to sulfide in the reductive sulfate assimilation pathway. Comparison of SiR expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Rheinlands Ruhm’) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants revealed that SiR is expressed in a different tissue-dependent manner that likely reflects dissimilarity in sulfur metabolism between the plant species. Using Arabidopsis and tomato SiR mutants with modified SiR expression, we show here that resistance to ectopically applied sulfur dioxide/sulfite is a function of SiR expression levels and that plants with reduced SiR expression exhibit higher sensitivity than the wild type, as manifested in pronounced leaf necrosis and chlorophyll bleaching. The sulfite-sensitive mutants accumulate applied sulfite and show a decline in glutathione levels. In contrast, mutants that overexpress SiR are more tolerant to sulfite toxicity, exhibiting little or no damage. Resistance to high sulfite application is manifested by fast sulfite disappearance and an increase in glutathione levels. The notion that SiR plays a role in the protection of plants against sulfite is supported by the rapid up-regulation of SiR transcript and activity within 30 min of sulfite injection into Arabidopsis and tomato leaves. Peroxisomal sulfite oxidase transcripts and activity levels are likewise promoted by sulfite application as compared with water injection controls. These results indicate that, in addition to participating in the sulfate assimilation reductive pathway, SiR also plays a role in protecting leaves against the toxicity of sulfite accumulation. PMID:23221833

  13. Measurement of oxidation rate of sulfite in rain water in Yokohama, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, S.; Yamanaka, K.; Hashimoto, Y.

    1986-04-01

    In recent years, the influences of acid rain such as the acidification of lake water, on bio-system by the heavy metals from effluent of soils with acid rain and also on the structural materials of buildings are seriously discussed. Sulfur and nitrogen that are contained in fossil fuels are released into the atmosphere by the fuel combustion as their oxides dissolve in rain drops as sulfite and nitrous ions, where they are further oxidized into sulfate and nitrate ions These ions lower the pH of rain water resulting so-called acid rain. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine these ions in rain water for the investigation of reality of acid rain. However, it is not easy to accurately determine these ions, especially for sulfite ions in rain water, since they are quickly oxidized by the catalytic action of metallic ions such as ferric and manganous ions. And light, temperature, pH of solution and also species and concentrations of dissolved metallic ions as catalysts, must be influential factors for the rate of oxidation of sulfite ions. In this paper, first, the rate of oxidation of sulfite ion in the test solutions by the catalytic reactions of metallic ions was examined, since the metallic ions is most influential in the oxidation of sulfite ion, and then the relations between the rate of oxidation of sulfite ion and the metallic ions were investigated for rain samples. The contribution of hydrogen ion that was produced by the oxidation of sulfite ion to sulfate was also examined for the change of pH values of rain water.

  14. Overexpression of a maize sulfite oxidase gene in tobacco enhances tolerance to sulfite stress via sulfite oxidation and CAT-mediated H2O2 scavenging.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zongliang; Sun, Kaile; Wang, Meiping; Wu, Ke; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Jianyu

    2012-01-01

    Sulfite oxidase (SO) plays an important role in sulfite metabolism. To date, the molecular mechanisms of sulfite metabolism in plants are largely unknown. Previously, a full-length cDNA of the putative sulfite oxidase gene from maize (ZmSO) was cloned, and its response to SO(2)/sulfite stress at the transcriptional level was characterized. In this study, the recombinant ZmSO protein was purified from E. coli. It exhibited sulfite-dependent activity and had strong affinity for the substrate sulfite. Over-expression (OE) of ZmSO in tobacco plants enhanced their tolerance to sulfite stress. The plants showed much less damage, less sulfite accumulation, but greater amounts of sulfate. This suggests that tolerance of transgenic plants to sulfite was enhanced by increasing SO expression levels. Interestingly, H(2)O(2) accumulation levels by histochemical detection and quantitative determination in the OE plants were much less than those in the wild-type upon sulfite stress. Furthermore, reductions of catalase levels detected in the OE lines were considerably less than in the wild-type plants. This indicates that SO may play an important role in protecting CAT from inhibition by excess sulfite. Collectively, these data demonstrate that transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing ZmSO enhance tolerance to excess sulfite through sulfite oxidation and catalase-mediated hydrogen peroxide scavenging. This is the first SO gene from monocots to be functionally characterized. PMID:22693572

  15. A sensitive and selective on-line amperometric sulfite biosensor using sulfite oxidase immobilized on a magnetite-gold-folate nanocomposite modified carbon-paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Sroysee, Wongduan; Ponlakhet, Kitayanan; Chairam, Sanoe; Jarujamrus, Purim; Amatatongchai, Maliwan

    2016-08-15

    We describe a novel amperometric sulfite biosensor, comprising a carbon-paste electrode (Fe3O4@Au-Cys-FA/CPE) modified with immobilized sulfite oxidase (SOx) on a gold-coated magnetite nanoparticle core, encased within a conjugated folic acid (FA) cysteine (Cys) shell. The biosensor electrode was fabricated using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and mineral oil mixture as binder, which also enhances the physical stability and sensitivity of the electrode. The developed biosensor displays good electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of H2O2, which occurs by an enzymatic reaction between SOx and sulfite. The Fe3O4@Au-Cys-FA electrode exhibits good electrocatalytic activity, and has good retention of chemisorbed SOx on the electrode because of its large surface area. Sulfite was quantified using amperometric measurements from the Fe3O4@Au-Cys-FA/CPE biosensor, and using an in-house assembled flow cell at +0.35V (vs. Ag/AgCl), with a phosphate buffer carrier (0.10M, pH 7.0) at a flow rate of 0.8mLmin(-1). The system detects sulfite over the range 0.1-200mgL(-1) (r(2)=0.998), with a detection limit of 10µgL(-1) (3σ of blank). The system exhibits acceptable precision (%R.S.D.=3.1%), rapid sample throughput (109samplesh(-1)), and good stability (2w). The developed biosensor shows satisfactory tolerance to potential interferences, such as sugars, anions, ascorbic acid, and ethanol. We applied the developed method to the determination of sulfite content in wines and pickled food extracts, and our results are in good agreement with those obtained by the standard iodometric method. PMID:27260448

  16. Vanillin: Synthetic Flavoring from Spent Sulfite Liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocking, Martin B.

    1997-09-01

    Separation of the lignin component of wood from the cellulose presents an opportunity to access various interesting products from the lignin fragments. The lignin represents availability of a sizable renewable resource. Vanillin, or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, is one of a series of related substituted aromatic flavor constituents, and represents one of the potentially profitable possibilities. Vanillin production from the lignin-containing waste liquor obtained from acid sulfite pulping of wood began in North America in the mid 1930's. By 1981 one plant at Thorold, Ontario produced 60% of the contemporary world supply of vanillin. The process also simultaneously decreased the organic loading of the aqueous waste streams of the pulping process. Today, however, whilst vanillin production from lignin is still practiced in Norway and a few other areas, all North American facilities using this process have closed, primarily for environmental reasons. New North American vanillin plants use petrochemical raw materials. An innovation is needed to help overcome the environmental problems of this process before vanillin production from lignin is likely to resume here. Current interest in the promotion of chemicals production from renewable raw materials reinforces the incentive to do this.

  17. Sulfite Oxidase Activity Is Essential for Normal Sulfur, Nitrogen and Carbon Metabolism in Tomato Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Brychkova, Galina; Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Batushansky, Albert; Grishkevich, Vladislav; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Fait, Aaron; Amir, Rachel; Fluhr, Robert; Sagi, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Plant sulfite oxidase [SO; E.C.1.8.3.1] has been shown to be a key player in protecting plants against exogenous toxic sulfite. Recently we showed that SO activity is essential to cope with rising dark-induced endogenous sulfite levels in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum/Solanum lycopersicum Mill. cv. Rheinlands Ruhm). Here we uncover the ramifications of SO impairment on carbon, nitrogen and sulfur (S) metabolites. Current analysis of the wild-type and SO-impaired plants revealed that under controlled conditions, the imbalanced sulfite level resulting from SO impairment conferred a metabolic shift towards elevated reduced S-compounds, namely sulfide, S-amino acids (S-AA), Co-A and acetyl-CoA, followed by non-S-AA, nitrogen and carbon metabolite enhancement, including polar lipids. Exposing plants to dark-induced carbon starvation resulted in a higher degradation of S-compounds, total AA, carbohydrates, polar lipids and total RNA in the mutant plants. Significantly, a failure to balance the carbon backbones was evident in the mutants, indicated by an increase in tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle intermediates, whereas a decrease was shown in stressed wild-type plants. These results indicate that the role of SO is not limited to a rescue reaction under elevated sulfite, but SO is a key player in maintaining optimal carbon, nitrogen and sulfur metabolism in tomato plants. PMID:27135342

  18. A Sulfite Respiration Pathway from Thermus thermophilus and the Key Role of Newly Identified Cytochrome c550 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Sylvain; Arese, Marzia; Forte, Elena; Sarti, Paolo; Giuffrè, Alessandro; Soulimane, Tewfik

    2011-01-01

    Sulfite, produced for instance during amino acid metabolism, is a very reactive and toxic compound. Various detoxification mechanisms exist, but sulfite oxidoreductases (SORs) are one of the major actors in sulfite remediation in bacteria and animals. Here we describe the existence of an operon in the extreme thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB8 encoding both a SOR and a diheme c-type cytochrome. The in vitro analysis clearly showed that the newly identified cytochrome c550 acts as an acceptor of the electrons generated by the SOR enzyme during the oxidation of sulfite. The electrons are then rapidly shuttled via cytochrome c552 to the terminal ba3- and caa3-type oxidases, thereby unveiling a novel electron transfer pathway, linking sulfite oxidation to oxygen reduction in T. thermophilus: sulfite → SORHB8 → cytochrome c550 → cytochrome c552 → ba3 oxidase/caa3 oxidase → O2. The description of the complete pathway reveals that electrons generated during sulfite oxidation by the SOR are funneled into the respiratory chain, participating in the energy production of T. thermophilus. PMID:21665981

  19. 40 CFR 430.40 - Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dissolving sulfite subcategory. 430.40 Section 430.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Dissolving Sulfite Subcategory § 430.40 Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite... at dissolving sulfite mills....

  20. 40 CFR 430.40 - Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dissolving sulfite subcategory. 430.40 Section 430.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Dissolving Sulfite Subcategory § 430.40 Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite... at dissolving sulfite mills....

  1. Amperometric Determination of Sulfite by Gas Diffusion-Sequential Injection with Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Chinvongamorn, Chakorn; Pinwattana, Kulwadee; Praphairaksit, Narong; Imato, Toshihiko; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2008-01-01

    A gas diffusion sequential injection system with amperometric detection using a boron-doped diamond electrode was developed for the determination of sulfite. A gas diffusion unit (GDU) was used to prevent interference from sample matrices for the electrochemical measurement. The sample was mixed with an acid solution to generate gaseous sulfur dioxide prior to its passage through the donor channel of the GDU. The sulfur dioxide diffused through the PTFE hydrophobic membrane into a carrier solution of 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 8)/0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate in the acceptor channel of the GDU and turned to sulfite. Then the sulfite was carried to the electrochemical flow cell and detected directly by amperometry using the boron-doped diamond electrode at 0.95 V (versus Ag/AgCl). Sodium dodecyl sulfate was added to the carrier solution to prevent electrode fouling. This method was applicable in the concentration range of 0.2-20 mg SO32−/L and a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.05 mg SO32−/L was achieved. This method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfite in wines and the analytical results agreed well with those obtained by iodimetric titration. The relative standard deviations for the analysis of sulfite in wines were in the range of 1.0-4.1 %. The sampling frequency was 65 h−1.

  2. Oxidation and Reduction of Sulfite by Chloroplasts and Formation of Sulfite Addition Compounds 1

    PubMed Central

    Dittrich, Andreas P. M.; Pfanz, Hardy; Heber, Ulrich

    1992-01-01

    After exposing intact chloroplasts isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv Yates) and capable of photoreducing CO2 at high rates to different concentrations of radioactive sulfite in the light or in the dark, 35SO2 and H235S were removed from the acidified suspensions in a stream of nitrogen. Remaining activity could be fractionated into sulfate, organic sulfides, and sulfite addition compounds. When chloroplast suspensions contained catalase, superoxide dismutase and O-acetylserine, the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate was slower in the light than the reductive formation of sulfides that exhibited a maximum rate of about 2 micromoles per milligram chlorophyll per hour, equivalent to about 1% of maximum carbon assimilation. Botht the oxidative and the reductive detoxification of sulfite were very slow in the dark. Oxidation was somewhat, but not much, accelerated in the light in the absence of O-acetylserine, which caused a dramatic decrease in the formation of organic sulfides and an equally dramatic increase in the concentration of sulfite addition compounds whose formation was light-dependent. The sulfite addition compounds were not identified. Addition compounds did not accumulate in the dark. In the light, the electron transport inhibitor 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, diuron, decreased not only the reduction, but also the oxidation of sulfite and the formation of addition compounds. PMID:16668703

  3. Rapid microstill determination of free and total sulfite in wine with conductimetric detection.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stan; Davey, David E

    2007-09-26

    The development and optimization of on-line microdistillation for free and total sulfite (S(IV)) in grape juice and wine is reported. The microstill used both heat and an air stream to separate sulfur dioxide from the wine samples; the distillation product was captured in a peroxide solution, and converted to sulfuric acid, mirroring accepted industry practice. Measured from 1 to 300 mgL(-1) as SO(2) by conductance, sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) for free and 20 h(-1) for total sulfite were achieved. Data for bound S(IV) emphasises the slow kinetics of release reactions in some wines. The microstill method is more efficient for total sulfite than the accepted manual technique. Good correlation was found between the microstill and manual methods under specified control conditions. PMID:17903466

  4. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 4, A laboratory study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 2, Objective 1 titled. Inhibition of acid production in coal refuse amended with calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate - containing FGD solids

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Y. L.; Dick, W. A.; Stehouwer, R. C.; Bigham, J. M.

    1998-06-30

    Control of S02 emission from coal combustion requires desulfurization of coal before its combustion to produce coal refuse. Alternatively, gaseous emissions from coal combustion may be scrubbed to yield flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products that include calcium sulfite (CaSO3∙0.5H2O or simply CaS03). Acid production in coal refuse due to pyrite oxidation and disposal of large amounts of FGD can cause environmental degradation. Addition of CaS03 and CaS03-containing FGD to coal refuse may reduce the amounts of oxygen and ferric ion available to oxidize pyrite because the sulfite moiety in CaS03 is a strong reductant and thus may mitigate acid production in coal refuse. In Chapter 1, it was shown that CaS03 efficiently scavenged dissolved oxygen and ferric ion in water under the conditions commonly encountered in a coal refuse disposal environment. In the presence ofCaS03, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water exposed to the atmosphere declined to below 0.01 mg L"1 at pH <8.0. In Chapter 2, it was demonstrated that CaS03 prevented a pH drop in coal refuse slurry when 0.2 gCaS03 was added to a 2% fresh coal refuse slurry every three days. Calcium sulfite also inhibited acid leaching from fresh coal refuse in bench-scale columns under controlled conditions. During the initial 13 weeks of leaching, the total amounts of titratable acidity, soluble H\\ Fe, and Al from CaS03-treated refuse (6.4 gin 50 g fresh coal refuse) were only 26%,10%, 32%, and 39% of those of the control columns, respectively. A combination of CaS03 with CaC03 or fly ash enhanced the inhibitory effect of CaS03 on acid leaching. Calcium sulfite-containing FGD which combined CaS03, CaC03, fly ash, and gypsum showed a much stronger inhibitory effect on acid leaching than CaS03 alone. This

  5. Oxidation of ammonium sulfite in aqueous solutions using ozone technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Shang, Kefeng; Lu, Na; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2013-03-01

    How to deal with unstable ammonium sulfite, the byproduct of flue gas desulfuration by ammonia absorption methods, has been a difficult problem in recent years. Oxidation of ammonium sulfite in aqueous solutions using ozone produced by a surface discharge system was investigated in the paper. The oxidation efficiency of ammonium sulfite by ozone and traditional air aeration were compared, and the factors including ozone concentration, gas flow rate, initial concentration of ammonium sulfite solution and reaction temperature were discussed. The results show that the oxidation efficiency of ammonium sulfite by ozone technology reached nearly 100% under the optimum conditions, which had a significant increase compared with that by air aeration.

  6. Sulfite-containing Canadian pharmaceutical products available in 1991.

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, M; Schuster, B; Schellenberg, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compile an inclusive list of Canadian pharmaceutical products available in 1991 that contained sulfites. DATA SOURCES: Written and oral responses from 94 pharmaceutical companies selected from the 1989 Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties. RESULTS: A list of sulfite-containing pharmaceutical products was compiled from data supplied by the 90 responding companies. Companies whose products contained no sulfites were separately identified. CONCLUSIONS: Sulfites are present in many pharmaceutical products and are one of many excipients and additives that have been reported to cause severe adverse reactions. The provided list should be a useful aid for health care practitioners when prescribing pharmaceutical products for sulfite-sensitive patients. PMID:1483237

  7. An electrochemical sulfite biosensor based on gold coated magnetic nanoparticles modified gold electrode.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Rachna; Chawla, Sheetal; Pundir, Chandra Shekhar

    2012-01-15

    A sulfite oxidase (SO(X)) (EC 1.8.3.1) purified from Syzygium cumini leaves was immobilized onto carboxylated gold coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)@GNPs) electrodeposited onto the surface of a gold (Au) electrode through N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)-N-hydroxy succinimide (NHS) chemistry. An amperometric sulfite biosensor was fabricated using SO(X)/Fe(3)O(4)@GNPs/Au electrode as working electrode, Ag/AgCl as standard and Pt wire as auxiliary electrode. The working electrode was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) before and after immobilization of SO(X). The biosensor showed optimum response within 2s when operated at 0.2V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.5 and at 35 °C. Linear range and detection limit were 0.50-1000 μM and 0.15 μM (S/N=3) respectively. Biosensor was evaluated with 96.46% recovery of added sulfite in red wine and 1.7% and 3.3% within and between batch coefficients of variation respectively. Biosensor measured sulfite level in red and white wines. There was good correlation (r=0.99) between red wines sulfite value by standard DTNB (5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)) method and the present method. Enzyme electrode was used 300 times over a period of 4 months, when stored at 4 °C. Biosensor has advantages over earlier biosensors that it has excellent electrocatalysis towards sulfite, lower detection limit, higher storage stability and no interference by ascorbate, cysteine, fructose and ethanol. PMID:22035973

  8. Determination of sulfite ion by using microbial sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Masayasu; Lee, Soomi; Karube, Isao ); Fujii, Keiko; Arikawa, Yoshiko ); Kubo, Izumi ); Kanagawa, Takahiro; Mikami, Eiichi )

    1992-06-01

    Chemoautotrophic and aerobic bacterium Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m, which has sulfite oxidation pathways, was used for the development of sulfite ion sensor. The sensor consists of an oxygen electrode and T.thioparus immobilized between two nitrocellulose membranes. Since T.thioparus could not be cultivated in the medium containing sulfite as sulfur source, T.thiparus grown in the thiosulfate containing medium was used for the experiment. The selectivity for sulfite was gradually increased during the use as sulfite sensor. After 6 days, the response to thiosulfate became approximately 10% of that of sulfite. When the sensor was applied to the sulfite determination in batch system, calibration curve showed the linearity in the concentration range between 4 {mu}M and 280 {mu}M.

  9. Structure-Based Alteration of Substrate Specificity and Catalytic Activity of Sulfite Oxidase from Sulfite Oxidation to Nitrate Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, James A.; Wilson, Heather L.; Rajagopalan, K.V.

    2012-04-18

    Eukaryotic sulfite oxidase is a dimeric protein that contains the molybdenum cofactor and catalyzes the metabolically essential conversion of sulfite to sulfate as the terminal step in the metabolism of cysteine and methionine. Nitrate reductase is an evolutionarily related molybdoprotein in lower organisms that is essential for growth on nitrate. In this study, we describe human and chicken sulfite oxidase variants in which the active site has been modified to alter substrate specificity and activity from sulfite oxidation to nitrate reduction. On the basis of sequence alignments and the known crystal structure of chicken sulfite oxidase, two residues are conserved in nitrate reductases that align with residues in the active site of sulfite oxidase. On the basis of the crystal structure of yeast nitrate reductase, both positions were mutated in human sulfite oxidase and chicken sulfite oxidase. The resulting double-mutant variants demonstrated a marked decrease in sulfite oxidase activity but gained nitrate reductase activity. An additional methionine residue in the active site was proposed to be important in nitrate catalysis, and therefore, the triple variant was also produced. The nitrate reducing ability of the human sulfite oxidase triple mutant was nearly 3-fold greater than that of the double mutant. To obtain detailed structural data for the active site of these variants, we introduced the analogous mutations into chicken sulfite oxidase to perform crystallographic analysis. The crystal structures of the Mo domains of the double and triple mutants were determined to 2.4 and 2.1 {angstrom} resolution, respectively.

  10. Highly sensitive and stable electrochemical sulfite biosensor incorporating a bacterial sulfite dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kalimuthu, Palraj; Tkac, Jan; Kappler, Ulrike; Davis, Jason J; Bernhardt, Paul V

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes a highly sensitive electrochemical (voltammetric) determination of sulfite using a combination of Starkeya novella sulfite dehydrogenase (SDH), horse heart cytochrome c (cyt c), and a self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanol (MU) cast on a gold electrode. The biosensor was optimized in terms of pH and the ratio of cyt c/SDH. The electrocatalytic oxidation current of sulfite increased linearly from 1 to 6 microM at the enzyme-modified electrode with a correlation coefficient of 0.9995 and an apparent Michaelis constant (K(M,app)) of 43 microM. Using an amperometric method, the low detection limit for sulfite at the enzyme-modified electrode was 44 pM (signal-to-noise ratio = 3). The modified electrode retained a stable response for 3 days while losing only ca. 4% of its initial sensitivity during a 2 week storage period in 50 mM Tris buffer solution at 4 degrees C. The enzyme electrode was successfully used for the determination of sulfite in beer and white wine samples. The results of these electrochemical analyses agreed well with an independent spectrophotometric method using Ellman's reagent, but the detection limit was far superior using the electrochemical method. PMID:20698497

  11. Thermodynamic fundamentals of ferrous cake sulfitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyurin, A. G.; Vasekha, M. V.; Biryukov, A. I.

    2016-03-01

    The Pourbaix diagrams of the systems SO 4 2- -SO 3 2- -H2O and iron hydroxide (oxide)-H2O are refined. The E(pH) dependence of the sulfitization of iron(III) hydroxide is refined with allowance for the regions of predominant phase constituents of the systems. The potential E-pH electrochemical equilibrium diagrams of the systems Fe(OH)3-H2SO4-SO 3 2- -H2O, FeOOH-H2SO4-SO 3 2- -H2O, and Fe2O3-H2SO4-SO 3 2- -H2O are plotted. These diagrams can be considered as a thermodynamic basis for the sulfite conversion of the ferrous cake of copper-nickel production.

  12. Differential sensitivity of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) to sulfite: I. Carbon assimilation and frond replication rate as factors influencing sulfite phytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Takemoto, B.K.; Noble, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The thiol content and hydrogen sulfide emission responses of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) differentially sensitive to sulfite enrichment were studied, at two levels of irradiance. The objectives were to examine the relationship of selected parameters of sulfite metabolism to sulfite sensitivity, and the role of light level on modifying sulfite metabolic responses and duckweed sulfite sensitivity. Under low light, thiol contents were increased 30 to 40% by sulfite in all three duckweeds examined. Hydrogen sulfide was emitted by all three species, and emission rates were up to four times higher in the sulfite tolerant duckweed Lemna valdiviana. Under high light, sulfite increased thiol contents by an average of 40% in L. valdiviana and Spirodela oligorhiza, but only 20% in Lemna gibba. The greater light enhancement of thiol content exhibited by L. valdiviana and S. oligorhiza may be indicative of larger or more numerous sulfur sinks. Hydrogen sulfide emission rates were also enhanced under high light, and L. gibba exhibited a 17% increase relative to its low light rate. In comparison, L. valdiviana and S. oligorhiza exhibited 55% and 60% increases, respectively. The ability to form elevated internal thiols and hydrogen sulfide were found to be important to sulfite tolerance in duckweeds. Enhancement of both processes under high light may contribute to increased tolerance of sulfite in L. gibba and S. oligorhiza. It is hypothesized that thiol production and hydrogen sulfide emission are important sulfite detoxification processes in duckweeds, and enhancement of sulfite detoxification is fundamental to the modification of duckweed sulfite sensitivity by the photoenvironment. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Investigation of the radiation stimulated oxidation of sulfite by molecular oxygen in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Muratbekov, M.B.; Koroleva, G.Y.

    1986-09-01

    The principles of the radiation-stimulated oxidation of sulfite by molecular oxygen in the range of pH 11.0-14.6 were investigated. It was established that with increasing sulfite concentration, the kinetic order of the reaction with respect to sulfite falls from 1 to 0, and with respect to oxygen it increases from 0 to 1. This is explained by the fact that at low sulfite concentrations the rate-determining step of the process is the reaction SO/sub 5//sup -/ (HSO/sub 5/) + SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ ..-->.. SO/sub 4//sup -/ (HSO/sub 4/) + SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, while at high concentrations it is the reaction SO/sub 3/ + O/sub 2/ ..-->.. SO/sub 5//sup -/. The influence of the pH is explained on the assumption of the existence of two forms of the peroxomonosulfate radical, the more reactive of which is the acid. A number of ratios of reaction rate constants were determined.

  14. Generation, behavior, and toxicity of ammonium sulfite aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenberg, S.J.; Dahl, A.R.; Barr, E.B.; Wolff, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Ammonium sulfite aerosols were continuously generated for periods up to 6 h by gas phase reaction of sulfur dioxide, ammonia, and water vapor in nitrogen carrier gas. Concentrations from 1 to 500 mg/m/sup 3/ were obtained. Aerosol leaving the generator was greater than 90% sulfite, but when diluted with air preparatory to animal exposures, the aerosol was rapidly oxidized. Sulfite concentrations in a large exposure chamber with a long residence time were consistently less than 25 percent of the aerosol mass. Sulfite concentrations in a nose-only or head-only inhalation chamber 1 ft downstream from a radial air injection system ranged from 10 to 80 percent sulfite. The latter system, with a short residence time, was used to expose animals to aerosols. Effects of the mixed sulfite/sulfate aerosol on acute mortality of guinea pigs and tracheal mucous clearance of dogs were measured and no effects were observed.

  15. Composition of sulfited potatoes: comparison with fresh and frozen potatoes.

    PubMed

    Chalom, S; Elrezzi, E; Peña, P; Astiarsarán, I; Bello, J

    1995-02-01

    The content in moisture, fat, protein, carbohydrate, fibre and vitamin C was analyzed in three commercial types of potatoes: sulfited (treated with E223), frozen potatoes (pre-fried) and fresh potatoes (not processed). The composition of sulfited potatoes does not usually appear in food composition tables. Our results showed significant differences in the content of carbohydrates and fibre between sulfited and fresh potatoes. The content of vitamin C in sulfited potatoes, which is similar to that of frozen potatoes, was shown to be approximately half of that found in fresh potatoes. PMID:7792261

  16. Molecular Basis for Enzymatic Sulfite Oxidation -- HOW THREE CONSERVED ACTIVE SITE RESIDUES SHAPE ENZYME ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Susan; Rapson, Trevor; Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Astashkin, Andrei; Enemark, John; Kappler, Ulrike

    2008-11-10

    Sulfite dehydrogenases (SDHs) catalyze the oxidation and detoxification of sulfite to sulfate, a reaction critical to all forms of life. Sulfite-oxidizing enzymes contain three conserved active site amino acids (Arg-55, His-57, and Tyr-236) that are crucial for catalytic competency. Here we have studied the kinetic and structural effects of two novel and one previously reported substitution (R55M, H57A, Y236F) in these residues on SDH catalysis. Both Arg-55 and His-57 were found to have key roles in substrate binding. An R55M substitution increased Km(sulfite)(app) by 2-3 orders of magnitude, whereas His-57 was required for maintaining a high substrate affinity at low pH when the imidazole ring is fully protonated. This effect may be mediated by interactions of His-57 with Arg-55 that stabilize the position of the Arg-55 side chain or, alternatively, may reflect changes in the protonation state of sulfite. Unlike what is seen for SDHWT and SDHY236F, the catalytic turnover rates of SDHR55M and SDHH57A are relatively insensitive to pH (~;;60 and 200 s-1, respectively). On the structural level, striking kinetic effects appeared to correlate with disorder (in SDHH57A and SDHY236F) or absence of Arg-55 (SDHR55M), suggesting that Arg-55 and the hydrogen bonding interactions it engages in are crucial for substrate binding and catalysis. The structure of SDHR55M has sulfate bound at the active site, a fact that coincides with a significant increase in the inhibitory effect of sulfate in SDHR55M. Thus, Arg-55 also appears to be involved in enabling discrimination between the substrate and product in SDH.

  17. The oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between sulfite species and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Inigo A.; Brunner, Benjamin; Breuer, Christian; Coleman, Max; Bach, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Sulfite is an important sulfoxy intermediate in oxidative and reductive sulfur cycling in the marine and terrestrial environment. Different aqueous sulfite species exist, such as dissolved sulfur dioxide (SO2), bisulfite (HSO3-), pyrosulfite (S2O52-) and sulfite sensu stricto (SO32-), whereas their relative abundance in solution depends on the concentration and the pH. Conversion of one species into another is rapid and involves in many cases incorporation of oxygen from, or release of oxygen to, water (e.g. SO2 + H2O ↔ HSO3- + H+), resulting in rapid oxygen isotope exchange between sulfite species and water. Consequently, the oxygen isotope composition of sulfite is strongly influenced by the oxygen isotope composition of water. Since sulfate does not exchange oxygen isotopes with water under most earth surface conditions, it can preserve the sulfite oxygen isotope signature that it inherits via oxidative and reductive sulfur cycling. Therefore, interpretation of δO values strongly hinges on the oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between sulfite and water which is poorly constrained. This is in large part due to technical difficulties in extraction of sulfite from solution for oxygen isotope analysis.

  18. A biocatalyst for the removal of sulfite from alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sung-Chyr; Georgiou, George

    2005-01-01

    The presence of sulfites in alcoholic beverages, particularly in wines, can cause allergic responses with symptoms ranging from mild gastrointestinal problems to life threatening anaphylactic shock in a substantial portion of the population. We have developed a simple and inexpensive biocatalytic method that employs wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum) chloroplasts for the efficient oxidation of sulfites in wines to innocuous sulfates. A sufficiently high rate of sulfite oxidation was obtained in the presence of ethanol at concentrations commonly found in most wines. Crude chloroplast preparations at a concentration as low as 5 mg/mL were capable of reducing sulfite in commercial white wines from 150 ppm to under 7.5 ppm within 3 hours. A 93% removal of sulfite in commercial red wines was observed with 1 mg/mL chloroplasts within 45 min. Optimal sulfite removal efficiency was observed at pH 8.5 and was promoted by illumination, indicating the participation of light-induced photosynthetic electron transport processes in sulfite oxidation. Overall, this work indicates that biocatalytic oxidation using wheatgrass chloroplasts can be employed to remove sulfites from beverages prior to consumption. PMID:15540199

  19. Oxygen reactivity of mammalian sulfite oxidase provides a concept for the treatment of sulfite oxidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Belaidi, Abdel A; Röper, Juliane; Arjune, Sita; Krizowski, Sabina; Trifunovic, Aleksandra; Schwarz, Guenter

    2015-07-15

    Mammalian sulfite oxidase (SO) is a dimeric enzyme consisting of a molybdenum cofactor- (Moco) and haem-containing domain and catalyses the oxidation of toxic sulfite to sulfate. Following sulfite oxidation, electrons are passed from Moco via the haem cofactor to cytochrome c, the terminal electron acceptor. In contrast, plant SO (PSO) lacks the haem domain and electrons shuttle from Moco to molecular oxygen. Given the high similarity between plant and mammalian SO Moco domains, factors that determine the reactivity of PSO towards oxygen, remained unknown. In the present study, we generated mammalian haem-deficient and truncated SO variants and demonstrated their oxygen reactivity by hydrogen peroxide formation and oxygen-consumption studies. We found that intramolecular electron transfer between Moco and haem showed an inverse correlation to SO oxygen reactivity. Haem-deficient SO variants exhibited oxygen-dependent sulfite oxidation similar to PSO, which was confirmed further using haem-deficient human SO in a cell-based assay. This finding suggests the possibility to use oxygen-reactive SO variants in sulfite detoxification, as the loss of SO activity is causing severe neurodegeneration. Therefore we evaluated the potential use of PEG attachment (PEGylation) as a modification method for future enzyme substitution therapies using oxygen-reactive SO variants, which might use blood-dissolved oxygen as the electron acceptor. PEGylation has been shown to increase the half-life of other therapeutic proteins. PEGylation resulted in the modification of up to eight surface-exposed lysine residues of SO, an increased conformational stability and similar kinetic properties compared with wild-type SO. PMID:26171830

  20. Sulfite-dependent mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Reed, G A

    1987-08-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are ubiquitous air pollutants and are also components of tobacco smoke. Although SO2 itself is not carcinogenic, concurrent administration with BP results in enhancement of respiratory tract tumorigenesis. In biological systems, SO2 exists as its hydrated form, sulfite (SO3(2-) ). Sulfite readily undergoes autoxidation, generating potent oxidant species. When 7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BP-7,8-diol) is included in sulfite autoxidation mixtures it is converted to more polar products, most notably 7,8,9,10-tetrahydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrenes (BP tetraols). This implies the intermediacy of 7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy- 7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrenes (BPDE). We report here the sulfite-dependent conversion of BP-7,8-diol to forms highly mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium strain TA 98. This activation is observed at BP-7,8-diol concentrations of from 2 to 40 microM and at sulfite concentrations of from 0.5 to 10 mM. In the presence of 10 microM BP-7,8-diol, half-maximal activation is observed at 1.6 mM sulfite. Sulfite itself is neither toxic nor mutagenic to the bacteria under these conditions. The time course of the activation of BP-7,8-diol and its sensitivity to inhibition by antioxidants indicate a requirement for sulfite autoxidation. These data further support the sulfite-dependent epoxidation of BP-7,8-diol. Not only does sulfite convert this promutagen to its active mutagenic form, sulfite also enhances the mutagenic activity of BP diolepoxides toward the tester strain. The reversion frequency in response to 0.1-0.5 microM anti-BPDE is increased by up to 33% in the presence of 1 mM sulfite, and by up to 270% with 10 mM sulfite. The mechanism of this enhancement of anti-BPDE activity is not known, but could be related to inhibition of the glutathione-S-transferase system which has been previously reported for sulfite. These results are discussed in regard to the noted cocarcinogenicity of

  1. [Sulfite oxidase activity deficiency caused by cofactor molybdenum deficiency: A case of early severe encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Durousset, C; Gay, C; Magnin, S; Acquaviva, C; Patural, H

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal seizure incidence is approximately 3.5/1000 live births. Inborn metabolic diseases account for approximately 1-4% of neonatal seizure cases. Among them, the catabolism anomaly of sulfite to sulfate caused by sulfite oxidase or cofactor molybdenum deficiency (MoCD) is a rare metabolic disorder in which neurological damage is similar to that found in neonatal asphyxia. We report the case of a newborn child with a MoCD. Born of related parents, this child had intrauterine growth retardation predominating on size diagnosed in the third trimester of pregnancy. After an uneventful birth, he presented convulsions at the 12th hour of life, confirmed by an electroencephalogram. Anticonvulsants and adjuvant treatments were ineffective; the child then required intubation at day 5 of life. The initial biological assessment found an elevated blood lactate level and the chromatography of amino acids showed a significant decrease of cystine and the abnormal presence of sulfocysteine, suggestive of a lack of sulfite oxidase activity. The uric acid level measured secondarily was low, suggesting a MoCD. Brain MRI was performed at day 5 for diffuse ischemic injury of different ages. After limiting acute care, the child died at day 14 of life. The genetic study of the child found a homozygous mutation c.564+1G>A in the MOCS2 gene, confirming the diagnosis of MoCD, present in the heterozygous state in both parents. Investigations in a logical sequence quickly suggested the MoCD diagnosis in presence of a low plasma concentration of cysteine, the abnormal presence of sulfocysteine, and low uric acid levels. The diagnosis of sulfite oxidase deficiency was made. Until now, no treatment has proven effective but a new treatment appears to be effective in cases with a MOCS1 mutation. PMID:26775885

  2. Comparison of sulfite-polymyxin-sulfadiazine medium and tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine medium without egg yolk for recovering Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Orth, D S

    1977-04-01

    The overall recoveries of spores and of actively growing, heat-stressed, coldshocked, and frozen cells of five strains of Clostridium perfringens were significantly greater (95% confidence limits) on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine medium without egg yolk than on sulfite-polymyxin-sulfadiazine medium. PMID:194535

  3. Comparison of Sulfite-Polymyxin-Sulfadiazine Medium and Tryptose-Sulfite-Cycloserine Medium Without Egg Yolk for Recovering Clostridium perfringens

    PubMed Central

    Orth, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    The overall recoveries of spores and of actively growing, heat-stressed, coldshocked, and frozen cells of five strains of Clostridium perfringens were significantly greater (95% confidence limits) on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine medium without egg yolk than on sulfite-polymyxin-sulfadiazine medium. PMID:194535

  4. Sulfite oxidase biosensors based on tetrathiafulvalene modified screen-printed carbon electrodes for sulfite determination in wine.

    PubMed

    Molinero-Abad, Begoña; Alonso-Lomillo, M Asunción; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Arcos-Martínez, M Julia

    2014-02-17

    Screen-printed carbon electrodes have been modified with tetrathiafulvalene and sulfite oxidase enzyme for the sensitive and selective detection of sulfite. Amperometric experimental conditions were optimized taking into account the importance of quantifying sulfite in wine samples and the inherent complexity of these samples, particularly red wine. The biosensor responds to sulfite giving a cathodic current (at +200 mV vs screen-printed Ag/AgCl electrode and pH 6) in a wide concentration range, with a capability of detection of 6 μM (α=β=0.05) at 60°C. The method has been applied to the determination of sulfite in white and red samples, with averages recoveries of 101.5% to 101.8%, respectively. PMID:24491762

  5. Determination of total sulfite in wine by ion chromatography after in-sample oxidation.

    PubMed

    Koch, Matthias; Köppen, Robert; Siegel, David; Witt, Angelika; Nehls, Irene

    2010-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) or sulfites are the most common preservatives used in winemaking. The level of total SO2 is subject to regulation. Currently, the regulatory determination of total SO2 (including sulfites) is done by the optimized Monier-Williams (OMW) method, which includes time-consuming distillation and titration steps. This paper describes the development and application of an alternative, rapid, straightforward, and reliable method for the determination of total sulfite in wine. In this method, a simple oxidation step using alkaline hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution is followed by ion chromatographic (IC) analysis of sulfate coupled with conductometric detection. Thirteen wines were analyzed in order to compare the in-sample oxidation method with the OMW-procedure. A t-test revealed satisfying compliance regarding sample preparation, i.e., alkaline H2O2 treatment and acidic distillation (OMW method). Comparable results were also obtained between IC analysis and acid/base titration. Our results indicate that the novel method (limit of quantification: 4 mg SO2 L(-1)) is well suited for the cost-efficient monitoring of regulatory limits. PMID:20690603

  6. 40 CFR 430.50 - Applicability; description of the papergrade sulfite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... papergrade sulfite subcategory. 430.50 Section 430.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Papergrade Sulfite Subcategory § 430.50 Applicability; description of the papergrade sulfite... pulp and paper at papergrade sulfite mills, where blow pit pulp washing techniques are used; and...

  7. 40 CFR 430.50 - Applicability; description of the papergrade sulfite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... papergrade sulfite subcategory. 430.50 Section 430.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Papergrade Sulfite Subcategory § 430.50 Applicability; description of the papergrade sulfite... pulp and paper at papergrade sulfite mills, where blow pit pulp washing techniques are used; and...

  8. Fluorometric determination of total and bound sulfite in wine by N-(9-acridinyl)maleimide.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, K; Ohrui, H; Meguro, H; Suzuki, T; Miwa, H

    1993-01-01

    N-(9-Acridinyl)maleimide (NAM) reacts with sulfite in wine and gives strong fluorescent derivatives that lead to highly sensitive fluorometry of both total and bound sulfite in wine. Values of free and bound sulfite in wine determined by the NAM method and the modified Rankine method agreed. Sulfite was determined in < 200 microL wine within 2 h. PMID:8286979

  9. Sulfur Isotope Effects of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, William D.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Santos, André A.; Pereira, Inês A. C.; Johnston, David T.

    2015-01-01

    The precise interpretation of environmental sulfur isotope records requires a quantitative understanding of the biochemical controls on sulfur isotope fractionation by the principle isotope-fractionating process within the S cycle, microbial sulfate reduction (MSR). Here we provide the only direct observation of the major (34S/32S) and minor (33S/32S, 36S/32S) sulfur isotope fractionations imparted by a central enzyme in the energy metabolism of sulfate reducers, dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DsrAB). Results from in vitro sulfite reduction experiments allow us to calculate the in vitro DsrAB isotope effect in 34S/32S (hereafter, 34εDsrAB) to be 15.3 ± 2‰, 2σ. The accompanying minor isotope effect in 33S, described as 33λDsrAB, is calculated to be 0.5150 ± 0.0012, 2σ. These observations facilitate a rigorous evaluation of the isotopic fractionation associated with the dissimilatory MSR pathway, as well as of the environmental variables that govern the overall magnitude of fractionation by natural communities of sulfate reducers. The isotope effect induced by DsrAB upon sulfite reduction is a factor of 0.3–0.6 times prior indirect estimates, which have ranged from 25 to 53‰ in 34εDsrAB. The minor isotope fractionation observed from DsrAB is consistent with a kinetic or equilibrium effect. Our in vitro constraints on the magnitude of 34εDsrAB is similar to the median value of experimental observations compiled from all known published work, where 34εr−p = 16.1‰ (r–p indicates reactant vs. product, n = 648). This value closely matches those of MSR operating at high sulfate reduction rates in both laboratory chemostat experiments (34εSO4−H2S =  17.3 ± 1.5‰, 2σ) and in modern marine sediments (34εSO4−H2S =  17.3 ± 3.8‰). Targeting the direct isotopic consequences of a specific enzymatic processes is a fundamental step toward a biochemical foundation for reinterpreting the biogeochemical and geobiological sulfur isotope records in

  10. Sulfur Isotope Effects of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, William D; Bradley, Alexander S; Santos, André A; Pereira, Inês A C; Johnston, David T

    2015-01-01

    The precise interpretation of environmental sulfur isotope records requires a quantitative understanding of the biochemical controls on sulfur isotope fractionation by the principle isotope-fractionating process within the S cycle, microbial sulfate reduction (MSR). Here we provide the only direct observation of the major ((34)S/(32)S) and minor ((33)S/(32)S, (36)S/(32)S) sulfur isotope fractionations imparted by a central enzyme in the energy metabolism of sulfate reducers, dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DsrAB). Results from in vitro sulfite reduction experiments allow us to calculate the in vitro DsrAB isotope effect in (34)S/(32)S (hereafter, [Formula: see text]) to be 15.3 ± 2‰, 2σ. The accompanying minor isotope effect in (33)S, described as [Formula: see text], is calculated to be 0.5150 ± 0.0012, 2σ. These observations facilitate a rigorous evaluation of the isotopic fractionation associated with the dissimilatory MSR pathway, as well as of the environmental variables that govern the overall magnitude of fractionation by natural communities of sulfate reducers. The isotope effect induced by DsrAB upon sulfite reduction is a factor of 0.3-0.6 times prior indirect estimates, which have ranged from 25 to 53‰ in (34)εDsrAB. The minor isotope fractionation observed from DsrAB is consistent with a kinetic or equilibrium effect. Our in vitro constraints on the magnitude of [Formula: see text] is similar to the median value of experimental observations compiled from all known published work, where (34)ε r-p = 16.1‰ (r-p indicates reactant vs. product, n = 648). This value closely matches those of MSR operating at high sulfate reduction rates in both laboratory chemostat experiments ([Formula: see text] 17.3 ± 1.5‰, 2σ) and in modern marine sediments ([Formula: see text] 17.3 ± 3.8‰). Targeting the direct isotopic consequences of a specific enzymatic processes is a fundamental step toward a biochemical foundation for reinterpreting the

  11. Reaction of ferric heme proteins with nitrite and sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Young, L.J.; Siegel, L.M.

    1988-04-19

    Optical and EPR spectroscopy of ferric heme proteins of the porphyrin, oxyporphyrin, and isobacteriochlorin classes has indicated that nitrite reacts with these proteins at the heme iron. Sulfite has been conclusively proven to react only with proteins containing the isobacteriochlorin macrocycle. Quantitative EPR spectroscopy of these nitrite and sulfite adducts showed that most contained a substantial quantity of undetectable heme. It is suggested that protein-induced autoreduction of nitrite (but not sulfite) and a strained and/or uniaxial g-tensor are the principal ways by which the silent state is produced.

  12. Determination of added sulfites in dried garlic with a modified version of the optimized Monier-Williams method.

    PubMed

    Lafeuille, Jean-Louis; Lefevre, Stephane; Achouri, Djamila

    2007-01-01

    The optimized Monier-Williams method is slightly modified so that it could be applied for determining sulfite content in dried garlic. Dried garlic sample is directly acidified in a reactor at a pH below 3. At this pH level, the alliinase enzyme activity is irreversibly blocked, and the sulfur-containing amino acids such as alliin (the most abundant) present in dried garlic cannot be transformed into corresponding thiosulfinates such as allicin, which is absent in dried garlic. This prevents allicin from reacting with added sulfites and being probably converted to S-allyl thiosulfate, which is not volatile and has no taste. It is found that at a pH below 2.4 and at boiling water temperature, allicin produces sulfur dioxide in adequate quantity to explain the false-positive results when utilizing the optimized Monier-Williams method with allicin suppression for unsulfited dried garlic samples. Finally, when garlic samples are stabilized in a phosphoric acid buffer at a final pH around 2.4, no sulfite is produced during the Monier-Williams distillation, which is further proof there are no naturally occurring sulfites in unsulfited dried garlic under these mild conditions. PMID:17760347

  13. The determination of sulfite levels and its oxidation in plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Brychkova, Galina; Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Fluhr, Robert; Sagi, Moshe

    2012-07-01

    Sulfur is the sixth most abundant element in life and an important building block of proteins and cellular metabolites. Plants like bacteria can synthesize their sulfur-containing biomolecules from sulfate, where sulfite is an intermediate of the sulfur assimilation pathway. Above a certain threshold SO(2)/sulfite is cytotoxic and is rapidly metabolized to avoid damage. However, the existing data show considerable differences in basal sulfite levels both between species and apparent discrepancies in measured levels in the same species. In order to resolve this question we employed a sulfite detection method using chicken sulfite oxidase and developed an independent enzymatic assay, based on the specific detection of sulfite by sulfite reductase and compared those measurements to a modified colorimetric fuchsin-based method, specific for sulfite detection. We show here that when properly used the sulfite levels detected by the three methods can yield identical results. Furthermore, to examine the capacity of the plant to detoxify sulfite we injected sub-lethal sulfite solutions (yet, several folds higher than the basal levels) into Arabidopsis and tomato leaves and monitored the excess sulfite turnover. Within 3h of sulfite injection, more than 80% of the injected sulfite in Arabidopsis and 91% in tomato were oxidized to sulfate, demonstrating the high capacity of the sulfite oxidation mechanism/s in plants. PMID:22608526

  14. Carbon Monoxide-Reacting Pigment from Desulfotomaculum nigrificans and Its Possible Relevance to Sulfite Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Trudinger, P. A.

    1970-01-01

    The separation of an autoxidizable brown pigment, P582, from Desulfotomaculum nigrificans is described. It reacted with Na2S2O4 and was characterized by absorption maxima in the oxidized state at 392, 582, and 700 nm. In the presence of Na2S2O4, P582 formed complexes with CO and, under alkaline conditions, pyridine. There was no reaction with cyanide. The molecular weight of P582 was approximately 145,000, and the purest preparations contained Fe, Zn, and acid-labile sulfide but not Cu, Mo, or Mn. Preparations of P582 catalyzed the reduced methyl viologen (MVH)-linked reduction of sulfite, hydroxylamine, and nitrite but not of sulfate, thiosulfate, or nitrate. Reduced pyridine nucleotides did not substitute for MVH. A major product of the MVH-sulfite reaction was sulfide. CO partially inhibited the enzymatic activities. Sulfite, hydroxylamine, and nitrite and CO caused changes in the spectrum of Na2S2O4-reduced P582. Fe2+-chelating reagents reacted with part of the Fe of P582 and caused partial losses of labile sulfide and enzymatic activity. The spectral and CO-reacting properties of P582 were, however, unaffected by chelating agents. The reaction between P582 and chelating agents was stimulated by reducing agents. PMID:5473884

  15. Identification and biochemical characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana sulfite oxidase. A new player in plant sulfur metabolism.

    PubMed

    Eilers, T; Schwarz, G; Brinkmann, H; Witt, C; Richter, T; Nieder, J; Koch, B; Hille, R; Hänsch, R; Mendel, R R

    2001-12-14

    In mammals and birds, sulfite oxidase (SO) is a homodimeric molybdenum enzyme consisting of an N-terminal heme domain and a C-terminal molybdenum domain (EC ). In plants, the existence of SO has not yet been demonstrated, while sulfite reductase as part of sulfur assimilation is well characterized. Here we report the cloning of a plant sulfite oxidase gene from Arabidopsis thaliana and the biochemical characterization of the encoded protein (At-SO). At-SO is a molybdenum enzyme with molybdopterin as an organic component of the molybdenum cofactor. In contrast to homologous animal enzymes, At-SO lacks the heme domain, which is evident both from the amino acid sequence and from its enzymological and spectral properties. Thus, among eukaryotes, At-SO is the only molybdenum enzyme yet described possessing no redox-active centers other than the molybdenum. UV-visible and EPR spectra as well as apparent K(m) values are presented and compared with the hepatic enzyme. Subcellular analysis of crude cell extracts showed that SO was mostly found in the peroxisomal fraction. In molybdenum cofactor mutants, the activity of SO was strongly reduced. Using antibodies directed against At-SO, we show that a cross-reacting protein of similar size occurs in a wide range of plant species, including both herbacious and woody plants. PMID:11598126

  16. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of chicken sulfite oxidase crystals

    SciTech Connect

    George, G.N.; Pickering, I.J.; Kisker, C.

    1999-05-17

    Sulfite oxidase catalyzes the physiologically vital oxidation of sulfite to sulfate. Recently, the crystal structure of chicken sulfite oxidase has been reported at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. In contrast to the information available from previous X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies, the active site indicated by crystallography was a mono-oxo species. Because of this the possibility that the crystals did in fact contain a reduced molybdenum species was considered in the crystallographic work. The authors report herein an X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of polycrystalline sulfite oxidase prepared in the same manner as the previous single-crystal samples, and compare this with data for frozen solutions of oxidized and reduced enzyme.

  17. Effect of sulfite intake on intestinal enzyme activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Vieytes, M; Martinez-Sapiña, J; Taboada Montero, C; Lamas Aneiros, M

    1994-01-01

    Sulfites are usually added to food, beverages and pharmaceuticals as preservative antioxidants, bleaching agents, and dough conditioning agents. Ingestion of foods containing sulfites can cause abdominal pain, diarrhoea, seizures and death. Sulfite can react with cellular components and can cause toxicity. Changes in mucosal disaccharidases and phosphatase alkaline after sodium metabisulfite administration were investigated in the small intestine of rats. Female Wistar rats were given a diet supplemented with 0.25 or 2.5% sodium metabisulfite for 5 weeks. Sucrase, maltase, lactase and alkaline phosphatase were assayed in intestinal homogenates and in brush border membrane fractions. The intake of only 2.5% sulfite induced an increase in the specific activities of sucrase, maltase, and alkaline phosphatase compared to control levels (P < 0.05). Lactase levels were affected in a variable manner. The origin of such altered enzyme activities is still unknown. PMID:7958644

  18. Enzymatic determination of sulfite in foods: NMKL interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Edberg, U

    1993-01-01

    An enzymatic method for the determination of sulfite in foods was collaboratively studied in Nordic industry and government laboratories. The sulfite in liquid foods or extracts of solid foods is analyzed according to the following principle: Sulfite ions are oxidized to sulfate ions by oxygen in the presence of sulfite oxidase, thereby forming hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is transformed to water by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) in the presence of NADH peroxidase. In this reaction, NAD+ is formed (and NADH is consumed) in amounts proportional to the sulfite concentration. Consumption of NADH can be measured spectrophotometrically at 340 nm. The method was collaboratively tested in 2 separate studies with high and low levels of sulfite tested. Results of both studies are reported here. The study samples consisted of potato flakes, wine, juice, and dried apples containing between 0 and about 960 mg SO2/kg. Eleven laboratories participated in the full study and analyzed 12 samples. Six laboratories analyzed 8 samples in the complementary study. Before statistical evaluation of the collaborative study data, results were adjusted for the time-dependent decrease of sulfite in the case of materials with high sulfite content (dried apples and wine). For 2 blind duplicate samples of wine containing 75 mg SO2/kg, the relative standard deviation for repeatability (RSDr, within-laboratory variation) was 3.9%. Relative standard deviation for reproducibility (RSDR, between-laboratory variation) was 7.6%. For 2 samples of dried apples containing 800 and 960 mg SO2/kg, an RSDr value of 13.3% and an RSDR value of 13.9% were calculated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8448446

  19. Distribution, metabolism and toxicity of inhaled sulfur dioxide and endogenously generated sulfite in the respiratory tract of normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnison, A.F.; Sellakumar, A.; Currie, D.; Snyder, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    We report on the distribution, metabolism, and toxicity of sulfite in the respiratory tract and other tissues of rats exposed to endogenously generated sulfite or to inhaled sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/). Graded sulfite oxidase deficiency was induced in several groups of rats by manipulating their tungsten to molybdenum intake ratio. Endogenously generated sulfite and S-sulfonate compounds (a class of sulfite metabolite) accumulated in the respiratory tract tissues and in the plasma of these rats in inverse proportion to hepatic sulfite oxidase activity. In contrast to this systemic mode of exposure, sulfite exposure of normal, sulfite oxidase-competent rats via inhaled SO/sub 2/ (10 and 30 ppm) was restricted to the airways. Minor pathological changes consisting of epithelial hyperplasia, mucoid degeneration, and desquamation of epithelium were observed only in the tracheas and bronchi of the rats inhaling SO/sub 2/, even though the concentration of sulfite plus S-sulfonates in the tracheas and bronchi of these rats was considerably lower than that in the endogenously exposed rats. We attribute this histological damage to hydrogen ions stemming from inhaled SO/sub 2/, not to the sulfite/bisulfite ions that are also a product of inhaled SO/sub 2/. In addition to the lungs and trachea, all other tissues examined, except the testes, appeared to be refractory to high concentrations of endogenously generated sulfite. The testes of grossly sulfite oxidase-deficient rats were severely atrophied and devoid of spermatogenic cells.

  20. Removal of sulfur oxides from gas streams with ammonium sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Spitz, A.W.

    1986-05-20

    A process is described for removal of sulfur oxides from sulfur oxide containing flue gases comprising scrubbing the flue gases in the first stage scrubber with an ammonium sulfite solution to remove most of the sulfur oxides and producing a liquor comprising ammonium sulfite, bisulfite and sulfate salts; recycling the liquor in the first state scrubber and producing a 40% to 50% solution of dissolved ammonium sulfite, bisulfite and sulfate salts in a first stage reservoir while maintaining the pH between about 5 and 5.8; maintaining the ratio of bisulfite to sulfite between approximately 2.3 to 1 and 1 to 1 without liberating ammonia; removing portions of the 40% to 50% solution of dissolved salts from the first stage reservoir; scrubbing the flue gases in a second stage scrubber with an ammonium sulfite solution of pH between 6.2 and 6.8 to remove additional sulfur oxides and producing a dilute liquor of 1% to 10% solids comprising ammonium sulfite, bisulfite and sulfate salts in a second stage reservoir; and pumping the dilute liquor from the second stage reservoir to the first stage reservoir in amounts sufficient to replace the removed portions.

  1. The octaheme SirA catalyses dissimilatory sulfite reduction in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Shirodkar, Sheetal; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Saffarini, Daad

    2011-01-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a metal reducer that uses a large number of electron acceptors that include thiosulfate, polysulfide, and sulfite. The enzyme required for thiosulfate and polysulfide respiration has been recently identified, but the mechanisms of sulfite reduction remained unexplored. Analysis of MR-1 cultures grown anaerobically with sulfite suggested that the dissimilatory sulfite reductase catalyzes six-electron reduction of sulfite to sulfide. Reduction of sulfite required menaquinones and c cytochromes but appeared to be independent of the intermediate electron carrier CymA. Furthermore, the terminal sulfite reductase, SirA, was identified as an octaheme c cytochrome with an atypical heme binding site that represents a new class of sulfite reductases. The sirA locus was identified in the genomes of several sequenced Shewanella genomes, and its presence appears to be linked to the ability of these organisms to reduce sulfite under anaerobic conditions.

  2. Comparison of three liquid chromatographic methods with FDA optimized Monier-Williams method for determination of total sulfite in foods.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J F; Chadha, R K; Ménard, C

    1990-01-01

    Three liquid chromatographic (LC) methods employing amperometric detection were compared with the collaboratively studied FDA optimized Monier-Williams distillation method for the determination of total sulfite in 5 food types. The foods included lemon juice, white wine, instant mashed potatoes, golden raisins, and onion flakes. Two of the LC methods (one employing headspace sampling and the other direct injection) used ion-exchange chromatography with a basic mobile phase (pH about 10.8) and a glassy carbon electrode; the third (employing direct injection) used ion-exclusion chromatography with an acidic mobile phase (pH about 2) and a platinum electrode. All 4 methods produced similar results for the wine, lemon juice, and raisins. Results were different for instant mashed potatoes and onion flakes. The headspace-LC method and direct ion-exclusion LC method, both of which employed an alkaline sample extraction, yielded significantly higher values for sulfite in instant potatoes than did the other 2 methods. A large interfering peak with both direct LC methods prevented quantitation of sulfite in the onion flakes. All methods can detect sulfite as low as about 1 microgram/g in 4 of 5 food types examined. PMID:2312516

  3. (Bi)sulfite Oxidation by Copper,Zinc-Superoxide Dismutase: Sulfite-Derived, Radical-Initiated Protein Radical Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ranguelova, Kalina; Bonini, Marcelo G.; Mason, Ronald P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Sulfur dioxide, formed during the combustion of fossil fuels, is a major air pollutant near large cities. Its two ionized forms in aqueous solution, sulfite and (bi)sulfite, are widely used as preservatives and antioxidants to prevent food and beverage spoilage. (Bi)sulfite can be oxidized by peroxidases to form the very reactive sulfur trioxide anion radical (•SO3−). This free radical further reacts with oxygen to form the peroxymonosulfate anion radical (−O3SOO•) and sulfate anion radical (SO4• −). Objective To explore the critical role of these radical intermediates in further oxidizing biomolecules, we examined the ability of copper,zinc-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) to initiate this radical chain reaction, using human serum albumin (HSA) as a model target. Methods We used electron paramagnetic resonance, optical spectroscopy, oxygen uptake, and immuno-spin trapping to study the protein oxidations driven by sulfite-derived radicals. Results We found that when Cu,Zn-SOD reacted with (bi)sulfite, •SO3− was produced, with the concomitant reduction of SOD-Cu(II) to SOD-Cu(I). Further, we demonstrated that sulfite oxidation mediated by Cu,Zn-SOD induced the formation of radical-derived 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) spin-trapped HSA radicals. Conclusions The present study suggests that protein oxidative damage resulting from (bi)sulfite oxidation promoted by Cu,Zn-SOD could be involved in oxidative damage and tissue injury in (bi)sulfite-exacerbated allergic reactions. PMID:20348042

  4. Cloning and characterization of sulfite dehydrogenase, two c-type cytochromes, and a flavoprotein of Paracoccus denitrificans GB17: essential role of sulfite dehydrogenase in lithotrophic sulfur oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wodara, C; Bardischewsky, F; Friedrich, C G

    1997-08-01

    A 13-kb genomic region of Paracoccus dentrificans GB17 is involved in lithotrophic thiosulfate oxidation. Adjacent to the previously reported soxB gene (C. Wodara, S. Kostka, M. Egert, D. P. Kelly, and C. G. Friedrich, J. Bacteriol. 176:6188-6191, 1994), 3.7 kb were sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed four additional open reading frames, soxCDEF. soxC coded for a 430-amino-acid polypeptide with an Mr of 47,339 that included a putative signal peptide of 40 amino acids (Mr of 3,599) with a RR motif present in periplasmic proteins with complex redox centers. The mature soxC gene product exhibited high amino acid sequence similarity to the eukaryotic molybdoenzyme sulfite oxidase and to nitrate reductase. We constructed a mutant, GBsoxC delta, carrying an in-frame deletion in soxC which covered a region possibly coding for the molybdenum cofactor binding domain. GBsoxC delta was unable to grow lithoautotrophically with thiosulfate but grew well with nitrate as a nitrogen source or as an electron acceptor. Whole cells and cell extracts of mutant GBsoxC delta contained 10% of the thiosulfate-oxidizing activity of the wild type. Only a marginal rate of sulfite-dependent cytochrome c reduction was observed from cell extracts of mutant GBsoxC delta. These results demonstrated that sulfite dehydrogenase was essential for growth with thiosulfate of P. dentrificans GB17. soxD coded for a periplasmic diheme c-type cytochrome of 384 amino acids (Mr of 39,983) containing a putative signal peptide with an Mr of 2,363. soxE coded for a periplasmic monoheme c-type cytochrome of 236 amino acids (Mr of 25,926) containing a putative signal peptide with an Mr of 1,833. SoxD and SoxE were highly identical to c-type cytochromes of P. denitrificans and other organisms. soxF revealed an incomplete open reading frame coding for a peptide of 247 amino acids with a putative signal peptide (Mr of 2,629). The deduced amino acid sequence of soxF was 47% identical and 70% similar to the sequence

  5. Estimate of intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, S; Temme, E; Andjelkovic, M; De Wil, M; Vinkx, C; Goeyens, L; Van Loco, J

    2010-08-01

    An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the usual daily intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population. Food consumption data were retrieved from the national food consumption survey. In a first step, individual food consumption data were multiplied with the maximum permitted use levels for sulfites, expressed as sulphur dioxide, per food group (Tier 2). In a second step, on the basis of a literature review of the occurrence of sulfites in different foods, the results of the Tier 2 exposure assessment and available occurrence data from the control programme of the competent authority, a refined list of foods was drafted for the quantification of sulphite. Quantification of sulphite was performed by a high-performance ion chromatography method with eluent conductivity detector in beers and potato products. Individual food consumption data were then multiplied with the actual average concentrations of sulfite per food group, or the maximum permitted levels in case actual levels were not available (partial Tier 3). Usual intakes were calculated using the Nusser method. The mean intake of sulfites was 0.34 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) (Tier 2), corresponding to 49% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and 0.19 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), corresponding to 27% of the ADI (partial Tier 3). The food group contributing most to the intake of sulfites was wines. The results showed that the intake of sulfites is likely to be below the ADI in Belgium. However, there are indications that high consumers of wine have an intake around the ADI. PMID:20503127

  6. Rapid detection of Clostridium perfringens: comparison of lactose sulfite broth with tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar.

    PubMed

    Neut, C; Pathak, J; Romond, C; Beerens, H

    1985-01-01

    The lactose sulfite (LS) medium recommended for the detection and identification of Clostridium perfringens in foods was compared with a reference method using tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine (TSC) agar for the enumeration of this organism in a variety of foods and food ingredients. C. perfringens was detected and enumerated in 17 of the 54 samples examined with LS broth, but its presence could be confirmed in only 9 of the samples with TSC agar. In only 2 instances, C. perfringens was detected on TSC agar but not in LS broth. A positive response (FeS + and gas +) in LS broth incubated at 46 degrees C always corresponded to the presence of C. perfringens; whereas the black colonies formed on TSC agar incubated at 37 degrees C were frequently found to be Clostridium species other than C. perfringens. Thus, because of its highly selective nature, LS broth was superior to TSC agar for enumerating and confirming the small numbers of C. perfringens that were present in a majority of the samples. This was especially true when other clostridia were also present. Besides its greater selectivity and sensitivity, LS broth had the additional advantages of requiring less work and giving confirmed results within 24-48 h compared with 3 days for the TSC agar method. PMID:2865247

  7. Trace determination of aqueous sulfite, sulfide, and methanethiol by fluorometric flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, P.K.; Yang, H.C.

    1986-11-01

    Preservation of sulfite, sulfide, and methanethiol in buffered formaldehyde and oxaldihydroxamic acid stabilizers has been studied. Flow injection analysis procedures that involve T mixing or membrane-based reagent introduction have been developed for the fast (24 samples/h) analysis of these anions based upon the reaction with N-acridinylmaleimide in a water-N,N-dimethylformamide medium to form a fluorescent product. Detection limits are 0.04, 0.60, and 0.80 ..mu..M, respectively, for the three sulfur species; differential analysis is possible.

  8. False positive and false negative reactions encountered in the use of sulfite test strips for the detection of sulfite-treated foods.

    PubMed

    Nordlee, J A; Naidu, S G; Taylor, S L

    1988-03-01

    The reliability of a qualitative test for sulfites in foods (Sulfitest sulfite test strips) was evaluated by comparison of the results obtained from the analysis of 90 food and beverage samples to results obtained by the quantitative, modified Monier-Williams method (the preferred procedure for sulfite analysis in foods of the Food and Drug Administration). The results obtained with the sulfite test strips compared favorably to the results of the Monier-Williams procedure when the sulfite test strips were used on sulfite-treated lettuce and raw or cooked potatoes. However, the strips yielded many false negative and false positive results with other types of foods. False positive results (strips indicated a substantial amount of sulfite when sulfite was not detectable by the Monier-Williams method) were obtained with fin fish, red meats, and poultry. False negative results (strips indicated the absence of sulfites when sulfite was detected at levels greater than 10 ppm total sulfur dioxide by the Monier-Williams method) were obtained with dried fruits and wines under certain conditions of testing. The false negative responses with the test strips may result in the hazardous consumption of foods with high levels of sulfites, such as dried fruit or wine, by a sulfite-sensitive individual. The false positive responses would not be hazardous but could lead sensitive individuals to avoid foods that could be safely consumed. Although the strips may be useful for the detection of sulfites in certain foods, such as lettuce and potatoes, their use by sulfite-sensitive individuals cannot be recommended because of the confusion and potential hazards posed by the false negative and false positive responses. PMID:3346484

  9. Analysis of commercial proanthocyanidins. Part 2: An electrospray mass spectrometry investigation into the chemical composition of sulfited quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii and Schinopsis balansae) heartwood extract.

    PubMed

    Venter, Pieter B; Senekal, Nadine D; Amra-Jordaan, Maryam; Bonnet, Susan L; Van der Westhuizen, Jan H

    2012-06-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PACs) are natural plant-derived polymers used in leather tanning, wood adhesives, water purification, and mud additives for oil drilling. Quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii and Schinopsis balansae) heartwood and mimosa (Acacia mearnsii) bark extracts are the major industrial sources of PACs. These commercial extracts are often sulfited via treatment with sodium hydrogen sulfite to reduce their viscosity and increase their solubility in water. An ESI-MS investigation into the molecular composition of sulfited (cold-water-soluble) quebracho heartwood extract indicates that sulfitation of the PACs occurs via S(N)2 attack of a sulfite ion at both C-2 and C-4 of the constituent flavan-3-ol monomer extender units. Attack at C-2 leads to the opening of the pyran ring. This releases an additional electron-donating phenolic hydroxy group on the A-ring and renders the extract more nucleophilic and suitable for the manufacturing of adhesives. Attack at C-4 leads to interflavanyl bond fission and decrease of the PAC oligomer chain length. The introduction of sulfonic acid moieties at C-2 or C-4 increases the polarity and water solubility of the hot water soluble (unsulfited) extract and transforms it into a cold-water-soluble extract. PMID:22513010

  10. Polyphenols content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to conventional red wines.

    PubMed

    Garaguso, Ivana; Nardini, Mirella

    2015-07-15

    Wine exerts beneficial effects on human health when it is drunk with moderation. Nevertheless, wine may also contain components negatively affecting human health. Among these, sulfites may induce adverse effects after ingestion. We examined total polyphenols and flavonoids content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of eight organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to those of eight conventional red wines. Polyphenols and flavonoids content were slightly higher in organic wines in respect to conventional wines, however differences did not reach statistical significance. The phenolic acids profile was quite similar in both groups of wines. Antioxidant activity was higher in organic wines compared to conventional wines, although differences were not statistically significant. Our results indicate that organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition are comparable to conventional red wines with regard to the total polyphenols and flavonoids content, the phenolics profile and the antioxidant activity. PMID:25722174

  11. Mechanism and kinetics of autoxidation of calcium sulfite slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Pasluk-Bronlkowska, W.; Bronlkowski, T.; Ulejczyk, M. )

    1992-10-01

    The kinetics of Co-catalyzed autoxidation of calcium sulfite was studied to deepen knowledge of the mechanism of this chain reaction. Laboratory experiments were performed under heterogeneous conditions using two different reactors: a stirred tank with a plane gas-liquid (slurry) interface and an impinger. The reaction course was followed by monitoring the conductivity of the reacting solution and by quenching with iodine solution, respectively. Mechanistic judgments were derived from the influence of sulfite and catalyst concentrations, and the solid CaSO[sub 3] load on the kinetics of oxygen absorption. Appropriate reaction orders and rate constants were determined. Phenomena related to the solubility product law that imposed autoxidation rate limitations were analyzed. A soluble sulfate was shown to be a dual-action additive markedly accelerating the autoxidation due to increased sulfite and catalyst solubilities. The results are useful for designers of air pollution control processes. 20 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Determination of total sulfite in wine. Zone electrophoresis-isotachophoresis quantitation of sulfate on a chip after an in-sample oxidation of total sulfite.

    PubMed

    Masár, Marián; Danková, Mariana; Olvecká, Eva; Stachurová, Adela; Kaniansky, Dusan; Stanislawski, Bernd

    2005-08-19

    This work deals with the determination of total sulfite in wine. The determination combines an in-sample hydrogen peroxide oxidation of total sulfite in alkalized wine to sulfate with the separation and quantitation of the latter anion by zone electrophoresis (ZE) on-line coupled with isotachophoresis (ITP) on a column-coupling chip. Sample clean up, integrated into the ITP-ZE separation, eliminated wine matrix in an extent comparable to that provided by a highly selective distillation isolation of sulfite. At the same time, conductivity detection, employed to the detection of sulfate in the ZE stage of the ITP-ZE combination, provided for sulfate the concentration limit of detection corresponding to a 90 microg/l concentration of sulfite in the loaded sample (0.9 microl). Such a detectability allowed a reproducible quantitation of total sulfite when its concentration in wine was 15 mg/l. Formaldehyde binding of free sulfite in wine, included into the pre-column sample preparation, prevented an uncontrolled oxidation of this sulfite form. This step contributed to an unbiased determination of sulfate present in the original wine sample (this determination corrected for the concentration of sulfate determined in the sample after the peroxide oxidation of sulfite to the value equivalent to the total sulfite). The 99-101% recoveries of sulfite, determined for appropriately spiked wine samples, indicate a very good accuracy of the present method. Such a statement also supports excellent agreements of the results of quantitation based on the in-sample peroxide oxidation of the total sulfite (bound sulfite released at a high pH) with those in which this analyte was isolated from wine by distillation (bound sulfite released at a very low pH). PMID:16114242

  13. 40 CFR 430.50 - Applicability; description of the papergrade sulfite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... papergrade sulfite subcategory. 430.50 Section 430.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORY Papergrade Sulfite Subcategory § 430.50 Applicability; description of the papergrade sulfite subcategory. The provisions of this subpart apply to discharges resulting from the:...

  14. 40 CFR 430.50 - Applicability; description of the papergrade sulfite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... papergrade sulfite subcategory. 430.50 Section 430.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORY Papergrade Sulfite Subcategory § 430.50 Applicability; description of the papergrade sulfite subcategory. The provisions of this subpart apply to discharges resulting from the:...

  15. 40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sodium sulfite production subcategory. 415.200 Section 415.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfite Production Subcategory § 415.200 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  16. 40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium sulfite production subcategory. 415.200 Section 415.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfite Production Subcategory § 415.200 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  17. 40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sodium sulfite production subcategory. 415.200 Section 415.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfite Production Subcategory § 415.200 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  18. 40 CFR 430.40 - Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dissolving sulfite subcategory. 430.40 Section 430.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORY Dissolving Sulfite Subcategory § 430.40 Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  19. 40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sodium sulfite production subcategory. 415.200 Section 415.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfite Production Subcategory § 415.200 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  20. 40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sodium sulfite production subcategory. 415.200 Section 415.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfite Production Subcategory § 415.200 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  1. 40 CFR 430.50 - Applicability; description of the papergrade sulfite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... papergrade sulfite subcategory. 430.50 Section 430.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORY Papergrade Sulfite Subcategory § 430.50 Applicability; description of the papergrade sulfite subcategory. The provisions of this subpart apply to discharges resulting from the:...

  2. 40 CFR 430.40 - Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dissolving sulfite subcategory. 430.40 Section 430.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORY Dissolving Sulfite Subcategory § 430.40 Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  3. 40 CFR 430.40 - Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dissolving sulfite subcategory. 430.40 Section 430.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORY Dissolving Sulfite Subcategory § 430.40 Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from...

  4. Preparation, Characterization, and Selectivity Study of Mixed-Valence Sulfites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Luciana A.; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    2010-01-01

    A project involving the synthesis of an isomorphic double sulfite series and characterization by classical inorganic chemical analyses is described. The project is performed by upper-level undergraduate students in the laboratory. This compound series is suitable for examining several chemical concepts and analytical techniques in inorganic…

  5. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51, and the refinements of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfites in standardized food. 130.9 Section 130.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  6. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51, and the refinements of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfites in standardized food. 130.9 Section 130.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  7. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51, and the refinements of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfites in standardized food. 130.9 Section 130.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  8. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51, and the refinements of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfites in standardized food. 130.9 Section 130.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  9. Photoreactions of cyclic sulfite esters: Evidence for diradical intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Arney, Benny E; Ihmels, Heiko

    2012-01-01

    Summary The photochemistry of a phenyl and 1,2-diphenyl substituted sulfite ester is reported. The performance of photoreactions under relatively mild reaction conditions enables the detection of products that have not been observed in previous studies. It is concluded that, complementary to the initially proposed carbene intermediates, diradicals may also be considered. PMID:23019449

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBIDE LIME TO IDENTIFY SULFITE OXIDATION INHIBITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of carbide lime--a by-product of acetylene manufacture, primarily calcium hydroxide--used in a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system at Louisville Gas and Electric (LGE). The study was undertaken to: identify sulfite ion oxidation inhibitors in...

  11. Copper(I) in fogwater: Determination and interactions with sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Hanbin Xue; Reutlinger, M.; Sigg, L.; Stumm, W. ); Lurdes S. Goncalves, M. de )

    1991-10-01

    The copper(I)/(II) redox system was examined in fogwater with respect to the occurrence of Cu(I), the role of sulfite as a reductant of Cu(II) and as a complexing ligand, and the speciation of Cu(I) and Cu(II). Copper(I) was measured in fogwater by the bathocuproine method, which was evaluated for the conditions typically encountered in atmospheric water droplets. Concentrations of Cu(I) in the range 0.1-1 {mu}M were found, which represented between 4 and > 90% of the total copper in these samples. In experiments using concentration ranges of copper and S(IV) close to that of fogwater, the reduction of copper(II) to copper(I) by sulfite was shown to be pH-dependent and to occur rapidly at pH > 6. Calculations of the equilibrium complexation of Cu(I) and Cu(II) under fogwater conditions show that complexes of Cu(I) with sulfite predominate, while for Cu(II) oxalato complexes are important. Sulfite plays an important role as a ligand for Cu(I) in fogwater; Cu(I) may be produced by various reduction reactions, e.g., by organic compounds, and appears to be oxidized only slowly in the presence of S(IV).

  12. Mechanism of the Ferrocyanide-Iodate-Sulfite Oscillatory Chemical Reaction.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Viktor; Epstein, Irving R; Kustin, Kenneth

    2016-03-31

    Existing models of the ferrocyanide-iodate-sulfite (FIS) reaction seek to replicate the oscillatory pH behavior that occurs in open systems. These models exhibit significant differences in the amplitudes and waveforms of the concentration oscillations of such intermediates as I(-), I3(-), and Fe(CN)6(3-) under identical conditions and do not include several experimentally found intermediates. Here we report measurements of sulfite concentrations during an oscillatory cycle. Knowing the correct concentration of sulfite over the course of a period is important because sulfite is the main component that determines the buffer capacity, the pH extrema, and the amount of oxidizer (iodate) required for the transition to low pH. On the basis of this new result and recent experimental findings on the rate laws and intermediates of component processes taken from the literature, we propose a mass action kinetics model that attempts to faithfully represent the chemistry of the FIS reaction. This new comprehensive mechanism reproduces the pH oscillations and the periodic behavior in [Fe(CN)6(3-)], [I3(-)], [I(-)], and [SO3(2-)]T with characteristics similar to those seen in experiments in both CSTR and semibatch arrangements. The parameter ranges at which stationary and oscillatory behavior is exhibited also show good agreement with those of the experiments. PMID:26949219

  13. Crystal growth and agglomeration of calcium sulfite hemihydrate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, C.Y.; Chen, P.C.

    1995-04-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes are most commonly utilized to remove sulfur dioxide from stack gases of coal- or oil-fired plants. In the simple slurry technology, SO{sub 2} is absorbed by a slurry of lime/limestone to form calcium sulfite crystals of acicular habit and its strong agglomeration, requiring large clarifiers and filters to dewater the sludge to make an acceptable landfill. Crystal growth and agglomeration of calcium sulfite hemihydrate crystals from solution were studied by reacting Ca(OH){sub 2} with NaHSO{sub 3} in a pH-stat semibatch crystallizer. Single platelet crystals and agglomerates of platelet crystals were produced in the pH range from 5.80 to 6.80. The crystallization mechanism changed from primary nucleation to crystal growth in the progressive precipitation. Using the titration curves, the growth rate was calculated from the titration rate at the final stage of operation. The crystal growth rates of calcium sulfate hemihydrate crystals were found to obey the parabolic rate law in the low supersaturation range. Another point to be noted is that the precipitates of calcium sulfite hemihydrate in agitated suspensions have a tendency to form agglomerates. It was found that the degree of agglomeration is a weak function of relative supersaturation and magma density, while the pH value is a key factor that affects the degree of agglomeration. Addition of EDTA also has an effect on the agglomeration of calcium sulfite hemihydrates.

  14. Domain Evolution and Functional Diversification of Sulfite Reductases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhillon, Ashita; Goswami, Sulip; Riley, Monica; Teske, Andreas; Sogin, Mitchell

    2005-02-01

    Sulfite reductases are key enzymes of assimilatory and dissimilatory sulfur metabolism, which occur in diverse bacterial and archaeal lineages. They share a highly conserved domain "C-X5-C-n-C-X3-C" for binding siroheme and iron-sulfur clusters that facilitate electron transfer to the substrate. For each sulfite reductase cluster, the siroheme-binding domain is positioned slightly differently at the N-terminus of dsrA and dsrB, while in the assimilatory proteins the siroheme domain is located at the C-terminus. Our sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the siroheme-binding domain shows that sulfite reductase sequences diverged from a common ancestor into four separate clusters (aSir, alSir, dsr, and asrC) that are biochemically distinct; each serves a different assimilatory or dissimilatory role in sulfur metabolism. The phylogenetic distribution and functional grouping in sulfite reductase clusters (dsrA and dsrB vs. aSiR, asrC, and alSir) suggest that their functional diversification during evolution may have preceded the bacterial/archaeal divergence.

  15. Sulfite triggers sustained calcium overload in cultured cortical neurons via a redox-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Cao, Hui; Guan, Xin-Lei; Long, Li-Hong; Hu, Zhuang-Li; Ni, Lan; Wang, Fang; Chen, Jian-Guo; Wu, Peng-Fei

    2016-09-01

    Sulfite is a compound commonly used as preservative in foods and pharmaceuticals. Many studies have examined the neurotoxicity of sulfite, but its effect on neuronal calcium homeostasis has not yet been reported. Here, we observed the effect of sulfite on the cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in cultured cortical neurons using Fura-2/AM based calcium imaging technique. Sulfite (250-1000μM) caused a sustained increase in [Ca(2+)]i in the neurons via a dose-dependent manner. In Ca(2+)-free solution, sulfite failed to increase [Ca(2+)]i. After the depletion of the intracellular calcium store, the effect of sulfite on the [Ca(2+)]i was largely abolished. Pharmacological inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC)-inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) signaling pathway blocked sulfite-induced increase of [Ca(2+)]i. Interestingly, antioxidants such as trolox and dithiothreitol, abolished the increase of [Ca(2+)]i induced by sulfite. Exposure to sulfite triggered generation of sulfur- and oxygen-centered free radicals in neurons and increased oxidative stress both in the cultured cortical neurons and the prefrontal cortex of rats. Furthemore, sulfite decreased cell viability in cultured cortical neurons via a calcium-dependent manner. Thus, our current study suggests that the redox-dependent calcium overload triggered by sulfite in cortical neuronsmay be involved in its neurotoxicity. PMID:27313092

  16. Use of Phase Transition Curves for Testing Models of the pH-Oscillatory Hydrogen Peroxide-Thiosulfate-Sulfite Reaction.

    PubMed

    Veber, Tomáš; Schreiberová, Lenka; Schreiber, Igor

    2016-03-24

    The reaction system hydrogen peroxide-thiosulfate-sulfite in diluted sulfuric acid (HPTS) displays strongly nonlinear dynamics when operated in a continuous-flow stirred tank reactor. Due to a crucial role of hydrogen ion during the reaction, this system is a prime example of an inorganic pH-oscillator. Under specific external conditions the system exhibits multiple steady states, periodic oscillations and chaotic behavior. We focus on evaluating alternative kinetic models by exploring phase resetting of the periodic oscillatory regime caused by a single-pulse perturbation with various reacting species. Phase transition curve (PTC), the plot of phase after the resetting against the phase of perturbation, is a convenient characteristic of the oscillatory dynamics adopted as a major tool in this work. Experimental results for hydrogen ions, hydroxide ions, thiosulfate ions, sulfite ions, and hydrogen sulfite ions used as perturbants are systematically compared with calculations under corresponding conditions using two available reaction mechanisms. In addition, we use the stoichiometric network analysis to identify possible core oscillatory subnetworks in the models and choose the one that corresponds best to the measured PTCs. PMID:26900770

  17. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genome Shuffling through Recursive Population Mating Leads to Improved Tolerance to Spent Sulfite Liquor▿†

    PubMed Central

    Pinel, Dominic; D'Aoust, Frédéric; del Cardayre, Stephen B.; Bajwa, Paramjit K.; Lee, Hung; Martin, Vincent J. J.

    2011-01-01

    Spent sulfite liquor (SSL) is a waste effluent from sulfite pulping that contains monomeric sugars which can be fermented to ethanol. However, fermentative yeasts used for the fermentation of the sugars in SSL are adversely affected by the inhibitory substances in this complex feedstock. To overcome this limitation, evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was carried out using genome-shuffling technology based on large-scale population cross mating. Populations of UV-light-induced yeast mutants more tolerant than the wild type to hardwood spent sulfite liquor (HWSSL) were first isolated and then recursively mated and enriched for more-tolerant populations. After five rounds of genome shuffling, three strains were isolated that were able to grow on undiluted HWSSL and to support efficient ethanol production from the sugars therein for prolonged fermentation of HWSSL. Analyses showed that greater HWSSL tolerance is associated with improved viability in the presence of salt, sorbitol, peroxide, and acetic acid. Our results showed that evolutionary engineering through genome shuffling will yield robust yeasts capable of fermenting the sugars present in HWSSL, which is a complex substrate containing multiple sources of inhibitors. These strains may not be obtainable through classical evolutionary engineering and can serve as a model for further understanding of the mechanism behind simultaneous tolerance to multiple inhibitors. PMID:21622800

  18. Role of sulfite additives in wine induced asthma: single dose and cumulative dose studies

    PubMed Central

    Vally, H; Thompson, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Wine appears to be a significant trigger for asthma. Although sulfite additives have been implicated as a major cause of wine induced asthma, direct evidence is limited. Two studies were undertaken to assess sulfite reactivity in wine sensitive asthmatics. The first study assessed sensitivity to sulfites in wine using a single dose sulfited wine challenge protocol followed by a double blind, placebo controlled challenge. In the second study a cumulative dose sulfited wine challenge protocol was employed to establish if wine sensitive asthmatics as a group have an increased sensitivity to sulfites.
METHODS—In study 1, 24 asthmatic patients with a strong history of wine induced asthma were screened. Subjects showing positive responses to single blind high sulfite (300 ppm) wine challenge were rechallenged on separate days in a double blind, placebo controlled fashion with wines of varying sulfite levels to characterise their responses to these drinks. In study 2, wine sensitive asthmatic patients (n=12) and control asthmatics (n=6) were challenged cumulatively with wine containing increasing concentrations of sulfite in order to characterise further their sensitivity to sulfites in wine.
RESULTS—Four of the 24 self-reporting wine sensitive asthmatic patients were found to respond to sulfite additives in wine when challenged in a single dose fashion (study 1). In the double blind dose-response study all four had a significant fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (>15% from baseline) following exposure to wine containing 300 ppm sulfite, but did not respond to wines containing 20, 75 or 150 ppm sulfite. Responses were maximal at 5 minutes (mean (SD) maximal decline in FEV1 28.7 (13)%) and took 15-60 minutes to return to baseline levels. In the cumulative dose-response study (study 2) no significant difference was observed in any of the lung function parameters measured (FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF), mid phase forced expiratory

  19. Novel photo-sulfite system: toward simultaneous transformations of inorganic and organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yaoguang; Lou, Xiaoyi; Fang, Changling; Xiao, Dongxue; Wang, Zhaohui; Liu, Jianshe

    2013-10-01

    An efficient and green advanced oxidation process (i.e., photo-sulfite reaction) for the simultaneous oxidation of sulfite and organic pollutants in water is reported. The photo-sulfite system (UV-Fe(III)-sulfite) is based on the Fe-catalyzed sulfite oxidation and photochemistry of Fe(III) species. SO4(•-) and (•)OH radicals were identified in the photo-sulfite system with radical scavenging experiments using specific alcohols. This novel technology was consistently proven to be more favorable than the alternative Fe(III)-sulfite systems for the degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and other organic pollutants at all conditions tested. The reactivity of photo-sulfite system was sustained due to the spontaneous switch of photoactive species from Fe(III)-sulfito to Fe(III)-hydroxo complexes with the depletion of sulfite and the decrease in pH. In contrast, in the absence of light the performance of the Fe(III)-sulfite system was greatly diminished after the consumption of sulfite. The formation of the Fe(III)-sulfito complex is a necessary step for initiating the photo-sulfite reaction. Inhibition of the oxidation of 2,4,6-TCP and methyl orange (MO) was observed in the presence of ligands that can stabilize one or more of the reactants: Fe(III), Fe(II), or sulfite. Our study provides a new facile route for the generation of SO4(•-) and simultaneous removal of organic and inorganic pollutants. PMID:24015851

  20. Methods for the recovery of sulfur components from flue gas and recycle sodium sulfite by reduction-smelting and carbonating to strip hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Farin, W.G.

    1980-12-23

    An improved method for recovering sulfur from flue gas which contains sulfur dioxide formed from burning sulfur containing fuels is disclosed. The method first involves the reduction burning of auxilary fuel in the presence of sodium sulfite to convert it to smelt containing sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate. The smelt is dissolved, and the solution reacted with carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and water vapor forming sodium hydrosulfide. The sodium hydrosulfide is reacted with a high concentration of recycled sodium bicarbonate and stripped with carbon dioxide to form sodium carbonate and release the sulfides as hydrogen sulfide from the stripper. The hydrogen sulfide released is then converted to sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur. Pressurized carbon dioxide is used for pressure carbonation of recycled solution from the stripper to convert the sodium carbonate to the high concentration of recycled sodium bicarbonate used for stripping. The sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate from the stripper are reacted under pressure with sodium bisulfite in a decarbonator to form sodium sulfite and release carbon dioxide under pressure for use in the pressure carbonation. A portion of the sodium sulfite formed by decarbonation is then reduced in the smelter. The balance of the sodium sulfite is then used for absorption of the sulfur dioxide from the flue gas forming the sodium bisulfite used for decarbonation.

  1. A simple levulinate-based ratiometric fluorescent probe for sulfite with a large emission shift.

    PubMed

    Liu, Caiyun; Wu, Huifang; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    A simple 4-hydroxynaphthalimide-derived colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe (1) containing a receptor of levulinate moiety was designed and synthesized to monitor sulfite. Probe 1 could quantificationally detect sulfite by a ratiometric fluorescence spectroscopy method with high selectivity and sensitivity. Specially, probe 1 exhibited a 100 nm red-shifted absorption spectrum along with the color changes from colorless to yellow, and 103 nm red-shifted emission spectra upon the addition of sulfite. Thus, 1 can serve as a "naked-eye" probe for sulfite. Further, the recognition mechanism of probe 1 for sulfite was confirmed using nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Also, the preliminary practical application demonstrated that our proposed probe provided a promising method for the determination of sulfite. PMID:24813958

  2. Different mechanisms of resistance modulate sulfite tolerance in wine yeasts.

    PubMed

    Nadai, Chiara; Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

    2016-01-01

    From a technological point of view, yeast resistance to sulfite is of great interest and represents an important technological character for winemaking. Several mechanisms are involved, and strain-dependent strategies to obtain SO2 resistance can deeply influence wine quality, although this choice is less relevant in determining the technological performance of the strain during fermentation. In this study, to better understand the strain-specific mechanisms of resistance, 11 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, whose genomes have been previously sequenced, were selected. Their attitude towards sulfites, in terms of resistance and production, was evaluated, and RNA-sequencing of four selected strains was performed during fermentation process in synthetic grape must in the presence of SO2. Results demonstrated that at molecular level, the physical effect of SO2 triggered multiple stress responses in the cell and high tolerance to general enological stressing condition increased SO2 resistance. Adaptation mechanism due to high basal gene expression level rather than specific gene induction in the presence of sulfite seemed to be responsible in modulating strain resistance. This mechanism involved higher basal gene expression level of specific cell wall proteins, enzymes for lipid biosynthesis, and enzymes directly involved in SO2 assimilation pathway and efflux. PMID:26615396

  3. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulfite liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulfite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because of this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulfite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulfite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached over 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly.

  4. Fluorometric determination of sulfite in wine by N-(9-acridinyl)maleimide.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, K; Matsuda, H; Ohrui, H; Meguro, H; Suzuki, T

    1990-01-01

    A highly sensitive fluorometric method for determining sulfite in wine is reported. N-(9-Aciridinyl)maleimide (NAM) reacted with the sulfite in wine quantitatively and gave strong fluorescent derivatives. The determinations were conducted by batch and high-performance liquid chromatographic methods. Sulfite contents in wine by NAM methods and the conventional methods showed good accordance. The sample size could be reduced to less than 1/10,000 by the NAM methods. PMID:19130675

  5. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a putative sulfite oxidase (SO) ortholog from Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zongliang; Su, Xinhong; Wu, Jianyu; Wu, Ke; Zhang, Hua

    2012-03-01

    Sulfite oxidase (SO) catalyzes the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate and thus has important roles in diverse metabolic processes. However, systematic molecular and functional investigations on the putative SO from tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) have hitherto not been reported. In this work, a full-length cDNA encoding putative sulfite oxidase from N. benthamiana (NbSO) was isolated. The deduced NbSO protein shares high homology and typical structural features with other species SOs. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that NbSO cDNA clone encodes a tobacco SO isoform. Southern blot analysis suggests that NbSO is a single-copy gene in the N. benthamiana genome. The NbSO transcript levels were higher in aerial tissues and were up-regulated in N. benthamiana during sulfite stress. Reducing the SO expression levels through virus-induced gene silencing caused a substantial accumulation in sulfite content and less sulfate accumulation in N. benthamiana leaves when exposed to sulfite stress, and thus resulted in decreased tolerance to sulfite stress. Taken together, this study improves our understanding on the molecular and functional properties of plant SO and provides genetic evidence on the involvement of SO in sulfite detoxification in a sulfite-oxidizing manner in N. benthamiana plants. PMID:21667106

  6. Influence of soil pH and application rate on the oxidation of calcium sulfite derived from flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.B.; Bigham, J.M.; Dick, W.A.; Jones, E.S.; Ramsier, C.

    2007-01-15

    Calcium sulfite hemihydrate (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 0.5H{sub 2}O), a common byproduct of coal-fired utilities, is fairly insoluble and can decompose to release toxic SO{sub 2} under highly acidic soil conditions; however, it can also oxidize to form gypsum. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of application rate and soil pH on the oxidation of calcium sulfite under laboratory conditions. Oxidation rates measured by release of SO{sub 4}-S to solution decreased with increasing application rate. Leachate SO{sub 4}-S from soils amended with 1.0 to 3.0 g kg{sup -1} CaSO{sub 3} increased over a 21 to 28 d period before reaching a plateau. At 4 g kg{sup -1}, maximum SO{sub 4}-S release was delayed until Week 7. Oxidation and release of SO{sub 4}-S from soil amended with 3.0 g kg{sup -1} calcium sulfite increased markedly with decreasing soil pH. After only 3 d incubation, the concentrations of SO{sub 4}-S in aqueous leachates were 77, 122, 1709 220, and 229 mg L{sup -1} for initial soil pH values of 7.8, 6.5, 5.5, 5.1, and 4.0, respectively. At an initial soil pH value of 4.0, oxidation/dissolution did not increase much after 3 d. At higher pH values, oxidation was maximized after 21 d. These results suggest that autumn surface applications of calcium sulfite in no-till systems should permit ample time for oxidation/dissolution reactions to occur without introducing biocidal effects related to oxygen scavenging. Soil and annual crops can thus benefit from additions of soluble Ca and SO{sub 4} if calcium sulfite is applied in advance of spring planting.

  7. New insights into an ancient antibrowning agent: formation of sulfophenolics in sodium hydrogen sulfite-treated potato extracts.

    PubMed

    Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Kuijpers, Tomas F M; Vincken, Jean-Paul; de Waard, Pieter; Gruppen, Harry

    2011-09-28

    The effect of sodium hydrogen sulfite (S), used as antibrowning agent, on the phenolic profile of potato extracts was investigated. This extract was compared to one obtained in the presence of ascorbic acid (A). In the presence of A, two major compounds were obtained, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) and 4-O-caffeoyl quinic acid. With S, their 2'-sulfo-adducts were found instead, the structures of which were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Also, for minor caffeoyl derivatives and quercetin glycosides, the corresponding sulfo-adducts were observed. Feruloyl and sinapoyl derivatives were not chemically affected by the presence of S. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was thought to be responsible for the formation of the sulfo-adducts. This was confirmed by preparing 2'-sulfo-5-O-caffeoyl quinic acid in a model system using 5-CQA, sodium hydrogen sulfite, and PPO. This sulfo-adduct exhibited a small bathochromic shift (λmax 329 nm) as compared to 5-CQA (λmax 325 nm) and a strong hypochromic shift with an extinction coefficient of 9357±395 M(-1) cm(-1) as compared to 18494±196 M(-1) cm(-1), respectively. The results suggest that whenever S is used as an antibrowning agent, the O-quinone formed with PPO reacts with S to produce sulfo-O-diphenol, which does not participate in browning reactions. PMID:21854040

  8. Effect of heat treatment on the performance of tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar for enumeration of Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, M H; Ciebin, B W

    1979-05-01

    Dissolving dehydrated tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar by only boiling or microwaving was found to inhibit Clostridium perfringens colony development in pour plates when compared with C. perfringens recovery in tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar prepared by autoclaving. PMID:225988

  9. Spectrophotometric Determination of Total Sulfite in White Wine Samples Using Crude Extracts from Flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flora Barbosa Soares, Márlon Herbert; Ramos, Luiz Antonio; Tadeu Gomes Cavalheiro, Éder

    2002-09-01

    A didactic spectrophotometric method for determining the sulfite content in white wine samples is proposed. It is based upon a discoloring reaction between flower anthocyanins and the sulfite in basic media. Students' results obtained from iodometric data agreed well with results obtained by the proposed procedure. The use of natural dyes attracted students' interest, enhancing the learning process.

  10. Colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent detection of sulfite in water via cationic surfactant-promoted addition of sulfite to α,β-unsaturated ketone.

    PubMed

    Tian, Haiyu; Qian, Junhong; Sun, Qian; Bai, Hongyan; Zhang, Weibing

    2013-07-25

    Three fluorescent probes were constructed by incorporating an α,β-unsaturated ketone to a coumarin fluorophore. The selective addition of sulfite to the alkene of TSP assisted by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelle can be visualized by dramatic color and ratiometric fluorescence changes. In CTAB-PBS system, the fluorescence intensity ratio at 465 nm and 592 nm (I465/I592) and the absorbance ratio at 390 nm and 470 nm (A390/A470) were linearly proportional to sulfite concentration in the range of 0.5-150 μM, and the detection limit was 0.2 μM. Good selectivity and competition of TSP1 towards sulfite over several anions and biological thiols were acquired. Probe TSP1 was used to detect sulfite in three realistic samples (mineral water, sugar and white wine) with good recovery. PMID:23845496

  11. A new diketopyrrolopyrrole-based probe for sensitive and selective detection of sulfite in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Cui, Yu; Li, Yexin; Zheng, Luyi; Xie, Lijun; Ning, Rui; Liu, Zheng; Lu, Junling; Zhang, Gege; Liu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Guangyou

    2015-02-01

    A new probe was synthesized by incorporating an α,β -unsaturated ketone to a diketopyrrolopyrrole fluorophore. The probe had exhibited a selective and sensitive response to the sulfite against other thirteen anions and biothiols (Cys, Hcy and GSH), through the nucleophilic addition of sulfite to the alkene of probe with the detection limit of 0.1 μM in HEPES (10 mM, pH 7.4) THF/H2O (1:1, v/v). Meanwhile, it could be easily observed that the probe for sulfite changed from pink to colorless by the naked eye, and from pink to blue under UV lamp after the sulfite was added for 20 min. The NMR and Mass spectral analysis demonstrated the expected addition of sulfite to the Cdbnd C bonds.

  12. Reevaluation of Monier-Williams method for determining sulfite in food.

    PubMed

    Warner, C R; Daniels, D H; Joe, F L; Fazio, T

    1986-01-01

    The Monier-Williams distillation procedure has a long history of successful use for determining sulfite in fruit products and wine; however, a systematic evaluation of its accuracy and precision with other food matrices has not been undertaken. We found that the Monier-Williams distillation yielded greater than 90% recovery of sulfite added to foods such as table grapes, hominy, dried mangoes, and lemon juice. Less than 85% recovery was obtained with broccoli, soda crackers, cheese-peanut butter crackers, mushrooms, and potato chips. These results may, in fact, accurately reflect the residual levels of sulfite if a portion of the sulfite undergoes irreversible reaction with some food components. Analysis of commercial food products gave sulfite levels ranging from 1400 ppm in dried apple slices to 25 ppm in cream sherry. PMID:3949694

  13. A real-time colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe for sulfite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Yu; He, Ting; Li, Kun; Wu, Ming-Bo; Huang, Zheng; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2013-05-21

    A real-time colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe based on modulating the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) of the coumarin platform for selective detection of sulfite is presented. This reaction based probe utilized the Michael addition to the dicyano-vinyl group with the detection limit of 5.8 × 10(-5) M. The probe displayed a high selectivity for sulfite over other anions and reactive sulfur especially for biothiols including cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (Hcy) and glutathione (GSH), with about 100 nm blue shift and more than 230 times intensity ratios change of the emission spectrum. Meanwhile, it could be easily observed that the probe for sulfite changes from red to pale yellow by the naked eye, and from red to blue under UV lamp immediately after the sulfite is added. To the best of our knowledge, it is the fastest response probe for sulfite ever reported, which could give a colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent response instantly. PMID:23563108

  14. Interaction of silicic acid with sulfurous acid scale inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, D.L.

    1997-12-31

    The solubility of amorphous silica and the inhibition of silica polymerization in the presence of sulfurous acid and sulfite salts has been investigated to 260{degrees}C. Investigations of inhibition of silica scaling from geothermal brines by sulfurous acid have produced unusual results. Bisulfite/sulfite increases amorphous silica solubility by {open_quotes}salting in{close_quotes} effects resulting from apparent complexation. Silica-sulfite complexes are postulated to form via hydrogen bonding, and appear to be much stronger than silica-sulfate complexes. Treatment of brines with sulfurous acid inhibits silica scaling by (1) retarding the kinetics of silicic acid polymerization, and (2) forming soluble sulfito-silicate complexes. Sulfurous acid offers several advantages over sulfuric acid in controlling scale deposition-reduced corrosion potential, reduced by-product scale formation potential, oxygen scavenging and inhibition of certain metal silicate scales.

  15. Structural basis of interprotein electron transfer in bacterial sulfite oxidation

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Aaron P; Laming, Elise L; Casas Garcia, G Patricia; Kvansakul, Marc; Guss, J Mitchell; Trewhella, Jill; Calmes, Benoit; Bernhardt, Paul V; Kappler, Ulrike; Maher, Megan J

    2015-01-01

    Interprotein electron transfer underpins the essential processes of life and relies on the formation of specific, yet transient protein-protein interactions. In biological systems, the detoxification of sulfite is catalyzed by the sulfite-oxidizing enzymes (SOEs), which interact with an electron acceptor for catalytic turnover. Here, we report the structural and functional analyses of the SOE SorT from Sinorhizobium meliloti and its cognate electron acceptor SorU. Kinetic and thermodynamic analyses of the SorT/SorU interaction show the complex is dynamic in solution, and that the proteins interact with Kd = 13.5 ± 0.8 μM. The crystal structures of the oxidized SorT and SorU, both in isolation and in complex, reveal the interface to be remarkably electrostatic, with an unusually large number of direct hydrogen bonding interactions. The assembly of the complex is accompanied by an adjustment in the structure of SorU, and conformational sampling provides a mechanism for dissociation of the SorT/SorU assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09066.001 PMID:26687009

  16. Oxidative Half-reaction of Arabidopsis thaliana Sulfite Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Robert S.; Hänsch, Robert; Mendel, Ralf R.; Hille, Russ

    2009-01-01

    Vertebrate forms of the molybdenum-containing enzyme sulfite oxidase possess a b-type cytochrome prosthetic group that accepts reducing equivalents from the molybdenum center and passes them on to cytochrome c. The plant form of the enzyme, on the other hand, lacks a prosthetic group other than its molybdenum center and utilizes molecular oxygen as the physiological oxidant. Hydrogen peroxide is the ultimate product of the reaction. Here, we present data demonstrating that superoxide is produced essentially quantitatively both in the course of the reaction of reduced enzyme with O2 and during steady-state turnover and only subsequently decays (presumably noncatalytically) to form hydrogen peroxide. Rapid-reaction kinetic studies directly following the reoxidation of reduced enzyme demonstrate a linear dependence of the rate constant for the reaction on [O2] with a second-order rate constant of kox = 8.7 × 104 ± 0.5 × 104 m−1s−1. When the reaction is carried out in the presence of cytochrome c to follow superoxide generation, biphasic time courses are observed, indicating that a first equivalent of superoxide is generated in the oxidation of the fully reduced Mo(IV) state of the enzyme to Mo(V), followed by a slower oxidation of the Mo(V) state to Mo(VI). The physiological implications of plant sulfite oxidase as a copious generator of superoxide are discussed. PMID:19875441

  17. Structural basis of interprotein electron transfer in bacterial sulfite oxidation.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Aaron P; Laming, Elise L; Casas Garcia, G Patricia; Kvansakul, Marc; Guss, J Mitchell; Trewhella, Jill; Calmes, Benoit; Bernhardt, Paul V; Hanson, Graeme R; Kappler, Ulrike; Maher, Megan J

    2015-01-01

    Interprotein electron transfer underpins the essential processes of life and relies on the formation of specific, yet transient protein-protein interactions. In biological systems, the detoxification of sulfite is catalyzed by the sulfite-oxidizing enzymes (SOEs), which interact with an electron acceptor for catalytic turnover. Here, we report the structural and functional analyses of the SOE SorT from Sinorhizobium meliloti and its cognate electron acceptor SorU. Kinetic and thermodynamic analyses of the SorT/SorU interaction show the complex is dynamic in solution, and that the proteins interact with Kd = 13.5 ± 0.8 μM. The crystal structures of the oxidized SorT and SorU, both in isolation and in complex, reveal the interface to be remarkably electrostatic, with an unusually large number of direct hydrogen bonding interactions. The assembly of the complex is accompanied by an adjustment in the structure of SorU, and conformational sampling provides a mechanism for dissociation of the SorT/SorU assembly. PMID:26687009

  18. Removal of sulfide, sulfate and sulfite ions by electro coagulation.

    PubMed

    Murugananthan, M; Raju, G Bhaskar; Prabhakar, S

    2004-06-18

    The removal of various species of sulfur from beamhouse of tannery wastewater and also from synthetic samples was studied by electro-flotation technique. Consumable anodes of iron and aluminum and insoluble anode of titanium were tested as anodes. It was found that iron and aluminum anodes were effective for the removal of suspended solids, sulfide, sulfite and sulfate. Progress of simultaneous coagulation of suspended solids during electro-flotation was measured using particle size analysis. Coagulation was found to be essential for effective flotation of suspended solids. Metal ions generated in situ by electrolytic oxidation of anode were found to react with dissolved sulfide ions. Metal sulfides thus formed as colloidal suspension were coagulated and floated simultaneously by hydrogen bubbles generated from cathode. Simultaneous occurrence of precipitation, coagulation and flotation was observed during electro-flotation. X-ray diffraction studies were conducted to identify the nature of sulfide phase formed during electrolytic precipitation. The effect of pH, current density and initial concentration of pollutants was studied and the results are discussed. The removal of sulfite and sulfate ions is explained by zeta-potential measurements. PMID:15177743

  19. Determination of sulfite in foods by headspace liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J F; Chadha, R K

    1988-01-01

    Sulfite was determined in a variety of foods by liquid chromatography (LC) after the samples were mixed with a solution containing mannitol, FeSO4, and Na2HPO4, adjusted to pH 11, and left to stand for 15 min at room temperature. An aliquot of the mixture was placed in a headspace vial and mixed with 50% H3PO4. After 15 min, a portion of the headspace was removed with a syringe containing LC mobile phase without acetonitrile. The syringe was shaken and an aliquot of the solution was analyzed on an anion exchange column with a mobile phase of 0.03M methane sulfonate (pH 10.8) containing 5% acetonitrile. Sulfite was detected amperometrically (glassy carbon electrode) at +0.7 V. The method was successfully compared to the FDA-modified Monier-Williams procedure for a variety of foods. Minimum detectable levels were about 1 microgram/g, based on a 15 g sample. PMID:3235411

  20. Characterization of a New Type of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase Present in Thermodesulfobacterium commune

    PubMed Central

    Hatchikian, E. C.; Zeikus, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    A new type of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase, desulfofuscidin, was isolated from the nonsporeforming thermophilic sulfate-reducing microorganism Thermodesulfobacterium commune. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated at 167,000 by sedimentation equilibrium, and the protein was pure by both disc electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. The bisulfite reductase was a tetramer and had two types of subunits with an α2β2 structure and an individual molecular weight of 47,000. The enzyme exhibited absorption maxima at 576, 389, and 279 nm, with a weak band at 693 nm. Upon the addition of dithionite, the absorption maxima at 576 and 693 nm were weakened, and a new band appeared at 605 nm. The protein reacted with CO in the presence of dithionite to give a complex with absorption peaks at 593, 548, and 395 nm. The extinction coefficients of the purified enzyme at 576, 389, and 279 nm were 89,000, 310,000, and 663,000 M−1 cm−1, respectively. Siroheme was detected as the prosthetic group. The protein contains 20 to 21 nonheme iron atoms and 16 to 17 acid-labile sulfur groups per molecule. The data suggest the presence of four sirohemes and probably four (4Fe-4S) centers per molecule by comparison with desulfoviridin, the dissimilatory sulfite reductase from Desulfovibrio species. The protein contains 36 cysteine residues and is high in acidic and aromatic amino acids. The N-terminal amino acids of the α and β subunits were threonine and serine, respectively. With reduced methyl viologen as electron donor, the major product of sulfite reduction was trithionate, and the pH optimum for activity was 6.0. The enzyme was stable to 70°C and denatured rapidly above this temperature. The dependence of T. commune bisulfite reductase activity on temperature was linear between 35 and 65°C, and the Q10 values observed were above 3. The presence of this new type of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase in T. commune is discussed in terms of taxonomic significance. PMID

  1. Dissolution rate of calcium sulfite hemihydrate in flue gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, P.C.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1986-02-01

    The rate of calcium sulfite dissolution in slurry scrubbers and hold tanks for flue gas desulfurization affects SO/sub 2/ absorption, limestone utilization and sulfite oxidation. The dissolution rates of calcium sulfite were measured by the pH-state method. A mass transfer model was developed assuming that calcium sulfite particles behave as spheres in an infinite stagnant solution. The model combined with the Bechtel-modified Radian solution equilibrium program successfully predicts calcium sulfite dissolution rates at pH 3.5 - 5.5, 23 and 55 /sup 0/C, 0.001 - 0.3 M Ca/sup + +/ and 2 - 25 mM dissolved sulfite. The effects of sulfate content in solids and liquids and particle size/shape were also studied. At conditions typical of flue gas desulfurization processes calcium sulfite dissolution was controlled by mass transfer, not surface reaction kinetics. Dissolution was fast at low pH and slowed near the equilibrium pH determined by dissolved Ca/sup + +/ and SO/sub 3/ concentrations in the aqueous solutions, K/sub SP/ of the CaSO/sub 3/ . 1/2H/sub 2/O solids, and temperature. The presence of dissolved Mg/sup + +/ increased the equilibrium pH and enhanced the disolution rate. The presence of dissolved sulfate reduced the dissolution rate and the equilibrium pH. The effect of sulfate was not adequately described by the mass transfer model.

  2. Two divergent MET10 genes, one from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, encode the alpha subunit of sulfite reductase and specify potential binding sites for FAD and NADPH.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, J; Cherest, H; Kielland-Brandt, M C

    1994-01-01

    The yeast assimilatory sulfate reductase is a complex enzyme that is responsible for conversion of sulfite into sulfide. To obtain information on the nature of this enzyme, we isolated and sequenced the MET10 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a divergent MET10 allele from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis. The polypeptides deduced from the identically sized open reading frames (1,035 amino acids) of both MET10 genes have molecular masses of around 115 kDa and are 88% identical to each other. The transcript of S. cerevisiae MET10 has a size comparable to that of the open reading frame and is transcriptionally repressed by methionine in a way similar to that seen for other MET genes of S. cerevisiae. Distinct homology was found between the putative MET10-encoded polypeptide and flavin-interacting parts of the sulfite reductase flavoprotein subunit (encoded by cysJ) from Escherichia coli and several other flavoproteins. A significant N-terminal homology to pyruvate flavodoxin oxidoreductase (encoded by nifJ) from Klebsiella pneumoniae, together with a lack of obvious flavin mononucleotide-binding motifs in the MET10 deduced amino acid sequence, suggests that the yeast assimilatory sulfite reductase is a distinct type of sulfite reductase. Images PMID:7928966

  3. Isolation and characterization of sulfite oxidase from Alligator mississipiensis

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, A.; Neame, P.J.; Barber, M.J. )

    1991-03-11

    Sulfite oxidase has been isolated from fresh alligator liver using ammonium sulfate and acetone fractionation, DEAE chromatography and FPLC on Mono Q. The enzyme is dimeric and exhibits a subunit M. Wt. of approximately 58 kDa, larger than that of chicken SO. EPR spectroscopy of the partially-reduced enzyme revealed a single Mo(V) species while visible spectroscopy revealed the presence of cytochrome b{sub 557}. Maximal activities were obtained at pH 8 and 9, respectively. K{sub m}'s for SO{sub 3}{sup 2 {minus}}, cyt. c and Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3 {minus}} were 23.5 uM, 2.9 uM and 8.0 uM, respectively. Sequencing of peptides obtained by endoprotease K digestion indicated regions of extensive sequence similarity to chicken and rat enzymes in both heme and Mo-pterin domains. Regions of sequence dissimilarity were also found.

  4. 21 CFR 201.22 - Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... are added to certain drug products to inhibit the oxidation of the active drug ingredient. Oxidation.... Examples of specific sulfites used to inhibit this oxidation process include sodium bisulfite,...

  5. 21 CFR 201.22 - Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... are added to certain drug products to inhibit the oxidation of the active drug ingredient. Oxidation.... Examples of specific sulfites used to inhibit this oxidation process include sodium bisulfite,...

  6. 21 CFR 201.22 - Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... are added to certain drug products to inhibit the oxidation of the active drug ingredient. Oxidation.... Examples of specific sulfites used to inhibit this oxidation process include sodium bisulfite,...

  7. 21 CFR 201.22 - Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... are added to certain drug products to inhibit the oxidation of the active drug ingredient. Oxidation.... Examples of specific sulfites used to inhibit this oxidation process include sodium bisulfite,...

  8. 21 CFR 201.22 - Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... are added to certain drug products to inhibit the oxidation of the active drug ingredient. Oxidation.... Examples of specific sulfites used to inhibit this oxidation process include sodium bisulfite,...

  9. Impairment in Sulfite Reductase Leads to Early Leaf Senescence in Tomato Plants1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Brychkova, Galina; Kurmanbayeva, Assylay; Bekturova, Aizat; Ventura, Yvonne; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Eppel, Amir; Fluhr, Robert; Sagi, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Sulfite reductase (SiR) is an essential enzyme of the sulfate assimilation reductive pathway, which catalyzes the reduction of sulfite to sulfide. Here, we show that tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants with impaired SiR expression due to RNA interference (SIR Ri) developed early leaf senescence. The visual chlorophyll degradation in leaves of SIR Ri mutants was accompanied by a reduction of maximal quantum yield, as well as accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, messenger RNA transcripts and proteins involved in chlorophyll breakdown in the chloroplasts were found to be enhanced in the mutants, while transcripts and their plastidic proteins, functioning in photosystem II, were reduced in these mutants compared with wild-type leaves. As a consequence of SiR impairment, the levels of sulfite, sulfate, and thiosulfate were higher and glutathione levels were lower compared with the wild type. Unexpectedly, in a futile attempt to compensate for the low glutathione, the activity of adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate reductase was enhanced, leading to further sulfite accumulation in SIR Ri plants. Increased sulfite oxidation to sulfate and incorporation of sulfite into sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerols were not sufficient to maintain low basal sulfite levels, resulting in accumulative leaf damage in mutant leaves. Our results indicate that, in addition to its biosynthetic role, SiR plays an important role in prevention of premature senescence. The higher sulfite is likely the main reason for the initiation of chlorophyll degradation, while the lower glutathione as well as the higher hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde additionally contribute to premature senescence in mutant leaves. PMID:24987017

  10. The Structures of the C185S and C185A Mutants of Sulfite Oxidase Reveal Rearrangement of the Active Site

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, James A.; Wilson, Heather L.; Pushie, M. Jake; Kisker, Caroline; George, Graham N.; Rajagopalan, K.V.

    2010-11-03

    Sulfite oxidase (SO) catalyzes the physiologically critical conversion of sulfite to sulfate. Enzymatic activity is dependent on the presence of the metal molybdenum complexed with a pyranopterin-dithiolene cofactor termed molybdopterin. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of SOs from a variety of sources has identified a single conserved Cys residue essential for catalytic activity. The crystal structure of chicken liver sulfite oxidase indicated that this residue, Cys185 in chicken SO, coordinates the Mo atom in the active site. To improve our understanding of the role of this residue in the catalytic mechanism of sulfite oxidase, serine and alanine variants at position 185 of recombinant chicken SO were generated. Spectroscopic and kinetic studies indicate that neither variant is capable of sulfite oxidation. The crystal structure of the C185S variant was determined to 1.9 {angstrom} resolution and to 2.4 {angstrom} resolution in the presence of sulfite, and the C185A variant to 2.8 {angstrom} resolution. The structures of the C185S and C185A variants revealed that neither the Ser or Ala side chains appeared to closely interact with the Mo atom and that a third oxo group replaced the usual cysteine sulfur ligand at the Mo center, confirming earlier extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) work on the human C207S mutant. An unexpected result was that in the C185S variant, in the absence of sulfite, the active site residue Tyr322 became disordered as did the loop region flanking it. In the C185S variant crystallized in the presence of sulfite, the Tyr322 residue relocalized to the active site. The C185A variant structure also indicated the presence of a third oxygen ligand; however, Tyr322 remained in the active site. EXAFS studies of the Mo coordination environment indicate the Mo atom is in the oxidized Mo{sup VI} state in both the C185S and C185A variants of chicken SO and show the expected trioxodithiolene active site. Density

  11. Effects of low concentrations of bisulfite-sulfite and nitrite on microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Wodzinski, R S; Labeda, D P; Alexander, M

    1978-01-01

    A wide range of microorganisms was tested to determine their sensitivity to low concentrations of bisulfite-sulfite and nitrite, solubility products of SO2 and NO2, respectively. Photosynthesis by blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) was more strongly inhibited by 0.1 mM bisulfite-sulfite and 1 mM nitrite at pH 6.0 than photosynthesis by eucaryotic algae and respiration of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. At pH 7.7, blue-green algae were still more sensitive to bisulfite-sulfite and nitrite than eucaryotic algae, but the toxicity of bisulfite-sulfite and nitrite decreased as the pH increased. Photosynthesis by Anabaena flos-aquae at pH 6.0 was inhibited 25% by a bisulfite-sulfite concentration of 10 micrometer and 15% by a nitrite concentration of 50 micrometer. Photosynthesis by the blue-green alga, Lyngbya sp., was not exceptionally sensitive to chlorate and thiosulfate. Acetylene-reducing activity of Beijerinckia indica was completely inhibited by 0.1 mM bisulfite-sulfite at pH 4.0, the suppression being decreased with increasing pH. PMID:646357

  12. Sulfite oxidase controls sulfur metabolism under SO2 exposure in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Randewig, Dörte; Hamisch, Domenica; Herschbach, Cornelia; Eiblmeier, Monika; Gehl, Christian; Jurgeleit, Jens; Skerra, Jessica; Mendel, Ralf R; Rennenberg, Heinz; Hänsch, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the significance of sulfite oxidase (SO) for sulfite detoxification and sulfur assimilation was investigated. In response to sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) exposure, a remarkable expansion of sulfate and a significant increase of GSH pool were observed in wild-type and SO-overexpressing Arabidopsis. These metabolic changes were connected with a negative feedback inhibition of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (APR), but no alterations in gas exchange parameters or visible symptoms of injury. However, Arabidopsis SO-KO mutants were consistently negatively affected upon 600 nL L(-1) SO(2) exposure for 60 h and showed phenotypical symptoms of injury with small necrotic spots on the leaves. The mean g(H2O) was reduced by about 60% over the fumigation period, accompanied by a reduction of net CO(2) assimilation and SO(2) uptake of about 50 and 35%. Moreover, sulfur metabolism was completely distorted. Whereas sulfate pool was kept constant, thiol-levels strongly increased. This demonstrates that SO should be the only protagonist for back-oxidizing and detoxification of sulfite. Based on these results, it is suggested that co-regulation of SO and APR controls sulfate assimilation pathway and stabilizes sulfite distribution into organic sulfur compounds. In conclusion, a sulfate-sulfite cycle driven by APR and SO can be postulated for fine-tuning of sulfur distribution that is additionally used for sulfite detoxification, when plants are exposed to atmospheric SO(2). PMID:21895698

  13. Molecular characterization of tobacco sulfite reductase: enzyme purification, gene cloning, and gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Yonekura-Sakakibara, K; Ashikari, T; Tanaka, Y; Kusumi, T a; Hase, T

    1998-09-01

    A cDNA clone, NtSiR1, that encodes the precursor of ferredoxin-dependent sulfite reductase (Fd-SiR) has been isolated from a cDNA library of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. SR1). The identity of the cDNA was established by comparison of the purified protein and the predicted structure with the nucleotide sequence. The amino terminus of the purified enzyme was Thr62 of the precursor protein, and the mature region of NtSiR1 consisted of 632 amino acids. Tobacco Fd-SiR is 82, 77, and 48% identical with Fd-SiRs from Zea mays, Arabidopsis thaliana, and a cyanobacterium, respectively. Significant similarity was also found with Escherichia coli NADPH-SiR in the region involved in ligation of siroheme and the [4Fe-4S] cluster. On Northern blot analysis, a transcript of NtSiR1 was detected in leaves, stems, roots, and petals in similar amounts. We also isolated a genomic SiR clone named gNtSiR1. It consists of 8 exons and 7 introns. Genomic Southern blot analysis indicated that at least two SiR genes are present in the tobacco genome. PMID:9722674

  14. Effect of gel network on pattern formation in the ferrocyanide-iodate-sulfite reaction.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Tomonaga; Yoshida, Ryo

    2011-06-01

    Stationary patterns have been researched experimentally since the discovery of the Turing pattern in the chlorite-iodide-malonic acid (CIMA) reaction and the self-replicating spot pattern in the ferrocyanide-iodate-sulfite (FIS) reaction. In this study, we reproduced the pattern formation in the FIS reaction by using poly(acrylamide) gels. Gels with different swelling ratios were prepared to use as a medium. The effect of the swelling ratio was compared with the effect of thickness. It was found that the swelling ratio greatly influenced pattern formation. Oscillating spot patterns appeared at high swelling ratios, and lamellar patterns appeared at a low swelling ratio. Self-replicating spot patterns appeared in between the two areas. The front velocities, which were observed in the initial stage of pattern formation, depended on the swelling ratio. Furthermore, this dependence obeys the free volume theory of diffusion. These results provide evidence that the change in front velocities is caused by a change in diffusion. Pattern formation can be controlled not only by thickness but also by swelling ratio, which may be useful for creating novel pattern templates. PMID:21557556

  15. Using a combined hydrolysis factor to optimize high titer ethanol production from sulfite-pretreated poplar without detoxification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingzhi; Gu, Feng; Zhu, J Y; Zalesny, Ronald S

    2015-06-01

    Sulfite pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) was applied to poplar NE222 chips in a range of chemical loadings, temperatures, and times. The combined hydrolysis factor (CHF) as a pretreatment severity accurately predicted xylan dissolution by SPORL. Good correlations between CHF and pretreated solids enzymatic digestibility, sugar yield, and the formations of furfural and acetic acid were obtained. Therefore, CHF was used to balance sugar yield with the formation of fermentation inhibitors for high titer ethanol production without detoxification. The results indicated that optimal sugar yield can be achieved at CHF=3.1, however, fermentation using un-detoxified whole slurries of NE222 pretreated at different severities by SPORL indicated CHF≈2 produced best results. An ethanol titer of 41 g/L was achieved at total solids of approximately 20 wt% without detoxification with a low cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g glucan (27 mL/kg untreated wood). PMID:25817033

  16. Sulfite determination by a biosensor based on bay leaf tissue homogenate: very simple and economical method.

    PubMed

    Teke, Mustafa; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal; Dinçkaya, Erhan

    2009-01-01

    Of all the food additives for which the FDA has received adverse reaction reports, the ones that most closely resemble true allergens are sulfur-based preservatives. Sulfites are used primarily as antioxidants to prevent or reduce discoloration of light-colored fruits and vegetables, such as dried apples and potatoes, and to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in fermented foods such as wine. This work aims to prepare an electrochemical biosensor based on bay leaf tissue homogenate that contains polyphenol oxidase enzyme abundantly for sulfite detection in foods. The principle of the biosensor is based on the inhibition effect of sulfites on polyphenol oxidase in the bioactive layer. Optimum conditions for the biosensor, such as temperature and pH, were investigated. Some stability parameters of the biosensor were also identified. The biosensor showed a linear calibration graph in the range of 25-100 microM sulfite. The biosensor presents a very simple, economical, reliable, and feasible method for sulfite detection in foods. PMID:19418312

  17. Value-Added Products from FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vivak Malhotra

    2010-01-31

    According to the American Coal Ash Association, about 29.25 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts were produced in the USA in 2003. Out of 29.25 million tons, 17.35 million tons were sulfite-rich scrubber materials. At present, unlike its cousin FGD gypsum, the prospect for effective utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber materials is not bright. In fact, almost 16.9 million tons are leftover every year. In our pursuit to mitigate the liability of sulfite-rich FGD scrubber materials' disposal, we are attempting to develop value-added products that can commercially compete. More specifically, for this Innovative Concept Phase I project, we have the following objectives: to characterize the sulfite-rich scrubber material for toxic metals; to optimize the co-blending and processing of scrubber material and natural byproducts; to formulate and develop structural composites from sulfite-rich scrubber material; and to evaluate the composites' mechanical properties and compare them with current products on the market. After successfully demonstrating the viability of our research, a more comprehensive approach will be proposed to take these value-added materials to fruition.

  18. Amperometric sulfite sensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes/ferrocene-branched chitosan composites.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong; Yang, Weiwei; Sun, Changqing

    2008-10-19

    A novel amperometric sensor for the determination of sulfite was fabricated based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/ferrocene-branched chitosan (CHIT-Fc) composites-covered glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical behavior of the sensor was investigated in detail by cyclic voltammetry. The apparent surface electron transfer rate constant (K(s)) and charge transfer coefficient (alpha) of the CHIT-Fc/MWCNTs/GCE were also determined by cyclic voltammetry, which were about 1.93 cm s(-1) and 0.42, respectively. The sensor displayed good electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of sulfite. The peak potential for the oxidation of sulfite was lowered by at least 330 mV compared with that obtained at CHIT/MWCNTs/GCE. In optimal conditions, linear range spans the concentration of sulfite from 5 microM to 1.5mM and the detection limit was 2.8 microM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The proposed method was used for the determination of sulfite in boiler water. In addition, the sensor has good stability and reproducibility. PMID:18804647

  19. Dissolution and crystallization of calcium sulfite platelets. Report for Sep 84-Aug 86

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, C.L.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the dissolution and crystallization of calcium sulfite platelets. The rates of calcium sulfite dissolution and crystallization are important in slurry scrubbing processes for flue-gas desulfurization. The rates affect the scrubber solution composition, SO{sub 2} absorption, sulfite oxidation, and limestone utilization. The dissolution and crystallization rates of platelet shaped calcium sulfite crystals were measured in the pH stat apparatus. The solution pH was varied from 3.0 to 6.0. The effects of sulfate content in the solids and solution were also investigated. The measured rates for the platelets were compared to the rates previously determined for agglomerates. It was determined that there are subtle differences between platelet and agglomerated calcium sulfite. The platelet sample with low solid sulfate content dissolved and crystallized slower than the sample with a high solid sulfate content and the agglomerated samples. The inhibiting effect of dissolved sulfate was also greater for the low solid sulfate sample. The sample with a high solid sulfate content dissolved and crystallized at approximately the same rate as the agglomerates.

  20. Avoiding total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from sodium sulfite pulping recovery processes

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, J.C.; Sell, N.J. ); Ciriacks, J.C. )

    1990-06-01

    This paper reports that one of the current trends in paper-making with cellulose pulping is the use of high-yield processes. With yields greater than 65%, these processes include mechanical pulps (groundwood and thermomechanical pulps or TMP), and semichemical types (chemi-TMP or CTMP). Groundwood and TMP make up about 10% of North American pulp production. Semichemical pulp makes up about 7% and is mostly used for corrugating medium. High-yield pulping for linerboard, particularly using the alkaline sulfite process, is also likely to be used in the future. High-yield pulping is based primarily on the sulfite process using mostly sodium-based chemicals. A disadvantage of this process is the unavailability of a recovery system for the inorganic pulping chemicals. Generally, mills have not accepted any particular recovery system for this process. For this and other reasons, sulfite processes constitute only 3-4% of the total North American pulp production. If high-yield processes continue to increase in popularity, a sodium sulfite chemical recovery system will be needed. A number of chemical recovery systems have been developed in the past 30 years for sodium-based sulfite pulping processes, with most of the mills successfully using this process located in Scandinavia.

  1. Determination of sulfite in foods and beverages by ion exclusion chromatography with electrochemical detection: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Kim, H J

    1990-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method for determination of total sulfite in foods and beverages by alkali extraction followed by ion exclusion chromatographic separation and electrochemical detection (IEC-EC) was collaboratively studied by 9 laboratories. Blind duplicate samples of starch, diluted lemon juice, wine cooler, dehydrated seafood, and instant mashed potatoes were analyzed without spiking and with added sulfite at 2 levels. The initial sulfite levels varied from 0 to 384 ppm SO2, and the levels added varied from 10 to 400 ppm. The initial sulfite levels determined by the IEC-EC method and the Monier-Williams method were in good agreement. Recovery of added sulfite by the IEC-EC method was generally higher than that by the Monier-Williams method. Within-laboratory repeatability (RSDr) for the IEC-EC method varied from 4.4 to 26.0%, and overall reproducibility (RSDR) varied from 8.5 to 39.3%. The collaborators found the method to be fast, sensitive, and easy to use, which makes it a useful alternative to the Monier-Williams method. The method has been adopted official first action. PMID:2324032

  2. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with sodium sulfite to form the sulfite addition products and liberate sodium hydroxide (NaOH); however... degrees Celsius (( °deg;C) to minimize the reaction of the methanol groups. 2.1Apparatus Required....

  3. Effect of heat treatment on the performance of tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar for enumeration of Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, M H; Ciebin, B W

    1979-01-01

    Dissolving dehydrated tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar by only boiling or microwaving was found to inhibit Clostridium perfringens colony development in pour plates when compared with C. perfringens recovery in tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar prepared by autoclaving. Images PMID:225988

  4. Formation of Reactive Sulfite-Derived Free Radicals by the Activation of Human Neutrophils: An ESR Study

    PubMed Central

    Ranguelova, Kalina; Rice, Annette B.; Khajo, Abdelahad; Triquigneaux, Mathilde; Garantziotis, Stavros; Magliozzo, Richard S.; Mason, Ronald P.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of (bi)sulfite (hydrated sulfur dioxide) on human neutrophils and the ability of these immune cells to produce reactive free radicals due to (bi)sulfite oxidation. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an abundant heme protein in neutrophils that catalyzes the formation of cytotoxic oxidants implicated in asthma and inflammatory disorders. In the present study sulfite (•SO3−) and sulfate (SO4•−) anion radicals are characterized with the ESR spin-trapping technique using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) in the reaction of (bi)sulfite oxidation by human MPO and human neutrophils via sulfite radical chain reaction chemistry. After treatment with (bi)sulfite, PMA-stimulated neutrophils produced DMPO-sulfite anion radical, -superoxide, and -hydroxyl radical adducts. The latter adduct probably resulted, in part, from the conversion of DMPO-sulfate to DMPO-hydroxyl radical adduct via a nucleophilic substitution reaction of the radical adduct. This anion radical (SO4•−) is highly reactive and, presumably, can oxidize target proteins to protein radicals, thereby initiating protein oxidation. Therefore, we propose that the potential toxicity of (bi)sulfite during pulmonary inflammation or lung-associated diseases such as asthma may be related to free radical formation. PMID:22326772

  5. Characterization of two dissimilatory sulfite reductases from sulfate-reducing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, B. H.; Moura, I.; Lino, A. R.; Moura, J. J. G.; Legall, J.

    1988-02-01

    Mössbauer, EPR, and biochemical techniques were used to characterize two dissimilatory sulfite reductases: desulforubidin from Desulfovibrio baculatus strain DSM 1743 and desulfoviridin from Desulfovibrio gigas. For each molecule of desulforubidin, there are two sirohemes and four [4Fe-4S] clusters. The [4Fe-4S] clusters are in the diamagnetic 2+ oxidation state. The sirohemes are high-spin ferric (S=5/2) and each siroheme is exchanged-coupled to a [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster. Such an exchange-coupled siroheme-[4Fe-4S] unit has also been found in the assimilatory sulfite reductase from Escherichia coli/1/ and in a low-molecular weight sulfite reductase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris/2/. For each molecule of defulfoviridin, there are two tetrahydroporphyrin groups and four [4Fe-4S]2+ clusters. To our surprise, we discovered that about 80% of the tetrahydroporphyrin groups, however, do not bind iron.

  6. Sodium sulfite-formaldehyde pretreatment of mixed hardwoods and its effect on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yongcan; Yang, Linfeng; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-min; Phillips, Richard

    2013-05-01

    In this work, mixed hardwoods were pretreated by sodium sulfite-formaldehyde (SF). The effects of SF pretreatment on the chemical compositions and enzymatic hydrolysis of mixed hardwoods were investigated. SF pretreatment temperature had a significant effect on pulp yield and delignification, resulting in an increased efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. After 96 h of enzymatic hydrolysis at the cellulase loading of 40 FPU/g substrate, the yields of glucan and xylan on the basis of original wood were 37% and 11% for the pulp produced with 12% sulfite charge at 170 °C for 2 h. The total sugar recovery based on the sugar in original wood was 74%. These results indicate that sulfite-formaldehyde cooking is of great potential to be a pretreatment method for a greenfield mill to produce fuel ethanol from hardwood. PMID:23127844

  7. The influence of oxygen exchange between sulfite and water on the oxygen isotope composition of sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, I. A.; Brunner, B.

    2012-12-01

    Sulfate does not exchange oxygen with the water under most environmental conditions. Therefore, its oxygen isotope composition serves as an archive of past oxidative sulfur cycling. Studies on the oxygen isotope signature of sulfate produced from reduced sulfur compounds show varying relative contributions of two possible oxygen sources; molecular oxygen and water, and variable isotope fractionations relative to these two compounds. These discrepancies could be due to differences in the production and consumption of sulfuroxy intermediates which exchange oxygen with water. Thereby, the rate of oxygen exchange as well as the rate of oxidation depends on the pH. Studies on the oxygen isotope exchange effects between sulfuroxy intermediates and water and on the oxygen isotope effects during the oxidation of sulfuroxy intermediates are scarce, severely limiting the interpretability of oxygen isotope signatures in sulfate. Sulfite is often considered to be the last/final sulfuroxy intermediate in the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds to sulfate and may, therefore, be pivotal in shaping the oxygen isotope signature of sulfate. We determined the oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between sulfite and water and used the obtained equilibrium value to determine the oxygen isotope effects in abiotic sulfite oxidation experiments. Our results demonstrate that natural variations in the oxygen isotope composition of sulfate produced by oxidative processes can be explained by differences in the interplay of the sulfite oxidation rate and oxygen isotope exchange rate between sulfite and water which both depend on pH conditions and availability of oxidizing agents (e.g. molecular oxygen or ferric iron). Our findings contribute to a more detailed mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds and underline the importance of sulfite as the final sulfuroxy intermediate in oxidative sulfur cycling.

  8. Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial reduction and disproportionation of thiosulfate and sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Habicht, K.S.; Canfield, D.E.; Rethmeier, J.

    1998-08-01

    In bacterial cultures the authors measured sulfur isotope fractionation during transformations of thiosulfate and sulfite, pathways which may be of considerable importance in the cycling of sulfur in marine sediments and euxinic waters. They documented isotope fractionations during the reduction and disproportionation of thiosulfate and sulfite by bacterial enrichments and pure bacterial cultures from marine and freshwater environments. They also measured the isotope fractionation associated with the anoxygenic phototrophic oxidation of H{sub 2}S to thiosulfate by cyanobacteria. Except for sulfite reduction, isotope fractionations for these processes have not been previously reported. During the dissimilatory reduction of sulfite, H{sub 2}S was depleted in {sup 34}S by 6%, and during the reduction of thiosulfate to H{sub 2}S, depletions were between 7% and 11%. The largest observed isotope fractionation was associated with the bacterial disproportionation of sulfite which caused a {sup 34}S depletion in H{sub 2}S of 20--37% and a {sup 34}S enrichment in sulfate of 7--12%. During the bacterial disproportionation of thiosulfate, isotope fractionations between the outer sulfane sulfur and H{sub 2}S and between the inner sulfonate sulfur and sulfate were <4%. The authors observed isotope exchange between the two sulfur atoms of thiosulfate leading to a depletion of {sup 34}S in H{sub 2}S by up to 12% with a comparable enrichment of {sup 34}S in sulfate. No isotope fractionation was associated with the anoxygenic phototrophic oxidation of H{sub 2}S to thiosulfate. The depletion of {sup 34}S into H{sub 2}S during the bacterial reduction and disproportionation of thiosulfate and sulfite may, in addition to sulfate reduction and the bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur, contribute to the generation of {sup 34}S-depleted sedimentary sulfides.

  9. Sulfite exposure-induced hepatocyte death is not associated with alterations in p53 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jianying; Lei, Peiyu; Zhang, Jidong; Zhao, Chunyan; Liang, Ruifeng

    2013-10-01

    Although sulfite (SO3(2-)) is commonly used as an antimicrobial agent and preservative in foods, medicines and wine, it has also been listed as an important risk factor for the initiation and progression of liver diseases due to oxidative damage. In general, apoptosis that is induced by oxidative stress is triggered by increases in p53 and alterations in Mdm2 and Bcl-2. However, the level of involvement of the p53 signaling pathway, which has been shown to be upregulated in some animal studies, in hepatocyte death remains unclear. To examine the response of the p53 signaling pathway to stimulation with different concentrations of sulfite, a time course study of p53, Mdm2, and Bcl-2 expression was conducted in an immortalized hepatic cell line, HL-7702. When the HL-7702 cells were cultured in the presence of Na2SO3, the cell viability was significantly decreased after 24h compared to that of the control group (0mmol/L) (p<0.05). Meanwhile, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in the supernatants of HL-7702 cells were significantly increased following Na2SO3 administration. Interestingly, the expression of p53 and p-p53 (Ser15) remained unchanged. In addition, no obvious alterations in Mdm2 and Bcl-2 expression were observed in HL-7702 cells that had been stimulated with various concentrations of sulfite. To further investigate the detailed mechanism underlying sulfite toxicity, caspase-3, PCNA and RIP1 expression in HL-7702 cells was studied. The expression levels of caspase-3 and PCNA were unchanged, but RIP1 expression was increased significantly after 24h of exposure. In light of this evidence, we propose that sulfite is cytotoxic to hepatocytes, but this cytotoxicity is not achieved by direct interruption of the p53 signaling pathway. In addition, we propose that an alternative necrotic process underlies hepatocellular death following sulfite exposure. PMID:23973939

  10. Structures of complexes of octahaem cytochrome c nitrite reductase from Thioalkalivibrio nitratireducens with sulfite and cyanide.

    PubMed

    Trofimov, Anton A; Polyakov, Konstantin M; Boyko, Konstantin M; Tikhonova, Tamara V; Safonova, Tatyana N; Tikhonov, Alexey V; Popov, Alexandre N; Popov, Vladimir O

    2010-10-01

    The structures of complexes of octahaem cytochrome c nitrite reductase from the bacterium Thioalkalivibrio nitratireducens (TvNiR) with the substrate sulfite (1.4 Å resolution; R(cryst) = 0.126) and the inhibitor cyanide (1.55 Å resolution; R(cryst) = 0.148) have been established. The complex with sulfite was prepared by the reduction of the protein crystal with sodium dithionite. The sulfite ion is bound to the iron ion of the catalytic haem through the S atom. The Fe-S distance is 2.24 Å. The structure of the cyanide complex with full occupancy of the ligand site was established for the first time for cytochrome c nitrite reductases. The cyanide ion is bound to the catalytic haem iron through the C atom. The Fe-C distance is 1.91 Å and the Fe-C-N angle is 171°. The sulfite reductase activity of TvNiR was measured at different pH values. The activity is 0.02 µmol of HS(-) per minute per milligram at pH 7.0; it decreases with increasing pH and is absent at pH 9.0. PMID:20944237

  11. Applications of pulsed EPR spectroscopy to structural studies of sulfite oxidizing enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Eric L.; Astashkin, Andrei V.; Raitsimring, Arnold M.; Enemark, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfite oxidizing enzymes (SOEs), including sulfite oxidase (SO) and bacterial sulfite dehydrogenase (SDH), catalyze the oxidation of sulfite (SO32-) to sulfate (SO42-). The active sites of SO and SDH are nearly identical, each having a 5-coordinate, pseudo-square-pyramidal Mo with an axial oxo ligand and three equatorial sulfur donor atoms. One sulfur is from a conserved Cys residue and two are from a pyranopterindithiolene (molybdopterin, MPT) cofactor. The identity of the remaining equatorial ligand, which is solvent-exposed, varies during the catalytic cycle. Numerous in vitro studies, particularly those involving electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of the Mo(V) states of SOEs, have shown that the identity and orientation of this exchangeable equatorial ligand depends on the buffer pH, the presence and concentration of certain anions in the buffer, as well as specific point mutations in the protein. Until very recently, however, EPR has not been a practical technique for directly probing specific structures in which the solvent-exposed, exchangeable ligand is an O, OH-, H2O, SO32-, or SO42- group, because the primary O and S isotopes (16O and 32S) are magnetically silent (I = 0). This review focuses on the recent advances in the use of isotopic labeling, variable-frequency high resolution pulsed EPR spectroscopy, synthetic model compounds, and DFT calculations to elucidate the roles of various anions, point mutations, and steric factors in the formation, stabilization, and transformation of SOE active site structures.

  12. Decreased immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to cashew allergens following sodium sulfite treatment and heating.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Christopher P; Desormeaux, Wendy A; Wasserman, Richard L; Yoshioka-Tarver, Megumi; Condon, Brian; Grimm, Casey C

    2014-07-16

    Cashew nut and other nut allergies can result in serious and sometimes life-threatening reactions. Linear and conformational epitopes within food allergens are important for immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding. Methods that disrupt allergen structure can lower IgE binding and lessen the likelihood of food allergy reactions. Previous structural and biochemical data have indicated that 2S albumins from tree nuts and peanuts are potent allergens, and that their structures are sensitive to strong reducing agents such as dithiothreitol. This study demonstrates that the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) compound sodium sulfite effectively disrupted the structure of the cashew 2S albumin, Ana o 3, in a temperature-dependent manner. This study also showed that sulfite is effective at disrupting the disulfide bond within the cashew legumin, Ana o 2. Immunoblotting and ELISA demonstrated that the binding of cashew proteins by rabbit IgG or IgE from cashew-allergic patients was markedly lowered following treatment with sodium sulfite and heating. The results indicate that incorporation of sodium sulfite, or other food grade reagents with similar redox potential, may be useful processing methods to lower or eliminate IgE binding to food allergens. PMID:24926808

  13. Capillary electrophoretic determination of sulfite using the zone-passing technique of in-capillary derivatization.

    PubMed

    Jankovskiene, G; Daunoravicius, Z; Padarauskas, A

    2001-11-16

    A new capillary electrophoretic (CE) method was developed for the simple and selective determination of sulfite. The proposed method is based on the in-capillary derivatization of sulfite with iodine using the zone-passing technique and direct UV detection of iodide formed. The optimal conditions for the separation and derivatization reaction were established by varying concentration of iodine, electrolyte pH and applied voltage. The optimised separations were carried out in 20 mmol l(-1) Tris-HCl electrolyte (pH 8.5) using direct UV detection at 214 nm. Experimental results showed that the injection of the iodine zone from anodic end of the capillary gives significantly better precision. Common UV absorbing anions such as Br-, l-, S2O3(2-), NO3-, NO2-, SCN- did not give any interferences. Valid calibration (r2=0.998) is demonstrated in the range 1 x 10(-5) - 8 x 10(-4) mol l(-1) of sulfite. The detection limit (SIN=3) was 2 x 10(-6) mol l(-1). The proposed system was applied to the determination of free sulfite in wines. The recovery tests established for wine samples were within the range 92-103%. The CE results were compared with those obtained by iodometric titration technique. PMID:11762765

  14. Existence of a new type of sulfite oxidase which utilizes ferric ions as an electron acceptor in Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    SciTech Connect

    Sugio, T.; Katagiri, T.; Moriyama, M.; Zhen, Y.L.; Inagaki, K.; Tano, T.

    1988-01-01

    A new type of sulfite oxidase which utilizes ferric ion (Fe/sup 3 +/) as an electron acceptor was found in iron-grown Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. It was localized in the plasma membrane of the bacterium and had a pH optimum at 6.0. Under aerobic conditions, 1 mol of sulfite was oxidized by the enzyme to produce 1 mol of sulfate. Under anaerobic conditions in the presence of Fe/sup 3 +/, sulfite was oxidized by the enzyme as rapidly as it was under aerobic conditions. In the presence of o-phenanthroline or a chelator for Fe/sup 2 +/, the production of Fe/sup 2 +/ was observed during sulfite oxidation by this enzyme under not only anaerobic conditions but also aerobic conditions. No Fe/sup 2 +/ production was observed in the absence of o-phenanthroline, suggesting that the Fe/sup 2 +/ produced was rapidly reoxidized by molecular oxygen. Neither cytochrome c nor ferricyanide, both of which are electron acceptors for other sulfite oxidases, served as an electron acceptor for the sulfite oxidase of T. ferrooxidans. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by chelating agents for Fe/sup 3 +/. The physiological role of sulfite oxidase in sulfur oxidation of T. ferrooxidans is discussed.

  15. Mercury displacement detection for the determination of picogram amounts of sulfite ion or sulfur dioxide by atomic spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, G.; Midgley, D.

    1981-10-01

    An analytical method has been developed that can determine picogram amounts of sulfite in aqueous solution or sulfur dioxide in solution. The technique is based on the reaction of sulfite ion in solution with mercury(I) ion to promote its disproportionation to metallic mercury and mercury(II) ions. By monitoring the Hg/sup 0/ released it is possible to determine the concentration of sulfite added. The method gives a linear calibration over the range tested (0 to 5 ng of sulfite) and the within-batch cefficients of variation for the determination of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 ng of sulfite are 4, 3, 2.5, and 1.8%, respectively. Fifteen analyses can be carried out each hour. The limit of detection is 30 pg of sulfite, which is several orders of magnitude lower than can be obtained by other manual methods of sulfite determination. The method is very selective. Sulfate ion does not interfere, which is especially important in the determination of atmospheric sulfur dioxide.

  16. Survey of sulfites in wine and various Turkish food and food products intended for export, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Ulca, P; Öztürk, Y; Senyuva, H Z

    2011-01-01

    Surveys were carried out between 2007 and 2010 to determine the total levels of sulfites in 1245 samples of wines, dried apricots, dried vegetables, nuts, juices and purees, frozen foods and cereals containing dried fruit supplied by food inspectors and by food producers for testing or for export certification. Sulfite analysis of wine was carried out using the Ripper method with an LOQ of 5 mg l(-1) and for dried and other foods the Monier-Williams distillation procedure was employed with an LOQ of 10 mg kg(-1). In the survey all wines contained measurable sulfites, but with the exception of one sample of white wine they were otherwise below Turkish Food Codex limits of 160 mg kg(-1) for red wine, 210 mg kg(-1) to white wine and 235 mg kg(-1) for sparkling wine. None of the cereal products, frozen foods, juices or purees contained sulfites above 10 mg kg(-1). However, all dried apricot samples contained significant levels of sulfite with around 40% having levels exceeding the Turkish limit of 2000 mg kg(-1). Significant levels of sulfite were found in other samples of dried fruit with even a fruit and nut bar containing 1395 mg kg(-1) of sulfite, suggesting the dried fruit ingredients contained levels above regulatory limits. PMID:24786011

  17. Value-Added Products From FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vivak M. Malhotra

    2006-09-30

    Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber materials are produced every year in the USA. In fact, at present, the production of wet sulfite-rich scrubber cake outstrips the production of wet sulfate-rich scrubber cake by about 6 million tons per year. However, most of the utilization focus has centered on FGD gypsum. Therefore, we have recently initiated research on developing new strategies for the economical, but environmentally-sound, utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber material. In this exploratory project (Phase I), we attempted to ascertain whether it is feasible to develop reconstituted wood replacement products from sulfite-rich scrubber material. In pursuit of this goal, we characterized two different wet sulfite-rich scrubber materials, obtained from two power plants burning Midwestern coal, for their suitability for the development of value-added products. The overall strategy adopted was to fabricate composites where the largest ingredient was scrubber material with additional crop materials as additives. Our results suggested that it may be feasible to develop composites with flexural strength as high as 40 MPa (5800 psi) without the addition of external polymers. We also attempted to develop load-bearing composites from scrubber material, natural fibers, and phenolic polymer. The polymer-to-solid ratio was limited to {le} 0.4. The formulated composites showed flexural strengths as high as 73 MPa (10,585 psi). We plan to harness the research outcomes from Phase I to develop parameters required to upscale our value-added products in Phase II.

  18. Isolation of Assimilatory- and Dissimilatory-Type Sulfite Reductases from Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Po; LeGall, Jean; Peck, Harry D.

    1973-01-01

    Bisulfite reductase (desulfoviridin) and an assimilatory sulfite reductase have been purified from extracts of Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The bisulfite reductase has absorption maxima at 628, 580, 408, 390, and 279 nm, and a molecular weight of 226,000 by sedimentation equilibrium, and was judged to be free of other proteins by disk electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. On gels, purified bisulfite reductase exhibited two green bands which coincided with activity and protein. The enzyme appears to be a tetramer but was shown to have two different types of subunits having molecular weights of 42,000 and 50,000. The chromophore did not form an alkaline ferrohemochromogen, was not reduced with dithionite or borohydride, and did not form a spectrally visible complex with CO. The assimilatory sulfite reductase has absorption maxima at 590, 545, 405 and 275 nm and a molecular weight of 26,800, and appears to consist of a single polypeptide chain as it is not dissociated into subunits by sodium dodecyl sulfate. By disk electrophoresis, purified sulfite reductase exhibited a single greenish-brown band which coincided with activity and protein. The sole product of the reduction was sulfide, and the chromophore was reduced by borohydride in the presence of sulfite. Carbon monoxide reacted with the reduced chromophore but it did not form a typical pyridine ferrohemochromogen. Thiosulfate, trithionate, and tetrathionate were not reduced by either enzyme preparation. In the presence of 8 M urea, the spectrum of bisulfite reductase resembles that of the sulfite reductase, thus suggesting a chemical relationship between the two chromophores. Images PMID:4725615

  19. Development of an amperometric sulfite biosensor based on SO(x)/PBNPs/PPY modified ITO electrode.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Rachna; Pundir, C S

    2012-11-01

    A sulfite oxidase (SO(x)) (EC 1.8.3.1) purified from Syzygium cumini leaves was immobilized onto prussian blue nanoparticles/polypyrrole composite (PBNPs/PPY) electrodeposited onto the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. An amperometric sulfite biosensor was fabricated using SO(x)/PBNPs/PPY/ITO electrode as working electrode, Ag/AgCl as standard and Pt wire as auxiliary electrode connected through a potentiostat. The working electrode was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) before and after immobilization of SO(x). The biosensor showed optimum response within 2s, when operated at 20 mV s⁻¹ in 0.1M Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.5 and at 35 °C. Linear range and minimum detection limit were 0.5-1000 μM and 0.12 μM (S/N=3) respectively. There was good correlation (r=0.99) between red wine samples sulfite value by standard DTNB method and the present method. The sensor was evaluated with 97% recovery of added sulfite in red wine samples and 2.2% and 4.3% within and between batch coefficients of variation respectively. The sensor was employed for determination of sulfite level in red and white wine samples. The enzyme electrode was used 200 times over a period of 3 months when stored at 4 °C. PMID:22705572

  20. Intramuscular Cobinamide Sulfite in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Mahon, Sari B.; Lee, Jangwoen; Kreuter, Kelly A.; Blackledge, William; Mukai, David; Patterson, Steve; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of an intramuscular cobinamide sulfite injection to rapidly reverse the physiologic effects of cyanide toxicity. Background Exposure to cyanide in fires and industrial exposures and intentional cyanide poisoning by terrorists leading to mass casualties is an ongoing threat. Current treatments for cyanide poisoning must be administered intravenously, and no rapid treatment methods are available for mass casualty cyanide exposures. Cobinamide is a cobalamin (vitamin B12) analog with an extraordinarily high affinity for cyanide that is more water-soluble than cobalamin. We investigated the use of intramuscular cobinamide sulfite to reverse cyanide toxicity induced physiologic changes in a sublethal cyanide exposure animal model. Methods New Zealand white rabbits were given 10 mg sodium cyanide intravenously over 60 minutes. Quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy monitoring of tissue oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were performed concurrently with blood cyanide level measurements and cobinamide levels. Immediately after completion of the cyanide infusion, the rabbits were injected intramuscularly with cobinamide sulfite (n=6) or inactive vehicle (controls, n=5). Results Intramuscular administration led to rapid mobilization of cobinamide and was extremely effective at reversing the physiologic effects of cyanide on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin extraction. Recovery time to 63% of their baseline values in the central nervous system was in a mean of 1032 minutes in the control group and 9 minutes in the cobinamide group with a difference of 1023 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 116, 1874 minutes). In muscle tissue, recovery times were 76 and 24 minutes with a difference of 52 minutes (95% CI 7, 98min). Red blood cell cyanide levels returned towards normal significantly faster in cobinamide sulfite-treated animals than in control animals. Conclusions Intramuscular

  1. The roles of polycarboxylates in Cr(VI)/sulfite reaction system: Involvement of reactive oxygen species and intramolecular electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Wang, Xianli; Liu, Yukun; Wang, Zhaohui; Zheng, Jingtang; Wu, Mingbo

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effects of polycarboxylates on both Cr(VI) reduction and S(IV) consumption in Cr(VI)/S(IV) system was investigated in acidic solution. Under aerobic condition, the productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), i.e., SO4(-) and OH, have been confirmed in S(IV) reducing Cr(VI) process by using electron spin resonance and fluorescence spectrum techniques, leading to the excess consumption of S(IV). However, when polycarboxylates (oxalic, citric, malic and tartaric acid) were present in Cr(VI)/S(IV) system, the affinity of polycarboxylates to CrSO6(2-) can greatly promote the reduction of Cr(VI) via expanding the coordination of Cr(VI) species from tetrahedron to hexahedron. Besides, as alternatives to S(IV), these polycarboxylates can also act as electron donors for Cr(VI) reduction via intramolecular electron transfer reaction, which is dependent on the energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital of these polycarboxylates. Notably, the variant electron donating capacity of these polycarboxylates resulted in different yield of ROS and therefore the oxidation efficiencies of other pollutants, e.g., rhodamine B and As(III). Generally, this study does not only shed light on the mechanism of S(IV) reducing Cr(VI) process mediated by polycarboxylates, but also provides an escalated, cost-effective and green strategy for the remediation of Cr(VI) using sulfite as a reductant. PMID:26610099

  2. Rapid flow injection method for the determination of sulfite in wine using the permanganate-luminol luminescence system.

    PubMed

    Navarrro, Mercedes Villar; Payán, María Ramos; López, Miguel Angel Bello; Fernández-Torres, Rut; Mochón, Manuel Callejón

    2010-10-15

    A simple, rapid and sensitive chemiluminescence method for the determination of sulfite has been developed by combining flow-injection analysis and its sensitizing effect on the known chemiluminescence emission produced by the oxidation of luminol in alkaline medium; in this work permanganate has been proposed as oxidizing reactive. The optimum conditions for the chemiluminescence emission were established. The chemiluminescence was proportional to the sulfite concentration over the range 1.6 × 10(-5) and 4.0 × 10(-4)mol L(-1). The detection limit was 4.7 × 10(-6)mol L(-1) of sulfite. The method has been satisfactorily used for the determination of free and bound sulfite in wines. PMID:20875609

  3. Spectrophotometric study and potentiometric titration between sulfite and nitrite ions using acetaldehyde complex of nitroprusside as a carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Y.Z.; Abd-Elmottalb, M.

    1985-11-01

    A complex between sodium nitroprusside (NP) and acetaldehyde of 1:1 in aqueous solution of pH 10 has been prepared and used as an analytical reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of sulfite and nitrite ions. Nitrite ion can be titrated against sulfite ion and vise versa in equivalent amounts with high accuracy in the presence of the acetaldehyde complex of nitroprusside as a carrier using a potentiometric titration technique. 9 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Combined effects of sulfites, temperature, and agitation time on production of glycerol in grape juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, N; Rodrigue, N; Champagne, C P

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the simultaneous effects of strain, incubation temperature (15 to 25 degrees C), agitation time (0 to 24 h), and initial sulfite concentration (100 to 300 ppm) on glycerol production in grape juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fourteen strains were studied to determine their growth patterns in the presence of sulfites and ethanol. Baker's yeast strains were more sensitive to sulfite than wine strains, and little growth occurred at initial sulfite levels greater than 150 ppm. Sensitivity to sulfite increased with increasing levels of ethanol. Three strains exhibiting the best growth in the presence of sulfites and ethanol were selected for interaction studies. Fermentations were carried out until the solids content had decreased to less than 6 degrees Brix, which was the point that glycerol content became stable. For the three strains used, the greatest level of glycerol production was observed in the presence of 300 ppm of sulfite for most incubation temperatures and agitation times. There was significant interaction between the strain, incubation temperature, and agitation time parameters for glycerol synthesis, and a response surface method was used to predict the optimal conditions for glycerol production. Under static conditions, the highest level of glycerol production was observed at 20 degrees C, while incubation at 25 degrees C gave the best results when the cultures were agitated for 24 h. Response surface equations were used to predict that the optimum conditions for glycerol production by S. cerevisiae Y11 were a temperature of 22 degrees C, an initial sulfite concentration of 300 ppm, and no agitation, which yielded 0.68 g of glycerol per 100 ml. PMID:8357243

  5. Combined effects of sulfites, temperature, and agitation time on production of glycerol in grape juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gardner, N; Rodrigue, N; Champagne, C P

    1993-07-01

    Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the simultaneous effects of strain, incubation temperature (15 to 25 degrees C), agitation time (0 to 24 h), and initial sulfite concentration (100 to 300 ppm) on glycerol production in grape juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fourteen strains were studied to determine their growth patterns in the presence of sulfites and ethanol. Baker's yeast strains were more sensitive to sulfite than wine strains, and little growth occurred at initial sulfite levels greater than 150 ppm. Sensitivity to sulfite increased with increasing levels of ethanol. Three strains exhibiting the best growth in the presence of sulfites and ethanol were selected for interaction studies. Fermentations were carried out until the solids content had decreased to less than 6 degrees Brix, which was the point that glycerol content became stable. For the three strains used, the greatest level of glycerol production was observed in the presence of 300 ppm of sulfite for most incubation temperatures and agitation times. There was significant interaction between the strain, incubation temperature, and agitation time parameters for glycerol synthesis, and a response surface method was used to predict the optimal conditions for glycerol production. Under static conditions, the highest level of glycerol production was observed at 20 degrees C, while incubation at 25 degrees C gave the best results when the cultures were agitated for 24 h. Response surface equations were used to predict that the optimum conditions for glycerol production by S. cerevisiae Y11 were a temperature of 22 degrees C, an initial sulfite concentration of 300 ppm, and no agitation, which yielded 0.68 g of glycerol per 100 ml. PMID:8357243

  6. Enumeration of fecal Clostridium perfringens spores in egg yolk-free tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, A H; Hilsheimer, R; Griffith, D W

    1974-03-01

    The Shahidi-Ferguson perfringens, tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine (TSC), and egg yolk-free TSC agars have been tested for their suitability to enumerate fecal spores of Clostridium perfringens. When these spores comprised at least 20% of the total anaerobe spores, equally accurate counts were obtained in the three media. With lower ratios of C. perfringens spores, the most accurate counts were obtained in egg yolk-free TSC agar. The median C. perfringens spore count of 60 normal fecal specimens was log 3.4/g. A nonmotile, sulfite- and nitrate-reducing Clostridium, not identifiable with any known clostridial species, was isolated from 14 out of 60 fecal specimans. It was not differentiated from C. perfringens in the nitrite motility test, but could be distinguished by its inability to liquefy gelatin. PMID:4363369

  7. Enumeration of Fecal Clostridium perfringens Spores in Egg Yolk-Free Tryptose-Sulfite-Cycloserine Agar

    PubMed Central

    Hauschild, A. H. W.; Hilsheimer, R.; Griffith, D. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Shahidi-Ferguson perfringens, tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine (TSC), and egg yolk-free TSC agars have been tested for their suitability to enumerate fecal spores of Clostridium perfringens. When these spores comprised at least 20% of the total anaerobe spores, equally accurate counts were obtained in the three media. With lower ratios of C. perfringens spores, the most accurate counts were obtained in egg yolk-free TSC agar. The median C. perfringens spore count of 60 normal fecal specimens was log 3.4/g. A nonmotile, sulfite- and nitrate-reducing Clostridium, not identifiable with any known clostridial species, was isolated from 14 out of 60 fecal specimans. It was not differentiated from C. perfringens in the nitrite motility test, but could be distinguished by its inability to liquefy gelatin. PMID:4363369

  8. Multicomponent Convection Induced by Fronts in the Chlorate-Sulfite Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, Istvan P.; Pojman, John A.

    1993-01-01

    An application of a new method is presented for the measurement of the temperature profiles of chemical waves propagating through a solution. Using solutions of thermocolor materials, the temperature distribution caused by the heat released in the propagating chlorate oxidation of sulfite was visualized and recorded using digital image processing methods. After calibration, the temperature gradient was calculated from the gray scale value in a digitized image. Extensive multicomponent convection ('fingering') was induced by descending fronts. Only ascending fingers were observed because of the large thermal gradient that suppressed descending ones. The characteristics of the temperature profile were determined as a function of initial sulfite and chlorate concentration, and tube diameter. Unusual behavior was observed when the fronts propagated under conditions of continuously changing diameter in a conical vessel. Fingering occurred periodically in a front descending in a flask with an increasing diameter. However, when a front propagated down in flask whose diameter decreased, no multicomponent convection was observed.

  9. Mechanism of the electro-oxidation of sulfite catalyzed by copper ion

    SciTech Connect

    Katagiri, A.; Arai, H.; Takehara, Z.

    1995-09-01

    The oxidation of sulfite in aqueous solution is an important reaction in some industrial processes such as metal refining and flue gas desulfurization. Electro-oxidation of sulfite to dithionate, which is catalyzed by copper ion, has been studied by potential step chronoamperometry and potentiometry. The following mechanism has been proposed: Cu{sup I}(SO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 5{minus}} is oxidized to Cu{sup II}(SO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 4{minus}}, and the latter dimerizes to Cu{sub 2}{sup II}(SO{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 8{minus}}, which then decomposes to S{sub 2}O{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}} and Cu{sup I}(SO{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup 3{minus}} in the rate-determining step. Formation constants of sulfito-copper(I) and -copper(II) complexes have been reported.

  10. Pattern formation in the thiourea-iodate-sulfite system: Spatial bistability, waves, and stationary patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Judit; Szalai, István; De Kepper, Patrick

    2010-06-01

    We present a detailed study of the reaction-diffusion patterns observed in the thiourea-iodate-sulfite (TuIS) reaction, operated in open one-side-fed reactors. Besides spatial bistability and spatio-temporal oscillatory dynamics, this proton autoactivated reaction shows stationary patterns, as a result of two back-to-back Turing bifurcations, in the presence of a low-mobility proton binding agent (sodium polyacrylate). This is the third aqueous solution system to produce stationary patterns and the second to do this through a Turing bifurcation. The stationary pattern forming capacities of the reaction are explored through a systematic design method, which is applicable to other bistable and oscillatory reactions. The spatio-temporal dynamics of this reaction is compared with that of the previous ferrocyanide-iodate-sulfite mixed Landolt system.

  11. Effects of inhaled acids on lung biochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Last, J.A.

    1989-02-01

    Effects of respirable aerosols of sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate, sodium sulfite, and ammonium persulfate on lungs of rats are reviewed. The literature regarding interactions between ozone or nitrogen dioxide and acidic aerosols (ammonium sulfate, sulfuric acid) is discussed. An unexpected interaction between nitrogen dioxide and sodium chloride aerosol is also discussed. An attempt is made to identify bases for prediction of how and when acid aerosols might potentiate effects of inhaled gases.

  12. Effective Electrochemistry of Human Sulfite Oxidase Immobilized on Quantum-Dots-Modified Indium Tin Oxide Electrode.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ting; Leimkühler, Silke; Koetz, Joachim; Wollenberger, Ulla

    2015-09-30

    The bioelectrocatalytic sulfite oxidation by human sulfite oxidase (hSO) on indium tin oxide (ITO) is reported, which is facilitated by functionalizing of the electrode surface with polyethylenimine (PEI)-entrapped CdS nanoparticles and enzyme. hSO was assembled onto the electrode with a high surface loading of electroactive enzyme. In the presence of sulfite but without additional mediators, a high bioelectrocatalytic current was generated. Reference experiments with only PEI showed direct electron transfer and catalytic activity of hSO, but these were less pronounced. The application of the polyelectrolyte-entrapped quantum dots (QDs) on ITO electrodes provides a compatible surface for enzyme binding with promotion of electron transfer. Variations of the buffer solution conditions, e.g., ionic strength, pH, viscosity, and the effect of oxygen, were studied in order to understand intramolecular and heterogeneous electron transfer from hSO to the electrode. The results are consistent with a model derived for the enzyme by using flash photolysis in solution and spectroelectrochemistry and molecular dynamic simulations of hSO on monolayer-modified gold electrodes. Moreover, for the first time a photoelectrochemical electrode involving immobilized hSO is demonstrated where photoexcitation of the CdS/hSO-modified electrode lead to an enhanced generation of bioelectrocatalytic currents upon sulfite addition. Oxidation starts already at the redox potential of the electron transfer domain of hSO and is greatly increased by application of a small overpotential to the CdS/hSO-modified ITO. PMID:26357959

  13. Phylogenetic and environmental diversity of DsrAB-type dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductases

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Albert Leopold; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Rattei, Thomas; Pester, Michael; Loy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The energy metabolism of essential microbial guilds in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle is based on a DsrAB-type dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase that either catalyzes the reduction of sulfite to sulfide during anaerobic respiration of sulfate, sulfite and organosulfonates, or acts in reverse during sulfur oxidation. Common use of dsrAB as a functional marker showed that dsrAB richness in many environments is dominated by novel sequence variants and collectively represents an extensive, largely uncharted sequence assemblage. Here, we established a comprehensive, manually curated dsrAB/DsrAB database and used it to categorize the known dsrAB diversity, reanalyze the evolutionary history of dsrAB and evaluate the coverage of published dsrAB-targeted primers. Based on a DsrAB consensus phylogeny, we introduce an operational classification system for environmental dsrAB sequences that integrates established taxonomic groups with operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at multiple phylogenetic levels, ranging from DsrAB enzyme families that reflect reductive or oxidative DsrAB types of bacterial or archaeal origin, superclusters, uncultured family-level lineages to species-level OTUs. Environmental dsrAB sequences constituted at least 13 stable family-level lineages without any cultivated representatives, suggesting that major taxa of sulfite/sulfate-reducing microorganisms have not yet been identified. Three of these uncultured lineages occur mainly in marine environments, while specific habitat preferences are not evident for members of the other 10 uncultured lineages. In summary, our publically available dsrAB/DsrAB database, the phylogenetic framework, the multilevel classification system and a set of recommended primers provide a necessary foundation for large-scale dsrAB ecology studies with next-generation sequencing methods. PMID:25343514

  14. Comparison of a new, bismuth-iron-sulfite-cycloserine agar for isolation of Clostridium perfringens with the tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine and blood agars.

    PubMed

    Gubash, S M; Ingham, L

    1997-02-01

    A new differential and selective, bismuth-iron-sulfite-cycloserine (BISC) medium, for isolation and enumeration of Clostridium perfringens from food and feces, was developed. The medium was compared with the widely-used tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine (TSC) medium and blood agar (BA) in recovering actively growing cells, cold- (refrigerated and frozen) stressed, and heat-stressed C. perfringens cells, and heat-activated spores from human feces. Both selective media were satisfactory in recovering actively growing cells and heat-activated spores of C. perfringens. Both were inferior to non-inhibitory blood agar in recovering heat or cold-stressed cells. The advantages of the new BISC medium over the TSC medium were: elimination of the need to prepare pour- or overlay-agar plates, which simplified inoculation of specimens on the medium and simplified the subcultures of colonies for confirmatory identification. All colonies of C. perfringens developed on BISC were black or dark gray. This was contrary to TSC medium, which gave, on average, 39.6% of white colonies when inoculated with the pure cultures of C. perfringens. PMID:9084113

  15. Influence of the enzyme dissimilatory sulfite reductase on stable isotope fractionation during sulfate reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangalo, Muna; Einsiedl, Florian; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Stichler, Willibald

    2008-03-01

    The stable isotopes of sulfate are often used as a tool to assess bacterial sulfate reduction on the macro scale. However, the mechanisms of stable isotope fractionation of sulfur and oxygen at the enzymatic level are not yet fully understood. In batch experiments with water enriched in 18O we investigated the effect of different nitrite concentrations on sulfur isotope fractionation by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. With increasing nitrite concentrations, we found sulfur isotope enrichment factors ranging from -11.2 ± 1.8‰ to -22.5 ± 3.2‰. Furthermore, the δ18O values in the remaining sulfate increased from approximately 50-120‰ when 18O-enriched water was supplied. Since 18O-exchange with ambient water does not take place in sulfate, but rather in intermediates of the sulfate reduction pathway (e.g. SO32-), we suggest that nitrite affects the steady-state concentration and the extent of reoxidation of the metabolic intermediate sulfite to sulfate during sulfate reduction. Given that nitrite is known to inhibit the production of the enzyme dissimilatory sulfite reductase, our results suggest that the activity of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase regulates the kinetic isotope fractionation of sulfur and oxygen during bacterial sulfate reduction. Our novel results also imply that isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction strongly depends on the cell internal enzymatic regulation rather than on the physico-chemical features of the individual enzymes.

  16. Ethanol production from spent sulfite liquor fortified by hydrolysis of pulp mill primary clarifier sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Moritz, J.W.; Duff, S.J.B.

    1996-12-31

    Some low-yield sulfite pulping operations ferment spent sulfite liquor (SSL) to remove biochemical oxygen demand associated with dissolved sugars while at the same time generating ethanol as a salable product. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of primary clarifier sludge in a medium of SSL was proposed as a means of reducing the amount of sludge to be disposed of while at the same time increasing ethanol productivity. In this article, the option of fortifying existing SSL fermenting processes with the sugars produced via in situ enzymatic hydrolysis of sulfite primary clarifier sludge (PCS) has been explored. In 100% SSL PCS hydrolysis rates as high as 3.4 g/(L{center_dot}h) were observed at an initial enzyme loading of 10 filter paper units (FPU)/g PCS. To reduce the deleterious effects of glucose inhibition, single-stage SSF was carried out using cellulose enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The production rate of ethanol in SSL was increased by as much as 25% through the SSF process. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Chemical and physical properties of high-yield alkaline sulfite green liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Sell, N.J.; Norman, J.C. . Natural and Applied Sciences)

    1993-11-01

    The majority of sodium sulfite pulping liquor recovery systems are based on the reductive burning of the spent liquor, followed by acidification of the resulting smelt solution by CO[sub 2]. This study investigated a number of the physical and chemical properties of the resulting green liquor which might be relevant to the optimum design of this type of sulfite and carbonate recovery system for an alkaline sulfite high-yield process. CO[sub 2] gas does generate H[sub 2]S when bubbled through green liquor; however, a large amount of solid soon is formed. Continuing the flow leads to increased amounts of H[sub 2]S, but the ratio of H[sub 2]S to CO[sub 2] remains less than 1.0. Solutions more highly concentrated in Na[sub 2]S absorb relatively more CO[sub 2], regardless of the ratios of H[sub 2]S to CO[sub 2] in the initial gas stream. The percentage of H[sub 2]S released increases with increasing Na[sub 2]S concentration. Stripping the green liquor with inert gas, steam, or vacuum does not improve the H[sub 2]S removal efficiency. The maximum CO[sub 2] pressure can be generated by decomposing pure 6 M NaHCO[sub 3]. If the starting material is a bicarbonate/carbonate mixture, conversion is incomplete and a portion of the NaHCO[sub 3] forms a dead load.

  18. Techno-economic evaluation of conditioning with sodium sulfite for bioethanol production from softwood.

    PubMed

    Cavka, Adnan; Martín, Carlos; Alriksson, Björn; Mörtsell, Marlene; Jönsson, Leif J

    2015-11-01

    Conditioning with reducing agents allows alleviation of inhibition of biocatalytic processes by toxic by-products generated during biomass pretreatment, without necessitating the introduction of a separate process step. In this work, conditioning of steam-pretreated spruce with sodium sulfite made it possible to lower the yeast and enzyme dosages in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to 1g/L and 5FPU/g WIS, respectively. Techno-economic evaluation indicates that the cost of sodium sulfite can be offset by benefits resulting from a reduction of either the yeast load by 0.68g/L or the enzyme load by 1FPU/g WIS. As those thresholds were surpassed, inclusion of conditioning can be justified. Another potential benefit results from shortening the SSF time, which would allow reducing the bioreactor volume and result in capital savings. Sodium sulfite conditioning emerges as an opportunity to lower the financial uncertainty and compensate the overall investment risk for commercializing a softwood-to-ethanol process. PMID:26232771

  19. Usefulness of ytterbium(III) as analytical reagent for total sulfite determination in white wine samples.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Rafael Carlos; Aguilar-Caballos, Maria Paz; Gómez-Hens, Agustina

    2004-12-29

    Ytterbium(III) is used as reagent for the determination of sulfite by measuring the formation of the Yb(III)-sulfite complex through the variation of the light scattering intensity with time. The low solubility of this complex causes an efficient dispersion of the radiation at 490 nm, which is measured at 980 nm. Each kinetic datum is automatically obtained in only 0.5 s by stopped-flow mixing technique. The application of the initial rate method using a long emission wavelength minimizes the potential interference of fluorescent background signals from the sample matrix. The dynamic range of the calibration graph is 1-250 microg/mL, and the calculated detection limit is 0.35 microg/mL. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, is <6%. The method has been applied to the determination of total sulfites in white wine samples, which requires only the sample dilution and the use of two aliquots to improve selectivity. However, the matrix effect found for red wines precludes the application of the method to the direct analysis of these samples. Analytical recoveries ranged from 96.0 to 106.7%. The results obtained with the proposed method agreed with those provided by the p-rosaniline method. Unlike this method, in which toxic reagents are required, the use of ytterbium(III) as analytical reagent shows the advantage of its low acute toxic rating. PMID:15612754

  20. [Determination of total sulfite in wine by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) with fluorescence detection].

    PubMed

    Wei, F; Chen, M S; Yu, L; Chang, L; Li, D M

    1999-11-01

    A highly sensitive fluorometric method for the determination of total sulfite in wine is reported. The strong fluorescent derivatives formed by the quantitative reaction of sulfite in wine and N-(9-acridinyl) maleimide(NAM) in aqueous solution under mild conditions was injected into the HPLC. Separation was performed on an ODS column(200 mm x 5 mm) with a mobile phase of V(CH3CN):V(0.1 mo/L NH4AC) = 25:75 at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detected by fluorometry at 455 nm(excitation at 365 nm). There was a good linear calibration curve in the range from 0.25-4 mg/L(r = 0.9998), The limit of detection was 1 ng. Sulfite mass concentration in wine has been determined by this method with good results and recoveries. This method is simple, rapid and reliable, and a sample size of only 1 mL is required to complete an analysis. PMID:12552699

  1. FEASIBILITY OF PRODUCING ELEMENTAL SULFUR FROM MAGNESIUM SULFITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to extend potential applications of MgO flue gas desulfurization processes by allowing the sulfur to be recovered as elemental sulfur as well as sulfuric acid. The study considered the feasibility of combining the exothermic SO2 reduction react...

  2. Determination of total sulfite in shrimp, potatoes, dried pineapple, and white wine by flow injection analysis: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J J; Hollingworth, T A; Wekell, M M; Meo, V A; Saba, H H; Etemad-Moghadam, A; Eklund, C; Phillips, J G; Gump, B H

    1990-01-01

    A method for the determination of total sulfite in shrimp, potatoes, dried pineapple, and white wine by flow injection analysis (FIA) was collaboratively studied by 8 laboratories. In the method, the sample solution is reacted with sodium hydroxide to liberate aldehyde-bound sulfite. The sample stream is acidified to produce SO2 gas, which diffuses across a Teflon membrane in the gas diffusion cell into a flowing stream of malachite green. The degree of discoloration of the malachite green is proportional to the amount of sulfite in the sample solution. Red wine was included in the study but interlaboratory precision for these samples was not satisfactory and correlation with Monier-Williams results was poor. The present method is not recommended for use with these samples. For shrimp, potatoes, dried pineapple, and white wine, average reproducibility (RSDR) of results was 25% for samples at 10 ppm SO2 and 10% for samples at greater than 50 ppm. Overall average reproducibility was 14%. Recoveries of sulfite added to samples averaged 80%. Comparison of FIA with the Monier-Williams method indicated comparable results by the 2 methods. The FIA method has been adopted official first action for determination of greater than or equal to 5 ppm total sulfite in shrimp, potatoes, dried pineapple, and white wine. PMID:2312511

  3. Effects of the methyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent on phenolic and miscanthus composites containing calcium sulfite scrubber material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sean

    The purpose of this research is to test the effects of methyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent on composite material containing calcium sulfite obtained from the Southern Illinois Power Co-operative. This scrubber material and the miscanthus plant are of interest due to their use in coal burning power plants to reduce toxic emission. When calcium sulfate is passed through coal fire gas emissions it absorbs mercury and sulfur. In these composites it is used as filler to reduce cost. Miscanthus is a source of both cellulose reinforcement and some natural resin. This plant has low care requirements, little mineral content, useful energy return, and positive environmental effects. Under investigation is whether a post-cure procedure or a silane coupling agent will positively impact the composite. Hot pressing alone may not be enough to fully cure the phenolic. It is hoped that the silane will increase the strength characteristics of the composite by enhancing adhesion between the calcium sulfite and phenolic resin. Possible effects on the miscanthus by the silane will also be tested. Phenolic is being utilized because of its recycling and biodegradable properties along with cost effectiveness in mass production. Composite mechanical performance was measured through 3-point bending to measure flexural strength and strain at breakage. A dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) was used to find thermomechanical properties. The post-cure was found to be effective, particularly on the final composite containing silane. When methyltrimethoxysilane was added to the miscanthus prior to fabrication, it was found to reduce flexural strength and density. However the addition of methyltrimethoxysilane to the calcium sulfite altered thermo-mechanical properties to a state more like pure phenolic, with added flexibility and thermal stability.

  4. Multicopy Fzf1 (Sul1) Suppresses the Sulfite Sensitivity but Not the Glucose Derepression or Aberrant Cell Morphology of a Grr1 Mutant of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Avram, D.; Bakalinsky, A. T.

    1996-01-01

    An ssu2 mutation in Sacccharomyces cerevisiae, previously shown to cause sulfite sensitivity, was found to be allelic to GRR1, a gene previously implicated in glucose repression. The suppressor rgt1, which suppresses the growth defects of grr1 strains on glucose, did not fully suppress the sensitivity on glucose or nonglucose carbon sources, indicating that it is not strictly linked to a defect in glucose metabolism. Because the Cln1 protein was previously shown to be elevated in grr1 mutants, the effect of CLN1 overexpression on sulfite sensitivity was investigated. Overexpression in GRR1 cells resulted in sulfite sensitivity, suggesting a connection between CLN1 and sulfite metabolism. Multicopy FZF1, a putative transcription factor, was found to suppress the sulfite sensitive phenotype of grr1 strains, but not the glucose derepression or aberrant cell morphology. Multicopy FZF1 was also found to suppress the sensitivity of a number of other unrelated sulfite-sensitive mutants, but not that of ssu1 or met20, implying that FZF1 may act through Ssu1p and Met20p. Disruption of FZF1 resulted in sulfite sensitivity when the construct was introduced in single copy at the FZF1 locus in a GRR1 strain, providing evidence that FZF1 is involved in sulfite metabolism. PMID:8889516

  5. Ethylene sulfite as electrolyte additive for lithium-ion cells with graphitic anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wrodnigg, G.H.; Besenhard, J.O.; Winter, M.

    1999-02-01

    A liquid organic electrolyte system for lithium-ion cells with graphitic anodes containing the solvents ethylene sulfite (ES) and propylene carbonate (PC) has been studied. Even in additive amounts (5 vol %) ES is suppressing cointercalation of PC into graphite. The PC-ES electrolytes are characterized by a high oxidation stability allowing the cycling of a LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode with good reversibility. Moreover, the good low temperature performance compared to ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate electrolytes may favor PC-ES electrolytes for special applications.

  6. Determination and application of the equilibrium oxygen isotope effect between water and sulfite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wankel, Scott D.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Eldridge, Daniel L.; Johnston, David T.

    2014-01-01

    The information encoded by the two stable isotope systems in sulfate (δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4) has been widely applied to aid reconstructions of both modern and ancient environments. Interpretation of δ18OSO4 records has been complicated by rapid oxygen isotope equilibration between sulfoxyanions and water. Specifically, the apparent relationship that develops between δ18OSO4 and δ18Owater during microbial sulfate reduction is thought to result from rapid oxygen isotope equilibrium between intracellular water and aqueous sulfite - a reactive intermediate of the sulfate reduction network that can back-react to produce sulfate. Here, we describe the oxygen equilibrium isotope effect between water and sulfite (referring to all the sum of all S(IV)-oxyanions including sulfite and both isomers and the dimer of bisulfite). Based on experiments conducted over a range of pH (4.5-9.8) and temperature (2-95 °C), where ε = 1000 * (α - 1), we find εSO3-H2O=13.61-0.299∗pH-0.081∗T °C. Thus, at a pH (7.0) and temperature (25 °C) typifying commonly used experimental conditions for sulfate reducing bacterial cultures, sulfite is enriched in 18O by 9.5‰ (±0.8‰) relative to ambient water. We examine the implication of these results in a sulfate reduction network that has been revised to reflect our understanding of the reactions involving oxygen. By evaluating previously published data within this new architecture, our results are consistent with previous suggestions of high reversibility of the sulfate reduction biochemical network. We also demonstrate that intracellular exchange rates between SO32- and water must be on average 1-3 orders of magnitude more rapid than intracellular fluxes of sulfate reduction intermediates and that kinetic isotope effects upstream of SO32- are required to explain previous laboratory and environmental studies of δ18OSO4 resulting as a consequence of sulfate reduction.

  7. Modified Active Site Coordination in a Clinical Mutant of Sulfite Oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Doonan, C.J.; Wilson, H.L.; Rajagopalan, K.V.; Garrett, R.M.; Bennett, B.; Prince, R.C.; George, G.N.

    2009-06-02

    The molybdenum site of the Arginine 160 {yields} Glutamine clinical mutant of the physiologically vital enzyme sulfite oxidase has been investigated by a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. We conclude that the mutant enzyme has a six-coordinate pseudo-octahedral active site with coordination of Glutamine O{sup {epsilon}} to molybdenum. This contrasts with the wild-type enzyme which is five-coordinate with approximately square-based pyramidal geometry. This difference in the structure of the molybdenum site explains many of the properties of the mutant enzyme which have previously been reported.

  8. Kinetic and mechanistic study of reaction between sulfide and sulfite in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, T.; Jia, C.Q.

    1999-10-01

    The reaction between sulfide and sulfite in neutral to weak alkaline aqueous solutions was studied by following thiosulfate and sulfite concentrations using ion chromatography. The thiosulfate formation rate from the reaction 2HS{sup {minus}} + 4HSO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} {yields} 3S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} + 3H{sub 2}O at pH 8 to 9 was found to be d[S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}]/dt = k{sub A}[HS{sup {minus}}][HSO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}]{sup 2}, where k{sub A} = 1.1 x 10{sup 12} exp({minus}48000/RT) M{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. A mechanism for this reaction has been proposed with disulfite (S{sub 2}O{sub 5}{sup 2{minus}}) and HSO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} intermediates. The measured rate of sulfite disappearance was higher than that calculated from the stoichiometry of the above reaction. This phenomenon is attributed to other reactions, that consume sulfite and form other sulfur compounds such as polythionates, polysulfides, and elemental sulfur. These reactions were treated as a single reaction, whose rate was found to be ({minus}d[HSO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}]/dt){sub B} = k{sub B}[H{sup +}]{sup {minus}0.6}[HS{sup {minus}}]{sup 0.7}[HSO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}]{sup 1.5}, where k{sub B} = 5 x 10{sup {minus}5} M{sup {minus}0.6} s{sup {minus}1} at 20 C. A kinetic model was established on the basis of the kinetic data obtained in this and a previous work. The experimental data at pH 7 agreed with the model prediction in a satisfactory manner. The biphasic behavior of thiosulfate is considered to be critical in developing a new sulfur-producing flue gas desulfurization (SP-FGD) process based on sulfur dioxide absorption using sodium sulfide solution.

  9. High-level expression of Escherichia coli NADPH-sulfite reductase: requirement for a cloned cysG plasmid to overcome limiting siroheme cofactor.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J Y; Siegel, L M; Kredich, N M

    1991-01-01

    The flavoprotein and hemoprotein components of Escherichia coli B NADPH-sulfite reductase are encoded by cysJ and cysI, respectively. Plasmids containing these two genes overexpressed flavoprotein catalytic activity and apohemoprotein by 13- to 35-fold, but NADPH-sulfite reductase holoenzyme activity was increased only 3-fold. Maximum overexpression of holoenzyme activity was achieved by the inclusion in such plasmids of Salmonella typhimurium cysG, which encodes a uroporphyrinogen III methyltransferase required for the synthesis of siroheme, a cofactor for the hemoprotein. Thus, cofactor deficiency, in this case siroheme, can limit overexpression of a cloned enzyme. Catalytically active holoenzyme accounted for 10% of total soluble protein in a host containing cloned cysJ, cysI, and cysG. A 5.3-kb DNA fragment containing S. typhimurium cysG was sequenced, and the open reading frame corresponding to cysG was identified by subcloning and by identifying plasmid-encoded peptides in maxicells. Comparison with the sequence reported for the E. coli cysG region (J. A. Cole, unpublished data; GenBank sequence ECONIRBC) indicates a gene order of nirB-nirC-cysG in the cloned S. typhimurium fragment. In addition, two open reading frames of unknown identity were found immediately downstream of cysG. One of these contains 11 direct repeats of 33 nucleotides each, which correspond to the consensus amino acid sequence Asp-Asp-Val-Thr-Pro-Pro-Asp-Asp-Ser-Gly-Asp. Images PMID:1987123

  10. Quaternary liquid/liquid equilibria of sodium sulfate, sodium sulfite and water with two solvents: Acetone and 2-propanol

    SciTech Connect

    Schiozer, A.L.

    1994-03-01

    Aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium sulfite are produced from sodium carbonate in flue-gas scrubbers; recovery of these salts often requires multi-effect evaporators; however, a new energy-efficient unit operation called extractive crystallization has been shown to have reduced energy costs. In this process, an organic solvent is added to the aqueous salt solution to precipitate salt. Acetone is a suitable solvent for this process, better than 2-propanol. Liquid/liquid/solid equilibria for ternary systems containing a salt, water, and an organic solvent were measured. Systems investigated were sodium sulfite/water/acetone and sodium sulfite/water/2-propanol. Experiments were conducted at salt saturation covering a temperature range between the lower consolute temperature and 48.6{degrees}C. In the attempt to improve the extractive crystallization process for recovery of sodium sulfate from flue-gas scrubbers, attention was given to a feed containing a mixture of sodium sulfite and sodium sulfate. Liquid-liquid equilibria for quaternary systems containing two salts, water, and an organic solvent were experimentally determined at 35{degrees}C. The systems investigated were sodium sulfate/sodium sulfite/water/acetone and sodium sulfate/sodium sulfite/water/2propanol. The systems were studied at three salt ratios. For each salt ratio, experiments were conducted starting at saturation, water was then added until the one-phase region was reached. Mixtures of the two salts proved to have a small disadvantage relative to the 100 % sulfate feed process. Therefore, a sulfate-based extractive crystallization process is recommended.

  11. DNA-based biosensor for comparative study of catalytic effect of transition metals on autoxidation of sulfite.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Heydari-Bafrooei, Esmaeil; Rezaei, Behzad

    2013-01-15

    The transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of sulfur(IV) oxides has been known for more than 100 years. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no electrochemical quantitative study has yet been carried out to determine its nature. In view of the transition metal catalyzed oxidation of sulfur(IV) oxides, a series of radicals are involved in the overall reaction process whereby the sulfite, in the presence of transition metals, may cause damages to DNA through the generation of these highly reactive species. In the present work, {MWCNTs-PDDA/DNA}(2) layer-by-layer (LBL) films were prepared to detect DNA damage induced by radicals generated from sulfite autoxidation using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The change in the peak potential separation (ΔE(p)) and charge transfer resistance (R(p)) after incubation of the DNA biosensor in the damaging solution for a certain time was used as indicators of DNA damage. It was found that sulfite in the presence of Co(II), Cu(II), Cr(VI), Fe(III), and Mn(II) caused damage to DNA while neither sulfite alone nor metal ions alone did have the same effect. The results suggest that sulfite is rapidly autoxidized in the presence of Co(II), Cu(II), Cr(VI), Fe(III), and Mn(II), producing radicals that cause the DNA damage. These radicals can be ranked in a descending order of their ability to induce DNA damage with sulfite as follows: Fe(III) > Co(II) > Cu(II) > Cr(VI) > Mn(II). The DNA damage induced by sulfite plus Co(II), Cr(VI), and Fe(III) was inhibited by primary alcohols, but they were not when superoxide dismutase (SOD) and tert-butyl alcohol were used. Comparison of methods used to determine the minimum concentration of a transition metal for sulfite induced DNA damage revealed that electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry outperformed the quantitative comparison of different reagents. PMID:23244055

  12. Detection of sewage organic chlorination products that are resistant to dechlorination with sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    MacCrehan, W.A.; Jensen, J.S.; Helz, G.R.

    1998-11-15

    Most of the 36 billion gal of treated sewage wastewater discharged daily into the environment in the United States is disinfected via chlorination. To minimize toxicity. dechlorination with sulfite or sulfur dioxide is often performed. Although dechlorination is considered instantaneous and complete, several studies have found residual toxicity of chlorinated/dechlorinated effluent to aquatic life. The authors investigated chlorination/dechlorination of the organic nitrogen components of sewage wastewater using both iodometric titration and a novel LC method. For LC, a postcolumn reaction with iodide rendered submicromolar chloramine concentrations detectable with amperometry. Using a gradient-elution LC separation, the retention and dechlorination behavior of a suite of model amines was determined, representing primary and secondary aliphatic, peptide, and protein-N. Chlorination/dechlorination experiments on freshly collected, tertiary-treated wastewater showed a fraction of the organic N-chloramines are dechlorinated slowly by sulfite with half-lives of >20 min. Chromatographic retention and kinetic behavior of the sewage N-chloramines was consistent with the behavior of the model peptides and proteins. Proteolytic hydrolysis markedly increased the peptide fraction observed upon chlorination of the wastewater. These results suggest that peptides and proteins contribute to slow dechlorination of sewage and may be a factor in the toxicity noted for chlorine-disinfected wastewater.

  13. Rapidly responsive and highly selective fluorescent probe for sulfite detection in real samples and living cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongda

    2015-10-15

    Sulfites (HSO3(-) or SO3(-)) have very significant toxicity in the environment and in the system. However, developing specific identification of sulfite probes is still very important. In this paper, a highly selective colorimetric and fluorescent probe (HHC) was synthesized to detect HSO3(-) in real samples and living cells. Sensing performance and preponderance are listed as follows. First, probe HHC showed remarkable selectivity for HSO3(-) over varieties of other species, including cysteine, glutathione, S(2-), CN(-), and reactive oxygen species, mainly because of the introduction of the electron-poor C=C double bond for HSO3(-). Second, probe HHC has great molar absorptivity, allowing it to act as a visual detection of probe for HSO3(-). Third, the fluorescence intensities of HHC linearly correlate with the concentration of HSO3(-), with a detection limit of 6.8 nm. Finally, our proposed probe can be applied to the visually determination of trace HSO3(-) in real samples and living HeLa cells with high precision. We hope that our proposed probe will greatly benefit biological sciences when biological researchers survey the role of HSO3(-) in biological systems. PMID:26515011

  14. Redox states of Desulfovibrio vulgaris DsrC, a key protein in dissimilatory sulfite reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Venceslau, Sofia S.; Cort, John R.; Baker, Erin S.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Robinson, Errol W.; Dahl, Christiane; Saraiva, Lígia M.; Pereira, Inês A.C.

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •DsrC is known to interact with the dissimilatory sulfite reductase enzyme (DsrAB). •We show that, however, most cellular DsrC is not associated with DsrAB. •A gel-shift assay was developed that allows monitoring of the DsrC redox state. •The DsrC intramolecularly oxidized state could only be produced by arginine treatment. -- Abstract: Dissimilatory reduction of sulfite is carried out by the siroheme enzyme DsrAB, with the involvement of the protein DsrC, which has two conserved redox-active cysteines. DsrC was initially believed to be a third subunit of DsrAB. Here, we report a study of the distribution of DsrC in cell extracts to show that, in the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris, the majority of DsrC is not associated with DsrAB and is thus free to interact with other proteins. In addition, we developed a cysteine-labelling gel-shift assay to monitor the DsrC redox state and behaviour, and procedures to produce the different redox forms. The oxidized state of DsrC with an intramolecular disulfide bond, which is proposed to be a key metabolic intermediate, could be successfully produced for the first time by treatment with arginine.

  15. A novel sulfite alternative scavenger and benefits for the use of traced oxygen scavengers

    SciTech Connect

    Batton, C.B.; Riede, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Dissolved oxygen in boiler systems is known to cause corrosion. Mechanical deaeration removes the majority of the dissolved oxygen while oxygen scavengers remove the remaining trace level. Sodium sulfate is a commonly used scavenger, but has several use limitations, such as high solids contribution to boiler water and decomposition products that are corrosive gases which can cause downstream equipment problems. A novel sulfite replacement oxygen scavenger has been developed which addresses the limitations of sulfite. Identification and demonstrated performance of the new scavenger is presented using both research and field data. In addition to oxygen scavenger performance, the success of a boiler water treatment program is dependent upon the correct dosage added to the feedwater. Plant managers and operators often struggle with indirect or inaccurate methods to determine what is occurring within their system. An oxygen scavenger product containing a proprietary fluorescent tracer has been developed. This technology for boilers provides a breakthrough in measurement capability for monitoring the dynamics of a boiler system. These two oxygen scavenger developments represent the result of maintaining desirable performance characteristics and significantly improving current technology. Laboratory and field data supporting these results are presented.

  16. A manganese sulfite with extended metal-oxygen-metal bonds exhibiting hydrogen uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K. Prabhakara; Govindaraj, A.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2007-12-15

    A manganese sulfite of the formula Mn{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}(SO{sub 3}){sub 3}.2H{sub 2}O, I{l_brace}a=7.5759(7) A, b=8.4749(8) A, c=10.852(1) A, {beta}=100.732(2){sup o}, Z=2, space group=P2{sub 1}/m (no. 11), R{sub 1}=0.0399 and wR{sub 2}=0.1121 [for R indexes I>2{sigma}(I)]{r_brace}, comprising Mn{sub 3}O{sub 14} units and extended Mn-O-Mn bonds along the three dimensions has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. It has narrow channels along the b-axis and exhibits hydrogen storage of 2.1 wt% at 300 K and 134 bar. - Graphical abstract: A three-dimensional manganese sulfite with one-dimensional channels showing selective hydrogen absorption has been synthesized and characterized.

  17. Phylogeny of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductases Supports an Early Origin of Sulfate Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Michael; Roger, Andrew J.; Flax, Jodi L.; Brusseau, Gregory A.; Stahl, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Microorganisms that use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration play a central role in the global sulfur cycle. Here, we report the results of comparative sequence analysis of dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes from closely and distantly related sulfate-reducing organisms to infer the evolutionary history of DSR. A 1.9-kb DNA region encoding most of the α and β subunits of DSR could be recovered only from organisms capable of dissimilatory sulfate reduction with a PCR primer set targeting highly conserved regions in these genes. All DNA sequences obtained were highly similar to one another (49 to 89% identity), and their inferred evolutionary relationships were nearly identical to those inferred on the basis of 16S rRNA. We conclude that the high similarity of bacterial and archaeal DSRs reflects their common origin from a conserved DSR. This ancestral DSR was either present before the split between the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eucarya or laterally transferred between Bacteria and Archaea soon after domain divergence. Thus, if the physiological role of the DSR was constant over time, then early ancestors of Bacteria and Archaea already possessed a key enzyme of sulfate and sulfite respiration. PMID:9603890

  18. Divergence of the Yeast Transcription Factor FZF1 Affects Sulfite Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Engle, Elizabeth K.; Fay, Justin C.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in gene expression are commonly observed during evolution. However, the phenotypic consequences of expression divergence are frequently unknown and difficult to measure. Transcriptional regulators provide a mechanism by which phenotypic divergence can occur through multiple, coordinated changes in gene expression during development or in response to environmental changes. Yet, some changes in transcriptional regulators may be constrained by their pleiotropic effects on gene expression. Here, we use a genome-wide screen for promoters that are likely to have diverged in function and identify a yeast transcription factor, FZF1, that has evolved substantial differences in its ability to confer resistance to sulfites. Chimeric alleles from four Saccharomyces species show that divergence in FZF1 activity is due to changes in both its coding and upstream noncoding sequence. Between the two closest species, noncoding changes affect the expression of FZF1, whereas coding changes affect the expression of SSU1, a sulfite efflux pump activated by FZF1. Both coding and noncoding changes also affect the expression of many other genes. Our results show how divergence in the coding and promoter region of a transcription factor alters the response to an environmental stress. PMID:22719269

  19. Two alleles of the sulfite resistance genes are differentially regulated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Noriyuki; Nakagawa, Youji; Hayakawa, Masayuki; Iimura, Yuzuru

    2005-08-01

    The sulfite resistance gene, SSU1-R, is widely distributed in wine yeasts. This gene has an upstream region distinct from that of the allelic gene, SSU1 and SSU1-R is expressed at a much higher level than SSU1. We characterized the promoters of both of these genes by analysis of their activity using the LacZ gene as a reporter. FZF1, the activator gene of SSU1, was shown to regulate SSU1-R expression indirectly. SSU1-R expression was activated under microaerobic conditions, and four 76-bp repeats, present within the SSU1-R promoter region, was essential for high expression. These results indicate that SSU1-R expression is regulated in different manner from that of SSU1. By deletion analysis of the SSU1-R promoter region, we found that at least two of the 76-bp repeats are necessary for promoter activity, and that the number of 76-bp repeats influences the activity. Hence, it was suggested that the number of 76-bp repeats increases in wine yeasts that require strong sulfite resistance. PMID:16116289

  20. Concentration of simple aldehydes by sulfite-containing double-layer hydroxide minerals: implications for biopoesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitsch, S.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Arrhenius, G.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Environmental conditions play an important role in conceptual studies of prebiotically relevant chemical reactions that could have led to functional biomolecules. The necessary source compounds are likely to have been present in dilute solution, raising the question of how to achieve selective concentration and to reach activation. With the assumption of an initial 'RNA World', the questions of production, concentration, and interaction of aldehydes and aldehyde phosphates, potential precursors of sugar phosphates, come into the foreground. As a possible concentration process for simple, uncharged aldehydes, we investigated their adduct formation with sulfite ion bound in the interlayer of positively charged expanding-sheet-structure double-layer hydroxide minerals. Minerals of this type, initially with chloride as interlayer counter anion, have previously been shown to induce concentration and subsequent aldolization of aldehyde phosphates to form tetrose, pentose, and hexose phosphates. The reversible uptake of the simple aldehydes formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, and glyceraldehyde by adduct formation with the immobilized sulfite ions is characterized by equilibrium constants of K=1.5, 9, and 11, respectively. This translates into an observable uptake at concentrations exceeding 50 mM.

  1. Oxidation of ammonium sulfite by a multi-needle-to-plate gas phase pulsed corona discharge reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hua; Lu, Na; Shang, Kefeng; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2013-03-01

    The oxidation of ammonium sulfite in the ammonia-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process was investigated in a multi-needle-to-plate gas phase pulsed corona discharge reactor in this paper. The effect of several parameters, including capacitance and peak pulse voltage of discharge system, electrode gap and bubbling gas flow rate on the oxidation rate of ammonium sulfite was reviewed. The oxidation rate of ammonium sulfite could reach 47.2% at the capacitance, the peak pulse voltage, electrode gap and bubbling gas flow rate equal to 2 nF, -24.6 k V, 35 mm and 4 L min-1 within treatment time of 40 min The experimental results indicate that the gas phase pulsed discharge system with a multi-needle-to-plate electrode can oxide the ammonium sulfite. The oxidation rate increased with the applied capacitance and peak pulse voltage and decreased with the electrode gap. As the bubbling gas flow rate increased, the oxidation rate increased first and then tended to reach a stationary value. These results would be important for the process optimization of the (NH4)2SO3 to (NH4)2SO4 oxidation.

  2. Kinetic and structural studies reveal a unique binding mode of sulfite to the nickel center in urease.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, Luca; Cianci, Michele; Benini, Stefano; Bertini, Leonardo; Musiani, Francesco; Ciurli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Urease is the most efficient enzyme known to date, and catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea using two Ni(II) ions in the active site. Urease is a virulence factor in several human pathogens, while causing severe environmental and agronomic problems. Sporosarcina pasteurii urease has been used extensively in the structural characterization of the enzyme. Sodium sulfite has been widely used as a preservative in urease solutions to prevent oxygen-induced oxidation, but its role as an inhibitor has also been suggested. In the present study, isothermal titration microcalorimetry was used to establish sulfite as a competitive inhibitor for S. pasteurii urease, with an inhibition constant of 0.19mM at pH7. The structure of the urease-sulfite complex, determined at 1.65Å resolution, shows the inhibitor bound to the dinuclear Ni(II) center of urease in a tridentate mode involving bonds between the two Ni(II) ions in the active site and all three oxygen atoms of the inhibitor, supporting the observed competitive inhibition kinetics. This coordination mode of sulfite has never been observed, either in proteins or in small molecule complexes, and could inspire synthetic coordination chemists as well as biochemists to develop urease inhibitors based on this chemical moiety. PMID:26580226

  3. Determination of free and reversibly-bound sulfite in selected foods by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stephen Wai Cheung; Chan, Benny T P; Chan, Andy C M

    2008-01-01

    A rapid and accurate method for measuring low part-per-million levels of free and reversibly-bound sulfites in selected foods by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorometric detection was developed. Sulfites were extracted with sodium tetrachloromercurate solution and determined by HPLC-fluorescence spectrometry. During the HPLC analysis, the sample extract was reacted with sodium hydroxide to liberate the reversibly-bound sulfite and subsequently separated from other interferences by a size exclusion column. The effluent was then reacted with o-phthalaldehydelammonium chloride reagent to form a fluorescing 1-sulfonatoisoindole derivative and analyzed by a fluorescence detector. The method has been applied to a variety of foods and food products, with no significant interference encountered in matrixes such as soy products, cabbage, broccoli, brassica, ginger, fungus, mushroom, mandarin peel, potato chips, and biscuits. It was shown to have a broad linear range of 0.01 to 0.4 mg/L as SO2. The spike recoveries of sodium sulfite, sodium metabisulfite, and formaldehyde-sodium bisulfite adduct at the 5 to 10 mg/kg level in the tested food matrix were within 80-120%, and the limit of detection was 5 mg/kg. Laboratory of Government Chemist Reference Material LGC7111 (potato powder) was used to assess the accuracy of the method. The expanded measurement uncertainty of the method at 95% confidence level was estimated to be 17%. PMID:18376591

  4. Genotypic variation in sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) III. Characterization of sulfite reductase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic and cDNA sequences corresponding to a ferredoxin-sulfite reductase (SiR) have been cloned from bulb onion (Allium cepa L.) and the expression of the gene and activity of the enzyme characterised with respect to sulfur (S) supply. Cloning, mapping and expression studies revealed that onion ha...

  5. Sulfur X-Ray Absorption And Vibrational Spectroscopic Study of Sulfur Dioxide, Sulfite, And Sulfonate Solutions And of the Substituted Sulfonate Ions X(3)CSO(3-)(X = H, Cl, F)

    SciTech Connect

    Risberg, E.Damian; Eriksson, L.; Mink, J.; Pettersson, L.G.M.; Skripkin, M.Yu.; Sandstrom, M.

    2009-06-02

    Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra have been recorded and the S(1s) electron excitations evaluated by means of density functional theory-transition potential (DFT-TP) calculations to provide insight into the coordination, bonding, and electronic structure. The XANES spectra for the various species in sulfur dioxide and aqueous sodium sulfite solutions show considerable differences at different pH values in the environmentally important sulfite(IV) system. In strongly acidic (pH < {approx}1) aqueous sulfite solution the XANES spectra confirm that the hydrated sulfur dioxide molecule, SO{sub 2}(aq), dominates. The theoretical spectra are consistent with an OSO angle of {approx}119{sup o} in gas phase and acetonitrile solution, while in aqueous solution hydrogen bonding reduces the angle to {approx}116{sup o}. The hydration affects the XANES spectra also for the sulfite ion, SO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. At intermediate pH (4) the two coordination isomers, the sulfonate (HSO{sub 3{sup -}}) and hydrogen sulfite (SO{sub 3}H{sup -}) ions with the hydrogen atom coordinated to sulfur and oxygen, respectively, could be distinguished with the ratio HSO{sub 3{sup -}}:SO{sub 3}H{sup -} about 0.28:0.72 at 298 K. The relative amount of HSO{sub 3{sup -}} increased with increasing temperature in the investigated range from 275 to 343 K. XANES spectra of sulfonate, methanesulfonate, trichloromethanesulfonate, and trifluoromethanesulfonate compounds, all with closely similar S-O bond distances in tetrahedral configuration around the sulfur atom, were interpreted by DFT-TP computations. The energy of their main electronic transition from the sulfur K-shell is about 2478 eV. The additional absorption features are similar when a hydrogen atom or an electron-donating methyl group is bonded to the -SO{sub 3} group. Significant changes occur for the electronegative trichloromethyl (Cl{sub 3}C-) and trifluoromethyl (F{sub 3}C-) groups, which strongly affect the

  6. Fed-batch cultivation of the marine bacterium Sulfitobacter pontiacus using immobilized substrate and purification of sulfite oxidase by application of membrane adsorber technology.

    PubMed

    Muffler, Kai; Ulber, Roland

    2008-03-01

    Sulfitobacter pontiacus, a gram-negative heterotrophic bacterium isolated from the Black Sea is well known to produce a soluble AMP-independent sulfite oxidase (sulfite: acceptor oxidoreductase) of high activity. Such an enzyme can be of great help in establishing biosensor systems for detection of sulfite in food and beverages considering the high sensitivity of biosensors and the increasing demand for such biosensor devices. For obtaining efficient amounts of the enzyme, an induction of its biosynthesis by supplementing sufficient concentrations of sodium sulfite to the fermentation broth is required. Owing to the fact that a high initial concentration of sodium sulfite decreases dramatically the enzyme expression, different fed-batch strategies can be applied to circumvent such inhibition or repression of the enzyme respectively. By the use of sulfite species immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol gels, an approach to the controlled and continuous feeding of sulfite to the cultivation media could be established to diminish inhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, the purification of the enzyme is described by using membrane adsorber technology. PMID:17705251

  7. Simple flow injection for determination of sulfite by amperometric detection using glassy carbon electrode modified with carbon nanotubes-PDDA-gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Amatatongchai, Maliwan; Sroysee, Wongduan; Chairam, Sanoe; Nacapricha, Duangjai

    2015-02-01

    A new approach is presented for sensitive and selective measurement of sulfite (SO3(2-)) in beverages based on a simple flow injection system with amperometric detection. In this work, the sulfite sensor was a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes-poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-gold nanoparticles composites (CNTs-PDDA-AuNPs/GC). Electrochemical oxidation of sulfite with this electrode was first studied in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) using cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that the CNTs-PDDA-AuNPs/GC electrode possesses electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of sulfite with high sensitivity and selectivity. Sulfite was quantified using amperometric measurement with the new sensor at +0.4V vs Ag/AgCl in conjunction with flow injection. The linear working range for the quantitation of sulfite was 2-200 mg L(-1) (r(2)=0.998) with a detection limit of 0.03 mg L(-1) (3σ of blank) and an estimated precision of 1.5%.The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfite in fruit juices and wines with a sample throughput of 23 samples per hour. PMID:25435239

  8. Determination of free sulfite in wine by zone electrophoresis with isotachophoresis sample pretreatment on a column-coupling chip.

    PubMed

    Masár, Marián; Danková, Mariana; Olvecká, Eva; Stachurová, Adela; Kaniansky, Dusan; Stanislawski, Bernd

    2004-02-13

    This work deals with the determination of free sulfite in wine by zone electrophoresis (ZE) with on-line isotachophoresis (ITP) sample pretreatment on a column-coupling (CC) chip with conductivity detection. A rapid pre-column conversion of sulfite to hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS), to minimize oxidation losses of the analyte, was included into the developed analytical procedure, while ITP and ZE were responsible for specific analytical tasks in the separations performed on the CC chip. ITP, for example, eliminated the sample matrix from the separation compartment and, at the same time, provided a selective concentration of HMS before its transfer to the ZE stage of the separation. On the other hand, ZE served as a final separation (destacking) method and it was used under the separating conditions favoring a sensitive conductivity detection of HMS. In this way, ITP and ZE cooperatively contributed to a 900 microg/l concentration detectability for sulfite as attained for a 60 nl load of wine (a 15-fold wine dilution and the use of a 0.9 microl sample injection channel of the chip) and, consequently, to the determination of free sulfite when this was present in wine at the concentrations as low as 3 mg/l. The separations were carried out in a closed separation compartment of the chip with suppressed hydrodynamic and electroosmotic flows. Such transport conditions, minimizing fluctuations of the migration velocities of the separated constituents, made a frame for precise migration and quantitation data as achieved for HMS in both the model and wine samples. Ninety percent recoveries, as typically obtained for free sulfite in wine samples, indicate promising potentialities of the present method as far as the accuracies of the provided analytical results are concerned. PMID:14763730

  9. Comparative Study of SPORL and Dilute Acid Pretreatments of Spruce for Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The performance of two pretreatment methods, Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome Recalcitrance of Lignocellulose (SPORL) and Dilute Acid (DA), was compared in pretreating softwood (spruce) for fuel ethanol production under the same conditions of temperature (180°C), time (30 min), sulfuric acid loading...

  10. Treatment of the Bleaching Effluent from Sulfite Pulp Production by Ceramic Membrane Filtration

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Busse, Nadine; Kerker, Steffen; Schmitz, Oliver; Hilpert, Markus; Czermak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution. This study tested the suitability of ceramic tubular membrane technology as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment in the pulp and paper industry. In this context, in series batch and semi-batch membrane processes comprising microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, ceramic membranes were developed to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and remove residual lignin from the effluent flow during sulfite pulp production. A comparison of the ceramic membranes in terms of separation efficiency and performance revealed that the two-stage process configuration with microfiltration followed by ultrafiltration was most suitable for the efficient treatment of the alkaline bleaching effluent tested herein, reducing the COD concentration and residual lignin levels by more than 35% and 70%, respectively. PMID:26729180

  11. Redox states of Desulfovibrio vulgaris DsrC, a key protein in dissimilatory sulfite reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Venceslau, Sofia S.; Cort, John R.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Chu, Rosalie K.; Robinson, Errol W.; Dahl, Christiane; Saraiva, Ligia M.; Pereira, Ines Ac

    2013-11-29

    Dissimilatory reduction of sulfite is carried out by the siroheme enzyme DsrAB, with the involvement of the protein DsrC having two conserved cysteine residues. Here, we report a study of the distribution of DsrC in cell extracts, a cysteine-labelling gel-shift assay to monitor its redox state and behaviour, and procedures to produce the different redox forms. We show that, in the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris, the majority of DsrC is not associated with DsrAB and is thus free to interact with other proteins. In addition, we successfully produced DsrC with an intramolecular disulfide bond (oxidized state) by treatment with arginine.

  12. Treatment of the Bleaching Effluent from Sulfite Pulp Production by Ceramic Membrane Filtration.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Busse, Nadine; Kerker, Steffen; Schmitz, Oliver; Hilpert, Markus; Czermak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution. This study tested the suitability of ceramic tubular membrane technology as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment in the pulp and paper industry. In this context, in series batch and semi-batch membrane processes comprising microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, ceramic membranes were developed to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and remove residual lignin from the effluent flow during sulfite pulp production. A comparison of the ceramic membranes in terms of separation efficiency and performance revealed that the two-stage process configuration with microfiltration followed by ultrafiltration was most suitable for the efficient treatment of the alkaline bleaching effluent tested herein, reducing the COD concentration and residual lignin levels by more than 35% and 70%, respectively. PMID:26729180

  13. Single-cell protein production from spent sulfite liquor utilizing cell-recycle and computer monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, D.; Mohagheghi, A.; Cooney, C.L.; Wang, D.I.C.

    1981-01-01

    To reduce the BOD of spent sulfite liquor before disposal, torula yeast (Candida utilis) is produced by a continuous culture process, the productivity of which is limited by sugar concentration and cell growth rate. To increase productivity, a recycle system has been designed and tested. Cells were sedimented continuously with a flocculating agent (bentonite) before being recycled to the fermentor. A bentonite concentration of 0.02 g/g cell was required. A computer monitoring system based on material balancing techniques was developed to monitor and control the recycle system. With this computer system, productivity was raised to 6.1 g/L-h, with cell concentrations of less than or equal to 65 g/L in the recycle stream and 24 g/L in the fermentor. This represents a productivity increase of 150% over continuous culture with no recycle.

  14. Peroxisomal localization of sulfite oxidase separates it from chloroplast-based sulfur assimilation.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Katharina; Luniak, Nora; Witt, Christina; Wüstefeld, Yvonne; Wachter, Andreas; Mendel, Ralf R; Hänsch, Robert

    2004-12-01

    Recently, we isolated the sulfite oxidase (SO) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana and characterized the purified SO protein. The purpose of the present study was to determine the subcellular localization of this novel plant enzyme. Immunogold electron-microscopic analysis showed the gold labels nearly exclusively in the peroxisomes. To verify this finding, green fluorescent protein was fused to full-length plant SO including the putative peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (PTS1) 'SNL' and expressed in tobacco leaves. Our results showed a punctate fluorescence pattern resembling that of peroxisomes. Co-labelling with MitoTracker-Red excluded that the observed fluorescence was due to mitochondrial sorting. By investigation of deleted or mutated PTS1, no functional peroxisomal targeting signal 2 (PTS2) could be detected in plant SO. This conclusion is supported by expression studies in Pichia pastoris mutants with defined defects either in PTS1- or PTS2-mediated peroxisomal import. PMID:15653809

  15. Mimic of superoxide dismutase activity protects Chlorella sorokiniana against the toxicity of sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitch, H.D.; Rosen, G.M.; Fridovich, I.

    1989-01-01

    The spin-trapping agent 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) has been used to demonstrate the light-dependent production of O/sub 2/- by Chlorella sorokiniana. In the presence of SO/sub 3/= a light-dependent production of the sulfur trioxy anion radical (SO/sub 3/-.) could also be seen. A complex prepared by reacting desferrioxamine with MnO/sub 2/, which catalyzes the dismutation of O/sub 2/-, protected the alga against the toxicity of sulfite. The data suggest that SO/sub 2/ toxicity is at least partially due to the effects of sulfoxy-free radicals generated by the oxidation of SO3= by O/sub 2/-.

  16. Sulfite Oxidase Catalyzes Single-Electron Transfer at Molybdenum Domain to Reduce Nitrite to Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Krizowski, Sabina; Fischer-Schrader, Katrin; Niks, Dimitri; Tejero, Jesús; Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Wang, Ling; Ragireddy, Venkata; Frizzell, Sheila; Kelley, Eric E.; Zhang, Yingze; Basu, Partha; Hille, Russ

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Recent studies suggest that the molybdenum enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and mARC exhibit nitrite reductase activity at low oxygen pressures. However, inhibition studies of xanthine oxidase in humans have failed to block nitrite-dependent changes in blood flow, leading to continued exploration for other candidate nitrite reductases. Another physiologically important molybdenum enzyme—sulfite oxidase (SO)—has not been extensively studied. Results: Using gas-phase nitric oxide (NO) detection and physiological concentrations of nitrite, SO functions as nitrite reductase in the presence of a one-electron donor, exhibiting redox coupling of substrate oxidation and nitrite reduction to form NO. With sulfite, the physiological substrate, SO only facilitates one turnover of nitrite reduction. Studies with recombinant heme and molybdenum domains of SO indicate that nitrite reduction occurs at the molybdenum center via coupled oxidation of Mo(IV) to Mo(V). Reaction rates of nitrite to NO decreased in the presence of a functional heme domain, mediated by steric and redox effects of this domain. Using knockdown of all molybdopterin enzymes and SO in fibroblasts isolated from patients with genetic deficiencies of molybdenum cofactor and SO, respectively, SO was found to significantly contribute to hypoxic nitrite signaling as demonstrated by activation of the canonical NO-sGC-cGMP pathway. Innovation: Nitrite binds to and is reduced at the molybdenum site of mammalian SO, which may be allosterically regulated by heme and molybdenum domain interactions, and contributes to the mammalian nitrate-nitrite-NO signaling pathway in human fibroblasts. Conclusion: SO is a putative mammalian nitrite reductase, catalyzing nitrite reduction at the Mo(IV) center. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 283–294. PMID:25314640

  17. CoFe2O4 nanoparticles as oxidase mimic-mediated chemiluminescence of aqueous luminol for sulfite in white wines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodan; He, Shaohui; Chen, Zhaohui; Huang, Yuming

    2013-01-30

    Recently, the intrinsic enzyme-like activity of nanoparticles (NPs) has become a growing area of interest. However, the analytical applications of the NP-based enzyme mimetic are mainly concentrated on their peroxidase-like activity; no attempts have been made to investigate the analytical applications based on the oxidase mimic activities of NPs. For the first time, we report that CoFe(2)O(4) NPs were found to possess intrinsic oxidase-like activity and could catalyze luminol oxidation by dissolved oxygen to produce intensified chemiluminescence (CL). The effect of sulfite on CoFe(2)O(4) NP oxidase mimic-mediated CL of aqueous luminol was investigated. It is very interesting that when adding sulfite to the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) system, the role of sulfite in the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP-sulfite system depends on its concentration. At a relatively low concentration level, sulfite presents an inhibition effect on the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP system. However, it does have an enhancement effect at a higher concentration level. Investigations on the effect of the solution pH and luminol and CoFe(2)O(4) NP concentrations on the kinetic characteristics of the studied CL system in the presence of trace sulfite suggested that the enhancement and inhibition of the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP-sulfite CL system also depended on the solution pH. It seems that the concentrations of luminol and CoFe(2)O(4) NPs did not influence the CL pathway. The possible mechanism of the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP-sulfite CL system was also discussed. On this basis, a flow injection chemiluminescence method was established for the determination of trace sulfite in this study. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed system could respond down to 2.0 × 10(-8) M sulfite. The method has been applied to the determination of trace sulfite in white wine samples with satisfactory results. The results given by the proposed method are in good agreement with those given by the standard titration method. PMID

  18. Isotope effects associated with the anaerobic oxidation of sulfite and thiosulfate by the photosynthetic bacterium, Chromatium vinosum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, B.; Gest, H.; Hayes, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The purple photosynthetic bacterium Chromatium vinosum, strain D, catalyzes several oxidations of reduced sulfur compounds under anaerobic conditions in the light: e.g., sulfide --> sulfur --> sulfate, sulfite --> sulfate, and thiosulfate --> sulfur + sulfate. Here it is shown that no sulfur isotope effect is associated with the last of these processes; isotopic compositions of the sulfur and sulfate produced can differ, however, if the sulfane and sulfonate positions within the thiosulfate have different isotopic compositions. In the second process, an observed change from an inverse to a normal isotope effect during oxidation of sulfite may indicate the operation of 2 enzymatic pathways. In contrast to heterotrophic anaerobic reduction of oxidized sulfur compounds, anaerobic oxidations of inorganic sulfur compounds by photosynthetic bacteria are characterized by relatively small isotope effects.

  19. Antioxidative Mechanisms of Sulfite and Protein-Derived Thiols during Early Stages of Metal Induced Oxidative Reactions in Beer.

    PubMed

    Lund, Marianne N; Krämer, Anna C; Andersen, Mogens L

    2015-09-23

    The radical-mediated reactions occurring during the early stages of beer storage were studied by following the rate of oxygen consumption, radical formation as detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, and concentrations of the antioxidant compounds sulfite and thiols. Addition of either Fe(III) or Fe(II) had similar effects, indicating that a fast redox equilibrium is obtained between the two species in beer. Addition of iron in combination with hydrogen peroxide gave the most pronounced levels of oxidation due to a direct initiation of ethanol oxidation through generation of hydroxyl radicals by the Fenton reaction. The concentration of sulfite decreased more than the thiol concentration, suggesting that thiols play a secondary role as antioxidants by mainly quenching 1-hydroxyethyl radicals that are intermediates in the oxidation of ethanol. Increasing the temperature had a minor effect on the rate of oxygen consumption. PMID:26325117

  20. Effects of Increasing Concentrations of Sodium Sulfite on Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Sulfonate Concentrations of Maize Kernels and Maize Meal Preserved at Various Moisture Content

    PubMed Central

    Paulick, Marleen; Rempe, Inga; Kersten, Susanne; Schatzmayr, Dian; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Under moderate climatic conditions, deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination occurs frequently on cereals. Detoxification measures are required to avoid adverse effects on farm animals. In the present study, a wet preservation method with sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) and propionic acid was tested to titrate the optimum Na2SO3-dose for maximum DON reduction of contaminated maize kernels and meal and to examine the interaction between dose and moisture content in dependence on the preservation duration. The DON concentration decreased with increasing amounts of supplemented Na2SO3 and with increasing duration of the preservation period in a bi-exponential fashion. Additionally, the feed structure and moisture content had a significant influence on the decontaminating effect. Variants with 30% moisture content favored higher DON reduction rates compared to 14% moisture, but especially at low moisture contents, DON reduction was more pronounced in maize kernels than in maize meal. In addition to the decrease of DON, a concomitant formation of three different DON sulfonates was observed which differed in their formation pattern over the time course of preservation. The overall results and statistical analysis clarified that Na2SO3 addition of 10 g/kg maize at 30% moisture for eight days was necessary to obtain a complete DON reduction. PMID:25760079

  1. Reduction of the aqueous mercuric ion by sulfite: UV spectrum of HgSO{sub 3} and its intramolecular redox reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Van Loon, L.; Mader, E.; Scott, S.L.

    2000-03-02

    Aqueous hydrogen sulfite reacts with Hg{sup 2+} to form, in the absence of excess HSO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, the HgSO{sub 3} complex, observed here for the first time. Its UV spectrum is described by {epsilon}(234 nm) = (1.57 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup 4} M{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1}. HgSO{sub 3} decomposes in an intramolecular redox reaction which is kinetically first-order. The rate constant is independent of [Hg{sup 2+}], [HSO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}], [O{sub 2(aq)}], and ionic strength. An acid-assisted pathway becomes significant at pH {le} 1, attributed to the contribution of HgSO{sub 3}H{sup +}. The rate of the intramolecular reaction of HgSO{sub 3} was measured by trapping the Hg{sup 0} product as Hg{sub 2}{sup 2+}; the value of the rate constant is k{sub 0} = (0.0106 {+-} 0.0009) s{sup {minus}1} at 25.0 C, pH 3. The activation parameters for pH 3, {Delta}H{double{underscore}dagger} and {Delta}S{double{underscore}dagger}, are (105 {+-} 2) kJ/mol and (68 {+-} 6) J/mol{sm{underscore}bullet}K, respectively, consistent with a unimolecular bond cleavage mechanism. A pathway involving H{sub 2}O-induced concerted 2e{sup {minus}} transfer is proposed.

  2. The oxygen isotope signature of sulfate derived from abiotic sulfite oxidation under different pH conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, I.; Brunner, B.; Ferdelman, T. G.

    2011-12-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of sulfate serves as an archive of past oxidative sulfur cycling. It carries information about the oxidants as well as the biochemical pathway involved in the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds, because oxygen sources can be traced by their distinct oxygen isotope composition. Studies on the aerobic oxidation of pyrite determined varying relative contributions of oxygen from dissolved molecular oxygen (O2) and water (H2O). These discrepancies were assumed to be due to slight differences in the production and consumption of sulfur intermediates which can exchange oxygen isotopes with water. Additionally, changing pH conditions influence the oxidation rate of sulfur intermediates to sulfate as well as the rate of oxygen exchange between sulfur intermediates and water. Consequently, this affects the oxygen isotope signature of produced sulfate. However, very little is known about the oxygen isotope effects during the oxidation of sulfur intermediates. We performed experiments to assess the abiotic oxidation of sulfite to sulfate under different pH conditions, as sulfite is assumed to be an intermediate during the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds. Dissolved sulfite was oxidized with differently isotopically labeled O2, as well as in differently labeled H2O. The relative contribution of oxygen from O2 and water in produced sulfate was determined, along with the respective oxygen isotope fractionation. Our results provide a more detailed mechanistic understanding of the aerobic oxidation of reduced sulfur species.

  3. Proton NMR of Escherichia coli sulfite reductase: the unligated hemeprotein subunit.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, J; Spicer, L D; Siegel, L M

    1993-03-23

    The isolated hemeprotein subunit of sulfite reductase (SiR-HP) from Escherichia coli consists of a high spin ferric isobacteriochlorin (siroheme) coupled to a diamagnetic [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster. When supplied with an artificial electron donor, such as methyl viologen cation radical, SiR-HP can catalyze the six electron reductions of sulfite to sulfide and nitrite to ammonia. Thus, the hemeprotein subunit appears to represent the minimal protein structure required for multielectron reductase activity. Proton magnetic resonance spectra are reported for the first time on unligated SiR-HP at 300 MHz in all three redox states. The NMR spectrum of high spin ferric siroheme at pH 6.0 was obtained for the purpose of comparing its spectrum with that of oxidized SiR-HP. On the basis of line widths, T1 measurements, and 1D NOE experiments, preliminary assignments have been made for the oxidized enzyme in solution. The pH profile of oxidized SiR-HP is unusual in that a single resonance shows a 9 ppm shift over a range of only 3 pH units with an apparent pK = 6.7 +/- 0.2. Resonances arising from the beta-CH2 protons of cluster cysteines have been assigned using deuterium substitution for all redox states. One beta-CH2 resonance has been tentatively assigned to the bridging cysteine on the basis of chemical shift, T1, line width, and the presence of NOEs to protons from the siroheme ring. The observed pattern of hyperfine shifts can be used as a probe to measure the degree of coupling between siroheme and cluster in solution. The cluster iron sites of the resting (oxidized) enzyme are found to possess both positive and negative spin density which is in good agreement with Mossbauer results on frozen enzyme. The NMR spectrum of the 1-electron reduced form of SiR-HP is consistent with an intermediate spin (S = 1) siroheme. Intermediate spin Fe(II) hemes have only been previously observed in 4-coordinate model compounds. However, the amount of electron density transferred to the

  4. Synthesis and characterization of sulfite-containing AFm phases in the system CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Motzet, H.; Poellmann, H.

    1999-07-01

    The use of sulfite-containing waste materials mainly from flue gas desulfurization causes the formation of new lamellar phases (AFm) in the field of calcium aluminum hydrates. The incorporation of sulfite anions in the structure of lamellar calcium aluminate hydroxy salts and solid solutions with tetracalcium aluminate hydrate will be shown. Using special synthesis conditions a sulfite containing ettringite (AFt) was synthesized. Besides the pure synthesis of phases, the thermal stability, the hydration stages, and other properties of sulfite-containing phases were investigated. Solid solutions of lamellar calcium aluminate hydroxy salts are discussed.

  5. Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Oxygen in the Presence ofSulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, Oleh; Tsao, Leon

    1983-01-01

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emissions from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One Mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. The authors studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDT are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use.

  6. Reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen in the presence of sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, O.; Tsao, L.

    1983-01-14

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emission from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. We studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDTA are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use. 33 figures, 9 tables.

  7. Acidification of prehydrolysis liquor and spent liquor of neutral sulfite semichemical pulping process.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, Pedram; Gao, Weijiue; Sun, Yonghui; Dashtban, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Acidification has been commercialized for producing kraft lignin from black liquor of kraft pulping process. This work intended to evaluate the effectiveness of acidification in extracting lignocelluloses from the spent liquor of neutral sulfite semichemical pulping (NSSC) process and from prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process. The results showed that the NSSC and PHL spent liquors had some lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC), and that the square weighted counts of particles with a chord length of 50-150μm in the spent liquors were significantly increased as pH dropped to 1.5. Interestingly, the acidification reduced the lignosulfonate/lignin content of NSSC and PHL by 13% or 20%, while dropped their oligosugars content by 75% and 38%, respectively. On a dry basis, the precipitates had more carbon, hydrogen and a high heating value of 18-22MJ/kg, but less oxygen, than spent liquors. The precipitates of PHL could be used as fuel. PMID:27394999

  8. Structural Insights into Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductases: Structure of Desulforubidin from Desulfomicrobium Norvegicum

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Tânia F.; Franklin, Edward; Afonso, José P.; Khan, Amir R.; Oldham, Neil J.; Pereira, Inês A. C.; Archer, Margarida

    2011-01-01

    Dissimilatory sulfite reductases (dSiRs) are crucial enzymes in bacterial sulfur-based energy metabolism, which are likely to have been present in some of the earliest life forms on Earth. Several classes of dSiRs have been proposed on the basis of different biochemical and spectroscopic properties, but it is not clear whether this corresponds to actual physiological or structural differences. Here, we describe the first structure of a dSiR from the desulforubidin class isolated from Desulfomicrobium norvegicum. The desulforubidin (Drub) structure is assembled as α2β2γ2, in which two DsrC proteins are bound to the core [DsrA]2[DsrB]2 unit, as reported for the desulfoviridin (Dvir) structure from Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Unlike Dvir, four sirohemes and eight [4Fe–4S] clusters are present in Drub. However, the structure indicates that only two of the Drub coupled siroheme-[4Fe–4S] cofactors are catalytically active. Mass spectrometry studies of purified Drub and Dvir show that both proteins present different oligomeric complex forms that bind two, one, or no DsrC proteins, providing an explanation for conflicting spectroscopic and biochemical results in the literature, and further indicating that DsrC is not a subunit of dSiR, but rather a protein with which it interacts. PMID:21833321

  9. Reverse dissimilatory sulfite reductase as phylogenetic marker for a subgroup of sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Loy, Alexander; Duller, Stephan; Baranyi, Christian; Mußmann, Marc; Ott, Jörg; Sharon, Itai; Béjà, Oded; Le Paslier, Denis; Dahl, Christiane; Wagner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes (SOP) catalyse a central step in the global S-cycle and are of major functional importance for a variety of natural and engineered systems, but our knowledge on their actual diversity and environmental distribution patterns is still rather limited. In this study we developed a specific PCR assay for the detection of dsrAB that encode the reversely operating sirohaem dissimilatory sulfite reductase (rDSR) and are present in many but not all published genomes of SOP. The PCR assay was used to screen 42 strains of SOP (most without published genome sequence) representing the recognized diversity of this guild. For 13 of these strains dsrAB was detected and the respective PCR product was sequenced. Interestingly, most dsrAB-encoding SOP are capable of forming sulfur storage compounds. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated largely congruent rDSR and 16S rRNA consensus tree topologies, indicating that lateral transfer events did not play an important role in the evolutionary history of known rDSR. Thus, this enzyme represents a suitable phylogenetic marker for diversity analyses of sulfur storage compound-exploiting SOP in the environment. The potential of this new functional gene approach was demonstrated by comparative sequence analyses of all dsrAB present in published metagenomes and by applying it for a SOP census in selected marine worms and an alkaline lake sediment. PMID:18826437

  10. Reverse dissimilatory sulfite reductase as phylogenetic marker for a subgroup of sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Loy, Alexander; Duller, Stephan; Baranyi, Christian; Mussmann, Marc; Ott, Jörg; Sharon, Itai; Béjà, Oded; Le Paslier, Denis; Dahl, Christiane; Wagner, Michael

    2009-02-01

    Sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes (SOP) catalyse a central step in the global S-cycle and are of major functional importance for a variety of natural and engineered systems, but our knowledge on their actual diversity and environmental distribution patterns is still rather limited. In this study we developed a specific PCR assay for the detection of dsrAB that encode the reversely operating sirohaem dissimilatory sulfite reductase (rDSR) and are present in many but not all published genomes of SOP. The PCR assay was used to screen 42 strains of SOP (most without published genome sequence) representing the recognized diversity of this guild. For 13 of these strains dsrAB was detected and the respective PCR product was sequenced. Interestingly, most dsrAB-encoding SOP are capable of forming sulfur storage compounds. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated largely congruent rDSR and 16S rRNA consensus tree topologies, indicating that lateral transfer events did not play an important role in the evolutionary history of known rDSR. Thus, this enzyme represents a suitable phylogenetic marker for diversity analyses of sulfur storage compound-exploiting SOP in the environment. The potential of this new functional gene approach was demonstrated by comparative sequence analyses of all dsrAB present in published metagenomes and by applying it for a SOP census in selected marine worms and an alkaline lake sediment. PMID:18826437

  11. A Continuous Spectrophotometric Assay for APS Reductase Activity with Sulfite-Selective Probes

    PubMed Central

    Paritala, Hanumantharao; Carroll, Kate S.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (EC number 1.8.4.10), (APR) catalyzes the first committed step in sulfate reduction for the biosynthesis of essential reduced sulfur-containing biomolecules, such as cysteine, and is essential for survival in the latent phase of TB infection. Despite the importance of APR to Mtb, and other bacterial pathogens, current assay methods depend on use of [35S]-labeled APS or shunt AMP to a coupled-enzyme system. Both methods are cumbersome and require the use of expensive reagents. Here we report the development of a continuous spectrophotometric method for measuring APR activity by using novel sulfite-selective colorimetric or “off-on” fluorescent levulinate-based probes. The APR activity can thus be followed by monitoring the increase in absorbance or fluorescence of the resulting phenolate product. Using this assay, we determined Michelis-Menten kinetic constants (Km, kcat, kcat/Km) and apparent inhibition constant (Ki) for adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP), which compared favorably to values obtained in the gold-standard radioactive assay. The newly developed assay is robust and easy to perform with a simple spectrophotometer. PMID:23711725

  12. Pattern formation in the iodate-sulfite-thiosulfate reaction-diffusion system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haimiao; Pojman, John A; Zhao, Yuemin; Pan, Changwei; Zheng, Juhua; Yuan, Ling; Horváth, Attila K; Gao, Qingyu

    2012-01-01

    Sodium polyacrylate-induced pH pattern formation and starch-induced iodine pattern formation were investigated in the iodate-sulfite-thiosulfate (IST) reaction in a one-side fed disc gel reactor (OSFR). As binding agents of the autocatalyst of hydrogen ions or iodide ions, different content of sodium polyacrylate or starch has induced various types of pattern formation. We observed pH pulses, striped patterns, mixed spots and stripes, and hexagonal spots upon increasing the content of sodium polyacrylate and observed iodine pulses, branched patterns, and labyrinthine patterns upon increasing the starch content in the system. Coexistence of a pH front and an iodine front was also studied in a batch IST reaction-diffusion system. Both pH and iodine front instabilities were observed in the presence of sodium polyacrylate, i.e., cellular fronts and transient Turing structures resulting from the decrease in diffusion coefficients of activators. The mechanism of multiple feedback may explain the different patterns in the IST reaction-diffusion system. PMID:22068976

  13. Ozonolysis mechanism of lignin model compounds and microbial treatment of organic acids produced.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Y; Daidai, M; Kobayashi, F

    2004-01-01

    Treatment methods comprising ozonolysis and microbial treatment of lignin discharged from the pulp manufacture industries were investigated by using a sulfite pulp wastewater and a lignin model compound, i.e. sodium lignosulfonate. Dynamic behaviors for the formations of intermediate derivatives such as muconic acid, maleic acid, and oxalic acid produced from the ozonolysis of sulfite pulp wastewater were observed from data of UV absorption at 280 nm by a spectrophotometer and at 210 nm by high performance liquid chromatography. The microorganisms that were isolated by the enrichment culture method were used to degrade the organic acids such as oxalic acid and acetic acid. Time courses of biological degradation of these organic acids indicated diauxic growth, which was found in a culture with mixed substrates. In the treatment of sodium lignosulfonate, the ozonolysis and microbial treatment using activated sludge converted sodium lignosulfonate into carbon dioxide and water almost completely. PMID:15461411

  14. Effects of sulfite on the uptake and binding of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide in cultured murine respiratory epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.L.; Jones, B.C.; Reed, G.A. )

    1994-02-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) may act as a cocarcinogen with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the respiratory tract. We have modeled this effect by examining the interactions of 7r,8t-dihydroxy-9t,10t-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (anti-BPDE) with sulfite, the physiological form of SO[sub 2], in a murine respiratory epithelial cell line (C10). We exposed C10 cells to [[sup 3]H]-anti-BPDE and determined the effects of 1 and 10 mM sulfite on the uptake and subcellular localization of labeled products. Autoradiographic analysis showed that sulfite doubled the nuclear localization of anti-BPDE-derived materials was not affected by sulfite during the first 60 min, but nuclear localization continued to increase in the sulfite-containing incubations throughout the 4-hr incubation period. Little increase in nuclear localization of anti-BPDE-derived material was noted in the incubations without sulfite after 60 min. Subcellular fractionation was performed to determine the amount of label associated with cytosolic and nuclear fractions and to determine covalent binding to protein and DNA. Sulfite produced a modest increase in the amount of [[sup 3]H]-anti-BPDE-derived products bount to protein; however, binding to nuclear DNA increase by more than 200% with 10 mM sulfite. Analysis of the supernatents from the cytosolic and nuclear fractions of cells exposed to anti-BPDE and sulfite demonstrated the presence of 7r,8t9t-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene-10c- sulfonate (BPT-10-sulfonate). [[sup 3]H]-BPT-10-sulfonate was unable to enter C10 cells, suggesting that it is formed intracellularly. Once formed, this compound may be unable to leave the cell. The observed intracellular formation of BPT-10-sulfonate, a more stable DNA-modifying BaP derivative than BPDE and one which probably cannot leave the cell, could be responsible for this extended time course of nuclear localization and DNA modification.

  15. Potential bronchoconstrictor stimuli in acid fog.

    PubMed Central

    Balmes, J R; Fine, J M; Gordon, T; Sheppard, D

    1989-01-01

    Acid fog is complex and contains multiple stimuli that may be capable of inducing bronchoconstriction. These stimuli include sulfuric and niric acids, the principal inorganic acids present; sulfites, formed in the atmosphere as a reaction product of sulfur dioxide and water droplets; fog water itself, a hypoosmolar aerosol; the organic acid hydroxymethanesulfonate, the bisulfite adduct of formaldehyde; and gaseous pollutants, e.g., sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, ozone. Given this complexity, evaluation of the respiratory health effects of naturally occurring acid fog requires assessment of the bronchoconstrictor potency of each component stimulus and possible interactions among these stimuli. We summarize the results of three studies that involve characterization of the bronchoconstrictor potency of acid fog stimuli and/or their interaction in subjects with asthma. The results of the first study indicate that titratable acidity appears to be a more important stimulus to bronchoconstriction than is pH. The results of the second study demonstrate that sulfite species are capable of inducing bronchoconstriction, especially when inhaled at acid pH. The results of the third study suggest that acidity can potentiate hypoosmolar fog-induced bronchoconstriction. PMID:2539989

  16. Potential bronchoconstrictor stimuli in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Balmes, J.R.; Fine, J.M.; Gordon, T.; Sheppard, D.

    1989-02-01

    Acid fog is complex and contains multiple stimuli that may be capable of inducing bronchoconstriction. These stimuli include sulfuric and nitric acids, the principal inorganic acids present; sulfites, formed in the atmosphere as a reaction product of sulfur dioxide and water droplets; fog water itself, a hypoosmolar aerosol; the organic acid hydroxymethanesulfonate, the bisulfite adduct of formaldehyde; and gaseous pollutants, e.g., sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, ozone. Given this complexity, evaluation of the respiratory health effects of naturally occurring acid fog requires assessment of the bronchoconstrictor potency of each component stimulus and possible interactions among these stimuli. We summarize the results of three studies that involve characterization of the bronchoconstrictor potency of acid fog stimuli and/or their interaction in subjects with asthma. The results of the first study indicate that titratable acidity appears to be a more important stimulus to bronchoconstriction than is pH. The results of the second study demonstrate that sulfite species are capable of inducing bronchoconstriction, especially when inhaled at acid pH. The results of the third study suggest that acidity can potentiate hypoosmolar fog-induced bronchoconstriction.

  17. Reduction of Oxyiron(V) by Sulfite and Thiosulfate in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Cabelli, D.E.; Sharma, V.K.

    2009-07-15

    The reduction of oxyiron(V), Fe{sup V}O{sub 4}{sup 3-} by inorganic oxysulfur species (SO{sub 3}{sup 2-} and S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup 2-}) has been studied anaerobically in alkaline medium by using a premix pulse radiolysis technique. Studies on the reactions of Fe{sup VI}O{sub 4}{sup 2-} with the two sulfur radicals were also carried out. The spectroscopic results demonstrated that sulfur radicals reduced Fe{sup VI}O{sub 4}{sup 2-} to Fe{sup V}O{sub 4}{sup 3-} which is subsequently reduced by oxysulfur species by a two-electron reduction step to Fe(III). The rate constants for reduction of Fe{sup VI}O{sub 4}{sup 2-} to Fe{sup V}O{sub 4}{sup 3-} by sulfite and thiosulfate radicals ({sm_bullet}SO{sub 3}{sup -} and S{sub 4}O{sub 6}{sup 3-}{sm_bullet}) were found to be (1.9 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup 8} and (7.5 {+-} 0.8) x 10{sup 7} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. However, the reactions of Fe{sup V}O{sub 4}{sup 3-} with the SO{sub 3}{sup 2-} and S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions were separated by an order of magnitude, with SO{sub 3}{sup 2-} reacting at (3.9 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup 4} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} while S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup 2-} reacted with Fe(V) at (2.1 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup 3} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} at pH 11.4.

  18. Ethanol production from non-detoxified whole slurry of sulfite-pretreated empty fruit bunches at a low cellulase loading.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinlan; Leu, Shao-Yuan; Zhu, J Y; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2014-07-01

    Sulfite pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) was applied to an empty fruit bunches (EFB) for ethanol production. SPORL facilitated delignification through lignin sulfonation and dissolution of xylan to result in a highly digestible substrate. The pretreated whole slurry was enzymatically saccharified at a solids loading of 18% using a relatively low cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g glucan and simultaneously fermented without detoxification using Saccharomyces cerevisiae of YRH400. An ethanol yield of 217 L/tonne EFB was achieved at titer of 32 g/L. Compared with literature studies, SPORL produced high ethanol yield and titer with much lower cellulase loading without detoxification. PMID:24874873

  19. The first organically templated open-framework metal-sulfites with layered and three-dimensional diamondoid structures.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ranjay K; Kumar, Jitendra; Behera, J N

    2016-01-21

    The crystallographic signatures and characterization data of two novel organically templated open-framework zinc-sulfites (NH3CH2CH2NH3)[Zn3(SO3)4], 1, and (CN3H6)2[Zn(SO3)2], 2, are reported for the first time, synthesized under hydrothermal conditions using different amines, namely, ethylenediamine and guanidine, to generate 2D (for 1) and 3D (for 2) assemblies with 4-, 6-, 8- and 12-membered rings. PMID:26615884

  20. Multiple sulfur isotope signatures of sulfite and thiosulfate reduction by the model dissimilatory sulfate-reducer, Desulfovibrio alaskensis str. G20

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, William D.; Cummins, Renata; Schmidt, Marian L.; Sim, Min S.; Ono, Shuhei; Bradley, Alexander S.; Johnston, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction serves as a key metabolic carbon remineralization process in anoxic marine environments. Sulfate reducing microorganisms can impart a wide range in mass-dependent sulfur isotopic fractionation. As such, the presence and relative activity of these organisms is identifiable from geological materials. By extension, sulfur isotope records are used to infer the redox balance of marine sedimentary environments, and the oxidation state of Earth's oceans and atmosphere. However, recent work suggests that our understanding of microbial sulfate reduction (MSRs) may be missing complexity associated with the presence and role of key chemical intermediates in the reductive process. This study provides a test of proposed metabolic models of sulfate reduction by growing an axenic culture of the well-studied MSRs, Desulfovibrio alaskensis strain G20, under electron donor limited conditions on the terminal electron acceptors sulfate, sulfite or thiosulfate, and tracking the multiple S isotopic consequences of each condition set. The dissimilatory reduction of thiosulfate and sulfite produce unique minor isotope effects, as compared to the reduction of sulfate. Further, these experiments reveal a complex biochemistry associated with sulfite reduction. That is, under high sulfite concentrations, sulfur is shuttled to an intermediate pool of thiosulfate. Site-specific isotope fractionation (within thiosulfate) is very large (34ε ~ 30‰) while terminal product sulfide carries only a small fractionation from the initial sulfite (34ε < 10‰): a signature similar in magnitude to sulfate and thiosulfate reduction. Together these findings show that microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) is highly sensitive to the concentration of environmentally important sulfur-cycle intermediates (sulfite and thiosulfate), especially when thiosulfate and the large site-specific isotope effects are involved. PMID:25505449

  1. Sulfite Reductase Defines a Newly Discovered Bottleneck for Assimilatory Sulfate Reduction and Is Essential for Growth and Development in Arabidopsis thaliana[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Sayyar; Haas, Florian Heinrich; Allboje Samami, Arman; Moghaddas Gholami, Amin; Bauer, Andrea; Fellenberg, Kurt; Reichelt, Michael; Hänsch, Robert; Mendel, Ralf R.; Meyer, Andreas J.; Wirtz, Markus; Hell, Rüdiger

    2010-01-01

    The role of sulfite reductase (SiR) in assimilatory reduction of inorganic sulfate to sulfide has long been regarded as insignificant for control of flux in this pathway. Two independent Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion lines (sir1-1 and sir1-2), each with an insertion in the promoter region of SiR, were isolated. sir1-2 seedlings had 14% SiR transcript levels compared with the wild type and were early seedling lethal. sir1-1 seedlings had 44% SiR transcript levels and were viable but strongly retarded in growth. In mature leaves of sir1-1 plants, the levels of SiR transcript, protein, and enzymatic activity ranged between 17 and 28% compared with the wild type. The 28-fold decrease of incorporation of 35S label into Cys, glutathione, and protein in sir1-1 showed that the decreased activity of SiR generated a severe bottleneck in the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. Root sulfate uptake was strongly enhanced, and steady state levels of most of the sulfur-related metabolites, as well as the expression of many primary metabolism genes, were changed in leaves of sir1-1. Hexose and starch contents were decreased, while free amino acids increased. Inorganic carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur composition was also severely altered, demonstrating strong perturbations in metabolism that differed markedly from known sulfate deficiency responses. The results support that SiR is the only gene with this function in the Arabidopsis genome, that optimal activity of SiR is essential for normal growth, and that its downregulation causes severe adaptive reactions of primary and secondary metabolism. PMID:20424176

  2. Sulfite species enhance carbon monoxide release from CO-releasing molecules: implications for the deoxymyoglobin assay of activity.

    PubMed

    McLean, Samantha; Mann, Brian E; Poole, Robert K

    2012-08-01

    Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) emulate the beneficial (e.g., anti-inflammatory) effects of CO in biology. CO release from CO-RMs is routinely determined in the presence of reduced deoxy-myoglobin by measuring the formation of carboxy-myoglobin (Mb-CO). Previous studies have highlighted discrepancies between the apparent CO release rates of some CO-RMs established using this assay versus other experimental data where a slower or more complex mechanism of release is suggested. It has been hypothesized that some CO-RMs require a CO acceptor, believed to be reduced myoglobin in Mb-CO assays, in order to facilitate the release of CO. Here, we show, for the first time, that CO is not liberated from the ruthenium (Ru)-based [Ru(CO)(3)Cl(2)](2) (CORM-2) and [Ru(CO)(3)Cl(glycinate)] (CORM-3) at an appreciable rate in the presence of reduced myoglobin alone. Rather, we confirm that it is the reducing agent sodium dithionite that facilitates release of CO from these CO-RMs. Other sulfite compounds, namely sodium sulfite and potassium metabisulfite, also promote the liberation of CO from CORM-3. We describe an alternative oxy-hemoglobin assay that eliminates dithionite and suggest that the efficacy of CO-RMs results from intracellular interactions with anions that facilitate CO delivery to therapeutic targets. PMID:22561917

  3. QTL Dissection of Lag Phase in Wine Fermentation Reveals a New Translocation Responsible for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Adaptation to Sulfite

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Adrien; Durand, Cécile; Loira, Nicolás; Durrens, Pascal; Sherman, David James; Marullo, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative genetics and QTL mapping are efficient strategies for deciphering the genetic polymorphisms that explain the phenotypic differences of individuals within the same species. Since a decade, this approach has been applied to eukaryotic microbes such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to find natural genetic variations conferring adaptation of individuals to their environment. In this work, a QTL responsible for lag phase duration in the alcoholic fermentation of grape juice was dissected by reciprocal hemizygosity analysis. After invalidating the effect of some candidate genes, a chromosomal translocation affecting the lag phase was brought to light using de novo assembly of parental genomes. This newly described translocation (XV-t-XVI) involves the promoter region of ADH1 and the gene SSU1 and confers an increased expression of the sulfite pump during the first hours of alcoholic fermentation. This translocation constitutes another adaptation route of wine yeast to sulfites in addition to the translocation VIII-t-XVI previously described. A population survey of both translocation forms in a panel of domesticated yeast strains suggests that the translocation XV-t-XVI has been empirically selected by human activity. PMID:24489712

  4. QTL dissection of Lag phase in wine fermentation reveals a new translocation responsible for Saccharomyces cerevisiae adaptation to sulfite.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Adrien; Durand, Cécile; Loira, Nicolás; Durrens, Pascal; Sherman, David James; Marullo, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative genetics and QTL mapping are efficient strategies for deciphering the genetic polymorphisms that explain the phenotypic differences of individuals within the same species. Since a decade, this approach has been applied to eukaryotic microbes such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to find natural genetic variations conferring adaptation of individuals to their environment. In this work, a QTL responsible for lag phase duration in the alcoholic fermentation of grape juice was dissected by reciprocal hemizygosity analysis. After invalidating the effect of some candidate genes, a chromosomal translocation affecting the lag phase was brought to light using de novo assembly of parental genomes. This newly described translocation (XV-t-XVI) involves the promoter region of ADH1 and the gene SSU1 and confers an increased expression of the sulfite pump during the first hours of alcoholic fermentation. This translocation constitutes another adaptation route of wine yeast to sulfites in addition to the translocation VIII-t-XVI previously described. A population survey of both translocation forms in a panel of domesticated yeast strains suggests that the translocation XV-t-XVI has been empirically selected by human activity. PMID:24489712

  5. Novel Use of Tryptose Sulfite Cycloserine Egg Yolk Agar for Isolation of Clostridium perfringens during an Outbreak of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in a Neonatal Unit▿

    PubMed Central

    Kotsanas, Despina; Carson, Jolene A.; Awad, Milena M.; Lyras, Dena; Rood, Julian I.; Jenkin, Grant A.; Stuart, Rhonda L.; Korman, Tony M.

    2010-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens has been associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), which is a serious disease of neonates. Our study describes the novel use of selective tryptose sulfite cycloserine with egg yolk agar (TSC-EYA) during a nursery outbreak. This medium provides a rapid, sensitive, and accurate presumptive identification of C. perfringens. PMID:20826643

  6. Novel use of tryptose sulfite cycloserine egg yolk agar for isolation of Clostridium perfringens during an outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis in a neonatal unit.

    PubMed

    Kotsanas, Despina; Carson, Jolene A; Awad, Milena M; Lyras, Dena; Rood, Julian I; Jenkin, Grant A; Stuart, Rhonda L; Korman, Tony M

    2010-11-01

    Clostridium perfringens has been associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), which is a serious disease of neonates. Our study describes the novel use of selective tryptose sulfite cycloserine with egg yolk agar (TSC-EYA) during a nursery outbreak. This medium provides a rapid, sensitive, and accurate presumptive identification of C. perfringens. PMID:20826643

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced & Cooled) A Appendix A to Subpart HHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced & Cooled) A Appendix A to Subpart HHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced & Cooled) A Appendix A to Subpart HHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  10. Multicomponent self-assembly of a pentanuclear Ir-Zn heterometal-organic polyhedron for carbon dioxide fixation and sulfite sequestration.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuezhao; Wu, Jinguo; He, Cheng; Zhang, Rong; Duan, Chunying

    2016-04-14

    By incorporating a fac-tris(4-(2-pyridinyl)phenylamine)iridium as the backbone of the tripodal ligand to constrain the coordination geometry of Zn(II) ions, a pentanuclear Ir-Zn heterometal-organic luminescent polyhedron was obtained via a subcomponent self-assembly for carbon dioxide fixation and sulfite sequestration. PMID:26932204

  11. Protective performances of two anti-graffiti treatments towards sulfite and sulfate formation in SO 2 polluted model environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Quiroga, Paula María; Panas, Itai; Svensson, Jan-Erik; Johansson, Lars-Gunnar; Blanco-Varela, María Teresa; Martínez-Ramírez, Sagrario

    2010-11-01

    Specific strategies for protection are being developed to counter both the staining and corrosive effects of polluted air in cities, as well as to allow for efficient removal of unwanted graffiti paintings. These protection strategies employ molecules with tailored functionalities, e.g. being hydrophobic, while maintaining porosity for molecular water vapour permeation. The present study employs SO 2 and water to probe the behaviors of two anti-graffiti treatments, a water-base fluoroalkylsiloxane ("Protectosil Antigraffiti" marketed by Degussa) and an organically modified silicate (Ormosil) synthesized from a polymer chain (polydimethyl siloxane, PDMS) and two network forming alkoxides (Zr propoxide and methyl triethoxy silane, MTES) dissolved in n-propanol, on five building materials, comprising limestone, aged lime mortar, hydrated cement mortar, granite, and brick material. The materials were exposed to a synthetic atmosphere for 20 h in a climate chamber, 0.78 ± 0.03 ppm of SO 2 and 95% RH. Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared (DR-FTIR) spectra were registered before and after exposure in the climate chamber in the cases of both treated and untreated samples. DR-FTIR, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses, suggest the anti-graffiti Ormosil to suppress formation of calcium sulfite hemihydrate (the primary initial product of the reaction of calcium compounds with SO 2 and water) on carbonate materials (limestone and lime mortar). In case of the granite, brick and cement mortar, Ormosil has a negligible influence on the SO 2 capture. While no sulfite formation was detected by DR-FTIR, gypsum is inferred to form due to metal oxides and minority compounds catalysed oxidation of sulfite to sulfate. In case of brick, this understanding finds support from SEM images as well as EDX. A priori presence of gypsum in hydrated cement mortars prevents positive identification by SEM. However, support for sulfur

  12. Effect of inhaled sulfur dioxide and systematic sulfite on the induction of lung carcinoma in rats by benzo(a)pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnison, A.F.; Sellakumar, A.; Snyder, E.A.; Currie, D.

    1988-06-01

    Rats were treated with BaP by 15 consecutive weekly intratracheal instillations. Some of these rats were simultaneously exposed either to SO/sub 2/ by inhalation or to sulfite/bisulfite anions that accumulated systematically from endogenous generation in rats with induced sulfite oxidase deficiency. The total treatment period spanned 21 weeks, after which the rats were observed for the development of tumors. BaP-treated rats began to die with SQCA of the respiratory tract at approximately 200 days after the first BaP treatment and at 2 years after the first treatment nearly all rats in the BaP-treated groups had died, most with SQCA. Survival in the control groups was excellent and the health of all groups (aside from pulmonary SQCA in BaP-treated groups) was also excellent. The probability of dying with a pulmonary SQCA in the experimental groups treated with BaP, BaP plus inhaled SO/sub 2/, and BaP plus systemic sulfite/bisulfite was calculated by the log rank analysis. The data sets of SQCA probability from these groups were not statistically different by the chi/sup 2/ test indicating that, in this experiment, neither inhalation exposure to SO/sub 2/ nor systemic exposure to sulfite/bisulfite anions affected the induction of SQCA of the lung by intratracheally instilled BaP. The authors conclude that the results of this study do not support an etiological role for either SO/sub 2/ or sulfite/bisulfite anions in the induction of SQCA of the respiratory tract by BaP.

  13. Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR studies during Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation in the presence of sulfite.

    PubMed

    Nadai, Chiara; Campanaro, Stefano; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

    2015-12-23

    Sulfur dioxide is extensively used during industrial fermentations and contributes to determine the harsh conditions of winemaking together with low pH, high sugar content and increasing ethanol concentration. Therefore the presence of sulfite has to be considered in yeast gene expression studies to properly understand yeast behavior in technological environments such as winemaking. A reliable expression pattern can be obtained only using an appropriate reference gene set that is constitutively expressed regardless of perturbations linked to the experimental conditions. In this work we tested 15 candidate reference genes suitable for analysis of gene expression during must fermentation in the presence of sulfite. New reference genes were selected from a genome-wide expression experiment, obtained by RNA sequencing of four Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains grown in enological conditions. Their performance was compared to that of the most common genes used in previous studies. The most popular software based on different statistical approaches (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) were chosen to evaluate expression stability of the candidate reference genes. Validation was obtained using other wine strains by comparing normalized gene expression data with transcriptome quantification both in the presence and absence of sulfite. Among 15 reference genes tested ALG9, FBA1, UBC6 and PFK1 appeared to be the most reliable while ENO1, PMA1, DED1 and FAS2 were the worst. The most popular reference gene ACT1, widely used for S. cerevisiae gene expression studies, showed a stability level markedly lower than those of our selected reference genes. Finally, as the expression of the new reference gene set remained constant over the entire fermentation process, irrespective of the perturbation due to sulfite addition, our results can be considered also when no sulfite is added to the must. PMID:26325600

  14. Solution Structure of Pyrobaculum aerophilum DsrC, an Archaeal Homologue of the Gamma Subunit of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, John R.; Mariappan, S.V. S.; Kim, Chang Y.; Park, Min S.; Peat, Thomas S.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2001-11-29

    The solution structure of DsrC, an archaeal homologue of the g subunit of dissimilatory sulfite reductase has been determined by NMR spectroscopy. This 12.7 kDa protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum adopts a novel fold consisting of an orthogonal helical bundle with a b-hairpin along one side. A portion of the structure resembles the helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif common in transcriptional regulator proteins. The protein contains two disulfide bonds but remains folded in the presence of DTT. DsrC proteins from organisms other than Pyrobaculum species do not contain these disulfide bonds. A conserved cysteine next to the C-terminus, which is not involved in the disulfide bonds, is not part of the globular structure of the protein and is located on an unstructured 7-residue C-terminal arm that extends away from the center of the protein.

  15. Shifts in methanogenic subpopulations measured with antibody probes in a fixed-bed loop anaerobic bioreactor treating sulfite evaporator condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Macario, A.J.L.; de Macario, E.C. ); Ney, U.; Schoberth, S.M.; Sahm, H. )

    1989-08-01

    A fixed-bed loop, high-rate anaerobic bioreactor treating sulfite evaporator condensate was sampled when it reached steady state and afterwards following perturbations during a 14-month period. By using immunotechnology, it was observed that shifts in methanogenic subpopulations occurred in association with perturbations, such as restarting and relocating the biomass into a different tank. Methanogens related to Methanobacterium bryantii MoHG and Methanobrevibacter smithii ALI were numerous throughout the observation period, while Methanosarcina mazei S6 and Methanosarcina thermophila TM1 were found in the early and late samples, respectively. Also, Methanobacterium formicicum was more numerous at the top portion of the bioreactor, while Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ and DC were at the bottom. Sample formalinization required for prolonged storage proved suitable for antigen preservation.

  16. Determination of free (pH 2.2) sulfite in wines by flow injection analysis: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J J; Hollingworth, T A; Wekell, M M; Meo, V A; Etemad-Moghadam, A; Phillips, J G; Gump, B H

    1990-01-01

    A method for the determination of free sulfite in wine by flow injection analysis (FIA) is described. The method involves liberation of sulfur dioxide from the wine at pH 2.2, with detection by decolorization of a malachite green solution. The method was collaboratively studied, and the results indicated an average reproducibility of 12% for white wine samples (average level 12.1 ppm SO2) and 26% for red wine samples (average level 3.1 ppm). When the FIA method was compared to an aeration/oxidation method, the results indicated a high degree of correlation between the 2 methods. The FIA method has been adopted by AOAC official first action. PMID:2324033

  17. Hyphenation of gas-diffusion separation and ion chromatography. Part 1: determination of free sulfite in wines.

    PubMed

    Fäldt, S; Karlberg, B; Frenzel, W

    2001-10-01

    The hyphenation of gas-diffusion separation and ion chromatography (IC) is described as a convenient, reliable, robust, and economic method for in-line sample pre-treatment. The high selectivity associated with this method permits direct analysis of samples containing microparticulates, colloidal matter, and/or high molecular weight compounds. The determination of sulfite serves as a first example of its application. The method is based on the diffusional separation of SO2 following in-line oxidation with hydrogen peroxide to sulfate and final determination of the sulfate formed using IC. The influence of operational parameters has been thoroughly investigated and gas-diffusion cells of different geometries compared with respect to the gas-transfer rates obtained. Application to the analysis of wines demonstrates the utility of the method. PMID:11760049

  18. Alkaline-sulfite pretreatment and use of surfactants during enzymatic hydrolysis to enhance ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Jéssica Faria; Ferraz, André; Aguiar, André

    2016-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a by-product from the sugar and ethanol industry which contains approximately 70 % of its dry mass composed by polysaccharides. To convert these polysaccharides into fuel ethanol it is necessary a pretreatment step to increase the enzymatic digestibility of the recalcitrant raw material. In this work, sugarcane bagasse was pretreated by an alkaline-sulfite chemithermomechanical process for increasing its enzymatic digestibility. Na2SO3 and NaOH ratios were fixed at 2:1, and three increasing chemical loads, varying from 4 to 8 % m/m Na2SO3, were used to prepare the pretreated materials. The increase in the alkaline-sulfite load decreased the lignin content in the pretreated material up to 35.5 % at the highest chemical load. The pretreated samples presented enhanced glucose yields during enzymatic hydrolysis as a function of the pretreatment severity. The maximum glucose yield (64 %) was observed for the samples pretreated with the highest chemical load. The use of 2.5 g l(-1) Tween 20 in the hydrolysis step further increased the glucose yield to 75 %. Semi-simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation of the pretreated materials indicated that the ethanol yield was also enhanced as a function of the pretreatment severity. The maximum ethanol yield was 56 ± 2 % for the sample pretreated with the highest chemical load. For the sample pretreated with the lowest chemical load (2 % m/m NaOH and 4 % m/m Na2SO3), adding Tween 20 during the hydrolysis process increased the ethanol yield from 25 ± 3 to 39.5 ± 1 %. PMID:26718203

  19. On the mechanism of sulfite activation of chloroplast thylakoid ATPase and the relation of ADP tightly bound at a catalytic site to the binding change mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Z.; Boyer, P.D. )

    1990-01-16

    Washed chloroplast thylakoid membranes upon exposure to ({sup 3}H)ADP retain in tightly bound ({sup 3}H)ADP on a catalytic site of the ATP synthase. The presence of sufficient endogenous or added Mg{sup 2+} results in an enzyme with essentially no ATPase activity. Sulfite activates the ATPase, and many molecules of ATP per synthase can be hydrolyzed before most of the bound ({sup 3}H)ADP is released, a result interpreted as indicating that the ADP is not bound at a site participating in catalysis by the sulfite-activated enzyme. The authors present evidence that this is not the case. The Mg{sup 2+}- and ADP-inhibited enzyme when exposed to MgATP and 20-100 mM sulfite shows a lag of about 1 min at 22{degree}C and of about 15 s at 37{degree}C before reaching the same steady-state rate as attained with light-activated ATPase that has not been inhibited by Mg{sup 2+} and ADP. The lag is not eliminated if the enzyme is exposed to sulfite prior to MgATP addition, indicating that ATPase turnover is necessary for the activation. The release of most of the bound ({sup 3}H)ADP parallels the onset of ATPase activity, although some ({sup 3}H)ADP is not released even with prolonged catalytic turnover and may be on poorly active or inactive enzyme or at noncatalytic sites. The results are consistent with most of the tightly bound ({sup 3}H)ADP being at a catalytic site and being replaced as this Mg{sup 2+}- and ADP-inhibited site regains equivalent participation with other catalytic sites on the activated enzyme. The sulfite activation can be explained by sulfite combination at a P{sub i} binding site of the enzyme-ADP-Mg{sup 2+} complex to give a form more readily activated by ATP binding at an alternative site.

  20. 40 CFR 63.444 - Standards for the pulping system at sulfite processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... strong liquor storage tank; and (iii) Each acid condensate storage tank. (b) Equipment listed in... systems listed in paragraph (a) of this section and the vents, wastewater, and condensate streams from...

  1. 40 CFR 63.444 - Standards for the pulping system at sulfite processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... strong liquor storage tank; and (iii) Each acid condensate storage tank. (b) Equipment listed in... systems listed in paragraph (a) of this section and the vents, wastewater, and condensate streams from...

  2. 40 CFR 63.444 - Standards for the pulping system at sulfite processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... strong liquor storage tank; and (iii) Each acid condensate storage tank. (b) Equipment listed in... systems listed in paragraph (a) of this section and the vents, wastewater, and condensate streams from...

  3. 40 CFR 63.444 - Standards for the pulping system at sulfite processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... strong liquor storage tank; and (iii) Each acid condensate storage tank. (b) Equipment listed in... systems listed in paragraph (a) of this section and the vents, wastewater, and condensate streams from...

  4. 40 CFR 63.444 - Standards for the pulping system at sulfite processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... strong liquor storage tank; and (iii) Each acid condensate storage tank. (b) Equipment listed in... systems listed in paragraph (a) of this section and the vents, wastewater, and condensate streams from...

  5. Development of xylose-fermenting yeasts for ethanol production at high acetic acid concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Mohandas, D.V.; Whelan, D.R.; Panchal, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    Mutants resistant to comparatively high levels of acetic acid were isolated from the xylose-fermenting yeasts Candida shehatae and Pichia Stipitis by adapting these cultures to increasing concentrations of acetic acid grown in shake-flask cultures. These mutants were tested for their ability to ferment xylose in presence of high acetic acid concentrations, in acid hydrolysates of wood, and in hardwood spent sulfite liquor, and compared with their wild-type counterparts and between themselves. The P. stipitis mutant exhibited faster fermentation times, better tolerance to acid hydrolysates, and tolerance to lower pH.

  6. Molybdenum site of sulfite oxidase: A comparison of wild-type and the cysteine 207 to serine mutant using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    George, G.N.; Garrett, R.M.; Rajagopalan, K.V.; Prince, R.C.

    1996-09-11

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the molybdenum and sulfur K-edges has been used to probe the active site of wild-type and cysteine 207 {yields} serine mutant human sulfite oxidases. We compare the active site structures in the Mo(VI) oxidation states: the wild-type enzyme possesses two Mo=O ligands at 1.71 A and three Mo-S ligands at 2.41 A. The mutant molybdenum site is a novel trioxo site with Mo=O bond lengths of 1.74 A, with two Mn-S ligands at 2.47 A. We conclude that cysteine 207 is a ligand of molybdenum in wild-type human sulfite oxidase, and that, in the mutant, the Mo is ligated to an extra oxo group rather than the hydroxyl of the substituent serine 207. 36 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Effects of Arsenite, Sulfite, and Sulfate on Photosynthetic Carbon Metabolism in Isolated Pea (Pisum sativum L., cv Little Marvel) Chloroplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Ivano A.; Anderson, Louise E.

    1986-01-01

    Photosynthetic CO2-fixation in isolated pea (Pisum sativum L., cv Little Marvel) chloroplasts during induction is markedly inhibited by 0.4 millimolar sulfite. Sulfate at the same concentration has almost no effect. The 14CO2-fixation pattern indicates that the primary effect of sulfite is inhibition of the reaction catalyzed by ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and a stimulation of export of intermediates out of the chloroplasts. Inhibition of light modulation of stromal enzyme activity does not appear to account for the toxicity of SO2 in this Pisum variety. Arsenite at 0.2 millimolar concentrations inhibits light activation and inhibits photosynthetic CO2 fixation. The 14CO2-fixation pattern indicates that the primary effect of arsenite is inhibition of light activation of reductive pentose phosphate pathway enzyme activity. PMID:16665056

  8. Sirohaem sulfite reductase and other proteins encoded by genes at the dsr locus of Chromatium vinosum are involved in the oxidation of intracellular sulfur.

    PubMed

    Pott, A S; Dahl, C

    1998-07-01

    The sequence of the dsr gene region of the phototrophic sulfur bacterium Chromatium vinosum D (DSMZ 180) was determined to clarify the in vivo role of 'reverse' sirohaem sulfite reductase. The dsrAB genes encoding dissimilatory sulfite reductase are part of a gene cluster, dsrABEFHCMK, that encodes four small, soluble proteins (DsrE, DsrF, DsrH and DsrC), a transmembrane protein (DsrM) with similarity to haem-b-binding polypeptides and a soluble protein (DsrK) resembling [4Fe-4S]-cluster-containing heterodisulfide reductase from methanogenic archaea. Northern hybridizations showed that expression of the dsr genes is increased by the presence of reduced sulfur compounds. The dsr genes are not only transcribed from a putative promoter upstream of dsrA but primary transcripts originating from (a) transcription start site(s) downstream of dsrB are also formed. Polar insertion mutations immediately upstream of dsrA, and in dsrB, dsrH and dsrM, led to an inability of the cells to oxidize intracellularly stored sulfur. The capability of the mutants to oxidize sulfide, thiosulfate and sulfite under photolithoautotrophic conditions was unaltered. Photoorganoheterotrophic growth was also unaffected. 'Reverse' sulfite reductase and DsrEFHCMK are, therefore, not essential for oxidation of sulfide or thiosulfate, but are obligatory for sulfur oxidation. These results, together with the finding that the sulfur globules of C. vinosum are located in the extracytoplasmic space whilst the dsr gene products appear to be either cytoplasmic or membrane-bound led to the proposal of new models for the pathway of sulfur oxidation in this phototrophic sulfur bacterium. PMID:9695921

  9. Diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in oxic and anoxic regions of a microbial mat characterized by comparative analysis of dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes

    SciTech Connect

    Minz, D.; Flax, J.L.; Green, S.J.; Muyzer, G.; Cohen, Y.; Wagner, M.; Rittmann, B.E.; Stahl, D.A.

    1999-10-01

    Sequence analysis of genes encoding dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) was used to identify sulfate-reducing bacteria in a hypersaline microbial mat and to evaluate their distribution in relation to levels of oxygen. The most highly diverse DSR sequences, most related to those of the Desulfonema-like organisms within the {delta}-proteobacteria, were recovered from oxic regions of the mat. This observation extends those of previous studies by the authors and others associating Desulfonema-like organisms with oxic habitats.

  10. Degradation of vinyl chloride (VC) by the sulfite/UV advanced reduction process (ARP): effects of process variables and a kinetic model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Yoon, Sunhee; Batchelor, Bill; Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    Vinyl chloride (VC) poses a threat to humans and environment due to its toxicity and carcinogenicity. In this study, an advanced reduction process (ARP) that combines sulfite with UV light was developed to destroy VC. The degradation of VC followed pseudo-first-order decay kinetics and the effects of several experimental factors on the degradation rate constant were investigated. The largest rate constant was observed at pH9, but complete dechlorination was obtained at pH11. Higher sulfite dose and light intensity were found to increase the rate constant linearly. The rate constant had a little drop when the initial VC concentration was below 1.5mg/L and then was approximately constant between 1.5mg/L and 3.1mg/L. A degradation mechanism was proposed to describe reactions between VC and the reactive species that were produced by the photolysis of sulfite. A kinetic model that described major reactions in the system was developed and was able to explain the dependence of the rate constant on the experimental factors examined. This study may provide a new treatment technology for the removal of a variety of halogenated contaminants. PMID:23570912

  11. The Determination of Hydrogen Sulfide in Stack Gases, Iodometric Titration After Sulfite Removal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles, E. G.

    The determination of hydrogen sulfide in effluents from coal-fired furnaces and incinerators is complicated by the presence of sulfur oxides (which form acids). Organic compounds also may interfere with or prevent the formation of the cadmium sulfide precipitate or give false positive results because of reaction with iodine. The report presents a…

  12. Enumeration of food-borne Clostridium perfringens in egg yolk-free tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, A H; Hilsheimer, R

    1974-03-01

    The SFP (Shahidi-Ferguson perfringens), TSC (tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine), EY (egg yolk)-free TSC, and OPSP (oleandomycin-polymyxin-sulfadiazine perfringens) agars have been tested for their suitability to enumerate Clostridium perfringens in naturally contaminated foods. Complete recoveries of C. perfringens were obtained in each of the four media, but only the TSC and EY-free TSC agars were sufficiently selective to ensure subsequent confirmatory tests without interference from facultative anaerobes. Because of some disadvantages associated with the use of egg yolk, EY-free TSC agar is recommended for enumeration of C. perfringens in foods. Several conditions for convenient shipment of foods and C. perfringens isolates with minimum loss of viability have been tested. The highest viable counts were preserved when foods were mixed 1:1 (wt/vol) with 20% glycerol and kept in a container with dry ice. Isolated C. perfringens strains remained viable for at least 2 weeks at ambient temperatures on blood agar slopes with a 2% agar overlay in screw-cap culture tubes. PMID:4363368

  13. Enumeration of Food-Borne Clostridium perfringens in Egg Yolk-Free Tryptose-Sulfite-Cycloserine Agar

    PubMed Central

    Hauschild, A. H. W.; Hilsheimer, R.

    1974-01-01

    The SFP (Shahidi-Ferguson perfringens), TSC (tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine), EY (egg yolk)-free TSC, and OPSP (oleandomycin-polymyxin-sulfadiazine perfringens) agars have been tested for their suitability to enumerate Clostridium perfringens in naturally contaminated foods. Complete recoveries of C. perfringens were obtained in each of the four media, but only the TSC and EY-free TSC agars were sufficiently selective to ensure subsequent confirmatory tests without interference from facultative anaerobes. Because of some disadvantages associated with the use of egg yolk, EY-free TSC agar is recommended for enumeration of C. perfringens in foods. Several conditions for convenient shipment of foods and C. perfringens isolates with minimum loss of viability have been tested. The highest viable counts were preserved when foods were mixed 1:1 (wt/vol) with 20% glycerol and kept in a container with dry ice. Isolated C. perfringens strains remained viable for at least 2 weeks at ambient temperatures on blood agar slopes with a 2% agar overlay in screw-cap culture tubes. PMID:4363368

  14. Optimization of alkaline sulfite pretreatment and comparative study with sodium hydroxide pretreatment for improving enzymatic digestibility of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Pang, Bo; Wang, Haisong; Li, Haiming; Lu, Jie; Niu, Meihong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, alkaline sulfite pretreatment of corn stover was optimized. The influences of pretreatments on solid yield, delignification, and carbohydrate recovery under different pretreatment conditions and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated. The effect of pretreatment was evaluated by enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency and the total sugar yield. The optimum pretreatment conditions were obtained, as follows: the total titratable alkali (TTA) of 12%, liquid/solid ratio of 6:1, temperature of 140 °C, and holding time of 20 min. Under those conditions, the solid yield was 55.24%, and the removal of lignin was 82.68%. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan for pretreated corn stover were 85.38% and 70.36%, and the total sugar yield was 74.73% at cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g and β-glucosidase loading of 10 IU/g for 48 h. Compared with sodium hydroxide pretreatment with the same amount of total titratable alkali, the total sugar yield was raised by about 10.43%. Additionally, the corn stover pretreated under the optimum pretreatment conditions was beaten by PFI at 1500 revolutions. After beating, enzymatic hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan were 89.74% and 74.06%, and the total sugar yield was 78.58% at the same enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. Compared with 1500 rpm of PFI beating after sodium pretreatment with the same amount of total titratable alkali, the total sugar yield was raised by about 14.05%. PMID:25773993

  15. pH-oscillations in the bromate–sulfite reaction in semibatch and in gel-fed batch reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Poros, Eszter; Kurin-Csörgei, Krisztina; Szalai, István; Orbán, Miklós; Rábai, Gyula

    2015-06-15

    The simplest bromate oxidation based pH-oscillator, the two component BrO{sub 3}{sup −}–SO{sub 3}{sup 2–} flow system was transformed to operate under semibatch and closed arrangements. The experimental preconditions of the pH-oscillations in semibatch configuration were predicted by model calculations. Using this information as guideline large amplitude (ΔpH∼3), long lasting (11–24 h) pH-oscillations accompanied with only a 20% increase of the volume in the reactor were measured when a mixture of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was pumped into the solution of BrO{sub 3}{sup −} with a very low rate. Batch-like pH-oscillations, similar in amplitude and period time appeared when the sulfite supply was substituted by its dissolution from a gel layer prepared previously in the reactor in presence of high concentration of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}. The dissolution vs time curve and the pH-oscillations in the semibatch and closed systems were successfully simulated. Due to the simplicity in composition and in experimental technique, the semibatch and batch-like BrO{sub 3}{sup −}–SO{sub 3}{sup 2–} pH-oscillators may become superior to their CSTR (continuous flow stirred tank reactor) version in some present and future applications.

  16. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hideaki; Shomura, Yasuhito; Goenka Agrawal, Aruna; Kaur, Amrit Pal; Gärtner, Wolfgang; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr) plays an important role in sulfate respiration in many sulfate-reducing bacteria. Dsr from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F has been purified and crystallized at 277 K using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG 3350 and potassium thiocyanate as precipitants. A data set was collected to 3.7 Å resolution from a single crystal at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. The Dsr crystal belonged to space group P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 163.26, c = 435.32 Å. The crystal structure of Dsr was determined by the molecular-replacement method based on the three-dimensional structure of Dsr from D. vulgaris Hildenborough. The crystal contained three α(2)β(2)γ(2) units per asymmetric unit, with a Matthews coefficient (V(M)) of 2.35 Å(3) Da(-1); the solvent content was estimated to be 47.7%. PMID:21045297

  17. Determination of Histamine by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography After Precolumn Derivatization with o-Phthalaldehyde-Sulfite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rongxiang; Deng, Yinghua; Yang, Liu; Wang, Jie; Xu, Fuqiang

    2016-04-01

    A fast and sensitive method was developed for in vivo determination of histamine in the brain microdialysate by reverse ion pair chromatography with electrochemical detection. The microdialysates were derivatized with o-phthalaldehyde and sodium sulfite, and separation was achieved using isocratic elution within 10 min. The separation was performed in an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (3.0 × 150 mm, particle size 3.5 μm), and the mobile phase consisted of 100 mM monosodium phosphate (pH 6.0), 500 mg L(-1) OSA and 20% methanol (v/v). The linearity (R(2)) was found to be >0.999, with a range from 2 to 50 nM and excellent repeatability (relative standard deviation, 2.29-6.04%), and the limit of detection was 0.4 nM. This method was successfully applied to analyze the extracellular concentration of histamine in the hypothalamus of rats, with probe recovery calculated in vivo. PMID:26688564

  18. pH-oscillations in the bromate-sulfite reaction in semibatch and in gel-fed batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Poros, Eszter; Kurin-Csörgei, Krisztina; Szalai, István; Rábai, Gyula; Orbán, Miklós

    2015-06-01

    The simplest bromate oxidation based pH-oscillator, the two component BrO3(-)-SO3(2-) flow system was transformed to operate under semibatch and closed arrangements. The experimental preconditions of the pH-oscillations in semibatch configuration were predicted by model calculations. Using this information as guideline large amplitude (ΔpH∼3), long lasting (11-24 h) pH-oscillations accompanied with only a 20% increase of the volume in the reactor were measured when a mixture of Na2SO3 and H2SO4 was pumped into the solution of BrO3(-) with a very low rate. Batch-like pH-oscillations, similar in amplitude and period time appeared when the sulfite supply was substituted by its dissolution from a gel layer prepared previously in the reactor in presence of high concentration of Na2SO3. The dissolution vs time curve and the pH-oscillations in the semibatch and closed systems were successfully simulated. Due to the simplicity in composition and in experimental technique, the semibatch and batch-like BrO3(-)-SO3(2-) pH-oscillators may become superior to their CSTR (continuous flow stirred tank reactor) version in some present and future applications. PMID:26117127

  19. Isolation and characterization of a resident tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain from a spent sulfite liquor fermentation plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Spent Sulfite Liquor (SSL) from wood pulping facilities is a sugar rich effluent that can be used as feedstock for ethanol production. However, depending on the pulping process conditions, the release of monosaccharides also generates a range of compounds that negatively affect microbial fermentation. In the present study, we investigated whether endogenous yeasts in SSL-based ethanol plant could represent a source of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with a naturally acquired tolerance towards this inhibitory environment. Two isolation processes were performed, before and after the re-inoculation of the plant with a commercial baker’s yeast strain. The isolates were clustered by DNA fingerprinting and a recurrent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, different from the inoculated commercial baker’s yeast strain, was isolated. The strain, named TMB3720, flocculated heavily and presented high furaldehyde reductase activity. During fermentation of undiluted SSL, TMB3720 displayed a 4-fold higher ethanol production rate and 1.8-fold higher ethanol yield as compared to the commercial baker’s yeast. Another non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae species, identified as the pentose utilizing Pichia galeiformis, was also recovered in the last tanks of the process where the hexose to pentose sugar ratio and the inhibitory pressure are expected to be the lowest. PMID:23237549

  20. pH-oscillations in the bromate-sulfite reaction in semibatch and in gel-fed batch reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poros, Eszter; Kurin-Csörgei, Krisztina; Szalai, István; Rábai, Gyula; Orbán, Miklós

    2015-06-01

    The simplest bromate oxidation based pH-oscillator, the two component BrO3--SO32- flow system was transformed to operate under semibatch and closed arrangements. The experimental preconditions of the pH-oscillations in semibatch configuration were predicted by model calculations. Using this information as guideline large amplitude (ΔpH˜3), long lasting (11-24 h) pH-oscillations accompanied with only a 20% increase of the volume in the reactor were measured when a mixture of Na2SO3 and H2SO4 was pumped into the solution of BrO3- with a very low rate. Batch-like pH-oscillations, similar in amplitude and period time appeared when the sulfite supply was substituted by its dissolution from a gel layer prepared previously in the reactor in presence of high concentration of Na2SO3. The dissolution vs time curve and the pH-oscillations in the semibatch and closed systems were successfully simulated. Due to the simplicity in composition and in experimental technique, the semibatch and batch-like BrO3--SO32- pH-oscillators may become superior to their CSTR (continuous flow stirred tank reactor) version in some present and future applications.

  1. C-Terminal Region of Sulfite Reductase Is Important to Localize to Chloroplast Nucleoids in Land Plants

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Otani, Takuto; Ishibashi, Kota; Shikanai, Toshiharu; Nishimura, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast (cp) DNA is compacted into cpDNA-protein complexes, called cp nucleoids. An abundant and extensively studied component of cp nucleoids is the bifunctional protein sulfite reductase (SiR). The preconceived role of SiR as the core cp nucleoid protein, however, is becoming less likely because of the recent findings that SiRs do not associate with cp nucleoids in some plant species, such as Zea mays and Arabidopsis thaliana. To address this discrepancy, we have performed a detailed phylogenetic analysis of SiRs, which shows that cp nucleoid-type SiRs share conserved C-terminally encoded peptides (CEPs). The CEPs are likely to form a bacterial ribbon–helix–helix DNA-binding motif, implying a potential role in attaching SiRs onto cp nucleoids. A proof-of-concept experiment was conducted by fusing the nonnucleoid-type SiR from A. thaliana (AtSiR) with the CEP from the cp nucleoid-type SiR of Phaseolus vulgaris. The addition of the CEP drastically altered the intra-cp localization of AtSiR to cp nucleoids. Our analysis supports the possible functions of CEPs in determining the localization of SiRs to cp nucleoids and illuminates a possible evolutionary scenario for SiR as a cp nucleoid protein. PMID:27189994

  2. C-Terminal Region of Sulfite Reductase Is Important to Localize to Chloroplast Nucleoids in Land Plants.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Otani, Takuto; Ishibashi, Kota; Shikanai, Toshiharu; Nishimura, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast (cp) DNA is compacted into cpDNA-protein complexes, called cp nucleoids. An abundant and extensively studied component of cp nucleoids is the bifunctional protein sulfite reductase (SiR). The preconceived role of SiR as the core cp nucleoid protein, however, is becoming less likely because of the recent findings that SiRs do not associate with cp nucleoids in some plant species, such as Zea mays and Arabidopsis thaliana To address this discrepancy, we have performed a detailed phylogenetic analysis of SiRs, which shows that cp nucleoid-type SiRs share conserved C-terminally encoded peptides (CEPs). The CEPs are likely to form a bacterial ribbon-helix-helix DNA-binding motif, implying a potential role in attaching SiRs onto cp nucleoids. A proof-of-concept experiment was conducted by fusing the nonnucleoid-type SiR from A. thaliana (AtSiR) with the CEP from the cp nucleoid-type SiR of Phaseolus vulgaris The addition of the CEP drastically altered the intra-cp localization of AtSiR to cp nucleoids. Our analysis supports the possible functions of CEPs in determining the localization of SiRs to cp nucleoids and illuminates a possible evolutionary scenario for SiR as a cp nucleoid protein. PMID:27189994

  3. Batch slurry photocatalytic reactors for the generation of hydrogen from sulfide and sulfite waste streams under solar irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Priya, R.; Kanmani, S.

    2009-10-15

    In this study, two solar slurry photocatalytic reactors i.e., batch reactor (BR) and batch recycle reactor with continuous supply of inert gas (BRRwCG) were developed for comparing their performance. The performance of the photocatalytic reactors were evaluated based on the generation of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from water containing sodium sulfide (Na{sub 2}S) and sodium sulfite (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}) ions. The photoreactor of capacity 300 mL was developed with UV-vis transparent walls. The catalytic powders ((CdS/ZnS)/Ag{sub 2}S + (RuO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2})) were kept suspended by means of magnetic stirrer in the BR and gas bubbling and recycling of the suspension in the BRRwCG. The rate constant was found to be 120.86 (einstein{sup -1}) for the BRRwCG whereas, for the BR it was found to be only 10.92 (einstein{sup -1}). The higher rate constant was due to the fast desorption of products and suppression of e{sup -}/h{sup +} recombination. (author)

  4. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, S.G.

    1994-09-20

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

  5. Understanding the origin of metal-sulfur vibrations in an oxo-molybdenum dithiolene complex: relevance to sulfite oxidase.

    PubMed

    Inscore, Frank E; Knottenbelt, Sushilla Z; Rubie, Nick D; Joshi, Hemant K; Kirk, Martin L; Enemark, John H

    2006-02-01

    X-ray crystallography and resonance Raman (rR) spectroscopy have been used to further characterize (Tp*)MoO(qdt) (Tp* is hydrotris(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)borate and qdt is 2,3-quinoxalinedithiolene), which represents an important benchmark oxomolybdenum mono-dithiolene model system relevant to various pyranopterin Mo enzyme active sites, including sulfite oxidase. The compound (Tp*)MoO(qdt) crystallizes in the triclinic space group, P1, where a = 9.8424 (7) A, b = 11.2323 (8) A, c = 11.9408 (8) A, alpha = 92.7560 (10) degrees, beta = 98.9530 (10) degrees, and gamma = 104.1680 (10) degrees. The (Tp*)MoO(qdt) molecule exhibits the distorted six-coordinate geometry characteristic of related oxo-Mo(V) systems possessing a single coordinated dithiolene ligand. The first coordination sphere bond lengths and angles in (Tp*)MoO(qdt) are very similar to the corresponding structural parameters for (Tp*)MoO(bdt) (bdt is 1,2-benzenedithiolene). The relatively small inner-sphere structural variations observed between (Tp*)MoO(qdt) and (Tp*)MoO(bdt) strongly suggest that geometric effects are not a major contributor to the significant electronic structural differences reported for these two oxo-Mo(V) dithiolenes. Therefore, the large differences observed in the reduction potential and first ionization energy between the two molecules appear to derive primarily from differences in the effective nuclear charges of their respective sulfur donors. However, a subtle perturbation to Mo-S bonding is implied by the nonplanarity of the dithiolene chelate ring, which is defined by the fold angle. This angular distortion (theta = 29.5 degrees in (Tp*)MoO(qdt); 21.3 degrees in (Tp*)MoO(bdt)) observed between the MoS2 and S-C=C-S planes may contribute to the electronic structure of these oxo-Mo dithiolene systems by controlling the extent of S p-Mo d orbital overlap. In enzymes, the fold angle may be dynamically modulated by the pyranopterin, thereby functioning as a transducer of

  6. Investigation of a novel ternary electrolyte based on dimethyl sulfite and lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Renjie; Zhu, Lu; Wu, Feng; Li, Li; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Shi

    2014-01-01

    Lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate (LiODFB) has been used as a novel lithium salt for battery in recent studies. In this study, a series of novel electrolytes has been prepared by adding 30 vol% dimethyl sulfite (DMS) or dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as co-solvent into an ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) + LiX mixture, in which the LiX could be LiClO4, LiODFB, LiBOB, LiTFSI, or LiCF3SO3. These ternary electrolytes have been investigated for use in lithium ion batteries. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis shows that characteristic functional groups (-CO3, -SO3) undergo red-shift or blue-shift with the addition of different lithium salts. The LiODFB-EC/EMC/DMS electrolyte exhibits high ionic conductivity, which is mainly because of the low melting point of DMS, and LiODFB possessing high solubility. The Li/MCMB cells containing this novel electrolyte exhibit high capacities, good cycling performance, and excellent rate performance. These performances are probably because both LiODFB and DMS can assist in the formation of SEI films by reductive decomposition. Additionally, the discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO2 half cell containing LiODFB-EC/EMC/DMS electrolyte is 130.9 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles, and it is very comparable with the standard-commercial electrolyte. The results show that this study produces a promising electrolyte candidate for lithium ion batteries.

  7. Effects of humidity and temperature on the conversion of SO/sub 2/ to particulate sulfate and sulfite. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Freiberg, J.E.

    1983-11-01

    Effects of humidity and temperature on SO/sub 2/ conversion to particulate sulfate and sulfite in relation to heterogeneous conversion in droplets and on particle surfaces; homogeneous conversion in the gas phase; and gas-to-particle conversion are discussed. Theoretical quantitative expressions for some effects are derived and order-of-magnitude calculations are given. Detailed conclusions and comparisons regarding the effects of temperature and humidity on specific oxidation paths. Major conclusions documented are: rates of SO/sub 2/ to SO/sub 4//sup =/ converison in aqueous droplets are generally negatively correlated with temperature and positively correlated with relative humidity (particularly at high relative humidity); the rates of SO/sub 2/ to SO/sub 4//sup =/ conversion on reactive surfaces can be either positively correlated with relative humidity or unaffected by relative humidity, and can have a negative, a positive, or a zero correlation with temperture; the homogeneous photooxidation is considerably less sensitive to temperature than is the heterogeneous conversion. (The photooxidation of SO/sub 2/ is expected to be positively correlated with temperature, but the correlation will be weaker in clean air than in polluted air, the positive dependence of SO/sub 2/ photooxidation on humidity will be weaker in polluted air containing NMHC than in clean air); the specific conversion paths have rates with highly different sensitivities to relative humidity and temperature. Thus, a given conversion path can become more or less significant relative to other paths as relative humidity and temperature vary. This suggests that temperature and relative humidity variations can be major causes of the temporal and spatial variations in the rate and yield of conversion and in the type of sulfate produced, which in turn determine the extent of adverse environmental effects. 228 references, 1 figure, 28 tables.

  8. Fermentation Kinetics for Xylitol Production by a Pichia stipitis d-Xylulokinase Mutant Previously Grown in Spent Sulfite Liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.; Lu, Chenfeng; Lin, Bernice; Jeffries, Thomas W.

    Spent sulfite pulping liquor (SSL) contains lignin, which is present as lignosulfonate, and hemicelluloses that are present as hydrolyzed carbohydrates. To reduce the biological oxygen demand of SSL associated with dissolved sugars, we studied the capacity of Pichia stipitis FPL-YS30 (xyl3Δ) to convert these sugars into useful products. FPL-YS30 produces a negligible amount of ethanol while converting xylose into xylitol. This work describes the xylose fermentation kinetics of yeast strain P.stipitis FPL-YS30. Yeast was grown in rich medium supplemented with different carbon sources: glucose, xylose, or ammonia-base SSL. The SSL and glucose-acclimatized cells showed similar maximum specific growth rates (0.146 h-1). The highest xylose consumption at the beginning of the fermentation process occurred using cells precultivated in xylose, which showed relatively high specific activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49). However, the maximum specific rates of xylose consumption (0.19 gxylose/gcel h) and xylitol production (0.059 gxylitol/gcel h) were obtained with cells acclimatized in glucose, in which the ratio between xylose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21) and xylitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.9) was kept at higher level (0.82). In this case, xylitol production (31.6 g/l) was 19 and 8% higher than in SSL and xylose-acclimatized cells, respectively. Maximum glycerol (6.26 g/l) and arabitol (0.206 g/l) production were obtained using SSL and xylose-acclimatized cells, respectively. The medium composition used for the yeast precultivation directly reflected their xylose fermentation performance. The SSL could be used as a carbon source for cell production. However, the inoculum condition to obtain a high cell concentration in SSL needs to be optimized.

  9. Community composition and distribution of sulfate- and sulfite-reducing prokaryotes in sediments from the Changjiang estuary and adjacent East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hui; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tiezhu; Xu, Bochao; Wang, Guoshan; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Zhigang

    2015-11-01

    Sulfate- and sulfite-reducing prokaryotes (SSRP) communities play a vital role in both sulfur and carbon cycles. Community composition and abundance of SSRP were investigated using dissimilatory sulfite reductase β subunit (dsrB) gene sequencing in sediments from the Changjiang estuary and its adjacent area in the East China Sea (ECS). Clone libraries were constructed and real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was applied to understand the community information of SSRP. In addition to sequences affiliated to sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP), those affiliated with sulfite-reducing prokaryotes (SiRP) were also observed. Four phylotypes of SRP in this study showed genetic similarity to Desulfobulbaceae, Syntrophobacteraceae, Desulfobacteraceae and Peptococcaceae, and an unknown group that could not be clearly affiliated with known lineages was found. Salinity, temperature and contents of total organic carbon (TOC) were most closely correlated with the SSRP communities by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). 210Pb activities demonstrated the sedimentary environment at S33 was more stable than that at S31. Intense resuspension and reconstruction of sediments made the vertical abundance profile of SSRP fluctuate violently. For surface sediments, the dsrB gene copy numbers near the Changjiang estuary were higher than those in the mouth of Hangzhou Bay and the mud deposits along the Zhejiang coast, and contents of TOC were positively related to the copy numbers of dsrB gene. Our data provided valuable information to achieve a better understanding of the potential role of SSRP in sediments from the Changjiang estuary and adjacent East China Sea.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Methanesulfonic Acid-Degrading Bacteria from the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, A. S.; Owens, N.; Murrell, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Two methylotrophic bacterial strains, TR3 and PSCH4, capable of growth on methanesulfonic acid as the sole carbon source were isolated from the marine environment. Methanesulfonic acid metabolism in these strains was initiated by an inducible NADH-dependent monooxygenase, which cleaved methanesulfonic acid into formaldehyde and sulfite. The presence of hydroxypyruvate reductase and the absence of ribulose monophosphate-dependent hexulose monophosphate synthase indicated the presence of the serine pathway for formaldehyde assimilation. Cell suspensions of bacteria grown on methanesulfonic acid completely oxidized methanesulfonic acid to carbon dioxide and sulfite with a methanesulfonic acid/oxygen stoichiometry of 1.0:2.0. Oxygen electrode-substrate studies indicated the dissimilation of formaldehyde to formate and carbon dioxide for energy generation. Carbon dioxide was not fixed by ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase. It was shown that methanol is not an intermediate in methanesulfonic acid metabolism, although these strains grew on methanol and other one-carbon compounds, as well as a variety of heterotrophic carbon sources. These two novel marine facultative methylotrophs have the ability to mineralize methanesulfonic acid and may play a role in the cycling of global organic sulfur. PMID:16535055

  11. Studies on the bioavailability of deoxynivalenol (DON) and DON sulfonate (DONS) 1, 2, and 3 in pigs fed with sodium sulfite-treated DON-contaminated maize.

    PubMed

    Paulick, Marleen; Winkler, Janine; Kersten, Susanne; Schatzmayr, Dian; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-11-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure of pigs might cause serious problems when critical dietary toxin concentrations are exceeded. As DON contamination of agricultural crops cannot be completely prevented, detoxification measures are needed. Wet preservation with sodium sulfite resulted in a significant DON reduction of naturally-contaminated maize in previous experiments. The preserved material had a characteristic DON sulfonates (DONS) pattern. DONS is known to be less toxic than DON but its stability was shown to depend on pH, which gives rise to the question if a back-conversion to DON occurs in vivo. Therefore, the toxicokinetics and bioavailability of DON and DONS were studied in pigs. After the administration of a single oral or intravenous bolus of DON or DONS, serial blood samples were collected and subsequently analyzed. DONS was not detectable after oral administration of DONS mixtures. The results showed further that the bioavailability of DONS as DON in pigs fed maize preserved wet with sodium sulfite was significantly decreased compared to untreated control maize (DON), indicating that DONS obviously did not convert back to DON to a large extent in vivo. Moreover, the fact that DONS was not detectable in systemic blood requires further investigations regarding their ingestive and/or metabolic fate. PMID:26556376

  12. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Knockout (VIP KO) mouse model of sulfite-sensitive asthma: up-regulation of novel lung carbonyl reductase

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We earlier reported spontaneous features of asthma in Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide knockout mice (VIP KO): 1) peribronchiolar airway inflammation, with accumulation of lymphocytes and eosinophils, 2) pro-inflammatory cytokine production of IL-5, IL-6, with IFN-γ, and 3) airway hyper-responsiveness to inhaled methacholine. In human asthma, a phenotype with sulfite sensitivity leads to airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness to inhaled sulfites, and is associated with upregulation of anti-oxidant protein lung carbonyl reductase. For the present experiments, we examined the role of VIP in modulating anti-oxidant genes and their proteins, including lung carbonyl reductase. Results Four male VIP KO mice and four wild-type age- and gender matched mice had lungs examined for whole genome microarray and a proteomics approach using mass spectrometry. The proteomics analysis revealed that a novel variant of anti-oxidant protein lung carbonyl reductase (car3) was uniquely and markedly elevated in the VIP KO mice. RT-PCR indicated that carbonic anhydrase 3, which is an anti-oxidant protein, was elevated in the VIP KO mice. Conclusions These data support the concept that VIP influences the endogenous oxidant/antioxidant balance. One potential implication is that VIP and its analogues may be used to treat inflammatory diseases, including asthma. PMID:22103391

  13. Studies on the Bioavailability of Deoxynivalenol (DON) and DON Sulfonate (DONS) 1, 2, and 3 in Pigs Fed with Sodium Sulfite-Treated DON-Contaminated Maize

    PubMed Central

    Paulick, Marleen; Winkler, Janine; Kersten, Susanne; Schatzmayr, Dian; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure of pigs might cause serious problems when critical dietary toxin concentrations are exceeded. As DON contamination of agricultural crops cannot be completely prevented, detoxification measures are needed. Wet preservation with sodium sulfite resulted in a significant DON reduction of naturally-contaminated maize in previous experiments. The preserved material had a characteristic DON sulfonates (DONS) pattern. DONS is known to be less toxic than DON but its stability was shown to depend on pH, which gives rise to the question if a back-conversion to DON occurs in vivo. Therefore, the toxicokinetics and bioavailability of DON and DONS were studied in pigs. After the administration of a single oral or intravenous bolus of DON or DONS, serial blood samples were collected and subsequently analyzed. DONS was not detectable after oral administration of DONS mixtures. The results showed further that the bioavailability of DONS as DON in pigs fed maize preserved wet with sodium sulfite was significantly decreased compared to untreated control maize (DON), indicating that DONS obviously did not convert back to DON to a large extent in vivo. Moreover, the fact that DONS was not detectable in systemic blood requires further investigations regarding their ingestive and/or metabolic fate. PMID:26556376

  14. Using sulfite chemistry for robust bioconversion of Douglas-fir forest residue to bioethanol at high titer and lignosulfonate: a pilot-scale evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J Y; Chandra, M Subhosh; Gu, Feng; Gleisner, Roland; Reiner, Rick; Sessions, John; Marrs, Gevan; Gao, Johnway; Anderson, Dwight

    2015-03-01

    This study demonstrated at the pilot-scale (50 kg) use of Douglas-fir forest harvest residue, an underutilized forest biomass, for the production of high titer and high yield bioethanol using sulfite chemistry without solid-liquor separation and detoxification. Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome the Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL) was directly applied to the ground forest harvest residue with no further mechanical size reduction, at a low temperature of 145°C and calcium bisulfite or total SO2 loadings of only 6.5 or 6.6 wt% on oven dry forest residue, respectively. The low temperature pretreatment facilitated high solids fermentation of the un-detoxified pretreated whole slurry. An ethanol yield of 282 L/tonne, equivalent to 70% theoretical, with a titer of 42 g/L was achieved. SPORL solubilized approximately 45% of the wood lignin as directly marketable lignosulfonate with properties equivalent to or better than a commercial lignosulfonate, important to improve the economics of biofuel production. PMID:25553570

  15. Hybrid sequential injection-flow injection manifold for the spectrophotometric determination of total sulfite in wines using o-phthalaldehyde and gas-diffusion.

    PubMed

    Tzanavaras, Paraskevas D; Thiakouli, Eleni; Themelis, Demetrius G

    2009-03-15

    A new automated spectrophotometric method for the determination of total sulfite in white and red wines is reported. The assay is based on the reaction of o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) and ammonium chloride with the analyte in basic medium under SI conditions. Upon on-line alkalization with NaOH, a blue product is formed having an absorption maximum at 630 nm. The parameters affecting the reaction - temperature, pH, ionic strength, amount concentration and volume of OPA, amount concentration of ammonium chloride, flow rate and reaction coil length - and the gas-diffusion process - sample and HCl volumes, length of mixing coil, donor flow rate - were studied. The proposed method was validated in terms of linearity (1-40 mgL(-1), r=0.9997), limit of detection (c(L)=0.3 mgL(-1)) and quantitation (c(Q)=1.0 mgL(-1)), precision (s(r)=2.2% at 20 mgL(-1) sulfite, n=12) and selectivity. The applicability of the analytical procedure was evaluated by analyzing white and red wine samples, while the accuracy as expressed by recovery experiments ranged between 96% and 106%. PMID:19159773

  16. Quantitative Microbiological Analysis of Bacterial Community Shifts in a High-Rate Anaerobic Bioreactor Treating Sulfite Evaporator Condensate

    PubMed Central

    Ney, U.; Macario, A. J. L.; de Macario, E. Conway; Aivasidis, A.; Schoberth, S. M.; Sahm, H.

    1990-01-01

    The bacterial population of a high-rate, anaerobic, fixed-bed loop reactor treating sulfite evaporator condensate from the pulp industry was studied over a 14-month period. This period was divided into seven cycles that included a startup at the beginning of each cycle. Some 82% of the total biomass was immobilized on and between the porous glass rings filling the reactor. The range of the total number of microorganisms in these biofilms was 2 × 109 to 7 × 109 cells per ml. Enumeration and characterization by microbiological methods and by phase-contrast, epifluorescence, and electron microscopy showed that the samples consisted mainly of the following methanogens: a Methanobacterium sp., a Methanosarcina sp., a Methanobrevibacter sp., and a Methanothrix sp., as well as furfural-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria resembling Desulfovibrio furfuralis. Viable counts of hydrogenotrophic methanogens were relatively stable (mostly within the range of 3.2 × 108 to 7.5 × 108 cells per ml), but Methanobrevibacter cells increased from <5 to 30% of the total hydrogenotrophic count after transfer of the fixed bed into a second reactor vessel. Acetotrophic methanogens reached their highest numbers of 1.3 × 108 to 2.6 × 108 cells per ml in the last fermentation cycles. They showed a morphological shift from sarcinalike packets in early samples to single coccoid forms in later phases of the fermentation. Furfural-degrading sulfate reducers reached counts of 1 × 107 to 5.8 × 107 cells per ml. The distribution of the chief metabolic groups between free fluid and biofilms was analyzed in the fifth fermentation cycle: 4.5 times more furfural degraders were found in the free fluid than in the biofilms. In contrast, 5.8 times more acetotrophic and 16.6 times more hydrogenotrophic methanogens were found in the biofilms than in the free liquid. The data concerning time shifts of morphotypes among the trophic groups of methanogens corroborated the trends observed by using

  17. Titrimetric determination of ascorbic acid using chloranil.

    PubMed

    Verma, K K; Jain, A; Rawat, R

    1984-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is oxidized and quantitatively titrated with chloranil (2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone) in the presence of hexamethylenetetramine in acetone-water; the end point is determined visually by the appearance of a golden yellow color. Colored solutions are assayed by setting the initial absorbance at 451 nm to zero or the minimum, titrating with chloranil solution, and measuring absorbance after each increment of titrant. A plot of the volume of chloranil added against the absorbance gives a straight line with the volume intercept as the end point. Interference by the thiol group of cysteine, glutathione, etc., is avoided by masking with acrylamide; interference by iron(II) is masked with ammonium thiocyanate and sodium potassium tartrate. Hydrogen sulfite and thiourea (which do not interfere) are added as antioxidants during extraction of ascorbic acid from drugs and fruits. PMID:6725194

  18. A novel and simple fluorescent and colorimetric primary chemosensor based on Congo-Red for sulfite and resultant complex as secondary fluorescent chemosensor towards carbonate ions: Fluorescent probe mimicking INHIBIT logic gate.

    PubMed

    Tavallali, Hossein; Deilamy-Rad, Gohar; Parhami, Abolfath; Lohrasbi, Sajedeh

    2016-03-01

    A simple receptor based on Congo-Red (CR) was prepared by complexation of CR into two equivalents of Cu (II) ([CR-(Cu)2]) and it has been designed for detection of sulfite and carbonate ions. This chemosensor exhibits high sensitivity for sulfite over other anions in aqueous buffer solution. It exhibits colorimetric 'naked eye' and fluorometric responses to SO3(2-) which results from the addition of SO3(2)(-) to CR diazo moiety. Hereupon, CO3(2-) greatly limits the fluorescence of the resultant sulfite-receptor complex via a hydrogen bonding interaction ([CR-(Cu)2]-SO3). This system can be applied for selective detection of CO3(2-) in the presence of other anions. The detection limits of SO3(2-), calculated by the colorimetric and fluorometric methods, were found to be 0.07 and 0.09µmolL(-)(1), respectively. The sulfite-receptor complex also displayed the ability to detect up to 0.06µmolL(-)(1) CO3(2-). The fluorescence output mimicked 'INHIBIT' logic gate function. The output was exhibited by the intramolecular charge transfer of the [CR-(Cu)2] probe, and was provided by chemical inputs (SO3(2-) and CO3(2-)). PMID:26717828

  19. Indirect determination of sulfite using a polyphenol oxidase biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles within a poly(allylamine hydrochloride) film.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Elen Romão; Vicentini, Fernando Campanhã; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2011-12-15

    The modification of a glassy carbon electrode with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles within a poly(allylamine hydrochloride) film for the development of a biosensor is proposed. This approach provides an efficient method used to immobilize polyphenol oxidase (PPO) obtained from the crude extract of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.). The principle of the analytical method is based on the inhibitory effect of sulfite on the activity of PPO, in the reduction reaction of o-quinone to catechol and/or the reaction of o-quinone with sulfite. Under the optimum experimental conditions using the differential pulse voltammetry technique, the analytical curve obtained was linear in the concentration of sulfite in the range from 0.5 to 22 μmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.4 μmol L(-1). The biosensor was applied for the determination of sulfite in white and red wine samples with results in close agreement with those results obtained using a reference iodometric method (at a 95% confidence level). PMID:22099673

  20. The N-terminal Domain of Escherichia coli Assimilatory NADPH-Sulfite Reductase Hemoprotein Is an Oligomerization Domain That Mediates Holoenzyme Assembly*

    PubMed Central

    Askenasy, Isabel; Pennington, Joseph M.; Tao, Yeqing; Marshall, Alan G.; Young, Nicolas L.; Shang, Weifeng; Stroupe, M. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Assimilatory NADPH-sulfite reductase (SiR) from Escherichia coli is a structurally complex oxidoreductase that catalyzes the six-electron reduction of sulfite to sulfide. Two subunits, one a flavin-binding flavoprotein (SiRFP, the α subunit) and the other an iron-containing hemoprotein (SiRHP, the β subunit), assemble to make a holoenzyme of about 800 kDa. How the two subunits assemble is not known. The iron-rich cofactors in SiRHP are unique because they are a covalent arrangement of a Fe4S4 cluster attached through a cysteine ligand to an iron-containing porphyrinoid called siroheme. The link between cofactor biogenesis and SiR stability is also ill-defined. By use of hydrogen/deuterium exchange and biochemical analysis, we show that the α8β4 SiR holoenzyme assembles through the N terminus of SiRHP and the NADPH binding domain of SiRFP. By use of small angle x-ray scattering, we explore the structure of the SiRHP N-terminal oligomerization domain. We also report a novel form of the hemoprotein that occurs in the absence of its cofactors. Apo-SiRHP forms a homotetramer, also dependent on its N terminus, that is unable to assemble with SiRFP. From these results, we propose that homotetramerization of apo-SiRHP serves as a quality control mechanism to prevent formation of inactive holoenzyme in the case of limiting cellular siroheme. PMID:26088143

  1. Effects of mutating aromatic surface residues of the heme domain of human sulfite oxidase on its heme midpoint potential, intramolecular electron transfer, and steady-state kinetics.

    PubMed

    Davis, Amanda C; Cornelison, Matthew J; Meyers, Kimberly T; Rajapakshe, Asha; Berry, Robert E; Tollin, Gordon; Enemark, John H

    2013-03-01

    Human sulfite oxidase (hSO), an essential molybdoheme enzyme, catalyzes the oxidation of toxic sulfite to sulfate. The proposed catalytic cycle includes two, one-electron intramolecular electron transfers (IET) between the molybdenum (Mo) and the heme domains. Rapid IET rates are ascribed to conformational changes that bring the two domains into close proximity to one another. Previous studies of hSO have focused on the roles of conserved residues near the Mo active site and on the tether that links the two domains. Here four aromatic surface residues on the heme domain (phenylalanine 57 (F57), phenylalanine 79 (F79), tyrosine 83 (Y83), and histidine 90 (H90)) have been mutated, and their involvement in IET rates, the heme midpoint potential, and the catalytic activity of hSO have been investigated using laser flash photolysis, spectroelectrochemistry, and steady-state kinetics, respectively. The results indicate that the size and hydrophobicity of F57 play an important role in modulating the heme potential and that F57 also affects the IET rates. The data also suggest that important interactions of H90 with a heme propionate group destabilize the Fe(III) state of the heme. The positive charge on H90 at pH ≤ 7.0 may decrease the electrostatic interaction between the Mo and heme domains, thereby decreasing the IET rates of wt hSO at low pH. Lastly, mutations of F79 and Y83, which are located on the surface of the heme domain, but not in direct contact with the heme or the propionate groups, have little effect on either IET or the heme potential. PMID:22975842

  2. Improved Detection of Polygalacturonase Activity due to Mucor piriformis with a Modified Dinitrosalicylic Acid Reagent.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Michailides, T J; Bostock, R M

    1997-02-01

    ABSTRACT An assay for determination of galacturonic acid with 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid was developed that substantially extends the linear range of detection compared to a previously published method with this reagent. In the improved assay, galacturonic acid was detected with a reagent containing 44 mM 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, 4 mM sodium sulfite, and 375 mM sodium hydroxide. The absorbance of the solution after reaction with galacturonic acid was determined at 575 nm and was linear at concentrations of galacturonic acid up to 50 mumol, with a lower limit of detection at ~400 nmol. The assay with the improved reagent could be performed in wavelength ranges from 550 to 575 nm, with higher sensitivity at the shorter wavelengths. The new reagent was used in routine assays of polygalacturonase activity in culture filtrates of the important postharvest fungal pathogen Mucor piriformis. PMID:18945136

  3. Water disinfection with the hydrogen peroxide-ascorbic acid-copper (II) system.

    PubMed Central

    Ragab-Depre, N J

    1982-01-01

    Treatment of secondary effluents with hydrogen peroxide (10 mg/liter)-ascorbic acid (10 mg/liter)-Cu2+ (0.5 mg/liter) for 60 min resulted in around 99% reduction of the initial plate count. Hydrogen peroxide could be replaced by other peroxygen compounds; ascorbic acid could be replaced by other reducing agents, of which sodium sulfite and ethanol were the most effective. Cu2+, however, could not be replaced by other metal ions without loss of bactericidal efficiency of the ternary combination. Enterobacteriaceae, total and fecal coliforms, staphylococci, and micrococci were reduced by 99.0 to 99.9%. Group D streptococci aerobic spores were reduced by 80 and 15%, respectively. Clostridium perfringens, yeasts, and molds were not killed by the disinfectant combinations. The effect of pH was only minor in the range from 6 to 7.5. At a higher pH value the bactericidal effects tended to decrease. The hydrogen peroxide-ascorbic acid-Cu2+ combination made it possible to obtain 99% reduction within 30 min. When using the hydrogen peroxide-sodium sulfite-Cu2+ or the hydrogen peroxide-ethanol-Cu2+ combinations, 60 min of contact time was necessary to obtain 99% reduction of the initial plate count. Cu2+ combined to an intermediate product of the ascorbic acid autoxidation is the toxic agent, and its penetration into the cell is promoted by hydrogen peroxide. PMID:7138000

  4. Effect of sulfite ions in N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} purged 0.5 m NaCl solution on stainless steels examined by different electrochemical techniques and by reflectance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmingsen, T.; Aagotnes, N.O.; Kroeger-Silseth, T.; Kolak, N.; Kaik, M.

    1999-11-01

    Three steels, 13% Cr-steel, SS 304 steel and duplex steel are examined for corrosion for 48-hours periods in N{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} purged 0.5 M sodium chloride electrolytes with different sulfite concentrations. The results show that 13%Cr-steel is most susceptible to pitting in the presence of sulfite both under N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} atmospheres. SS 304 steel was more resistant to corrosion than 13%Cr-steel. Duplex steel showed rather good corrosion resistance under these conditions. The corrosion rate, inclusive pitting corrosion, after 24 hours in presence of 0--10 mM sulfite based on LPR-measurements is for duplex steel 0.5--0.9 mm/year under N{sub 2} and 0.1--1.8 mm/year under CO{sub 2}, for SS 304 steel 1.0--1.8 mm/year under N{sub 2} and 0.6--1.4 mm/year under CO{sub 2}, and for 13%Cr-steel 1.3--2.2 mm/year under N{sub 2} and 0.7--1.8 mm/year under CO{sub 2}. The use of AC-impedance measurements is discussed. The method should be used with care when other mechanisms than general corrosion are involved.

  5. Photoproduction of glyoxylic acid in model wine: Impact of sulfur dioxide, caffeic acid, pH and temperature.

    PubMed

    Grant-Preece, Paris; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Barril, Celia; Clark, Andrew C

    2017-01-15

    Glyoxylic acid is a tartaric acid degradation product formed in model wine solutions containing iron and its production is greatly increased by exposure to UV-visible light. In this study, the combined effect of sulfur dioxide, caffeic acid, pH and temperature on the light-induced (⩾300nm) production of glyoxylic acid in model wine containing tartaric acid and iron was investigated using a Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM). Glyoxylic acid produced in the irradiated model wine was present in free and hydrogen sulfite adduct forms and the measured total, free and percentage free glyoxylic acid values were modeled using RSM. Sulfur dioxide significantly decreased the total amount of glyoxylic acid produced, but could not prevent its production, while caffeic acid showed no significant impact. The interaction between pH and temperature was significant, with low pH values and low temperatures giving rise to higher levels of total glyoxylic acid. PMID:27542478

  6. Sulfur K-edge Spectroscopic Investigation of Second Coordination Sphere Effects in Oxomolybdenum-Thiolates: Relationship to Molybdenum-Cysteine Covalency and Electron Transfer in Sulfite Oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Peariso,K.; Helton, M.; Duesler, E.; Shadle, S.; Kirk, M.

    2007-01-01

    Second-coordination sphere effects such as hydrogen bonding and steric constraints that provide for specific geometric configurations play a critical role in tuning the electronic structure of metalloenzyme active sites and thus have a significant effect on their catalytic efficiency. Crystallographic characterization of vertebrate and plant sulfite oxidase (SO) suggests that an average O{sub oxo}-Mo-S{sub Cys}-C dihedral angle of {approx}77{sup o} exists at the active site of these enzymes. This angle is slightly more acute ({approx}72{sup o}) in the bacterial sulfite dehydrogenase (SDH) from Starkeya novella. Here we report the synthesis, crystallographic, and electronic structural characterization of Tp*MoO(mba) (where Tp* = (3,5-dimethyltrispyrazol-1-yl)borate; mba = 2-mercaptobenzyl alcohol), the first oxomolybdenum monothiolate to possess an O{sub ax}-Mo-S{sub thiolate}-C dihedral angle of {approx}90{sup o}. Sulfur X-ray absorption spectroscopy clearly shows that O{sub ax}-Mo-S{sub thiolate}-C dihedral angles near 90{sup o} effectively eliminate covalency contributions to the Mo(xy) redox orbital from the thiolate sulfur. Sulfur K-pre-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy intensity ratios for the spin-allowed S(1s) {yields} S{sup v}(p) + Mo(xy) and S(1s) {yields} S{sup v}(p) + Mo(xz,yz) transitions have been calibrated by a direct comparison of theory with experiment to yield thiolate S{sup v}(p) orbital contributions, c{sup 2}{sub i}, to the Mo(xy) redox orbital and the Mo(xz,yz) orbital set. Furthermore, these intensity ratios are related to a second coordination sphere structural parameter, the O{sub oxo}-Mo-S{sub thiolate}-C dihedral angle. The relationship between Mo-S{sub thiolate} and Mo-S{sub dithiolene} covalency in oxomolydenum systems is discussed, particularly with respect to electron-transfer regeneration in SO.

  7. Nature of the oxomolybdenum-thiolate pi-bond: implications for Mo-S bonding in sulfite oxidase and xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Rebecca L; Helton, Matthew E; Cosper, Michele Mader; Enemark, John H; Kirk, Martin L

    2004-03-01

    The electronic structure of cis,trans-(L-N(2)S(2))MoO(X) (where L-N(2)S(2) = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(2-mercaptophenyl)ethylenediamine and X = Cl, SCH(2)C(6)H(5), SC(6)H(4)-OCH(3), or SC(6)H(4)CF(3)) has been probed by electronic absorption, magnetic circular dichroism, and resonance Raman spectroscopies to determine the nature of oxomolybdenum-thiolate bonding in complexes possessing three equatorial sulfur ligands. One of the phenyl mercaptide sulfur donors of the tetradentate L-N(2)S(2) chelating ligand, denoted S(180), coordinates to molybdenum in the equatorial plane such that the OMo-S(180)-C(phenyl) dihedral angle is approximately 180 degrees, resulting in a highly covalent pi-bonding interaction between an S(180) p orbital and the molybdenum d(xy) orbital. This highly covalent bonding scheme is the origin of an intense low-energy S --> Mo d(xy) bonding-to-antibonding LMCT transition (E(max) approximately 16000 cm(-)(1), epsilon approximately 4000 M(-)(1) cm(-)(1)). Spectroscopically calibrated bonding calculations performed at the DFT level of theory reveal that S(180) contributes approximately 22% to the HOMO, which is predominantly a pi antibonding molecular orbital between Mo d(xy) and the S(180) p orbital oriented in the same plane. The second sulfur donor of the L-N(2)S(2) ligand is essentially nonbonding with Mo d(xy) due to an OMo-S-C(phenyl) dihedral angle of approximately 90 degrees. Because the formal Mo d(xy) orbital is the electroactive or redox orbital, these Mo d(xy)-S 3p interactions are important with respect to defining key covalency contributions to the reduction potential in monooxomolybdenum thiolates, including the one- and two-electron reduced forms of sulfite oxidase. Interestingly, the highly covalent Mo-S(180) pi bonding interaction observed in these complexes is analogous to the well-known Cu-S(Cys) pi bond in type 1 blue copper proteins, which display electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectra that are remarkably similar to

  8. Determination of the Distance between the Mo(V) and Fe(III) Heme Centers of Wild Type Human Sulfite Oxidase by Pulsed EPR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Astashkin, Andrei V.; Rajapakshe, Asha; Cornelison, Matthew; Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Enemark, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Intramolecular electron transfer (IET) between the molybdenum and heme centers of vertebrate sulfite oxidase (SO) is proposed to be a key step in the catalytic cycle of the enzyme. However, the X-ray crystallographic distance between these centers, RMoFe = 32.3 Å, appears to be too long for the rapid IET rates observed in liquid solution. The Mo and heme domains are linked by a flexible tether, and it has been proposed that dynamic interdomain motion brings the two metal centers closer together and thereby facilitates rapid IET. To date there have been no direct distance measurements for SO in solution that would support or contradict this model. In this work, pulsed electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) and relaxation induced dipolar modulation enhancement (RIDME) techniques were used to obtain information about RMoFe in the Mo(V)Fe(III) state of wild type recombinant human SO in frozen glassy solution. Surprisingly, the data obtained suggest a fixed structure with RMoFe = 32 Å, similar to that determined by X-ray crystallography for chicken SO, although the orientation of the RMoFe radius-vector with respect to the heme center was found to be somewhat different. The implications of these findings for the flexible tether model are discussed. PMID:22229742

  9. Determination of the distance between the Mo(V) and Fe(III) heme centers of wild type human sulfite oxidase by pulsed EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Astashkin, Andrei V; Rajapakshe, Asha; Cornelison, Matthew J; Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Enemark, John H

    2012-02-16

    Intramolecular electron transfer (IET) between the molybdenum and heme centers of vertebrate sulfite oxidase (SO) is proposed to be a key step in the catalytic cycle of the enzyme. However, the X-ray crystallographic distance between these centers, R(MoFe) = 32.3 Å, appears to be too long for the rapid IET rates observed in liquid solution. The Mo and heme domains are linked by a flexible tether, and it has been proposed that dynamic interdomain motion brings the two metal centers closer together and thereby facilitates rapid IET. To date, there have been no direct distance measurements for SO in solution that would support or contradict this model. In this work, pulsed electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) and relaxation induced dipolar modulation enhancement (RIDME) techniques were used to obtain information about R(MoFe) in the Mo(V)Fe(III) state of wild type recombinant human SO in frozen glassy solution. Surprisingly, the data obtained suggest a fixed structure with R(MoFe) = 32 Å, similar to that determined by X-ray crystallography for chicken SO, although the orientation of the R(MoFe) radius-vector with respect to the heme center was found to be somewhat different. The implications of these findings for the flexible tether model are discussed. PMID:22229742

  10. Papillaes-enhanced hydrophobicity of large-sized polytetrafluoroethylene-polyphenylene sulfite soft film prepared by layer-by-layer construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Cheng Cheng; Wang, Wen Jun; Zhang, Yu; Guan, Zi Sheng

    2012-07-01

    Large-sized superhydrophobic soft film with hierarchical structures were prepared by combining papillaes on the polytetrafluoroethylene-polyphenylene sulfite (PTFE-PPS) surface via layer-by-layer construction on the glass substrate and heat treatment processes, therein, the papillaes were formed by 0.1 μm PTFE coated on the pollen grains. The water contact angles (CAs) and sliding angles (SAs) of the films are strongly dependent on the number density of the papillaes on the PTFE-PPS surface. A superhydrophobic surface with a water CA = 151.5° and SA = 4° was obtained when the number density was about 649 mm-2. The papillaes with micro/submicroscale structures play an important role in the formation of the superhydrophobic surface and can change Wenzel-type surface into Cassie-Baxter-type surface. The condensation of water vapor on the Cassie-Baxter-type PTFE-PPS film is much more difficult than that of on the Wenzel-type film. Our method may develop into a facile method to prepare large-sized soft film with low cost, which limited only by the size of the loading substrates.

  11. Inhibition of acid production in coal refuse amended with CaSO{sub 3}-based flue gas desulfurization by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Y.; Dick, W.A.; Beeghly, J.

    1998-12-31

    Oxidation of pyrite in coal refuse produces acid which caused environmental degradation. Some flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products contain calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}) which is a strong reductant. Calcium sulfite competes with pyrite for oxygen resulting in inhibition of pyrite oxidation. In addition fly ash, CaCO{sub 3} and CaSO{sub 3} in FGD can neutralize acidity. Coal refuse, amended with FGD or its components, was packed into columns (2.5 x 13 cm) and leached weekly with water for 13 weeks. The pH, titratable acidity, and concentrations of Al, As, B, Ca, Fe, Pb, S, Se, were determined. The FGD containing CaSO{sub 2} inhibited acid production in coal refuse. The final leachate for FGD treatment had a pH of 5.3 and 20 mM of acidity (hydrogen ion) as compared to a pH of 1.7 and acidity of 480 mM for the control. Compared to the control, the FGD treatment yielded loser concentrations of all elements except for B and Ca. There was an interaction between all the components in the FGD and an indication that alterations of the ratio of components in FGD may significantly improve their inhibitory effect on acid production in coal refuse.

  12. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO.sub.2 ; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO.sub.2 with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0.degree. and 100.degree. C. at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environ-mentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed.

  13. Impact of flue gas desulfurization-calcium sulfite and gypsum on soil microbial activity and wheat growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.B.; Bigham, J.M.; Dick, W.A.; Kim, P.J.

    2008-08-15

    We conducted greenhouse tests to evaluate the effects of FGD-CaSO{sub 3} applied at rates of 0, 2.2, 4.4, and 8.8 Mg ha(-1) on wheat growth, soil enzyme activities, and the chemical properties of two soils with differing pH (4.0 vs. 6.2). A gypsum treatment applied at the rate of 2.2 Mg ha{sup -1} was used as a positive control. Exchangeable Ca{sup 2+} and water-extractable Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} increased significantly with increasing FGD-CaSO{sub 3} application. SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} increased in both soils, indicating rapid oxidation of SO{sub 3}{sup 2-} to SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} when neither water nor oxygen was limiting. No changes in soil pH were measured. Applications of 2.2, 4.4, or 8.8 Mg CaSO{sub 3} ha{sup -1} to the pH 6.2 soil produced no effect on wheat growth or the uptake of N, P, Ca{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+}. The uptake of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} -S increased, whereas K uptake decreased. No significant differences in the activities of urease, {beta}-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase, or arylsulfatase were observed relative to a control. In the acid soil, an application of 2.2 Mg ha{sup -1} FGD-CaSO{sub 3} increased wheat root growth and dry matter yield compared with an untreated control. The uptake of N, P, Ca{sup 2+}, and K{sup +} also increased presumably because of enhanced root development resulting from decreases in exchangeable Al{sup 3+} and increases in soluble Ca{sup 2+}. Wheat growth and alkaline phosphatase and arylsulfatase activities were significantly inhibited by addition of 8.8 Mg ha{sup -1} of FGD-CaSO{sub 3} compared with the untreated control or the same soil receiving 2.2 Mg ha{sup -1} gypsum. We conclude that surface applications of FGD-CaSO{sub 3} may be as effective as gypsum for inhibiting soil crusting, improving water infiltration, and promoting the movement of Ca{sup 2+} into acid subsoils. Moreover, application rates of equal to or less than 4.4 Mg ha-1 should have no negative impact on soil microbial activities or plant growth.

  14. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Identification of New Sulfonic Acid Metabolites of Chloroacetanilide Herbicides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, M.D.; Walters, F.H.; Aga, D.S.; Thurman, E.M.; Larive, C.K.

    1997-01-01

    The detection of the sulfonic acid metabolites of the chloroacetanilide herbicides acetochlor, alachlor, butachlor, propachlor, and, more recently, metolachlor in surface and ground water suggests that a common mechanism for dechlorination exists via the glutathione conjugation pathway. The identification of these herbicides and their metabolites is important due to growing public awareness and concern about pesticide levels in drinking water. Although these herbicides are regulated, little is known about the fate of their metabolites in soil. The sulfonic acid metabolites were synthesized by reaction of the parent compounds with an excess of sodium sulfite. Acetochlor, alachlor, butachlor, metolachlor, and propachlor and their sulfonic acid metabolites were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. This paper provides a direct method for the preparation and characterization of these compounds that will be useful in the analysis and study of chloracetanilide herbicides and their metabolites.

  15. Recovery of anhydrous Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} from SO{sub 2}-scrubbing liquor by extractive crystallization: Liquid-liquid equilibria for aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate, sulfate, and/or sulfite plus acetone, 2-propanol, or tert-butyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, S.; Cos, R.; Prausnitz, J.M.; Schiozer, A.L.; Jaecksch, W.L.

    1996-11-01

    Sodium carbonate is a superior scrubbing agent for removing SO{sub 2} from combustion gases, but the resulting sodium sulfate (or sulfite) must be recovered for environmental reasons. Recovery by evaporative crystallization is energy-intensive; extractive crystallization provides an attractive alterative when technically feasible. Liquid/liquid equilibrium data were determined for two-phase mixtures containing aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate, sulfate, or sulfite and a polar organic solvent: acetone, 2-propanol, and 2-methylpropan-1-ol (i.e., tert-butyl alcohol). In the salt-saturated two-phase region, data were obtained between the lower consolute temperature and 60 C (50 C for acetone). data were also obtained at 35 C for liquid/liquid systems that were subsaturated with their respective salts and for liquid/liquid systems with overall molar ratios of sodium sulfite/sodium sulfate fixed at 25/75, 50/50, and 75/25. In the latter systems, it was found that the sulfite/sulfate ratios in the organic and aqueous phases were the same, i.e., there is no selectivity by these solvents for one salt relative to the other. The data show that any one of these solvents can be used to extract water from a concentrated solution of either sodium sulfite or sodium sulfate in a countercurrent extractor at 35 C, causing the anhydrous salt to crystallize. The wet solvent can be dried for recycle in a similar countercurrent operation at 35 C, using a saturated solution of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as the drying agent. The number of moles of carbonate required for drying does not exceed the number of moles of sulfite-plus-sulfate precipitated. The process energy is about 0% of that required for single-stage evaporative crystallization of the same liquor.

  16. Dietary fat-induced taurocholic acid production promotes pathobiont and colitis in IL-10−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Devkota, Suzanne; Wang, Yunwei; Musch, Mark; Leone, Vanessa; Fehlner-Peach, Hannah; Nadimpalli, Anuradha; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Jabri, Bana; Chang, Eugene B.

    2012-01-01

    The composite human microbiome of Western populations has likely changed over the past century, brought on by new environmental triggers that often have a negative impact on human health1. Here we show that consumption of a diet high in saturated (milk derived)-fat (MF), but not polyunsaturated (safflower oil)-fat (PUFA), changes the conditions for microbial assemblage and promotes expansion of a low abundance, sulfite-reducing pathobiont, Bilophila wadsworthia2. This was associated with a pro-inflammatory TH1 immune response and increased incidence of colitis in genetically susceptible IL-10−/−, but not wild type mice. These effects are mediated by MF-promoted taurine-conjugation of hepatic bile acids, which increases the availability of organic sulfur used by sulfite-reducing microbes like B. wadsworthia. When mice were fed a low-fat (LF) diet supplemented with taurocholic, but not with glycocholic acid, for example, a bloom of B. wadsworthia and development of colitis were observed in IL10−/− mice. Together these data show that dietary fats, by promoting changes in host bile acid composition, can dramatically alter conditions for gut microbial assemblage, resulting in dysbiosis that can perturb immune homeostasis. The data provide a plausible mechanistic basis by which Western type diets high in certain saturated fats might increase the prevalence of complex immune-mediated diseases like inflammatory bowel diseases in genetically susceptible hosts. PMID:22722865

  17. 21 CFR Appendix A to Part 101 - Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accomplish the selective transfer of sulfur dioxide from the sample in boiling aqueous hydrochloric acid to a... hydrochloric acid, 4N.—For each analysis prepare 90 ml of hydrochloric acid by adding 30 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid (12N) to 60 ml of distilled water. (b) Methyl red indicator—Dissolve 250 mg of methyl red...

  18. 21 CFR Appendix A to Part 101 - Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accomplish the selective transfer of sulfur dioxide from the sample in boiling aqueous hydrochloric acid to a... hydrochloric acid, 4N.—For each analysis prepare 90 ml of hydrochloric acid by adding 30 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid (12N) to 60 ml of distilled water. (b) Methyl red indicator—Dissolve 250 mg of methyl red...

  19. 21 CFR Appendix A to Part 101 - Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... accomplish the selective transfer of sulfur dioxide from the sample in boiling aqueous hydrochloric acid to a... hydrochloric acid, 4N.—For each analysis prepare 90 ml of hydrochloric acid by adding 30 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid (12N) to 60 ml of distilled water. (b) Methyl red indicator—Dissolve 250 mg of methyl red...

  20. 21 CFR Appendix A to Part 101 - Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accomplish the selective transfer of sulfur dioxide from the sample in boiling aqueous hydrochloric acid to a... hydrochloric acid, 4N.—For each analysis prepare 90 ml of hydrochloric acid by adding 30 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid (12N) to 60 ml of distilled water. (b) Methyl red indicator—Dissolve 250 mg of methyl red...

  1. 21 CFR Appendix A to Part 101 - Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accomplish the selective transfer of sulfur dioxide from the sample in boiling aqueous hydrochloric acid to a... hydrochloric acid, 4N.—For each analysis prepare 90 ml of hydrochloric acid by adding 30 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid (12N) to 60 ml of distilled water. (b) Methyl red indicator—Dissolve 250 mg of methyl red...

  2. Metal-organic frameworks from zinc sulfite clusters, chains, and sheets: 4-connected, (3,4)-connected 3-D frameworks and 2-D arrays of catenane-like interlocking rings.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dan-Tam; Chew, Emily; Zhang, Qichun; Choi, Alice; Bu, Xianhui

    2006-12-25

    Even though open-framework solids have been made in a variety of compositions such as silicates, phosphates, germanates, borates, and phosphites, few are known that are based on trigonal-pyramidal sulfite anions. We report here the first synthetic and structural studies of metal-organic framework materials in the zinc sulfite composition. It is demonstrated here that Zn2+ and SO32- can form various neutral inorganic subunits that can be 0-D clusters, 1-D chains, or 2-D sheets. These inorganic subunits of different dimensionality can subsequently be connected into extended frameworks of higher dimensionality through bifunctional ligands. In (ZnSO3)2en, infinite corrugated ZnSO3 layers are pillared by ethylenediamine (en) molecules into a 3-D network that can be classified as a (3,4)-connected net based on tetrahedral Zn nodes and trigonal-pyramidal S nodes. In (ZnSO3)pip, infinite ZnSO3 chains are cross-linked with piperazine molecules into a 3-D framework that can be classified as 4-connected net based on tetrahedral Zn nodes only. In (ZnSO3)2(TMDPy)2, (ZnSO3)2 dimers are doubly bridged by trimethylenedipyridine molecules into an infinite chain with a string of circles. Each circle along the chain is interlocked with another circle from a chain in the perpendicular direction, creating a 2-D pattern with an infinite-square array of catenane-like units. PMID:17173428

  3. Molecular Modeling of Ammonium, Calcium, Sulfur, and Sodium Lignosulphonates in Acid and Basic Aqueous Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar Valencia, P. J.; Bolívar Marinez, L. E.; Pérez Merchancano, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Lignosulphonates (LS), also known as lignin sulfonates or sulfite lignin, are lignins in sulfonated forms, obtained from the "sulfite liquors," a residue of the wood pulp extraction process. Their main utility lies in its wide range of properties, they can be used as additives, dispersants, binders, fluxing, binder agents, etc. in fields ranging from food to fertilizer manufacture and even as agents in the preparation of ion exchange membranes. Since they can be manufactured relatively easy and quickly, and that its molecular size can be manipulated to obtain fragments of very low molecular weight, they are used as transport agents in the food industry, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and drug development, and as molecular elements for the treatment of health problems. In this paper, we study the electronic structural and optical characteristics of LS incorporating ammonium, sulfur, calcium, and sodium ions in acidic and basic aqueous media in order to gain a better understanding of their behavior and the very interesting properties exhibit. The studies were performed using the molecular modeling program HyperChem 5 using the semiempirical method PM3 of the NDO Family (neglect of differential overlap), to calculate the structural properties. We calculated the electronic and optical properties using the semiempirical method ZINDO / CI.

  4. CALCIUM SULFITE CRYSTAL SIZING STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a reliable experimental method that can be used routinely to determine the crystal size distribution function, a measure that is required for a mathematical representation of the nucleation and growth processes involved in the settling, dewatering, and dispos...

  5. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  6. Catabolism of Naphthalenesulfonic Acids by Pseudomonas sp. A3 and Pseudomonas sp. C22

    PubMed Central

    Brilon, C.; Beckmann, W.; Knackmuss, H.-J.

    1981-01-01

    Naphthalene and two naphthalenesulfonic acids were degraded by Pseudomonas sp. A3 and Pseudomonas sp. C22 by the same enzymes. Gentisate is a major metabolite. Catabolic activities for naphthalene, 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, and 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid are induced by growth with naphthalene, 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, methylnaphthalene, or salicylate. Gentisate is also an inducer in strain A3. Inhibition kinetics show that naphthalene and substituted naphthalenes are hydroxylated by the same naphthalene dioxygenase. Substrates with nondissociable substituents such as CH3, OCH3, Cl, or NO2 are hydroxylated in the 7,8-position, and 4-substituted salicylates are accumulated. If CO2H, CH2CO2H, or SO3H are substituents, hydroxylation occurs with high regioselectivity in the 1,2-position. Thus, 1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene-2-carboxylic acids are formed quantitatively from the corresponding naphthalenecarboxylic acids. Utilization of naphthalenesulfonic acids proceeds by the same regioselective 1,2-dioxygenation which labilizes the C—SO3− bond and eliminates sulfite. PMID:16345814

  7. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH) as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal) on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:26863012

  8. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH) as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal) on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:26863012

  9. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  10. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  11. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  12. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as ...

  13. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  14. Synthesis and performance evaluation of the new thickening agent of acidizing fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhenxing; Lv, Tong; Ren, Yanmei

    2010-07-01

    An acid thickener, poly (AMPS-co-DMC) was synthesized using water aqueous solution polymerization of these monomers such as 2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS) and [2-(Methacryloyloxy) ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride (DMC), with ammonium persulfate and sodium sulfite redox system as initiator, while at 65°C, 25% of the total concentration of monomer, initiator dosage of 1.6% for the monomer mass and nitrogen protection condition. The paper discussed the property evaluation of poly(AMPS-co-DMC), it was shown that poly (AMPS-co-DMC) had good acid solubility (time for dissolving in acid is 21 min); acid containing 5.0% of poly(AMPSco-DMC) had a viscosity of greater than 25.0mPa•s the shearing stability and heat resistance of the system was good and over 90% at a shear rate of 170s-1; poly(AMPS-co-DMC) performed well in the presence of standard saline at a total concentration of 40000mg/L.

  15. Acid gas removal in a confined vortex scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Hura, H.S.; Diehl, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper reports results of acid gas removal tests performed on a confined vortex scrubber. The confined vortex scrubber (CVS) was developed at the Energy Technology Office of Textron Defense Systems (ETO/TDS) under company as well as Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) funding. Previous tests on the CVS have demonstrated > 98% capture for sub-micron fly ash particles, as well as high mercury vapor removal from gas streams. In the recent tests water, sodium hydroxide, and sodium sulfite and bisulfite solutions were used to scrub out hydrochloric, acid gas (HCl) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) doped in air supplied to the CVS. The capture efficiency was determined as a function of acid gas concentration, liquor flow rate, and liquor type. When the liquor was supplied only inside the CVS squirrel cage the HCl removal efficiency varied from 85--100% while the SO{sub 2} removal efficiency varied from 60--80%. Significantly higher captures were obtained at 1/3 rd the liquor flow rate by spraying the liquor upstream of the CVS in the air inlet pipe, and increasing the liquor/gas contact time. Total HCl captures > 95% and SO{sub 2} captures > 85% were obtained at a liquid/gas ratio of only 2 gal/1,000 acf for acid gas concentrations of 200--1,800 ppmv. There were no significant differences in the SO{sub 2}, scrubbing ability of the three sodium solutions, and the HCl scrubbing ability of water and a sodium hydroxide solution. These results suggest that the acid gas capture in the CVS is mass transfer limited because of the extremely short gas residence times in the CVS.

  16. Enzymatic redox chemistry: A proposed reaction pathway for the six-electron reduction of SO sub 3 sup 2 minus to S sup 2 minus by the assimilatory-type sulfite reductase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough)

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Jian; Cowan, J.A. )

    1991-09-10

    A detailed reaction pathway for the six-electron reduction of SO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} to S{sup 2{minus}} by the assimilatory-type sulfite reductase (SiR) from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) has been deduced from experiments with {sup 35}S-labeled enzyme and the relative reaction rates of nitrogenous substrates. The ligand bridging the prosthetic (Fe{sub 4}S{sub 4})-siroheme center is apparently exchanged by {sup 35}S{sup 2{minus}} in both oxidized and reduced enzyme. This {sup 35}S{sup 2{minus}} label was retained in the course of SO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} reduction, implicating substrate binding to the nonbridging axial site of the siroheme. A reaction mechanism is proposed in which SO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} binds to Fe{sup 2+} through the sulfur atom, followed by a series of two-electron reductive cleavages of S-O bonds. Protonation of oxygen facilitates bond cleavage, giving hydroxide as leaving group. The bridge remains intact throughout the course of the reaction, providing an efficient coupling pathway for electron transfer between the cluster and siroheme.

  17. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  18. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

  19. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  20. Ascorbic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  1. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  2. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  3. Valproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Valproic acid is used alone or with other medications to treat certain types of seizures. Valproic acid is also used to treat mania (episodes of ... to relieve headaches that have already begun. Valproic acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. ...

  4. Reclamation of acid, toxic coal spoils using wet flue gas desulfurization by-product, fly ash and sewage sludge. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    Establishment of vegetation on acid abandoned minelands requires modification of soil physical and chemical conditions. Covering the acid minesoil with topsoil or borrow soil is a common practice but this method may be restricted by availability of borrow soil and cause damage to the borrow site. An alternative approach is to use waste materials as soil amendments. There is a long history of using sewage sludge and fly ash as amendments for acid minesoils. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are newer materials that are also promising amendments. Most flue gas sludges are mixtures of Calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}), calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}), calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}], and fly ash. Some scrubbing processes produce almost pure gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O). The primary purpose of the project is to evaluate two wet FGD by-products for effects on vegetation establishment and surface and ground water quality on an acid minesoil. One by-product from the Conesville, OH power plant (American Electric Power Service Corporation) contains primarily calcium sulfite and fly ash. The other by-product (Mg-gypsum FGD) from an experimental scrubber at the Zimmer power plant (Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company) is primarily gypsum with 4% magnesium hydroxide. These materials were compared with borrow soil and sewage sludge as minesoil amendments. Combinations of each FGD sludge with sewage sludge were also tested. This report summarizes two years of measurements of chemical composition of runoff water, ground water at two depths in the subsoil, soil chemical properties, elemental composition and yield of herbaceous ground cover, and elemental composition, survival and height of trees planted on plots treated with the various amendments. The borrow soil is the control for comparison with the other treatments.

  5. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  6. Role of sulfites and 4-hexylresorcinol in microbial growth and melanosis prevention of deepwater pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) using a controlled atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alvarez, O; Gómez-Guillén, M C; Montero, P

    2005-01-01

    A controlled atmosphere containing 48% CO2 and 7% O2 was used in association with refrigeration for storage of deepwater pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris). Shrimp were treated with two different concentrations of sodium metabisulfite or 4-hexylresorcinol and subjected to the controlled atmosphere immediately after capture onboard ship or on arrival in port. Total volatile basic nitrogen, total viable counts, enterobacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and luminescent bacteria were determined, and black spot progression was evaluated. The combined effect of controlled atmosphere and melanosis inhibitors was used to delay black spot development as compared to the shrimp stored in ice alone. Storage under the controlled atmosphere without ice limited microbiological quality, namely, total viable counts, but enterobacterial growth was lower. PMID:15690809

  7. Analysis of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase and 16S rRNA Gene Fragments from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Sites of the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Western Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Maruyama, Akihiko; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Morimoto, Yusuke; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Urabe, Tetsuro; Fukui, Manabu

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the occurrence of unique dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes at a depth of 1,380 m from the deep-sea hydrothermal vent field at the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Western Pacific, Japan. The DSR genes were obtained from microbes that grew in a catheter-type in situ growth chamber deployed for 3 days on a vent and from the effluent water of drilled holes at 5°C and natural vent fluids at 7°C. DSR clones SUIYOdsr-A and SUIYOdsr-B were not closely related to cultivated species or environmental clones. Moreover, samples of microbial communities were examined by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. The sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments obtained from the vent catheter after a 3-day incubation revealed the occurrence of bacterial DGGE bands affiliated with the Aquificae and γ- and ɛ-Proteobacteria as well as the occurrence of archaeal phylotypes affiliated with the Thermococcales and of a unique archaeon sequence that clustered with “Nanoarchaeota.” The DGGE bands obtained from drilled holes and natural vent fluids from 7 to 300°C were affiliated with the δ-Proteobacteria, genus Thiomicrospira, and Pelodictyon. The dominant DGGE bands retrieved from the effluent water of casing pipes at 3 and 4°C were closely related to phylotypes obtained from the Arctic Ocean. Our results suggest the presence of microorganisms corresponding to a unique DSR lineage not detected previously from other geothermal environments. PMID:14711668

  8. Ultraviolet photochemistry of Co{sup III}L(H{sub 2}O)SO{sub 3}{sup +} [L = Me{sub 6}[14]dieneN{sub 4}, [14]aneN{sub 4}] complexes. Quandaries about the linkage isomerization to O-bonded sulfite and the photogeneration of cobalt(I) in sequential biphotonic photolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gibney, S.C.; Ferraudi, G.; Shang, M.

    1999-06-14

    The catalyzed and uncatalyzed oxidation of sulfite have been a matter of continued interest. Attention to these processes has a basic science motive as well as the need to resolve a number of long-recognized technical problems, i.e., gas desulfurization, pollution, and health problems. Two new macrocyclic complexes with S-bonded sulfite, Co(Me{sub 6}[14]diene N{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O)SO{sub 3}{sup +} and Co([14]ane N{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O)SO{sub 3}{sup +}, were prepared. The type of the So{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} linkage in [Co(Me{sub 6}[14]diene N{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O)SO{sub 3}]ClO{sub 4} was established by means of the X-ray structure (crystal system, orthorhombic). In a study of the photochemical properties, transient spectra revealed the photoredox formation of Co(II) macrocycles and the photoisomerization to O-bonded sulfite. Precursors of these products were also observed and tentatively identified as an ion pair and an adduct of the SO{sub 3}{sup {sm_bullet}{minus}} radical and the unsaturated macrocycle Me{sub 6}[14]diene N{sub 4}. The photogeneration of SO{sub 3}{sup {sm_bullet}{minus}} was verified by means of the radical`s ESR spectrum. High power laser irradiations resulted in the secondary photolysis of the intermediates and the formation of Co(I) products. The mechanism of the primary and secondary photolysis is discussed.

  9. Acid Deposition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents acid deposition trends in the contiguous U.S. from 1989 to 2007. Data are broken down by wet and dry deposition and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Acid deposition is particularly damaging to lakes, streams, and forests and the plants and a...

  10. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  11. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  12. Continuous colorimetric screening assays for the detection of specific L- or D-α-amino acid transaminases in enzyme libraries.

    PubMed

    Heuson, Egon; Petit, Jean-Louis; Debard, Adrien; Job, Aurélie; Charmantray, Franck; de Berardinis, Véronique; Gefflaut, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    In the course of a project devoted to the stereoselective synthesis of non-proteinogenic α-amino acids using α-transaminases (α-TA), we report the design and optimization of generic high-throughput continuous assays for the screening of α-TA libraries. These assays are based on the use of L- or D-cysteine sulfinic acid (CSA) as irreversible amino donor and subsequent sulfite titration by colorimetry. The assays' quality was assessed under screening conditions. Hit selection thresholds were accurately determined for every couple of substrates and a library of 232 putative transaminases expressed in Escherichia coli host cells was screened. The reported high throughput screening assays proved very sensitive allowing the detection with high confidence of activities as low as 10 μU (i.e., 0.01 nmol substrate converted per min). The assays were also evidenced to be stereochemically discriminant since L-CSA and D-CSA allowed the exclusive detection of L-TA and D-TA, respectively. These generic assays thus allow testing the stereoselective conversion of a wide range of α-keto acids into α-amino acids of interest. As a proof of principle, the use of 2-oxo-4-phenylbutyric acid as acceptor substrate led to the identification of 54 new α-TA offering an access to valuable L- or D-homophenylalanine. PMID:26452497

  13. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  14. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

  15. [Gastric Acid].

    PubMed

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  16. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  17. Folic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the blood vessel to keep it open. Bipolar disorder. Taking folic acid does not appear to improve the antidepressant effects of lithium in people with bipolar disorder. However, taking folate with the medication valproate improves ...

  18. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Keep all appointments with your ...

  19. ACID RAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

  20. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  1. Carnosic acid.

    PubMed

    Birtić, Simona; Dussort, Pierre; Pierre, François-Xavier; Bily, Antoine C; Roller, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Carnosic acid (salvin), which possesses antioxidative and antimicrobial properties, is increasingly exploited within the food, nutritional health and cosmetics industries. Since its first extraction from a Salvia species (∼70 years ago) and its identification (∼50 years ago), numerous articles and patents (∼400) have been published on specific food and medicinal applications of Rosmarinus and Salvia plant extracts abundant in carnosic acid. In contrast, relevant biochemical, physiological or molecular studies in planta have remained rare. In this overview, recent advances in understanding of carnosic acid distribution, biosynthesis, accumulation and role in planta, and its applications are summarised. We also discuss the deficiencies in our understanding of the relevant biochemical processes, and suggest the molecular targets of carnosic acid. Finally, future perspectives and studies related to its potential roles are highlighted. PMID:25639596

  2. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Amicar® Oral Solution ... Aminocaproic acid comes as a tablet and a solution (liquid) to take by mouth. It is usually ... it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  3. Tranexamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... tablets for more than 5 days in a menstrual cycle or take more than 6 tablets in a ...

  4. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  5. Photographic fixative poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Hydroquinones Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form sulfur dioxide gas.

  6. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  7. Sulfate-reducing bacteria mediate thionation of diphenylarsinic acid under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ling; Shiiya, Ayaka; Hisatomi, Shihoko; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is often found as a toxic intermediate metabolite of diphenylchloroarsine or diphenylcyanoarsine that were produced as chemical warfare agents and were buried in soil after the World Wars. In our previous study Guan et al. (J Hazard Mater 241-242:355-362, 2012), after application of sulfate and carbon sources, anaerobic transformation of DPAA in soil was enhanced with the production of diphenylthioarsinic acid (DPTAA) as a main metabolite. This study aimed to isolate and characterize anaerobic soil microorganisms responsible for the metabolism of DPAA. First, we obtained four microbial consortia capable of transforming DPAA to DPTAA at a high transformation rate of more than 80% after 4 weeks of incubation. Sequencing for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from the consortia revealed that all the positive consortia contained Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans species. In contrast, the absence of dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrAB) which is unique to sulfate-reducing bacteria was confirmed in the negative consortia showing no DPAA reduction. Finally, strain DEA14 showing transformation of DPAA to DPTAA was isolated from one of the positive consortia. The isolate was assigned to D. acetoxidans based on the partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Thionation of DPAA was also carried out in a pure culture of a known sulfate-reducing bacterial strain, Desulfovibrio aerotolerans JCM 12613(T). These facts indicate that sulfate-reducing bacteria are microorganisms responsible for the transformation of DPAA to DPTAA under anaerobic conditions. PMID:25228086

  8. Folic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease called vitiligo, and an inherited disease called Fragile-X syndrome. It is also used for reducing harmful side ... to blood clots (ischemic stroke). Inherited disease called Fragile-X syndrome.Taking folic acid by mouth does not improve ...

  9. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    An overview is presented of acid rain and the problems it causes to the environment worldwide. The acidification of lakes and streams is having a dramatic effect on aquatic life. Aluminum, present in virtually all forest soils, leaches out readily under acid conditions and interferes with the gills of all fish, some more seriously than others. There is evidence of major damage to forests in European countries. In the US, the most severe forest damage appears to be in New England, New York's Adirondacks, and the central Appalachians. This small region is part of a larger area of the Northeast and Canada that appears to have more acid rainfall than the rest of the country. It is downwind from major coal burning states, which produce about one quarter of US SO/sub 2/ emissions and one sixth of nitrogen oxide emissions. Uncertainties exist over the causes of forest damage and more research is needed before advocating expensive programs to reduce rain acidity. The President's current budget seeks an expansion of research funds from the current $30 million per year to $120 million.

  10. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  11. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  12. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  13. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Trichloroacetic acid ( TCA ) ; CASRN 76 - 03 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  14. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dichloroacetic acid ; CASRN 79 - 43 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  15. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  16. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  17. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  18. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  19. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  20. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

  1. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a type of B vitamin. This article discusses the test to measure the amount of folic acid in the blood. ... that may interfere with test results, including folic acid supplements. Drugs that can decrease folic acid measurements ...

  2. Uric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood ... help determine the cause of a high uric acid level in the blood. It may also be ...

  3. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the blood. ... Methylmalonic acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ...

  4. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  5. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  6. New bioactive fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  7. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  8. Macroscopic to microscopic studies of flue gas desulfurization byproducts for acid mine drainage mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, E.I.; Kalyoncu, R.S.; Finkelman, R.B.; Matos, G.R.; Barsotti, A.F.; Haefner, R.J.; Rowe, G.L. Jr.; Savela, C.E.; Eddy, J.I.

    1996-12-31

    The use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions has resulted in the generation of large quantities of byproducts. These and other byproducts are being stockpiled at the very time that alkaline materials having high neutralization potential are needed to mitigate acid mine drainage (AMD). FGD byproducts are highly alkaline materials composed primarily of unreacted sorbents (lime or limestone and sulfates and sulfites of Ca). The American Coal Ash Association estimated that approximately 20 million tons of FGD material were generated by electric power utilities equipped with wet lime-limestone PGD systems in 1993. Less than 5% of this material has been put to beneficial use for agricultural soil amendments and for the production of wallboard and cement. Four USGS projects are examining FGD byproduct use to address these concerns. These projects involve (1) calculating the volume of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproduct generation and their geographic locations in relation to AMD, (2) determining byproduct chemistry and mineralogy, (3) evaluating hydrology and geochemistry of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion byproduct as soil amendment in Ohio, and (4) analyzing microbial degradation of gypsum in anoxic limestone drains in West Virginia.

  9. Biogeochemical processes governing natural pyrite oxidation and release of acid metalliferous drainage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-ting; Li, Jin-tian; Chen, Lin-xing; Hua, Zheng-shuang; Huang, Li-nan; Liu, Jun; Xu, Bi-bo; Liao, Bin; Shu, Wen-sheng

    2014-05-20

    The oxidative dissolution of sulfide minerals (principally pyrite) is responsible for the majority of acid metalliferous drainage from mine sites, which represents a significant environmental problem worldwide. Understanding the complex biogeochemical processes governing natural pyrite oxidation is critical not only for solving this problem but also for understanding the industrial bioleaching of sulfide minerals. To this end, we conducted a simulated experiment of natural pyrite oxidative dissolution. Pyrosequencing analysis of the microbial community revealed a distinct succession across three stages. At the early stage, a newly proposed genus, Tumebacillus (which can use sodium thiosulfate and sulfite as the sole electron donors), dominated the microbial community. At the midstage, Alicyclobacillus (the fifth most abundant genus at the early stage) became the most dominant genus, whereas Tumebacillus was still ranked as the second most abundant. At the final stage, the microbial community was dominated by Ferroplasma (the tenth most abundant genus at the early stage). Our geochemical and mineralogical analyses indicated that exchangeable heavy metals increased as the oxidation progressed and that some secondary sulfate minerals (including jarosite and magnesiocopiapite) were formed at the final stage of the oxidation sequence. Additionally, we propose a comprehensive model of biogeochemical processes governing the oxidation of sulfide minerals. PMID:24730689

  10. Exploration of Sulfur Assimilation of Aspergillus fumigatus Reveals Biosynthesis of Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids as a Virulence Determinant.

    PubMed

    Amich, Jorge; Dümig, Michaela; O'Keeffe, Gráinne; Binder, Jasmin; Doyle, Sean; Beilhack, Andreas; Krappmann, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Fungal infections are of major relevance due to the increased numbers of immunocompromised patients, frequently delayed diagnosis, and limited therapeutics. To date, the growth and nutritional requirements of fungi during infection, which are relevant for invasion of the host, are poorly understood. This is particularly true for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, as so far, sources of (macro)elements that are exploited during infection have been identified to only a limited extent. Here, we have investigated sulfur (S) utilization by the human-pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus during invasive growth. Our data reveal that inorganic S compounds or taurine is unlikely to serve as an S source during invasive pulmonary aspergillosis since a sulfate transporter mutant strain and a sulfite reductase mutant strain are fully virulent. In contrast, the S-containing amino acid cysteine is limiting for fungal growth, as proven by the reduced virulence of a cysteine auxotroph. Moreover, phenotypic characterization of this strain further revealed the robustness of the subordinate glutathione redox system. Interestingly, we demonstrate that methionine synthase is essential for A. fumigatus virulence, defining the biosynthetic route of this proteinogenic amino acid as a potential antifungal target. In conclusion, we provide novel insights into the nutritional requirements ofA. fumigatus during pathogenesis, a prerequisite to understanding and fighting infection. PMID:26787716

  11. Insights from the metagenome of an acid salt lake: the role of biology in an extreme depositional environment.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Chevrette, Marc Gerard; Ehlmann, Bethany L; Benison, Kathleen Counter

    2015-01-01

    The extremely acidic brine lakes of the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia are home to some of the most biologically challenging waters on Earth. In this study, we employed metagenomic shotgun sequencing to generate a microbial profile of the depositional environment associated with the sulfur-rich sediments of one such lake. Of the 1.5 M high-quality reads generated, 0.25 M were mapped to protein features, which in turn provide new insights into the metabolic function of this community. In particular, 45 diverse genes associated with sulfur metabolism were identified, the majority of which were linked to either the conversion of sulfate to adenylylsulfate and the subsequent production of sulfide from sulfite or the oxidation of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate via the sulfur oxidation (Sox) system. This is the first metagenomic study of an acidic, hypersaline depositional environment, and we present evidence for a surprisingly high level of microbial diversity. Our findings also illuminate the possibility that we may be meaningfully underestimating the effects of biology on the chemistry of these sulfur-rich sediments, thereby influencing our understanding of past geobiological conditions that may have been present on Earth as well as early Mars. PMID:25923206

  12. Insights from the Metagenome of an Acid Salt Lake: The Role of Biology in an Extreme Depositional Environment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Chevrette, Marc Gerard; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Benison, Kathleen Counter

    2015-01-01

    The extremely acidic brine lakes of the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia are home to some of the most biologically challenging waters on Earth. In this study, we employed metagenomic shotgun sequencing to generate a microbial profile of the depositional environment associated with the sulfur-rich sediments of one such lake. Of the 1.5 M high-quality reads generated, 0.25 M were mapped to protein features, which in turn provide new insights into the metabolic function of this community. In particular, 45 diverse genes associated with sulfur metabolism were identified, the majority of which were linked to either the conversion of sulfate to adenylylsulfate and the subsequent production of sulfide from sulfite or the oxidation of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate via the sulfur oxidation (Sox) system. This is the first metagenomic study of an acidic, hypersaline depositional environment, and we present evidence for a surprisingly high level of microbial diversity. Our findings also illuminate the possibility that we may be meaningfully underestimating the effects of biology on the chemistry of these sulfur-rich sediments, thereby influencing our understanding of past geobiological conditions that may have been present on Earth as well as early Mars. PMID:25923206

  13. Interactions between Diet, Bile Acid Metabolism, Gut Microbiota, and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    PubMed

    Devkota, Suzanne; Chang, Eugene B

    2015-01-01

    The composite human gut microbiomes of Western populations have changed over the past century, brought on by new environmental triggers that often have a negative impact on human health. Diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars and low in fiber are leading candidates for these events and for triggering the increased prevalence of immune-mediated diseases like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our studies have shown that consumption of a 'Western' diet high in saturated (milk-derived) fat (MF) or n-6 polyunsaturated (safflower oil) fat have similar effects on the structure of the colonic microbiome of wild-type and IL- 10(-/-) mice, characterized by increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes. However, the MF diet uniquely promotes the expansion of an immunogenic sulfite-reducing pathobiont, Bilophila wadsworthia, a member of the Deltaproteobacteria and minor component of the gut microbiome. This bacterial bloom results from a MF diet-induced shift in hepatic conjugation of bile acids, from glycocholic to taurocholic (TC) acid, which is important for solubilizing the more hydrophobic MF diet. However, it is also responsible for delivery of taurine-derived sulfur to the distal bowel, promoting the assemblage of bile-tolerant microbes such as B. wadsworthia. The bloom of this species promotes a Th1-mediated immune response and the development of colitis in IL-10(-/-) mice. A similar bloom of B. wadsworthia is seen when IL-10(-/-) mice are fed a low-fat diet supplemented with TC. B. wadsworthia colonization of monoassociated germ-free IL-10(-/-) mice was dependent on the host consuming either a high-saturated MF diet or the gavage with TC. Together, these data provide a plausible explanation for the link between diseases such as IBD and dietary-mediated selection of gut microbial pathobionts in genetically susceptible hosts. With this knowledge, it may be possible to mitigate the bloom of these types of pathobionts by modifying the conjugation states of

  14. Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated fatty acids are useful as specialty chemicals, plasticizers, and biomedicals. Microbial enzymes convert fatty acids to mono-, di-, and trihydroxy fatty acid products. Among them, Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. Linoleic acid was ...

  15. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  16. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects & other health conditions > Amino acid metabolism disorders Amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... baby’s newborn screening may include testing for certain amino acid metabolism disorders. These are rare health conditions that ...

  17. Plasma amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  18. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour in ...

  19. Azelaic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Azelaic acid gel is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin disease that ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat acne. Azelaic acid ...

  20. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  1. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs ...

  2. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid measurements include: Alcohol Aminosalicylic acid Birth control pills Estrogens Tetracyclines Ampicillin Chloramphenicol Erythromycin Methotrexate Penicillin Aminopterin Phenobarbital Phenytoin Drugs to treat malaria

  3. Oxalic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms of oxalic acid poisoning include: Abdominal pain Burns and blisters where the acid contacted the skin Collapse Convulsions Mouth pain Shock Throat pain Tremors (unintentional trembling) Vomiting

  4. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  5. Succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes from batch fermentation of mixed sugars.

    PubMed

    Almqvist, Henrik; Pateraki, Chrysanthi; Alexandri, Maria; Koutinas, Apostolis; Lidén, Gunnar

    2016-08-01

    Succinic acid production from the monosaccharides xylose, arabinose, glucose, mannose and galactose was studied using the bacterium Actinobacillus succinogenes. In Duran bottle cultures, containing 10 g/L of each of sugar, succinic acid was produced from all sugars except for galactose. The highest succinate yield, 0.56 g/g, was obtained with glucose, whereas the succinate yield was 0.42, 0.38 and 0.44 g/g for xylose, mannose and arabinose, respectively. The specific succinate productivity was 0.7 g/g h for glucose, but below 0.2 g/g h for the other sugars. Batch bioreactor fermentations were carried out using a sugar mixture of the five sugars giving a total concentration of 50 g/L, mimicking the distribution of sugars in spent sulfite liquor (SSL) from Eucalyptus which is rich in xylose. In this mixture, an almost complete conversion of all sugars (except galactose) was achieved resulting in a final succinate concentration of 21.8-26.8 g/L and a total yield of 0.59-0.68 g/g. There was evidence of co-consumption of glucose and xylose, whereas mannose was consumed after glucose. The main by-products were acetate 0.14-0.20 g/g and formate 0.08-0.13 g/g. NADH balance calculations suggested that NADH required for succinate production was not met solely from formate and acetate production, but other means of NADH production was necessary. Results from mixed sugar fermentations were verified using SSL as substrate resulting in a succinate yield of 0.60 g/g. In addition, it was found that CO2 sparging could replace carbonate supply in the form of MgCO3 without affecting the succinate yield. PMID:27255975

  6. Structural and functional insights from the metagenome of an acidic hot spring microbial planktonic community in the Colombian Andes.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Chaves, Diego; Montaña, José Salvador; Osorio-Forero, Cesar; Junca, Howard; Zambrano, María Mercedes; Baena, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    A taxonomic and annotated functional description of microbial life was deduced from 53 Mb of metagenomic sequence retrieved from a planktonic fraction of the Neotropical high Andean (3,973 meters above sea level) acidic hot spring El Coquito (EC). A classification of unassembled metagenomic reads using different databases showed a high proportion of Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria (in total read affiliation), and through taxonomic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene fragments we observed the presence of Proteobacteria, micro-algae chloroplast and Firmicutes. Reads mapped against the genomes Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5, Legionella pneumophila str. Corby and Acidithiobacillus caldus revealed the presence of transposase-like sequences, potentially involved in horizontal gene transfer. Functional annotation and hierarchical comparison with different datasets obtained by pyrosequencing in different ecosystems showed that the microbial community also contained extensive DNA repair systems, possibly to cope with ultraviolet radiation at such high altitudes. Analysis of genes involved in the nitrogen cycle indicated the presence of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to N2 (narGHI, nirS, norBCDQ and nosZ), associated with Proteobacteria-like sequences. Genes involved in the sulfur cycle (cysDN, cysNC and aprA) indicated adenylsulfate and sulfite production that were affiliated to several bacterial species. In summary, metagenomic sequence data provided insight regarding the structure and possible functions of this hot spring microbial community, describing some groups potentially involved in the nitrogen and sulfur cycling in this environment. PMID:23251687

  7. Metabolic potential of fatty acid oxidation and anaerobic respiration by abundant members of Thaumarchaeota and Thermoplasmata in deep anoxic peat

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Xueju; Handley, Kim M.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Kostka, Joel E.

    2015-05-22

    To probe the metabolic potential of abundant Archaea in boreal peats, we reconstructed two near-complete archaeal genomes, affiliated with Thaumarchaeota group 1.1c (bin Fn1, 8% abundance), which was a genomically unrepresented group, and Thermoplasmata (bin Bg1, 26% abundance), from metagenomic data acquired from deep anoxic peat layers. Each of the near-complete genomes encodes the potential to degrade long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) via β-oxidation. Fn1 has the potential to oxidize LCFA either by syntrophic interaction with methanogens or by coupling oxidation with anaerobic respiration using fumarate as a terminal electron acceptor (TEA). Fn1 is the first Thaumarchaeota genome without an identifiable carbon fixation pathway, indicating that this mesophilic phylum encompasses more diverse metabolisms than previously thought. Furthermore, we report genetic evidence suggestive of sulfite and/or organosulfonate reduction by Thermoplasmata Bg1. In deep peat, inorganic TEAs are often depleted to extremely low levels, yet the anaerobic respiration predicted for two abundant archaeal members suggests organic electron acceptors such as fumarate and organosulfonate (enriched in humic substances) may be important for respiration and C mineralization in peatlands.

  8. Metabolic potential of fatty acid oxidation and anaerobic respiration by abundant members of Thaumarchaeota and Thermoplasmata in deep anoxic peat.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xueju; Handley, Kim M; Gilbert, Jack A; Kostka, Joel E

    2015-12-01

    To probe the metabolic potential of abundant Archaea in boreal peats, we reconstructed two near-complete archaeal genomes, affiliated with Thaumarchaeota group 1.1c (bin Fn1, 8% abundance), which was a genomically unrepresented group, and Thermoplasmata (bin Bg1, 26% abundance), from metagenomic data acquired from deep anoxic peat layers. Each of the near-complete genomes encodes the potential to degrade long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) via β-oxidation. Fn1 has the potential to oxidize LCFA either by syntrophic interaction with methanogens or by coupling oxidation with anaerobic respiration using fumarate as a terminal electron acceptor (TEA). Fn1 is the first Thaumarchaeota genome without an identifiable carbon fixation pathway, indicating that this mesophilic phylum encompasses more diverse metabolisms than previously thought. Furthermore, we report genetic evidence suggestive of sulfite and/or organosulfonate reduction by Thermoplasmata Bg1. In deep peat, inorganic TEAs are often depleted to extremely low levels, yet the anaerobic respiration predicted for two abundant archaeal members suggests organic electron acceptors such as fumarate and organosulfonate (enriched in humic substances) may be important for respiration and C mineralization in peatlands. PMID:26000553

  9. Structural and Functional Insights from the Metagenome of an Acidic Hot Spring Microbial Planktonic Community in the Colombian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Chaves, Diego; Montaña, José Salvador; Osorio-Forero, Cesar; Junca, Howard; Zambrano, María Mercedes; Baena, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    A taxonomic and annotated functional description of microbial life was deduced from 53 Mb of metagenomic sequence retrieved from a planktonic fraction of the Neotropical high Andean (3,973 meters above sea level) acidic hot spring El Coquito (EC). A classification of unassembled metagenomic reads using different databases showed a high proportion of Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria (in total read affiliation), and through taxonomic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene fragments we observed the presence of Proteobacteria, micro-algae chloroplast and Firmicutes. Reads mapped against the genomes Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5, Legionella pneumophila str. Corby and Acidithiobacillus caldus revealed the presence of transposase-like sequences, potentially involved in horizontal gene transfer. Functional annotation and hierarchical comparison with different datasets obtained by pyrosequencing in different ecosystems showed that the microbial community also contained extensive DNA repair systems, possibly to cope with ultraviolet radiation at such high altitudes. Analysis of genes involved in the nitrogen cycle indicated the presence of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to N2 (narGHI, nirS, norBCDQ and nosZ), associated with Proteobacteria-like sequences. Genes involved in the sulfur cycle (cysDN, cysNC and aprA) indicated adenylsulfate and sulfite production that were affiliated to several bacterial species. In summary, metagenomic sequence data provided insight regarding the structure and possible functions of this hot spring microbial community, describing some groups potentially involved in the nitrogen and sulfur cycling in this environment. PMID:23251687

  10. Revealing biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion in sludge digesters: detection of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria within full-scale digesters.

    PubMed

    Huber, B; Drewes, J E; Lin, K C; König, R; Müller, E

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion (BSA) is a costly problem affecting both sewerage infrastructure and sludge handling facilities such as digesters. The aim of this study was to verify BSA in full-scale digesters by identifying the microorganisms involved in the concrete corrosion process, that is, sulfate-reducing (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). To investigate the SRB and SOB communities, digester sludge and biofilm samples were collected. SRB diversity within digester sludge was studied by applying polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) targeting the dsrB-gene (dissimilatory sulfite reductase beta subunit). To reveal SOB diversity, cultivation dependent and independent techniques were applied. The SRB diversity studies revealed different uncultured SRB, confirming SRB activity and H2S production. Comparable DGGE profiles were obtained from the different sludges, demonstrating the presence of similar SRB species. By cultivation, three pure SOB strains from the digester headspace were obtained including Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Thiomonas intermedia and Thiomonas perometabolis. These organisms were also detected with PCR-DGGE in addition to two new SOB: Thiobacillus thioparus and Paracoccus solventivorans. The SRB and SOB responsible for BSA were identified within five different digesters, demonstrating that BSA is a problem occurring not only in sewer systems but also in sludge digesters. In addition, the presence of different SOB species was successfully associated with the progression of microbial corrosion. PMID:25353947

  11. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  12. Toxicity of adipic acid.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Gerald L

    2002-05-01

    Adipic acid has very low acute toxicity in rats with an LD50 > 5000 mg/kg. Adipic acid produced mild to no skin irritation on intact guinea pig skin as a 50% concentration in propylene glycol; it was not a skin sensitizer. Adipic acid caused mild conjunctival irritation in washed rabbit eyes; in unwashed rabbit eyes, there was mild conjunctival irritation, minimal iritis, but no corneal effects. Adipic acid dust may irritate the mucous membranes of the lungs and nose. In a 2-year feeding study, rats fed adipic acid at concentrations up to 5% in the diet exhibited only weight loss. Adipic acid is not genetically active in a wide variety of assay systems. Adipic acid caused no developmental toxicity in mice, rats, rabbits, or hamsters when administered orally. Adipic acid is partially metabolized in humans; the balance is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Adipic acid is slightly to moderately toxic to fish, daphnia, and algae in acute tests. PMID:12024802

  13. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  14. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    This communication notes the actual magnitude of the acidity in acidic fog particles and suggests a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air.

  15. [Amino acids in saliva].

    PubMed

    Klinger, G; Gruhn, K

    1984-01-01

    Total amino acids in saliva and free and peptide-bound amino acids from 21 saliva samples were determined. The contents of amino acids was 25 mmol/1; total nitrogen content was 78-80 mmol/1. Amino acids consist of Prolin in 25%. Some patients were examined before and after application of the depot estrogen ethinyl estradiosulfonat, which stimulates the assimilation of protein. After application, amino acids increased and the authors found a shift between the single amino acids. Estrogen medication induced an increase in proteins with the character of collagens. Clinical effects are discussed. (author's modified) PMID:6240853

  16. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, ... discusses poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications ...

  18. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  19. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  20. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Aminolevulinic acid is used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty ... skin cancer) of the face or scalp. Aminolevulinic acid is in a class of medications called photosensitizing ...

  1. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body ... dye. The slide is then washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria ...

  2. Uric acid - blood

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Purines are found in some ... dried beans and peas, and beer. Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys. ...

  3. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  4. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean ... from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids. See the separate ...

  5. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Uric Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Urate; UA Formal name: Uric Acid Related tests: Synovial Fluid Analysis , Kidney Stone Analysis , ...

  6. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003766.htm Acid-fast stain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines ...

  7. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  8. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  9. Methylmalonic Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Methylmalonic Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: MMA Formal name: Methylmalonic Acid Related tests: Vitamin B12 and Folate , Homocysteine , Intrinsic ...

  10. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  11. Boric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... boric acid poisoning usually occurs when someone swallows powdered roach-killing products that contain the chemical. Chronic ... vein (IV) Medicines to treat symptoms Note: Activated charcoal does not effectively treat (absorb) boric acid. For ...

  12. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  13. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  14. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  15. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    The chemical composition of fog particles has become of considerable interest, because of both the possibility of interpreting atmospheric- chemistry processes in fog particles in terms of the principles of aqueous chemistry and the potential health effects of species present in fog particles. The acidity of fog particles has received wide attention. This communication noted the actual magnitude of the excess acidity in acidic fog particles and suggested a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air. (DP)

  16. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  17. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  18. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  19. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  20. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  1. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  2. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  3. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  4. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  5. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  6. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  7. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  8. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  9. Demospongic Acids Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Kornprobst, Jean-Michel; Barnathan, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    The well-known fatty acids with a Δ5,9 unsaturation system were designated for a long period as demospongic acids, taking into account that they originally occurred in marine Demospongia sponges. However, such acids have also been observed in various marine sources with a large range of chain-lengths (C16–C32) and from some terrestrial plants with short acyl chains (C18–C19). Finally, the Δ5,9 fatty acids appear to be a particular type of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids (NMA FAs). This article reviews the occurrence of these particular fatty acids in marine and terrestrial organisms and shows the biosynthetic connections between Δ5,9 fatty acids and other NMI FAs. PMID:21116406

  10. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  11. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  12. Acid-Base Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3− and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3− is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. PMID:26597304

  13. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  14. GeoChip-Based Analysis of the Functional Gene Diversity and Metabolic Potential of Microbial Communities in Acid Mine Drainage▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jianping; He, Zhili; Liu, Xinxing; Liu, Xueduan; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Deng, Ye; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong; Qiu, Guanzhou

    2011-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is an extreme environment, usually with low pH and high concentrations of metals. Although the phylogenetic diversity of AMD microbial communities has been examined extensively, little is known about their functional gene diversity and metabolic potential. In this study, a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 2.0) was used to analyze the functional diversity, composition, structure, and metabolic potential of AMD microbial communities from three copper mines in China. GeoChip data indicated that these microbial communities were functionally diverse as measured by the number of genes detected, gene overlapping, unique genes, and various diversity indices. Almost all key functional gene categories targeted by GeoChip 2.0 were detected in the AMD microbial communities, including carbon fixation, carbon degradation, methane generation, nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification, ammonification, nitrogen reduction, sulfur metabolism, metal resistance, and organic contaminant degradation, which suggested that the functional gene diversity was higher than was previously thought. Mantel test results indicated that AMD microbial communities are shaped largely by surrounding environmental factors (e.g., S, Mg, and Cu). Functional genes (e.g., narG and norB) and several key functional processes (e.g., methane generation, ammonification, denitrification, sulfite reduction, and organic contaminant degradation) were significantly (P < 0.10) correlated with environmental variables. This study presents an overview of functional gene diversity and the structure of AMD microbial communities and also provides insights into our understanding of metabolic potential in AMD ecosystems. PMID:21097602

  15. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  16. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  17. Recovery of organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  18. THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

  19. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

  20. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...