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1

Vigabatrin transport across the human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) brush-border membrane is via the H+-coupled amino-acid transporter hPAT1  

PubMed Central

The aim of this investigation was to determine if the human proton-coupled amino-acid transporter 1 (hPAT1 or SLC36A1) is responsible for the intestinal uptake of the orally-administered antiepileptic agent 4-amino-5-hexanoic acid (vigabatrin). The Caco-2 cell line was used as a model of the human small intestinal epithelium. Competition experiments demonstrate that [3H]GABA uptake across the apical membrane was inhibited by vigabatrin and the GABA analogues trans-4-aminocrotonic acid (TACA) and guvacine, whereas 1-(aminomethyl)cyclohexaneacetic acid (gabapentin) had no affect. Experiments with 2?,7?-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF)-loaded Caco-2 cells demonstrate that apical exposure to vigabatrin and TACA induce comparable levels of intracellular acidification (due to H+/amino-acid symport) to that generated by GABA, suggesting that they are substrates for a H+-coupled absorptive transporter such as hPAT1. In hPAT1 and mPAT1-expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes [3H]GABA uptake was inhibited by vigabatrin, TACA and guvacine, whereas gabapentin failed to inhibit [3H]GABA uptake. In Na+-free conditions, vigabatrin and TACA evoked similar current responses (due to H+/amino-acid symport) in hPAT1-expressing oocytes under voltage-clamp conditions to that induced by GABA (whereas no current was observed in water-injected oocytes) consistent with the ability of these GABA analogues to inhibit [3H]GABA uptake. This study demonstrates that hPAT1 is the carrier responsible for the uptake of vigabatrin across the brush-border membrane of the small intestine and emphasises the therapeutic potential of hPAT1 as a delivery route for orally administered, clinically significant GABA-related compounds. PMID:16331283

Abbot, Emily L; Grenade, Danielle S; Kennedy, David J; Gatfield, Kelly M; Thwaites, David T

2005-01-01

2

Intestinal drug transport via the proton-coupled amino acid transporter PAT1 (SLC36A1) is inhibited by Gly-X(aa) dipeptides.  

PubMed

The oral absorption of some drug substances is mediated by nutrient transporters. As a consequence, nutrients and drugs may compete for available transporters, and interactions at the level of intestinal absorption are possible. Recently, we have identified ?-aminolevulinic acid, Gly-Gly, and Gly-Sar as substrates of the amino acid transporter PAT1. The aim of the present study is to investigate if other Gly-containing dipeptides interact with PAT1, and whether they can inhibit PAT1 mediated drug absorption, in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro methods included two-electrode voltage clamp measurements on hPAT1 expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes, which were used to investigate the PAT1-mediated transport of 17 different Gly-containing dipeptides (Gly-X(aa) or X(aa)-Gly). Also, the transepithelial transport of the PAT1 substrate gaboxadol was investigated across Caco-2 cell monolayers in the presence of different dipeptides. The in vivo part consisted of a pharmacokinetic study in rats following oral administration of gaboxadol and preadministration of 200 mg/kg dipeptide. The results showed that in hPAT1 expressing oocytes Gly-Tyr, Gly-Pro, and Gly-Phe inhibited currents induced by drug substances. In Caco-2 cell monolayers, Gly-Gly, Gly-Sar, and Gly-Pro significantly inhibited the PAT1 mediated absorptive transepithelial transport of gaboxadol; however, when orally administered to rats, Gly-Gly, Gly-Sar, Gly-Pro, or Gly-Tyr did not alter the pharmacokinetic profile of gaboxadol. In conclusion, the present study identifies selected dipeptides as inhibitors of PAT1 mediated drug absorption in various in vitro models. PMID:22853447

Frølund, Sidsel; Langthaler, Louise; Kall, Morten A; Holm, René; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd

2012-09-01

3

Function and expression of the proton-coupled amino acid transporter PAT1 along the rat gastrointestinal tract: implications for intestinal absorption of gaboxadol  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Intestinal absorption via membrane transporters may determine the pharmacokinetics of drug compounds. The hypothesis is that oral absorption of gaboxadol (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo [5,4-c] pyridine-3-ol) in rats occurs via the proton-coupled amino acid transporter, rPAT1 (encoded by the gene rSlc36a1). Consequently, we aimed to elucidate the in vivo role of rPAT1 in the absorption of gaboxadol from various intestinal segments obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The absorption of gaboxadol was investigated following its administration into four different intestinal segments. The intestinal expression of rSlc36a1 mRNA was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, the hPAT1-/rPAT1-mediated transport of gaboxadol or L-proline was studied in hPAT1-expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes, Caco-2 cell monolayers and excised segments of the rat intestine. KEY RESULTS The absorption fraction of gaboxadol was high (81.3–91.3%) following its administration into the stomach, duodenum and jejunum, but low (4.2%) after administration into the colon. The pharmacokinetics of gaboxadol were modified by the co-administration of L-tryptophan (an hPAT1 inhibitor) and L-proline (an hPAT1 substrate). The in vitro carrier-mediated uptake rate of L-proline in the excised intestinal segments was highest in the mid jejunum and lowest in the colon. The in vitro uptake and the in vivo absorption correlated with the expression of rSlc36a1 mRNA along the rat intestine. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that PAT1 mediates the intestinal absorption of gaboxadol and therefore determines its oral bioavailability. This has implications for the in vivo role of PAT1 and may have an influence on the design of pharmaceutical formulations of PAT1 substrates. PMID:22577815

Broberg, ML; Holm, R; Tønsberg, H; Frølund, S; Ewon, KB; Nielsen, AL; Brodin, B; Jensen, A; Kall, MA; Christensen, KV; Nielsen, CU

2012-01-01

4

Differential expression of proton-assisted amino acid transporters (PAT[1] and PAT[2]) in tissues of neonatal pigs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The PATs have been identified as growth-regulatory nutrient sensors in Drosophila and as activators of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in mammalian cell cultures. These studies suggest that, beyond their classical function as transporters of simple amino acids (AA), the PATs act as tranceptors,...

5

The proton-coupled amino acid transporter, SLC36A1 (hPAT1), transports Gly-Gly, Gly-Sar and other Gly-Gly mimetics.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The intestinal proton-coupled amino acid transporter, SLC36A1, transports zwitterionic ?-amino acids and drugs such as vigabatrin, gaboxadol and ?-aminolevulinic acid. We hypothesize that SLC36A1 might also transport some dipeptides. The aim of the present study was to investigate SLC36A1-mediated transport of Gly-Gly and Gly-Gly mimetics, and to investigate Gly-Sar transport via SLC36A1 and the proton-coupled dipeptide/tripeptide transporter, SLC15A1 in Caco-2 cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Transport of a compound via SLC36A1 was determined by its ability to induce an increase in the inward current of two-electrode voltage clamped SLC36A1 cRNA-injected Xenopus laevis oocytes. SLC36A1-mediated L-[³H]Pro uptake in Caco-2 cells was measured in the absence and presence of Gly-Gly or Gly-Sar. In addition, apical [¹?C]Gly-Sar uptake was measured in the absence and presence of the SLC36A1 inhibitor 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) or the SLC15A1 inhibitor L-4,4'-biphenylalanyl-L-proline (Bip-Pro). KEY RESULTS In SLC36A1-expressing oocytes, an inward current was induced by Gly-Sar, Gly-Gly, ?-aminolevulinic acid, ?-aminoethylglycine, ?-aminopentanoic acid, GABA, Gly and Pro, whereas Val, Leu, mannitol, 5-HTP and the dipeptides Gly-Ala, Gly-Pro and Gly-Phe did not evoke currents. In Caco-2 cell monolayers, the apical uptake of 30?mM Gly-Sar was inhibited by 20 and 22% in the presence of 5-HTP or Bip-Pro, respectively, and by 48% in the presence of both. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Our results suggest that whereas Gly-Gly amid bond bioisosteres are widely accepted by the hPAT1 carrier, dipeptides in general are not; and therefore, Gly-Sar might structurally define the size limit of dipeptide transport via SLC36A1. PMID:20880398

Frølund, S; Holm, R; Brodin, B; Nielsen, C U

2010-10-01

6

Gaboxadol has affinity for the proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1, SLC36A1 (hPAT1)--A modelling approach to determine IC(50) values of the three ionic species of gaboxadol.  

PubMed

The human proton-coupled amino acid transporter, SLC36A1 (hPAT1), is situated in the apical membrane of small intestinal epithelium. It is involved in cellular uptake of amino acids and orally administered drug substances such as ?-aminolevulinic acid, vigabatrin and gaboxadol. Gaboxadol (Gbx) is a selective extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptor agonist with high oral bioavailability in rat, dog and human. It is a zwitterionic compound with pK(a) values of 4.3 and 8.1. Dependent on the pH of the solution Gbx will be present as three individual ionic species, i.e. cationic (Gbx(+)), zwitterionic (Gbx(+/-)) and anionic (Gbx(-)). The aim of the present study was to elucidate the individual affinities of Gbx(+), Gbx(+/-) and Gbx(-) for SLC36A1. The ability of Gbx to concentration-dependently inhibit a SLC36A1 mediated l-[(3)H]proline uptake was investigated in Caco-2 cell monolayers at apical pH 5.0-6.8. The IC(50) values were computed using an in silico model relying on a genetic algorithm. The IC(50) values of Gbx(+), Gbx(+/-) and Gbx(-) were estimated to 2.6mM, 16mM and >1000mM. This indicates that the positive charge is essential for Gbx binding to SLC36A1. The negative charge is tolerated in the zwitterionic form, whereas no affinity is observed for the anionic form. PMID:21112392

Frølund, Sidsel; Rapin, Nicolas; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd

2011-02-14

7

Pat1 contributes to the RNA binding activity of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex.  

PubMed

A major mRNA decay pathway in eukaryotes is initiated by deadenylation followed by decapping of the oligoadenylated mRNAs and subsequent 5'-to-3' exonucleolytic degradation of the capless mRNA. In this pathway, decapping is a rate-limiting step that requires the hetero-octameric Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex to occur at normal rates in vivo. This complex is made up of the seven Sm-like proteins, Lsm1 through Lsm7, and the Pat1 protein. It binds RNA and has a unique binding preference for oligoadenylated RNAs over polyadenylated RNAs. Such binding ability is crucial for its mRNA decay function in vivo. In order to determine the contribution of Pat1 to the function of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex, we compared the RNA binding properties of the Lsm1-7 complex purified from pat1? cells and purified Pat1 fragments with that of the wild-type Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex. Our studies revealed that both the Lsm1-7 complex and purified Pat1 fragments have very low RNA binding activity and are impaired in the ability to recognize the oligo(A) tail on the RNA. However, reconstitution of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex from these components restored these abilities. We also observed that Pat1 directly contacts RNA in the context of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex. These studies suggest that the unique RNA binding properties and the mRNA decay function of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex involve cooperation of residues from both Pat1 and the Lsm1-7 ring. Finally our studies also revealed that the middle domain of Pat1 is essential for the interaction of Pat1 with the Lsm1-7 complex in vivo. PMID:25035297

Chowdhury, Ashis; Kalurupalle, Swathi; Tharun, Sundaresan

2014-09-01

8

PAT-1 safety analysis report addendum.  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, is certified under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) per Certificate of Compliance (CoC) USA/0361B(U)F-96 (currently Revision 9). The purpose of this SAR Addendum is to incorporate plutonium (Pu) metal as a new payload for the PAT-1 package. The Pu metal is packed in an inner container (designated the T-Ampoule) that replaces the PC-1 inner container. The documentation and results from analysis contained in this addendum demonstrate that the replacement of the PC-1 and associated packaging material with the T-Ampoule and associated packaging with the addition of the plutonium metal content are not significant with respect to the design, operating characteristics, or safe performance of the containment system and prevention of criticality when the package is subjected to the tests specified in 10 CFR 71.71, 71.73 and 71.74.

Weiner, Ruth F.; Schmale, David T.; Kalan, Robert J.; Akin, Lili A.; Miller, David Russell; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Lopez, Carlos; Harding, David Cameron; Jones, Perry L.; Morrow, Charles W.

2010-09-01

9

Sertraline inhibits the transport of PAT1 substrates in vivo and in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Intestinal nutrient transporters may mediate the uptake of drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sertraline interacts with the intestinal proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 PAT1 (SLC36A1). Experimental Approach In vitro investigations of interactions between sertraline and human (h)PAT1, hSGLT1 (sodium-glucose linked transporter 1) and hPepT1 (proton-coupled di-/tri-peptide transporter 1) were conducted in Caco-2 cells using radiolabelled substrates. In vivo pharmacokinetic investigations were conducted in male Sprague–Dawley rats using gaboxadol (10?mg·kg?1, p.o.) as a PAT1 substrate and sertraline (0–30.6?mg·kg?1). Gaboxadol was quantified by hydrophilic interaction chromatography followed by MS/MS detection. Key Results Sertraline inhibited hPAT1-mediated L-[3H]-Pro uptake in Caco-2 cells. This interaction between sertraline and PAT1 appeared to be non-competitive. The uptake of the hSGLT1 substrate [14C]-?–methyl-D-glycopyranoside and the hPepT1 substrate [14C]-Gly-Sar in Caco-2 cells was also decreased in the presence of 0.3?mM sertraline. In rats, the administration of sertraline (0.1–10?mM, corresponding to 0.3–30.6?mg·kg?1, p.o.) significantly reduced the maximal gaboxadol plasma concentration and AUC after its administration p.o. Conclusions and Implications Sertraline is an apparent non-competitive inhibitor of hPAT1-mediated transport in vitro. This inhibitory effect of sertraline is not specific to hPAT1 as substrate transport via hPepT1 and hSGLT1 was also reduced in the presence of sertraline. In vivo, sertraline reduced the amount of gaboxadol absorbed, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of sertraline on PAT1 occurs both in vitro and in vivo. Hence, sertraline could alter the bioavailability of drugs absorbed via PAT1. PMID:23962042

Nielsen, C U; Frølund, S; Abdulhadi, S; Sari, H; Langthaler, L; Nøhr, M K; Kall, M A; Brodin, B; Holm, R

2013-01-01

10

The glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter directs sodium/iodide symporter gene expression for radioiodine therapy of malignant glioma.  

PubMed

Radioiodine is a routine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancers. Non-thyroid cancers may be treated with radio-iodine following transfection with the human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene. The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter is an effective tumor-specific promoter for gene expression and thus may be useful in targeted gene therapy of malignant glioma. The present study used GFAP promoter-modulated expression of the hNIS gene in an experimental model of radioiodine-based treatment for malignant glioma. Cells were transfected using a recombination adeno-virus and evaluated in cells by studying the transfected transgene expression through western blot analysis, (125)I uptake and efflux, clonogenicity following (131)I treatment and radioiodine therapy using a U87 xenograft nude mouse model. Following transfection with the hNIS gene, the cells showed 95-70-fold higher (125)I uptake compared with the control cells transfected with Ad-cytomegalovirus (CMV)-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The western blotting revealed bands of ?70, 49 and 43 kDa, consistent with the hNIS, GFAP and ?-actin proteins. The clonogenic assay indicated that, following exposure to 500 ?Ci of (131)I-iodide for 12 h, >90% of cells transfected with the hNIS gene were killed. Ad-GFAP-hNIS-transfected and 2 mCi (131)I-injected U87 xenograft nude mice survived the longest of the three groups. The hNIS-expressing tumor tissue accumulated (99m)TcO(4) rapidly within 30 min of it being intraperitoneally injected. The experiments demonstrated that effective (131)I therapy was achieved in the malignant glioma cell lines following the induction of tumor-specific iodide uptake activity by GFAP promoter-directed hNIS gene expression in vitro and in vivo. (131)I therapy retarded Ad-GFAP-hNIS transfected-tumor growth following injection with (131)I in U87 xenograft-bearing nude mice. PMID:23420532

Li, Wei; Tan, Jian; Wang, Peng; Li, Ning; Zhang, Fuhai

2013-02-01

11

On the existence of H + -symport in yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

34 yeast strains representing 22 species and two varieties were investigated for the existence of a proton-sugar symport. The changes in pH of unbuffered cell suspensions on the addition of alkali, acid, transportable sugars and uncouplers were recorded. Responses indicating the existence of an energy dependent proton extrusion and H+-sugar symport were found in most cases, particularly in Rhodotorula but

Tibor Deak

1978-01-01

12

Cooperation of histone deacetylase inhibitors SAHA and valproic acid in promoting sodium/iodide symporter expression and function in rat Leydig testicular carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

The presence of the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) is the prerequisite for the use of the radioiodine in the treatment of thyroid cancer. Thus, stimulators of NIS expression and function are currently investigated in cellular models of various human malignancies, also including extrathyroid cancers. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and valproic acid (VPA), on NIS expression and function in rat Leydig testicular carcinoma cells (LC540). LC540 cells were exposed to SAHA 3 ?M and VPA 3 mM (alone and in combination), and cell viability evaluated by MTT assay and cell counting, NIS mRNA and protein levels by using, respectively, real-time RT-PCR and western blotting. NIS function was evaluated by iodide uptake assay. We found that both HDACi were able to stimulate the transcription of NIS gene, but not its protein expression, while the association of SAHA and VPA increased both NIS transcript and protein levels, resulting in significant sixfold enhancement of radioiodine uptake capacity of LC540 cells. These data demonstrate the presence of an epigenetic control of NIS expression in Leydig tumor cells, suggesting the possibility to use the combination of these two HDACi for a radioiodine-based treatment of these malignancies. PMID:23636804

Maggisano, V; Puppin, C; Celano, M; D'Agostino, M; Sponziello, M; Micali, S; Navarra, M; Damante, G; Filetti, S; Russo, D

2014-02-01

13

Structural analysis of the yeast Dhh1–Pat1 complex reveals how Dhh1 engages Pat1, Edc3 and RNA in mutually exclusive interactions  

PubMed Central

Translational repression and deadenylation of eukaryotic mRNAs result either in the sequestration of the transcripts in a nontranslatable pool or in their degradation. Removal of the 5? cap structure is a crucial step that commits deadenylated mRNAs to 5?-to-3? degradation. Pat1, Edc3 and the DEAD-box protein Dhh1 are evolutionary conserved factors known to participate in both translational repression and decapping, but their interplay is currently unclear. We report the 2.8 Å resolution structure of yeast Dhh1 bound to the N-terminal domain of Pat1. The structure shows how Pat1 wraps around the C-terminal RecA domain of Dhh1, docking onto the Phe-Asp-Phe (FDF) binding site. The FDF-binding site of Dhh1 also recognizes Edc3, revealing why the binding of Pat1 and Edc3 on Dhh1 are mutually exclusive events. Using co-immunoprecipitation assays and structure-based mutants, we demonstrate that the mode of Dhh1-Pat1 recognition is conserved in humans. Pat1 and Edc3 also interfere and compete with the RNA-binding properties of Dhh1. Mapping the RNA-binding sites on Dhh1 with a crosslinking–mass spectrometry approach shows a large RNA-binding surface around the C-terminal RecA domain, including the FDF-binding pocket. The results suggest a model for how Dhh1-containing messenger ribonucleoprotein particles might be remodeled upon Pat1 and Edc3 binding. PMID:23851565

Sharif, Humayun; Ozgur, Sevim; Sharma, Kundan; Basquin, Claire; Urlaub, Henning; Conti, Elena

2013-01-01

14

Glial fibrillary acidic protein promoters direct adenovirus early 1A gene and human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoters direct sodium iodide symporter expression for malignant glioma radioiodine therapy.  

PubMed

Malignant glioma can be treated with radioiodine following transfection with human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene. Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS is engineered with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoters to express early region 1A (E1A) and hNIS genes, which may be useful in targeted gene therapy. The Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS was constructed and purified using the E1A and hNIS genes regulated by the hTERT and GFAP promoters, respectively. Glioma cells were infected by Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS. Selective replication ability of Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS was then evaluated by plaque forming assay, transgene expression by Western blot, (125)I-iodide uptake and efflux, clonogenicity following (131)I-iodide treatment in the tumor cells, and radioiodine therapy using nude mouse model. The Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS could selectively replicate; the hNIS gene was successfully expressed under the GFAP promoter. Western blot analyses using E1A- and hNIS-specific antibodies revealed two bands of approximately 40 and 70 kDa. In addition, the cells showed about 93.4 and 107.1 times higher (125)I uptake in U251 and U87 cells than in the control cells, respectively. Clonogenic assay indicated that >90% of cells transfected with Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS were killed. The Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS-transfected and 2 mCi (131)I-injected U87 xenograft nude mice survived the longest among the three groups. Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS has a good ability of selective replication and strong antitumor selectivity. An effective therapy of (131)I was achieved activity in malignant glioma cells after induction of tumor-specific iodide uptake activity by GFAP promoter-directed hNIS gene expression in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25410753

Li, Wei; Tan, Jian; Wang, Peng; Li, Ning; Li, Chengxia

2015-01-01

15

Synchronized fission yeast meiosis using an ATP analog-sensitive Pat1 protein kinase  

PubMed Central

Synchronous cultures are often indispensable for studying meiosis. Here, we present an optimized protocol for induction of synchronous meiosis in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Chemical inactivation of an ATP analog-sensitive form of the Pat1 kinase (pat1-as2) by adding the ATP-analog 1-NM-PP1 in G1-arrested cells allows induction of synchronous meiosis at optimal temperature (25 °C). Importantly, this protocol eliminates detrimental effects of elevated temperature (34 °C) which is required to inactivate the commonly used temperature-sensitive Pat1 kinase mutant (pat1-114). Addition of the mat-Pc gene to a mat1-M strain further improves chromosome segregation and spore viability. Thus, our protocol offers highly synchronous meiosis at optimal temperature with most characteristics similar to those of wild-type meiosis. The synchronization protocol can be completed in 5 days. PMID:24385151

Cipak, Lubos; Polakova, Silvia; Hyppa, Randy W.; Smith, Gerald R.; Gregan, Juraj

2014-01-01

16

Air transport of plutonium metal : content expansion initiative for the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging.  

SciTech Connect

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

Mann, Paul T. (National Nuclear Security Administration); Caviness, Michael L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki

2010-06-01

17

5-Hydroxy-L-tryptophan alters gaboxadol pharmacokinetics in rats: involvement of PAT1 and rOat1 in gaboxadol absorption and elimination.  

PubMed

The aim was to investigate the effect of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) on gaboxadol pharmacokinetics in rats. As both 5-HTP and gaboxadol bind to the human proton-coupled amino acid transporter, hPAT1, a drug-drug interaction at the level of intestinal absorption might occur. The in vitro transport of gaboxadol was measured across the hPAT1-expressing cell line Caco-2, and via the rat organic anion transporter, rOat1, in Xenopus oocytes pre-injected with rOat1 cRNA. The in vivo pharmacokinetic profile of gaboxadol after oral administration to rats was investigated in the absence and presence of a pre-dose of 5-HTP. In Caco-2 cell monolayers >80% of the absorptive gaboxadol transport was suggested to be hPAT1-mediated. In rats, the initial absorption rate of gaboxadol was decreased in the presence of 5-HTP. The AUC of gaboxadol was increased by a factor of 3.6-5.5 when rats were pre-dosed with 5-HTP. Gaboxadol was a substrate for the renal transporter rOat1 with a K(m)-value of 151 microM. 5-HTP did not interact with rOat1. In conclusion, gaboxadol acts as a substrate for hPAT1 and is a substrate of rOat1. In rats, 5-HTP decreased the initial absorption rate and increased AUC of gaboxadol. 5-HTP thus had a significant impact on the pharmacokinetic profile of gaboxadol. PMID:19900542

Larsen, Mie; Holm, René; Jensen, Klaus Gjervig; Sveigaard, Christina; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd

2010-01-31

18

PAT-1 safety analysis report addendum author responses to request for additional information.  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, is certified under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) per Certificate of Compliance (CoC) USA/0361B(U)F-96 (currently Revision 9). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) submitted SAND Report SAND2009-5822 to NRC that documented the incorporation of plutonium (Pu) metal as a new payload for the PAT-1 package. NRC responded with a Request for Additional Information (RAI), identifying information needed in connection with its review of the application. The purpose of this SAND report is to provide the authors responses to each RAI. SAND Report SAND2010-6106 containing the proposed changes to the Addendum is provided separately.

Weiner, Ruth F.; Schmale, David T.; Kalan, Robert J.; Akin, Lili A.; Miller, David Russell; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Lopez, Carlos; Harding, David Cameron; Jones, Perry L.; Morrow, Charles W.

2010-09-01

19

The Pot1a-associated proteins Tpt1 and Pat1 coordinate telomere protection and length regulation in Tetrahymena  

PubMed Central

We have identified two new telomere proteins, Tpt1 and Pat1, from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Although Tetrahymena telomerase is well characterized, only one telomere protein had previously been identified. This was the G-overhang binding-protein Pot1a. Tpt1 and Pat1 were isolated as Pot1a binding partners and shown to localize to telomeres. As Tpt1 and Pat1 were both found to be essential, conditional cell lines were generated to explore their function. Tpt1 depletion caused a rapid growth arrest and telomere elongation in the absence of cell division. The phenotype was similar to that seen after Pot1a depletion suggesting that Tpt1 and Pot1a function together to regulate telomere length and prevent telomere deprotection. In contrast, Pat1 depletion had a modest effect on cell growth but caused progressive telomere shortening similar to that observed upon TERT depletion. Thus Pat1 appears to be needed for telomerase to maintain the chromosome terminus. Analysis of Pot1a-Tpt1-Pat1 complex formation using purified proteins indicated that Tpt1 interacts directly with Pot1a while Pat1 interacts with Tpt1. Our results indicate that Tpt1 is the Tetrahymena equivalent of mammalian TPP1, Schizosaccharomyces pombe Tpz1, and Oxytricha nova TEBP?. PMID:21900503

Linger, Benjamin R.; Morin, Gregg B.; Price, Carolyn M.

2011-01-01

20

Lactose Permease H+-Lactose Symporter: Mechanical Switch or Brownian Ratchet?  

PubMed Central

Lactose permease structure is deemed consistent with a mechanical switch device for H+-coupled symport. Because the crystallography-assigned docking position of thiodigalactoside (TDG) does not make close contact with several amino acids essential for symport; the switch model requires allosteric interactions between the proton and sugar binding sites. The docking program, Autodock 3 reveals other lactose-docking sites. An alternative cotransport mechanism is proposed where His-322 imidazolium, positioned in the central pore equidistant (5–7 Å) between six charged amino acids, Arg-302 and Lys-319 opposing Glu-269, Glu-325, Asp-237, and Asp-240, transfers a proton transiently to an H-bonded lactose hydroxyl group. Protonated lactose and its dissociation product H3O+ are repelled by reprotonated His-322 and drift in the electrostatic field toward the cytosol. This Brownian ratchet model, unlike the conventional carrier model, accounts for diminished symport by H322N mutant; how H322 mutants become uniporters; why exchanging Lys-319 with Asp-240 paradoxically inactivates symport; how some multiple mutants become revertant transporters; the raised export rate and affinity toward lactose of uncoupled mutants; the altered specificity toward lactose, melibiose, and galactose of some mutants, and the proton dissociation rate of H322 being 100-fold faster than the symport turnover rate. PMID:17325012

Naftalin, Richard J.; Green, Nicholas; Cunningham, Philip

2007-01-01

21

Interactions between Upf1 and the Decapping Factors Edc3 and Pat1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mRNA transcripts with premature termination codons are targeted for deadenylation independent decapping and 5? to 3? decay in a quality control pathway termed nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). Critical factors in NMD include Upf1, Upf2, and Upf3, as well as the decapping enzyme, Dcp2/Dcp1. Loss of Upf2 or Upf3 leads to the accumulation of not only Upf1 and Dcp2 in P-bodies, but also of the decapping-activators Pat1, Dhh1, and Lsm1. An interaction between Upf1 and Dcp2 has been identified, which might recruit Dcp2 to the NMD decapping complex. To determine the nature and significance of the Dcp2-Upf1 interaction, we utilized the yeast two-hybrid assay to assess Upf1 interactions with various mRNA decapping factors. We find that although Dcp2 can interact with Upf1, this interaction is indirect and is largely dependent on the Edc3 protein, which interacts with the N-terminal domain of Upf1 at an overlapping, but not identical, site as Upf2. We also found that Pat1 has an independent two-hybrid interaction with the N-terminus of Upf1. Assessment of both reporter and endogenous NMD transcripts suggest that the decapping stimulators, including Edc3 and Pat1, as well as Edc1 and Edc2, are not essential for NMD under normal conditions. This work defines a larger decapping complex involved in NMD, but indicates that components of that complex are not required for general NMD and might either regulate a subset of NMD transcripts or be essential for proper NMD under different environmental conditions. PMID:22065998

Swisher, Kylie D.; Parker, Roy

2011-01-01

22

Effects of all-trans retinoic acid on sodium/iodide symporter and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein under condition of endoplasmic reticulum stress in FRTL5 thyroid cells.  

PubMed

In thyroid cells, the effects of all- TRANS retinoic acid (ATRA) on sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP) under condition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have not been evaluated. In the present study, the relationships between NIS, CHOP, and p38 MAPK, and the effects of ATRA on NIS and CHOP expression as well as on p38 MAPK activation under condition of ER stress in thyroid cells were investigated. In FRTL5 thyroid cells, NIS mRNA and protein levels decreased following tunicamycin (TN) treatment, while CHOP mRNA and protein levels increased. In addition, while CHOP mRNA levels decreased after administration of tauro-UDCA and siCHOP, NIS mRNA levels were not altered. After pretreatment with SB203580, NIS mRNA levels decreased in non-TN-treated cells but increased in TN-treated cells. In contrast, CHOP mRNA levels decreased in both non-TN-treated and TN-treated cells. Exposure to ATRA decreased NIS mRNA levels in non-TN-treated cells but increased NIS mRNA levels in TN-treated cells. ATRA decreased CHOP mRNA levels in both non-TN-treated and TN-treated cells although the response was significant only in TN-treated cells. Phospho-p38 MAPK protein levels but not total p38 MAPK protein levels increased in TN-treated cells. ATRA attenuated this increase in phopho-p38 MAPK protein levels. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that ER stress may induce reciprocal changes in NIS and CHOP expression via p38 MAPK in FRTL5 thyroid cells, and that ATRA may attenuate ER stress-induced alterations in NIS and CHOP expression by modulating the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in FRTL5 thyroid cells. PMID:21225541

Lee, S J; Kim, S H; Kang, J G; Kim, C S; Ihm, S-H; Choi, M G; Yoo, H J

2011-05-01

23

The C-Terminal Domain from S. cerevisiae Pat1 Displays Two Conserved Regions Involved in Decapping Factor Recruitment  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic mRNA decay is a highly regulated process allowing cells to rapidly modulate protein production in response to internal and environmental cues. Mature translatable eukaryotic mRNAs are protected from fast and uncontrolled degradation in the cytoplasm by two cis-acting stability determinants: a methylguanosine (m7G) cap and a poly(A) tail at their 5? and 3? extremities, respectively. The hydrolysis of the m7G cap structure, known as decapping, is performed by the complex composed of the Dcp2 catalytic subunit and its partner Dcp1. The Dcp1-Dcp2 decapping complex has a low intrinsic activity and requires accessory factors to be fully active. Among these factors, Pat1 is considered to be a central scaffolding protein involved in Dcp2 activation but also in inhibition of translation initiation. Here, we present the structural and functional study of the C-terminal domain from S. cerevisiae Pat1 protein. We have identified two conserved and functionally important regions located at both extremities of the domain. The first region is involved in binding to Lsm1-7 complex. The second patch is specific for fungal proteins and is responsible for Pat1 interaction with Edc3. These observations support the plasticity of the protein interaction network involved in mRNA decay and show that evolution has extended the C-terminal alpha-helical domain from fungal Pat1 proteins to generate a new binding platform for protein partners. PMID:24830408

Back, Régis; Keller, Jenny; Charenton, Clément; Taverniti, Valerio; Plesse, Claudine Gaudon; Lazar, Noureddine; Durand, Dominique; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Séraphin, Bertrand; Graille, Marc

2014-01-01

24

The Na + \\/I ? Symporter (NIS): Recent Advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Na+\\/I- symporter (NIS) catalyzes the accumulation of iodide into thyroid cells, an essential step in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. As a result of the isolation of the rat NIS cDNA, steadfast advances in the study of NIS at the molecular level have resulted in the following accomplishments: generation of high-affinity anti-NIS antibodies, elucidation of NIS stoichiometry and specificity

Orlie Levy; Antonio De la Vieja; Nancy Carrasco

1998-01-01

25

Characterization of the Thyroid Na+\\/I- Symporter with an Anti-COOH Terminus Antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Na+\\/I- symporter (NIS) is the plasma membrane protein that catalyzes active I- transport in the thyroid, the first step in thyroid hormone biogenesis. The cDNA encoding NIS was recently cloned in our laboratory and a secondary structure model proposed, suggesting that NIS is an intrinsic membrane protein (618 amino acids; ≈ 65.2 kDa predicted molecular mass) with 12 putative

Orlie Levy; Ge Dai; Claudia Riedel; Christopher S. Ginter; Elliot M. Paul; Adam N. Lebowitz; Nancy Carrasco

1997-01-01

26

Characterization of New Polyol/H+ Symporters in Debaryomyces hansenii  

PubMed Central

Debaryomyces hansenii is a halotolerant yeast that produces and assimilates a wide variety of polyols. In this work we evaluate polyol transport in D. hansenii CBS 767, detecting the occurrence of polyol/H+ (and sugar/H+) symporter activity, through the transient extracellular alkalinization of unbuffered starved cell suspensions. From the D. hansenii genome database, we selected nine ORFs encoding putative transporter proteins to clone in a centromeric plasmid with C-terminal GFP tagging and screened for polyol/H+ symporters by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Five distinct D. hansenii polyol/H+ symporters were identified and characterized, with different specificities and affinities for polyols, namely one glycerol-specific (DhStl1), one D-galactitol-specific (DhSgl1, Symporter galactitol/H+ 1), one D-(+)-chiro-inositol-specific (DhSyi1, Symporter D-(+)-chiro-inositol/H+ 1), one for D-sorbitol/D-mannitol/ribitol/D-arabitol/D-galactitol (DhSyl1, Symporter Polyols 1) and another for D-sorbitol/D-mannitol/ribitol/D-arabitol (DhSyl2, Symporter Polyols 2). This work contributed to the annotation of new yeast polyol transporters, including two specific for uncommon substrates as galactitol and D-(+)-chiro-inositol. PMID:24505419

Pereira, Iliana; Madeira, Ana; Prista, Catarina; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C.; Leandro, Maria José

2014-01-01

27

Structure-based mechanism for Na+/melibiose symport by MelB  

PubMed Central

The bacterial melibiose permease (MelB) belongs to the glycoside–pentoside–hexuronide:cation symporter family, a part of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). Structural information regarding glycoside–pentoside–hexuronide:cation symporter family transporters and other Na+-coupled permeases within MFS has been lacking, although a wealth of biochemical and biophysical data are available. Here we present the three-dimensional crystal structures of Salmonella typhimurium MelBSt in two conformations, representing an outward partially occluded and an outward inactive state of MelBSt. MelB adopts a typical MFS fold and contains a previously unidentified cation-binding motif. Three conserved acidic residues form a pyramidal-shaped cation-binding site for Na+, Li+ or H+, which is in close proximity to the sugar-binding site. Both cosubstrate-binding sites are mainly contributed by the residues from the amino-terminal domain. These two structures and the functional data presented here provide mechanistic insights into Na+/melibiose symport. We also postulate a structural foundation for the conformational cycling necessary for transport catalysed by MFS permeases in general. PMID:24389923

Ethayathulla, Abdul S.; Yousef, Mohammad S.; Amin, Anowarul; Leblanc, Gérard; Kaback, H. Ronald; Guan, Lan

2014-01-01

28

Sucrose-mediated transcriptional regulation of sucrose symporter activity in the phloem.  

SciTech Connect

This project was based on our discovery that sucrose acts as a signaling molecule that regulates the activity of a proton-sucrose symporter in sugar beet leaf tissue. A major objective here was determining how sucrose transporter activity is being regulated. When sucrose accumulates in the phloem sucrose transport activity drops dramatically. Western blots of plasma membrane proteins isolated from sucrose treated leaves showed that the loss of sucrose transport activity was proportional to a decline in symporter abundance, demonstrating that sucrose transport is regulated by changes in the amount of BvSUT1 protein. BvSUT1 transcript levels decreased in parallel with the loss of sucrose transport activity. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrated that BvSUT1 gene transcription was repressed significantly in nuclei from leaves fed 100 mM exogenous sucrose, showing that sucrose-dependent modulation of BvSUT1 mRNA levels is mediated by changes in transcription. To identify which secondary messenger systems might be involved in regulating symporter activity, we used a variety of pharmacological agents to probe for a role of calcium or protein phosphorylation in sucrose signaling. In a detailed analysis, only okadaic acid altered sucrose transport activity. These results suggest a protein phosphatase is involved. We hypothesized that protein kinase inhibitors would have a neutral affect or increase symporter transcription. Transpirational feeding of the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine had no impact on sucrose transport while calphostin C, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, caused a 60% increase. These data provided good evidence that protein phosphorylation plays a central role in regulating sucrose symporter expression and sucrose transport activity. To determine whether protein phosphorylation is involved in sucrose regulation of proton-sucrose symporter activity, we pre-fed leaves with staurosporine for 4 h and then fed the treated leaves water or 100 mM sucrose for an additional 20 h. Sucrose transport activity was higher than the water control in both staurosporine/water- and staurosporine/sucrose-fed leaves. In contrast, sucrose transport activity was only 40% of the water control in sucrose-fed leaves. Taken together, these results showed that a phosphorylation-dependent signal transduction pathway is involved in sucrose-mediated regulation of BvSUT1 gene expression, sucrose transport activity, and ultimately phloem loading. Publications originating from this work: Vaughn MW, GN. Harrington, and DR Bush 2002. Sucrose-mediated transcriptional regulation of sucrose symporter activity in the phloem. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:10876-10880 Ransom-Hodgkins W, MW Vaughn, and DR Bush 2003. Protein phosphorylation mediates a key step in sucrose-regulation of the expression and transport activity of a beet proton-sucrose symporter. Planta 217:483-489 Harrington GN and Bush DR 2003. The bifunctional role of hexokinase in metabolism and glucose signaling. Plant Cell 15: 2493-2496

Matt Vaughn Greg Harrington Daniel R Bush

2002-08-06

29

The mRNA decay factor PAT1 functions in a pathway including MAP kinase 4 and immune receptor SUMM2.  

PubMed

Multi-layered defense responses are activated in plants upon recognition of invading pathogens. Transmembrane receptors recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and activate MAP kinase cascades, which regulate changes in gene expression to produce appropriate immune responses. For example, Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 (MPK4) regulates the expression of a subset of defense genes via at least one WRKY transcription factor. We report here that MPK4 is found in complexes in vivo with PAT1, a component of the mRNA decapping machinery. PAT1 is also phosphorylated by MPK4 and, upon flagellin PAMP treatment, PAT1 accumulates and localizes to cytoplasmic processing (P) bodies which are sites for mRNA decay. Pat1 mutants exhibit dwarfism and de-repressed immunity dependent on the immune receptor SUMM2. Since mRNA decapping is a critical step in mRNA turnover, linking MPK4 to mRNA decay via PAT1 provides another mechanism by which MPK4 may rapidly instigate immune responses. PMID:25603932

Roux, Milena Edna; Rasmussen, Magnus Wohlfahrt; Palma, Kristoffer; Lolle, Signe; Regué, Àngels Mateu; Bethke, Gerit; Glazebrook, Jane; Zhang, Weiping; Sieburth, Leslie; Larsen, Martin R; Mundy, John; Petersen, Morten

2015-03-01

30

A nonradioactive iodide uptake assay for sodium iodide symporter function.  

PubMed

The standard assay for sodium iodide symporter (NIS) function is based on the measurement of radioiodide uptake ((125)I) in NIS-expressing cells. However, cost and safety issues have limited the method from being used widely. Here we describe a simple spectrophotometric assay for the determination of iodide accumulation in rat thyroid-derived cells (FRTL5) based on the catalytic effect of iodide on the reduction of yellow cerium(IV) to colorless cerium(III) in the presence of arsenious acid (Sandell-Kolthoff reaction). The assay is fast and highly reproducible with a Z' factor of 0.70. This procedure allows the screening of more than 800 samples per day and can easily be adapted to robotic systems for high-throughput screening of NIS function modulators. Using this method, the potency of several known inhibitors of NIS function was evaluated in a single day with high accuracy and reliability. Measured IC(50) values were essentially identical to those determined using Na(125)I. PMID:19733144

Waltz, Fanny; Pillette, Lucie; Ambroise, Yves

2010-01-01

31

Identification of a structural requirement for thyroid Na +\\/I ? symporter (NIS) function from analysis of a mutation that causes human congenital hypothyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with congenital lack of I? transport do not accumulate I? in their thyroids, often resulting in severe hypothyroidism. A single amino acid substitution in the thyroid Na+\\/I? symporter (NIS), proline replacing threonine at position 354 (T354P), was recently identified as the cause of this condition in two independent patients [1, 2]. Here we report that the lack of I?

Orlie Levy; Christopher S Ginter; Antonio De la Vieja; Daniel Levy; Nancy Carrasco

1998-01-01

32

Thyroid Na /I Symporter MECHANISM, STOICHIOMETRY, AND SPECIFICITY*  

E-print Network

. It is now firmly established that active accumulation of io- dide (I ) by the thyroid gland epithelium membrane of the thyroid gland follicular cells. Io- dide transport into the thyroid gland has attractedThyroid Na /I Symporter MECHANISM, STOICHIOMETRY, AND SPECIFICITY* (Received for publication, May

Eskandari, Sepehr

33

Sodium Iodide Symporter and the Radioiodine Treatment of Thyroid Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the specific accumulation of iodide in thyroid was found in 1915, radioiodine has been widely applied to diagnose and\\u000a treat thyroid cancer. Iodide uptake occurs across the membrane of the thyroid follicular cells and cancer cells through an\\u000a active transporter process mediated by the sodium iodide symporter (NIS). The NIS coding genes were cloned and identified\\u000a from rat and

June-Key Chung; Hye Won Youn; Joo Hyun Kang; Ho Young Lee; Keon Wook Kang

2010-01-01

34

Isolation and characterization of RAPD-based markers linked to the beet cyst nematode resistance locus (Hs1 (pat-1)) on chromosome 1 of B. patellaris.  

PubMed

A beet cyst nematode (BCN)-resistant telosomic addition of B. patellaris chromosome 1 in B. vulgaris was used to isolate 6 RAPD markers linked to the BCN resistance locus Hs1 (pat-1). Southern analysis showed that the analyzed RAPD products contain either low-, middle or high-repetitive DNA. The relative positions of the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and of the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) loci corresponding to the low-repetitive RAPD products were determined by deletion mapping using a panel of seven nematode-resistant B. patellaris chromosome-1 fragment additions. One RAPD marker, OPB11800, was found to be present in two copies on the long arm telosome of B. patellaris chromosome 1. These copies are closely linked to the BCN resistance gene and flank the gene on both sides. On the basis of the nucleotide sequence of OPB11800, sequence-tagged site (STS) primers were developed that amplify specific fragments derived from the two OPB11800 loci. These STS markers can be used in the map-based cloning of the BCN gene, as they define start and finishing points of a chromosomal walk towards the Hs1 (pat-1) locus. Two copies of the middle-repetitive OPX21100 marker were mapped in the same interval of the deletion mapping panel as the resistance gene locus and thereby belong to the nearest markers as yet found for the BCN gene in B. patellaris. PMID:24172934

Salentijn, E M; Arens-De Reuver, M J; Lange, W; De Bock, T S; Stiekema, W J; Klein-Lankhorst, R M

1995-05-01

35

Sodium solute symporter and cadherin proteins act as Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Ba toxin functional receptors in Tribolium castaneum.  

PubMed

Understanding how Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins interact with proteins in the midgut of susceptible coleopteran insects is crucial to fully explain the molecular bases of Bt specificity and insecticidal action. In this work, aminopeptidase N (TcAPN-I), E-cadherin (TcCad1), and sodium solute symporter (TcSSS) have been identified by ligand blot as putative Cry3Ba toxin-binding proteins in Tribolium castaneum (Tc) larvae. RNA interference knockdown of TcCad1 or TcSSS proteins resulted in decreased susceptibility to Cry3Ba toxin, demonstrating the Cry toxin receptor functionality for these proteins. In contrast, TcAPN-I silencing had no effect on Cry3Ba larval toxicity, suggesting that this protein is not relevant in the Cry3Ba toxin mode of action in Tc. Remarkable features of TcSSS protein were the presence of cadherin repeats in its amino acid sequence and that a TcSSS peptide fragment containing a sequence homologous to a binding epitope found in Manduca sexta and Tenebrio molitor Bt cadherin functional receptors enhanced Cry3Ba toxicity. This is the first time that the involvement of a sodium solute symporter protein as a Bt functional receptor has been demonstrated. The role of this novel receptor in Bt toxicity against coleopteran insects together with the lack of receptor functionality of aminopeptidase N proteins might account for some of the differences in toxin specificity between Lepidoptera and Coleoptera insect orders. PMID:23645668

Contreras, Estefanía; Schoppmeier, Michael; Real, M Dolores; Rausell, Carolina

2013-06-21

36

Sodium-coupled symports in the plasma membranes of plant cells.  

PubMed

It has been a dogma since the success of chemiosmotic theory that plants use protons as a membrane-coupling mechanism--it has come to be implied that they use no other ion for the purpose. Following the finding that potassium can be taken up by sodium symport in Chara australis, we have established that urea is also taken up by sodium symport in the same organism. use of electrical and flux methods for finding sodium-driven symport are described; using these methods, sodium symport is also found for three solutes in Nitella translucens. Extending the search to higher plants has shown indications of sodium-driven uptake of potassium in Elodea canadensis roots, and Egeria sp. and Vallisneria leaves. Sugar and potassium uptake in Zea mays roots, and sugar uptake in Elodea canadensis showed no sodium requirement. PMID:7597642

Walker, N A

1994-01-01

37

The Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS): Regulation and Approaches to Targeting for Cancer Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is required for efficient iodide uptake in thyroid and lactating breast. Since most differentiated thyroid cancer expresses NIS, ?-emitting radioactive iodide is routinely utilized to target remnant thyroid cancer and metastasis after total thyroidectomy. Stimulation of NIS expression by high levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone is necessary to achieve radioiodide uptake into thyroid cancer that is sufficient for therapy. The majority of breast cancer also expresses NIS, but at a low level insufficient for radioiodine therapy. Retinoic acid is a potent NIS inducer in some breast cancer cells. NIS is also modestly expressed in some non-thyroidal tissues, including salivary glands, lacrimal glands and stomach. Selective induction of iodide uptake is required to target tumors with radioiodide. Iodide uptake in mammalian cells is dependent on the level of NIS gene expression, but also successful translocation of NIS to the cell membrane and correct insertion. The regulatory mechanisms of NIS expression and membrane insertion are regulated by signal transduction pathways that differ by tissue. Differential regulation of NIS confers selective induction of functional NIS in thyroid cancer cells, as well as some breast cancer cells, leading to more efficient radioiodide therapy for thyroid cancer and a new strategy for breast cancer therapy. The potential for systemic radioiodide treatment of a range of other cancers, that do not express endogenous NIS, has been demonstrated in models with tumor-selective introduction of exogenous NIS. PMID:22750642

Kogai, Takahiko; Brent, Gregory A.

2012-01-01

38

The Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) and Potential Regulators in Normal, Benign and Malignant Human Breast Tissue  

PubMed Central

Introduction The presence, relevance and regulation of the Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) in human mammary tissue remains poorly understood. This study aimed to quantify relative expression of NIS and putative regulators in human breast tissue, with relationships observed further investigated in vitro. Methods Human breast tissue specimens (malignant n?=?75, normal n?=?15, fibroadenoma n?=?10) were analysed by RQ-PCR targeting NIS, receptors for retinoic acid (RAR?, RAR?), oestrogen (ER?), thyroid hormones (THR?, THR?), and also phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K). Breast cancer cells were treated with Retinoic acid (ATRA), Estradiol and Thyroxine individually and in combination followed by analysis of changes in NIS expression. Results The lowest levels of NIS were detected in normal tissue (Mean(SEM) 0.70(0.12) Log10 Relative Quantity (RQ)) with significantly higher levels observed in fibroadenoma (1.69(0.21) Log10RQ, p<0.005) and malignant breast tissue (1.18(0.07) Log10RQ, p<0.05). Significant positive correlations were observed between human NIS and ER? (r?=?0.22, p<0.05) and RAR? (r?=?0.29, p<0.005), with the strongest relationship observed between NIS and RAR? (r?=?0.38, p<0.0001). An inverse relationship between NIS and PI3K expression was also observed (r?=??0.21, p<0.05). In vitro, ATRA, Estradiol and Thyroxine individually stimulated significant increases in NIS expression (range 6–16 fold), while ATRA and Thyroxine combined caused the greatest increase (range 16–26 fold). Conclusion Although NIS expression is significantly higher in malignant compared to normal breast tissue, the highest level was detected in fibroadenoma. The data presented supports a role for retinoic acid and estradiol in mammary NIS regulation in vivo, and also highlights potential thyroidal regulation of mammary NIS mediated by thyroid hormones. PMID:21283523

Ryan, James; Curran, Catherine E.; Hennessy, Emer; Newell, John; Morris, John C.; Kerin, Michael J.; Dwyer, Roisin M.

2011-01-01

39

Molecular characterization of the first aromatic nutrient transporter from the sodium neurotransmitter symporter family.  

PubMed

Nutrient amino acid transporters (NATs, subfamily of sodium neurotransmitter symporter family SNF, a.k.a. SLC6) represent a set of phylogenetically and functionally related transport proteins, which perform intracellular absorption of neutral, predominantly essential amino acids. Functions of NATs appear to be critical for the development and survival in organisms. However, mechanisms of specific and synergetic action of various NAT members in the amino acid transport network are virtually unexplored. A new transporter, agNAT8, was cloned from the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae (SS). Upon heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes it performs high-capacity, sodium-coupled (2:1) uptake of nutrients with a strong preference for aromatic catechol-branched substrates, especially phenylalanine and its derivatives tyrosine and L-DOPA, but not catecholamines. It represents a previously unknown SNF phenotype, and also appears to be the first sodium-dependent B(0) type transporter with a narrow selectivity for essential precursors of catecholamine synthesis pathways. It is strongly and specifically transcribed in absorptive and secretory parts of the larval alimentary canal and specific populations of central and peripheral neurons of visual-, chemo- and mechano-sensory afferents. We have identified a new SNF transporter with previously unknown phenotype and showed its important role in the accumulation and redistribution of aromatic substrates. Our results strongly suggest that agNAT8 is an important, if not the major, provider of an essential catechol group in the synthesis of catecholamines for neurochemical signaling as well as ecdysozoan melanization and sclerotization pathways, which may include cuticle hardening/coloring, wound curing, oogenesis, immune responses and melanization of pathogens. PMID:16888066

Meleshkevitch, Ella A; Assis-Nascimento, Poincyane; Popova, Lyudmila B; Miller, Melissa M; Kohn, Andrea B; Phung, Elizabeth N; Mandal, Anita; Harvey, William R; Boudko, Dmitri Y

2006-08-01

40

A potassium-proton symport in Neurospora crassa  

PubMed Central

Combined ion flux and electrophysiological measurements have been used to characterized active transport of potassium by cells of Neurospora crassa that have been moderately starved of K+ and then maintained in the presence of millimolar free calcium ions. These conditions elicit a high-affinity (K1/2 = 1-10 microM) potassium uptake system that is strongly depolarizing. Current-voltage measurements have demonstrated a K+-associated inward current exceeding (at saturation) half the total current normally driven outward through the plasma membrane proton pump. Potassium activity ratios and fluxes have been compared quantitatively with electrophysiological parameters, by using small (approximately 15 micron diam) spherical cells of Neurospora grown in ethylene glycol. All data are consistent with a transport mechanism that carries K ions inward by cotransport with H ions, which move down the electrochemical gradient created by the primary proton pump. The stoichiometry of entry is 1 K ion with 1 H ion; overall charge balance is maintained by pumped extrusion of two protons, to yield a net flux stoichiometry of 1 K+ exchanging for 1 H+. The mechanism is competent to sustain the largest stable K+ gradients that have been measured in Neurospora, with no direct contribution from phosphate hydrolysis or redox processes. Such a potassium-proton symport mechanism could account for many observations reported on K+ movement in other fungi, in algae, and in higher plants. PMID:3014042

1986-01-01

41

Characterization of the proton/glutamate symport protein of Bacillus subtilis and its functional expression in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Transport of acidic amino acids in Bacillus subtilis is an electrogenic process in which L-glutamate or L-aspartate is symported with at least two protons. This is shown by studies of transport in membrane vesicles in which a proton motive force is generated by oxidation of ascorbate-phenazine methosulfate or by artificial ion gradients. An inwards-directed sodium gradient had no (stimulatory) effect on proton motive force-driven L-glutamate uptake. The transporter is specific for L-glutamate and L-aspartate. L-Glutamate transport is inhibited by beta-hydroxyaspartate and cysteic acid but not by alpha-methyl-glutamate. The gene encoding the L-glutamate transport protein of B. subtilis (gltPBsu) was cloned by complementation of Escherichia coli JC5412 for growth on glutamate as the sole source of carbon, energy, and nitrogen, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. Putative promoter, terminator, and ribosome binding site sequences were found in the flanking regions. UUG is most likely the start codon. gltPBsu encodes a polypeptide of 414 amino acid residues and is homologous to several proteins that transport glutamate and/or structurally related compounds such as aspartate, fumarate, malate, and succinate. Both sodium- and proton-coupled transporters belong to this family of dicarboxylate transporters. Hydropathy profiling and multiple alignment of the family of carboxylate transporters suggest that each of the proteins spans the cytoplasmic membrane 12 times with both the amino and carboxy termini on the inside. PMID:7751298

Tolner, B; Ubbink-Kok, T; Poolman, B; Konings, W N

1995-01-01

42

The Na+/I? Symporter (NIS): Mechanism and Medical Impact  

PubMed Central

The Na+/I? symporter (NIS) is the plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates active I? transport in the thyroid and other tissues, such as salivary glands, stomach, lactating breast, and small intestine. In the thyroid, NIS-mediated I? uptake plays a key role as the first step in the biosynthesis of the thyroid hormones, of which iodine is an essential constituent. These hormones are crucial for the development of the central nervous system and the lungs in the fetus and the newborn and for intermediary metabolism at all ages. Since the cloning of NIS in 1996, NIS research has become a major field of inquiry, with considerable impact on many basic and translational areas. In this article, we review the most recent findings on NIS, I? homeostasis, and related topics and place them in historical context. Among many other issues, we discuss the current outlook on iodide deficiency disorders, the present stage of understanding of the structure/function properties of NIS, information gleaned from the characterization of I? transport deficiency-causing NIS mutations, insights derived from the newly reported crystal structures of prokaryotic transporters and 3-dimensional homology modeling, and the novel discovery that NIS transports different substrates with different stoichiometries. A review of NIS regulatory mechanisms is provided, including a newly discovered one involving a K+ channel that is required for NIS function in the thyroid. We also cover current and potential clinical applications of NIS, such as its central role in the treatment of thyroid cancer, its promising use as a reporter gene in imaging and diagnostic procedures, and the latest studies on NIS gene transfer aimed at extending radioiodide treatment to extrathyroidal cancers, including those involving specially engineered NIS molecules. PMID:24311738

Portulano, Carla; Paroder-Belenitsky, Monika

2014-01-01

43

The Na+/I- symporter (NIS): mechanism and medical impact.  

PubMed

The Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS) is the plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates active I(-) transport in the thyroid and other tissues, such as salivary glands, stomach, lactating breast, and small intestine. In the thyroid, NIS-mediated I(-) uptake plays a key role as the first step in the biosynthesis of the thyroid hormones, of which iodine is an essential constituent. These hormones are crucial for the development of the central nervous system and the lungs in the fetus and the newborn and for intermediary metabolism at all ages. Since the cloning of NIS in 1996, NIS research has become a major field of inquiry, with considerable impact on many basic and translational areas. In this article, we review the most recent findings on NIS, I(-) homeostasis, and related topics and place them in historical context. Among many other issues, we discuss the current outlook on iodide deficiency disorders, the present stage of understanding of the structure/function properties of NIS, information gleaned from the characterization of I(-) transport deficiency-causing NIS mutations, insights derived from the newly reported crystal structures of prokaryotic transporters and 3-dimensional homology modeling, and the novel discovery that NIS transports different substrates with different stoichiometries. A review of NIS regulatory mechanisms is provided, including a newly discovered one involving a K(+) channel that is required for NIS function in the thyroid. We also cover current and potential clinical applications of NIS, such as its central role in the treatment of thyroid cancer, its promising use as a reporter gene in imaging and diagnostic procedures, and the latest studies on NIS gene transfer aimed at extending radioiodide treatment to extrathyroidal cancers, including those involving specially engineered NIS molecules. PMID:24311738

Portulano, Carla; Paroder-Belenitsky, Monika; Carrasco, Nancy

2014-02-01

44

The Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) and Potential Regulators in Normal, Benign and Malignant Human Breast Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe presence, relevance and regulation of the Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) in human mammary tissue remains poorly understood. This study aimed to quantify relative expression of NIS and putative regulators in human breast tissue, with relationships observed further investigated in vitro.MethodsHuman breast tissue specimens (malignant n = 75, normal n = 15, fibroadenoma n = 10) were analysed by RQ-PCR

James Ryan; Catherine E. Curran; Emer Hennessy; John Newell; John C. Morris; Michael J. Kerin; Roisin M. Dwyer; Marian Ludgate

2011-01-01

45

Functional Expression of Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) in Human Breast Cancer Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is a molecule involved in active accumulation of iodine in thyroid gland for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormone. Its expression has also been demonstrated in extra-thyroidal tissues including lactating mice mammary gland and also in human breast cancers. Iodide transport in thyroid cells through NIS is the basis for using radioiodine for diagnosis and treatment of

Geeta Upadhyay; Rajesh Singh; Gaurav Agarwal; Saroj K. Mishra; Lily Pal; Prasanta K. Pradhan; Birendra K. Das; Madan M. Godbole

2003-01-01

46

The Sodium\\/Iodide Symporter (NIS): Characterization, Regulation, and Medical Significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Na\\/I symporter (NIS) is an integral plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates active I transport into the thy- roid follicular cells, the first step in thyroid hormone biosyn- thesis. NIS-mediated thyroidal I transport from the blood- stream to the colloid is a vectorial process made possible by the selective targeting of NIS to the basolateral membrane. NIS also mediates active

ORSOLYA DOHAN; ANTONIO DE LA VIEJA; VIKTORIYA PARODER; CLAUDIA RIEDEL; MONA ARTANI; MIA REED; CHRISTOPHER S. GINTER; NANCY CARRASCO

2003-01-01

47

microRNA-339-5p modulates Na+/I- symporter-mediated radioiodide uptake.  

PubMed

Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS)-mediated radioiodide uptake (RAIU) serves as the basis for targeted ablation of thyroid cancer remnants. However, many patients with thyroid cancer have reduced NIS expression/function and hence do not benefit from radioiodine therapy. microRNA (miR) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in many diseases; yet, the role of miRs in NIS-mediated RAIU has not been investigated. In silico analysis was used to identify miRs that may bind to the 3'UTR of human NIS (hNIS). The top candidate miR-339-5p directly bound to the 3'UTR of hNIS. miR-339-5p overexpression decreased NIS-mediated RAIU in HEK293 cells expressing exogenous hNIS, decreased the levels of NIS mRNA, and RAIU in transretinoic acid/hydrocortisone (tRA/H)-treated MCF-7 human breast cancer cells as well as thyrotropin-stimulated PCCl3 rat thyroid cells. Nanostring nCounter rat miR expression assay was conducted to identify miRs deregulated by TGF?, Akti-1/2, or 17-AAG known to modulate RAIU in PCCl3 cells. Among 38 miRs identified, 18 were conserved in humans. One of the 18 miRs, miR-195, was predicted to bind to the 3'UTR of hNIS and its overexpression decreased RAIU in tRA/H-treated MCF-7 cells. miR-339-5p was modestly increased in most papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), yet miR-195 was significantly decreased in PTCs. Interestingly, the expression profiles of 18 miRs could be used to distinguish most PTCs from nonmalignant thyroid tissues. This is the first report, to our knowledge, demonstrating that hNIS-mediated RAIU can be modulated by miRs, and that the same miRs may also play roles in the development or maintenance of thyroid malignancy. Accordingly, miRs may serve as emerging targets to halt the progression of thyroid cancer and to enhance the efficacy of radioiodine therapy. PMID:25404690

Lakshmanan, Aparna; Wojcicka, Anna; Kotlarek, Marta; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jazdzewski, Krystian; Jhiang, Sissy M

2015-02-01

48

Differential regulation of sodium/iodide symporter gene expression by nuclear receptor ligands in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) mediates iodide uptake in lactating breast tissue and is expressed in some breast cancers. We have previously demonstrated that all-trans retinoic acid (tRA) stimulates NIS gene expression and the selective cytotoxic effect of beta-emitting radioiodide-131 ((131)I) in both in vitro and in vivo MCF-7 breast cancer cell systems. We studied the ability of natural and synthetic retinoids, in combination with other nuclear receptor ligands, to achieve greater and more sustained induction of NIS in MCF-7 cells and enhance (131)I-mediated cytotoxicity. Selective stimulation of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) beta/gamma produced marked NIS induction; and selective stimulation of RARalpha, RARgamma, or retinoid X receptor produced more modest induction. Maximal NIS induction was seen with 9-cis retinoic acid and AGN190168, a RAR beta/gamma-agonist. Dexamethasone (Dex), but not the other nuclear receptor ligands, in combination with tRA synergistically induced iodide uptake and NIS mRNA expression, predominantly by prolonging NIS mRNA half-life. The addition of Dex reduced the EC(50) of tRA for NIS stimulation to approximately 7%, such that 10(-7) m tRA with addition of Dex enhanced iodide uptake and selective cytotoxicity of (131)I greater than 10(-6) m tRA alone. AGN190168 combined with Dex synergistically increased iodide uptake and significantly prolonged induction (5 d) of iodide uptake compared with that induced by the combination of tRA/Dex or 9-cis retinoic acid/Dex. The addition of Dex reduced the effective dose of retinoid and prolonged the induction of NIS, especially with AGN190168, suggesting higher efficacy of (131)I after combination treatment. PMID:15817668

Kogai, Takahiko; Kanamoto, Yoko; Li, Andrew I; Che, Lisa H; Ohashi, Emi; Taki, Katsumi; Chandraratna, Roshantha A; Saito, Tsukasa; Brent, Gregory A

2005-07-01

49

Coupled Global and Local Changes Direct Substrate Translocation by Neurotransmitter-Sodium Symporter Ortholog LeuT  

PubMed Central

Significant advances have been made in recent years in characterizing neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) family structure and function. Yet, many time-resolved events and intermediates that control the various stages of transport cycle remain to be elucidated. Whether NSSs harbor one or two sites for binding their substrates (neurotransmitters or amino acids), and what the role of the secondary site S2 is, if any, are still unresolved. Using molecular modeling and simulations for LeuT, a bacterial NSS, we present a comprehensive account of substrate-binding and -stabilization events, and subsequently triggered interactions leading to substrate (alanine) release. LeuT instantaneous conformation as it reconfigures from substrate-receiving (outward-facing) to -releasing (inward-facing) state appears to be a determinant of its affinity to bind substrate at site S2. In the outward-facing state, S1 robustly binds alanine and regulates subsequent redistribution of interactions to trigger extracellular gate closure; whereas S2 is only a transient binding site. The substrate-binding affinity at S2 increases in an intermediate close to inward-facing state. LeuT harbors the two substrate-binding sites, and small displacements of second substrate near S2 are observed to induce concerted small translocations in the substrate bound to primary site S1, although complete release requires collective structural rearrangements that fully expose the intracellular vestibule to the cytoplasm. PMID:23931311

Cheng, Mary Hongying; Bahar, Ivet

2013-01-01

50

Construction of a YAC library from a Beta vulgaris fragment addition and isolation of a major satellite DNA cluster linked to the beet cyst nematode resistance locus Hs1 (pat-1.).  

PubMed

A YAC library was constructed from the Beta vulgaris fragment addition AN5-203b. This monosomic fragment addition harbors an approximate 12-Mbp fragment of B.patellaris chromosome 1 accomodating the Hs1 (pat-1) conferring resistance to the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii). The YAC library consists of 20,000 YAC clones having an average size of 140 kb. Screening with organelle-specific probes showed that 12% of the clones contain chloroplast DNA while only 0.2% of the clones hybridizes with a mitochondrial specific probe. On the basis of a sugar beet haploid genome size of 750 Mbp this library represents 3.3 haploid genome equivalents. The addition fragment present in AN5-203b harbors a major satellite DNA cluster that is tightly linked to the Hs1 (pat-1) locus. The cluster is located on a single 250-kb EcoRI restriction fragment and consists of an estimated 700-800 copies of a 159-bp core sequence, most of which are arranged in tandem. Using this core sequence as a probe, we were able to isolate 1 YAC clone from the library that contains the entire 250-kb satellite DNA cluster. PMID:24177891

Klein-Lankhorst, R M; Salentijn, E M; Dirkse, W G; Arens-de Reuver, M; Stiekema, W J

1994-10-01

51

Identification of a second substrate-binding site in solute-sodium symporters.  

PubMed

The structure of the sodium/galactose transporter (vSGLT), a solute-sodium symporter (SSS) from Vibrio parahaemolyticus, shares a common structural fold with LeuT of the neurotransmitter-sodium symporter family. Structural alignments between LeuT and vSGLT reveal that the crystallographically identified galactose-binding site in vSGLT is located in a more extracellular location relative to the central substrate-binding site (S1) in LeuT. Our computational analyses suggest the existence of an additional galactose-binding site in vSGLT that aligns to the S1 site of LeuT. Radiolabeled galactose saturation binding experiments indicate that, like LeuT, vSGLT can simultaneously bind two substrate molecules under equilibrium conditions. Mutating key residues in the individual substrate-binding sites reduced the molar substrate-to-protein binding stoichiometry to ~1. In addition, the related and more experimentally tractable SSS member PutP (the Na(+)/proline transporter) also exhibits a binding stoichiometry of 2. Targeting residues in the proposed sites with mutations results in the reduction of the binding stoichiometry and is accompanied by severely impaired translocation of proline. Our data suggest that substrate transport by SSS members requires both substrate-binding sites, thereby implying that SSSs and neurotransmitter-sodium symporters share common mechanistic elements in substrate transport. PMID:25398883

Li, Zheng; Lee, Ashley S E; Bracher, Susanne; Jung, Heinrich; Paz, Aviv; Kumar, Jay P; Abramson, Jeff; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

2015-01-01

52

Molecular Characterization of V59E NIS, a Na+/I? Symporter Mutant that Causes Congenital I? Transport Defect  

PubMed Central

I? is actively transported into thyrocytes via the Na+/I? symporter (NIS), a key glycoprotein located on the basolateral plasma membrane. The cDNA encoding rat NIS was identified in our laboratory, where an extensive structure/function characterization of NIS is being conducted. Several NIS mutants have been identified as causes of congenital I? transport defect (ITD), including V59E NIS. ITD is characterized by low thyroid I? uptake, low saliva/plasma I? ratio, hypothyroidism, and goiter and may cause mental retardation if untreated. Studies of other ITD-causing NIS mutants have revealed valuable information regarding NIS structure/function. V59E NIS was reported to exhibit as much as 30% of the activity of wild-type NIS. However, this observation was at variance with the patients’ phenotype of total lack of activity. We have thoroughly characterized V59E NIS and studied several amino acid substitutions at position 59. We demonstrated that, in contrast to the previous report, V59E NIS is inactive, although it is properly targeted to the plasma membrane. Glu and all other charged amino acids or Pro at position 59 also yielded nonfunctional NIS proteins. However, I? uptake was rescued to different degrees by the other substitutions. Although the Km values for Na+ and I? were not altered in these active mutants, we found that the structural requirement for NIS function at position 59 is a neutral, helix-promoting amino acid. This result suggests that the region that contains V59 may be involved in intramembrane helix-helix interactions during the transport cycle without being in direct contact with the substrates. PMID:18339708

Reed-Tsur, Mia D.; De la Vieja, Antonio; Ginter, Christopher S.; Carrasco, Nancy

2008-01-01

53

The iodide-transport-defect-causing mutation R124H: a ?-amino group at position 124 is critical for maturation and trafficking of the Na+/I? symporter  

PubMed Central

Summary Na+/I? symporter (NIS)-mediated active accumulation of I? in thyrocytes is a key step in the biosynthesis of the iodine-containing thyroid hormones T3 and T4. Several NIS mutants have been identified as a cause of congenital I? transport defect (ITD), and their investigation has yielded valuable mechanistic information on NIS. Here we report novel findings derived from the thorough characterization of the ITD-causing mutation R124H, located in the second intracellular loop (IL-2). R124H NIS is incompletely glycosylated and colocalizes with endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein markers. As a result, R124H NIS is not targeted to the plasma membrane and therefore does not mediate any I? transport in transfected COS-7 cells. Strikingly, however, the mutant is intrinsically active, as revealed by its ability to mediate I? transport in membrane vesicles. Of all the amino acid substitutions we carried out at position 124 (K, D, E, A, W, N and Q), only Gln restored targeting of NIS to the plasma membrane and NIS activity, suggesting a key structural role for the ?-amino group of R124 in the transporter's maturation and cell surface targeting. Using our NIS homology model based on the structure of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus Na+/galactose symporter, we propose an interaction between the ?-amino group of either R or Q124 and the thiol group of C440, located in IL-6. We conclude that the interaction between IL-2 and IL-6 is critical for the local folding required for NIS maturation and plasma membrane trafficking. PMID:23690546

Paroder, Viktoriya; Nicola, Juan P.; Ginter, Christopher S.; Carrasco, Nancy

2013-01-01

54

The iodide-transport-defect-causing mutation R124H: a ?-amino group at position 124 is critical for maturation and trafficking of the Na+/I- symporter.  

PubMed

Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS)-mediated active accumulation of I(-) in thyrocytes is a key step in the biosynthesis of the iodine-containing thyroid hormones T3 and T4. Several NIS mutants have been identified as a cause of congenital I(-) transport defect (ITD), and their investigation has yielded valuable mechanistic information on NIS. Here we report novel findings derived from the thorough characterization of the ITD-causing mutation R124H, located in the second intracellular loop (IL-2). R124H NIS is incompletely glycosylated and colocalizes with endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein markers. As a result, R124H NIS is not targeted to the plasma membrane and therefore does not mediate any I(-) transport in transfected COS-7 cells. Strikingly, however, the mutant is intrinsically active, as revealed by its ability to mediate I(-) transport in membrane vesicles. Of all the amino acid substitutions we carried out at position 124 (K, D, E, A, W, N and Q), only Gln restored targeting of NIS to the plasma membrane and NIS activity, suggesting a key structural role for the ?-amino group of R124 in the transporter's maturation and cell surface targeting. Using our NIS homology model based on the structure of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus Na(+)/galactose symporter, we propose an interaction between the ?-amino group of either R or Q124 and the thiol group of C440, located in IL-6. We conclude that the interaction between IL-2 and IL-6 is critical for the local folding required for NIS maturation and plasma membrane trafficking. PMID:23690546

Paroder, Viktoriya; Nicola, Juan P; Ginter, Christopher S; Carrasco, Nancy

2013-08-01

55

Oncolytic Measles Virus Expressing the Sodium Iodide Symporter to Treat Drug-Resistant Ovarian Cancer  

PubMed Central

Edmonston vaccine strains of measles virus (MV) have significant antitumor activity in mouse xenograft models of ovarian cancer. MV engineered to express the sodium iodide symporter gene (MV-NIS) facilitates localization of viral gene expression and offers a tool for tumor radiovirotherapy. Here, we report results from a clinical evaluation of MV-NIS in patients with taxol- and platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. MV-NIS was given intraperitoneally every 4 weeks for up to 6 cycles. Treatment was well tolerated and associated with promising median overall survival in these patients with heavily pretreated ovarian cancer; no dose-limiting toxicity was observed in 16 patients treated at high-dose levels (108–109 TCID50), and their median overall survival of 26.5 months compared favorably with other contemporary series. MV receptor CD46 and nectin-4 expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in patient tumors. Sodium iodide symporter expression in patient tumors after treatment was confirmed in three patients by 123I uptake on SPECT/CTs and was associated with long progression-free survival. Immune monitoring posttreatment showed an increase in effector T cells recognizing the tumor antigens IGFBP2 and FR?, indicating that MV-NIS treatment triggered cellular immunity against the patients' tumor and suggesting that an immune mechanism mediating the observed antitumor effect. Our findings support further clinical evaluation of MV-NIS as an effective immunovirotherapy. PMID:25398436

Galanis, Evanthia; Atherton, Pamela J.; Maurer, Matthew J.; Knutson, Keith L.; Dowdy, Sean C.; Cliby, William A.; Haluska, Paul; Long, Harry J.; Oberg, Ann; Aderca, Ileana; Block, Matthew S.; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie; Federspiel, Mark J.; Russell, Stephen J.; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Keeney, Gary; Peng, Kah Whye; Hartmann, Lynn C.

2015-01-01

56

Oncolytic measles virus expressing the sodium iodide symporter to treat drug-resistant ovarian cancer.  

PubMed

Edmonston vaccine strains of measles virus (MV) have significant antitumor activity in mouse xenograft models of ovarian cancer. MV engineered to express the sodium iodide symporter gene (MV-NIS) facilitates localization of viral gene expression and offers a tool for tumor radiovirotherapy. Here, we report results from a clinical evaluation of MV-NIS in patients with taxol- and platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. MV-NIS was given intraperitoneally every 4 weeks for up to 6 cycles. Treatment was well tolerated and associated with promising median overall survival in these patients with heavily pretreated ovarian cancer; no dose-limiting toxicity was observed in 16 patients treated at high-dose levels (10(8)-10(9) TCID50), and their median overall survival of 26.5 months compared favorably with other contemporary series. MV receptor CD46 and nectin-4 expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in patient tumors. Sodium iodide symporter expression in patient tumors after treatment was confirmed in three patients by (123)I uptake on SPECT/CTs and was associated with long progression-free survival. Immune monitoring posttreatment showed an increase in effector T cells recognizing the tumor antigens IGFBP2 and FR?, indicating that MV-NIS treatment triggered cellular immunity against the patients' tumor and suggesting that an immune mechanism mediating the observed antitumor effect. Our findings support further clinical evaluation of MV-NIS as an effective immunovirotherapy. PMID:25398436

Galanis, Evanthia; Atherton, Pamela J; Maurer, Matthew J; Knutson, Keith L; Dowdy, Sean C; Cliby, William A; Haluska, Paul; Long, Harry J; Oberg, Ann; Aderca, Ileana; Block, Matthew S; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie; Federspiel, Mark J; Russell, Stephen J; Kalli, Kimberly R; Keeney, Gary; Peng, Kah Whye; Hartmann, Lynn C

2015-01-01

57

Mechanism of anion selectivity and stoichiometry of the Na+/I- symporter (NIS)  

PubMed Central

I- uptake in the thyroid, the first step in thyroid hormone biosynthesis, is mediated by the Na+/I- symporter (NIS) with an electrogenic 2Na+ : 1I- stoichiometry. We have obtained mechanistic information on NIS by characterizing the congenital I- transport defect-causing NIS mutant G93R. This mutant is targeted to the plasma membrane but is inactive. Substitutions at position 93 show that the longer the side chain of the neutral residue at this position, the higher the Km for the anion substrates. Unlike WT NIS, which mediates symport of Na+ and the environmental pollutant perchlorate electroneutrally, G93T/N/Q/E/D NIS, strikingly, do it electrogenically with a 2?1 stoichiometry. Furthermore, G93E/Q NIS discriminate between anion substrates, a discovery with potential clinical relevance. A 3D homology model of NIS based on the structure of the bacterial Na+/galactose transporter identifies G93 as a critical player in the mechanism of the transporter: the changes from an outwardly to an inwardly open conformation during the transport cycle use G93 as a pivot. PMID:22011571

Paroder-Belenitsky, Monika; Maestas, Matthew J.; Dohán, Orsolya; Nicola, Juan Pablo; Reyna-Neyra, Andrea; Follenzi, Antonia; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Eskandari, Sepehr; Amzel, L. Mario; Carrasco, Nancy

2011-01-01

58

A Member of the Sugar Transporter Family, Stl1p Is the Glycerol/H+ Symporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Glycerol and other polyols are used as osmoprotectants by many organisms. Several yeasts and other fungi can take up glycerol by proton symport. To identify genes involved in active glycerol uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae we screened a deletion mutant collection comprising 321 genes encoding proteins with 6 or more predicted transmembrane domains for impaired growth on glycerol medium. Deletion of STL1, which encodes a member of the sugar transporter family, eliminates active glycerol transport. Stl1p is present in the plasma membrane in S. cerevisiae during conditions where glycerol symport is functional. Both the Stl1 protein and the active glycerol transport are subject to glucose-induced inactivation, following identical patterns. Furthermore, the Stl1 protein and the glycerol symporter activity are strongly but transiently induced when cells are subjected to osmotic shock. STL1 was heterologously expressed in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a yeast that does not contain its own active glycerol transport system. In S. pombe, STL1 conferred the ability to take up glycerol against a concentration gradient in a proton motive force-dependent manner. We conclude that the glycerol proton symporter in S. cerevisiae is encoded by STL1. PMID:15703210

Ferreira, Célia; van Voorst, Frank; Martins, António; Neves, Luisa; Oliveira, Rui; Kielland-Brandt, Morten C.; Lucas, Cândida; Brandt, Anders

2005-01-01

59

In vivo imaging and radioiodine therapy following sodium iodide symporter gene transfer in animal model of intracerebral gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive iodide uptake (RAIU) in thyroid follicular epithelial cells, mediated by the sodium iodide symporter (NIS), is the first rate-limiting step in iodide accumulation which provides a mechanism for effective radioiodide treatment for patients with thyroid cancer. We hypothesize that NIS gene transfer to non-thyroid tumor cells will enhance intracellular radioiodide accumulation and result in better tumor control. Here, we

J-Y Cho; D HY Shen; W Yang; B Williams; T LF Buckwalter; G Hinkle; R Pozderac; R Kloos; H N Nagaraja; R F Barth; S M Jhiang

2002-01-01

60

Current research on the genetics of lactic acid production in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid derived from lactose is a major by-product of energy production in lactic acid bacteria. The uptake of lactose by these organisms is mediated either by the lactose phosphoenolpyruvate-phosphotransferase system (lactose PEP-PTS), or by a lactose-proton symport system. The disaccharide is then converted to lactate with the concomitant production of ATP. In Lactococcus lactis the genes encoding the lactose

B. E. Davidson; R. M. Llanos; M. R. Cancilla; N. C. Redman; A. J. Hillier

1995-01-01

61

Quantitative Imaging of Na\\/I Symporter Transgene Expression Using Positron Emission Tomography in the Living Animal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgene expression can be measured in living animals by positron emission tomography (PET) using reporter genes associated with radiolabeled substrates or ligands. We examined here whether PET images obtained with a new reporter gene system (sodium\\/iodide symporter (NIS) and [124I]iodide) could provide quantitative information on gene expression in mice. Mice received various doses of recombinant adenovirus in which the expression

Thomas Groot-Wassink; Eric O. Aboagye; Yaohe Wang; Nicholas R. Lemoine; Andrew J. Reader; Georges Vassaux

2004-01-01

62

A phloem-specific sucrose-H+ symporter from Plantago major L. supports the model of apoplastic phloem loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the cloning of a full-length cDNA clone encoding the PmSUC2 sucrose-H+ symporter from Plantago major is described. This plant allows the simple preparation of vascular bundles from the basal regions of fully developed source leaves and thus a separation of vascular and non-vascular tissue. A cDNA library was constructed from poly(A)+ RNA isolated from vascular bundles and

Manfred Gahrtz; Jurgen Stolz; Norbert Sauer

1994-01-01

63

The Na+/I- symporter mediates active iodide uptake in the intestine.  

PubMed

Absorption of dietary iodide, presumably in the small intestine, is the first step in iodide (I(-)) utilization. From the bloodstream, I(-) is actively taken up via the Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS) in the thyroid for thyroid hormone biosynthesis and in such other tissues as lactating breast, which supplies I(-) to the newborn in the milk. The molecular basis for intestinal I(-) absorption is unknown. We sought to determine whether I(-) is actively accumulated by enterocytes and, if so, whether this process is mediated by NIS and regulated by I(-) itself. NIS expression was localized exclusively at the apical surface of rat and mouse enterocytes. In vivo intestine-to-blood transport of pertechnetate, a NIS substrate, was sensitive to the NIS inhibitor perchlorate. Brush border membrane vesicles accumulated I(-) in a sodium-dependent, perchlorate-sensitive manner with kinetic parameters similar to those of thyroid cells. NIS was expressed in intestinal epithelial cell line 6, and I(-) uptake in these cells was also kinetically similar to that in thyrocytes. I(-) downregulated NIS protein expression and its own NIS-mediated transport both in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that NIS is functionally expressed on the apical surface of enterocytes, where it mediates active I(-) accumulation. Therefore, NIS is a significant and possibly central component of the I(-) absorption system in the small intestine, a system of key importance for thyroid hormone biosynthesis and thus systemic intermediary metabolism. PMID:19052257

Nicola, Juan Pablo; Basquin, Cécile; Portulano, Carla; Reyna-Neyra, Andrea; Paroder, Monika; Carrasco, Nancy

2009-04-01

64

Sodium Iodide Symporter for Nuclear Molecular Imaging and Gene Therapy: From Bedside to Bench and Back  

PubMed Central

Molecular imaging, defined as the visual representation, characterization and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels within intact living organisms, can be obtained by various imaging technologies, including nuclear imaging methods. Imaging of normal thyroid tissue and differentiated thyroid cancer, and treatment of thyroid cancer with radioiodine rely on the expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in these cells. NIS is an intrinsic membrane protein with 13 transmembrane domains and it takes up iodide into the cytosol from the extracellular fluid. By transferring NIS function to various cells via gene transfer, the cells can be visualized with gamma or positron emitting radioisotopes such as Tc-99m, I-123, I-131, I-124 and F-18 tetrafluoroborate, which are accumulated by NIS. They can also be treated with beta- or alpha-emitting radionuclides, such as I-131, Re-186, Re-188 and At-211, which are also accumulated by NIS. This article demonstrates the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of NIS as a radionuclide-based reporter gene for trafficking cells and a therapeutic gene for treating cancers. PMID:22539935

Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

2012-01-01

65

Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in extrathyroidal malignancies: focus on breast and urological cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Expression and function of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is requisite for efficient iodide transport in thyrocytes, and its presence in cancer cells allows the use of radioiodine as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in thyroid neoplasia. Discovery of NIS expression in extrathyroidal tissues, including transformed cells, has opened a novel field of research regarding NIS-expressing extrathyroidal neoplasia. Indeed, expression of NIS may be used as a biomarker for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic purposes. Moreover, stimulation of endogenous NIS expression may permit the radioiodine treatment of extrathyroidal lesions by concentrating this radioisotope. Results This review describes recent findings in NIS research in extrathyroidal malignancies, focusing on breast and urological cancer, emphasizing the most relevant developments that may have clinical impact. Conclusions Given the recent progress in the study of NIS regulation as molecular basis for new therapeutic approaches in extrathyroidal cancers, particular attention is given to studies regarding the relationship between NIS and clinical-pathological aspects of the tumors and the regulation of NIS expression in the experimental models. PMID:24884806

2014-01-01

66

The Biology of the Sodium Iodide Symporter and its Potential for Targeted Gene Delivery  

PubMed Central

The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is responsible for thyroidal, salivary, gastric, intestinal and mammary iodide uptake. It was first cloned from the rat in 1996 and shortly thereafter from human and mouse tissue. In the intervening years, we have learned a great deal about the biology of NIS. Detailed knowledge of its genomic structure, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation and pharmacological modulation has underpinned the selection of NIS as an exciting approach for targeted gene delivery. A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the potential of using NIS gene therapy as a means of delivering highly conformal radiation doses selectively to tumours. This strategy is particularly attractive because it can be used with both diagnostic (99mTc, 125I, 124I) and therapeutic (131I, 186Re, 188Re, 211At) radioisotopes and it lends itself to incorporation with standard treatment modalities, such as radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. In this article, we review the biology of NIS and discuss its development for gene therapy. PMID:20201784

Hingorani, M.; Spitzweg, C.; Vassaux, G.; Newbold, K.; Melcher, A.; Pandha, H.; Vile, R.; Harrington, K.

2013-01-01

67

A Mechanism for Intracellular Release of Na+ by Neurotransmitter: Sodium Symporters  

PubMed Central

Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSS) terminate synaptic signal transmission by Na+-dependent reuptake of released neurotransmitters, with key conformational states reported for a bacterial homolog LeuT and an inhibitor-bound Drosophila dopamine transporter. However, a coherent mechanism of Na+-driven transport has not been described. Here, we present two crystal structures of MhsT, a NSS member from Bacillus halodurans, in occluded inward-facing states with bound Na+ ions and L-Trp that provide insight into the cytoplasmic release of Na+. The switch from outward- to inward-oriented states is centered on the partial unwinding of transmembrane helix 5, which is facilitated by a conserved GlyX9Pro motif that opens an intracellular pathway for water to access the Na2 site. Based on our structural and functional findings we propose a mechanism according to which solvation through the TM5 pathway facilitates Na+ release from Na2 and the transition to an inward-open state. PMID:25282149

Malinauskaite, Lina; Reinhard, Linda; Lyons, Joseph A.; Yano, Hideaki; Javitch, Jonathan A.

2015-01-01

68

Dietary i(-) absorption: expression and regulation of the na(+)/i(-) symporter in the intestine.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormones are critical for the normal development, growth, and functional maturation of several tissues, including the central nervous system. Iodine is an essential constituent of the thyroid hormones, the only iodine-containing molecules in vertebrates. Dietary iodide (I(-)) absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is the first step in I(-) metabolism, as the diet is the only source of I(-) for land-dwelling vertebrates. The Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS), an integral plasma membrane glycoprotein located in the brush border of enterocytes, constitutes a central component of the I(-) absorption system in the small intestine. In this chapter, we review the most recent research on structure/function relations in NIS and the protein's I(-) transport mechanism and stoichiometry, with a special focus on the tissue distribution and hormonal regulation of NIS, as well as the role of NIS in mediating I(-) homeostasis. We further discuss recent findings concerning the autoregulatory effect of I(-) on I(-) metabolism in enterocytes: high intracellular I(-) concentrations in enterocytes decrease NIS-mediated uptake of I(-) through a complex array of posttranscriptional mechanisms, e.g., downregulation of NIS expression at the plasma membrane, increased NIS protein degradation, and reduction of NIS mRNA stability leading to decreased NIS mRNA levels. Since the molecular identification of NIS, great progress has been made not only in understanding the role of NIS in I(-) homeostasis but also in developing protocols for NIS-mediated imaging and treatment of various diseases. PMID:25817864

Nicola, Juan Pablo; Carrasco, Nancy; Masini-Repiso, Ana María

2015-01-01

69

Substrate specificity and ion coupling in the Na+/betaine symporter BetP.  

PubMed

BetP is an Na(+)-coupled betaine-specific transporter of the betaine-choline-carnitine (BCC) transporter family involved in the response to hyperosmotic stress. The crystal structure of BetP revealed an overall fold of two inverted structurally related repeats (LeuT-fold) that BetP shares with other sequence-unrelated Na(+)-coupled symporters. Numerous structures of LeuT-fold transporters in distinct conformational states have contributed substantially to our understanding of the alternating access mechanism of transport. Nevertheless, coupling of substrate and co-transported ion fluxes has not been structurally corroborated to the same extent. We converted BetP by a single-point mutation--glycine to aspartate--into an H(+)-coupled choline-specific transporter and solved the crystal structure of this mutant in complex with choline. The structure of BetP-G153D demonstrates a new inward-facing open conformation for BetP. Choline binding to a location close to the second, low-affinity sodium-binding site (Na2) of LeuT-fold transporters is facilitated by the introduced aspartate. Our data confirm the importance of a cation-binding site in BetP, playing a key role in a proposed molecular mechanism of Na(+) and H(+) coupling in BCC transporters. PMID:21364531

Perez, Camilo; Koshy, Caroline; Ressl, Susanne; Nicklisch, Sascha; Krämer, Reinhard; Ziegler, Christine

2011-04-01

70

Physiological sodium concentrations enhance the iodide affinity of the Na+/I- symporter.  

PubMed

The Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS) mediates active I(-) transport--the first step in thyroid hormonogenesis--with a 2Na(+):1I(-) stoichiometry. NIS-mediated (131)I(-) treatment of thyroid cancer post-thyroidectomy is the most effective targeted internal radiation cancer treatment available. Here to uncover mechanistic information on NIS, we use statistical thermodynamics to obtain Kds and estimate the relative populations of the different NIS species during Na(+)/anion binding and transport. We show that, although the affinity of NIS for I(-) is low (Kd=224??M), it increases when Na(+) is bound (Kd=22.4??M). However, this Kd is still much higher than the submicromolar physiological I(-) concentration. To overcome this, NIS takes advantage of the extracellular Na(+) concentration and the pronounced increase in its own affinity for I(-) and for the second Na(+) elicited by binding of the first. Thus, at physiological Na(+) concentrations, ~79% of NIS molecules are occupied by two Na(+) ions and ready to bind and transport I(-). PMID:24888603

Nicola, Juan P; Carrasco, Nancy; Amzel, L Mario

2014-01-01

71

Physiological sodium concentrations enhance the iodide affinity of the Na+/I- symporter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Na+/I- symporter (NIS) mediates active I- transport—the first step in thyroid hormonogenesis—with a 2Na+:1I- stoichiometry. NIS-mediated 131I- treatment of thyroid cancer post-thyroidectomy is the most effective targeted internal radiation cancer treatment available. Here to uncover mechanistic information on NIS, we use statistical thermodynamics to obtain Kds and estimate the relative populations of the different NIS species during Na+/anion binding and transport. We show that, although the affinity of NIS for I- is low (Kd=224??M), it increases when Na+ is bound (Kd=22.4??M). However, this Kd is still much higher than the submicromolar physiological I- concentration. To overcome this, NIS takes advantage of the extracellular Na+ concentration and the pronounced increase in its own affinity for I- and for the second Na+ elicited by binding of the first. Thus, at physiological Na+ concentrations, ~79% of NIS molecules are occupied by two Na+ ions and ready to bind and transport I-.

Nicola, Juan P.; Carrasco, Nancy; Mario Amzel, L.

2014-06-01

72

A mechanism for intracellular release of Na+ by neurotransmitter/sodium symporters.  

PubMed

Neurotransmitter/sodium symporters (NSSs) terminate synaptic signal transmission by Na+-dependent reuptake of released neurotransmitters. Key conformational states have been reported for the bacterial homolog LeuT and an inhibitor-bound Drosophila dopamine transporter. However, a coherent mechanism of Na+-driven transport has not been described. Here, we present two crystal structures of MhsT, an NSS member from Bacillus halodurans, in occluded inward-facing states with bound Na+ ions and L-tryptophan, providing insight into the cytoplasmic release of Na+. The switch from outward- to inward-oriented states is centered on the partial unwinding of transmembrane helix 5, facilitated by a conserved GlyX9Pro motif that opens an intracellular pathway for water to access the Na2 site. We propose a mechanism, based on our structural and functional findings, in which solvation through the TM5 pathway facilitates Na+ release from Na2 and the transition to an inward-open state. PMID:25282149

Malinauskaite, Lina; Quick, Matthias; Reinhard, Linda; Lyons, Joseph A; Yano, Hideaki; Javitch, Jonathan A; Nissen, Poul

2014-11-01

73

A Novel Method of Boron Delivery Using Sodium Iodide Symporter for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy  

PubMed Central

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) effectiveness depends on the preferential sequestration of boron in cancer cells relative to normal tissue cells. We present a novel strategy for sequestering boron using an adenovirus expressing the sodium iodide symporter (NIS). Human glioma grown subcutaneously in athymic mice and orthotopic rat brain tumors were transfected with NIS using a direct tumor injection of adenovirus. Boron bound as sodium tetrafluoroborate (NaBF4) was administered systemically several days after transfection. Tumors were excised hours later and assessed for boron concentration using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. In the human glioma transfected with NIS, boron concentration was more than 10 fold higher with 100 mg/kg of NaBF4, compared to tumor not transfected. In the orthotopic tumor model, the presence of NIS conferred almost 4 times the boron concentration in rat tumors transfected with human virus compared with contralateral normal brain not transfected. We conclude that adenovirus expressing NIS has the potential to be used as a novel boron delivery agent and should be explored for future clinical applications. PMID:20921830

KUMAR, Sanath; FREYTAG, Svend O.; BARTON, Kenneth N.; BURMEISTER, Jay; JOINER, Michael C.; SEDGHI, Bijan; MOVSAS, Benjamin; BINNS, Peter J.; KIM, Jae Ho; BROWN, Stephen L.

2013-01-01

74

Decreased Expression of Thyroglobulin and Sodium Iodide Symporter Genes in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis  

PubMed Central

Aim. The aim of the study was to compare the expression of sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroglobulin (Tg), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), and interleukin-1? genes in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and healthy individuals. Subjects and Methods. Thyroid cells were obtained from 39 patients with HT and 15 controls by an ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. Results. The patients with HT had lower Tg and NIS mRNA (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, resp.), as well as higher TNF? mRNA expression (P = 0.049) than the controls. In the HT group Tg mRNA expression correlated positively with NIS mRNA expression (R = 0.739, P = 0.0001) and thyroid volume (R = 0.465, P = 0.0005), as well as negatively with TNF? mRNA expression (R = ?0.490, P = 0.001) and anti-peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) level (R = ?0.482, P = 0.0002), whereas NIS mRNA expression correlated positively with thyroid volume (R = 0.319, P = 0.02), as well as negatively with TNF? mRNA expression (R = ?0.529, P = 0.0006) and TPOAb level (R = ?0.422, P = 0.001). Conclusions. Our results suggest that decreased Tg and NIS expression in thyroid cells may result in reduced active iodide transport and reduced thyroid volume in patients with HT. PMID:24723949

Pop?awska-Kita, Anna; Telejko, Beata; Siewko, Katarzyna; Ko?ciuszko-Zdrodowska, Maria; Wawrusewicz-Kurylonek, Natalia; Kr?towski, Adam; Hryniewicka, Justyna; Dzi?cio?, Janusz; Bauer, Witold; Milewski, Robert; Szelachowska, Ma?gorzata; Górska, Maria

2014-01-01

75

Structural asymmetry in a trimeric Na+/betaine symporter, BetP, from Corynebacterium glutamicum.  

PubMed

The Na(+)-coupled symporter BetP catalyzes the uptake of the compatible solute betaine in the soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum. BetP also senses hyperosmotic stress and regulates its own activity in response to stress level. We determined a three-dimensional (3D) map (at 8 Å in-plane resolution) of a constitutively active mutant of BetP in a C. glutamicum membrane environment by electron cryomicroscopy of two-dimensional crystals. The map shows that the constitutively active mutant, which lacks the C-terminal domain involved in osmosensing, is trimeric like wild-type BetP. Recently, we reported the X-ray crystal structure of BetP at 3.35 Å, in which all three protomers displayed a substrate-occluded state. Rigid-body fitting of this trimeric structure to the 3D map identified the periplasmic and cytoplasmic sides of the membrane. Fitting of an X-ray monomer to the individual protomer maps allowed assignment of transmembrane helices and of the substrate pathway, and revealed differences in trimer architecture from the X-ray structure in the tilt angle of each protomer with respect to the membrane. The three protomer maps showed pronounced differences around the substrate pathway, suggesting three different conformations within the same trimer. Two of those protomer maps closely match those of the atomic structures of the outward-facing and inward-facing states of the hydantoin transporter Mhp1, suggesting that the BetP protomer conformations reflect key states of the transport cycle. Thus, the asymmetry in the two-dimensional maps may reflect cooperativity of conformational changes within the BetP trimer, which potentially increases the rate of glycine betaine uptake. PMID:21281647

Tsai, Ching-Ju; Khafizov, Kamil; Hakulinen, Jonna; Forrest, Lucy R; Forrest, Lucy R; Krämer, Reinhard; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Ziegler, Christine

2011-04-01

76

Regulation of Sodium Iodide Symporter Gene Expression by Rac1/p38? Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells*  

PubMed Central

Activation of p38 MAPK is a key pathway for cell proliferation and differentiation in breast cancer and thyroid cells. The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) concentrates iodide in the thyroid and lactating breast. All-trans-retinoic acid (tRA) markedly induces NIS activity in some breast cancer cell lines and promotes uptake of ?-emitting radioiodide 131I sufficient for targeted cytotoxicity. To identify a signal transduction pathway that selectively stimulates NIS expression, we investigated regulation by the Rac1-p38 signaling pathway in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and compared it with regulation in FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells. Loss of function experiments with pharmacologic inhibitors and small interfering RNA, as well as RT-PCR analysis of p38 isoforms, demonstrated the requirement of Rac1, MAPK kinase 3B, and p38? for the full expression of NIS in MCF-7 cells. In contrast, p38? was critical for NIS expression in FRTL-5 cells. Treatment with tRA or overexpression of Rac1 induced the phosphorylation of p38 isoforms, including p38?. A dominant negative mutant of Rac1 abolished tRA-induced phosphorylation in MCF-7 cells. Overexpression of p38? or Rac1 significantly enhanced (1.9- and 3.9-fold, respectively), the tRA-stimulated NIS expression in MCF-7 cells. This study demonstrates differential regulation of NIS by distinct p38 isoforms in breast cancer cells and thyroid cells. Targeting isoform-selective activation of p38 may enhance NIS induction, resulting in higher efficacy of 131I concentration and treatment of breast cancer. PMID:22157753

Kogai, Takahiko; Liu, Yan-Yun; Mody, Kaizeen; Shamsian, Deborah V.; Brent, Gregory A.

2012-01-01

77

Asn441 plays a key role in folding and function of the Na+/I? symporter (NIS)  

PubMed Central

The Na+/I? symporter (NIS) is a plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates active I? transport in the thyroid, the first step in the biosynthesis of the iodine-containing thyroid hormones T3 and T4. Several NIS mutants have been identified as a cause of congenital I? transport defect (ITD), and their investigation has yielded valuable mechanistic information on NIS. Here we report a thorough characterization of the ITD-causing NIS mutation in which the sixth intracellular loop residues 439–443 are missing. This mutant protein was intracellularly retained, incompletely glycosylated, and intrinsically inactive. Engineering 5 Ala at positions 439–443 partially recovered cell surface targeting and activity (?15%). Strikingly, NIS with the sequence 439-AANAA-443, in which Asn was restored at position 441, was targeted to the plasma membrane and exhibited ?95% the transport activity of WT NIS. Based on our NIS homology model, we propose that the side chain of N441, a residue conserved throughout most of the SLC5 family, interacts with the main chain amino group of G444, capping the ?-helix of transmembrane segment XII and thus stabilizing the structure of the molecule. Our data provide insight into a critical interhelical interaction required for NIS folding and activity.—Li, W., Nicola, J. P., Amzel, L. M., Carrasco, N. Asn441 plays a key role in folding and function of the Na+/I? symporter (NIS). PMID:23650190

Li, Wenjing; Nicola, Juan Pablo; Amzel, L. Mario; Carrasco, Nancy

2013-01-01

78

Modulation of Sodium/Iodide Symporter Expression in the Salivary Gland  

PubMed Central

Background Physiologic iodide-uptake, mediated by the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), in the salivary gland confers its susceptibility to radioactive iodine–induced damage following 131I treatment of thyroid cancer. Subsequent quality of life for thyroid cancer survivors can be decreased due to recurrent sialoadenitis and persistent xerostomia. NIS expression at the three principal salivary duct components in various pathological conditions was examined to better our understanding of NIS modulation in the salivary gland. Methods NIS expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in human salivary gland tissue microarrays constructed of normal, inflamed, and neoplastic salivary tissue cores. Cumulative 123I radioactivity reflecting the combination of NIS activity with clearance of saliva secretion in submandibular and parotid salivary glands was evaluated by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging 24 hours after 123I administration in 50 thyroid cancer patients. Results NIS is highly expressed in the basolateral membranes of the majority of striated ducts, yet weakly expressed in few intercalated and excretory duct cells. The ratio of 123I accumulation between parotid and submandibular glands is 2.38±0.19. However, the corresponding ratio of 123I accumulation normalized by volume of interest is 1.19±0.06. The percentage of NIS-positive striated duct cells in submandibular salivary glands was statistically greater than in parotid salivary glands, suggesting a higher clearance rate of saliva secretion in submandibular salivary glands. NIS expression in striated ducts was heterogeneously decreased or absent in sialoadenitis. Most ductal salivary gland tumors did not express NIS. However, Warthin's tumors of striated duct origin exhibited consistent and intense NIS staining, corresponding with radioactive iodine uptake. Conclusions NIS expression is tightly modulated during the transition of intercalated to striated ducts and striated to excretory ducts in salivary ductal cells. NIS expression in salivary glands is decreased during inflammation and tumor formation. Further investigation may identify molecular targets and/or pharmacologic agents that allow selective inhibition of NIS expression/activity in salivary glands during radioactive iodine treatment. PMID:23441638

La Perle, Krista M.D.; Kim, Dong Chul; Hall, Nathan C.; Bobbey, Adam; Shen, Daniel H.; Nagy, Rebecca S.; Wakely, Paul E.; Lehman, Amy; Jarjoura, David

2013-01-01

79

Quantitative Immunohistochemical Analysis Reveals Association between Sodium Iodide Symporter and Estrogen Receptor Expression in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene over-expression is under active consideration worldwide as an alternative target molecule for breast cancer (BC) diagnosis and targeted radio-iodine treatment. However, the field demands better stratified analysis of endogenous hNIS expression across major BC subtypes. Therefore, we have analyzed subtype-specific variation of hNIS overexpression in breast tumor tissue samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and also report the development of a homogeneous, quantitative analysis method of digital IHC images. Methods hNIS expression was analyzed from 108 BC tissue samples by IHC. Sub-cellular localization of hNIS protein was analyzed by dual immunofluorescence (IF) staining method using hNIS and HER2 antibodies. An ImageJ based two-step digital analysis method was developed and applied for the bias-free analysis of the images. Results Staining of the tumor samples show 70% cases are hNIS positive indicating high incidence of hNIS positive cases in BC. More importantly, a subtype specific analysis done for the first time shows that hNIS expression is overly dominated in estrogen receptor (ER) positive cases than the receptor negative cases. Further, 56% of the ER+ve, PgR+ve, HER2-ve and 36% of ER+ve, PgR+ve, HER2+ve cases show highest intensity staining equivalent to the thyroid tissue. A significant positive correlation is also observed between hNIS and estrogen receptor expression (p?=?0.0033, CI?=?95%) suggesting hNIS mediated targeted radio-iodine therapy procedures may benefit both ER+ve, PgR+ve, HER2–ve as well as HER2+ve cases. Further, in a few cases, hNIS and HER2 protein localization is demonstrated by overlapping membrane co-expression. ImageJ based image analysis method shows over 70% match with manual pathological scoring method. Conclusion The study indicates a positive link between hNIS and ER expression in BC. The quantitative IHC image analysis method reported here will further help in patient stratification and potentially benefit global clinical assessment where hNIS mediated targeted 131I radio-ablative therapy is aimed. PMID:23342072

Chatterjee, Sushmita; Malhotra, Renu; Varghese, Frency; Bukhari, Amirali B.; Patil, Asawari; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Parmar, Vani; Gupta, Sudeep; De, Abhijit

2013-01-01

80

Efficient solutions to hard computational problems by P systems with symport/antiport rules and membrane division.  

PubMed

P systems are computing models inspired by some basic features of biological membranes. In this work, membrane division, which provides a way to obtain an exponential workspace in linear time, is introduced into (cell-like) P systems with communication (symport/antiport) rules, where objects are never modified but they just change their places. The computational efficiency of this kind of P systems is studied. Specifically, we present a (uniform) linear time solution to the NP-complete problem, Subset Sum by using division rules for elementary membranes and communication rules of length at most 3. We further prove that such P system allowing division rules for non-elementary membranes can efficiently solve the PSPACE-complete problem, QSAT in a uniform way. PMID:25802073

Song, Bosheng; Pérez-Jiménez, Mario J; Pan, Linqiang

2015-04-01

81

Synthesis and evaluation of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones as sodium iodide symporter inhibitors.  

PubMed

The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is responsible for the accumulation of iodide in the thyroid gland. This transport process is involved in numerous thyroid dysfunctions and is the basis for human contamination in the case of exposure to radioactive iodine species. 4-Aryl-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones were recently discovered by high-throughput screening as the first NIS inhibitors. Described herein are the synthesis and evaluation of 115 derivatives with structural modifications at five key positions on the pyrimidone core. This study provides extensive structure-activity relationships for this new class of inhibitors that will serve as a basis for further development of compounds with in?vivo efficacy and adequate pharmacokinetic properties. In addition, the SAR investigation provided a more potent compound, which exhibits an IC(50) value of 3.2?nM in a rat thyroid cell line (FRTL5). PMID:23132843

Lacotte, Pierre; Puente, Celine; Ambroise, Yves

2013-01-01

82

In Vitro Analysis of the H+-Hexose Symporter on the Plasma Membrane of Sugarbeets (Beta vulgaris L.) 1  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of hexose transport into plasma membrane vesicles isolated from mature sugarbeet leaves (Beta vulgaris L.) was investigated. The initial rate of glucose uptake into the vesicles was stimulated approximately fivefold by imposing a transmembrane pH gradient (?pH), alkaline inside, and approximately fourfold by a negative membrane potential (??), generated as a K+-diffusion potential, negative inside. The -fold stimulation was directly related to the relative ?pH or ?? gradient imposed, which were determined by the uptake of acetate or tetraphenylphosphonium, respectively. ??- and ?pH-dependent glucose uptake showed saturation kinetics with a Km of 286 micromolar for glucose. Other hexose molecules (e.g. 2-deoxy-d-glucose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and d-mannose) were also accumulated into plasma membrane vesicles in a ?pH-dependent manner. Inhibition constants of a number of compounds for glucose uptake were determined. Effective inhibitors of glucose uptake included: 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, 5-thio-d-glucose, d-fructose, d-galactose, and d-mannose, but not 1-O-methyl-d-glucose, d- and l-xylose, l-glucose, d-ribose, and l-sorbose. Under all conditions of proton motive force magnitude and glucose and sucrose concentration tested, there was no effect of sucrose on glucose uptake. Thus, hexose transport on the sugarbeet leaf plasma membrane was by a H+-hexose symporter, and the carrier and possibly the energy source were not shared by the plasma membrane H+-sucrose symporter. PMID:16669023

Tubbe, Axel; Buckhout, Thomas J.

1992-01-01

83

Kinetics Analysis of the Plasma Membrane Sucrose-H+ Symporter from Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Leaves.  

PubMed Central

The kinetics behavior of the H+-sucrose (Suc) symporter was investigated in plasma membrane vesicles from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves by analyzing the effect of external and internal pH (pHo and pHi, respectively) on Suc uptake. The apparent Km for Suc uptake increased 18-fold as the pHo increased from 5.5 to 7.5. Over this same pHo range, the apparent Vmax for Suc uptake remained constant. The effects of pHi in the presence or absence of internal Suc were exclusively restricted to changes in Vmax. Thus, proton concentration on the inside of the membrane vesicles ([H+]i) behaved as a noncompetitive inhibitor of Suc uptake. The Km for the proton concentration on the outside of the membrane vesicles was estimated to be pH 6.3, which would indicate that at physiological apoplastic pH Suc transport might be sensitive to changes in pHo. On the other hand, the [H+]i for half-maximal inhibition of Suc uptake was approximately pH 5.4, making regulation of Suc transport through changes in [H+]i unlikely. These results were interpreted in the framework of the kinetics models for co-transport systems developed by D. Sanders, U.-P. Hansen, D. Gradmann, and C. L. Slayman (J Membr Biol [1984] 77: 123-152). Based on their analysis, the behavior of the Suc symporter with respect to the [H+]i is interpreted as an ordered binding mechanism by which the binding of Suc on the apoplastic side of the membrane and its release on the symplastic side precedes that of H+ (i.e. a first-on, first-off model). PMID:12232379

Buckhout, T. J.

1994-01-01

84

GENIS: Gene Expression of Sodium Iodide Symporter for Noninvasive Imaging of Gene Therapy Vectors and Quantification of Gene Expression in Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the goal of optimizing adenovirus-mediated suicide gene therapy for prostate cancer, we have developed a method based on the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) that allows for noninvasive monitoring of adenoviral vectors and quantification of gene expression magnitude and volume within the prostate. A replication-competent adenovirus (Ad5-yCD\\/mutTKSR39rep-hNIS) coexpressing a therapeutic yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD)\\/mutant herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase

Kenneth N. Barton; Donald Tyson; Hans Stricker; Young S. Lew; Gregory Heisey; Sweaty Koul; Alberto de la Zerda; Fang-Fang Yin; Hui Yan; Tavarekere N. Nagaraja; Kelly Ann Randall; Guk Kim Jin; Joseph D. Fenstermacher; Sissy Jhiang; Jae Ho Kim; Svend O. Freytag; Stephen L. Brown

2003-01-01

85

HSV-NIS, an oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 encoding human sodium iodide symporter for preclinical prostate cancer radiovirotherapy  

PubMed Central

Several clinical trials have shown that oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (oHSV-1) can be safely administered to patients. However, virus replication in tumor tissue has generally not been monitored in these oHSV clinical trials, and the data suggest that its oncolytic potency needs to be improved. To facilitate noninvasive monitoring of the in vivo spread of an oHSV and to increase its antitumor efficacy, the gene coding for human sodium iodide symporter (NIS) was incorporated into a recombinant oHSV genome and the corresponding virus (oHSV-NIS) rescued in our laboratory. Our data demonstrate that a human prostate cancer cell line, LNCap, efficiently concentrates radioactive iodine after the cells have been infected in vitro or in vivo. In vivo replication of oHSV-NIS in tumors was noninvasively monitored by computed tomography/single-photon emission computed tomography imaging of the biodistribution of pertechnetate and was confirmed. LNCap xenografts in nude mice were eradicated by intratumoral administration of oHSV-NIS. Systemic administration of oHSV-NIS prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice, and the therapeutic effect was further enhanced by administration of 131I after the intratumoral spread of the virus had peaked. oHSV-NIS has the potential to substantially enhance the outcomes of standard therapy for patients with prostate cancer. PMID:23868101

Li, H; Nakashima, H; Decklever, T D; Nace, R A; Russell, S J

2013-01-01

86

The Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) as an Imaging Reporter for Gene, Viral, and Cell-based Therapies  

PubMed Central

Preclinical and clinical tomographic imaging systems increasingly are being utilized for non-invasive imaging of reporter gene products to reveal the distribution of molecular therapeutics within living subjects. Reporter gene and probe combinations can be employed to monitor vectors for gene, viral, and cell-based therapies. There are several reporter systems available; however, those employing radionuclides for positron emission tomography (PET) or singlephoton emission computed tomography (SPECT) offer the highest sensitivity and the greatest promise for deep tissue imaging in humans. Within the category of radionuclide reporters, the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS) has emerged as one of the most promising for preclinical and translational research. NIS has been incorporated into a remarkable variety of viral and non-viral vectors in which its functionality is conveniently determined by in vitro iodide uptake assays prior to live animal imaging. This review on the NIS reporter will focus on 1) differences between endogenous NIS and heterologously-expressed NIS, 2) qualitative or comparative use of NIS as an imaging reporter in preclinical and translational gene therapy, oncolytic viral therapy, and cell trafficking research, and 3) use of NIS as an absolute quantitative reporter. PMID:22263922

Penheiter, Alan R; Russell, Stephen J; Carlson, Stephanie K

2012-01-01

87

Proton/l-Glutamate Symport and the Regulation of Intracellular pH in Isolated Mesophyll Cells 1  

PubMed Central

Addition of l-[U-14C]glutamate to a suspension of mechanically isolated asparagus (Asparagus sprengeri Regel) mesophyll cells results in (a) alkalinization of the medium, (b) uptake of l-[U-14C]glutamate, and (c) efflux of [14C]4-aminobutyrate, a product of glutamate decarboxylation. All three phenomena were eliminated by treatment with 1 millimolar aminooxyacetate. In vitro glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) assays showed that (a) 2 millimolar aminooxyacetate eliminated enzyme activity, (b) activity was pyridoxal phosphate-dependent, and (c) activity exhibited a sharp pH optimum at 6.0 that decreased to 20% of optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 7.0. Addition of 1.5 millimolar sodium butyrate or sodium acetate to cell suspensions caused immediate alkalinization of the medium followed by a resumption of acidification of the medium at a rate approximately double the initial rate. The data indicate that (a) continued H+/l-glutamate contransport is dependent upon GAD activity, (b) the pH-dependent properties of GAD are consistent with a role in a metabolic pH-stat, and (c) the regulation of intracellular pH during H+/l-Glu symport may involve both H+ consumption during 4-aminobutyrate production and ATP-driven H+ efflux. PMID:16668938

Snedden, Wayne A.; Chung, Induk; Pauls, Randy H.; Bown, Alan W.

1992-01-01

88

B-RafV600E inhibits sodium iodide symporter expression via regulation of DNA methyltransferase 1  

PubMed Central

B-RafV600E mutant is found in 40–70% of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and has an important role in the pathogenesis of PTC. The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is an integral plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates active iodide transport into the thyroid follicular cells, and B-RafV600E has been known to be associated with the loss of NIS expression. In this study, we found that B-RafV600E inhibited NIS expression by the upregulation of its promoter methylation, and that specific regions of CpG islands of NIS promoter in B-RafV600E harboring PTC were highly methylated compared with surrounding normal tissue. Although DNA methyltransferase 3a and 3b (DNMT3a,3b) were not increased by B-RafV600E, DNMT1 expression was markedly upregulated in PTC and B-RafV600E expressing thyrocytes. Furthermore, DNMT1 expression was upregulated by B-RafV600E induced NF-?B activation. These results led us to conclude that NIS promoter methylation, which was induced by B-RafV600E, is one of the possible mechanisms involved in NIS downregulation in PTC. PMID:25378232

Choi, Yong Won; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Young Hwa; Park, So Hyun; Chwae, Yong Jun; Lee, Jeonghun; Soh, Euy Young; Kim, Jang-Hee; Park, Tae Jun

2014-01-01

89

Asn441 plays a key role in folding and function of the Na+/I- symporter (NIS).  

PubMed

The Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS) is a plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates active I(-) transport in the thyroid, the first step in the biosynthesis of the iodine-containing thyroid hormones T3 and T4. Several NIS mutants have been identified as a cause of congenital I(-) transport defect (ITD), and their investigation has yielded valuable mechanistic information on NIS. Here we report a thorough characterization of the ITD-causing NIS mutation in which the sixth intracellular loop residues 439-443 are missing. This mutant protein was intracellularly retained, incompletely glycosylated, and intrinsically inactive. Engineering 5 Ala at positions 439-443 partially recovered cell surface targeting and activity (?15%). Strikingly, NIS with the sequence 439-AANAA-443, in which Asn was restored at position 441, was targeted to the plasma membrane and exhibited ?95% the transport activity of WT NIS. Based on our NIS homology model, we propose that the side chain of N441, a residue conserved throughout most of the SLC5 family, interacts with the main chain amino group of G444, capping the ?-helix of transmembrane segment XII and thus stabilizing the structure of the molecule. Our data provide insight into a critical interhelical interaction required for NIS folding and activity. PMID:23650190

Li, Wenjing; Nicola, Juan Pablo; Amzel, L Mario; Carrasco, Nancy

2013-08-01

90

Role of Gly117 in the cation/melibiose symport of MelB of Salmonella typhimurium  

PubMed Central

The melibiose permease of Salmonella typhimurium (MelBSt) catalyzes symport of melibiose with Na+, Li+ or H+, and bioinformatics analysis indicates that a conserved Gly117 (helix IV) is part of the Na+-binding site. We mutated Gly117 to Ala, Pro, Trp or Arg; the effects on melibiose transport and binding of cosubstrates depended on the physical-chemical properties of the side chain. Compared with WT MelBSt, the Gly117?Ala mutant exhibited little difference in either cosubstrate binding or stimulation of melibiose transport by Na+ or Li+, but all other mutations reduced melibiose active transport and efflux, and decreased the apparent affinity for Na+. The bulky Trp at position 117 caused the greatest inhibition of melibiose binding, and Gly117?Arg yielded less than a 4-fold decrease in the apparent affinity for melibiose at saturating Na+ or Li+ concentration. Remarkably, the mutant Gly117?Arg catalyzed melibiose exchange in the presence of Na+ or Li+, but did not catalyze melibiose translocation involving net flux of the coupling cation, indicating that sugar is released prior to release of the coupling cation. Taken together, the findings are consistent with the notion that Gly117 plays an important role in cation binding and translocation. PMID:22413840

Guan, Lan; Jakkula, S. Vivek; Hodkoff, Alexey A.; Su, Yue

2012-01-01

91

Experimental Study of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Radionuclide Imaging and Therapy Using Transferred Human Sodium/Iodide Symporter Gene  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to design a method of radionuclide for imaging and therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) using the transferred human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene. Methods A stable NPC cell line expressing hNIS was established (CNE-2-hNIS). After 131I treatment, we detected proliferation and apoptosis of NPC cells, both in vitro and vivo. In vivo, the radioactivity of different organs of nude mice was counted and 99mTc imaging using SPECT was performed. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value changes of tumor xenografts were observed by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) within 6–24 days of 131I treatment. The correlation of ADC changes with apoptosis and proliferation was investigated. Post-treatment expression levels of P53, Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3, and Survivin proteins were detected by western blotting. Results 131I uptake was higher in CNE-2-hNIS than in CNE-2 cells. The proliferation and apoptosis rate decreased and increased respectively both in vitro and vivo in the experimental group after 131I treatment. The experimental group tumors accumulated 99mTc in vivo, leading to a good visualization by SPECT. DW-MRI showed that ADC values increased in the experimental group 6 days after treatment, while ADC values were positively and negatively correlated with the apoptotic and Ki-67 proliferation indices, respectively. After treatment, CNE-2-hNIS cells up-regulated the expression of P53 and Survivin proteins and activated Caspase-3, and down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 proteins. Conclusions The radionuclide imaging and therapy technique for NPC hNIS-transfected cell lines can provide a new therapy strategy for monitoring and treatment of NPC. PMID:25615643

Zhong, Xing; Shi, Changzheng; Gong, Jian; Guo, Bin; Li, Mingzhu; Xu, Hao

2015-01-01

92

Optimization of Multimodal Imaging of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using the Human Sodium Iodide Symporter for PET and Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging  

PubMed Central

Purpose The use of stably integrated reporter gene imaging provides a manner to monitor the in vivo fate of engrafted cells over time in a non-invasive manner. Here, we optimized multimodal imaging (small-animal PET, Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI)) of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), by means of the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) and firefly luciferase (Fluc) as reporters. Methods First, two multicistronic lentiviral vectors (LV) were generated for multimodal imaging: BLI, 124I PET/SPECT and CLI. Expression of the imaging reporter genes was validated in vitro using 99mTcO4? radioligand uptake experiments and BLI. Uptake kinetics, specificity and tracer elution were determined as well as the effect of the transduction process on the cell's differentiation capacity. MSCs expressing the LV were injected intravenously or subcutaneously and imaged using small-animal PET, CLI and BLI. Results The expression of both imaging reporter genes was functional and specific. An elution of 99mTcO4? from the cells was observed, with 31% retention after 3 h. After labeling cells with 124I in vitro, a significantly higher CLI signal was noted in hNIS expressing murine MSCs. Furthermore, it was possible to visualize cells injected intravenously using BLI or subcutaneously in mice, using 124I small-animal PET, CLI and BLI. Conclusions This study identifies hNIS as a suitable reporter gene for molecular imaging with PET and CLI, as confirmed with BLI through the expression of Fluc. It supports the potential for a wider application of hNIS reporter gene imaging and future clinical applications. PMID:24747914

Wolfs, Esther; Holvoet, Bryan; Gijsbers, Rik; Casteels, Cindy; Roberts, Scott J.; Struys, Tom; Maris, Michael; Ibrahimi, Abdelilah; Debyser, Zeger; Van Laere, Koen; Verfaillie, Catherine M.; Deroose, Christophe M.

2014-01-01

93

The sodium/iodide symporter NIS is a transcriptional target of the p53-family members in liver cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Thyroid iodide accumulation via the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS; SLC5A5) has been the basis for the longtime use of radio-iodide in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancers. NIS is also expressed, but poorly functional, in some non-thyroid human cancers. In particular, it is much more strongly expressed in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines than in primary human hepatocytes (PHH). The transcription factors and signaling pathways that control NIS overexpression in these cancers is largely unknown. We identified two putative regulatory clusters of p53-responsive elements (p53REs) in the NIS core promoter, and investigated the regulation of NIS transcription by p53-family members in liver cancer cells. NIS promoter activity and endogenous NIS mRNA expression are stimulated by exogenously expressed p53-family members and significantly reduced by member-specific siRNAs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis shows that the p53–REs clusters in the NIS promoter are differentially occupied by the p53-family members to regulate basal and DNA damage-induced NIS transcription. Doxorubicin strongly induces p53 and p73 binding to the NIS promoter, leading to an increased expression of endogenous NIS mRNA and protein in HCC and CCA cells, but not in PHH. Silencing NIS expression reduced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in HCC cells, pointing to a possible role of a p53-family-dependent expression of NIS in apoptotic cell death. Altogether, these results indicate that the NIS gene is a direct target of the p53 family and suggests that the modulation of NIS by DNA-damaging agents is potentially exploitable to boost NIS upregulation in vivo. PMID:24052075

Guerrieri, F; Piconese, S; Lacoste, C; Schinzari, V; Testoni, B; Valogne, Y; Gerbal-Chaloin, S; Samuel, D; Bréchot, C; Faivre, J; Levrero, M

2013-01-01

94

Endogenous expression of the sodium iodide symporter mediates uptake of iodide in murine models of colorectal carcinoma.  

PubMed

The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) mediates iodide uptake into the thyroid. Because of this mechanism, differentiated thyroid cancer is susceptible for radioiodine therapy. Functional NIS expression in extrathyroidal tumors has been reported mainly in breast cancer. We screened colorectal tumors for NIS expression and investigated the mechanisms regulating NIS activity. Cell lines were screened for iodide uptake in vitro and NIS expression was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting. Iodide and pertechnetate uptake were evaluated in allograft tumors by biodistribution studies and scintigraphy. Tumors of transgenic mouse models for colorectal cancer harboring mutations in the oncogenes KRAS, beta-catenin or the tumor-suppressor gene adenomatous-polyposis coli (APC) were screened for NIS expression by RT-PCR. In vitro, functional NIS activity was detected in murine CMT93 rectal carcinoma cells and NIS expression was verified on mRNA and protein level. Inhibition of tyrosine kinases increased iodide uptake. Inhibition of tyrosine phosphatases decreased iodide uptake. In vivo, functional NIS expression was preserved in CMT93 tumors and tumor uptake could be enhanced by treatment of mice with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In transgenic murine models of colorectal cancer, 14% of endogenous tumors expressed elevated levels of NIS mRNA. We conclude that NIS is functionally expressed in a subset of murine colorectal tumors and its activity is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Therefore, with specific tyrosine kinase inhibition, these tumors might be susceptible for radioiodine treatment. Further studies are justified to identify the specific pathways regulating NIS activity and to transfer these findings to human cell lines and tissues. PMID:19569179

Gaertner, Florian C; Rohde, Franziska; Mueller, Jan; Blechert, Birgit; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Essler, Markus

2009-12-15

95

Dietary iodide controls its own absorption through post-transcriptional regulation of the intestinal Na+/I? symporter  

PubMed Central

Dietary I? absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is the first step in I? metabolism. Given that I? is an essential constituent of the thyroid hormones, its concentrating mechanism is of significant physiological importance. We recently described the expression of the Na+/I? symporter (NIS) on the apical surface of the intestinal epithelium as a central component of the I? absorption system and reported reduced intestinal NIS expression in response to an I?-rich diet in vivo. Here, we evaluated the mechanism involved in the regulation of NIS expression by I? itself in enterocytes. Excess I? reduced NIS-mediated I? uptake in IEC-6 cells in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, which was correlated with a reduction of NIS expression at the plasma membrane. Perchlorate, a competitive inhibitor of NIS, prevented these effects, indicating that an increase in intracellular I? regulates NIS. Iodide induced rapid intracellular recruitment of plasma membrane NIS molecules and NIS protein degradation. Lower NIS mRNA levels were detected in response to I? treatment, although no transcriptional effect was observed. Interestingly, I? decreased NIS mRNA stability, affecting NIS translation. Heterologous green fluorescent protein-based reporter constructs revealed a significant repressive effect of the I?-targeting NIS mRNA 3? untranslated region. In conclusion, excess I? downregulates NIS expression in enterocytes by virtue of a complex mechanism. Our data suggest that I? regulates intestinal NIS mRNA expression at the post-transcriptional level as part of an autoregulatory effect of I? on its own metabolism. PMID:23006481

Nicola, Juan Pablo; Reyna-Neyra, Andrea; Carrasco, Nancy; Masini-Repiso, Ana Maria

2012-01-01

96

Posttranscriptional regulation of sodium-iodide symporter mRNA expression in the rat thyroid gland by acute iodide administration.  

PubMed

Iodide is an important regulator of thyroid activity. Its excess elicits the Wolff-Chaikoff effect, characterized by an acute suppression of thyroid hormone synthesis, which has been ascribed to serum TSH reduction or TGF-beta increase and production of iodolipids in the thyroid. These alterations take hours/days to occur, contrasting with the promptness of Wolff-Chaikoff effect. We investigated whether acute iodide administration could trigger events that precede those changes, such as reduction of sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) mRNA abundance and adenylation, and if perchlorate treatment could counteract them. Rats subjected or not to methylmercaptoimidazole treatment (0.03%) received NaI (2,000 microg/0.5 ml saline) or saline intraperitoneally and were killed 30 min up to 24 h later. Another set of animals was treated with iodide and perchlorate, in equimolar doses. NIS mRNA content was evaluated by Northern blotting and real-time PCR, and NIS mRNA poly(A) tail length by rapid amplification of cDNA ends-poly(A) test (RACE-PAT). We observed that NIS mRNA abundance and poly(A) tail length were significantly reduced in all periods of iodide treatment. Perchlorate reversed these effects, indicating that iodide was the agent that triggered the modifications observed. Since the poly(A) tail length of mRNAs is directly associated with their stability and translation efficiency, we can assume that the rapid decay of NIS mRNA abundance observed was due to a reduction of its stability, a condition in which its translation could be impaired. Our data show for the first time that iodide regulates NIS mRNA expression at posttranscriptional level, providing a new mechanism by which iodide exerts its autoregulatory effect on thyroid. PMID:20107044

Serrano-Nascimento, Caroline; Calil-Silveira, Jamile; Nunes, Maria Tereza

2010-04-01

97

Mitochondrial phosphate transport. Import of the H+/Pi symporter and role of the presequence.  

PubMed

The rat liver mitochondrial phosphate transporter contains a 44-amino acid presequence. The role of this presequence is not clear since the ADP/ATP carrier and the brown fat uncoupling protein, related members of a family of inner membrane anion transporters, lack a presequence and contain targeting information within the mature protein. Here, we present evidence that the rat liver mitochondrial phosphate transporter can be synthesized in vitro, imported into mitochondria, and processed to a protein of Mr 33,000. Import requires the membrane potential and external nucleotide triphosphate. The presequence inserts into the outer mitochondrial membrane, and import proceeds via a process similar to other proteins destined for the inner membrane or matrix. A mutant phosphate transporter lacking 35 amino acids at the NH2 terminus of the presequence has little capacity for mitochondrial import. The rat liver phosphate transporter is also imported and processed by rat kidney mitochondria and by mitochondria from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A site-directed mutation of the N-ethyl-maleimide reactive cysteine 41 does not affect import or processing. The results presented show that optimal import of the mitochondrial phosphate transporter, unlike the ADP/ATP carrier and the brown fat uncoupling protein, is dependent on a presequence. As these carriers are believed to have evolved from a single gene, it seems likely that the H+/Pi carrier, known to be present in prokaryotes, appeared first and that subsequent evolutionary events leading to the other anion carriers eliminated the presequence. PMID:1985946

Pratt, R D; Ferreira, G C; Pedersen, P L

1991-01-15

98

A novel eukaryotic Na+ Methionine selective symporter is essential for mosquito development  

PubMed Central

AeNAT5 (NCBI, ABZ81822), an orphan member of the insect-specific Nutrient Amino acid Transporter subfamily of SoLute Carrier family 6 (NAT-SLC6) and the first representative of a novel eukaryotic methionine-selective transport system (M), was cloned from cDNA of the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. It has orphan orthologs throughout several mosquito genomes, but not in Drosophila or outside Diptera. It shows the highest apparent affinity to L-Met (K0.5 = 0.021 mM) and its metabolites Homocysteine and Cysteine (K0.5 = 0.89 and 2.16 mM), but weakly interact with other substrates. It has a Na+ - coupled mechanism (K0.5 Na+ ~ 46 mM) with 1AA:1Na+ stoichiometry that maintains ~ 60% activity in Cl? - free media. In situ hybridization showed accumulation of AeNAT5 transcript in the absorptive and secretory epithelia, as well as in specific peripheral neurons and the central ganglia of mosquito larvae. The labeling pattern is distinct from that of the previously characterized AeNAT1. RNAi of AeNAT5 increases larval mortality during ecdysis and dramatically suppresses adult emergence. Our results showed that in addition to previously characterized broad spectra and aromatic amino acid selective transport systems, the mosquito NAT-SLC6 subfamily evolved a unique mechanism for selective absorption of sulfur-containing substrates. We demonstrated specific patterns of alimentary and neuronal transcription of AeNAT5 in mosquito larvae that is collateral with the indispensable function of this transporter in mosquito development. PMID:23748165

Meleshkevitch, Ella A.; Voronov, Dmitri A.; Miller, Melissa M.; Penneda, Maria; Fox, Jeffrey M.; Metzler, Ryan; Boudko, Dmitri Y.

2013-01-01

99

Theranostic Studies of Human Sodium Iodide Symporter Imaging and Therapy Using 188Re: A Human Glioma Study in Mice  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the role of 188Re in human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) theranostic gene-mediated human glioma imaging and therapy in model mice. Methods The human glioma cell line U87 was transfected with recombinant lentivirus encoding the hNIS gene under the control of cytomegalovirus promoter (U87-hNIS). The uptake and efflux of 188Re were determined after incubating the cells with 188Re. 188Re uptake experiments in the presence of various concentrations of sodium perchlorate were carried out. In vitro cell killing tests with 188Re were performed. U87-hNIS mediated 188Re distribution, imaging and therapy in nude mice were also tested. Results U87-hNIS cell line was successfully established. The uptake of 188Re in U87-hNIS cells increased up to 26-fold compared to control cells, but was released rapidly with a half-life of approximately 4 minutes. Sodium perchlorate reduced hNIS-mediated 188Re uptake to levels of control cell lines. U87-hNIS cells were selectively killed following exposure to 188Re, with a survival of 21.4%, while control cells had a survival of 92.1%. Unlike in vitro studies, U87-hNIS tumor showed a markedly increased 188Re retention even 48 hours after 188Re injection. In the therapy study, there was a significant difference in tumor size between U87-hNIS mice (317±67 mm3) and control mice (861±153 mm3) treated with 188Re for 4 weeks (P<0.01). Conclusion The results indicate that inserting the hNIS gene into U87 cells is sufficient to induce specific 188Re uptake, which has a cell killing effect both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, our study, based on the function of hNIS as a theranostic gene allowing noninvasive imaging of hNIS expression by 188Re scintigraphy, provides detailed characterization of in vivo vector biodistribution and level, localization, essential prerequisites for precise planning and monitoring of clinical gene therapy that aims to individualize gene therapy concept. PMID:25000403

Guo, Rui; Zhang, M.; Xi, Yun; Ma, Yufei; Liang, Sheng; Shi, Shuo; Miao, Ying; Li, Biao

2014-01-01

100

Codon-optimized Human Sodium Iodide Symporter (opt-hNIS) as a Sensitive Reporter and Efficient Therapeutic Gene  

PubMed Central

To generate a more efficient in vivo reporter and therapeutic gene, we optimized the coding sequence of the human sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene by replacing NIS DNA codons from wild type to new codons having the highest usage in human gene translation. The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI), representing the number of codons effective for human expression, was much improved (0.79 for hNIS, 0.97 for opt-hNIS). Both wild-type (hNIS) and optimized human NIS (opt-hNIS) were cloned into pcDNA3.1 and pMSCV vectors for transfection. Various cancer cell lines such as thyroid (TPC-1, FRO, B-CPAP), breast (MDA-MB-231), liver (Hep3B), cervical (HeLa), and glioma (U87MG) were transfected with pcDNA3.1/hNIS or pcDNA3.1/opt-hNIS. 125I uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing cells was 1.6 ~ 2.1 times higher than uptake by wild-type hNIS-expressing cells. Stable cell lines were also established by retroviral transduction using pMSCV/hNIS or pMSCV/opt-hNIS, revealing higher NIS protein levels and 125I uptake in opt-hNIS-expressing cells than in hNIS-expressing cells. Moreover, scintigraphic images from cell plates and mouse xenografts showed stronger signals from opt-hNIS-expressing cells than hNIS-expressing cells, and radioactivity uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing tumors was 2.3-fold greater than that by hNIS-expressing tumors. To test the efficacy of radioiodine therapy, mouse xenograft models were established with cancer cells expressing hNIS or opt-hNIS. 131I treatment reduced tumor sizes of hNIS- and opt-hNIS-expressing tumors to 0.57- and 0.27- fold, respectively, compared to their sizes before therapy, suggesting an improved therapeutic effect of opt-hNIS. In summary, this study shows that codon optimization strongly increases hNIS protein levels and radioiodine uptake, thus supporting opt-hNIS as a more sensitive reporter and efficient therapeutic gene. PMID:25553100

Kim, Young-Hwa; Youn, Hyewon; Na, Juri; Hong, Kee-Jong; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key

2015-01-01

101

Imaging Characteristics, Tissue Distribution, and Spread of a Novel Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus Carrying the Human Sodium Iodide Symporter  

PubMed Central

Introduction Oncolytic viruses show promise for treating cancer. However, to assess therapy and potential toxicity, a noninvasive imaging modality is needed. This study aims to determine the in vivo biodistribution, and imaging and timing characteristics of a vaccinia virus, GLV-1h153, encoding the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS. Methods GLV-1h153 was modified from GLV-1h68 to encode the hNIS gene. Timing of cellular uptake of radioiodide 131I in human pancreatic carcinoma cells PANC-1 was assessed using radiouptake assays. Viral biodistribution was determined in nude mice bearing PANC-1 xenografts, and infection in tumors confirmed histologically and optically via Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and bioluminescence. Timing characteristics of enhanced radiouptake in xenografts were assessed via 124I-positron emission tomography (PET). Detection of systemic administration of virus was investigated with both 124I-PET and 99m-technecium gamma-scintigraphy. Results GLV-1h153 successfully facilitated time-dependent intracellular uptake of 131I in PANC-1 cells with a maximum uptake at 24 hours postinfection (P<0.05). In vivo, biodistribution profiles revealed persistence of virus in tumors 5 weeks postinjection at 109 plaque-forming unit (PFU)/gm tissue, with the virus mainly cleared from all other major organs. Tumor infection by GLV-1h153 was confirmed via optical imaging and histology. GLV-1h153 facilitated imaging virus replication in tumors via PET even at 8 hours post radiotracer injection, with a mean %ID/gm of 3.82±0.46 (P<0.05) 2 days after intratumoral administration of virus, confirmed via tissue radiouptake assays. One week post systemic administration, GLV-1h153-infected tumors were detected via 124I-PET and 99m-technecium-scintigraphy. Conclusion GLV-1h153 is a promising oncolytic agent against pancreatic cancer with a promising biosafety profile. GLV-1h153 facilitated time-dependent hNIS-specific radiouptake in pancreatic cancer cells, facilitating detection by PET with both intratumoral and systemic administration. Therefore, GLV-1h153 is a promising candidate for the noninvasive imaging of virotherapy and warrants further study into longterm monitoring of virotherapy and potential radiocombination therapies with this treatment and imaging modality. PMID:22912675

Haddad, Dana; Chen, Chun-Hao; Carlin, Sean; Silberhumer, Gerd; Chen, Nanhai G.; Zhang, Qian; Longo, Valerie; Carpenter, Susanne G.; Mittra, Arjun; Carson, Joshua; Au, Joyce; Gonen, Mithat; Zanzonico, Pat B.; Szalay, Aladar A.; Fong, Yuman

2012-01-01

102

Amino acid transport in the thermophilic anaerobe Clostridium fervidus is driven by an electrochemical sodium gradient.  

PubMed Central

Amino acid transport was studied in membranes of the peptidolytic, thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium Clostridium fervidus. Uptake of the negatively charged amino acid L-glutamate, the neutral amino acid L-serine, and the positively charged amino acid L-arginine was examined in membrane vesicles fused with cytochrome c-containing liposomes. Artificial ion diffusion gradients were also applied to establish the specific driving forces for the individual amino acid transport systems. Each amino acid was driven by the delta psi and delta mu Na+/F and not by the Z delta pH. The Na+ stoichiometry was estimated from the amino acid-dependent 22Na+ efflux and Na(+)-dependent 3H-amino acid efflux. Serine and arginine were symported with 1 Na+ and glutamate with 2 Na+. C. fervidus membranes contain Na+/Na+ exchange activity, but Na+/H+ exchange activity could not be demonstrated. PMID:8096211

Speelmans, G; Poolman, B; Konings, W N

1993-01-01

103

Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Bacterial UraA H+-Uracil Symporter in Lipid Bilayers Reveal a Closed State and a Selective Interaction with Cardiolipin  

PubMed Central

The Escherichia coli UraA H+-uracil symporter is a member of the nucleobase/ascorbate transporter (NAT) family of proteins, and is responsible for the proton-driven uptake of uracil. Multiscale molecular dynamics simulations of the UraA symporter in phospholipid bilayers consisting of: 1) 1-palmitoyl 2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC); 2) 1-palmitoyl 2-oleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE); and 3) a mixture of 75% POPE, 20% 1-palmitoyl 2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG); and 5% 1-palmitoyl 2-oleoyl-diphosphatidylglycerol/cardiolipin (CL) to mimic the lipid composition of the bacterial inner membrane, were performed using the MARTINI coarse-grained force field to self-assemble lipids around the crystal structure of this membrane transport protein, followed by atomistic simulations. The overall fold of the protein in lipid bilayers remained similar to the crystal structure in detergent on the timescale of our simulations. Simulations were performed in the absence of uracil, and resulted in a closed state of the transporter, due to relative movement of the gate and core domains. Anionic lipids, including POPG and especially CL, were found to associate with UraA, involving interactions between specific basic residues in loop regions and phosphate oxygens of the CL head group. In particular, three CL binding sites were identified on UraA: two in the inner leaflet and a single site in the outer leaflet. Mutation of basic residues in the binding sites resulted in the loss of CL binding in the simulations. CL may play a role as a “proton trap” that channels protons to and from this transporter within CL-enriched areas of the inner bacterial membrane. PMID:25729859

Kalli, Antreas C.; Sansom, Mark S. P.; Reithmeier, Reinhart A. F.

2015-01-01

104

Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Bacterial UraA H+-Uracil Symporter in Lipid Bilayers Reveal a Closed State and a Selective Interaction with Cardiolipin.  

PubMed

The Escherichia coli UraA H+-uracil symporter is a member of the nucleobase/ascorbate transporter (NAT) family of proteins, and is responsible for the proton-driven uptake of uracil. Multiscale molecular dynamics simulations of the UraA symporter in phospholipid bilayers consisting of: 1) 1-palmitoyl 2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC); 2) 1-palmitoyl 2-oleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE); and 3) a mixture of 75% POPE, 20% 1-palmitoyl 2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG); and 5% 1-palmitoyl 2-oleoyl-diphosphatidylglycerol/cardiolipin (CL) to mimic the lipid composition of the bacterial inner membrane, were performed using the MARTINI coarse-grained force field to self-assemble lipids around the crystal structure of this membrane transport protein, followed by atomistic simulations. The overall fold of the protein in lipid bilayers remained similar to the crystal structure in detergent on the timescale of our simulations. Simulations were performed in the absence of uracil, and resulted in a closed state of the transporter, due to relative movement of the gate and core domains. Anionic lipids, including POPG and especially CL, were found to associate with UraA, involving interactions between specific basic residues in loop regions and phosphate oxygens of the CL head group. In particular, three CL binding sites were identified on UraA: two in the inner leaflet and a single site in the outer leaflet. Mutation of basic residues in the binding sites resulted in the loss of CL binding in the simulations. CL may play a role as a "proton trap" that channels protons to and from this transporter within CL-enriched areas of the inner bacterial membrane. PMID:25729859

Kalli, Antreas C; Sansom, Mark S P; Reithmeier, Reinhart A F

2015-03-01

105

Arabidopsis thaliana POLYOL/MONOSACCHARIDE TRANSPORTERS 1 and 2: fructose and xylitol/H+ symporters in pollen and young xylem cells  

PubMed Central

The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains six genes, AtPMT1 to AtPMT6 (Arabidopsis thaliana POLYOL/MONOSACCHARIDE TRANSPORTER 1–6), which form a distinct subfamily within the large family of more than 50 monosaccharide transporter-like (MST-like) genes. So far, only AtPMT5 [formerly named AtPLT5 (At3g18830)] has been characterized and was shown to be a plasma membrane-localized H+-symporter with broad substrate specificity. The characterization of AtPMT1 (At2g16120) and AtPMT2 (At2g16130), two other, almost identical, members of this transporter subfamily, are presented here. Expression of the AtPMT1 and AtPMT2 cDNAs in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) revealed that these proteins catalyse the energy-dependent, high-capacity transport of fructose and xylitol, and the transport of several other compounds with lower rates. Expression of their cRNAs in Xenopus laevis oocytes showed that both proteins are voltage-dependent and catalyse the symport of their substrates with protons. Fusions of AtPMT1 or AtPMT2 with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) localized to Arabidopsis plasma membranes. Analyses of reporter genes performed with AtPMT1 or AtPMT2 promoter sequences showed expression in mature (AtPMT2) or germinating (AtPMT1) pollen grains, as well as in growing pollen tubes, hydathodes, and young xylem cells (both genes). The expression was confirmed with an anti-AtPMT1/AtPMT2 antiserum (?AtPMT1/2) raised against peptides conserved in AtPMT1 and AtPMT2. The physiological roles of the proteins are discussed and related to plant cell wall modifications. PMID:19969532

Klepek, Yvonne-Simone; Konrad, Kai R.; Wippel, Kathrin; Hoth, Stefan; Hedrich, Rainer; Sauer, Norbert

2010-01-01

106

Arabidopsis POLYOL TRANSPORTER5, a new member of the monosaccharide transporter-like superfamily, mediates H+-Symport of numerous substrates, including myo-inositol, glycerol, and ribose.  

PubMed

Six genes of the Arabidopsis thaliana monosaccharide transporter-like (MST-like) superfamily share significant homology with polyol transporter genes previously identified in plants translocating polyols (mannitol or sorbitol) in their phloem (celery [Apium graveolens], common plantain [Plantago major], or sour cherry [Prunus cerasus]). The physiological role and the functional properties of this group of proteins were unclear in Arabidopsis, which translocates sucrose and small amounts of raffinose rather than polyols. Here, we describe POLYOL TRANSPORTER5 (AtPLT5), the first member of this subgroup of Arabidopsis MST-like transporters. Transient expression of an AtPLT5-green fluorescent protein fusion in plant cells and functional analyses of the AtPLT5 protein in yeast and Xenopus oocytes demonstrate that AtPLT5 is located in the plasma membrane and characterize this protein as a broad-spectrum H+-symporter for linear polyols, such as sorbitol, xylitol, erythritol, or glycerol. Unexpectedly, however, AtPLT5 catalyzes also the transport of the cyclic polyol myo-inositol and of different hexoses and pentoses, including ribose, a sugar that is not transported by any of the previously characterized plant sugar transporters. RT-PCR analyses and AtPLT5 promoter-reporter gene plants revealed that AtPLT5 is most strongly expressed in Arabidopsis roots, but also in the vascular tissue of leaves and in specific floral organs. The potential physiological role of AtPLT5 is discussed. PMID:15598803

Klepek, Yvonne-Simone; Geiger, Dietmar; Stadler, Ruth; Klebl, Franz; Landouar-Arsivaud, Lucie; Lemoine, Rémi; Hedrich, Rainer; Sauer, Norbert

2005-01-01

107

Excess iodide induces an acute inhibition of the sodium/iodide symporter in thyroid male rat cells by increasing reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS) mediates iodide (I(-)) uptake in the thyroid gland, the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the thyroid hormones. The expression and function of NIS in thyroid cells is mainly regulated by TSH and by the intracellular concentration of I(-). High doses of I(-) for 1 or 2 days inhibit the synthesis of thyroid hormones, a process known as the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. The cellular mechanisms responsible for this physiological response are mediated in part by the inhibition of I(-) uptake through a reduction of NIS expression. Here we show that inhibition of I(-) uptake occurs as early as 2 hours or 5 hours after exposure to excess I(-) in FRTL-5 cells and the rat thyroid gland, respectively. Inhibition of I(-) uptake was not due to reduced NIS expression or altered localization in thyroid cells. We observed that incubation of FRTL-5 cells with excess I(-) for 2 hours increased H2O2 generation. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of excess I(-) on NIS-mediated I(-) transport could be recapitulated by H2O2 and reverted by reactive derived oxygen species scavengers. The data shown here support the notion that excess I(-) inhibits NIS at the cell surface at early times by means of a posttranslational mechanism that involves reactive derived oxygen species. PMID:25594695

Arriagada, Alejandro A; Albornoz, Eduardo; Opazo, Ma Cecilia; Becerra, Alvaro; Vidal, Gonzalo; Fardella, Carlos; Michea, Luis; Carrasco, Nancy; Simon, Felipe; Elorza, Alvaro A; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M; Riedel, Claudia A

2015-04-01

108

Identification of Cyclic Adenosine 3?,5?-Monophosphate Response Element Modulator as an Activator of the Human Sodium/Iodide Symporter Upstream Enhancer  

PubMed Central

The lack of Na+/I? symporter (NIS) gene expression in some thyroid cancer patients has been a major hurdle that limits the efficacy of standard radioactive iodide therapy. The molecular mechanism that contributes to low NIS expression is not well understood. Activated NIS gene expression is stimulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone-mediated cAMP/protein kinase A signaling through a NIS upstream enhancer (NUE). The cAMP pathway is also stimulated by forskolin. In the current work, we studied the mechanism of transcriptional activation of NIS in normal thyroid cells and thyroid cancer cells. We identified the cAMP response element modulator (CREM) activator as a new component of the transcription complex that is important for NIS gene expression. The CREM complex is seen in the normal thyroid cells and BRAF (V600E) thyroid cancer cells (BHP 17–10) but is missing in rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinoma-1 rearrangement thyroid cancer cells (BHP 2–7). This complex is believed to be responsible for the loss of NUE activity and reduced NIS expression in the BHP 2–7 cell line. In BHP 2–7 cells, forskolin stimulated the thyroid-specific transcription factor Pax 8, but CREM activator mRNA did not increase, and this produced a small increase in NUE activity. Ectopic expression of CREM activator enhanced activity of the NUE, indicating that CREM is an essential regulator of NIS gene expression. PMID:18202121

Fenton, Mike S.; Marion, Kenneth M.; Hershman, Jerome M.

2008-01-01

109

Carrier-mediated ?-aminobutyric acid transport across the basolateral membrane of human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the transport of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) across the basolateral membrane of intestinal cells. The proton-coupled amino acid transporter, hPAT1, mediates the influx of GABA and GABA mimetic drug substances such as vigabatrin and gaboxadol and the anticancer prodrug ?-aminolevulinic acid across the apical membrane of small intestinal enterocytes. Little is however known about the basolateral transport of these substances. We investigated basolateral transport of GABA in mature Caco-2 cell monolayers using isotope studies. Here we report that, at least two transporters seem to be involved in the basolateral transport of GABA. The basolateral uptake consisted of a high-affinity system with a K(m) of 290 ?M and V(max) of 75 pmol cm(-2) min(-1) and a low affinity system with a K(m) of approximately 64 mM and V(max) of 1.6 nmol cm(-2) min(-1). The high-affinity transporter is Na(+) and Cl(-) dependent. The substrate specificity of the high-affinity transporter was further studied and Gly-Sar, Leucine, gaboxadol, sarcosine, lysine, betaine, 5-hydroxythryptophan, proline and glycine reduced the GABA uptake to approximately 44-70% of the GABA uptake in the absence of inhibitor. Other substances such as ?-alanine, GABA, 5-aminovaleric acid, taurine and ?-aminolevulinic acid reduced the basolateral GABA uptake to 6-25% of the uptake in the absence of inhibitor. Our results indicate that the distance between the charged amino- and acid-groups is particular important for inhibition of basolateral GABA uptake. Thus, there seems to be a partial substrate overlap between the basolateral GABA transporter and hPAT1, which may prove important for understanding drug interactions at the level of intestinal transport. PMID:22452873

Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Carstensen, Mette; Brodin, Birger

2012-06-01

110

A novel oncolytic viral therapy and imaging technique for gastric cancer using a genetically engineered vaccinia virus carrying the human sodium iodide symporter  

PubMed Central

Background Gastric cancers have poor overall survival despite recent advancements in early detection methods, endoscopic resection techniques, and chemotherapy treatments. Vaccinia viral therapy has had promising therapeutic potential for various cancers and has a great safety profile. We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of a novel genetically-engineered vaccinia virus carrying the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene, GLV-1 h153, on gastric cancers and its potential utility for imaging with 99mTc pertechnetate scintigraphy and 124I positron emission tomography (PET). Methods GLV-1 h153 was tested against five human gastric cancer cell lines using cytotoxicity and standard viral plaque assays. In vivo, subcutaneous flank tumors were generated in nude mice with human gastric cancer cells, MKN-74. Tumors were subsequently injected with either GLV-1 h153 or PBS and followed for tumor growth. 99mTc pertechnetate scintigraphy and 124I microPET imaging were performed. Results GFP expression, a surrogate for viral infectivity, confirmed viral infection by 24 hours. At a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1, GLV-1 h153 achieved?>?90% cytotoxicity in MNK-74, OCUM-2MD3, and AGS over 9 days, and >70% cytotoxicity in MNK- 45 and TMK-1. In vivo, GLV-1 h153 was effective in treating xenografts (p?

2014-01-01

111

Normalisation to Blood Activity Is Required for the Accurate Quantification of Na/I Symporter Ectopic Expression by SPECT/CT in Individual Subjects  

PubMed Central

The utilisation of the Na/I symporter (NIS) and associated radiotracers as a reporter system for imaging gene expression is now reaching the clinical setting in cancer gene therapy applications. However, a formal assessment of the methodology in terms of normalisation of the data still remains to be performed, particularly in the context of the assessment of activities in individual subjects in longitudinal studies. In this context, we administered to mice a recombinant, replication-incompetent adenovirus encoding rat NIS, or a human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HT29) encoding mouse NIS. We used 99mTc pertechnetate as a radiotracer for SPECT/CT imaging to determine the pattern of ectopic NIS expression in longitudinal kinetic studies. Some animals of the cohort were culled and NIS expression was measured by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The radioactive content of some liver biopsies was also measured ex vivo. Our results show that in longitudinal studies involving datasets taken from individual mice, the presentation of non-normalised data (activity expressed as %ID/g or %ID/cc) leads to ‘noisy’, and sometimes incoherent, results. This variability is due to the fact that the blood pertechnetate concentration can vary up to three-fold from day to day. Normalisation of these data with blood activities corrects for these inconsistencies. We advocate that, blood pertechnetate activity should be determined and used to normalise the activity measured in the organ/region of interest that expresses NIS ectopically. Considering that NIS imaging has already reached the clinical setting in the context of cancer gene therapy, this normalisation may be essential in order to obtain accurate and predictive information in future longitudinal clinical studies in biotherapy. PMID:22470517

Richard-Fiardo, Peggy; Franken, Philippe R.; Lamit, Audrey; Marsault, Robert; Guglielmi, Julien; Cambien, Béatrice; Graslin, Fanny; Lindenthal, Sabine; Darcourt, Jacques; Pourcher, Thierry; Vassaux, Georges

2012-01-01

112

Monitoring the initial delivery of an oncolytic measles virus encoding the human sodium iodide symporter to solid tumors using contrast-enhanced computed tomography  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to determine the feasibility of monitoring viral delivery and initial distribution to solid tumors using iodinated contrast agent and micro-computed tomography (CT). Methods Human BxPC-3 pancreatic tumor xenografts were established in nude mice. An oncolytic measles virus with an additional transcriptional unit encoding the sodium iodide symporter (NIS), as a reporter for viral infection, was mixed with a 1:10 dilution of Omnipaque 300 (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA) contrast agent and injected directly into tumors. Mice were imaged with micro-CT immediately before and after injection to determine the location of contrast agent/virus mixture. Mice were imaged again on day 3 after injection with micro-single-photon emission CT/CT to determine the location of NIS-mediated 99mTcO4 transport. Results A 1:10 dilution of Omnipaque had no effect on viral infectivity or cell viability in vitro and was more than adequate for CT imaging of the intratumoral injectate distribution. The volume of tumor coverage with initial CT contrast agent and the 3-day postinfection measurement of virally infected tumor volume were significantly correlated. Additionally, regions of the tumor that did not receive contrast agent from the initial injection were largely devoid of viral infection at early time points. Conclusions Contrast-enhanced viral delivery enables a rapid and accurate prediction of the initial viral distribution within a solid tumor. This technique should enable real-time monitoring of viral propagation from initially infected tumor regions to adjacent tumor regions. PMID:23015290

Penheiter, Alan R.; Dingli, David; Bender, Claire E.; Russell, Stephen J.; Carlson, Stephanie K.

2014-01-01

113

Noninvasive 3-dimensional imaging of liver regeneration in a mouse model of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 using the sodium iodide symporter gene.  

PubMed

Cell transplantation is a potential treatment for the many liver disorders that are currently only curable by organ transplantation. However, one of the major limitations of hepatocyte (HC) transplantation is an inability to monitor cells longitudinally after injection. We hypothesized that the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene could be used to visualize transplanted HCs in a rodent model of inherited liver disease: hereditary tyrosinemia type 1. Wild-type C57Bl/6J mouse HCs were transduced ex vivo with a lentiviral vector containing the mouse Slc5a5 (NIS) gene controlled by the thyroxine-binding globulin promoter. NIS-transduced cells could robustly concentrate radiolabeled iodine in vitro, with lentiviral transduction efficiencies greater than 80% achieved in the presence of dexamethasone. Next, NIS-transduced HCs were transplanted into congenic fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase knockout mice, and this resulted in the prevention of liver failure. NIS-transduced HCs were readily imaged in vivo by single-photon emission computed tomography, and this demonstrated for the first time noninvasive 3-dimensional imaging of regenerating tissue in individual animals over time. We also tested the efficacy of primary HC spheroids engrafted in the liver. With the NIS reporter, robust spheroid engraftment and survival could be detected longitudinally after direct parenchymal injection, and this thereby demonstrated a novel strategy for HC transplantation. This work is the first to demonstrate the efficacy of NIS imaging in the field of HC transplantation. We anticipate that NIS labeling will allow noninvasive and longitudinal identification of HCs and stem cells in future studies related to liver regeneration in small and large preclinical animal models. Liver Transpl 21:442-453, 2015. © 2015 AASLD. PMID:25482651

Hickey, Raymond D; Mao, Shennen A; Amiot, Bruce; Suksanpaisan, Lukkana; Miller, Amber; Nace, Rebecca; Glorioso, Jaime; O'Connor, Michael K; Peng, Kah Whye; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Russell, Stephen J; Nyberg, Scott L

2015-04-01

114

The acute inhibitory effect of iodide excess on sodium/iodide symporter expression and activity involves the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Iodide (I(-)) is an irreplaceable constituent of thyroid hormones and an important regulator of thyroid function, because high concentrations of I(-) down-regulate sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) expression and function. In thyrocytes, activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) cascade also inhibits NIS expression and function. Because I(-) excess and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway induce similar inhibitory effects on NIS expression, we aimed to study whether the PI3K/Akt cascade mediates the acute and rapid inhibitory effect of I(-) excess on NIS expression/activity. Here, we reported that the treatment of PCCl3 cells with I(-) excess increased Akt phosphorylation under normal or TSH/insulin-starving conditions. I(-) stimulated Akt phosphorylation in a PI3K-dependent manner, because the use of PI3K inhibitors (wortmannin or 2-(4-Morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) abrogated the induction of I(-) effect. Moreover, I(-) inhibitory effect on NIS expression and function were abolished when the cells were previously treated with specific inhibitors of PI3K or Akt (Akt1/2 kinase inhibitor). Importantly, we also found that the effect of I(-) on NIS expression involved the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using the fluorogenic probes dihydroethidium and mitochondrial superoxide indicator (MitoSOX Red), we observed that I(-) excess increased ROS production in thyrocytes and determined that mitochondria were the source of anion superoxide. Furthermore, the ROS scavengers N-acetyl cysteine and 2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3-(2H)-one blocked the effect of I(-) on Akt phosphorylation. Overall, our data demonstrated the involvement of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway as a novel mediator of the I(-)-induced thyroid autoregulation, linking the role of thyroid oxidative state to the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. PMID:24424051

Serrano-Nascimento, Caroline; da Silva Teixeira, Silvania; Nicola, Juan Pablo; Nachbar, Renato Tadeu; Masini-Repiso, Ana Maria; Nunes, Maria Tereza

2014-03-01

115

BRAFV600E mutation, but not RET/PTC rearrangements, is correlated with a lower expression of both thyroperoxidase and sodium iodide symporter genes in papillary thyroid cancer.  

PubMed

A low sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expression has been shown in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) harboring the BRAFV600E mutation. In the present study, we analyzed the mRNA expression of thyroid differentiation genes, glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 and GLUT-3, in 78 PTCs according to the presence of BRAFV600E or RET/PTC rearrangements. We found BRAFV600E and RET/PTC rearrangements in 35.8 and 19.4% of PTCs respectively. The mRNA expression of NIS and thyroperoxidase (TPO) genes were significantly lower (P<0.0001 and P=0.004 respectively) in BRAFV600E-positive PTC with respect to non-mutated samples. In support of this result, immunohistochemistry showed that the percentage of NIS-positive cells was significantly lower (P=0.005) in BRAFV600E-mutated PTC (mean 53.5%) than in negative cases (mean 72.6%). In contrast, no difference either in NIS or in any other thyroid differentiation genes' mRNA expression was found in PTC with or without RET/PTC rearrangements. When GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 mRNA expression was considered, no correlation was found either in BRAFV600E- nor in RET/PTC-mutated cases. In conclusion, this study confirmed the presence of a genetic alteration of BRAF and/or RET oncogenes in 64% of PTC cases and revealed a significant correlation of BRAFV600E mutation with a lower expression of both NIS and TPO. This latter finding could indicate that an early dedifferentiation process is present at the molecular level in BRAFV600E-mutated PTC, thus suggesting that the previously demonstrated poor prognostic significance of BRAFV600E mutation could be related to the dedifferentiation process more than to a more advanced stage at diagnosis. PMID:18509003

Romei, Cristina; Ciampi, Raffaele; Faviana, Pinuccia; Agate, Laura; Molinaro, Eleonora; Bottici, Valeria; Basolo, Fulvio; Miccoli, Paolo; Pacini, Furio; Pinchera, Aldo; Elisei, Rossella

2008-06-01

116

Perchlorate transport and inhibition of the sodium iodide symporter measured with the yellow fluorescent protein variant YFP-H148Q/I152L  

SciTech Connect

Perchlorate is an environmental contaminant that impairs thyroid function by interacting with the sodium iodide symporter (NIS), the transporter responsible for iodide uptake in the thyroid gland. Perchlorate is well known as a competitive inhibitor of iodide transport by NIS, and recent evidence demonstrates that NIS can also transport perchlorate. In this study, we evaluated the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) variant YFP-H148Q/I152L, as a genetically encodable biosensor of intracellular perchlorate concentration monitored by real-time fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence of recombinant YFP-H148Q/I152L was suppressed by perchlorate and iodide with similar affinities of 1.2 mM and 1.6 mM, respectively. Perchlorate suppressed YFP-H148Q/I152L fluorescence in FRTL-5 thyroid cells and NIS-expressing COS-7 cells, but had no effect on COS-7 cells lacking NIS. Fluorescence changes in FRTL-5 cells were Na{sup +}-dependent, consistent with the Na{sup +}-dependence of NIS activity. Perchlorate uptake in FRTL-5 cells resulted in 10-fold lower intracellular concentrations than iodide uptake, and was characterized by a higher affinity (K{sub m} 4.6 muM for perchlorate and 34.8 muM for iodide) and lower maximal velocity (V{sub max} 6.8 muM/s for perchlorate and 39.5 muM/s for iodide). Perchlorate also prevented iodide-induced changes in YFP-H148Q/I152L fluorescence in FRTL-5 cells, with half-maximal inhibition occurring at 1.1-1.6 muM. In conclusion, YFP-H148Q/I152L detects perchlorate accumulation by thyroid and other NIS-expressing cells, and reveals differences in the kinetics of perchlorate versus iodide transport by NIS.

Cianchetta, Stefano; Bernardo, Julie di; Romeo, Giovanni [Medical Genetics Unit, Department of Gynecologic, Obstetric and Pediatric Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Rhoden, Kerry J., E-mail: kerry.rhoden@unibo.i [Medical Genetics Unit, Department of Gynecologic, Obstetric and Pediatric Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

2010-03-15

117

Induction of amino acid transporters expression by endurance exercise in rat skeletal muscle  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Regulation of amino acid transporter expression in working muscle remains unclear. •Expression of amino acid transporters for leucine were induced by a bout of exercise. •Requirement of leucine in muscle cells might regulate expression of its transporters. •This information is beneficial for understanding the muscle remodeling by exercise. -- Abstract: We here investigated whether an acute bout of endurance exercise would induce the expression of amino acid transporters that regulate leucine transport across plasma and lysosomal membranes in rat skeletal muscle. Rats ran on a motor-driven treadmill at a speed of 28 m/min for 90 min. Immediately after the exercise, we observed that expression of mRNAs encoding L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and CD98 was induced in the gastrocnemius, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) mRNA was also induced by the exercise in those three muscles. Expression of proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) mRNA was slightly but not significantly induced by a single bout of exercise in soleus and EDL muscles. Exercise-induced mRNA expression of these amino acid transporters appeared to be attenuated by repeated bouts of the exercise. These results suggested that the expression of amino acid transporters for leucine may be induced in response to an increase in the requirement for this amino acid in the cells of working skeletal muscles.

Murakami, Taro, E-mail: tamuraka@sgk.ac.jp; Yoshinaga, Mariko

2013-10-04

118

Genetic disruption of lactate/H+ symporters (MCTs) and their subunit CD147/BASIGIN sensitizes glycolytic tumor cells to phenformin.  

PubMed

Rapidly growing glycolytic tumors require energy and intracellular pH (pHi) homeostasis through the activity of two major monocarboxylate transporters, MCT1 and the hypoxia-inducible MCT4, in intimate association with the glycoprotein CD147/BASIGIN (BSG). To further explore and validate the blockade of lactic acid export as an anticancer strategy, we disrupted, via zinc finger nucleases, MCT4 and BASIGIN genes in colon adenocarcinoma (LS174T) and glioblastoma (U87) human cell lines. First, we showed that homozygous loss of MCT4 dramatically sensitized cells to the MCT1 inhibitor AZD3965. Second, we demonstrated that knockout of BSG leads to a decrease in lactate transport activity of MCT1 and MCT4 by 10- and 6-fold, respectively. Consequently, cells accumulated an intracellular pool of lactic and pyruvic acids, magnified by the MCT1 inhibitor decreasing further pHi and glycolysis. As a result, we found that these glycolytic/MCT-deficient cells resumed growth by redirecting their metabolism toward OXPHOS. Third, we showed that in contrast with parental cells, BSG-null cells became highly sensitive to phenformin, an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I. Phenformin addition to these MCT-disrupted cells in normoxic and hypoxic conditions induced a rapid drop in cellular ATP-inducing cell death by "metabolic catastrophe." Finally, xenograft analysis confirmed the deleterious tumor growth effect of MCT1/MCT4 ablation, an action enhanced by phenformin treatment. Collectively, these findings highlight that inhibition of the MCT/BSG complexes alone or in combination with phenformin provides an acute anticancer strategy to target highly glycolytic tumors. This genetic approach validates the anticancer potential of the MCT1 and MCT4 inhibitors in current development. PMID:25403912

Marchiq, Ibtissam; Le Floch, Renaud; Roux, Danièle; Simon, Marie-Pierre; Pouyssegur, Jacques

2015-01-01

119

Potential usefulness of baculovirus-mediated sodium-iodide symporter reporter gene as non-invasively gene therapy monitoring in liver cancer cells: an in vitro evaluation.  

PubMed

Primary liver cancer has one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, and the main current treatments have a poor prognosis. This study aims to examine the efficiency of baculovirus vectors for transducing target gene into liver cancer cells and to evaluate the feasibility of using baculovirus vectors to deliver the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) gene as a reporter gene through co-vector administration approach to monitor the expression of the target therapeutic gene in liver cancer gene therapy. We constructed (green fluorescent protein) GFP- and NIS-expressing baculovirus vectors (Bac-GFP and Bac-NIS), and measured the baculovirus transduction efficiency in HepG2 cells and other tumor cells (A549, SW1116 and 8505C), and it showed that the transduction efficiency and target gene expression level rose with increasing viral multiplicity of infection (MOI) in HepG2 cells, and HepG2 cells had a significantly higher transduction efficiency (60.8% at MOI = 200) than other tumor cells. Moreover, the baculovirus transduction was not cytotoxic to HepG2 cells at a higher MOI (MOI 5 400). We also performed dynamic iodide uptake trials, and found that Bac-NIS-transduced HepG2 cells exhibited efficient iodide uptake which could be inhibited by sodium perchlorate (NaClO?). And we measured the correlation of fluorescent intensities and 125I uptake amount in HepG2 cells after co-vector administration with Bac-NIS and Bac-GFP at different MOIs, and found a high correlation coefficient (r(2) = 0.8447), which provides a good basis for successfully evaluating the feasibility of baculovirus-mediated NIS reporter gene monitoring target gene expression in liver cancer therapy. Therefore, this study indicates that baculovirus vector is a potential vehicle for delivering therapeutic genes in studying liver cancer cells. And it is feasible to use a baculovirus vector to deliver NIS gene as a reporter gene to monitor the expression of target genes. It therefore provides an effective approach and a good basis for future baculovirus-mediated therapeutic gene delivering or therapeutic gene expression monitoring in liver cancer cells studies. PMID:23919394

Pan, Yu; Wu, Haifei; Liu, Shuai; Zhou, Xiang; Yin, Hongyan; Li, Biao; Zhang, Yifan

2014-04-01

120

Ancestry and progeny of nutrient amino acid transporters  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis of structural and signaling molecules depends on intracellular concentrations of essential amino acids, which are maintained by a specific system of plasma membrane transporters. We identify a unique population of nutrient amino acid transporters (NATs) within the sodium-neurotransmitter symporter family and have characterized a member of the NAT subfamily from the larval midgut of the Yellow Fever vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (aeAAT1, AAR08269), which primarily supplies phenylalanine, an essential substrate for the synthesis of neuronal and cuticular catecholamines. Further analysis suggests that NATs constitute a comprehensive transport metabolon for the epithelial uptake and redistribution of essential amino acids including precursors of several neurotransmitters. In contrast to the highly conserved subfamily of orthologous neurotransmitter transporters, lineage-specific, paralogous NATs undergo rapid gene multiplication/substitution that enables a high degree of evolutionary plasticity of nutrient amino acid uptake mechanisms and facilitates environmental and nutrient adaptations of organisms. These findings provide a unique model for understanding the molecular mechanisms, physiology, and evolution of amino acid and neurotransmitter transport systems and imply that monoamine and GABA transporters evolved by selection and conservation of earlier neuronal NATs. PMID:15665107

Boudko, Dmitri Y.; Kohn, Andrea B.; Meleshkevitch, Ella A.; Dasher, Michelle K.; Seron, Theresa J.; Stevens, Bruce R.; Harvey, William R.

2005-01-01

121

Functional Radionuclide Imaging, In-Vitro Radioiodine Uptake Estimation and RT-PCR in the Evaluation of Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) Expression and Functionality in Breast Cancer: A Pilot Study.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is a common malignancy in females, which is considered as a systemic disease, whose treatment involves combined modality including systemic as well as local treatment. Recent studies have shown that breast cancer also expresses Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) gene, like in the thyroid, which is the factor responsible for the uptake of iodide by the thyroid, enabling radioiodine therapy of thyroid disorders. This study aimed to evaluate various radionuclide imaging characteristics, in vitro radioiodine uptake (RAIU) and evaluation of NIS expression by using Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) to explore sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expression and iodine uptake in breast cancer and to explor e whether radioiodine can be used for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Ways of differential regulation of NIS expression in breast cancer has also been explored. Female patients with palpable breast lump and histologically proven infiltrating duct carcinoma were taken up for the study, which included 50 females of mean age 49 years. (range: 23-73 years). The patients were categorized into different groups, depending on the type of the study performed. The uptake patterns in various imaging modalities were analyzed and compared with invitro and RT-PCR studies. 68 % of breast cancer cases showed (99m)Tc-pertechnetate uptake at the initial images. This finding could partly be due to tumor vascularity, which is usually higher compared to the normal tissues. The uptake in the delayed imaging could be related to that due to NIS in the breast. Use of perchlorate or stable iodine did not alter the pertechnetate uptake pattern in breast tumor. Good correlation between (99m)Tc-pertechnetate and (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin uptake in breast cancer was demonstrated. In vitro radioactive iodine uptake in the breast tumor was significantly higher than that in the normal breast tissue. Only 42 % of breast tumor samples studied using RT-PCR showed NIS expression. Correlation between (99m)Tc-pertechnetate uptake and NIS expression could not be well established. Further studies with higher dose of radioiodine and/or mechanisms of differentially blocking the thyroid are required to assess the feasibility of radioiodine therapy for breast cancer. PMID:24426705

Joseph, J K; Patel, R B; Damle, A A; Nair, N; Badwe, R A; Basu, S

2013-03-01

122

A Novel hNIS/tdTomato Fusion Reporter for Visualizing the Relationship Between the Cellular Localization of Sodium Iodide Symporter and Its Iodine Uptake Function Under Heat Shock Treatment.  

PubMed

AbstractThe function of membrane-localized sodium iodide symporter (NIS) determines the efficacy of radioiodine therapy in thyroid cancer. Here, we describe a dual mode reporter fused with human NIS (hNIS) and a red fluorescent protein named tandem dimeric Tomato (tdTomato) for the in vitro and in vivo imaging of hNIS protein expression, localization, and iodide uptake function. Human cervical epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line (HeLa)-hNIS/tdTomato cells were established by transducing a fusion gene expressing hNIS/tdTomato under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter. Fluorescence imaging, confocal microscopy, and an 125I uptake assay were performed to validate the integrity of the fusion protein. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide were used to block newly synthesized hNIS proteins. In vivo images were acquired using a gamma camera and a Maestro fluorescence imaging device. The fluorescence intensity of membrane-localized hNIS and 125I uptake both were increased after heat shock. Scintigraphy and fluorescence imaging indicated specific accumulation of the hNIS/tdTomato fusion protein in xenografted tumors, supporting the utility of this system for in vivo monitoring of hNIS expression and activity. We developed a novel hNIS/tdTomato dual mode reporter that enables visualization of the expression, localization, and iodine uptake function of hNIS in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25773964

Yeom, Chan Joo; Chung, Taemoon; Youn, Hyewon; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key

2015-03-01

123

PROF_ PAT 1.3: Updated database of patterns used to detect local similarities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: When analysing novel protein sequences, it is now essential to extend search strategies to include a range of 'secondary' databases. Pattern databases have become vital tools for identifying distant relationships in sequences, and hence for predicting protein function and structure. The main drawback of such methods is the relatively small representation of proteins in trial samples at the time

Alexander G. Bachinsky; Anatoly S. Frolov; Andrey N. Naumochkin; Lily Ph. Nizolenko; Andrey A. Yarigin

2000-01-01

124

The Paired-Domain Transcription Factor Pax8 Binds to the Upstream Enhancer of the Rat Sodium/Iodide Symporter Gene and Participates in Both Thyroid-Specific and Cyclic-AMP-Dependent Transcription  

PubMed Central

The gene encoding the Na/I symporter (NIS) is expressed at high levels only in thyroid follicular cells, where its expression is regulated by the thyroid-stimulating hormone via the second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP). In this study, we demonstrate the presence of an enhancer that is located between nucleotides ?2264 and ?2495 in the 5?-flanking region of the NIS gene and that recapitulates the most relevant aspects of NIS regulation. When fused to either its own or a heterologous promoter, the NIS upstream enhancer, which we call NUE, stimulates transcription in a thyroid-specific and cAMP-dependent manner. The activity of NUE depends on the four most relevant sites, identified by mutational analysis. The thyroid-specific transcription factor Pax8 binds at two of these sites. Mutations that interfere with Pax8 binding also decrease transcriptional activity of the NUE. Furthermore, expression of Pax8 in nonthyroid cells results in transcriptional activation of NUE, strongly suggesting that the paired-domain protein Pax8 plays an important role in NUE activity. The NUE responds to cAMP in both protein kinase A-dependent and -independent manners, indicating that this enhancer could represent a novel type of cAMP responsive element. Such a cAMP response requires Pax8 but also depends on the integrity of a cAMP responsive element (CRE)-like sequence, thus suggesting a functional interaction between Pax8 and factors binding at the CRE-like site. PMID:10022892

Ohno, Makoto; Zannini, Mariastella; Levy, Orlie; Carrasco, Nancy; di Lauro, Roberto

1999-01-01

125

Amino acids  

MedlinePLUS

Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

126

Effect of surface and membrane potentials on IAA (indoleactic acid) uptake and binding by zucchini membrane vesicles  

SciTech Connect

The polar transport of the endogenous hormone controlling extension growth of plant cells, indoleacetic acid (IAA), is thought to depend on transmembrane pH and electrical gradients resulting in part from the action of proton ATPases in the plasma membrane. Elements of this transport process are permeation of the membrane by the undissociated lipophilic indoleacetic acid (IAAH) from the acidic apoplast, followed by dissociation of the weak acid and accumulation of the IAA anion (IAA/sup -/) in the alkaline cytoplasm; a saturable symport of IAA/sup -/ with one or more protons; a carrier-mediated efflux of IAA/sup -/ down a considerable electrochemical gradient. The efflux is greater from the basal than the apical end of cells and is thought to be responsible for the overall polarity of the process. This step is also the site of action of napthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and herbicides that inhibit polar transport but stimulate net accumulation of auxin by tissues and cells. We are using membrane vesicles as a simplified system for studying the mechanisms involved in the transport and accumulation of auxin. In particular, we are interested in determining the involvement of the transmembrane pH (pH/sub o/ < pH/sub i/) and voltage gradients (K/sup +/ diffusion potential, (K/sup +/)/sub in/ > (K/sup +/)/sub out/) in IAA uptake. 19 refs., 6 figs.

Clark, K.A.; Goldsmith, M.H.M.

1986-08-01

127

Human intestine luminal ACE2 and amino acid transporter expression increased by ACE-inhibitors.  

PubMed

Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) and imino acid (proline) transporter SIT1 (SLC6A20) are expressed at the luminal membrane of small intestine enterocytes and proximal tubule kidney cells where they exert key functions for amino acid (re)absorption as documented by their role in Hartnup disorder and iminoglycinuria, respectively. Expression of B(0)AT1 was shown in rodent intestine to depend on the presence of the carboxypeptidase angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This enzyme belongs to the renin-angiotensin system and its expression is induced by treatment with ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) in many rodent tissues. We show here in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system that human ACE2 also functionally interacts with SIT1. To investigate in human intestine the potential effect of ACEIs or ARBs on ACE2, we analysed intestinal biopsies taken during routine gastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy from 46 patients of which 9 were under ACEI and 13 ARB treatment. Analysis of transcript expression by real-time PCR and of proteins by immunofluorescence showed a co-localization of SIT1 and B(0)AT1 with ACE2 in the brush-border membrane of human small intestine enterocytes and a distinct axial expression pattern of the tested gene products along the intestine. Patients treated with ACEIs displayed in comparison with untreated controls increased intestinal mRNA levels of ACE2, peptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) and AA transporters B(0)AT1 and PAT1 (SLC36A1). This study unravels in human intestine the localization and distribution of intestinal transporters involved in amino acid absorption and suggests that ACEIs impact on their expression. PMID:25534429

Vuille-Dit-Bille, Raphael N; Camargo, Simone M; Emmenegger, Luca; Sasse, Tom; Kummer, Eva; Jando, Julia; Hamie, Qeumars M; Meier, Chantal F; Hunziker, Schirin; Forras-Kaufmann, Zsofia; Kuyumcu, Sena; Fox, Mark; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael; Lindenmeyer, Maja; Götze, Oliver; Verrey, François

2015-04-01

128

Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

129

Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

130

Characterization of amino acid transport in membrane vesicles from the thermophilic fermentative bacterium Clostridium fervidus.  

PubMed Central

Amino acid transport was studied in membrane vesicles of the thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Clostridium fervidus. Neutral, acidic, and basic as well as aromatic amino acids were transported at 40 degrees C upon the imposition of an artificial membrane potential (delta psi) and a chemical gradient of sodium ions (delta microNa+). The presence of sodium ions was essential for the uptake of amino acids, and imposition of a chemical gradient of sodium ions alone was sufficient to drive amino acid uptake, indicating that amino acids are symported with sodium ions instead of with protons. Lithium ions, but no other cations tested, could replace sodium ions in serine transport. The transient character of artificial membrane potentials, especially at higher temperatures, severely limits their applicability for more detailed studies of a specific transport system. To obtain a constant proton motive force, the thermostable and thermoactive primary proton pump cytochrome c oxidase from Bacillus stearothermophilus was incorporated into membrane vesicles of C. fervidus. Serine transport could be driven by a membrane potential generated by the proton pump. Interconversion of the pH gradient into a sodium gradient by the ionophore monensin stimulated serine uptake. The serine carrier had a high affinity for serine (Kt = 10 microM) and a low affinity for sodium ions (apparent Kt = 2.5 mM). The mechanistic Na+-serine stoichiometry was determined to be 1:1 from the steady-state levels of the proton motive force, sodium gradient, and serine uptake. A 1:1 stoichiometry was also found for Na+-glutamate transport, and uptake of glutamate appeared to be an electroneutral process. PMID:2567728

Speelmans, G; de Vrij, W; Konings, W N

1989-01-01

131

The Synthesis of [gamma]-Aminobutyric Acid in Response to Treatments Reducing Cytosolic pH.  

PubMed Central

[gamma]-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis (L-glutamic acid + H+ -> GABA + CO2) is rapidly stimulated by a variety of stress conditions including hypoxia. Recent literature suggests that GABA production and concomitant H+ consumption ameliorates the cytosolic acidification associated with hypoxia or other stresses. This proposal was investigated using isolated asparagus (Asparagus sprengeri Regel) mesophyll cells. Cell acidification was promoted using hypoxia, H+/L-glutamic acid symport, and addition of butyrate or other permeant weak acids. Sixty minutes of all three treatments stimulated the levels of both intracellular and extracellular GABA by values ranging from 100 to 1800%. At an external pH of 5.0, addition of 5 mM butyrate stimulated an increase in overall GABA level from 3.86 (0.56 [plus or minus] SE) to 20.4 (2.16 [plus or minus] SE) nmol of GABA/106 cell. Butyrate stimulated GABA levels by 200 to 300% within 15 s, and extracellular GABA was observed after 10 min. The acid load due to butyrate addition was assayed by measuring [14C]butyrate uptake. After 45 s of butyrate treatment, H+-consuming GABA production accounted for 45% of the imposed acid load. The cytosolic location of a fluorescent pH probe was confirmed using fluorescent microscopy. Spectrofluorimetry indicated that butyrate addition reduced cytosolic pH by 0.60 units with a half-time of approximately 2 s. The proposal that GABA synthesis ameliorates cytosolic acidification is supported by the data. The possible roles of H+ and Ca2+ in stimulating GABA synthesis are discussed. PMID:12232132

Crawford, L. A.; Bown, A. W.; Breitkreuz, K. E.; Guinel, F. C.

1994-01-01

132

Aspartic acid  

MedlinePLUS

... don't get this amino acid from the food we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources ...

133

Acid Rain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

Openshaw, Peter

1987-01-01

134

On Nonuniversal Symport/Antiport P Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine restricted SA P system models and analyze minimal systems with regard to the size of the alphabet and the number of membranes. We study the precise power of SA P systems with either 1, 2, or 3 symbols and less than 5, 4, and 3 membranes, respectively, improving the previous results. The question of whether using only a single symbol with any number of membranes is universal remains open.

Ibarra, Oscar H.; Woodworth, Sara

135

Anion selectivity by the sodium iodide symporter.  

PubMed

The iodide transporter of the thyroid (NIS) has been cloned by the group of Carrasco. The NIS-mediated transport was studied by electrophysiological methods in NIS-expressing Xenopus oocytes. Using this method, the anion selectivity of NIS was different from that previously reported for thyroid cells, whereas perchlorate and perrhenate were found not transported. In this study we compared the properties of human NIS, stably transfected in COS-7 cells to those of the transport in a thyroid cell line, the FRTL5 cells, by measuring the transport directly. We measured the uptake of (125)I(-), (186)ReO(4)(-), and (99m)TcO(4)(-) and studied the effect on it of known competing anions, i.e. ClO(4)(-), SCN(-), ClO(3)(-), ReO(4)(-), and Br(-). We conclude that the properties of the NIS transporter account by themselves for the properties of the thyroid iodide transporter as described previously in thyroid slices. The order of affinity was: ClO(4)(-) > ReO(4)(-) > I(-) >/= SCN(-) > ClO(3)(-) > Br(-). NIS is also inhibited by dysidenin (as in dog thyroid). PMID:12488351

Van Sande, J; Massart, C; Beauwens, R; Schoutens, A; Costagliola, S; Dumont, J E; Wolff, J

2003-01-01

136

Acidity in bile acid systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acidity parameter in bile acid systems was re-examined in an attempt to unify the many contrasting results reported in the literature. Discrepancies originate not only through differences in experimental approaches but mainly through the peculiar behaviour of bile acids and their salts, which can be present in aqueous solution as monomers, or simple and\\/or mixed aggregates. The acidity (and

Adamo Fini; Giorgio Feroci; Aldo Roda

2002-01-01

137

Ascorbic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

138

Ethacrynic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

139

Folic acid  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is a water-soluble B vitamin. Since 1998, it has been added to cold cereals, flour, breads, ... law. Foods that are naturally high in folic acid include leafy vegetables (such as spinach, broccoli, and ...

140

Mefenamic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

141

Aristolochic Acids  

Cancer.gov

Aristolochic acids are a group of acids found naturally in many types of plants known as Aristolochia (birthworts or pipevines) and some types of plants known as Asarum (wild ginger), which grow worldwide.

142

Aristolochic Acids  

MedlinePLUS

... Sciences NIH-HHS www.niehs.nih.gov Aristolochic Acids Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Known to be human carcinogens Aristolochia Clematitis Aristolochic Acids n Known human carcinogens n Found in certain ...

143

Aminocaproic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

144

Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... acid. Talk to your doctor about how much folic acid you need if you: Are taking medicines used to treat: Epilepsy Type 2 diabetes Rheumatoid arthritis , lupus , psoriasis , asthma , and inflammatory bowel disease Have kidney disease ...

145

Valproic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Valproic acid is used alone or with other medications to treat certain types of seizures. Valproic acid is also used to treat mania (episodes of ... to relieve headaches that have already begun. Valproic acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. ...

146

Shikimic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The molecule for this month comes from the article Isolation of Shikimic Acid from Star Aniseed by Richard Payne and Michael Edmonds. Shikimic acid plays a key role in the biosynthesis of many important natural products including aromatic amino acids, alkaloids, phenolics, and phenylpropanoids. It plays such an important role that one of the key biosynthetic pathways is referred to as the shikimate pathway.

147

Mechanism of fatty-acid-dependent UCP1 uncoupling in brown fat mitochondria.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Upon activation by long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), UCP1 increases the conductance of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) to make BAT mitochondria generate heat rather than ATP. Despite being a member of the family of mitochondrial anion carriers (SLC25), UCP1 is believed to transport H(+) by an unusual mechanism that has long remained unresolved. Here, we achieved direct patch-clamp measurements of UCP1 currents from the IMM of BAT mitochondria. We show that UCP1 is an LCFA anion/H(+) symporter. However, the LCFA anions cannot dissociate from UCP1 due to hydrophobic interactions established by their hydrophobic tails, and UCP1 effectively operates as an H(+) carrier activated by LCFA. A similar LCFA-dependent mechanism of transmembrane H(+) transport may be employed by other SLC25 members and be responsible for mitochondrial uncoupling and regulation of metabolic efficiency in various tissues. PMID:23063128

Fedorenko, Andriy; Lishko, Polina V; Kirichok, Yuriy

2012-10-12

148

Mechanism of Fatty-Acid-Dependent UCP1 Uncoupling in Brown Fat Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Upon activation by long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), UCP1 increases the conductance of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) to make BAT mitochondria generate heat rather than ATP. Despite being a member of the family of mitochondrial anion carriers (SLC25), UCP1 is believed to transport H+ by an unusual mechanism that has long remained unresolved. Here, we achieved direct patch-clamp measurements of UCP1 currents from the IMM of BAT mitochondria. We show that UCP1 is an LCFA anion/H+ symporter. However, the LCFA anions cannot dissociate from UCP1 due to hydrophobic interactions established by their hydrophobic tails, and UCP1 effectively operates as an H+ carrier activated by LCFA. A similar LCFA-dependent mechanism of transmembrane H+ transport may be employed by other SLC25 members and be responsible for mitochondrial uncoupling and regulation of metabolic efficiency in various tissues. PMID:23063128

Fedorenko, Andriy; Lishko, Polina V.

2013-01-01

149

Insulin increases mRNA abundance of the amino acid transporter SLC7A5/LAT1 via an mTORC1-dependent mechanism in skeletal muscle cells.  

PubMed

Abstract Amino acid transporters (AATs) provide a link between amino acid availability and mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation although the direct relationship remains unclear. Previous studies in various cell types have used high insulin concentrations to determine the role of insulin on mTORC1 signaling and AAT mRNA abundance. However, this approach may limit applicability to human physiology. Therefore, we sought to determine the effect of insulin on mTORC1 signaling and whether lower insulin concentrations stimulate AAT mRNA abundance in muscle cells. We hypothesized that lower insulin concentrations would increase mRNA abundance of select AAT via an mTORC1-dependent mechanism in C2C12 myotubes. Insulin (0.5 nmol/L) significantly increased phosphorylation of the mTORC1 downstream effectors p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and ribosomal protein S6 (S6). A low rapamycin dose (2.5 nmol/L) significantly reduced the insulin-(0.5 nmol/L) stimulated S6K1 and S6 phosphorylation. A high rapamycin dose (50 nmol/L) further reduced the insulin-(0.5 nmol/L) stimulated phosphorylation of S6K1 and S6. Insulin (0.5 nmol/L) increased mRNA abundance of SLC38A2/SNAT2 (P ? 0.043) and SLC7A5/LAT1 (P ? 0.021) at 240 min and SLC36A1/PAT1 (P = 0.039) at 30 min. High rapamycin prevented an increase in SLC38A2/SNAT2 (P = 0.075) and SLC36A1/PAT1 (P ? 0.06) mRNA abundance whereas both rapamycin doses prevented an increase in SLC7A5/LAT1 (P ? 0.902) mRNA abundance. We conclude that a low insulin concentration increases SLC7A5/LAT1 mRNA abundance in an mTORC1-dependent manner in skeletal muscle cells. PMID:24760501

Walker, Dillon K; Drummond, Micah J; Dickinson, Jared M; Borack, Michael S; Jennings, Kristofer; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B

2014-01-01

150

Basically Acids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the basics of acid/base chemistry in a fun, interactive way by studying instances of acid/base chemistry found in popular films such as Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and National Treasure. Students learn what acids, bases and indicators are and how they can be used, including invisible ink. They also learn how engineers use acids and bases every day to better our quality of life. Students' interest is piqued by the use of popular culture in the classroom.

2014-09-18

151

Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the acidity of rain and snow reveal that in parts of the eastern U.S. and of western Europe precipitation has changed from a nearly neutral solution 200 years ago to a dilute solution of sulfuric and nitric acids today. The trend is a result of the emission of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere accompanying the rise

Gene E. Likens; Richard F. Wright; James N. Galloway; Thomas J. Butler

1979-01-01

152

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

White, J.C. (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (US))

1988-01-01

153

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

Elsworth, S.

1985-01-01

154

Domoic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online student report discusses the chemistry of domoic acid, a biotoxin that is produced by the diatom Psuedo-nitzschia and associated with Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). In addition to a descriptive summary and images, the report links to other areas of interest related to domoic acid poisoning including signs and symptoms, modes of action, and treatment.

Bailey, Christina

155

Acids (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". We will observe the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with three acid solutions. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

156

Acid Precipitation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acid precipitation will be defined. At different points in the lesson students will write balanced reactions for the formation acid precipitation from atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen oxides and the neutralization of acids by limestone. Students will determine which states are most at risk from acid precipitation and assess how that risk has changed from 1996 to 2006. Sources of atmospheric sulfur (burning of high-sulfur coal) and nitrogen oxides (automobile exhaust) will be listed. The buffering effect of limestone soils and its mitigating effect on acid precipitation will be discussed. Students will correlate these areas with sulfur and nitrogen oxide production, population, composition of coal fields, and soil composition. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student worksheets.

Tyser, Jim

157

Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Due to the presence of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide, rainfall is naturally acidic. The release of other gases and chemicals such as sulfur dioxide during the combustion of coal and oil can cause rainfall to become even more acidic, sometimes to the point of toxicity. In this activity, students will measure the pH of local rainfall to see what effect these gases have in their region. They will also check an online resource to see how the releases of acid rain-causing chemicals have varied over the past 20 years, and answer questions about the information they uncover.

Chris Fox

158

ACID RAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

159

Acid Reflux  

MedlinePLUS

... time. This stomach juice consists of acid, digestive enzymes, and other injurious materials. The prolonged contact of ... role in absorption of vitamins (Vitamin B12), the digestion of proteins, and initiation of peristalsis which causes the food ...

160

Acidic precipitation  

SciTech Connect

At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

Martin, H.C.

1987-01-01

161

Acidizing wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of increasing the permeability of a rock formation by acidizing is applicable to silicate-bearing formations containing alkaline-earth-metal ions and alkali- metal ions which would have a reducing effect on the permeability of the formation. A carbonate solution is injected into the formation to convert any calcium sulfate to calcium carbonate. This is followed by injecting hydrochloric acid to

1966-01-01

162

Uric acid - urine  

MedlinePLUS

The urine uric acid test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood ... to choose the best medicine to lower uric acid level in the blood. Uric acid is a ...

163

Salicylic acids  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

2012-01-01

164

Acid Stomach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is intended for a high-school, introductory chemistry class or health class. The lesson begins with an article on the history of the development of aspirin. Students will then complete a lab that compares the reaction of regular aspirin, buffered aspirin, and enteric aspirin in neutral, acidic, and basic solutions. They will then analyze the results of the experiment to gain insight into how this information was used by researchers to solve some of the problems associated with aspirin. To complete the lesson, students must understand acids and bases.

Science Netlinks

2003-08-07

165

Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online examination into acid rain and sulfur dioxide emissions. Students research which states have succeeded in reducing sulfur dioxide emissions between 1980 and 1999, and which states emissions have increased. This activity is accompanied by a page of websites for further information.

166

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

An overview is presented of acid rain and the problems it causes to the environment worldwide. The acidification of lakes and streams is having a dramatic effect on aquatic life. Aluminum, present in virtually all forest soils, leaches out readily under acid conditions and interferes with the gills of all fish, some more seriously than others. There is evidence of major damage to forests in European countries. In the US, the most severe forest damage appears to be in New England, New York's Adirondacks, and the central Appalachians. This small region is part of a larger area of the Northeast and Canada that appears to have more acid rainfall than the rest of the country. It is downwind from major coal burning states, which produce about one quarter of US SO/sub 2/ emissions and one sixth of nitrogen oxide emissions. Uncertainties exist over the causes of forest damage and more research is needed before advocating expensive programs to reduce rain acidity. The President's current budget seeks an expansion of research funds from the current $30 million per year to $120 million.

Not Available

1984-06-01

167

Amino Acids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Featured Molecules this month are the 20 standard ?-amino acids found in proteins and serve as background to the paper by Barone and Schmidt on the Nonfood Applications of Proteinaceous Renewable Materials. The molecules are presented in two formats, the neutral form and the ionized form found in solution at physiologic pH.

168

Acid Attack  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students explore the effect of chemical erosion on statues and monuments. They use chalk to see what happens when limestone is placed in liquids with different pH values. They also learn several things that engineers are doing to reduce the effects of acid rain.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

169

Pharmacology of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are triterpenoid compounds that exist widely in food, medicinal herbs and other plants. This review summarizes the pharmacological studies on these two triterpenoids. Both oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are effective in protecting against chemically induced liver injury in laboratory animals. Oleanolic acid has been marketed in China as an oral drug for human liver

Jie Liu

1995-01-01

170

Domoic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly detailed chemical information page features domoic acid, a toxin associated with Amnesic shellfish poisoning and naturally produced by the red algae Chondria armata and diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Created by the International Programme on Chemical Safety, this web page organizes information under the following sections: Name, Summary, Physio-Chemical Properties, Uses, Routes of Entry, Kinetics, Toxicology, Toxicological and Biomedical Investigations, Clinical Effects, Management, Illustrative Cases, Additional Information, References, and Authors.

INCHEM

171

Methylmalonic acid blood test  

MedlinePLUS

... acid is a substance produced when proteins (called amino acids) in the body break down. A test can ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

172

Folic acid - test  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is a type of B vitamin. This article discusses the test to measure the amount of folic acid in the blood. ... that may interfere with test results, including folic acid supplements. Drugs that can decrease folic acid measurements ...

173

Acid Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The I2I-Acid Ocean virtual lab is an e-learning activity where students become virtual scientists studying the impact of ocean acidification on sea urchin larval growth. Students recreate a real, up-to-date climate change experiment. They also learn important general scientific principles, such as the importance of sample size and numbers of replicates, and discuss what this research into a specific impact of climate change may mean for the future of our oceans. There is a French translation available.

174

The SLC36 family of proton-coupled amino acid transporters and their potential role in drug transport  

PubMed Central

Members of the solute carrier (SLC) 36 family are involved in transmembrane movement of amino acids and derivatives. SLC36 consists of four members. SLC36A1 and SLC36A2 both function as H+-coupled amino acid symporters. SLC36A1 is expressed at the luminal surface of the small intestine but is also commonly found in lysosomes in many cell types (including neurones), suggesting that it is a multipurpose carrier with distinct roles in different cells including absorption in the small intestine and as an efflux pathway following intralysosomal protein breakdown. SLC36A1 has a relatively low affinity (Km 1–10 mM) for its substrates, which include zwitterionic amino and imino acids, heterocyclic amino acids and amino acid-based drugs and derivatives used experimentally and/or clinically to treat epilepsy, schizophrenia, bacterial infections, hyperglycaemia and cancer. SLC36A2 is expressed at the apical surface of the human renal proximal tubule where it functions in the reabsorption of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline. SLC36A2 also transports amino acid derivatives but has a narrower substrate selectivity and higher affinity (Km 0.1–0.7 mM) than SLC36A1. Mutations in SLC36A2 lead to hyperglycinuria and iminoglycinuria. SLC36A3 is expressed only in testes and is an orphan transporter with no known function. SLC36A4 is widely distributed at the mRNA level and is a high-affinity (Km 2–3 µM) transporter for proline and tryptophan. We have much to learn about this family of transporters, but from current knowledge, it seems likely that their function will influence the pharmacokinetic profiles of amino acid-based drugs by mediating transport in both the small intestine and kidney. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Transporters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.164.issue-7 PMID:21501141

Thwaites, David T; Anderson, Catriona MH

2011-01-01

175

Understanding Acid Rain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-01-01

176

Brnsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid**  

E-print Network

-Chan Kim, and Christopher A. Reed* Acids based on carborane anions as conjugate bases (Figure 1) are a newBrønsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid** Mark Juhasz, Stephan Hoffmann, Evgenii Stoyanov, Kee class of Brønsted (protic) acids, notable for their "strong yet gentle" qualities.[1] For example

Reed, Christopher A.

177

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Acid rain, says Boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of North America and Europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time. Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon; the effects on man, wildlife, water, and our cultural heritage. He probes the delays of politicians and the frequent self-serving arguments advanced by industry in the face of what scientists have proved. The solutions he offers are to strengthen the Clean Air Act and require emission reductions that can be accomplished by establishing emission standards on a regional or bubble basis, burn low-sulfur coal, install scrubbers at critical plants, and invest in alternative energy sources. 73 references, 1 figure.

Boyle, R.H.; Boyle, R.A.

1983-01-01

178

Acanthoic acid  

PubMed Central

The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aR,7S,8aS,10aS)-1,4a,7-trimethyl-7-vinyl-1,2,3,4,4a,6,7,8,8a,9,10,10a-dodeca­hydro­phenanthrene-1-carb­oxy­lic acid], C20H30O2, is a pimarane-type diterpene extracted from Croton oblongifolius. There are two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. In both of these, the six-membered rings A, B and C adopt chair, boat and half-chair conformations, respectively. Rings A and B are trans-fused. The two mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit form O—H?O hydrogen-bonded R 2 2(8) dimers. The absolute configuration was assigned on the basis of the published literature on analogous structures. PMID:21587780

Suwancharoen, Sunisa; Tommeurd, Wantanee; Phurat, Chuttree; Muangsin, Nongnuj; Pornpakakul, Surachai

2010-01-01

179

Bioactive Fatty Acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oxygenated fatty acids are useful as specialty chemicals, plasticizers, and biomedicals. Microbial enzymes convert fatty acids to mono-, di-, and trihydroxy fatty acid products. Among them, Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. Linoleic acid was ...

180

Plasma amino acids  

MedlinePLUS

Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acids levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

181

Uric acid test (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

182

Stomach acid test  

MedlinePLUS

Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid, a hormone called gastrin may be injected into ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour in ...

183

Folic Acid and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... Flu Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > Parents > Pregnancy & Newborn Center > Your ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

184

Facts about Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

185

Azelaic Acid Topical  

MedlinePLUS

Azelaic acid gel is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin disease that ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat acne. Azelaic acid ...

186

Acid Lipase Disease  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, Wolman’s Disease Table of Contents (click to jump ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease occurs when the ...

187

Valproic Acid and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... visit us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . Valproic acid and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts ... from your health care professional. What is valproic acid? Valproic acid is a medication commonly used to ...

188

Method of acidizing wells using gelled acids  

SciTech Connect

The permeability of siliceous or calcareous subterranean formations adjacent a wellbore is increased by contacting the formation with a gelled aqueous acid capable of dissolving mineral constituents in the formation. The gelled aqueous acid compositions comprise (a) aqueous hydrochloric acid, and (b) a readily soluble gelling agent. Component (b) contains a sufficient amount of a polyoxyethylene glycol to gel the acid and enough ammonium-, alkali-, or alkaline earth metal bicarbonate or carbonate to cause rapid dissolution and dispersion of the polyoxyethylene glycol in the aqueous hydrochloric acid.

Crowe, C.W.

1984-01-17

189

Acid Rain Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid

Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

190

Acid-Base Equilibria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 9-page PDF document is part of an environmental geochemistry course taught by Dr. David Sherman at the University of Bristol. Topics include acid-base theories, aqueous systems, strong and weak acids and bases, acid-base properties of minerals, the pH of weak acid and buffered systems, and the calculation of titration curves.

David W. Sherman

191

Acid tolerance in amphibians  

SciTech Connect

Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

Pierce, B.A.

1985-04-01

192

Acetylenic acids from mosses.  

PubMed

Two new acetylenic fatty acids, 9, 12-octadecadien-6-ynoic and 11, 14-eicosadien-8-ynoic, were identified from lipids of the moss, Fontinalis antipyretica. They resemble the previously identified 9,12,15-octadecatrien-6-ynoic acid by having a methylene interrupted unsaturated system. The C20 acetylenic acid shows that the capability of mosses to synthesize polyolefinic acids of this chain length applies, in certain species, also to olefinic-acetylenic acids. PMID:1160525

Anderson, W H; Gellerman, J L; Schlenk, H

1975-08-01

193

Acids and Bases (Netorials)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids and Bases: this is a resource in the collection "Netorials". In this module there is an introduction to the chemical properties of acids and bases. Afterwards, the sections include topics such as Molecular Structures of Acids and Bases, Ionization constants, properties of salts, buffers and Lewis theory of Acids and Bases. The Netorials cover selected topics in first-year chemistry including: Chemical Reactions, Stoichiometry, Thermodynamics, Intermolecular Forces, Acids & Bases, Biomolecules, and Electrochemistry.

194

Gating topology of the proton-coupled oligopeptide symporters.  

PubMed

Proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters belong to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of membrane transporters. Recent crystal structures suggest the MFS fold facilitates transport through rearrangement of their two six-helix bundles around a central ligand binding site; how this is achieved, however, is poorly understood. Using modeling, molecular dynamics, crystallography, functional assays, and site-directed spin labeling combined with double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy, we present a detailed study of the transport dynamics of two bacterial oligopeptide transporters, PepTSo and PepTSt. Our results identify several salt bridges that stabilize outward-facing conformations and we show that, for all the current structures of MFS transporters, the first two helices of each of the four inverted-topology repeat units form half of either the periplasmic or cytoplasmic gate and that these function cooperatively in a scissor-like motion to control access to the peptide binding site during transport. PMID:25651061

Fowler, Philip W; Orwick-Rydmark, Marcella; Radestock, Sebastian; Solcan, Nicolae; Dijkman, Patricia M; Lyons, Joseph A; Kwok, Jane; Caffrey, Martin; Watts, Anthony; Forrest, Lucy R; Newstead, Simon

2015-02-01

195

Gating Topology of the Proton-Coupled Oligopeptide Symporters  

PubMed Central

Summary Proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters belong to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of membrane transporters. Recent crystal structures suggest the MFS fold facilitates transport through rearrangement of their two six-helix bundles around a central ligand binding site; how this is achieved, however, is poorly understood. Using modeling, molecular dynamics, crystallography, functional assays, and site-directed spin labeling combined with double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy, we present a detailed study of the transport dynamics of two bacterial oligopeptide transporters, PepTSo and PepTSt. Our results identify several salt bridges that stabilize outward-facing conformations and we show that, for all the current structures of MFS transporters, the first two helices of each of the four inverted-topology repeat units form half of either the periplasmic or cytoplasmic gate and that these function cooperatively in a scissor-like motion to control access to the peptide binding site during transport. PMID:25651061

Fowler, Philip W.; Orwick-Rydmark, Marcella; Radestock, Sebastian; Solcan, Nicolae; Dijkman, Patricia M.; Lyons, Joseph A.; Kwok, Jane; Caffrey, Martin; Watts, Anthony; Forrest, Lucy R.; Newstead, Simon

2015-01-01

196

New bioactive fatty acids.  

PubMed

Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) through 10-hydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid, and racinoleic acid to 7,10,12-trihydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid. DOD showed antibacterial activity including against food-borne pathogens. Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. For example: linoleic acid was converted to12,13-epoxy-9-octadecenoic acid and then to 12,13-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (12,13-DHOA). From here, there are two bioconversion pathways. The major pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,17-trihydroxy-9(S)-octadecenoic acid (THOA) --> 12,17;13,17-diepoxy-16-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (DEOA) --> 7-hydroxy-DEOA. The minor pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,16-THOA --> 12-hydroxy-13,16-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid. 12,13,17-THOA has anti-plant pathogenic fungal activity. The tetrahydrofuranyl moiety is known in anti cancer drugs. Strain ALA2 also converts other n-3 and n-6 PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) to many new oxygenated unsaturated fatty acid products. All of these new products have high potential for antimicrobial agents or biomedical applications. We also screened 12 Mortierella fungal strains from the ARS Culture Collection for the production of bioactive fatty acids such as dihomo-gama-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid. All of the strains tested produced AA and DGLA from glucose or glycerol. The top five AA producers (mg AA/g CDW) were in the following order: M. alpina > M. zychae > M. hygrophila > M. minutissima > M. parvispora. Both AA and DGLA are important natural precursors of a large family of prostaglandin and thromboxane groups. PMID:18296335

Hou, Ching T

2008-01-01

197

Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

2006-01-01

198

Purification of oleic acid and linoleic acid  

SciTech Connect

To permit kinetic studies of the reactivity of unsaturated fatty acids towards oxygen radicals, it is essential to remove traces of hydroperoxides and other conjugated lipid impurities commonly present in commercial samples. Removal of these impurities has been satisfactorily achieved for oleic and linoleic acids by anaerobic low temperature recrystallization from acetonitrile. The uv spectra of commercial and purified samples are compared.

Arudi, R.L.; Sutherland, M.W.; Bielski, B.H.J.

1983-01-01

199

Purification of oleic acid and linoleic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

To permit kinetic studies of the reactivity of unsaturated fatty acids towards oxygen radicals, it is essential to remove traces of hydroperoxides and other conjugated lipid impurities commonly present in commercial samples. Removal of these impurities has been satisfactorily achieved for oleic and linoleic acids by anaerobic low temperature recrystallization from acetonitrile. The uv spectra of commercial and purified samples

R. L. Arudi; M. W. Sutherland; B. H. J. Bielski

1983-01-01

200

Sulfuric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

201

Uric acid - blood  

MedlinePLUS

Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Purines are found in some ... dried beans and peas, and beer. Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys. ...

202

Folic Acid Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

... Global Activities Information For... Media Policy Makers Folic Acid Quiz Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... button beside the question. Good Luck! 1. Folic acid is: A a B vitamin B a form ...

203

Zoledronic Acid Injection  

MedlinePLUS

Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

204

Aminocaproic Acid Injection  

MedlinePLUS

Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

205

Hydrochloric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrocholoric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

206

Acid-fast stain  

MedlinePLUS

The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body ... dye. The slide is then washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria ...

207

Alpha Hydroxy Acids  

MedlinePLUS

... page Home Cosmetics Products & Ingredients Ingredients Alpha Hydroxy Acids See also: Guidance for Industry: Labeling for Cosmetics Containing Alpha Hydroxy Acids The following information is intended to answer questions ...

208

Methylmalonic Acid Test  

MedlinePLUS

... this website will be limited. Search Help? Methylmalonic Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: MMA Formal name: Methylmalonic Acid Related tests: Vitamin B12 and Folate , Homocysteine , Intrinsic ...

209

Aminolevulinic Acid Topical  

MedlinePLUS

Aminolevulinic acid is used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty ... skin cancer) of the face or scalp. Aminolevulinic acid is in a class of medications called photosensitizing ...

210

Carbolic acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... Phenol ... and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2008. Toxicological profile for Phenol. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human ...

211

Lactic acid test  

MedlinePLUS

Lactate test ... test. Exercise can cause a temporary increase in lactic acid levels. ... not getting enough oxygen. Conditions that can increase lactic acid levels include: Heart failure Liver disease Lung disease ...

212

Acid (and Base) Rainbows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use red cabbage juice and pH indicator paper to test the acidity and basicity of household materials. The activity links this concept of acids and bases to acid rain and other pollutants. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

2014-06-27

213

The Acid Rain Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

214

Neutralizing Acids and Bases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use their knowledge of color changes with red cabbage indicator to neutralize an acidic solution with a base and then neutralize a basic solution with an acid. Use this as a follow-up activity to the related activity, "Color Changes with Acids and Bases."

2012-04-08

215

[alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

2010-01-01

216

What Is Acid Rain?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

Likens, Gene E.

2004-01-01

217

Amino acid analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (inventors)

1974-01-01

218

Cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Waunakee, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow; Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2010-11-09

219

Cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2000-01-01

220

Cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2007-12-11

221

Editorial: Acid precipitation  

SciTech Connect

This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

NONE

1995-09-01

222

Nucleic acid detection assays  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

2005-04-05

223

Acetylenic acids from mosses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new acetylenic fatty acids, 9, 12-octadecadien-6-ynoic and 11,14-eicosadien-8-ynoic, were identified from lipids of the\\u000a moss,Fontinalis antipyretica. They resemble the previously identified 9,12,15-octadecatrien-6-ynoic acid by having a methylene interrupted unsaturated\\u000a system. The C20 acetylenic acid shows that the capability of mosses to synthesize polyolefinic acids of this chain length applies, in certain\\u000a species, also to olefinic-acetylenic acids.

W. H. Anderson; J. L. Gellerman

1975-01-01

224

Nucleic acid detection compositions  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

2008-08-05

225

Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid  

DOEpatents

Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

2008-12-02

226

Nucleic acid detection kits  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

2005-03-29

227

[Biosynthesis of adipic acid].  

PubMed

Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production. PMID:24432653

Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

2013-10-01

228

78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0057; FRL-9381-2] Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION:...

2013-04-03

229

Microorganisms for producing organic acids  

DOEpatents

Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

2014-09-30

230

4, 29012944, 2007 Acid deposition,  

E-print Network

short-term re- ductions in stream acidity, particularly base cation dilution and organic acid increasesHESSD 4, 2901­2944, 2007 Acid deposition, climate change and acid extremes C. D. Evans et al. Title System Sciences Effects of decreasing acid deposition and climate change on acid extremes in an upland

Boyer, Edmond

231

THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

232

Acid Rain Learning Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These suggestions for activities allow students to learn about acid deposition in new and interactive ways, both in and out of the classroom. The suggestions are for individuals and small groups, the class as a whole, or for field trips. Students may contact local experts about acid rain issues, investigate the energy sources used to generate electricity by their local power companies, collect cartoons about acid rain and air pollution, or play the roles of scientists or interested parties involved in investigations of acid rain issues. Field trip ideas include visiting a local museum or science center to see exhibits or resources on acid rain, and visiting a local cemetary to examine the effects of acid rain on the headstones.

233

Acid rain on Bermuda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased acidity of precipitation due to combustion of fossil fuels has been well documented for both the eastern USA1 and Canada2. The SO2 and NOxemitted by the burning of coal, natural gas, fuel oil and petrol are oxidized in the atmosphere to sulphuric and nitric acids which subsequently give rise to acid precipitation1. However, the SO2 and NOx emitted, and

Timothy Jickells; Anthony Knap; Thomas Church; James Galloway; John Miller

1982-01-01

234

Excretion of ascorbic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The literature concerning the excretion of ascorbic acid is reviewed and discussed.\\u000a \\u000a Experiments have been carried out and results are given, to show the extent of the marked hourly variations which occur in\\u000a the excretion of ascorbic acid by the kidneys. This variation is present at all physiological ascorbic acid blood levels and\\u000a is not related to the urine pH

J. Deeny; E. T. Murdock; J. J. Rogan

1944-01-01

235

Lactic Acid Bacteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This on-line exercise is focused on lactic acid bacteria, a group of related bacteria that produce lactic acid as a result of carbohydrate fermentation. It includes a protocol for the enrichment of lactic acid bacteria from enriched samples (like yogurt, sauerkraut, decaying plant matter, and tooth plaque). Three parameters are measured: growth, culture diversity, and pH. The exercise also includes instructions for the isolation of some of these bacteria by using the streak-plate method.

236

Recovery of organic acids  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

2009-10-13

237

Recovery of organic acids  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

2011-11-01

238

Acid Rain Students' Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EPA developed this colorful website to teach students all about acid rain. First, through clear descriptions and helpful figures users can learn the characteristics of acid rain, its dangers, and how to control it. The website offers an interactive connect-the-dots, word searches, crossword puzzles, and other games. A short movie provides an overview of how the use of coal contributes to acid rain and acid rain's impacts on ecosystems and human health. The website also offers an introduction to the pH scale and tools to measure the pH.

239

Molecular Structure of Fumaric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fumaric acid is odorless and colorless or white crystalline powder with a fruit acid taste. Fumaric acid is used as a substitute of tartaric acid in beverages and baking powders and as a replacement for citric acid in fruits drinks. It is also used as antioxidant to prevent rancidity in butter, cheese, powdered milk, and other foodstuff. In addition, fumaric acid is a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, synthetic resins and plastics. Fumaric acid can be prepared by catalytic oxidation of benzene or by bacterial action on glucose and it is involved in the production of energy from food. Fumaric acid (known as trans-butanedioic acid) is the trans isomer of maleic acid (also called cis-butanedioic acid). Fumaric acid is more stable than maleic acid and can be prepared by heating maleic acid.

2004-11-05

240

Hydroxybenzoic acids from Boreava orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new guaiacylglycerol ether, threo-guaiacylglycerol-8?-vanillic acid ether, pyrocatechuic acid, pyrocatechuic acid 3-O-?-d-glucoside, gentisic acid, gentisic acid 5-O-?-d-glucoside, vanillic acid and vanillic acid 4-O-?-d-glucoside were identified from fruits of Boreava orientalis. Structural elucidation was carried out on the basis of UV, mass, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data, including 2D shift-correlation and selective INEPT experiments.

Akiyo Sakushima; Maksut Co?kun; Takashi Maoka

1995-01-01

241

Acid in water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plants and animals that live in water create some amount of acid in the water. The carbon dioxide that plants and animals release into the water makes the water acidic and unsafe for living organisms. This is why the water of captive aquatic animals and plants must be changed often.

Laszlo Ilyes (None; )

2007-05-16

242

EXPOSURES TO ACIDIC AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient monitoring of acid aerosol in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. easurements made in Kingston, TN, and Stuebenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m3 more than 10 ti...

243

Controlling acid rain  

E-print Network

High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn the northeastern USA are caused by the large scale combustion of fossil fuels within this region. Average precipitation acidity is pH 4.2, but spatial and temporal ...

Fay, James A.

1983-01-01

244

EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent reviews of available data indicate that precipitation in a large region of North America is highly acidic when its pH is compared with the expected pH value of 5.65 for pure rain water in equilibrium with CO2. A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsib...

245

Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*  

EPA Science Inventory

The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

246

Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids  

EPA Science Inventory

The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

247

Acids in Proteins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson describes how amino acids build proteins in a person's body. Amino acids are the chemical building blocks for the structure of an organism. A link to a quiz is provided at the end of the lesson to check comprehension.

2012-06-19

248

Mutant fatty acid desaturase  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

2004-02-03

249

Urobilinogen AscorbicAcid  

E-print Network

Date Lot # Bilirubin Urobilinogen Ketone AscorbicAcid Glucose Protein Blood pH Nitrite Leukocytes Specific Gravity hCG: Method Lot # Acetest® (Ketone): Lot # Clinitest® (Glucose): Lot # Ictotest®(Bilirubin AND DATA ENTRY FORMS #12;Date Lot # Bilirubin Urobilinogen Ketone AscorbicAcid Glucose Protein Blood p

Rodriguez, Carlos

250

Omega-3 Fatty Acids  

MedlinePLUS

Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

251

Fats and fatty acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

252

Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

Sims, Paul A.

2011-01-01

253

What Causes Acid Rain?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is the formation of acid rain. The resource explains the chemical reaction that begins when compounds like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the air, mix and react with water and other chemicals to form more acidic pollutants that dissolve very easily in water and can be carried long distances where they become part of rain, sleet, snow, and fog.

254

Acid (and Base) Rainbows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the differences between acids and bases and how to use indicators, such as pH paper and red cabbage juice, to distinguish between them. They learn why it is important for engineers to understand acids and bases.

2014-09-18

255

ACID AEROSOLS ISSUE PAPER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report evaluates scientific information on direct health effects associated with exposure to acid aerosols. The present report is not intended as a complete and detailed review of all literature pertaining to acid aerosols. Rather, an attempt has been made to focus on the eva...

256

Bile acid transporters  

PubMed Central

In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OST?-OST?. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

2009-01-01

257

Strong Acids (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Strong Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore the properties of common strong acids. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

258

Acids and Salts (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids and Salts: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore a few properties of common acids and their salts. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

259

Halogenated fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also, chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in

Peter Sundin

1997-01-01

260

Acid Rain Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The results of a long term study of the effects of acidic deposition in the Northeast were published in Bioscience this week, and they suggest that forests, lakes, and streams of the Northeastern US are not recovering from the toxic effects of acid rain despite significant cuts in the power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide -- two major contributors to the problem. "Acid rain," more accurately called acidic deposition, causes toxic forms of aluminum to concentrate in soil and water, vital calcium and magnesium to be leached from trees, and surface waters to become inhospitable to aquatic biota. The study showed that, after 30 years of federally mandated air emission reductions, sulfur dioxide emissions have decreased while nitrogen oxide emissions have remained the same and that acidic deposition-related problems continue to plague New York and New England.

Sanders, Hilary C.

2001-01-01

261

Metabolic fate of oleic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid in cultured hamster hepatocytes.  

PubMed Central

Unlike other saturated fatty acids, dietary stearic acid does not appear to raise plasma cholesterol. The reason for this remains to be established, although it appears that it must be related to inherent differences in the metabolism of the fatty acid. In the present study, we have looked at the metabolism of palmitic acid and stearic acid, in comparison with oleic acid, by cultured hamster hepatocytes. Stearic acid was taken up more slowly and was poorly incorporated into both cellular and secreted triacylglycerol. Despite this, stearic acid stimulated the synthesis and secretion of triacylglycerol to the same extent as the other fatty acids. Incorporation into cellular phospholipid was lower for oleic acid than for palmitic acid and stearic acid. Desaturation of stearic acid, to monounsaturated fatty acid, was found to be greater than that of palmitic acid. Oleic acid produced from stearic acid was incorporated into both triacylglycerol and phospholipid, representing 13% and 6% respectively of the total after a 4 h incubation. Significant proportions of all of the fatty acids were oxidized, primarily to form ketone bodies, but by 8 h more oleic acid had been oxidized compared with palmitic acid and stearic acid. PMID:8670161

Bruce, J S; Salter, A M

1996-01-01

262

Sulfuric Acid on Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

1999-01-01

263

Trans Fatty Acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

Doyle, Ellin

1997-09-01

264

Folic Acid: Data and Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... pregnancy. [ Read article ] Use of Supplements Containing Folic Acid Among Women of Childbearing Age -- United States 2007 ... women of childbearing age: 40% reported taking folic acid daily. 81% reported awareness of folic acid. 12% ...

265

Fatty Acid Carcass Mapping  

E-print Network

positively correlated with the MUFA:SFA ratio. Also, the perception of beef can be influenced by the oleic acid concentration. Because fatty acids have very different melting points, variation in their composition has an important effect on firmness... or softness of the fat in meat, especially the s.c. and i.m. fats (Wood et al., 2003). This can also alter shelf-life depending on the double bonds of the unsaturated fatty acids, whether or not they will oxidize rapidly and become rancid and discolored...

Turk, Stacey N.

2010-01-14

266

Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid  

PubMed Central

A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

1985-01-01

267

Molecular Structure of Gallic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gallic acid is found in its free state and combined with the tannin molecule, from which it can be extracted by the hydrolysis of tannic acid with sulfuric acid. Since one molecule of gallic acid has a carboxylic acid group and hydroxyl groups, it can react with another molecule of gallic acid to form an ester, digallic acid. When heated above 200 degrees C, gallic acid loses carbon dioxide to form pyrogallol (1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene, C6H3(OH)3), which is used in the production of azo dyes, photographic developers, and in laboratories for absorbing oxygen.

2003-05-08

268

Acid-Base Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Website for anyone wanting to become more familiar with the physiology of acid-base balance in clinical medicine. Several pages are interactive. Numerical results are accompanied by text interpretations to facilitate recognition and understanding.

MD Alan W. Grogono (Tulane University School of Medicine Dept. of Anesthesiology)

2002-06-01

269

(Acid rain workshop)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

Turner, R.S.

1990-12-05

270

Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

1989-01-01

271

ACID RAIN CONTROL OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE) both develo...

272

Acid Violence in Pakistan  

E-print Network

Pakistan by the Asian Human Rights Commission. 97 Anwary, Acid Violence and Medical Care; Sexual assaults and rapespakistan-urban-women-get-beaten- by-their-husbands_1663675 Abid, Zehra. “Journalistic ethics: How the media traumatises rape

Zia, Taiba

2013-01-01

273

Polymers for acid thickening  

SciTech Connect

Acids, thickened with branched emulsion or suspension polymers of diallyldimethylammonium chloride are useful as oil well drilling and fracturing fluids for stimulating well production and in other applications, such as thickeners for cosmetics, paints, adhesives, textiles and printing inks.

Dixon, K.W.

1980-09-30

274

Amino Acids and Chirality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

Cook, Jamie E.

2012-01-01

275

Boric Acid Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Boric acid poisoning in 11 infants, occurring in the newborn nursery as a result of the accidental and inadvertent use of 2.5% boric acid in the preparation of the formulae, is reported. Five of the infants died. All except two exhibited the classical symptomatology of acute boric acid poisoning, namely, diarrhea, vomiting, erythema, exfoliation, desquamation of the skin, and marked central nervous system irritation. Early manifestations of poisoning were nonspecific, and one patient died before skin manifestations were noted. Peritoneal dialysis, instituted in nine cases, was found to be the most effective method of treatment. It is recommended that boric acid, which is of doubtful therapeutic value, should be completely removed from hospitals, dispensaries and pharmacopoeias. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:14166459

Wong, L. C.; Heimbach, M. D.; Truscott, D. R.; Duncan, B. D.

1964-01-01

276

Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria, including infections of the ears, lungs, sinus, skin, ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Clavulanic acid is in a class of medications ...

277

Acid-base chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).

Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.

1985-01-01

278

Acid Rain Lesson Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five articulated lessons focus on air quality using classroom and field data collection activities. Case study in Great Smoky Mountains has broader application. Background and data for lessons on: the pH scale, understanding acid vs. base, collecting data, mapping relationship of weather events to acid rain. Links to NPS data on air quality, current values, atlas and reports, packaged datasets on ozone, meteorological conditions and other parameters. Also available: teacher resources; educator workshops.

279

Domoic Acid Fact Sheet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online fact sheet illustrates the transfer of domoic acid through the food web. Domoic acid is a nerve toxin produced by a naturally occurring Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) usually (but not always) of the genus Pseudonitzchia. The sheet explains what to do if you find a sick or dead animal and includes contact information for injured/sick/entangled animal rescue networks in California.

Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary

280

Omega3 Fatty Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research conducted in avians with emphasis on omega (?)-3 fatty acid enrichment of edible meat portions and the use of\\u000a fertilized eggs as a unique model for nutrition research is addressed. In a typical Western diet, over 70% of dietary fat\\u000a is supplied through animal products. Considering the health benefits of ?-3 fatty acids, feeding strategies have been adopted

Gita Cherian

281

Managing bile acid diarrhoea.  

PubMed

Bowel symptoms including diarrhoea can be produced when excess bile acids (BA) are present in the colon. This condition, known as bile acid or bile salt malabsorption, has been under recognized, as the best diagnostic method, the (75)Se-homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) test, is not available in many countries and is not fully utilized in others. Reduced SeHCAT retention establishes that this is a complication of many other gastrointestinal diseases. Repeated studies show SeHCAT tests are abnormal in about 30% of patients otherwise diagnosed as diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome or functional diarrhoea, with an estimated population prevalence of around 1%. Recent work suggests that the condition previously called idiopathic bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is not in fact due to a defect in absorption, but results from an overproduction of BA because of defective feedback inhibition of hepatic bile acid synthesis, a function of the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19). The approach to treatment currently depends on binding excess BA, to reduce their secretory actions, using colestyramine, colestipol and, most recently, colesevelam. Colesevelam has a number of potential advantages that merit further investigation in trials directed at patients with bile acid diarrhoea. PMID:21180614

Walters, Julian R F; Pattni, Sanjeev S

2010-11-01

282

Managing bile acid diarrhoea  

PubMed Central

Bowel symptoms including diarrhoea can be produced when excess bile acids (BA) are present in the colon. This condition, known as bile acid or bile salt malabsorption, has been under recognized, as the best diagnostic method, the 75Se-homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) test, is not available in many countries and is not fully utilized in others. Reduced SeHCAT retention establishes that this is a complication of many other gastrointestinal diseases. Repeated studies show SeHCAT tests are abnormal in about 30% of patients otherwise diagnosed as diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome or functional diarrhoea, with an estimated population prevalence of around 1%. Recent work suggests that the condition previously called idiopathic bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is not in fact due to a defect in absorption, but results from an overproduction of BA because of defective feedback inhibition of hepatic bile acid synthesis, a function of the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19). The approach to treatment currently depends on binding excess BA, to reduce their secretory actions, using colestyramine, colestipol and, most recently, colesevelam. Colesevelam has a number of potential advantages that merit further investigation in trials directed at patients with bile acid diarrhoea. PMID:21180614

Walters, Julian R. F.; Pattni, Sanjeev S.

2010-01-01

283

Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

1989-01-01

284

Original article Acid stress susceptibility and acid adaptation  

E-print Network

microor- ganisms. Fermentation of lactose by lactic acid bacteria in dairy products, in particular, leads to the accumulation of the end-product lactic acid. Furthermore, bacteria provided in fermented food are exposedOriginal article Acid stress susceptibility and acid adaptation of Propionibacterium freudenreichii

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

285

CONVERSION OF OLEIC ACID TO BRANCHED-CHAIN FATTY ACIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oleic acid and linoleic acid are the most abundant fatty acids of cottonseed oil. As part of a project to develop new value-added industrial applications for cottonseed oil (such as biodiesel, fuel additives, and lubricants), studies were conducted in the synthetic conversion of oleic acid to branc...

286

What is Acid Rain? Explore the Acid Lake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acid rain is a type of air pollution that occurs when certain chemicals mix with water in the air. Most chemicals that cause acid rain come from the emissions from factories and cars. Acid rain looks just like 'normal' rain but when it falls, it can hurt plants and animals. For example, when acid rain falls into a lake or river, it makes that body of water more acidic. Many plants and animals cannot live in acidic water. Play this game, from Earth Day Canada's EcoKids program, to learn more about acid rain and its impact on the environment.

Earth Day Canada

2010-01-01

287

DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID AND ARACHIDONIC ACID PREVENT ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID DEFICIENCY AND HEPATIC STEATOSIS  

PubMed Central

Objectives Essential fatty acids are important for growth, development, and physiologic function. Alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid are the precursors of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid, respectively, and have traditionally been considered the essential fatty acids. However, we hypothesized that docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid can function as the essential fatty acids. Methods Using a murine model of essential fatty acid deficiency and consequent hepatic steatosis, we provided mice with varying amounts of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids to determine whether exclusive supplementation of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids could prevent essential fatty acid deficiency and inhibit or attenuate hepatic steatosis. Results Mice supplemented with docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids at 2.1% or 4.2% of their calories for 19 days had normal liver histology and no biochemical evidence of essential fatty acid deficiency, which persisted when observed after 9 weeks. Conclusion Supplementation of sufficient amounts of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids alone without alpha-linolenic and linoleic acids meets essential fatty acid requirements and prevents hepatic steatosis in a murine model. PMID:22038210

Le, Hau D.; Meisel, Jonathan A.; de Meijer, Vincent E.; Fallon, Erica M.; Gura, Kathleen M.; Nose, Vania; Bistrian, Bruce R.; Puder, Mark

2012-01-01

288

Atmospheric Dust and Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why is acid rain still an environmental problem in Europe and North America despite antipollution reforms? The answer really is blowing in the wind: atmospheric dust. These airborne particles can help neutralize the acids falling on forests, but dust levels are unusually low these days. In the air dust particles can neutralize acid rain. What can we do about acid

Lars O. Hedin; Gene E. Likens

1996-01-01

289

Malvalic Acid and its Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

SOME of the properties of a biologically active C18 fatty acid isolated from Malva verticillata and M. parviflora have been reported1. The name `malvalic' acid is now proposed for this acid, which was previously referred to as ``Halphen acid'' because it gave rise to the Halphen colour test.

J. J. Macfarlane; F. S. Shenstone; J. R. Vickery

1957-01-01

290

Molecular Structure of Malonic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Propanedioic acid is a dibasic carboxylic acid that was first synthesized by oxidizing malic acid in 1858 by a scientist named Dessaigne. Naturally, propandioic acid is found in apples. This chemical is relatively unstable and has few uses, but its ester derivative, diethyl malonate, is used to synthesize useful compounds such as barbiturates, flavors, fragrances, and vitamins (B1 and B6).

2002-10-10

291

Pelargonic acid weed control parameters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Producers and researchers are interested in pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid) as a broad-spectrum post-emergence or burn-down herbicide. Pelargonic acid is a fatty acid naturally occurring in many plants and animals, and present in many foods we consume. The objective of this research was to determine...

292

Ursodeoxycholic acid, 7-ketolithocholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid are primary bile acids of the nutria (Myocastor coypus).  

PubMed

Because ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids are interconverted in humans via 7-ketolithocholic acid, bile acid metabolism was studied in the nutria (Myocastor coypus), the bile of which is known to contain these three bile acids. Relative concentrations of ursodeoxycholic (37% +/- 20%), 7-ketolithocholic (33% +/- 17%), and chenodeoxycholic (17% +/- 9%) acids in gallbladder bile were unchanged by 5-20 h of complete biliary diversion (n = 7). Injection of either [14C]cholesterol, [14C]ursodeoxycholic, [14C]7-ketolithocholic acid, or a mixture of [7 beta-3H]chenodeoxycholic acid and [14C]chenodeoxycholic acid into bile fistula nutria demonstrated that all three bile acids can be synthesized hepatically from cholesterol, that they are interconverted sparingly (2%-5%) by the liver, but that 7-ketolithocholic acid is an intermediate in the hepatic transformation of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid. An animal that had been fed antibiotics showed an unusually elevated concentration of ursodeoxycholic acid in gallbladder and hepatic bile, suggesting that bacterial transformation of ursodeoxycholic acid in the intestine may be a source of some biliary chenodeoxycholic acid and 7-ketolithocholic acid. PMID:3943698

Tint, G S; Bullock, J; Batta, A K; Shefer, S; Salen, G

1986-03-01

293

Molecular Structure of Succinic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Succinic acid is an odorless and colorless crystal, triclinic or monoclinic prism with a very acid taste. Succinic acid is one of the natural acids found in broccoli, rhubarb, beets, asparagus, fresh meat extracts, sauerkraut and cheese. It is also a constituent of almost all plant and animal tissues and plays an important role in intermediary metabolism. Succinic acid is produced commercially by catalytic hydrogenation of maleic or fumaric acid or by acid hydrolysis of succinonitrile. Succinic acid is used in flavoring for food and beverages, and in the manufacture of lacquers, dyes, esters for perfumes, succinates, in photography and in foods as a sequestrant, buffer and neutralizing agent. Succinic acid has uses in certain drug compounds and in agricultural production. An interesting fact, succcinic acid has also been found in meteorites.

2004-11-11

294

Domoic acid epileptic disease.  

PubMed

Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

Ramsdell, John S; Gulland, Frances M

2014-03-01

295

Analysis of Bile Acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bile acids constitute a large family of steroids in vertebrates, normally formed from cholesterol and carrying a carboxyl group in a side-chain of variable length. Bile alcohols, also formed from cholesterol, have similar structures as bile acids, except for the absence of a carboxyl group in the steroid skeleton. The conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and/or bile alcohols is of major importance for maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis, both from quantitative and regulatory points of view (Chiang, 2004; Kalaany and Mangelsdorf, 2006; Moore, Kato, Xie, et al., 2006; Scotti, Gilardi, Godio, et al., 2007). Appropriately conjugated bile acids and bile alcohols (also referred to as bile salts) are secreted in bile and serve vital functions in the absorption of lipids and lipid-soluble compounds (Hofmann, 2007). Reliable analytical methods are required for studies of the functions and pathophysiological importance of the variety of bile acids and bile alcohols present in living organisms. When combined with genetic and proteomic studies, analysis of these small molecules (in today's terminology: metabolomics, steroidomics, sterolomics, cholanoidomics, etc.) will lead to a deeper understanding of the integrated metabolic processes in lipid metabolism.

Sjövall, Jan; Griffiths, William J.; Setchell, Kenneth D. R.; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi

296

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Nekimken, Howard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carey, W. Patrick (Lynnwood, WA); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

1997-01-01

297

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

1997-07-22

298

Science Shorts: Understanding Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You may have heard acid rain mentioned as an environmental problem. It doesn't mean that a strong chemical is raining from the sky. The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. However, a small change in how acidic precipitation is can have a profound effect. This month's activity will help students understand the effect of acid rain on buildings and statues.

Kathleen Damonte

2004-11-01

299

Acid rain degradation of nylon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain, precipitation with a pH less than 5.6, is known to damage lakes, vegetation and buildings. Degradation of outdoor textiles by acid rain is strongly suspected but not well documented. This study reports the effects of sunlight, aqueous acid, heat and humidity (acid rain conditions) on spun delustered nylon 6,6 fabric. Untreated nylon and nylon treated with sulfuric acid

Kyllo

1984-01-01

300

Molecular Structure of Citric Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Citric Acid was first isolated in 1734 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Citric acid is found in many fruits, in particular lemons, grapefruit, and oranges. Several types of bacteria and fungi are also known to produce citric acid. In fact, the fungus Aspergillus niger produces the vast majority of citric acid, which is used in almost all carbonated sodas. Additionally, citric acid is also used to clean stainless steel.

2002-08-13

301

49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities...greater concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as...

2013-10-01

302

49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities...greater concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as...

2011-10-01

303

49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities...greater concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as...

2014-10-01

304

49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities...greater concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as...

2012-10-01

305

A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid  

SciTech Connect

An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

2010-05-03

306

Acid neutralizing capacity, alkalinity, and acid-base status of natural waters containing organic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terms acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and alkalinity (Alk) are extensively employed in the characterization of natural waters, including soft circumneutral or acidic waters. However, in the presence of organic acids, ANC measurements are inconsistent with many conceptual definitions of ANC or Alk and do not provide an adequate characterization of the acid-base chemistry of water. Knowledge of Gran ANC

Harold F. Hemond

1990-01-01

307

The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

2012-01-01

308

Sequential injection redox or acid–base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to

Narong Lenghor; Jaroon Jakmunee; Michael Vilen; Rolf Sara; Gary D Christian; Kate Grudpan

2002-01-01

309

Acid rain in Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

1992-07-01

310

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject...

2011-07-01

311

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject...

2012-07-01

312

Enantiomeric separation of amino acids and nonprotein amino acids using a particle-loaded  

E-print Network

Enantiomeric separation of amino acids and nonprotein amino acids using a particle acids and three nonprotein amino acids are derivatized with the fluorogenic reagent 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2 liquid chromatography (HPLC). Keywords: Amino acid / Nonprotein amino acid / Capillary

Zare, Richard N.

313

[Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].  

PubMed

Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination. PMID:20649031

Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

2010-06-01

314

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics  

PubMed Central

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented. PMID:24966721

Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

2013-01-01

315

Acid Deposition Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will design an apparatus and carry out tests of fossil fuels to determine their impact on acid deposition by placing a small amount of a fossil fuel on a cotton puff and burning it to measure if acidic compounds are given off. Students will provide a diagram of their collection device and describe how it should function. Students will then draw a map showing the location of their precipitation collector and develop a graph or chart based on the results they have collected.

316

Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

1992-11-01

317

Lactic acid bacterial cell factories for gamma-aminobutyric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid that is widely present in organisms. Several important physiological functions\\u000a of gamma-aminobutyric acid have been characterized, such as neurotransmission, induction of hypotension, diuretic effects,\\u000a and tranquilizer effects. Many microorganisms can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid including bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Among\\u000a them, gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria have been a focus of research in recent

Haixing Li; Yusheng Cao

2010-01-01

318

Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

1992-01-01

319

Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters  

DOEpatents

A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

2003-06-24

320

Molecular Structure of Aspartic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aspartate was first isolated in 1868 from legumin in plant seeds. Aspartic acid forms colorless crystals that are soluble in water and insoluble in alcohols and ethers. This is a naturally occurring nonessential amino acid that is produced in the liver from oxaloacetic acid, but is plentiful in meats and sprouting seeds. The amino acid is important in the Krebs cycle as well as the urea cycle, where it is vital in the elimination of dietary waste products. Aspartic acid is required for stamina, brain and neural health. This acid has been found to be important in the functioning of ribonucleic acid (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and in the production of immunoglobin and antibody synthesis. A deficiency of aspartate will lead to fatigue and depression. Aspartic acid has many uses that include biological and clinical studies, preparation of culture media, and it also functions as a detergent, fungicide, germicide, and metal complexation.

2002-08-20

321

Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake  

PubMed Central

Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. In summary, the data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease. PMID:22531947

Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J.; Forman, Barry M.; Stahl, Andreas

2012-01-01

322

Acid Mine Drainage Remediation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, an environmental technologist visits an abandoned coal mine in Kentucky to talk about how a remediation system (a series of settling ponds and treatment cells) is neutralizing the acid drainage flowing from the mine and keeping it from damaging a creek downstream.

2010-12-10

323

The Acid Rain Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for…

Bybee, Rodger; And Others

1984-01-01

324

Federal Acid Rain Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal environmental policy, designed to control acid rain, is shaped after the hierarchy of the system, and is controlled simultaneously by regional and central governments. Each governmental level controls one of two policy instruments: pollution abatement production and pollution tax. In a two-stage game where regional governments are Stackelberg leaders and control pollution taxes, the subgame perfect equilibrium is socially

Arthur J. Caplan; Emilson C. D. Silva

1999-01-01

325

The Acid Rain Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

1982-01-01

326

Acid Rain Classroom Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

Demchik, Michael J.

2000-01-01

327

The Acid Rain Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

1997-01-01

328

Acid Rain Investigations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

Hugo, John C.

1992-01-01

329

Acid rain bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography identifies 900 citations on various aspects of Acid Rain, covering published bibliographies, books, reports, conference and symposium proceedings, audio visual materials, pamphlets and newsletters. It includes five sections: citations index (complete record of author, title, source, order number); KWIC index; title index; author index; and source index. 900 references.

Sayers, C.S.

1983-09-01

330

Effects of Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides links to information on the potential damage caused to the environment by acid rain. An introductory paragraph briefly describes the damage to lakes and streams, building materials, and monuments. Each link access additional information on these topics: surface waters and aquatic animals, forests, automotive coatings, soluble building materials such as marble or limestone, atmospheric haze, and human health effects.

331

Basically Acidic Ink  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students hypothesize whether vinegar and ammonia-based glass cleaner are acids or bases. They create designs on index cards using these substances as invisible inks. After the index cards have dried, they apply red cabbage juice as an indicator to reveal the designs.

2014-09-18

332

Acid rain abatement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of obtaining acid rain abatement from a flue gas containing nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulfur oxides (SOX). It comprises the steps of treating the flue gas with a reducing agent to remove the remaining oxygen and produce an effluent, the reducing agent being selected from group consisting of natural gas, methane, a mixture of CO

1991-01-01

333

Docosahexaenoic acid and lactation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important component of membrane phospholipids in the retina, and brain, and accumulates rapidly in these tissues during early infancy. DHA is present in human milk, but the amount varies considerably and is largely dependent on maternal diet. This article reviews dat...

334

ACID AEROSOL MEASUREMENT WORKSHOP  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the discussion and results of the U.S. EPA Acid Aerosol Measurement Workshop, conducted February 1-3, 1989, in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. t was held in response to recommendations by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) regarding ...

335

Brain amino acid sensing.  

PubMed

The 20 different amino acids, in blood as well as in the brain, are strictly maintained at the same levels throughout the day, regardless of food intake. Gastric vagal afferents only respond to free glutamate and sugars, providing recognition of food intake and initiating digestion. Metabolic control of amino acid homeostasis and diet-induced thermogenesis is triggered by this glutamate signalling in the stomach through the gut-brain axis. Rats chronically fed high-sugar and high-fat diets do not develop obesity when a 1% (w/v) monosodium glutamate (MSG) solution is available in a choice paradigm. Deficiency of the essential amino acid lysine (Lys) induced a plasticity in rats in response to Lys. This result shows how the body is able to identify deficient nutrients to maintain homeostasis. This plastic effect is induced by activin A activity in the brain, particularly in certain neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) which is the centre for amino acid homeostasis and appetite. These neurons respond to glutamate signalling in the oral cavity by which umami taste is perceived. They play a quantitative role in regulating ingestion of deficient nutrients, thereby leading to a healthier life. After recovery from malnutrition, rats prefer MSG solutions, which serve as biomarkers for protein nutrition. PMID:25200295

Tsurugizawa, T; Uneyama, H; Torii, K

2014-09-01

336

Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid  

EPA Science Inventory

The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given sin...

337

Synthesis of (+)-Coronafacic Acid  

PubMed Central

An enantioselective synthesis of (+)-coronafacic acid has been achieved. Rhodium catalyzed cyclization of an ?-diazoester provided the intermediate cyclopentanone in high enantiomeric purity. Subsequent Fe-mediated cyclocarbonylation of a derived alkenyl cyclopropane gave a bicyclic enone, that then was hydrogenated and carried on to the natural product. PMID:19231870

Taber, Douglass F.; Sheth, Ritesh B.; Tian, Weiwei

2009-01-01

338

Plant fatty acid hydroxylase  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related to the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

2000-02-22

339

Plant fatty acid hydroxylase  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2000-01-01

340

Fatty acid-producing hosts  

DOEpatents

Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

2013-12-31

341

Acidizing of Sandstone Reservoirs Using HF and Organic Acids  

E-print Network

Mud acid, which is composed of HCl and HF, is commonly used to remove the formation damage in sandstone reservoirs. However, many problems are associated with HCl, especially at high temperatures. Formic-HF acids have served as an alternative...

Yang, Fei

2012-10-19

342

Sonochemical Esterification of Carboxylic Acids in Presence of Sulphuric Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mild and convenient method for the sonochemical esterif ication of aliphatic, aroma tic, ?,?-unsaturated, mono-and di-carboxylic acids in presence of catalytic amounts of sulphuric acid has been reported.

Jitender M. Khurana; Prabhat K. Sahoo; Golak C. Maikap

1990-01-01

343

Recovery of Carboxylic Acids from Fermentation Broth via Acid Springing  

E-print Network

RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM FERMENTATION BROTH VIA ACID SPRINGING A Thesis by JIPENG DONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2008 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM FERMENTATION BROTH VIA ACID SPRINGING A Thesis by JIPENG DONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

Dong, Jipeng

2010-01-14

344

Fatty acid selectivity of lipases: ?-linolenic acid from borage oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ?-linolenic acid (Z,Z,Z-6,9,12-octadecatrienoic acid, GLA) present in borage oil free fatty acids was concentrated in esterification reactions that\\u000a were catalyzed by several preparations of the acyl-specific lipase ofGeotrichum candidum. In this manner, a 95% recovery of the GLA originally present in borage oil (25% GLA) was obtained as a highly enriched fatty\\u000a acid fraction with a GLA content of

Thomas A. Foglia; Philip E. Sonnet

1995-01-01

345

Boswellic acid inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells  

PubMed Central

Background Boswellic acid is a type of triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Sphingomyelin metabolism generates multiple lipid signals affecting cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Upregulation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase) has been found in several inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Methods The present study is to examine the effect of 3-acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acids (AKBA), a potent boswellic acid, on acid SMase activity and expression in intestinal cells. Both transformed Caco-2 cells and non-transformed Int407 cells were incubated with AKBA. After incubation, the change of acid SMase activity was assayed biochemically, the enzyme protein was examined by Western blot, and acid SMase mRNA was quantified by qPCR. Results We found that AKBA decreased acid SMase activity in both intestinal cell lines in dose and time dependent manners without affecting the secretion of the enzyme to the cell culture medium. The effect of AKBA was more effective in the fetal bovine serum-free culture medium. Among different types of boswellic acid, AKBA was the most potent one. The inhibitory effect on acid SMase activity occurred only in the intact cells but not in cell-free extract in the test tubes. At low concentration, AKBA only decreased the acid SMase activity but not the quantity of the enzyme protein. However, at high concentration, AKBA decreased both the mass of acid SMase protein and the mRNA levels of acid SMase in the cells, as demonstrated by Western blot and qPCR, respectively. Under the concentrations decreasing acid SMase activity, AKBA significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Conclusion We identified a novel inhibitory effect of boswellic acids on acid SMase expression, which may have implications in human diseases and health. PMID:19951413

2009-01-01

346

Bile acids. LXVII. The major bile acids of Varanus monitor.  

PubMed

The major bile acids of gall bladder bile of Varanus monitor have been separated by thin-layer chromatography and shown to be derivatives of taurine. After alkaline hydrolysis, the free acids were separated by thin-layer and partition chromatography. Identification or characterization of the free acids was facilitated by gas-liquid chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectometry of the methyl esters or methyl ester-trimethylsilyl ethers. About 13% of the total bile acids was represented by the C24 acids cholic, deoxycholic, allocholic, chenodeoxycholic, and 12-oxo-3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acids, of which cholic acid constituted about 50%. The remainder of the bile acids consisted of eight C27 acids of which varanic acid was the major constituent; an isomer of varanic acid and 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid were also identified. By chromatographic behavior and mass spectral fragmentation, the structures of four C27 acids with unsaturated side chains were elucidated as follows: 3 alpha, 7 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholest-23-enoic, 3 alpha, 7 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholest-24-enoic, 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholest-23-enoic, and 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholest-24-enoic acids. Similarly, the structure of the 12-deoxy analog of varanic acid, 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 24 xi-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid, was suggested for the component that constituted 7% of the total. PMID:7142816

Ali, S S; Stephenson, E; Elliott, W H

1982-09-01

347

Transformation of some hydroxy amino acids to other amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been observed that ß-hydroxy-a-amino acids are transformed into other amino acids, when heated in dilute solutions with phosphorous acid, phosphoric acid or their ammonium salts. It has been shown that as in the case of previously reported glycine-aldehyde reactions, glycine also reacts with acetone to give ß-hydroxyvaline under prebiologically feasible conditions. It is suggested, therefore, that the formation

A. S. U. Choughuley; A. S. Subbaraman; Z. A. Kazi; M. S. Chadha

1975-01-01

348

Transformation of some hydroxy amino acids to other amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been observed that beta-hydroxy-alpha-amino acids are transformed into other amino acids, when heated in dilute solutions with phosphorous acid, phosphoric acid or their ammonium salts. It has been shown that as in the case of previously reported glycine-aldehyde reactions, glycine also reacts with acetone to give beta-hydroxyvaline under prebiologically feasible conditions. It is suggested, therefore, that the formation

A. S. U. Choughuley; A. S. Subbaraman; Z. A. Kazi; M. S. Chadha

1975-01-01

349

Thiobarbituric Acid Spray Reagent for Deoxy Sugars and Sialic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENTLY, new sensitive assays have been reported for deoxy sugars1, 2-keto,3-deoxy sugar acids2-4, and sialic acids5,6. In these assays, the products of periodate oxidation, malonaldehyde from deoxy sugars and beta-formylpyruvic acid from the latter two groups of compounds, are coupled with 2-thiobarbituric acid to produce a bright red chromophore. I wish to report an adaptation of these methods for spraying

Leonard Warren

1960-01-01

350

Boric/sulfuric acid anodize - Alternative to chromic acid anodize  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The suitability of boric acid/sulfuric acid anodizing (BSAA) solution as a more environmentally acceptable replacement of the chromic acid anodizing (CAA) solution was investigated. Results include data on the BSAA process optimization, the corrosion protection performance, and the compatibility with aircraft finishing. It is shown that the BSSA implementation as a substitude for CAA was successful.

Koop, Rodney; Moji, Yukimori

1992-04-01

351

Circulating folic acid in plasma: relation to folic acid fortification  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The implementation of folic acid fortification in the United States has resulted in unprecedented amounts of this synthetic form of folate in the American diet. Folic acid in circulation may be a useful measure of physiologic exposure to synthetic folic acid, and there is a potential for elevated co...

352

Acid placement and coverage in the acid jetting process  

E-print Network

Many open-hole acid treatments are being conducted by pumping acid through jetting ports placed at the end of coiled tubing or drill pipe. The filter-cake on the bore-hole is broken by the jet; the acid-soluble material is dissolved, creating...

Mikhailov, Miroslav I.

2009-05-15

353

Acid Placement in Acid Jetting Treatments in Long Horizontal Wells  

E-print Network

In the Middle East, extended reach horizontal wells (on the order of 25,000 feet of horizontal displacement) are commonly acid stimulated by jetting acid out of drill pipe. The acid is jetted onto the face of the openhole wellbore as the drill pipe...

Sasongko, Hari

2012-07-16

354

College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

2011-01-01

355

Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

McCormick, John

356

Molecular Structure of Maleic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maleic acid is colorless to white crystals with a faint acidulous odor and a characteristic repulsive, astringent taste. Maleic acid is used in making polyesters, surface coatings, lubricant additives, agricultural chemicals and paint vehicles. It is used in organic synthesis of fumaric acid, succinic, aspartic, tartaric, propionic, lactic, malonic, acrylic and hydrocarylic acids. Maleic acid and its anhydride are prepared industrially by the catalytic oxidation of benzene. Maleic acid may be released into waste water during its production and used in the manufacture of polymer products. Dust of maleic acid is irritating to the eyes, nose and throat. The general population is exposed to maleic acid in areas with heavy traffic since it is found in aerosols from auto exhaust.

2004-11-10

357

Molecular Structure of Glutaric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Glutaric acid is a colorless liquid and white crystals as a solid occurring in plants and animal tissues. It is used in organic synthesis and as an intermediate for the manufacture of polymers such as polyamides and polyesters, ester plasticizers and corrosion inhibitors. It is also useful in the application of decreasing polymer elasticity and in a variety of industrial applications. In addition glutaric acid plays an important role as an intermediary in the Krebs cycle and is used in medication against a large number of viruses and in animal diabetes. Glutaric acid can be prepared from cyclopentanone by oxidative ring fission with nitric acid and in the presence of a catalyst. Glutaric acid has the lowest melting point among dicarboxylic acids (98 C); it is very soluble in water and the solution in water is a medium strong acid. Short-term exposure to glutaric acid may cause irritation to the eyes, skin and the respiratory tract.

2004-11-10

358

Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)  

MedlinePLUS

Pantothenic acid is a vitamin, also known as vitamin B5. It is widely found in both plants and animals ... Vitamin B5 is commercially available as D-pantothenic acid, as well as dexpanthenol and calcium pantothenate, which ...

359

Molecular Structure of Sulfuric Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

H2SO4 was discovered by alchemists and made from heating a compound of iron sulfate. In 1740, sulfuric acid was produced for commercial sale. Sulfuric acid is a very strong acid which is used in car batteries. The acid disassociates in water to give two protons and sulfate. This acid can destroy flesh and cause blindness. It was discovered in the 19th century that adding sulfuric acid to soil produces phosphorus, which is beneficial to plants; hence, sulfuric acid is used as a fertilizer in the form of super phosphate and ammonium sulfate. Sulfuric acid is also used to refine petroleum and process metals, and is found in paints and car batteries.

2002-08-15

360

Omega-3 fatty acids (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

361

Acid rain: Reign of controversy  

SciTech Connect

Acid Rain is a primer on the science and politics of acid rain. Several introductory chapters describe in simple terms the relevant principles of water chemistry, soil chemistry, and plant physiology and discuss the demonstrated or postulated effects of acid rain on fresh waters and forests as well as on statuary and other exposed objects. There follow discussions on the economic and social implications of acid rain (for example, possible health effects) and on the sources, transport, and distribution of air pollutants.

Kahan, A.M.

1986-01-01

362

Molecular Structure of Octanoic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Caprylic acid is a colorless oil manufactured from 1-heptene or 1-octanol. Octanoic acid has an unpleasant rancid taste. When converted from the carboxlic acid to an ester, it has a pleasant taste. In addition, esters of caprylic acid are used in the preparation of dyes, perfumes, and food preservatives. This compound has also been found to have antifungal activity and is used to treat yeast infections.

2002-10-11

363

Molecular Structure of Trimesic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Trimesic Acid is made up of a benzene ring with three carboxylic groups at the 1, 3, and 5 positions, and it can be synthesized from the oxidation of 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene. The acid is an important building block in crystal engineering which is used to form honeycomb structures, but it has the ability to form diverse supramolecular structures. Also, trimesic acid salt and the free trimesic acid are useful as a plasticizer.

2003-05-08

364

Molecular Structure of Acetic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acetic Acid commonly associated with vinegar; it is the most commercially important organic acid and is used to manufacture a wide range of chemical products, such as plastics and insecticides. Acetic acid is produced naturally by Aceto bacteria but, except for making vinegar, is usually made through synthetic processes. Ethanoic acid is used as herbicide, as a micro-biocide, as a fungicide and for pH adjustment.

2003-06-02

365

Enviropedia: Introduction to Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides information about acid rain, a widespread term used to describe all forms of acid precipitation. The sources, nature, and chemistry of acid rain are discussed, along with its impact on buildings, soils, freshwater lakes, trees, and wildlife. Other topics include measuring, modeling, and monitoring acid rain; and vehicle and industrial emission controls. The problem of airborne pollutants migrating across international borders is also discussed.

366

Cationic lysine uptake by System R+ and zwitterionic lysine uptake by System B in brush border membrane vesicles from larval Manduca sexta midgut.  

PubMed

Lysine uptake was studied at pH 7.4 and 10.0 by rapid filtration methods in brush border membrane vesicles from fifth instar larvae of a model insect, the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, sphingidae). At both pH values the uptake was mediated by K+ coupled symport. The uptake rate increased between pH 5.5 and 10, especially so in the alkaline range. The total lysine uptake could be divided into two components based upon lysine's ionic form as a function of pH. Lysine uptake at pH 7.4 was strongly cis-inhibited by arginine but at pH 10 was cis-inhibited and trans-stimulated by many neutral amino acids, e.g. leucine, but not by arginine. Lysine uptake by the arginine-inhibitable component paralleled the titration curve of cationic lysine whereas uptake by the leucine-inhibitable component paralleled that of zwitterionic lysine. Evidently, the brush border membrane contains at least two separate, K(+)-dependent amino acid symporters (co-transporters) that mediate lysine uptake. A cationic amino acid:K+ symporter selects cationic lysine and arginine but not histidine and other amino acids. One or more zwitterionic amino acid:K+ symporters select zwitterionic lysine, possibly arginine, histidine and neutral amino acids. Based upon these substrate repertoires, the zwitterionic symporters are B-type systems whereas the cationic symporter is identical with System R+, which partially resembles System y+. Arginine uptake in vivo is likely to be mediated mainly by System R+ whereas lysine uptake is likely to be mediated by System B-type symporters. PMID:8679657

Liu, Z; Harvey, W R

1996-06-13

367

Acid rain abatement  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of obtaining acid rain abatement from a flue gas containing nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulfur oxides (SOX). It comprises the steps of treating the flue gas with a reducing agent to remove the remaining oxygen and produce an effluent, the reducing agent being selected from group consisting of natural gas, methane, a mixture of CO and hydrogen derived from steam, hydrocarbon, and hydrogen, passing effluent over a catalyst to simultaneously reduce the NOX to water and elemental nitrogen and the SOX to H{sub 2}S or elemental sulfur, the catalyst being selected from the group consisting of heteropoly acids and their salts, the reduction of the NOX and SOX taking place in a temperature range of 200{degrees} - 900{degrees} C., and removing the sulfur or sulfur compounds from the reduced flue gas to thereby remove essentially all of the NOX and SOX.

Stiles, A.B.

1991-06-11

368

Acid hydrolysis of cellulose  

SciTech Connect

One of the alternatives to increase world production of etha nol is by the hydrolysis of cellulose content of agricultural residues. Studies have been made on the types of hydrolysis: enzimatic and acid. Data obtained from the sulphuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose showed that this process proceed in two steps, with a yield of approximately 95% glucose. Because of increases in cost of alternatives resources, the high demand of the product and the more economic production of ethanol from cellulose materials, it is certain that this technology will be implemented in the future. At the same time further studies on the disposal and reuse of the by-products of this production must be undertaken.

Salazar, H.

1980-12-01

369

Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".  

PubMed

The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent. PMID:3758667

Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

1986-01-01

370

A ACID RAIN Audrey Gibson  

E-print Network

A ACID RAIN Audrey Gibson ATOC 3500 Thursday, April 29, 2010 #12;CAUSES Natural sources - volcanoes Thursday, April 29, 2010 #12;ON WILDLIFE Acid rain causes acidification of lakes and streams and contributes to damage of trees at high elevations. Acid rain primarily affects sensitive bodies of water

Toohey, Darin W.

371

An Umbrella for Acid Rain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

Randal, Judith

1979-01-01

372

Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid (Aspirin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment was to synthesize acetylsalicylic acid via an esterification reaction between salicylic acid and acetic anhydride. The product was recrystallized using 95% ethanol. This percent yield of this synthesized product was 68.4%. Using ethanol again as a recrystallizing solvent, acetylsalicylic acid was also extracted from commercial aspirin tablets. This commercial product did not have a percent

Jamie Yeadon; Leah Monroe

373

Do We Need Gastric Acid?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from comparative anatomy and physiology studies indicates that gastric acid secretion developed during the evolution of vertebrates approximately 350 million years ago. The cellular mechanisms that produce gastric acid have been conserved over the millennia and therefore proton pump inhibitors have pharmacological effects in almost all relevant species. These observations suggest that gastric acid provides an important selective advantage;

D. Pohl; M. Fox; M. Fried; B. Göke; C. Prinz; H. Mönnikes; G. Rogler; M. Dauer; J. Keller; F. Lippl; I. Schiefke; U. Seidler; H. D. Allescher

2008-01-01

374

Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas  

DOEpatents

Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

2014-07-01

375

New politics of acid rain  

SciTech Connect

The acid rain problem is not nationwide across the USA but the politicians want to spread the cost of emission reductions. An overview of acid rain and its environmental impacts is given, and a cost-benefit analysis of acid rain control is outlined. USA policies are discussed. 6 references.

Trisko, E.M.

1983-07-01

376

Molecular Structure of Carbonic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The hypothetical acid formed with carbon dioxide and water; it is only in the H2CO3 form when in solution. This acid is found in everyday products, the most prominent of which include carbonated beverages. The conversion of carbonic acid into water and carbon dioxide in sodas is the reason the beverage looses the bubbling.

2002-09-10

377

Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process  

DOEpatents

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

1995-05-02

378

Biotechnological production of pyruvic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyruvic acid is an important organic acid widely used in the chemical and drug, as well as agrochemical, industries. Compared with the chemical method, biotechnological production of pyruvic acid is an alternative approach because of the low cost. An overview of biotechnological production of pyruvate, including direct fermentative production employing eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms, production by a resting cell method

Y. Li; J. Chen; S.-Y. Lun

2001-01-01

379

Nucleic Acids Molecular Biology Tools  

E-print Network

Nucleic Acids Proteins Molecular Biology Tools Molecular Biology and Genomics Weigang Qiu Weigang Qiu Molecular Biology and Genomics #12;Nucleic Acids Proteins Molecular Biology Tools Outline 1 Nucleic Acids 2 Proteins 3 Molecular Biology Tools Weigang Qiu Molecular Biology and Genomics #12;Nucleic

Qiu, Weigang

380

Acid rain in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to\\u000a the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging\\u000a perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in

Neeloo Bhatti; David G. Streets; Wesley K. Foell

1992-01-01

381

Acid Rain Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners conduct a simple experiment to model and explore the harmful effects of acid rain (vinegar) on living (green leaf and eggshell) and non-living (paper clip) objects. Learners observe the effects over a period of days. This activity has links to other activities which can be combined to make a larger lesson. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

Amy Kolenbrander

2004-01-01

382

Iron amino acid chelates.  

PubMed

Iron amino acid chelates, such as iron glycinate chelates, have been developed to be used as food fortificants and therapeutic agents in the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Ferrous bis-glycine chelate (FeBC), ferric tris-glycine chelate, ferric glycinate, and ferrous bis-glycinate hydrochloride are available commercially. FeBC is the most studied and used form. Iron absorption from FeBC is affected by enhancers and inhibitors of iron absorption, but to a lesser extent than ferrous sulfate. Its absorption is regulated by iron stores. FeBC is better absorbed from milk, wheat, whole maize flour, and precooked corn flour than is ferrous sulfate. Supplementation trials have demonstrated that FeBC is efficacious in treating iron deficiency anemia. Consumption of FeBC-fortified liquid milk, dairy products, wheat rolls, and multi-nutrient beverages is associated with an improvement of iron status. The main limitations to the widespread use of FeBC in national fortification programs are the cost and the potential for promoting organoleptic changes in some food matrices. Additional research is required to establish the bioavailability of FeBC in different food matrices. Other amino acid chelates should also be evaluated. Finally there is an urgent need for more rigorous efficacy trials designed to define the relative merits of amino acid chelates when compared with bioavailable iron salts such as ferrous sulfate and ferrous fumarate and to determine appropriate fortification levels PMID:15743019

Hertrampf, Eva; Olivares, Manuel

2004-11-01

383

Exposures to acidic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m/sup 3/ more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H+ determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr H+ concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/m/sup 3/ (approximately 27 micrograms/m/sup 3/ H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/m/sup 3/ for H+ ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H+ ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ exceeded 50 micrograms/m/sup 3/.

Spengler, J.D.; Keeler, G.J.; Koutrakis, P.; Ryan, P.B.; Raizenne, M.; Franklin, C.A.

1989-02-01

384

Exposures to acidic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H(+) ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/cu m more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H(+) determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr (H+) concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/cu m (approximately 27 microgram/cu m H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/cu m for H(+) ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H(+) ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} exceeded 50 microgram/cu m.

Spengler, J.D.; Keeler, G.J.; Koutrakis, P.; Ryan, P.B.; Raizenne, M.

1989-01-01

385

Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration. PMID:19560175

Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hücherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

2009-01-01

386

Composition for nucleic acid sequencing  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

Korlach, Jonas (Ithaca, NY); Webb, Watt W. (Ithaca, NY); Levene, Michael (Ithaca, NY); Turner, Stephen (Ithaca, NY); Craighead, Harold G. (Ithaca, NY); Foquet, Mathieu (Ithaca, NY)

2008-08-26

387

Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2002-01-01

388

Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

1999-01-01

389

The politics of acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This work examines and compares the acid rain policies through the different political systems of Canada, Great Britain and the United States. Because the flow of acid rain can transcend national boundaries, acid rain has become a crucial international problem. According to the author, because of differences in governmental institutions and structure, the extent of governmental intervention in the industrial economy, the degree of reliance on coal for power generation, and the extent of acid rain damage, national responses to the acid rain problem have varied.

Wilcher, M.E. (Pennsylvania State Univ., New Kensington, PA (US))

1989-01-01

390

Acid precipitation: causes and consequences  

SciTech Connect

Acid precipitation has been associated with industrial and automotive emissions of sulfur oxides - principally sulfur dioxide and, to a lesser extent, sulfur trioxide - and nitric oxide and nitrogen oxide. All forms of fossil fuel combustion, particularly that produced by the internal combustion engines emit nitrogen oxides. In addition, smelters and coal-fired electric power plants are the primary source of sulfur oxides. Since U.S. coals may also contain as much as 0.65 percent chlorine, hydrochloric acid plays a minor role in acid precipitation. In addition to the causes of acid precipitation, long distant transport of these pollutants is discussed along with the environmental impacts of acid precipitation. (JMT)

Babich, H. (Environmental Law Inst., Washington, DC); Davis, D.L.; Stotzky, G.

1980-05-01

391

Molecular Structure of Benzoic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Benzoic acid is a medium-strong acid found in human foods such as berries, and is used as a plasticizer, insecticide, fungicide, an antifungal agent and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. It is more hydrophobic, water fearing, in comparison with other carboxylic acids and therefore can be extracted easily from all types of solvents. This acid is slightly soluble in water and has a melting point of 122 degrees Celsius. Benzoic acid is industrially manufactured from toluene, benzotrichloride and phthalic anhydride. It is purified by the process of sublimation, and the extremely pure form is used as a titrimetric and calorimetric standard in analytical chemistry.

2003-05-08

392

Molecular Structure of Adipic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Adipic acid is odorless and colorless white crystals or powder with a sour taste. Adipic acid is used primarily in the manufacture of nylon-6,6 polyamide and polyester polyols for polyurethane systems. It is also used for raw materials in pharmaceuticals, perfume fixatives, acidulants, leavening and buffering agents in non-alcoholic beverages, gelatins and puddings. In addition, adipic acid is used in manufacturing plasticizers and lubricants components. It is slightly soluble in water and soluble in alcohol and acetone. Adipic acid can be prepared from acetylene and acetic acid in the presence of tert-butyl peroxide. It has been manufactured from either cyclohexane or phenol.

2004-11-09

393

Acid Rain Experiments: Soil Buffering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment will help students understand that soil sometimes contains substances, like limestone, that buffer acids or bases, and that some salts in soil may also act as buffers. They will collect soil samples from their lawn, garden, or school and look for buffering effects by observing the pH change of an acid mixture poured through the samples. If the water collected from the sample is less acidic than the original mixture, then the soil is buffering some of the acid. If it does not change, then the soil may not be capable of buffering acids.

394

Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

1983-01-01

395

Amino acids in Arctic aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids and quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (< 0.49 ?m) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanic emissions.

Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

2012-11-01

396

Amino acids in Arctic aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids to quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (<0.49 ?m) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanics.

Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

2012-07-01

397

Molecular Structure of Picric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Picric Acid was first discovered in 1771 by a British Chemist named Peter Woulfe by treatment of indigo with nitric acid. It is most commonly seen in its yellow, water-soluble, crystalline form. For this reason, picric acid first saw use as a dyeing agent in textiles. However, around 1849 it was discovered (for obvious reasons) that picric acid is a shock, heat, and friction-sensitive explosive. Its first use as an explosive material came in military weaponry: torpedoes in particular due to its shock-sensitive nature not requiring a detonator to explode on contact with a target. However, picric acid was found to be highly corrosive to metals, making the weapons very difficult to handle and the acid itself difficult to store. Today, picric acid is used more widely as an ingredient in the manufacture of inert dyes and stable explosives such as dynamite.

2002-09-23

398

Molecular Structure of Sorbic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sorbic acid is a colorless or white crystalline powder, with a weak characteristic odor and slightly acidic taste. It may be obtained from berries of the mountain ash or prepared synthetically by condensing crotonaldehyde and malonic acid in pyridine solution. Sorbic acid is a polyunsaturated fat used to inhibit molds and yeast, is a fungistatic agent for foods (especially cheeses, wine and baked goods). The main use of sorbic acid is as a preservative in foods, animal feeds, tobacco, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, as well in packing materials for these substances and in other products that come in contact with human or animal skin in some way. Sorbic acid is also used as an intermediate for plasticizers and lubricants. Sorbic acid reacts with potassium to make potassium sorbate and with calcium to make calcium sorbate.

2004-11-11

399

Citric Acid, Pyruvic Acid, Homologs, and Related Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report three new classes of meteoritic organic compounds: keto acids, hydroxy tricarboxylic acids, and tricarboxylic acids. Some of the compounds, such as pyruvic acid and citric acid, are at the core of intermediary metabolism.

Cooper, G.; Reed, C.; Nguyen, D.; Carter, M.; Wang, Y.

2011-03-01

400

21 CFR 184.1061 - Lactic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Lactic acid. (a) Lactic acid (C3 H6 O3 , CAS...chemical 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, occurs naturally in...commercially either by fermentation of carbohydrates such...subsequent hydrolysis to lactic acid. (b)...

2012-04-01

401

21 CFR 184.1007 - Aconitic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1,2,3-propenetricarboxylic acid (C6 H6 O6 ), CAS Reg...other Ranunculaceae. Transaconitic acid can be isolated during sugarcane...molasses. It may be synthesized by sulfuric acid dehydration of citric acid,...

2011-04-01

402

21 CFR 184.1007 - Aconitic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...1,2,3-propenetricarboxylic acid (C6 H6 O6 ), CAS Reg...other Ranunculaceae. Transaconitic acid can be isolated during sugarcane...molasses. It may be synthesized by sulfuric acid dehydration of citric acid,...

2012-04-01

403

21 CFR 184.1007 - Aconitic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...1,2,3-propenetricarboxylic acid (C6 H6 O6 ), CAS Reg...other Ranunculaceae. Transaconitic acid can be isolated during sugarcane...molasses. It may be synthesized by sulfuric acid dehydration of citric acid,...

2014-04-01

404

21 CFR 184.1097 - Tannic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1097 Tannic acid. (a) Tannic acid (CAS Reg. No. 1401-55-4), or hydrolyzable...complex polyphenolic organic structure that yields gallic acid and either glucose or quinic acid as...

2010-04-01

405

Increased formation of ursodeoxycholic acid in patients treated with chenodeoxycholic acid.  

PubMed Central

The formation of ursodeoxycholic acid, the 7 beta-hydroxy epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid, was investigated in three subjects with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis and in four subjects with gallstones. Total biliary bile acid composition was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography before and after 4 months of treatment with 0.75 g/day of chenodeoxycholic acid. Individual bile acids were identified by mass spectrometry. Before treatment, bile from cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) subjects contained cholic acid, 85%; chenodeoxycholic acid, 7%; deoxycholic acid, 3%; allocholic acid, 3%; and unidentified steroids, 2%; while bile from gallstone subjects contained cholic acid, 45%; chenodeoxycholic acid, 43%; deoxycholic acid, 11%, and lithocholic acid, 1%. In all subjects, 4 months of chenodeoxycholic acid therapy increased the proportion of this bile acid to approximately 80% and decreased cholic acid to 3% of the total biliary bile acids, the remaining 17% of bile acids were identified as ursodeoxycholic acid. After the intravenous injection of [3H]chenodeoxycholic acid, the specific activity of biliary ursodeoxycholic acid exceeded the specific activity of chenodeoxycholic acid, and the resulting specific activity decay curves suggested precursor-product relationships. When [3H]7-ketolithocholic acid was administrated to another patient treated with chenodeoxycholic acid, radioactivity was detected in both the ursodeoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid fractions. These results indicate that substantial amounts of ursodeoxycholic acid are formed in patients treated with chenodeoxycholic acid. The ursodeoxycholic acid was synthesized from chenodeoxycholic acid presumably via 7-ketolithocholic acid. Images PMID:11344576

Salen, G; Tint, G S; Eliav, B; Deering, N; Mosbach, E H

1974-01-01

406

Vibrational structure of the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid studied by infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectroscopic discrimination of the two structurally similar polyunsaturated C 20 fatty acids (PUFAs) 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) is shown. For this purpose their vibrational structures are studied by means of attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The fingerprint regions of the recorded spectra are found to be almost identical, while the C-H stretching mode regions around 3000 cm -1 show such significant differences as results of electronic and molecular structure alterations based on the different degree of saturation that both fatty acids can be clearly distinguished from each other.

Kiefer, Johannes; Noack, Kristina; Bartelmess, Juergen; Walter, Christian; Dörnenburg, Heike; Leipertz, Alfred

2010-02-01

407

Corals on Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this inquiry-based lesson is for learners to gain an understanding of how increasing ocean acidity can affect the calcification of marine organisms. During this activity, learners: (1) design an experiment to quantify the CaCO3 concentration of two invertebrate skeletal samples, one that has been soaked in normal seawater and another in a low pH solution, and (2) use critical thinking and discussion to evaluate possible explanations for the difference in the skeletal CaCO3 compositions. This lesson plan includes a post-activity demonstration, which shows how the dissolution of CO2 into the ocean lowers pH.

Casey L. Boleman

2013-01-01

408

GROUP SELECTIVITY OF ETHOXYLATION OF HYDROXY ACIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the ethoxylation of two hydroxy acids was undertaken to determine if there was any group selectivity of ethoxylation. The hydroxy acids chosen for study were 12-hydroxystearic and lactic acid. Standard ethoxylation reactions were carried out using one mole of ethylene oxide to one mole of each hydroxy acid. Unlike typical fatty acids or alcohols, 12- hydroxystearic acid

Anthony J. O'Lenick; JEFF K. PARKINSON

409

Background on Net Acid or ARD Potential  

E-print Network

acid generating and the amount of acid is determined by titration and expressed in the same units01-1 Background on Net Acid or ARD Potential GARD Guide Section 5.4.10 Types of Tests · Acid Base Accounting (ABA) ­ Measures net acid potential through independent determination of acid generating

Boisvert, Jeff

410

Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 x 10(exp -4) Torr H2O and 1-2.5 x 10(exp -6) Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

1994-01-01

411

Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films  

SciTech Connect

Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 [times] 10[sup [minus]4] Torr H[sub 2]O and 1-2.5 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] Torr HNO[sub 3]) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. FTIR spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO[sub 3]/H[sub 2]O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H[sub 2]SO[sub 4] films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

Iraci, L.T.; Middlebrook, A.M.; Wilson, M.A.; Tolbert, M.A. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States))

1994-05-15

412

Electrolytic nature of aqueous sulfuric acid. 2. Acidity.  

PubMed

In part 1 of this study, I reported that the Debye-Hückel limiting law and the smaller-ion shell (SiS) model of strong electrolyte solutions fit nicely with the experimental mean ionic activity coefficient (?(±)) of aqueous sulfuric acid as a function of concentration and of temperature when the acid is assumed to be a strong 1-3 electrolyte. Here, I report that the SiS-derived activity coefficient of H(+), ?(H(+)), of the 1-3 acid is comparable to that of aqueous HCl. This agrees with titration curves showing, as well-known, that sulfuric acid in water is parallel in strength to aqueous HCl. The calculated pH is in good accord with the Hammett acidity function, H(0), of aqueous sulfuric acid at low concentration, and differences between the two functions at high concentration are discussed and explained. This pH-H(0) relation is consistent with the literature showing that the H(0) of sulfuric acid (in the 1-9 M range) is similar to those of HCl and the other strong mineral monoprotic acids. The titration of aqueous sulfuric acid with NaOH does not agree with the known second dissociation constant of 0.010 23; rather, the constant is found to be ~0.32 and the acid behaves upon neutralization as a strong diprotic acid practically dissociating in one step. A plausible reaction pathway is offered to explain how the acid may transform, upon base neutralization, from a dissociated H(4)SO(5) (as 3H(+) and HSO(5)(3-)) to a dissociated H(2)SO(4) even though the equilibrium constant of the reaction H(+) + HSO(5)(3-) ? SO(4)(2-) + H(2)O, at 25 °C, is 10(-37) (part 1). PMID:22924595

Fraenkel, Dan

2012-09-27

413

Kinetics of aluminum-fulvic acid complexation in acidic waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluorescence technique has been used to study the complex formation kinetics of aluminum with a single metal-free fulvic acid isolated from an Adirondack Mountain forest soil. In the pH range of 3.0-4.5, two kinetically distinguishable components of the fulvic acid mixture have been identified, which define two types of average aluminum binding sites. Both fulvic acid average sites conform

Brian J. Plankey; Howard H. Patterson

1987-01-01

414

Carboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 90 CARBOXYLIC ACID UNKNOWN  

E-print Network

, and the hydroxide runs out, you won't get full dissolving. · NaHCO3/H2O: An acid-base reaction should lead to solution, but the other unique thing is that acid-base protonation of bicarbonate leads to CO2 bubbles the # of moles of base used. Since the mole/mole stoichiometry is 1 mole of base per 1 mole of acid

Jasperse, Craig P.

415

Biophysical Properties of Phenyl Succinic Acid Derivatised Hyaluronic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modification of hyaluronic acid (HA) with aryl succinic anhydrides results in new biomedical properties of HA as compared\\u000a to non-modified HA, such as more efficient skin penetration, stronger binding to the skin, and the ability to blend with hydrophobic\\u000a materials. In the present study, hyaluronic acid has been derivatised with the anhydride form of phenyl succinic acid (PheSA).\\u000a The fluorescence

Maria Teresa Neves-Petersen; Søren Klitgaard; Esben Skovsen; Steffen B. Petersen; Kristoffer Tømmeraas; Khadija Schwach-Abdellaoui

2010-01-01

416

Nucleic Acid Detection Methods  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Yaar, Ron (Brookline, MA); Szafranski, Przemyslaw (Boston, MA); Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA)

1998-05-19

417

Nucleic acid detection methods  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

1998-05-19

418

Cryoprotection from lipoteichoic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous chemical additives lower the freezing point of water, but life at sub-zero temperatures is sustained by a limited number of biological cryoprotectants. Antifreeze proteins in fish, plants, and insects provide protection to a few degrees below freezing. Microbes have been found to survive at even lower temperatures, and with a few exceptions, antifreeze proteins are missing. Survival has been attributed to external factors, such as the high salt concentration of brine veins and adhesion to particulates or ice crystal defects. We have discovered an endogenous cryoprotectant in the cell wall of bacteria, lipoteichoic acid biopolymers. Adding 1% LTA to bacteria cultures immediately prior to freezing provides 50% survival rate, similar to the results obtained with 1% glycerol. In the absence of an additive, bacterial survival is negligible as measured with the resazurin cell viability assay. The mode of action for LTA cryoprotection is unknown. With a molecular weight of 3-5 kDa, it is unlikely to enter the cell cytoplasm. Our observations suggest that teichoic acids could provide a shell of liquid water around biofilms and planktonic bacteria, removing the need for brine veins to prevent bacterial freezing.

Rice, Charles V.; Middaugh, Amy; Wickham, Jason R.; Friedline, Anthony; Thomas, Kieth J.; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm; Garimella, Ravindranth

2012-10-01

419

Acid rain degradation of nylon  

SciTech Connect

Acid rain, precipitation with a pH less than 5.6, is known to damage lakes, vegetation and buildings. Degradation of outdoor textiles by acid rain is strongly suspected but not well documented. This study reports the effects of sunlight, aqueous acid, heat and humidity (acid rain conditions) on spun delustered nylon 6,6 fabric. Untreated nylon and nylon treated with sulfuric acid of pH 2.0, 3.0, and 4.4 were exposed to light in an Atlas Xenon-arc fadeometer at 63/sup 0/C and 65% R.H. for up to 640 AATCC Fading Units. The untreated and acid treated nylon fabrics were also exposed to similar temperature and humidity condition without light. Nylon degradation was determined by changes in breaking strength, elongation, molecular weight, color, amino end group concentration (NH/sub 2/) and /sup 13/C NMR spectra. Physical damage was assessed using SEM.

Kyllo, K.E.

1984-01-01

420

Molecular Structure of Phosphoric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phosphoric acid was first made in 1774 by K.W. Scheele and J.G. Gahn from bone ash. Phosphoric acid is made by treating calcium phosphate rock with sulfuric acid, followed by filtration. It is by this process that almost 10 tons of phosphoric acid are produced in the United States each year. The compound is primarily used to manufacture some pharmaceutical products, fertilizers and as a flavoring agent in coca-cola. The steel industry uses it to clean and rust-proof their steel. Phosphoric acid is also used in the process of soil stabilization, and as a catalyst in the production of propylene and butene polymers, ethylbenzene, and cumene. In recent years though the industry has moved away from using phosphoric acid as a ingredient in detergents because of the harmful effect that Phosphates have on lakes a process called lake eutrophication.

2002-09-10

421

Molecular Structure of Butyric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

n-Butyric acid is a substance that was isolated from butter in 1869. Butyric acid means, in Latin, the acid of butter as it was first discovered in rancid butter. It is found most commonly in butter, but can also be present in some fruits. Butyric acid is also produced synthetically, through fermentation of various carbohydrates, to be used as a flavoring agent in various food products. Applications of butyric acid are as an additive to food, flavorings, varnishes, perfumes, pharmaceuticals and disinfectants. It is also used for the production of plastics, plasticizers, surfactants and textile auxiliaries. Butyric acid and its derivatives are also being seriously considered around the world as potential anticancer agents.

2002-10-11

422

Molecular Structure of (+-)-Malic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Malic acid, along with lots of other natural acids, was discovered by Karl Wilhem Scheele. Malic acid is a naturally occurring substance in many fruits and plants, however its richest source is apples, which is why it is sometimes referred to as apple acid . It is blended with multiple food acids, sugars, high intensity sweeteners, flavors, and seasonings to create unique tastes in foods, beverages, and confections. It has also been found that Malic acid may help with reducing the effects of Alzheimer s disease by reducing the levels of aluminum and magnesium in the body. Also, it has been recommended as a supplement for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, as it is known to improve energy production.

2002-10-10

423

Molecular Structure of Salicylic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salicylic acid is a colorless to white crystalline powder with a sweetish acrid taste that occurs naturally in many microorganisms and plants in very small amounts. It is also made synthetically and used as preservative of food products in some countries and as an antiseptic in mouthwashes and toothpastes. This chemical is also used in the manufacture of methyl salicylates, acetylasalicylic acid (aspirin) and other salicylates. Salicylic acid is a chemical intermediate in the synthesis of dyestuff, salicylate esters and salts. It is prepared commercially by heating sodium phenolate (the sodium salt of phenol) with carbon dioxide under pressure to form sodium salicylate, which is treated with sulfuric acid to liberate salicylic acid. Salicylic acid is quite irritating to skin and mucosa and it destroys epithelial cells. Absorption of large amounts can cause vomiting, abdominal pain, acidosis and mental disturbances.

2004-11-11

424

Aqueous Ozonation Of Fatty Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactivity of a series of fatty acids toward ozone was examined in aqueous solution at low substrate concentration (?g.L range). Saturated fatty acids were unreactive, unsaturated fatty acids were readily consumed. A number of reaction products or their methylated derivatives were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The products identified are consistent with a 1,3-dipolar cyclo-addotion reaction.

G. Reynolds; C. Corless; N. Graham; R. Perry; T. M. Gibson; J. Haley

1989-01-01

425

Waste acid detoxification and reclamation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are generated during metal-finishing operations used in nuclear fuel fabrication; HF-HNOâ, HNOâ, and HNOâ-HâSOâ wastes result from Zr etching, Cu stripping, and chemical milling of

T. M. Brouns; T. L. Stewart

1988-01-01

426

All-trans retinoic acid regulates hepatic bile acid homeostasis.  

PubMed

Retinoic acid (RA) and bile acids share common roles in regulating lipid homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. In addition, the receptor for RA (retinoid x receptor) is a permissive partner of the receptor for bile acids, farnesoid x receptor (FXR/NR1H4). Thus, RA can activate the FXR-mediated pathway as well. The current study was designed to understand the effect of all-trans RA on bile acid homeostasis. Mice were fed an all-trans RA-supplemented diet and the expression of 46 genes that participate in regulating bile acid homeostasis was studied. The data showed that all-trans RA has a profound effect in regulating genes involved in synthesis and transport of bile acids. All-trans RA treatment reduced the gene expression levels of Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1, and Akr1d1, which are involved in bile acid synthesis. All-trans RA also decreased the hepatic mRNA levels of Lrh-1 (Nr5a2) and Hnf4? (Nr2a1), which positively regulate the gene expression of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1. Moreover, all-trans RA induced the gene expression levels of negative regulators of bile acid synthesis including hepatic Fgfr4, Fxr, and Shp (Nr0b2) as well as ileal Fgf15. All-trans RA also decreased the expression of Abcb11 and Slc51b, which have a role in bile acid transport. Consistently, all-trans RA reduced hepatic bile acid levels and the ratio of CA/CDCA, as demonstrated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The data suggest that all-trans RA-induced SHP may contribute to the inhibition of CYP7A1 and CYP8B1, which in turn reduces bile acid synthesis and affects lipid absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25175738

Yang, Fan; He, Yuqi; Liu, Hui-Xin; Tsuei, Jessica; Jiang, Xiaoyue; Yang, Li; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

2014-10-15

427

Molecular Structure of Propionic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Propanoic acid was named after the Greek word "Pro" for first and "pion" for fat, because it is the first fatty acid. It is a liquid and has a slightly pungent odor that can be characterized as rancid. Sweat, milk, and fermentation products all contain small amounts of this chemical. It can be synthesized from ethanol or ethylene and carbon monoxide. The calcium salt of propanoic acid is used as an antimolding agent and is an additive in breads. Esters of this carboxylic acid have a pleasant smell and taste and are used in the manufacture of fruit flavors and perfume bases. This compound is also found in a herbicide, called Silverado.

2002-10-11

428

Molecular Structure of Lauric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lauric acid was first discovered in lauraceae seeds by Marsson T in 1849. The highest content of lauric acid is found in a mother's breast milk and lauraceae seeds. It is used in foods such as vegetable shortenings as a defoaming agent and industrially as a booster for soaps and detergents. Also it is used in cosmetics, insecticides, and food additives. Additionally, Lauric acid is a medium chain fatty acid, which forms monolaurin in the human or animal body. This compound is an antiviral, antibacterial, and antiprotozoal monoglyceride that destroys lipid coated viruses such as HIV, herpes, cytomegalovirus, and influenza.

2002-10-11

429

Acidic gas capture by diamines  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

Rochelle, Gary (Austin, TX); Hilliard, Marcus (Missouri City, TX)

2011-05-10

430

A Simpler Nucleic Acid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been supposed that for a nucleic acid analog to pair with RNA it must, like RNA, have a backbone with at least a sixatom repeat; a shorter backbone presumably would not stretch far enough to bind RNA properly. The Eschenmoser group has shown, however, that this first impression is incorrect.As they report in their new paper, Eschenmoser and co-workers ( I ) have now synthesized a substantial number of these polymers, which are called (L)-a-threofuranosyl oligonucleotides or TNAs. They are composed of bases linked to a threose sugar-phosphate backbone, with phosphodiester bonds connecting the nucleotides. The investigators discovered that pairs of complementary TNAs do indeed form stable Watson-Crick double helices and, perhaps more importantly, that TNAs form stable double helices with complementary RNAs and DNAs.

Orgel, Leslie

2000-01-01

431

Acid rain on acid soil: a new perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain is widely believed to be responsible for acidifying soil and water in areas of North America and northern Europe. However, factors commonly considered to make landscapes susceptible to acidification by acid rain are the same factors long known to strongly acidify soils through the natural processes of soil formation. Recovery from extreme and widespread careless land use has

E. C. Krug; C. R. Frink

1983-01-01

432

Peptidases and amino acid catabolism in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of peptides to free amino acids and their subsequent utilization is a central metabolic activity in prokaryotes. At least 16 peptidases from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been characterized biochemically and\\/or genetically. Among LAB, the peptidase systems of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactococcus lactis have been examined in greatest detail. While there are homologous enzymes common to both systems,

Jeffrey E. Christensen; Edward G. Dudley; Jeffrey A. Pederson; James L. Steele

1999-01-01

433

No Potassium, No Acid: K+ Channels and Gastric Acid Secretion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The gastric H+-K+-ATPase pumps H+ into the lumen and takes up K+ in parallel. In the acid-producing parietal cells, luminal KCNE2/KCNQ1 K+ channels play a pivotal role in replenishing K+ in the luminal fluid. Inactivation of KCNE2/KCNQ1 channels abrogates gastric acid secretion and dramatically modifies the architecture of gastric mucosa.

2007-10-01

434

The acid-base reactions of the ?-hydroxypiperidinecarboxylic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Ionization constants have been determined for the ß-hydroxypyridinecarboxylic acids and their ethyl esters.2.It has been shown that these acids can exist in various forms in aqueous solution, depending on the pH, and conditions for the transition from one of these forms to another have been marked out.

B. A. Korolev; L. G. Stolyarova; L. D. Smirnov; K. M. Dyumaev

1979-01-01

435

Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in Lepidopteran caterpillars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in Noctuid as well as Sphingid caterpillar oral secretions and especially volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-Glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants...

436

Capturing a sulfenic acid with arylboronic acids and benzoxaborole.  

PubMed

Post-translational redox generation of cysteine-sulfenic acids (Cys-SOH) functions as an important reversible regulatory mechanism for many biological functions, such as signal transduction, balancing cellular redox states, catalysis, and gene transcription. Herein we show that arylboronic acids and cyclic benzoxaboroles can form adducts with sulfenic acids in aqueous medium and that these boron-based compounds can potentially be used to trap biologically significant sulfenic acids. As proof of principle we demonstrate that a benzoxaborole can inhibit the enzyme activity of an iron-containing nitrile hydratase, which requires a catalytic ?Cys114-SOH in the active site. The nature of the adduct and the effect of the boronic acid's pK(a)(B) on the stability constant of the adduct are discussed within. PMID:24050501

Liu, C Tony; Benkovic, Stephen J

2013-10-01

437

A comparison of chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of federal and state mandates restricting the use of hexavalent chromium, it was deemed worthwhile to compare the corrosion protection afforded 2219-T87 aluminum alloy by both Type I chromic acid and Type II sulfuric acid anodizing per MIL-A-8625. Corrosion measurements were made on large, flat 2219-T87 aluminum alloy sheet material with an area of 1 cm(exp 2) exposed to a corrosive medium of 3.5-percent sodium chloride at pH 5.5. Both ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the dc polarization resistance techniques were employed. The results clearly indicate that the corrosion protection obtained by Type II sulfuric acid anodizing is superior, and no problems should result by substituting Type II sulfuric acid anodizing for Type I chromic acid anodizing.

Danford, M. D.

1992-01-01

438

Docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid supplementation alter rat skeletal muscle fatty acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6, DPAn-6) are highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, ? 20 carbons, ? 3 double bonds) that differ by a single carbon-carbon double bond at the ?19 position. Membrane 22:6n-3 may support skeletal muscle function through optimal ion pump activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum and electron transport in the mitochondria. Typically n-3 fatty

Ken D Stark; Sun-Young Lim; Norman Salem Jr

2007-01-01

439

Artificial rearing with docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid alters rat tissue fatty acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6; 22:5n-6) are components of enriched animal feed and oil derived from Schizochytrium species microalgae. A one generation, artificial rearing model from day 2 after birth onward (AR) and a dam-reared control group (DAM) were used to examine DPAn-6 feeding on the fatty acid composition of various rat tissues at 15 weeks

Ken D. Stark; Sun-Young Lim; Norman Salem

2007-01-01

440

Production of Succinic Acid from Citric Acid and Related Acids by Lactobacillus Strains  

PubMed Central

A number of Lactobacillus strains produced succinic acid in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth to various extents. Among 86 fresh isolates from fermented cane molasses in Thailand, 30 strains (35%) produced succinic acid; namely, 23 of 39 Lactobacillus reuteri strains, 6 of 18 L. cellobiosus strains, and 1 of 6 unidentified strains. All of 10 L. casei subsp. casei strains, 5 L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strains, 6 L. mali strains, and 2 L. buchneri strains did not produce succinic acid. Among 58 known strains including 48 type strains of different Lactobacillus species, the strains of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. parvus produced succinic acid to the same extent as the most active fresh isolates, and those of L. alimentarius, L. collinoides, L. farciminis, L. fructivorans (1 of 2 strains tested), L. malefermentans, and L. reuteri were also positive, to lesser extents. Diammonium citrate in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth was determined as a precursor of the succinic acid produced. Production rates were about 70% on a molar basis with two fresh strains tested. Succinic acid was also produced from fumaric and malic acids but not from dl-isocitric, ?-ketoglutaric, and pyruvic acids. The present study is considered to provide the first evidence on the production of succinic acid, an important flavoring substance in dairy products and fermented beverages, from citrate by lactobacilli. PMID:16347795

Kaneuchi, Choji; Seki, Masako; Komagata, Kazuo

1988-01-01

441

On the acidity and reactivity of highly effective chiral Brønsted acid catalysts: establishment of an acidity scale.  

PubMed

Stronger acid, higher speed: The pKa ?values of a range of binol-derived Brønsted acids of three different types were measured and found to correlate directly with the catalytic properties of the acids: higher rate constants kI were observed for more acidic Brønsted acid catalysts (see plot; binol=1,1'-bi-2-naphthol). PMID:24039083

Kaupmees, Karl; Tolstoluzhsky, Nikita; Raja, Sadiya; Rueping, Magnus; Leito, Ivo

2013-10-25

442

Synthesis of l-(+)-Tartaric Acid from l-Ascorbic Acid via 5-Keto-d-Gluconic Acid in Grapes  

PubMed Central

5-Keto-l-idionic acid (?5-keto-d-gluconic acid, d-xylo-5-hexulosonic acid) was found as a metabolic product of l-ascorbic acid in slices of immature grapes, Vitis labrusca L. cv `Delaware'. Specifically labeled compounds, recognized as metabolic products of l-ascorbic acid in grapes, were fed to young grape tissues to investigate the metabolic pathway from l-ascorbic acid to l-(+)-tartaric acid. Label from dehydro-l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid, 2-keto-l-[1-14C]idonic acid (l-xylo-2-hexulosonic acid), l-[1-14C]idonic acid, or 5-keto-l-[1-14C] idonic acid was incorporated into l-(+)-tartaric acid in high yields as it was in the l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid experiment. In a double label experiment involving a mixture of l-[1-14C]idonic acid and l-[2-3H]idonic acid, the 3H/14C ratios of 5-keto-l-idonic acid and l-(+)-tartaric acid synthesized in young grape leaves were almost the same as the value of the l-idonic acid fed. Label from 5-keto-l-[6-14C]idonic acid was incorporated into sugars and insoluble residue in the same way as l-[6-14C]ascorbic acid was metabolized in grapes. These results provide strong evidence that in grapes l-(+)-tartaric acid is synthesized from the C4 fragment that corresponds to the C1 to C4 group of the 5-keto-l-idonic acid derived from l-ascorbic acid via 2-keto-l-idonic acid and l-idonic acid. PMID:16663792

Saito, Kazumi; Kasai, Zenzaburo

1984-01-01

443

Acid Tests and Basic Fun.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores acids and bases using different indicators, such as turmeric, purple grape juice, and lichens. Because some of these indicators are not as sensitive as cabbage juice or litmus paper, determining to which acids and bases each indicator is sensitive presents an enjoyable, problem-solving challenge for students. Presents directions for…

McBride, John W.

1995-01-01

444

Acid rain & electric utilities II  

SciTech Connect

This document presents reports which were presented at the Acid Rain and Electric Utilities Conference. Topics include environmental issues and electric utilities; acid rain program overview; global climate change and carbon dioxide; emissions data management; compliance; emissions control; allowance and trading; nitrogen oxides; and assessment. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

NONE

1997-12-31

445

Acid Rain: An Educational Opportunity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with how educators can handle the subject of acid rain; illustrates suggestions with experiences of grade nine students visiting Frost Valley Environmental Education Center (Oliverea, New York) to learn scientific concepts through observation of outdoor phenomena, including a stream; and discusses acid rain, pH levels, and pollution control…

Marion, James I.

1984-01-01

446

Acid Rain: The Scientific Challenge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documents the workings and findings of the Massachusetts Acid Rain Monitoring Project, which has pooled the volunteer efforts of more than 1,000 amateur and professional scientists since 1983. Reports on the origins of air pollution, the prediction of acid rain, and its effects on both water life and land resources. (JJK)

Godfrey, Paul J.

1991-01-01

447

The Acid Rain Differential Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers an acid rain differential game. Countries emit sulphur which is partly transferred to other countries. Depositions above critical loads ultimately destroy the soil. Countries face a trade-off between the costs of emission reductions and the damage to the soil due to the depletion of the acid buffers. Because of the transboundary externalities the outcome will depend on

Karl-Göran Mäler; Aart De Zeeuw

1998-01-01

448

Acid Rain: What's the Forecast?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various types of acid rain, considered to be a century-old problem. Topics include: wet and dry deposition, effects on a variety of environments, ecosystems subject to detrimental effects, and possible solutions to the problem. A list of recommended resources on acid rain is provided. (BC)

Bybee, Rodger

1984-01-01

449

Acid Precipitation: Causes and Consequences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the first of three articles in a series on the acid rain problem in recent years. Discussed are the causes of acid precipitation and its consequences for the abiotic and biotic components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and for man-made materials. (Author/SA)

Babich, Harvey; And Others

1980-01-01

450

BOTANICAL ASPECTS OF ACIDIC PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Acidic precipitation can be characterized as wet or frozen atmospheric deposition with a hydrogen ion concentration greater than 2.5 microequivalents liter-1. Acidic precipitation is perceived as a significant air pollution problem derived chiefly from combustion of fossil fuels,...

451

Heteropolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial exopolysaccharides are biothickeners that can be added to a wide variety of food products, where they serve as viscosifying, stabilizing, emulsifying or gelling agents. Numerous exopolysaccharides with different composition, size and structure are synthesized by lactic acid bacteria. The heteropolysaccharides from both mesophilic and thermophilic lactic acid bacteria have received renewed interest recently. Structural analysis combined with rheological studies

Luc De Vuyst; Bart Degeest

1999-01-01

452

ACID DEPOSITION AND FOREST DECLINE  

EPA Science Inventory

The location, topography and other characteristics of the high-elevation forests of eastern North America cause them to be receptors of high levels of acid deposition and airborn trace metals. No other major forested areas in the U.S. are subjected to such intensely acid cloud mo...

453

Acid Secretion and Gastric Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was long believed that there were major differences in the pathophysiology between the three major categories of peptic ulcers. The unifying feature was that all peptic ulcers occurred in a mucosal compartment exposed to acid-pepsin secretions. All ulcers tended to heal more rapidly when acid secretion was more readily neutralized or inhibited. Decreased local resistance was considered to be

Lars Lundell

2011-01-01

454

Vibrational Spectra of ?-Aminobutyric Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NIR-FT Raman, FT-IR spectral analysis of ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) a simple amino acid is carried out by density functional computations. The vibrational spectra confirm the existence of NH3+ in GABA. Hydroxyl groups H-bonded to the different extents are analysed, supported by computed results.

Suresh, D. M.; Sajan, D.; Laladas, K. P.; Joe, I. Hubert; Jayakumar, V. S.

2008-11-01

455

Molecular Structure of Formic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formic Acid, also known as methanoic acid and hydrogencarboxylic acid, is the simplest organic acid. It is a colorless, toxic, corrosive liquid with a pungent, penetrating odor. In nature, it is found in the stings and bites of many insects of the order hymenoptera, including bees and ants. The principal use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. The largest single use of formic acid is as a silage additive in Europe, but this market hardly exists in the United States. When sprayed on fresh hay or other silage, it arrests certain decay processes and causes the feed to retain its nutritive value longer. In the poultry industry, it is sometimes added to silage to kill salmonella bacteria. It is also used in textile dyeing, leather tanning, as a solvent, in electroplating processes, in the manufacturing of lacquers, glass, vinyl resin plasticizers, and formate esters (for flavor and fragrance) and in the manufacture of fumigants. Formic acid is a strong reducing agent, and may act both as an acid and as an aldehyde because the carboxyl is bound to a hydrogen rather than an alkyl group.

2003-05-08

456

Learning About Acids and Bases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The chemistry of acids and bases is a fundamental area of study in the physical sciences. The following activity is really two exercises in one. First, students learn to distinguish between acids and bases using various color-changing indicator solutions.

John Eichinger

2009-05-15

457

TRANS ACIDS IN SPECIALTY LIPIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The role of trans acids in human health and nutrition is highly controversial and a search of the Internet reveals the interest in the subject. Trans acids are perceived as "killer fats" at one end of the spectrum to having no adverse effects at the other. In addition, saturated fats are perceived...

458

Amino acid-based surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a pressing need for developing efficiently surfactants that are biodegradable and biocompatible. Surfactant molecules from renewable raw materials that mimic natural lipoamino acids are one of the preferred choices for food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Given their natural and simple structure they show low toxicity and quick biodegradation. The value of amino acids and vegetable oil derivatives as

María Rosa Infante; Lourdes Pérez; Aurora Pinazo; Pere Clapés; María Carmen Morán; Marta Angelet; María Teresa García; María Pilar Vinardell

2004-01-01

459

Metabolism of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH the hallucinogenic agent, lysergic acid diethylamide, has been the subject of numerous investigations, little is known about its biological fate. The development of a specific and sensitive method for the estimation of lysergic acid diethylamide in biological materials has enabled us to study its physiological disposition and metabolism.

Julius Axelrod; Roscoe O. Brady; Bernhard Witkop; Edward V. Evarts

1956-01-01

460

Synthesis of pyromellitic acid esters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ester acids necessary for studyng the thermochemical properties of pyromellitic acid (PMK)-based peroxides were investigated. Obtaining a tetramethyl ester of a PMK was described. The mechanism of an esterification reaction is discussed, as is the complete esterification of PMK with primary alcohol.

Fedorova, V. A.; Donchak, V. A.; Martynyuk-Lototskaya, A. N.

1985-01-01

461

Acid Mine Drainage and Precipitates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, environmental scientists measure the pH of water to detect acid mine drainage from an abandoned coal mine and then demonstrate how metals present in acid drainage fall out of solution as precipitates when a basic substance is added to the water.

KET

2011-01-11

462

Getting Back to Basics (& Acidics)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a few novel acid-base experiments intended to introduce students to the basic concepts of acid-base chemistry and provide practical examples that apply directly to the study of biology and the human body. Important concepts such as the reaction between carbon dioxide and water, buffers and protein denaturation, are covered.…

Rhodes, Sam

2006-01-01

463

Acid dissolution hydrodynamic force analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this calculation is to analyze the hydrodynamic forces associated with the in-tank piping feeding the tank fluid agitation eductor (sparger), as well as eductor induced forces. These forces will be used as input to the structural analysis of the support structure used for the acid dissolution assembly, and the acid dissolution assembly itself.

2003-01-01

464

Acid dissolution hydrodynamic force analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation is to analyze the hydrodynamic forces associated with the in-tank piping feeding the tank fluid agitation eductor (sparger), as well as eductor induced forces. These forces will be used as input to the structural analysis of the support structure used for the acid dissolution assembly, and the acid dissolution assembly itself.

WHITE, M.A.

2003-05-21

465

Molecular Structure of Isophthalic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Isophthalic acid is one of the three simple aromatic dicarboxylic acids with the carboxyl groups in the meta postions. It is used to produce isophthalic polyester that together with other components is used in resin systems for flame retardants and in corrosion prevention.

2008-01-10

466

Solid Acids for Green Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid acids and especially those based on micelle-templated silicas and other mesoporous high surface area support materials are beginning to play a significant role in the greening of fine and speciality chemicals manufacturing processes. A wide range of important organic reactions can be efficiently catalyzed by these materials, which can be designed to provide different types of acidity as well

James H. Clark

2002-01-01

467

SOIL REACTION AND ACIDIC DEPOSITION  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter discusses the major chemical processes by which acidic deposition interacts with soils. he focus is on forest soils, as the effects of acidic deposition on soils used for production of food and fiber are generally small compared to effects of agricultural practices s...

468

Atmospheric dust and acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Why is acid rain still an environmental problem in Europe and North America despite antipollution reforms? The answer really is blowing in the wind: atmospheric dust. These airborne particles can help neutralize the acids falling on forests, but dust levels are unusually low these days. In the air dust particles can neutralize acid rain. What can we do about acid rain and atmospheric dust? Suggestions range from the improbable to the feasible. One reasonable suggestion is to reduce emissions of acidic pollutants to levels that can be buffered by natural quantities of basic compounds in the atmosphere; such a goal would mean continued reductions in sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, perhaps even greater than those prescribed in the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act in the U.S. 5 figs.

Hedin, L.O.; Likens, G.E.

1996-12-01

469

Molecular Structure of Galacturonic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Galacturonic acid is the monobasic acid resulting from oxidation of the primary alcohol group of D-galactose to carboxyl. It is widely distributed as a constituent of pectins (compounds with heterogeneous grouping of acidic structural polysaccharides, found in fruit and vegetables), many plant gums, and mucilages (gummy substances obtained from certain plants, which are used as food stabilizers). Gums tend to be used as thickening and bulking agents in pharmaceutics, and they play a less obvious part in most plants. Once swallowed, their actions are no different from those of the mucilages. D-Galacturonic acid prepared from pectin can be used to synthesize vitamin C. Native pectin is a mixture of polysaccharides, with the major component a polymer of -D-galacturonic acid. Pectin has numerous other medical and pharmaceutical uses, for example in combination with plant hemicelluloses and lignin, may be useful dietary constituents in preventing coronary heart disease, diverticular disease, ulcerative colitis, and a variety of other Western diseases.

2003-05-08

470

Molecular Structure of Linoleic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Linoleic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid occurring widely in plant glycerides or fats. Common sources include many vegetable oils such as flax seed, safflower, soybean, peanut, and corn; some margarines; and dairy fats. It is a colorless to straw-colored liquid, insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and ether. Linoleic acid is easily oxidized by air and is combustible. It also appears as an aluminum salt, in the form of yellow lumps or powder, that is practically insoluble in water but soluble in oils and fixed alkalai hydroxides. Linoleic acid is essential in human nutrition and is used also for soaps, animal feeds, paints, drying protective coatings, emulsifying or smoothing and wetting agents, and in biochemical research. The conjugated form of linoleic acid or CLA has been associated with health benefits such as lowered risk of cancer and atherosclerosis. Prepared CLA is available as a supplement. However, foods high in CLA content could be used.

2003-05-08

471

Molecular Structure of Acroleic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acrylic acid is a colorless liquid that has an irritating bitter odor and was discovered by Josef Redtenbacher, a German chemist. This substance is miscible with water and most organic solvents. Known also as 2-propeonic acid, this plant molecule occurs naturally in marine algae and has been found in the rumen fluid of sheep. Acrylic acid has been found to polymerize easily when exposed to heat, light, or metals so, therefore a polymerization inhibitor is added to commercial for storage. The acid is used in the manufacture of plastics, floor polish, paint formulations, leather finishings, and paper coatings. Exposure to the liquid occurs primarily in the workplace and can irritate the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes of humans. Acrylic acid has not been classified as a carcinogen.

2003-05-08

472

Molecular Structure of Stearic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stearic acid is white leaflets, slightly yellow crystal masses or a white to slightly yellow powder. Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid found in low percentages in cotton, coconut, palm kernel, corn, palm, castor, rapeseed, soybean, sunflower, herring, and tallow oils. It is also one of the fat components found in the cocoa butter of chocolate. It is prepared synthetically by hydrogenation of cottonseed and other vegetable oils or by treating animal fat with water at a high pressure and temperature. Stearic acid is useful as an ingredient in making candles, soaps, and for softening synthetic rubber. It is also a component of cosmetic formulations, pharmaceuticals creams and vanishing lotion. Stearic acid is practically nontoxic but the dust is irritating to eyes, nose, and throat and the solid is irritating to skin and eyes.

2004-11-11

473

Fumaric acid production by fermentation  

PubMed Central

The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w/w from glucose, the latter raw material is three times cheaper. Besides, the fermentation fixes CO2. Production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus species and the involved metabolic pathways are reviewed. Submerged fermentation systems coupled with product recovery techniques seem to have achieved economically attractive yields and productivities. Future prospects for improvement of fumaric acid production include metabolic engineering approaches to achieve low pH fermentations. PMID:18214471

Roa Engel, Carol A.; Zijlmans, Tiemen W.; van Gulik, Walter M.; van der Wielen, Luuk A. M.

2008-01-01

474

ACID RAIN DEGRADATION OF NYLON (POLYAMIDE, PHOTODEGRADATION)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain, precipitation with a ph less than 5.6, is known to damage lakes, vegetation and buildings. Degradation of outdoor textiles by acid rain is strongly suspected but not well documented. This study reports the effects of sunlight, aqueous acid, heat and humidity (acid rain conditions) on spun delustered nylon 6,6 fabric. Untreated nylon and nylon treated with sulfuric acid

KAREN E KYLLO

1984-01-01

475

An Abstracting Transformation for Amino Acid Polymorphism  

E-print Network

An Abstracting Transformation for Amino Acid Polymorphism Anthony M. Castaldo, PhD Research three nucleotide se- quences (a codon) into amino acids: Amino Acid (or signal) Codons A (Alanine) GCT believe what is important is the sequence of amino acids produced, and because amino acids average about

Texas at San Antonio, University of

476

The standard amino acids alanine ala A  

E-print Network

The standard amino acids alanine ala A cysteine cys C aspartic acid asp D glutamic acid glu E's the mapping from nucleotide triplets in DNA sequences (via messenger RNA) to individual amino acids, and T) but only 20 amino acids, and that the code is redundant or "degenerate" in the sense that several

Guevara-Vasquez, Fernando

477

21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is contained in the free acid state in a number of plants. Formic acid is prepared by the reaction of sodium formate with sulfuric acid and is isolated by distillation. (b) Formic acid is used...

2013-04-01

478

21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is contained in the free acid state in a number of plants. Formic acid is prepared by the reaction of sodium formate with sulfuric acid and is isolated by distillation. (b) Formic acid is used...

2014-04-01

479

21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is contained in the free acid state in a number of plants. Formic acid is prepared by the reaction of sodium formate with sulfuric acid and is isolated by distillation. (b) Formic acid is used...

2012-04-01

480

21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is contained in the free acid state in a number of plants. Formic acid is prepared by the reaction of sodium formate with sulfuric acid and is isolated by distillation. (b) Formic acid is used...

2010-04-01

481

21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is contained in the free acid state in a number of plants. Formic acid is prepared by the reaction of sodium formate with sulfuric acid and is isolated by distillation. (b) Formic acid is used...

2011-04-01

482

Kinetics of aluminum-fulvic acid complexation in acidic waters  

SciTech Connect

A fluorescence technique has been used to study the complex formation kinetics of aluminum with a single metal-free fulvic acid isolated from an Adirondack Mountain forest soil. In the pH range of 3.0-4.5, two kinetically distinguishable components of the fulvic acid mixture have been identified, which define two types of average aluminum binding sites. Both fulvic acid average sites conform to a bidentate chelating binding site kinetic analysis, from which rate and equilibrium parameters have been obtained. From comparison of rate and equilibrium constants of aluminum-salicyclic acid complexation, the authors conclude that the faster reacting component of fulvic acid probably contains salicyclic acid type aluminum binding sites. Results are also compared with those of an aluminum-fluoride kinetic study. Fulvic acid and fluoride react with aluminum by the same mechanism and therefore have the same pH dependence. The dependence of the rate on temperature is, however, quite different for the two reactions. The environmental implications of these findings are discussed. 45 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

Plankey, B.J.; Patterson, H.H.

1987-06-01

483

Formation of acrylic acid from lactic acid in supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical (SC) water is an unusual medium in which fast and specific heterolytic reactions can be conducted at temperatures as high as 400{degree}C. In supercritical water, lactic acid decomposes into gaseous and liquid products via three primary reaction pathways. Products of the acid-catalyzed heterolytic decarbonylation pathway are carbon monoxide, water, and acetaldehyde. Products of the homolytic, decarboxylation pathway are carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and acetaldehyde. Products of the heterolytic, dehydration pathway are acrylic acid and water. The intramolecular nucleophilic displacement of the {alpha}-hydroxyl by the carbonyl group of lactic acid, producing {alpha}-propiolactone as an unstable intermediate which subsequently rearranges to become the unsaturated acid, is a likely mechanism for acrylic acid formation, although an intramolecular E2 elimination initiated by attack of the carbonyl oxygen on a methyl hydrogen cannot be ruled out. Support for the former mechanism comes in part from the observed 100% relative yield of acrylic acid from {beta}-propiolactone in SC water.

Mok, W.S.L.; Antal, M.J. Jr. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (USA)); Jones, M. Jr. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA))

1989-09-15

484

Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid or Oleic Acid Addition on Fatty Acid Composition Profiles of Poultry Meat  

E-print Network

Two different studies were conducted to reduce the overall amount of omega-6 fatty acids in broiler chickens. The first experiment was performed to determine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and omega-3 fatty acid combination...

Shin, Dae Keun

2011-08-08

485

21 CFR 172.345 - Folic acid (folacin).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...acid (folacin). Folic acid (CAS Reg. No. 59-30-3...conditions: (a) Folic acid is the chemical N ...amino]benzoyl]-L -glutamic acid. (b) Folic acid...acid may be added, at levels not to exceed 400...

2011-04-01

486

40 CFR 180.550 - Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid]; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid]; tolerances for residues. 180.550 Section... Specific Tolerances § 180.550 Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid];...

2011-07-01

487

40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid...

2011-07-01

488

78 FR 55644 - Styrene, Copolymers with Acrylic Acid and/or Methacrylic Acid; Tolerance Exemption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FRL-9396-9] Styrene, Copolymers with Acrylic Acid and/or Methacrylic Acid; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental Protection...for residues of styrene, copolymers with acrylic acid and/or methacrylic acid, with none and/or...

2013-09-11

489

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid...

2010-07-01

490

40 CFR 180.550 - Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid]; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid]; tolerances for residues. 180.550 Section... Specific Tolerances § 180.550 Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid];...

2010-07-01

491

40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid...

2010-07-01

492

Carbonic acid on Mars?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a long time carbonic acid (H 2CO 3) had defied many efforts for its detection by IR spectroscopic techniques. Recently H 2CO 3 has been synthesized at low temperature (?10-80 K), and stabilized up to ?250 K, by energetic ion irradiation of frozen targets made of H 2O:CO 2 ice mixtures (Moore and Khanna, Spectrochim. Acta47, 255-262, 1991; Moore et al., J, Geophys. Res.96(2), 17,541-17,545, 1991, DelloRusso et al., Geophys. Res.98(E3), 5505-5510, 1993; Brucato et al., Icarus 1996 (in press)) and by protonation of bicarbonate (Hage et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc.115, 8427-8431, 1993; J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans.91(17), 2823-2826, 1995). Its IR spectrum has been obtained. A comparison between the IR laboratory spectrum of H 2CO 3 with some spectra of Mars suggests that carbonic could be present on the surface and/or atmosphere of the red planet. Its firm identification requires the acquisition of better astronomical data possibly from space missions (e.g. Mars 96) and would be of primary relevance for both the organic and inorganic chemistry taking place on Mars.

Strazzulla, G.; Brucato, J. R.; Cimino, G.; Palumbo, M. E.

1996-11-01

493

Lead-acid battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

1983-01-01

494

DETERMINATION OF BENZOIC ACID AND SALICYLIC ACID IN COMMERCIAL BENZOIC AND SALICYLIC ACIDS OINTMENTS BY SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial benzoic acid and salicylic acid ointments have been analyzed for benzoic acid and salicylic acid content by using