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1

Serotonin, L-tryptophan, and tryptamine are effective inhibitors of the amino acid transport system PAT1.  

PubMed

The proton-coupled amino acid transporter PAT1, cloned recently from brain and intestine, mediates the uphill transport of l- and d-proline, l-alanine, glycine, taurine, d-serine, GABA, and many other related compounds and drugs. Here we describe the novel finding that l-tryptophan and its derivatives tryptamine, 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan, serotonin, and indole-3-propionic acid strongly inhibit H+-dependent l-[3H]proline uptake into Caco-2 cells with inhibition constants (K(i)) of 0.9 to 6.1 mM. Uptake of l-[3H]tryptophan into Caco-2 cells on the other hand was not inhibited by l-proline. Whereas PAT1 substrates produced significant changes in a membrane potential assay for electrogenic transport in Caco-2 cells, l-tryptophan, tryptamine, and 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan failed to alter membrane voltage. When PAT1 was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and analyzed by the two-electrode voltage clamp technique, glycine elicited high inward currents that were dependent on membrane potential but no currents were observed with l-tryptophan, tryptamine, 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan, or serotonin. Although not transported electrogenically by PAT1, l-tryptophan and its derivatives inhibited glycine-evoked currents dose-dependently. We conclude that serotonin, l-tryptophan, and tryptamine bind to PAT1 with potencies similar to the prototype substrates, inhibit transport function but are not transported by this carrier protein. They may be considered as the carriers' naturally occurring inhibitors that may alter the transport function of PAT1. PMID:16126914

Metzner, Linda; Kottra, Gabor; Neubert, Klaus; Daniel, Hannelore; Brandsch, Matthias

2005-09-01

2

Amino acid sequence and the cellular location of the Na(+)-dependent D-glucose symporters (SGLT1) in the ovine enterocyte and the parotid acinar cell.  

PubMed

The Na(+)-dependent D-glucose symporter has been shown to be located on the basolateral domain of the plasma membrane of ovine parotid acinar cells. This is in contrast to the apical location of this transporter in the ovine enterocyte. The amino acid sequences of these two proteins have been determined. They are identical. The results indicated that the signals responsible for the differential targeting of these two proteins to the apical and the basal domains of the plasma membrane are not contained within the primary amino acid sequence. PMID:7492327

Tarpey, P S; Wood, I S; Shirazi-Beechey, S P; Beechey, R B

1995-11-15

3

Crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of the bile acid sodium symporter ASBT.  

PubMed

High cholesterol levels greatly increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. About 50 per cent of cholesterol is eliminated from the body by its conversion into bile acids. However, bile acids released from the bile duct are constantly recycled, being reabsorbed in the intestine by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT, also known as SLC10A2). It has been shown in animal models that plasma cholesterol levels are considerably lowered by specific inhibitors of ASBT, and ASBT is thus a target for hypercholesterolaemia drugs. Here we report the crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of ASBT from Neisseria meningitidis (ASBT(NM)) at 2.2?Å. ASBT(NM) contains two inverted structural repeats of five transmembrane helices. A core domain of six helices harbours two sodium ions, and the remaining four helices pack in a row to form a flat, 'panel'-like domain. Overall, the architecture of the protein is remarkably similar to the sodium/proton antiporter NhaA, despite having no detectable sequence homology. The ASBT(NM) structure was captured with the substrate taurocholate present, bound between the core and panel domains in a large, inward-facing, hydrophobic cavity. Residues near this cavity have been shown to affect the binding of specific inhibitors of human ASBT. The position of the taurocholate molecule, together with the molecular architecture, suggests the rudiments of a possible transport mechanism. PMID:21976025

Hu, Nien-Jen; Iwata, So; Cameron, Alexander D; Drew, David

2011-10-20

4

Analysis of Human Sodium Iodide Symporter Gene Expression in Extrathyroidal Tissues and Cloning of Its Complementary Deoxyribonucleic Acids from Salivary Gland, Mammary Gland, and Gastric Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to concentrate iodide is a fundamental property of normally functioning thyroid tissue and represents the first step in the production of thyroid hormones. Iodide uptake has been demon- strated in various extrathyroidal tissues, including salivary gland, gastric mucosa, and lactating mammary gland. Recently, cloning and molecular characterization of the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) have been reported; however,

C. Spitzweg; W. JOBA; W. EISENMENGER; A. E. HEUFELDER

1998-01-01

5

Glial fibrillary acidic protein promoters direct adenovirus early 1A gene and human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoters direct sodium iodide symporter expression for malignant glioma radioiodine therapy.  

PubMed

Malignant glioma can be treated with radioiodine following transfection with human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene. Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS is engineered with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoters to express early region 1A (E1A) and hNIS genes, which may be useful in targeted gene therapy. The Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS was constructed and purified using the E1A and hNIS genes regulated by the hTERT and GFAP promoters, respectively. Glioma cells were infected by Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS. Selective replication ability of Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS was then evaluated by plaque forming assay, transgene expression by Western blot, (125)I-iodide uptake and efflux, clonogenicity following (131)I-iodide treatment in the tumor cells, and radioiodine therapy using nude mouse model. The Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS could selectively replicate; the hNIS gene was successfully expressed under the GFAP promoter. Western blot analyses using E1A- and hNIS-specific antibodies revealed two bands of approximately 40 and 70 kDa. In addition, the cells showed about 93.4 and 107.1 times higher (125)I uptake in U251 and U87 cells than in the control cells, respectively. Clonogenic assay indicated that >90 % of cells transfected with Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS were killed. The Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS-transfected and 2 mCi (131)I-injected U87 xenograft nude mice survived the longest among the three groups. Ad-Tp-E1A-Gp-NIS has a good ability of selective replication and strong antitumor selectivity. An effective therapy of (131)I was achieved activity in malignant glioma cells after induction of tumor-specific iodide uptake activity by GFAP promoter-directed hNIS gene expression in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25410753

Li, Wei; Tan, Jian; Wang, Peng; Li, Ning; Li, Chengxia

2015-01-01

6

Air transport of plutonium metal : content expansion initiative for the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging.  

SciTech Connect

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

Mann, Paul T. (National Nuclear Security Administration); Caviness, Michael L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki

2010-06-01

7

The Pot1a-associated proteins Tpt1 and Pat1 coordinate telomere protection and length regulation in Tetrahymena.  

PubMed

We have identified two new telomere proteins, Tpt1 and Pat1, from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Although Tetrahymena telomerase is well characterized, only one telomere protein had previously been identified. This was the G-overhang binding-protein Pot1a. Tpt1 and Pat1 were isolated as Pot1a binding partners and shown to localize to telomeres. As Tpt1 and Pat1 were both found to be essential, conditional cell lines were generated to explore their function. Tpt1 depletion caused a rapid growth arrest and telomere elongation in the absence of cell division. The phenotype was similar to that seen after Pot1a depletion suggesting that Tpt1 and Pot1a function together to regulate telomere length and prevent telomere deprotection. In contrast, Pat1 depletion had a modest effect on cell growth but caused progressive telomere shortening similar to that observed upon TERT depletion. Thus Pat1 appears to be needed for telomerase to maintain the chromosome terminus. Analysis of Pot1a-Tpt1-Pat1 complex formation using purified proteins indicated that Tpt1 interacts directly with Pot1a while Pat1 interacts with Tpt1. Our results indicate that Tpt1 is the Tetrahymena equivalent of mammalian TPP1, Schizosaccharomyces pombe Tpz1, and Oxytricha nova TEBP?. PMID:21900503

Linger, Benjamin R; Morin, Gregg B; Price, Carolyn M

2011-11-01

8

Substrate-Na{sup +} complex formation: Coupling mechanism for {gamma}-aminobutyrate symporters  

SciTech Connect

Crystal structures of transmembrane transport proteins belonging to the important families of neurotransmitter-sodium symporters reveal how they transport neurotransmitters across membranes. Substrate-induced structural conformations of gated neurotransmitter-sodium symporters have been in the focus of research, however, a key question concerning the mechanism of Na{sup +} ion coupling remained unanswered. Homology models of human glial transporter subtypes of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter {gamma}-aminobutyric acid were built. In accordance with selectivity data for subtype 2 vs. 3, docking and molecular dynamics calculations suggest similar orthosteric substrate (inhibitor) conformations and binding crevices but distinguishable allosteric Zn{sup 2+} ion binding motifs. Considering the occluded conformational states of glial human {gamma}-aminobutyric acid transporter subtypes, we found major semi-extended and minor ring-like conformations of zwitterionic {gamma}-aminobutyric acid in complex with Na{sup +} ion. The existence of the minor ring-like conformation of {gamma}-aminobutyric acid in complex with Na{sup +} ion may be attributed to the strengthening of the intramolecular H-bond by the electrostatic effect of Na{sup +} ion. Coupling substrate uptake into cells with the thermodynamically favorable Na{sup +} ion movement through substrate-Na{sup +} ion complex formation may be a mechanistic principle featuring transmembrane neurotransmitter-sodium symporter proteins.

Pallo, Anna; Simon, Agnes [Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary)] [Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); Bencsura, Akos [Department of Theoretical Chemistry, Institute of Structural Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)] [Department of Theoretical Chemistry, Institute of Structural Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Heja, Laszlo [Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary)] [Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); Kardos, Julianna, E-mail: jkardos@chemres.hu [Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary)] [Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary)

2009-07-24

9

The 3? Overhangs at Tetrahymena thermophila Telomeres Are Packaged by Four Proteins, Pot1a, Tpt1, Pat1, and Pat2  

PubMed Central

Although studies with the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila have played a central role in advancing our understanding of telomere biology and telomerase mechanisms and composition, the full complement of Tetrahymena telomere proteins has not yet been identified. Previously, we demonstrated that in Tetrahymena, the telomeric 3? overhang is protected by a three-protein complex composed of Pot1a, Tpt1, and Pat1. Here we show that Tpt1 and Pat1 associate with a fourth protein, Pat2 (Pot1 associated Tetrahymena 2). Mass spectrometry of proteins copurifying with Pat1 or Tpt1 identified peptides from Pat2, Pot1a, Tpt1, and Pat1. The lack of other proteins copurifying with Pat1 or Tpt1 implies that the overhang is protected by a four-protein Pot1a-Tpt1-Pat1-Pat2 complex. We verified that Pat2 localizes to telomeres, but we were unable to detect direct binding to telomeric DNA. Cells depleted of Pat2 continue to divide, but the telomeres exhibit gradual shortening. The lack of growth arrest indicates that, in contrast to Pot1a and Tpt1, Pat2 is not required for the sequestration of the telomere from the DNA repair machinery. Instead, Pat2 is needed to regulate telomere length, most likely by acting in conjunction with Pat1 to allow telomerase access to the telomere. PMID:24297442

Premkumar, Vidjaya Letchoumy; Cranert, Stacey; Linger, Benjamin R.; Morin, Gregg B.; Minium, Sasha

2014-01-01

10

Characterization of New Polyol/H+ Symporters in Debaryomyces hansenii  

PubMed Central

Debaryomyces hansenii is a halotolerant yeast that produces and assimilates a wide variety of polyols. In this work we evaluate polyol transport in D. hansenii CBS 767, detecting the occurrence of polyol/H+ (and sugar/H+) symporter activity, through the transient extracellular alkalinization of unbuffered starved cell suspensions. From the D. hansenii genome database, we selected nine ORFs encoding putative transporter proteins to clone in a centromeric plasmid with C-terminal GFP tagging and screened for polyol/H+ symporters by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Five distinct D. hansenii polyol/H+ symporters were identified and characterized, with different specificities and affinities for polyols, namely one glycerol-specific (DhStl1), one D-galactitol-specific (DhSgl1, Symporter galactitol/H+ 1), one D-(+)-chiro-inositol-specific (DhSyi1, Symporter D-(+)-chiro-inositol/H+ 1), one for D-sorbitol/D-mannitol/ribitol/D-arabitol/D-galactitol (DhSyl1, Symporter Polyols 1) and another for D-sorbitol/D-mannitol/ribitol/D-arabitol (DhSyl2, Symporter Polyols 2). This work contributed to the annotation of new yeast polyol transporters, including two specific for uncommon substrates as galactitol and D-(+)-chiro-inositol. PMID:24505419

Pereira, Iliana; Madeira, Ana; Prista, Catarina; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C.; Leandro, Maria José

2014-01-01

11

Structure-based mechanism for Na+/melibiose symport by MelB  

PubMed Central

The bacterial melibiose permease (MelB) belongs to the glycoside–pentoside–hexuronide:cation symporter family, a part of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). Structural information regarding glycoside–pentoside–hexuronide:cation symporter family transporters and other Na+-coupled permeases within MFS has been lacking, although a wealth of biochemical and biophysical data are available. Here we present the three-dimensional crystal structures of Salmonella typhimurium MelBSt in two conformations, representing an outward partially occluded and an outward inactive state of MelBSt. MelB adopts a typical MFS fold and contains a previously unidentified cation-binding motif. Three conserved acidic residues form a pyramidal-shaped cation-binding site for Na+, Li+ or H+, which is in close proximity to the sugar-binding site. Both cosubstrate-binding sites are mainly contributed by the residues from the amino-terminal domain. These two structures and the functional data presented here provide mechanistic insights into Na+/melibiose symport. We also postulate a structural foundation for the conformational cycling necessary for transport catalysed by MFS permeases in general. PMID:24389923

Ethayathulla, Abdul S.; Yousef, Mohammad S.; Amin, Anowarul; Leblanc, Gérard; Kaback, H. Ronald; Guan, Lan

2014-01-01

12

Sucrose-mediated transcriptional regulation of sucrose symporter activity in the phloem.  

SciTech Connect

This project was based on our discovery that sucrose acts as a signaling molecule that regulates the activity of a proton-sucrose symporter in sugar beet leaf tissue. A major objective here was determining how sucrose transporter activity is being regulated. When sucrose accumulates in the phloem sucrose transport activity drops dramatically. Western blots of plasma membrane proteins isolated from sucrose treated leaves showed that the loss of sucrose transport activity was proportional to a decline in symporter abundance, demonstrating that sucrose transport is regulated by changes in the amount of BvSUT1 protein. BvSUT1 transcript levels decreased in parallel with the loss of sucrose transport activity. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrated that BvSUT1 gene transcription was repressed significantly in nuclei from leaves fed 100 mM exogenous sucrose, showing that sucrose-dependent modulation of BvSUT1 mRNA levels is mediated by changes in transcription. To identify which secondary messenger systems might be involved in regulating symporter activity, we used a variety of pharmacological agents to probe for a role of calcium or protein phosphorylation in sucrose signaling. In a detailed analysis, only okadaic acid altered sucrose transport activity. These results suggest a protein phosphatase is involved. We hypothesized that protein kinase inhibitors would have a neutral affect or increase symporter transcription. Transpirational feeding of the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine had no impact on sucrose transport while calphostin C, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, caused a 60% increase. These data provided good evidence that protein phosphorylation plays a central role in regulating sucrose symporter expression and sucrose transport activity. To determine whether protein phosphorylation is involved in sucrose regulation of proton-sucrose symporter activity, we pre-fed leaves with staurosporine for 4 h and then fed the treated leaves water or 100 mM sucrose for an additional 20 h. Sucrose transport activity was higher than the water control in both staurosporine/water- and staurosporine/sucrose-fed leaves. In contrast, sucrose transport activity was only 40% of the water control in sucrose-fed leaves. Taken together, these results showed that a phosphorylation-dependent signal transduction pathway is involved in sucrose-mediated regulation of BvSUT1 gene expression, sucrose transport activity, and ultimately phloem loading. Publications originating from this work: Vaughn MW, GN. Harrington, and DR Bush 2002. Sucrose-mediated transcriptional regulation of sucrose symporter activity in the phloem. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:10876-10880 Ransom-Hodgkins W, MW Vaughn, and DR Bush 2003. Protein phosphorylation mediates a key step in sucrose-regulation of the expression and transport activity of a beet proton-sucrose symporter. Planta 217:483-489 Harrington GN and Bush DR 2003. The bifunctional role of hexokinase in metabolism and glucose signaling. Plant Cell 15: 2493-2496

Matt Vaughn Greg Harrington Daniel R Bush

2002-08-06

13

Expression of the sodium iodide symporter in human kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of the sodium iodide symporter in human kidney.BackgroundThe human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) is a transmembrane protein that mediates the active transport of iodide in the thyroid gland. Following cloning of NIS, NIS expression has been detected in a broad range of nonthyroidal tissues, suggesting that iodide transport in these tissues is conferred by the expression of functional NIS

Christine Spitzweg; Charyl M Dutton; Maria R Castro; Elizabeth R Bergert; John R Goellner; Armin E Heufelder; John C Morris

2001-01-01

14

The conserved P body component HPat/Pat1 negatively regulates synaptic terminal growth at the larval Drosophila neuromuscular junction  

PubMed Central

Summary The temporal and spatial regulation of protein synthesis plays an important role in the control of neural physiology. In axons and dendrites, translationally repressed mRNAs are actively transported to their destinations in a variety of ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs). A subset of these neuronal RNPs has been shown to contain proteins associated with mRNA processing bodies (P bodies). P bodies are a class of highly conserved cytoplasmic granules that have been linked to both mRNA decay and translational repression via general and miRNA-mediated pathways. Here, we characterize functions for HPat/Pat1 (also known as Patr-1), a core component of P bodies, at the glutamatergic larval Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ). We show that hpat mutants exhibit a strong synaptic hyperplasia at the NMJ. The synaptic defects observed in hpat mutants are associated with rearrangement of the axonal microtubule cytoskeleton suggesting that HPat negatively regulates presynaptic microtubule-based growth during NMJ development. Consistent with this, overexpression of HPat also blocks the rapid growth of presynaptic boutons induced by spaced depolarization. Finally, we demonstrate that HPat interacts genetically with the catalytic subunit of the deadenylase complex (twin/CCR4) and the miRNA pathway (Argonaute 1) to control bouton formation. We propose that HPat is required to target mRNAs involved in the control of microtubule architecture and synaptic terminal growth for repression, presumably in P bodies, via both general and miRNA-mediated mechanisms. PMID:23097047

Pradhan, Sarala J.; Nesler, Katherine R.; Rosen, Sarah F.; Kato, Yasuko; Nakamura, Akira; Ramaswami, Mani; Barbee, Scott A.

2012-01-01

15

Cloning and functional expression of the first eukaryotic Na+-tryptophan symporter, AgNAT6.  

PubMed

The nutrient amino acid transporter (NAT) subfamily of the neurotransmitter sodium symporter family (NSS, also known as the solute carrier family 6, SLC6) represents transport mechanisms with putative synergistic roles in the absorption of essential and conditionally essential neutral amino acids. It includes a large paralogous expansion of insect-specific genes, with seven genes from the genome of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. One of the An. gambiae NATs, AgNAT8, was cloned, functionally expressed and characterized in X. laevis oocytes as a cation-coupled symporter of aromatic amino acids, preferably l-phenylalanine, l-tyrosine and l-DOPA. To explore an evolutionary trend of NAT-SLC6 phenotypes, we have cloned and characterized AgNAT6, which represents a counterpart of AgNAT8 descending from a recent gene duplication (53.1% pairwise sequence identity). In contrast to AgNAT8, which preferably mediates the absorption of phenol-branched substrates, AgNAT6 mediates the absorption of indole-branched substrates with highest apparent affinity to tryptophan (K(0.5)(Trp)=1.3 micromol l(-1) vs K(0.5)(Phe)=430 micromol l(-1)) and [2 or 1 Na(+) or K(+)]:[aromatic substrate] stoichiometry. AgNAT6 is highly transcribed in absorptive and secretory regions of the alimentary canal and specific neuronal structures, including the neuropile of ventral ganglia and sensory afferents. The alignment of AgNATs and LeuT(Aa), a bacterial NAT with a resolved 3D structure, reveals three amino acid differences in the substrate-binding pocket that may be responsible for the indole- vs phenol-branch selectivity of AgNAT6 vs AgNAT8. The identification of transporters with a narrow selectivity for essential amino acids suggests that basal expansions in the SLC6 family involved duplication and retention of NATs, improving the absorption and distribution of under-represented essential amino acids and related metabolites. The identified physiological and expression profiles suggest unique roles of AgNAT6 in the active absorption of indole-branched substrates that are used in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin as well as the key circadian hormone and potent free-radical scavenger melatonin. PMID:19411550

Meleshkevitch, Ella A; Robinson, Marvin; Popova, Lyudmila B; Miller, Melissa M; Harvey, William R; Boudko, Dmitri Y

2009-05-01

16

Sodium solute symporter and cadherin proteins act as Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Ba toxin functional receptors in Tribolium castaneum.  

PubMed

Understanding how Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins interact with proteins in the midgut of susceptible coleopteran insects is crucial to fully explain the molecular bases of Bt specificity and insecticidal action. In this work, aminopeptidase N (TcAPN-I), E-cadherin (TcCad1), and sodium solute symporter (TcSSS) have been identified by ligand blot as putative Cry3Ba toxin-binding proteins in Tribolium castaneum (Tc) larvae. RNA interference knockdown of TcCad1 or TcSSS proteins resulted in decreased susceptibility to Cry3Ba toxin, demonstrating the Cry toxin receptor functionality for these proteins. In contrast, TcAPN-I silencing had no effect on Cry3Ba larval toxicity, suggesting that this protein is not relevant in the Cry3Ba toxin mode of action in Tc. Remarkable features of TcSSS protein were the presence of cadherin repeats in its amino acid sequence and that a TcSSS peptide fragment containing a sequence homologous to a binding epitope found in Manduca sexta and Tenebrio molitor Bt cadherin functional receptors enhanced Cry3Ba toxicity. This is the first time that the involvement of a sodium solute symporter protein as a Bt functional receptor has been demonstrated. The role of this novel receptor in Bt toxicity against coleopteran insects together with the lack of receptor functionality of aminopeptidase N proteins might account for some of the differences in toxin specificity between Lepidoptera and Coleoptera insect orders. PMID:23645668

Contreras, Estefanía; Schoppmeier, Michael; Real, M Dolores; Rausell, Carolina

2013-06-21

17

Sodium Solute Symporter and Cadherin Proteins Act as Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Ba Toxin Functional Receptors in Tribolium castaneum*  

PubMed Central

Understanding how Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins interact with proteins in the midgut of susceptible coleopteran insects is crucial to fully explain the molecular bases of Bt specificity and insecticidal action. In this work, aminopeptidase N (TcAPN-I), E-cadherin (TcCad1), and sodium solute symporter (TcSSS) have been identified by ligand blot as putative Cry3Ba toxin-binding proteins in Tribolium castaneum (Tc) larvae. RNA interference knockdown of TcCad1 or TcSSS proteins resulted in decreased susceptibility to Cry3Ba toxin, demonstrating the Cry toxin receptor functionality for these proteins. In contrast, TcAPN-I silencing had no effect on Cry3Ba larval toxicity, suggesting that this protein is not relevant in the Cry3Ba toxin mode of action in Tc. Remarkable features of TcSSS protein were the presence of cadherin repeats in its amino acid sequence and that a TcSSS peptide fragment containing a sequence homologous to a binding epitope found in Manduca sexta and Tenebrio molitor Bt cadherin functional receptors enhanced Cry3Ba toxicity. This is the first time that the involvement of a sodium solute symporter protein as a Bt functional receptor has been demonstrated. The role of this novel receptor in Bt toxicity against coleopteran insects together with the lack of receptor functionality of aminopeptidase N proteins might account for some of the differences in toxin specificity between Lepidoptera and Coleoptera insect orders. PMID:23645668

Contreras, Estefanía; Schoppmeier, Michael; Real, M. Dolores; Rausell, Carolina

2013-01-01

18

Na(+)-HCO3- symport modulates intracellular pH in alveolar epithelial cells.  

PubMed

We investigated Na(+)-HCO3- cotransport as a mechanism for regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) in rat alveolar pneumocytes grown in primary culture. pHi was monitored using the fluorescent pH-sensitive dye 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). Cells incubated in 6 mM N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) medium at pH 7.4 were subjected to rapid acidification by CO2 pulse. pHi recovered in the presence of Na+ with an initial rate (dpHi/dt) of 0.15 min-1, which was reduced by 67% when Na+ was replaced by choline, unaffected by substitution of gluconate for Cl-, reduced 40% in the presence of 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS, 500 microM), and unchanged by amiloride (1 mM). In parallel experiments, cells were incubated at pH 7.4 with 20 mM HCO3- and pHi acutely lowered by NH3 prepulse. dpHi/dt in these experiments was 0.14 min-1 in the presence of Na+ and HCO3-, and reduced 79% under Na(+)-free conditions. These data indicate the presence of a Na(+)-dependent, Cl(-)-independent, DIDS-sensitive and amiloride-insensitive mechanism of recovery from acute intracellular acidification in alveolar pneumocytes, most consistent with Na(+)-HCO3- cotransport (symport) effecting acid extrusion under these experimental conditions. This ion transport mechanism may contribute to regulation of pHi in alveolar pneumocytes, transepithelial transport of acid-base equivalents across the alveolar epithelium, and modulation of pH of alveolar fluid in adult mammalian lungs. PMID:2058696

Lubman, R L; Crandall, E D

1991-06-01

19

The Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS): Regulation and Approaches to Targeting for Cancer Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is required for efficient iodide uptake in thyroid and lactating breast. Since most differentiated thyroid cancer expresses NIS, ?-emitting radioactive iodide is routinely utilized to target remnant thyroid cancer and metastasis after total thyroidectomy. Stimulation of NIS expression by high levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone is necessary to achieve radioiodide uptake into thyroid cancer that is sufficient for therapy. The majority of breast cancer also expresses NIS, but at a low level insufficient for radioiodine therapy. Retinoic acid is a potent NIS inducer in some breast cancer cells. NIS is also modestly expressed in some non-thyroidal tissues, including salivary glands, lacrimal glands and stomach. Selective induction of iodide uptake is required to target tumors with radioiodide. Iodide uptake in mammalian cells is dependent on the level of NIS gene expression, but also successful translocation of NIS to the cell membrane and correct insertion. The regulatory mechanisms of NIS expression and membrane insertion are regulated by signal transduction pathways that differ by tissue. Differential regulation of NIS confers selective induction of functional NIS in thyroid cancer cells, as well as some breast cancer cells, leading to more efficient radioiodide therapy for thyroid cancer and a new strategy for breast cancer therapy. The potential for systemic radioiodide treatment of a range of other cancers, that do not express endogenous NIS, has been demonstrated in models with tumor-selective introduction of exogenous NIS. PMID:22750642

Kogai, Takahiko; Brent, Gregory A.

2012-01-01

20

Identity of a Plasmodium lactate/H(+) symporter structurally unrelated to human transporters.  

PubMed

Maintenance of a high glycolytic flow rate is critical for the rapid growth and virulence of malarial parasites. The parasites release two moles of lactic acid per mole of glucose as the anaerobic end product. However, the molecular identity of the Plasmodium lactate transporter is unknown. Here we show that a member of the microbial formate-nitrite transporter family, PfFNT, acts as a lactate/proton symporter in Plasmodium falciparum. Besides L-lactate, PfFNT transports physiologically relevant D-lactate, as well as pyruvate, acetate and formate, and is inhibited by the antiplasmodial compounds phloretin, furosemide and cinnamate derivatives, but not by p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate (pCMBS). Our data on PfFNT monocarboxylate transport are consistent with those obtained with living parasites. Moreover, PfFNT is the only transporter of the plasmodial glycolytic pathway for which structure information is available from crystals of homologous proteins, rendering it amenable to further evaluation as a novel antimalarial drug target. PMID:25669138

Wu, Binghua; Rambow, Janis; Bock, Sinja; Holm-Bertelsen, Julia; Wiechert, Marie; Soares, Alexandra Blancke; Spielmann, Tobias; Beitz, Eric

2015-01-01

21

Breast cancer brain metastases express the sodium iodide symporter.  

PubMed

Breast cancer brain metastases are on the rise and their treatment is hampered by the limited entry and efficacy of anticancer drugs in this sanctuary. The sodium iodide symporter, NIS, actively transports iodide across the plasma membrane and is exploited clinically to deliver radioactive iodide into cells. As in thyroid cancers, NIS is expressed in many breast cancers including primary and metastatic tumors. In this study NIS expression was analyzed for the first time in 28 cases of breast cancer brain metastases using a polyclonal anti-NIS antibody directed against the terminal C-peptide of human NIS gene and immunohistochemical methods. Twenty-five tumors (84%) in this retrospective series were estrogen/progesterone receptor-negative and 15 (53.6%) were HER2+. Overall 21 (75%) cases and 80% of HER2 positive metastases were NIS positive. While the predominant pattern of NIS immunoreactivity is intracellular, plasma membrane immunopositivity was detected at least focally in 23.8% of NIS-positive samples. Altogether, these findings indicate that NIS expression is prevalent in breast cancer brain metastases and could have a therapeutic role via the delivery of radioactive iodide and selective ablation of tumor cells. PMID:19618116

Renier, Corinne; Vogel, Hannes; Offor, Onyinye; Yao, Chen; Wapnir, Irene

2010-02-01

22

The Na+/I? Symporter (NIS): Mechanism and Medical Impact  

PubMed Central

The Na+/I? symporter (NIS) is the plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates active I? transport in the thyroid and other tissues, such as salivary glands, stomach, lactating breast, and small intestine. In the thyroid, NIS-mediated I? uptake plays a key role as the first step in the biosynthesis of the thyroid hormones, of which iodine is an essential constituent. These hormones are crucial for the development of the central nervous system and the lungs in the fetus and the newborn and for intermediary metabolism at all ages. Since the cloning of NIS in 1996, NIS research has become a major field of inquiry, with considerable impact on many basic and translational areas. In this article, we review the most recent findings on NIS, I? homeostasis, and related topics and place them in historical context. Among many other issues, we discuss the current outlook on iodide deficiency disorders, the present stage of understanding of the structure/function properties of NIS, information gleaned from the characterization of I? transport deficiency-causing NIS mutations, insights derived from the newly reported crystal structures of prokaryotic transporters and 3-dimensional homology modeling, and the novel discovery that NIS transports different substrates with different stoichiometries. A review of NIS regulatory mechanisms is provided, including a newly discovered one involving a K+ channel that is required for NIS function in the thyroid. We also cover current and potential clinical applications of NIS, such as its central role in the treatment of thyroid cancer, its promising use as a reporter gene in imaging and diagnostic procedures, and the latest studies on NIS gene transfer aimed at extending radioiodide treatment to extrathyroidal cancers, including those involving specially engineered NIS molecules. PMID:24311738

Portulano, Carla; Paroder-Belenitsky, Monika

2014-01-01

23

Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS)-Mediated Radiovirotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE We have previously shown the therapeutic efficacy of an engineered oncolytic measles virus expressing the sodium iodide symporter reporter gene (MV-NIS) in mice with human pancreatic cancer xenografts. The goal of this study was to determine the synergy between MV-NIS-induced oncolysis and NIS-mediated 131I radiotherapy in this tumor model. MATERIALS AND METHODS Subcutaneous human BxPC-3 pancreatic tumors were injected twice with MV-NIS. Viral infection, NIS expression, and intratumoral iodide uptake were quantitated with 123I micro-SPECT/CT. Mice with MV-NIS infected tumors were treated with 0, 37, or 74 MBq 131I and monitored for tumor progression and survival. Additional studies were performed with stable NIS-expressing tumors (BxPC-3-NIS) treated with 0, 3.7, 18.5, 37, or 74 MBq of 131I. RESULTS Mice treated with intratumoral MV-NIS exhibited significant tumor growth delay (p<0.01) and prolonged survival (p=0.02) compared with untreated mice. Synergy between MV-NIS-induced oncolysis and NIS-mediated 131I ablation was not seen; however, a significant correlation was observed between NIS-mediated intratumoral iodide localization (% ID/g) and peak tumor volume reduction (p=0.04) with combination MV-NIS and 131I therapy. Stably-transduced NIS-expressing BxPC-3 tumors exhibited rapid regression with ?18.5 MBq 131I. CONCLUSION Delivery of 131I radiotherapy to NIS-expressing tumors can be optimized using micro-SPECT/CT image guidance. Significant hurdles exist for NIS as a therapeutic gene for combined radiovirotherapy in this human pancreatic cancer model. The lack of synergy observed with MV-NIS and 131I in this model was not due to a lack of radiosensitivity, but rather to a non-uniform intratumoral distribution of MV-NIS infection. PMID:20651188

Penheiter, Alan R.; Wegman, Troy R.; Classic, Kelly L.; Dingli, David; Bender, Claire E.; Russell, Stephen J.; Carlson, Stephanie K.

2011-01-01

24

Sodium/iodide symporter is expressed in the majority of seminomas and embryonal testicular carcinomas.  

PubMed

Testicular cancer is the most frequent cancer in young men. The large majority of patients have a good prognosis, but in a small group of tumors, the current treatments are not effective. Radioiodine is routinely used in the treatment of thyroid cancer and is currently investigated as a potential therapeutic tool even for extra-thyroid tumors able to concentrate this radioisotope. Expression of Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS (SLC5A5)), the glycoprotein responsible for iodide transport, has been demonstrated in normal testicular tissue. In this study, we analyzed NIS expression in a large series of testicular carcinomas. Our retrospective series included 107 patients operated for testicular tumors: 98 typical seminomas, six embryonal carcinomas, one mixed embryonal choriocarcinoma, and two Leydig cells tumors. Expression and regulation of NIS mRNA and protein levels were also investigated in human embryonal testicular carcinoma cells (NTERA) by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the presence of NIS in the large majority of seminomas (90/98) and embryonal carcinomas (5/7) of the testis but not in Leydig cell carcinomas. Expression of NIS protein was significantly associated with lymphovascular invasion. In NTERA cells treated with the histone deacetylase inhibitors SAHA and valproic acid, a significant increase in NIS mRNA (about 60- and 30-fold vs control, P<0.001 and P<0.01 respectively) and protein levels, resulting in enhanced ability to uptake radioiodine, was observed. Finally, NIS expression in testicular tumors with the more aggressive behavior is of interest for the potential use of targeting NIS to deliver radioiodine in malignant cells. PMID:23117572

Micali, S; Maggisano, V; Cesinaro, A; Celano, M; Territo, A; Reggiani Bonetti, L; Sponziello, M; Migaldi, M; Navarra, M; Bianchi, G; Filetti, S; Russo, D

2013-02-01

25

Sodium\\/iodide symporter: a key transport system in thyroid cancer cell metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent cloning of the gene encoding the sodium\\/iodide symporter (NIS) has enabled better characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying iodide transport, thus opening the way to clarifying its role in thyroid diseases. Several studies, at both the mRNA and the protein expression levels, have demonstrated that TSH, the primary regulator of iodide uptake, upregulates NIS gene expression and NIS

Sebastiano Filetti; Jean-Michel Bidart; Franco Arturi; Bernard Caillou; Diego Russo; Martin Schlumberger

1999-01-01

26

Functional characterization of a member of alanine or glycine: cation symporter family in halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica.  

PubMed

Membrane proteins of amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily transport amino acids and amines across membranes and play important roles in the regulation of cellular processes. The alanine or glycine: cation symporter (AGCS) family belongs to APC superfamily and is found in prokaryotes, but its substrate specificity remains to be clarified. In this study, we found that a halotolerant cyanobacterium, Aphanothece halophytica has two putative ApagcS genes. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of genes, ApagcS1, exhibited high homology to Pseudomonas AgcS. The ApagcS1 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli JW4166 which is deficient in glycine uptake. Kinetics studies in JW4166 revealed that ApAgcS1 is a sodium-dependent glycine transporter. Competition experiments showed the significant inhibition by glutamine, asparagine, and glycine. The level of mRNA for ApagcS1 was induced by NaCl and nitrogen-deficient stresses. Uptake of glutamine by ApAgcS1 was also observed. Based on these data, the physiological role of ApAgcS1 was discussed. PMID:25421789

Bualuang, Aporn; Kageyama, Hakuto; Tanaka, Yoshito; Incharoensakdi, Aran; Takabe, Teruhiro

2015-02-01

27

Establishment and Characterization of a Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line, CHO4J, Stably Expressing a Number of Na +\\/I ?Symporters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cDNA of the Na+\\/I?symporter playing a key role in thyroid iodide transport was cloned very recently. To characterize its function, we transfected the Na+\\/I?symporter gene into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and established a cell line stably expressing a number of rat Na+\\/I?symporters, named CHO-4J. Iodide uptake was dependent on [Na+] and reached a plateau within 30 min. Kinetic

Shinji Kosugi; Norihito Sasaki; Noritaka Hai; Hideo Sugawa; Norihiko Aoki; Chiaki Shigemasa; Toru Mori; Akio Yoshida

1996-01-01

28

microRNA-339-5p modulates Na+/I- symporter-mediated radioiodide uptake.  

PubMed

Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS)-mediated radioiodide uptake (RAIU) serves as the basis for targeted ablation of thyroid cancer remnants. However, many patients with thyroid cancer have reduced NIS expression/function and hence do not benefit from radioiodine therapy. microRNA (miR) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in many diseases; yet, the role of miRs in NIS-mediated RAIU has not been investigated. In silico analysis was used to identify miRs that may bind to the 3'UTR of human NIS (hNIS). The top candidate miR-339-5p directly bound to the 3'UTR of hNIS. miR-339-5p overexpression decreased NIS-mediated RAIU in HEK293 cells expressing exogenous hNIS, decreased the levels of NIS mRNA, and RAIU in transretinoic acid/hydrocortisone (tRA/H)-treated MCF-7 human breast cancer cells as well as thyrotropin-stimulated PCCl3 rat thyroid cells. Nanostring nCounter rat miR expression assay was conducted to identify miRs deregulated by TGF?, Akti-1/2, or 17-AAG known to modulate RAIU in PCCl3 cells. Among 38 miRs identified, 18 were conserved in humans. One of the 18 miRs, miR-195, was predicted to bind to the 3'UTR of hNIS and its overexpression decreased RAIU in tRA/H-treated MCF-7 cells. miR-339-5p was modestly increased in most papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), yet miR-195 was significantly decreased in PTCs. Interestingly, the expression profiles of 18 miRs could be used to distinguish most PTCs from nonmalignant thyroid tissues. This is the first report, to our knowledge, demonstrating that hNIS-mediated RAIU can be modulated by miRs, and that the same miRs may also play roles in the development or maintenance of thyroid malignancy. Accordingly, miRs may serve as emerging targets to halt the progression of thyroid cancer and to enhance the efficacy of radioiodine therapy. PMID:25404690

Lakshmanan, Aparna; Wojcicka, Anna; Kotlarek, Marta; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jazdzewski, Krystian; Jhiang, Sissy M

2015-02-01

29

Resveratrol Inhibits Sodium/Iodide Symporter Gene Expression and Function in Rat Thyroid Cells  

PubMed Central

Resveratrol is a polyphenol found in grapes and berries that has antioxidant, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties. For these reasons, it is available as a dietary supplement, and it is under investigation in several clinical trials. Few data are available regarding the effects of resveratrol on thyroid function. A previous study showed that resveratrol transiently increases iodide influx in FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells. Indeed, this increase arises after short treatment times (6–12 h), and no further effects are seen after 24 h. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on iodide uptake and sodium/iodide symporter expression in thyroid cells after longer times of treatment. For this purpose, the effects of resveratrol were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using the rat thyroid FRTL-5 cell line and Sprague-Dawley rats, respectively. In FRTL-5 cells, resveratrol decreased the sodium/iodide symporter RNA and protein expression as a function of time. Furthermore, resveratrol decreased cellular iodide uptake after 48 h of treatment. The inhibitory effect of resveratrol on iodide uptake was confirmed in vivo in Sprague-Dawley rats. This study demonstrates that with longer-term treatment, resveratrol is an inhibitor of sodium/iodide symporter gene expression and function in the thyroid. These data suggest that resveratrol can act as a thyroid disruptor, which indicates the need for caution as a supplement and in therapeutic use. PMID:25251397

Giuliani, Cesidio; Bucci, Ines; Di Santo, Serena; Rossi, Cosmo; Grassadonia, Antonino; Mariotti, Marianna; Piantelli, Mauro; Monaco, Fabrizio; Napolitano, Giorgio

2014-01-01

30

Identification of a Second Substrate-binding Site in Solute-Sodium Symporters.  

PubMed

The structure of the sodium/galactose transporter (vSGLT), a solute-sodium symporter (SSS) from Vibrio parahaemolyticus, shares a common structural fold with LeuT of the neurotransmitter-sodium symporter family. Structural alignments between LeuT and vSGLT reveal that the crystallographically identified galactose-binding site in vSGLT is located in a more extracellular location relative to the central substrate-binding site (S1) in LeuT. Our computational analyses suggest the existence of an additional galactose-binding site in vSGLT that aligns to the S1 site of LeuT. Radiolabeled galactose saturation binding experiments indicate that, like LeuT, vSGLT can simultaneously bind two substrate molecules under equilibrium conditions. Mutating key residues in the individual substrate-binding sites reduced the molar substrate-to-protein binding stoichiometry to ?1. In addition, the related and more experimentally tractable SSS member PutP (the Na(+)/proline transporter) also exhibits a binding stoichiometry of 2. Targeting residues in the proposed sites with mutations results in the reduction of the binding stoichiometry and is accompanied by severely impaired translocation of proline. Our data suggest that substrate transport by SSS members requires both substrate-binding sites, thereby implying that SSSs and neurotransmitter-sodium symporters share common mechanistic elements in substrate transport. PMID:25398883

Li, Zheng; Lee, Ashley S E; Bracher, Susanne; Jung, Heinrich; Paz, Aviv; Kumar, Jay P; Abramson, Jeff; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

2015-01-01

31

Proton-assisted amino acid transporters are conserved regulators of proliferation and amino acid-dependent mTORC1 activation  

PubMed Central

The PI3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and downstream mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling cascades promote normal growth and are frequently hyperactivated in tumour cells. mTORC1 is also regulated by local nutrients, particularly amino acids, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Unexpectedly, members of the proton-assisted amino acid transporter (PAT or SLC36) family emerged from in vivo genetic screens in Drosophila as transporters with uniquely potent effects on mTORC1-mediated growth. Here we show the two human PATs that are widely expressed in normal tissues and cancer cell lines, PAT1 and PAT4, behave similarly to fly PATs when expressed in Drosophila. siRNA knockdown reveals that these molecules are required for activation of mTORC1 targets and for proliferation in human MCF-7 breast cancer and HEK-293 embryonic kidney cell lines. Furthermore, activation of mTORC1 in starved HEK-293 cells stimulated by amino acids requires PAT1 and PAT4, and is elevated in PAT1-overexpressing cells. Importantly, in HEK-293 cells, PAT1 is highly concentrated in intracellular compartments, including endosomes, where mTOR shuttles upon amino acid stimulation. Our data are therefore consistent with a model in which PATs modulate mTORC1's activity not by transporting amino acids into the cell, but by modulating the intracellular response to amino acids. PMID:20498635

Heublein, S; Kazi, S; Ögmundsdóttir, M H; Attwood, E V; Kala, S; Boyd, C A R; Wilson, C; Goberdhan, D C I

2011-01-01

32

Tumour-specific activation of the sodium\\/iodide symporter gene under control of the glucose transporter gene 1 promoter (GTI1.3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targeted transfer of a functionally active sodium iodide symporter (NIS) into tumour cells may be used for radioiodine therapy of cancer. Therefore, we investigated radioiodine uptake in a hepatoma cell line in vitro and in vivo after transfer of the sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene under the control of a tumour-specific regulatory element, the promoter of the glucose transporter 1

Stephanie Sieger; Shiming Jiang; Frank Schönsiegel; Helmut Eskerski; Wolfgang Kübler; Annette Altmann; Uwe Haberkorn

2003-01-01

33

The iodide-transport-defect-causing mutation R124H: a ?-amino group at position 124 is critical for maturation and trafficking of the Na+/I? symporter  

PubMed Central

Summary Na+/I? symporter (NIS)-mediated active accumulation of I? in thyrocytes is a key step in the biosynthesis of the iodine-containing thyroid hormones T3 and T4. Several NIS mutants have been identified as a cause of congenital I? transport defect (ITD), and their investigation has yielded valuable mechanistic information on NIS. Here we report novel findings derived from the thorough characterization of the ITD-causing mutation R124H, located in the second intracellular loop (IL-2). R124H NIS is incompletely glycosylated and colocalizes with endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein markers. As a result, R124H NIS is not targeted to the plasma membrane and therefore does not mediate any I? transport in transfected COS-7 cells. Strikingly, however, the mutant is intrinsically active, as revealed by its ability to mediate I? transport in membrane vesicles. Of all the amino acid substitutions we carried out at position 124 (K, D, E, A, W, N and Q), only Gln restored targeting of NIS to the plasma membrane and NIS activity, suggesting a key structural role for the ?-amino group of R124 in the transporter's maturation and cell surface targeting. Using our NIS homology model based on the structure of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus Na+/galactose symporter, we propose an interaction between the ?-amino group of either R or Q124 and the thiol group of C440, located in IL-6. We conclude that the interaction between IL-2 and IL-6 is critical for the local folding required for NIS maturation and plasma membrane trafficking. PMID:23690546

Paroder, Viktoriya; Nicola, Juan P.; Ginter, Christopher S.; Carrasco, Nancy

2013-01-01

34

Transport of potassium in Chara australis: II. Kinetics of a symport with sodium.  

PubMed

An electrogenic K(+)-Na+ symport with a high affinity for K+ has been found in Chara (Smith & Walker, 1989). Under voltage-clamp conditions, the symport shows up as a change in membrane current upon adding either K+ or Na+ to the bathing medium in the presence of the other. Estimation of kinetic parameters for this transport has been difficult when using intact cells, since K(+)-Na+ current changes show a rapid falling off with time at K+ concentrations above 50 microM. Cytoplasm-enriched cell fragments are used to overcome this difficulty, since they do not show the rapid falling off of current change seen with intact cells. Current-voltage curves for the membrane in the absence or presence of either K+ or Na+ are obtained, yielding difference current-voltage curves which isolate the symport currents from other transport processes. The kinetic parameters describing this transport are found to be voltage dependent, with Km for K+ ranging from 30 down to 2 microM as membrane potential varies from -140 to -400 mV, and Km for Na+ ranging between 470 and 700 microM over a membrane potential range of -140 to -310 mV. Two different models for this transport system have been investigated. One of these involves the simultaneous transport of both the driver and substrate ions across the membrane, while the other allows for the possibility of the two ions being transported consecutively in two distinct reaction steps. The experimental results are shown to be consistent with either of these cotransport models, but they do suggest that binding of K+ occurs before that of Na+, and that movement of charge across the membrane (the voltage-dependent step) occurs when the transport protein has neither K+ nor Na+ bound to it. PMID:2355393

McCulloch, S R; Beilby, M J; Walker, N A

1990-05-01

35

Oncolytic measles virus expressing the sodium iodide symporter to treat drug-resistant ovarian cancer.  

PubMed

Edmonston vaccine strains of measles virus (MV) have significant antitumor activity in mouse xenograft models of ovarian cancer. MV engineered to express the sodium iodide symporter gene (MV-NIS) facilitates localization of viral gene expression and offers a tool for tumor radiovirotherapy. Here, we report results from a clinical evaluation of MV-NIS in patients with taxol- and platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. MV-NIS was given intraperitoneally every 4 weeks for up to 6 cycles. Treatment was well tolerated and associated with promising median overall survival in these patients with heavily pretreated ovarian cancer; no dose-limiting toxicity was observed in 16 patients treated at high-dose levels (10(8)-10(9) TCID50), and their median overall survival of 26.5 months compared favorably with other contemporary series. MV receptor CD46 and nectin-4 expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in patient tumors. Sodium iodide symporter expression in patient tumors after treatment was confirmed in three patients by (123)I uptake on SPECT/CTs and was associated with long progression-free survival. Immune monitoring posttreatment showed an increase in effector T cells recognizing the tumor antigens IGFBP2 and FR?, indicating that MV-NIS treatment triggered cellular immunity against the patients' tumor and suggesting that an immune mechanism mediating the observed antitumor effect. Our findings support further clinical evaluation of MV-NIS as an effective immunovirotherapy. Cancer Res; 75(1); 22-30. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25398436

Galanis, Evanthia; Atherton, Pamela J; Maurer, Matthew J; Knutson, Keith L; Dowdy, Sean C; Cliby, William A; Haluska, Paul; Long, Harry J; Oberg, Ann; Aderca, Ileana; Block, Matthew S; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie; Federspiel, Mark J; Russell, Stephen J; Kalli, Kimberly R; Keeney, Gary; Peng, Kah Whye; Hartmann, Lynn C

2015-01-01

36

ZrFsy1, a high-affinity fructose/H+ symporter from fructophilic yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.  

PubMed

Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a fructophilic yeast than can grow at very high sugar concentrations. We have identified an ORF encoding a putative fructose/H(+) symporter in the Z. rouxii CBS 732 genome database. Heterologous expression of this ORF in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking its own hexose transporters (hxt-null) and subsequent kinetic characterization of its sugar transport activity showed it is a high-affinity low-capacity fructose/H(+) symporter, with Km 0.45 ± 0.07 mM and Vmax 0.57 ± 0.02 mmol h(-1) (gdw)(-1). We named it ZrFsy1. This protein also weakly transports xylitol and sorbose, but not glucose or other hexoses. The expression of ZrFSY1 in Z. rouxii is higher when the cells are cultivated at extremely low fructose concentrations (<0.2%) and on non-fermentable carbon sources such as mannitol and xylitol, where the cells have a prolonged lag phase, longer duplication times and change their microscopic morphology. A clear phenotype was determined for the first time for the deletion of a fructose/H(+) symporter in the genome where it occurs naturally. The effect of the deletion of ZrFSY1 in Z. rouxii cells is only evident when the cells are cultivated at very low fructose concentrations, when the ZrFsy1 fructose symporter is the main active fructose transporter system. PMID:23844167

Leandro, Maria José; Sychrová, Hana; Prista, Catarina; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C

2013-01-01

37

Chronic metabolic acidosis causes an adaptation in the apical membrane Na/H antiporter and basolateral membrane Na(HCO3)3 symporter in the rat proximal convoluted tubule.  

PubMed

The effect of chronic dietary acid on the apical membrane Na/H antiporter and basolateral membrane Na(HCO3)3 symporter was examined in the in vivo microperfused rat proximal tubule. Transporter activity was assayed with the epifluorescent measurement of cell pH using the intracellular, pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, (2'7')-bis(carboxyethyl)-(5,6)-carboxy-fluorescein (BCECF). BCECF was calibrated intracellularly, demonstrating similar pH-sensitivity of the dye in control and acidotic animals. In subsequent studies, lumen and peritubular capillaries were perfused to examine Na/H and Na(HCO3)3 transporter activity in the absence of contact with native fluid. The initial rate of change in cell pH (dpHi/dt) was 97, 50, and 44% faster in tubules from acidotic animals when peritubular [HCO3] was changed from 25 to 10 mM in the presence or absence of chloride, or peritubular [Na] was changed from 147 to 50 mM, respectively. dpHi/dt was 57% faster in tubules from acidotic animals when luminal [Na] was changed from 152 to 0 mM. Buffer capacities, measured using NH3/NH+4 addition, were similar in the two groups. The results demonstrate that chronic metabolic acidosis causes an adaptation in the intrinsic properties of both the apical membrane Na/H antiporter and basolateral membrane Na(HCO3)3 symporter. PMID:2844858

Preisig, P A; Alpern, R J

1988-10-01

38

Visualization of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor1 Transcriptional Activation in C6 Glioma Using Luciferase and Sodium Iodide Symporter Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor of hy- poxic response in cancer cells and is associated with tumor pro- gression, angiogenesis, metastasis, and resistance to therapy. We assessed whether the human sodium iodide symporter (NIS)reportersystemscanbeusedtovisualizetranscriptionalac- tivation of HIF-1 in C6 glioma. Methods: Two types of plasmid- expressing human NIS or luciferase (Luc) genes, controlled by 5copiesofhypoxiaresponseelement(5HRE),wereconstructed: p5HRE-NIS or p5HRE-Luc.

Chan Joo Yeom; June-Key Chung; Joo Hyun Kang; Yong Hyun Jeon; Kwang Il Kim; Yong Nan Jin; You Mie Lee; Jae Min Jeong; Dong Soo Lee

2008-01-01

39

Establishment of radioactive astatine and iodine uptake in cancer cell lines expressing the human sodium\\/iodide symporter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sodium\\/iodide symporter (NIS) has been recognized as an attractive target for radioiodine-mediated cancer gene therapy. In this study we investigated the role of human NIS for cellular uptake of the high LET !-emitter astatine-211 (211At) in comparison with radioiodine as a potential radionuclide for future applications. A mammalian NIS expression vector was constructed and used to generate six stable

T. Petrich; H.-J. Helmeke; G. J. Meyer; W. H. Knapp; E. Pötter

2002-01-01

40

A mechanism for intracellular release of Na+ by neurotransmitter/sodium symporters.  

PubMed

Neurotransmitter/sodium symporters (NSSs) terminate synaptic signal transmission by Na+-dependent reuptake of released neurotransmitters. Key conformational states have been reported for the bacterial homolog LeuT and an inhibitor-bound Drosophila dopamine transporter. However, a coherent mechanism of Na+-driven transport has not been described. Here, we present two crystal structures of MhsT, an NSS member from Bacillus halodurans, in occluded inward-facing states with bound Na+ ions and L-tryptophan, providing insight into the cytoplasmic release of Na+. The switch from outward- to inward-oriented states is centered on the partial unwinding of transmembrane helix 5, facilitated by a conserved GlyX9Pro motif that opens an intracellular pathway for water to access the Na2 site. We propose a mechanism, based on our structural and functional findings, in which solvation through the TM5 pathway facilitates Na+ release from Na2 and the transition to an inward-open state. PMID:25282149

Malinauskaite, Lina; Quick, Matthias; Reinhard, Linda; Lyons, Joseph A; Yano, Hideaki; Javitch, Jonathan A; Nissen, Poul

2014-11-01

41

Renal metastases from thyroid papillary carcinoma: study of sodium iodide symporter expression.  

PubMed

Kidney metastases from thyroid cancer are rare. We report two such patients and demonstrate that the in vivo 131I uptake by the kidney metastasis is associated with high levels of sodium iodide (Na+/I-) symporter (NIS) expression in the first case. Case 1: A 61-year-old woman with papillary thyroid carcinoma-follicular variant (PTC-FV) presented with scapular metastasis. After thyroidectomy and scapulectomy, a 131I posttherapy scan showed left upper quadrant uptake. A 3.0-cm metastatic PTC-FV deposit was removed by partial nephrectomy. Case 2: A 53-year-old woman presented with back pain. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed a 3.5-cm renal mass, a multinodular goiter, and lung metastases thought secondary to a renal cell carcinoma. A unilateral nephrectomy revealed metastatic PTC-FV. After thyroidectomy, a 131I posttherapy scan showed lung and skeletal metastases. NIS immunoreactivity in tumoral tissue was strongly positive in the primary tumor, shoulder, and kidney metastasis in case 1, as well as in the primary tumor in case 2. Spotty, low-level NIS expression was observed in the kidney metastasis in case 2. In conclusion, kidney metastases of PTC-FV may occasionally retain adequate levels of NIS expression, enabling their detection during life. Thus, intense uptake in the abdomen during 131I imaging should not be assumed to be physiological gastrointestinal tract residual radionuclide activity. PMID:11525275

Smallridge, R C; Castro, M R; Morris, J C; Young, P R; Reynolds, J C; Merino, M J; Sarlis, N J

2001-08-01

42

Sodium Iodide Symporter for Nuclear Molecular Imaging and Gene Therapy: From Bedside to Bench and Back  

PubMed Central

Molecular imaging, defined as the visual representation, characterization and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels within intact living organisms, can be obtained by various imaging technologies, including nuclear imaging methods. Imaging of normal thyroid tissue and differentiated thyroid cancer, and treatment of thyroid cancer with radioiodine rely on the expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in these cells. NIS is an intrinsic membrane protein with 13 transmembrane domains and it takes up iodide into the cytosol from the extracellular fluid. By transferring NIS function to various cells via gene transfer, the cells can be visualized with gamma or positron emitting radioisotopes such as Tc-99m, I-123, I-131, I-124 and F-18 tetrafluoroborate, which are accumulated by NIS. They can also be treated with beta- or alpha-emitting radionuclides, such as I-131, Re-186, Re-188 and At-211, which are also accumulated by NIS. This article demonstrates the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of NIS as a radionuclide-based reporter gene for trafficking cells and a therapeutic gene for treating cancers. PMID:22539935

Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

2012-01-01

43

Mammary radioiodine accumulation due to functional sodium iodide symporter expression in a benign fibroadenoma  

SciTech Connect

The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) has been characterized to mediate the active transport of iodide not only in the thyroid gland but also in various non-thyroidal tissues, including lactating mammary gland and the majority of breast cancers, thereby offering the possibility of diagnostic and therapeutic radioiodine application in breast cancer. In this report, we present a 57-year-old patient with multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma, who showed focal radioiodine accumulation in a lesion in the right breast on a posttherapy {sup 131}I scan following radioiodine therapy. CT and MR-mammography showed a focal solid lesion in the right breast suggestive of a fibroadenoma, which was confirmed by histological examination. Immunostaining of paraffin-embedded tumor tissue sections using a human NIS antibody demonstrated NIS-specific immunoreactivity confined to epithelial cells of mammary ducts. In conclusion, in a thyroid cancer patient we identified a benign fibroadenoma of the breast expressing high levels of functionally active NIS protein as underlying cause of focal mammary radioiodine accumulation on a posttherapy {sup 131}I scan. These data show for the first time that functional NIS expression is not restricted to lactating mammary gland and malignant breast tissue, but can also be detected in benign breast lesions, such as fibroadenomata of the breast.

Berger, F. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich (Germany); Unterholzner, S. [Department of Internal Medicine II, Klinikum Grosshadern, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich (Germany); Diebold, J. [Department of Pathology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich (Germany); Knesewitsch, P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich (Germany); Hahn, K. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich (Germany); Spitzweg, C. [Department of Internal Medicine II, Klinikum Grosshadern, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: Christine.Spitzweg@med.uni-muenchen.de

2006-11-03

44

The Biology of the Sodium Iodide Symporter and its Potential for Targeted Gene Delivery  

PubMed Central

The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is responsible for thyroidal, salivary, gastric, intestinal and mammary iodide uptake. It was first cloned from the rat in 1996 and shortly thereafter from human and mouse tissue. In the intervening years, we have learned a great deal about the biology of NIS. Detailed knowledge of its genomic structure, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation and pharmacological modulation has underpinned the selection of NIS as an exciting approach for targeted gene delivery. A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the potential of using NIS gene therapy as a means of delivering highly conformal radiation doses selectively to tumours. This strategy is particularly attractive because it can be used with both diagnostic (99mTc, 125I, 124I) and therapeutic (131I, 186Re, 188Re, 211At) radioisotopes and it lends itself to incorporation with standard treatment modalities, such as radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. In this article, we review the biology of NIS and discuss its development for gene therapy. PMID:20201784

Hingorani, M.; Spitzweg, C.; Vassaux, G.; Newbold, K.; Melcher, A.; Pandha, H.; Vile, R.; Harrington, K.

2013-01-01

45

Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in extrathyroidal malignancies: focus on breast and urological cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Expression and function of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is requisite for efficient iodide transport in thyrocytes, and its presence in cancer cells allows the use of radioiodine as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in thyroid neoplasia. Discovery of NIS expression in extrathyroidal tissues, including transformed cells, has opened a novel field of research regarding NIS-expressing extrathyroidal neoplasia. Indeed, expression of NIS may be used as a biomarker for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic purposes. Moreover, stimulation of endogenous NIS expression may permit the radioiodine treatment of extrathyroidal lesions by concentrating this radioisotope. Results This review describes recent findings in NIS research in extrathyroidal malignancies, focusing on breast and urological cancer, emphasizing the most relevant developments that may have clinical impact. Conclusions Given the recent progress in the study of NIS regulation as molecular basis for new therapeutic approaches in extrathyroidal cancers, particular attention is given to studies regarding the relationship between NIS and clinical-pathological aspects of the tumors and the regulation of NIS expression in the experimental models. PMID:24884806

2014-01-01

46

Novel renal amino acid transporters.  

PubMed

Reabsorption of amino acids, similar to that of glucose, is a major task of the proximal kidney tubule. Various amino acids are actively transported across the luminal brush border membrane into proximal tubule epithelial cells, most of which by cotransport. An important player is the newly identified cotransporter (symporter) B0AT1 (SLC6A19), which imports a broad range of neutral amino acids together with Na+ across the luminal membrane and which is defective in Hartnup disorder. In contrast, cationic amino acids and cystine are taken up in exchange for recycled neutral amino acids by the heterodimeric cystinuria transporter. The basolateral release of some neutral amino acids into the extracellular space is mediated by unidirectional efflux transporters, analogous to GLUT2, that have not yet been definitively identified. Additionally, cationic amino acids and some other neutral amino acids leave the cell basolaterally via heterodimeric obligatory exchangers. PMID:15709970

Verrey, François; Ristic, Zorica; Romeo, Elisa; Ramadan, Tamara; Makrides, Victoria; Dave, Mital H; Wagner, Carsten A; Camargo, Simone M R

2005-01-01

47

Effects of perchlorate on sodium-iodide symporter and pendrin gene expression in deer mice.  

PubMed

Effects of perchlorate on sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) and pendrin gene expression in deer mice kidney and stomach were investigated. This was accomplished by isolating a partial cDNA sequence of deer mice NIS gene of 425 bps, and quantitatively analyzing NIS mRNA expression in various deer mouse tissues. The highest NIS expression level was in the stomach, followed by testes, brain, and large intestine; very low expression of NIS was observed in the lung, kidney, heart, and liver. Exposure to perchlorate through drinking water for 28 days did not significantly increase NIS gene expression in the kidney and stomach, and pendrin gene expression in the kidney. In a depuration experiment in which deer mice were exposed to perchlorate for 8-h followed by an 88-h depuration period, no significant difference was observed between the low and high exposure groups in terms of NIS or pendrin gene expression in the kidney or stomach at the end of the experiment. Furthermore, no significant linear relationship was observed between gene expression (either NIS or pendrin) in the kidney and perchlorate mass excreted via urine at day 28, average daily excretion, or total excretion mass over the 28 day exposure. Several factors could influence the effect of perchlorate exposure on NIS and pendrin gene expression in the stomach and kidney, including (1) pre-exposure to trace perchlorate through food and water perhaps resulting in adaptation (or tolerance) in these animals; (2) metabolism of perchlorate in deer mice causing only 46-61% perchlorate excreted into urine. It is also possible that there is no effect of perchlorate exposure and/or urinary excretion on NIS and pendrin gene expression, particularly in the kidney. PMID:17607730

Cheng, Qiuqiong; Smith, Ernest E; Liu, Fujun; Gentle, Angela; Hooper, Michael J; Anderson, Todd A

2007-08-01

48

Synthesis and biological evaluation of [18F]tetrafluoroborate: a PET imaging agent for thyroid disease and reporter gene imaging of the sodium/iodide symporter  

PubMed Central

Purpose The human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) is a well-established target in thyroid disease and reporter gene imaging using gamma emitters 123I-iodide, 131I-iodide and 99mTc-pertechnetate. However, no PET imaging agent is routinely available. The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate 18F-labelled tetrafluoroborate ([18F]TFB) for PET imaging of hNIS. Methods [18F]TFB was prepared by isotopic exchange of BF4? with [18F]fluoride in hot hydrochloric acid and purified using an alumina column. Its identity, purity and stability in serum were determined by HPLC, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and mass spectrometry. Its interaction with NIS was assessed in vitro using FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells, with and without stimulation by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), in the presence and absence of perchlorate. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were performed using BALB/c mice, with and without perchlorate inhibition. Results [18F]TFB was readily prepared with specific activity of 10 GBq/mg. It showed rapid accumulation in FRTL-5 cells that was stimulated by TSH and inhibited by perchlorate, and rapid specific accumulation in vivo in thyroid (SUV?=?72 after 1 h) and stomach that was inhibited 95% by perchlorate. Conclusion [18F]TFB is an easily prepared PET imaging agent for rodent NIS and should be evaluated for hNIS PET imaging in humans. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00259-010-1523-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20577737

Jauregui-Osoro, Maite; Sunassee, Kavitha; Weeks, Amanda J.; Berry, David J.; Paul, Rowena L.; Cleij, Marcel; Banga, Jasvinder Paul; O’Doherty, Michael J.; Marsden, Paul K.; Clarke, Susan E. M.; Ballinger, James R.; Szanda, Istvan; Cheng, Sheue-Yann

2010-01-01

49

Monoclonal antibodies that bind the renal Na/sup +//glucose symport system. 2. Stabilization of an active conformation  

SciTech Connect

Conformation-dependent fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeling of the pig renal Na/sup +//glucose symporter was investigated with specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb's). When renal brush border membranes were pretreated with phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC), washed, and then treated at neutral pH with FITC in the presence of transporter substrates Na/sup +/ and glucose, most of the incorporated fluorescence was associated with a single peak after resolution by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The apparent molecular mass of the FITC-labeled species ranged from 79 to 92 kDa. Labeling of this peak was specifically reduced by 70% if Na/sup +/ and glucose were omitted. Na/sup +/ could not be replaced by K/sup +/, Rb/sup +/, or Li/sup +/. FITC labeling of this peak was also stimulated after incubation of membranes with MAb's known to influence high-affinity phlorizin binding, and stimulation was synergistically increased when MAb's were added in the presence of Na/sup +/ and glucose. Substrate-induced or MAb-induced labeling correlated with inactivation of Na/sup +/-dependent phlorizin binding. MAb's recognized an antigen of 75 kDa in the native membranes whereas substrate-induced FITC labeling was accompanied by loss of antigen recognition and protection from proteolysis. These findings are consistent with a model in which MAb's stabilize a Na/sup +/-induced active conformer of the Na/sup +//glucose symport system.

Wu, J.S.R.; Lever, J.E.

1987-09-08

50

ATP-dependent phosphorylation of serine-46 in the phosphocarrier protein HPr regulates lactose/H+ symport in Lactobacillus brevis.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus brevis takes up lactose and the nonmetabolizable lactose analogue thiomethyl beta-galactoside (TMG) by a permease-catalyzed lactose/H+ symport mechanism. Earlier studies have shown that TMG, previously accumulated in L. brevis cells, rapidly effluxes from the cells upon addition of glucose, and that glucose inhibits further uptake of TMG. We have developed a vesicular system to analyze this regulatory mechanism and have used electroporation to shock proteins and membrane-impermeant metabolites into the vesicles. Uptake of TMG was dependent on an energy source, effectively provided by intravesicular ATP or extravesicular arginine. TMG uptake into these vesicles was not inhibited, and preaccumulated TMG did not efflux from them upon addition of glucose. Intravesicular but not extravesicular wild-type phosphocarrier protein HPr of Bacillus subtilis restored regulation. Glucose could be replaced by intravesicular (but not extravesicular) fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, gluconate 6-phosphate, or 2-phosphoglycerate, but not by other phosphorylated metabolites, in agreement with the allosteric activating effects of these compounds on HPr(Ser) kinase measured in vitro. Intravesicular serine-46-->alanine mutant HPr cold not promote regulation of lactose permease activity when electroporated into the vesicles with or without glucose or the various phosphorylated metabolites, but the serine-46-->aspartate mutant HPr promoted regulation, even in the absence of glucose or a metabolite. HPr(Ser-P) appears to convert the lactose/H+ symporter into a sugar uniporter. These results establish that HPr serine phosphorylation by the ATP-dependent metabolite-activated HPr kinase regulates lactose permease activity in L. brevis. A direct allosteric mechanism is proposed. PMID:8159711

Ye, J J; Reizer, J; Cui, X; Saier, M H

1994-04-12

51

Relative Potencies and Additivity of Perchlorate, Thiocyanate, Nitrate, and Iodide on the Inhibition of Radioactive Iodide Uptake by the Human Sodium Iodide Symporter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of perchlorate (ClO4 - ) in some U.S. drinking water supplies has raised concern about potential adverse thyroidal health effects, because ClO4 - is known to competitively inhibit iodide uptake at the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS). Humans are nutritionally and environmentally exposed to other competitive inhibitors of iodide uptake, including thiocyanate (SCN-) and nitrate (NO3 - ). The joint

Massimo Tonacchera; Aldo Pinchera; Antonio Dimida; Eleonora Ferrarini; Patrizia Agretti; Paolo Vitti; Ferruccio Santini; Kenny Crump; John Gibbs

2004-01-01

52

B-RafV600E inhibits sodium iodide symporter expression via regulation of DNA methyltransferase 1  

PubMed Central

B-RafV600E mutant is found in 40–70% of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and has an important role in the pathogenesis of PTC. The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is an integral plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates active iodide transport into the thyroid follicular cells, and B-RafV600E has been known to be associated with the loss of NIS expression. In this study, we found that B-RafV600E inhibited NIS expression by the upregulation of its promoter methylation, and that specific regions of CpG islands of NIS promoter in B-RafV600E harboring PTC were highly methylated compared with surrounding normal tissue. Although DNA methyltransferase 3a and 3b (DNMT3a,3b) were not increased by B-RafV600E, DNMT1 expression was markedly upregulated in PTC and B-RafV600E expressing thyrocytes. Furthermore, DNMT1 expression was upregulated by B-RafV600E induced NF-?B activation. These results led us to conclude that NIS promoter methylation, which was induced by B-RafV600E, is one of the possible mechanisms involved in NIS downregulation in PTC. PMID:25378232

Choi, Yong Won; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Young Hwa; Park, So Hyun; Chwae, Yong Jun; Lee, Jeonghun; Soh, Euy Young; Kim, Jang-Hee; Park, Tae Jun

2014-01-01

53

Relationship between Apoptosis Imaging and Radioiodine Therapy in Tumor Cells with Different Sodium Iodide Symporter Gene Expression.  

PubMed

AbstractThe therapeutic efficacy of radioiodine (131I) therapy has been reported to be variable among cancer patients and even between metastatic regions in the same patients. Because the expression level of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) cannot reflect the efficacy of therapy, other strategies are required to predict the precise therapeutic effect of 131I therapy. In this research, we investigated the correlation between iodine (I) uptake, apoptosis imaging, and therapeutic efficacy. Two HT29 cell lines, cytomegalovirus (CMV)-NIS (or NIS+++) and TERT-NIS (or NIS+), were established by retroviral transfection. I uptake was estimated by I-uptake assay and gamma camera imaging. Apoptosis was evaluated by confocal microscopy and a Maestro fluorescence imaging system (CRi Inc., Woburn, MA) using ApoFlamma (BioACTs, Seoul, Korea), a fluorescent dye-conjugated apoptosis-targeting peptide 1 (ApoPep-1). Therapeutic efficacy was determined by tumor size. The CMV-NIS showed higher I uptake and ApoFlamma signals than TERT-NIS. In xenograft models, CMV-NIS also showed high 99m technetium signals and ApoFlamma signals. Tumor reduction had a stronger correlation with apoptosis imaging signals than with gamma camera imaging signals, which reflect I uptake. Higher NIS-expressing tumors showed increased apoptosis and I uptake, resulting in a significant tumor reduction. Moreover, tumor reduction showed a strong correlation with ApoFlamma imaging compared to I-uptake imaging. PMID:25431214

Jung, Kyung Oh; Youn, Hyewon; Kim, Young-Hwa; Kim, Seunghoo; Na, Juri; Kim, Yong-Il; Park, Jin Woo; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key

2014-11-01

54

A Steep Radioiodine Dose Response Scalable to Humans in Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) Mediated Radiovirotherapy for Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) directs the uptake and concentration of iodide in thyroid cells. We have extended the use of NIS-mediated radioiodine therapy to prostate cancer. We have developed a prostate tumor specific conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAd) that expresses hNIS (Ad5PB_RSV-NIS). For radiovirotherapy to be effective in humans, the radioiodine dose administered in the pre-clinical animal model should scale to the range of acceptable doses in humans. We performed 131I dose-response experiments aiming to determine the dose required in mice to achieve efficient radiovirotherapy. Efficacy was determined by measuring tumor growth and survival times. We observed that individual tumors display disparate growth rates which preclude averaging within a treatment modality indicating heterogeneity of growth rate. We further show that a statistic and stochastic approach must be used when comparing the effect of an anti-cancer therapy on a cohort of tumors. Radiovirotherapy improves therapeutic value over virotherapy alone by slowing the rate of tumor growth in a more substantial manner leading to an increase in survival time. We also show that the radioiodine doses needed to achieve this increase scaled well within the current doses used for treatment of thyroid cancer in humans. PMID:23037808

Trujillo, Miguel A.; Oneal, Michael J.; McDonough, Samantha; Qin, Rui; Morris, John C.

2012-01-01

55

Cd2+ versus Zn2+ Uptake by the ZIP8 HCO3?-Dependent Symporter: Kinetics, Electrogenicity and Trafficking  

PubMed Central

The mouse Slc39a8 gene encodes the ZIP8 transporter, which has been shown to be a divalent cation/HCO3? symporter. Using ZIP8 cRNA-injected Xenopus oocyte cultures, we show herein that: [a] ZIP8-mediated cadmium (Cd2+) and zinc (Zn2+) uptake have Vmax values of 1.8 ± 0.08 and 1.0 ± 0.08 pmol/oocyte/hour, and Km values of 0.48 ± 0.08 and 0.26 ± 0.09 ?M, respectively; [b] ZIP8-mediated Cd2+ uptake is most inhibited by Zn2+, second-best inhibited by Cu2+, Pb2+ and Hg2+, and not inhibited by Mn2+ or Fe2+; and [c] electrogenicity studies demonstrate an influx of two HCO3? anions per one Cd2+ (or one Zn2+) cation, i.e. electroneutral complexes. Using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) polarized epithelial cells retrovirally-infected with ZIP8 cDNA and tagged with hemagglutinin at the C-terminus, we show that—similar to ZIP4—the ZIP8 eight-transmembrane protein is largely internalized during Zn2+ homeostasis, but moves predominantly to the cell surface membrane (trafficking) under conditions of Zn2+ depletion. PMID:18037372

Liu, Zhiwei; Li, Hong; Soleimani, Manoocher; Girijashanker, Kuppuswami; Reed, Jodie M.; He, Lei; Dalton, Timothy P.; Nebert, Daniel W.

2007-01-01

56

Targeting of tumor radioiodine therapy by expression of the sodium iodide symporter under control of the survivin promoter  

PubMed Central

To test the feasibility of using the survivin promoter to induce specific expression of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) in cancer cell lines and tumors for targeted use of radionuclide therapy, a recombinant adenovirus, Ad-SUR-NIS, that expressed the NIS gene under control of the survivin promoter was constructed. Ad-SUR-NIS mediating iodide uptake and cytotoxicity was performed in vitro. Scintigraphic, biodistribution and radioiodine therapy studies were performed in vivo. PC-3 (prostate); HepG2 (hepatoma) and A375 (melanoma) cancer cells all exhibited perchlorate-sensitive iodide uptake after infection with Ad-SUR-NIS, ?50 times higher than that of negative control Ad-CMV-GFP-infected cells. No significant iodide uptake was observed in normal human dental pulp fibroblast (DPF) cells after infection with Ad-SUR-NIS. Clonogenic assays demonstrated that Ad-SUR-NIS-infected cancer cells were selectively killed by exposure to 131I. Ad-SUR-NIS-infected tumors show significant radioiodine accumulation (13.3±2.85% ID per g at 2?h post-injection), and the effective half-life was 3.1?h. Moreover, infection with Ad-SUR-NIS in combination with 131I suppressed tumor growth. These results indicate that expression of NIS under control of the survivin promoter can likely be used to achieve cancer-specific expression of NIS in many types of cancers. In combination with radioiodine therapy, this strategy is a possible method of cancer gene therapy. PMID:21037556

Huang, R; Zhao, Z; Ma, X; Li, S; Gong, R; Kuang, A

2011-01-01

57

Therapeutic Effect of Sodium Iodide Symporter Gene Therapy Combined With External Beam Radiotherapy and Targeted Drugs That Inhibit DNA Repair  

PubMed Central

Adenoviral (AdV) transfer of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene has translational potential, but relatively low levels of transduction and subsequent radioisotope uptake limit the efficacy of the approach. In previous studies, we showed that combining NIS gene delivery with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and DNA damage repair inhibitors increased viral gene expression and radioiodide uptake. Here, we report the therapeutic efficacy of this strategy. An adenovirus expressing NIS from a telomerase promoter (Ad-hTR-NIS) was cytotoxic combined with relatively high-dose (50 µCi) 131I therapy and enhanced the efficacy of EBRT combined with low-dose (10 and 25 µCi) 131I therapy in colorectal and head and neck cancer cells. Combining this approach with ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) or DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) inhibition caused maintenance of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) at 24 hours and increased cytotoxicity on clonogenic assay. When the triplet of NIS-mediated 131I therapy, EBRT, and DNA-PKi was used in vivo, 90% of mice were tumor-free at 5 weeks. Acute radiation toxicity in the EBRT field was not exacerbated. In contrast, DNA-PKi did not enhance the therapeutic efficacy of EBRT plus adenovirus-mediated HSVtk/ganciclovir (GCV). Therefore, combining NIS gene therapy and EBRT represents an ideal strategy to exploit the therapeutic benefits of novel radiosensitizers. PMID:20588260

Hingorani, Mohan; White, Christine L; Zaidi, Shane; Pandha, Hardev S; Melcher, Alan A; Bhide, Shreerang A; Nutting, Christopher M; Syrigos, Konstantinos N; Vile, Richard G; Vassaux, Georges; Harrington, Kevin J

2010-01-01

58

Radioiodide treatment after sodium iodide symporter gene transfer is a highly effective therapy in neuroendocrine tumor cells.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the possibility of treating Bon1 and QGP pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cells with radioactive iodide ((131)I) after stable transfection with the thyroid sodium iodide symporter (NIS). NIS expression was driven either by the strong viral cytomegalovirus promoter or by the tissue-specific chromogranin A promoter. Using either approach, NIS expression was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting. Uptake of radioactive iodide was increased approximately 20-fold by chromogranin A promoter-driven NIS expression and approximately 50-fold by cytomegalovirus promoter-driven NIS expression. Maximal uptake was reached within 15 min in QGP cells and 30 min in Bon1 cells. Effective half-life was 5 min in QGP and 30 min in Bon1 cells. No evidence of organification was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. (131)I was a highly effective treatment in NIS-expressing QGP and Bon1 cells, reducing clone formation by 99.83 and 98.75%, respectively, in the in vitro clonogenic assay. In contrast, clone formation was not reduced in QGP and Bon1 cells without NIS expression after incubation with the same activity concentration of (131)I as compared with mock treated cells. Absorbed doses to QGP and Bon1 cells are up to 150 and 30 Gy, respectively. In addition, a direct cytotoxic effect of radioiodide was demonstrated in NIS-expressing Bon1 cells after (131)I incubation. In conclusion, radioiodide treatment after NIS gene transfer appears to be a promising novel approach in the therapy of neuroendocrine tumors if its highly encouraging in vitro effectiveness can be transferred to the in vivo situation. PMID:12649195

Schipper, Meike L; Weber, Alexander; Béhé, Martin; Göke, Rüdiger; Joba, Werner; Schmidt, Harald; Bert, Till; Simon, Babette; Arnold, Rudolf; Heufelder, Armin E; Behr, Thomas M

2003-03-15

59

Endogenous expression of the sodium iodide symporter mediates uptake of iodide in murine models of colorectal carcinoma.  

PubMed

The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) mediates iodide uptake into the thyroid. Because of this mechanism, differentiated thyroid cancer is susceptible for radioiodine therapy. Functional NIS expression in extrathyroidal tumors has been reported mainly in breast cancer. We screened colorectal tumors for NIS expression and investigated the mechanisms regulating NIS activity. Cell lines were screened for iodide uptake in vitro and NIS expression was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting. Iodide and pertechnetate uptake were evaluated in allograft tumors by biodistribution studies and scintigraphy. Tumors of transgenic mouse models for colorectal cancer harboring mutations in the oncogenes KRAS, beta-catenin or the tumor-suppressor gene adenomatous-polyposis coli (APC) were screened for NIS expression by RT-PCR. In vitro, functional NIS activity was detected in murine CMT93 rectal carcinoma cells and NIS expression was verified on mRNA and protein level. Inhibition of tyrosine kinases increased iodide uptake. Inhibition of tyrosine phosphatases decreased iodide uptake. In vivo, functional NIS expression was preserved in CMT93 tumors and tumor uptake could be enhanced by treatment of mice with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In transgenic murine models of colorectal cancer, 14% of endogenous tumors expressed elevated levels of NIS mRNA. We conclude that NIS is functionally expressed in a subset of murine colorectal tumors and its activity is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Therefore, with specific tyrosine kinase inhibition, these tumors might be susceptible for radioiodine treatment. Further studies are justified to identify the specific pathways regulating NIS activity and to transfer these findings to human cell lines and tissues. PMID:19569179

Gaertner, Florian C; Rohde, Franziska; Mueller, Jan; Blechert, Birgit; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Essler, Markus

2009-12-15

60

NMR observation of substrate in the binding site of an active sugar-H+ symport protein in native membranes.  

PubMed Central

NMR methods have been adopted to observe directly the characteristics of substrate binding to the galactose-H+ symport protein GalP, in its native environment, the inner membranes of Escherichia coli. Sedimented inner-membrane vesicles containing the GalP protein, overexpressed to levels above 50% of total protein, were analyzed by 13C magic-angle spinning NMR, when in their normal "fluid" state and with incorporated D-[1-13C]glucose. Using conditions of cross-polarization intended to discriminate bound substrate alone, it was possible to detect as little as 250 nmol of substrate added to the membranes containing about 0.5 mumol (approximately 26 mg) of GalP protein. Such high measuring sensitivity was possible from the fluid membranes by virtue of their motional contributions to rapid relaxation recovery of the observed nuclei and due to a high-resolution response that approached the static field inhomogeneity in these experiments. This good spectral resolution showed that the native state of the membranes presents a substrate binding environment with high structural homogeneity. Inhibitors of the GalP protein, cytochalasin B and forskolin, which are specific, and D-galactose, but not L-galactose, prevent or suppress detection of the 13C-labeled glucose substrate, confirming that the observed signal was due to specific interactions with the GalP protein. This specific substrate binding exhibits a preference for the beta-anomer of D-glucose and substrate translocation is determined to be slow, on the 10(-2) s time scale. The work describes a straightforward NMR approach, which achieves high sensitivity, selectivity, and resolution for nuclei associated with complex membrane proteins and which may be combined with other NMR methodologies to yield additional structural information on the binding site for the current transport system without isolating it from its native membrane environment. Images PMID:8171005

Spooner, P J; Rutherford, N G; Watts, A; Henderson, P J

1994-01-01

61

The sodium/iodide symporter NIS is a transcriptional target of the p53-family members in liver cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Thyroid iodide accumulation via the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS; SLC5A5) has been the basis for the longtime use of radio-iodide in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancers. NIS is also expressed, but poorly functional, in some non-thyroid human cancers. In particular, it is much more strongly expressed in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines than in primary human hepatocytes (PHH). The transcription factors and signaling pathways that control NIS overexpression in these cancers is largely unknown. We identified two putative regulatory clusters of p53-responsive elements (p53REs) in the NIS core promoter, and investigated the regulation of NIS transcription by p53-family members in liver cancer cells. NIS promoter activity and endogenous NIS mRNA expression are stimulated by exogenously expressed p53-family members and significantly reduced by member-specific siRNAs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis shows that the p53–REs clusters in the NIS promoter are differentially occupied by the p53-family members to regulate basal and DNA damage-induced NIS transcription. Doxorubicin strongly induces p53 and p73 binding to the NIS promoter, leading to an increased expression of endogenous NIS mRNA and protein in HCC and CCA cells, but not in PHH. Silencing NIS expression reduced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in HCC cells, pointing to a possible role of a p53-family-dependent expression of NIS in apoptotic cell death. Altogether, these results indicate that the NIS gene is a direct target of the p53 family and suggests that the modulation of NIS by DNA-damaging agents is potentially exploitable to boost NIS upregulation in vivo. PMID:24052075

Guerrieri, F; Piconese, S; Lacoste, C; Schinzari, V; Testoni, B; Valogne, Y; Gerbal-Chaloin, S; Samuel, D; Bréchot, C; Faivre, J; Levrero, M

2013-01-01

62

Optimization of Multimodal Imaging of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using the Human Sodium Iodide Symporter for PET and Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging  

PubMed Central

Purpose The use of stably integrated reporter gene imaging provides a manner to monitor the in vivo fate of engrafted cells over time in a non-invasive manner. Here, we optimized multimodal imaging (small-animal PET, Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI)) of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), by means of the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) and firefly luciferase (Fluc) as reporters. Methods First, two multicistronic lentiviral vectors (LV) were generated for multimodal imaging: BLI, 124I PET/SPECT and CLI. Expression of the imaging reporter genes was validated in vitro using 99mTcO4? radioligand uptake experiments and BLI. Uptake kinetics, specificity and tracer elution were determined as well as the effect of the transduction process on the cell's differentiation capacity. MSCs expressing the LV were injected intravenously or subcutaneously and imaged using small-animal PET, CLI and BLI. Results The expression of both imaging reporter genes was functional and specific. An elution of 99mTcO4? from the cells was observed, with 31% retention after 3 h. After labeling cells with 124I in vitro, a significantly higher CLI signal was noted in hNIS expressing murine MSCs. Furthermore, it was possible to visualize cells injected intravenously using BLI or subcutaneously in mice, using 124I small-animal PET, CLI and BLI. Conclusions This study identifies hNIS as a suitable reporter gene for molecular imaging with PET and CLI, as confirmed with BLI through the expression of Fluc. It supports the potential for a wider application of hNIS reporter gene imaging and future clinical applications. PMID:24747914

Wolfs, Esther; Holvoet, Bryan; Gijsbers, Rik; Casteels, Cindy; Roberts, Scott J.; Struys, Tom; Maris, Michael; Ibrahimi, Abdelilah; Debyser, Zeger; Van Laere, Koen; Verfaillie, Catherine M.; Deroose, Christophe M.

2014-01-01

63

Treatment of medulloblastoma using an oncolytic measles virus encoding the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter shows enhanced efficacy with radioiodine  

PubMed Central

Background Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. Although the clinical outcome for medulloblastoma patients has improved significantly, children afflicted with the disease frequently suffer from debilitating side effects related to the aggressive nature of currently available therapy. Alternative means for treating medulloblastoma are desperately needed. We have previously shown that oncolytic measles virus (MV) can selectively target and destroy medulloblastoma tumor cells in localized and disseminated models of the disease. MV-NIS, an oncolytic measles virus that encodes the human thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS), has the potential to deliver targeted radiotherapy to the tumor site and promote a localized bystander effect above and beyond that achieved by MV alone. Methods We evaluated the efficacy of MV-NIS against medulloblastoma cells in vitro and examined their ability to incorporate radioiodine at various timepoints, finding peak uptake at 48 hours post infection. The effects of MV-NIS were also evaluated in mouse xenograft models of localized and disseminated medulloblastoma. Athymic nude mice were injected with D283med-Luc medulloblastoma cells in the caudate putamen (localized disease) or right lateral ventricle (disseminated disease) and subsequently treated with MV-NIS. Subsets of these mice were given a dose of 131I at 24, 48 or 72 hours later. Results MV-NIS treatment, both by itself and in combination with 131I, elicited tumor stabilization and regression in the treated mice and significantly extended their survival times. Mice given 131I were found to concentrate radioiodine at the site of their tumor implantations. In addition, mice with localized tumors that were given 131I either 24 or 48 hours after MV-NIS treatment exhibited a significant survival advantage over mice given MV-NIS alone. Conclusions These data suggest MV-NIS plus radioiodine may be a potentially useful therapy for the treatment of medulloblastoma. PMID:23134812

2012-01-01

64

Experimental Study of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Radionuclide Imaging and Therapy Using Transferred Human Sodium/Iodide Symporter Gene  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to design a method of radionuclide for imaging and therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) using the transferred human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene. Methods A stable NPC cell line expressing hNIS was established (CNE-2-hNIS). After 131I treatment, we detected proliferation and apoptosis of NPC cells, both in vitro and vivo. In vivo, the radioactivity of different organs of nude mice was counted and 99mTc imaging using SPECT was performed. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value changes of tumor xenografts were observed by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) within 6–24 days of 131I treatment. The correlation of ADC changes with apoptosis and proliferation was investigated. Post-treatment expression levels of P53, Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3, and Survivin proteins were detected by western blotting. Results 131I uptake was higher in CNE-2-hNIS than in CNE-2 cells. The proliferation and apoptosis rate decreased and increased respectively both in vitro and vivo in the experimental group after 131I treatment. The experimental group tumors accumulated 99mTc in vivo, leading to a good visualization by SPECT. DW-MRI showed that ADC values increased in the experimental group 6 days after treatment, while ADC values were positively and negatively correlated with the apoptotic and Ki-67 proliferation indices, respectively. After treatment, CNE-2-hNIS cells up-regulated the expression of P53 and Survivin proteins and activated Caspase-3, and down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 proteins. Conclusions The radionuclide imaging and therapy technique for NPC hNIS-transfected cell lines can provide a new therapy strategy for monitoring and treatment of NPC. PMID:25615643

Zhong, Xing; Shi, Changzheng; Gong, Jian; Guo, Bin; Li, Mingzhu; Xu, Hao

2015-01-01

65

Triflocin, a novel inhibitor for the Na-HCO3 symport in the proximal tubule.  

PubMed Central

1. Triflocin, applied at millimolar concentration hyperpolarizes the basolateral membrane of Necturus proximal convoluted tubular cells, in vivo. 2. Barium, 2.5 x 10(-3) M, ouabain, 10(-3) M, or amiloride 10(-4) M, fail to prevent this hyperpolarization. 3. Triflocin has no effect on the intracellular chloride activity. 4. In physiological acid base conditions, Triflocin increases intracellular pH. 5. Upon an acute isohydric hypercapnia, Triflocin depolarizes the basolateral membrane potential. 6. It is concluded that, Triflocin inhibits the basolateral electrogenic Na-(HCO3)n > 1 cotransport in proximal tubules. PMID:8075865

Belachgar, F.; Hulin, P.; Anagnostopoulos, T.; Planelles, G.

1994-01-01

66

Cooperative binding of lactose and the phosphorylated phosphocarrier protein HPr(Ser-P) to the lactose/H+ symport permease of Lactobacillus brevis.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus brevis accumulates lactose and nonmetabolizable lactose analogues via sugar/H+ symport, but addition of glucose to the extracellular medium results in rapid efflux of the free sugar from the cells due to the uncoupling of sugar transport from proton transport. By using vesicles of L. brevis cells, we recently showed that these regulatory/effects could be attributed to the metabolite-activated ATP-dependent protein kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation of serine-46 in the phosphocarrier protein HPr [HPr(Ser-P)] of the phosphotransferase system and that a mutant form of HPr with the serine-46-->aspartate replacement ([S46D]HPr) is apparently locked in the seryl phosphorylated conformation. We here demonstrate that [S46D]HPr binds directly to inside-out membrane vesicles of L. brevis that contain the lactose permease. Sugar substrates of the permease markedly and specifically stimulate binding of [S46D]HPr to the membranes while certain transport inhibitors such as N-ethylmaleimide block binding. The pH dependency for binding follows that for transport. Wild-type HPr and the [S46A]HPr mutant protein did not appreciably compete with [S46D]HPr for binding to the permease. These results provide evidence for the direct interaction of HPr(Ser-P) with an allosteric site on the lactose/proton symporter of L. brevis for the purpose of regulating sugar accumulation in response to the metabolic needs of the cell. PMID:7831302

Ye, J J; Saier, M H

1995-01-17

67

Na(+)-HCO3- symport in the sheep cardiac Purkinje fibre.  

PubMed Central

1. Intracellular pH (pHi) was recorded in isolated sheep cardiac Purkinje fibres using liquid sensor ion-selective microelectrodes in conjunction with conventional (3 M-KCl) microelectrodes (to record membrane potential). 2. In HEPES-buffered solution (pH0 7.4), pHi recovery from an intracellular acid load (20 mM-NH4Cl removal) was blocked by 1 mM-amiloride, consistent with the inhibition of Na(+)-H+ exchange. Replacement of the HEPES buffer with CO2-HCO3- caused a transient acidosis followed by an amiloride-resistant recovery of pHi to more alkaline levels (n = 43). This implies the presence of a HCO3(-)-dependent pHi regulatory mechanism. 3. Comparison of the membrane potential with the equilibrium potential for HCO3- ions (EHCO3) estimated during amiloride-resistant pHi recovery, showed that for polarized fibres (membrane potential Em approximately -80 mV), there was a net outward electrochemical driving force for HCO3- ions. Hence the amiloride-resistant pHi recovery cannot be explained in terms of passive HCO3- influx through membrane channels. 4. Removal of external Na+ (Na0+ replaced by N-methyl-D-glucamine) inhibited HCO3(-)-dependent pHi recovery, whereas removal of external Cl- (leading to depletion of internal Cl-; Cl0- replaced by glucuronate) or short-term removal of extracellular K+ had no inhibitory effect. We suggest that a Na(+)-HCO3- co-influx causes the recovery. Replacement of external Na+ with Li+ greatly reduced HCO3(-)-dependent pHi recovery indicating that Li0+ cannot readily substitute for Na0+ on the co-transport. 5. The stilbene drug DIDS (4,4-diisothiocyano-stilbene-disulphonic acid, 500 microM) slowed HCO3(-)-dependent pHi recovery. 6. Depolarization of the membrane potential in high K0+ (44.5 mM) solution or with 5 mM-BaCl2 had no effect upon the rate of HCO3(-)-sensitive pHi recovery. This observation, when coupled with the fact that activation of HCO3(-)-dependent pHi recovery was associated with no consistent change of membrane potential, suggests that the Na(+)-HCO3- co-influx is electroneutral and voltage insensitive. 7. HCO3(-)-dependent pHi recovery was unaffected by the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl- co-transport inhibitor, bumetanide (150 microM). 8. The contribution of Na(+)-H+ exchange and Na(+)-HCO3- co-transport to net acid efflux was assessed. At a pHi of 6.6, we estimate that the co-transport should account for 20% of total acid equivalent efflux.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1403816

Dart, C; Vaughan-Jones, R D

1992-01-01

68

A novel eukaryotic Na+ Methionine selective symporter is essential for mosquito development  

PubMed Central

AeNAT5 (NCBI, ABZ81822), an orphan member of the insect-specific Nutrient Amino acid Transporter subfamily of SoLute Carrier family 6 (NAT-SLC6) and the first representative of a novel eukaryotic methionine-selective transport system (M), was cloned from cDNA of the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. It has orphan orthologs throughout several mosquito genomes, but not in Drosophila or outside Diptera. It shows the highest apparent affinity to L-Met (K0.5 = 0.021 mM) and its metabolites Homocysteine and Cysteine (K0.5 = 0.89 and 2.16 mM), but weakly interact with other substrates. It has a Na+ - coupled mechanism (K0.5 Na+ ~ 46 mM) with 1AA:1Na+ stoichiometry that maintains ~ 60% activity in Cl? - free media. In situ hybridization showed accumulation of AeNAT5 transcript in the absorptive and secretory epithelia, as well as in specific peripheral neurons and the central ganglia of mosquito larvae. The labeling pattern is distinct from that of the previously characterized AeNAT1. RNAi of AeNAT5 increases larval mortality during ecdysis and dramatically suppresses adult emergence. Our results showed that in addition to previously characterized broad spectra and aromatic amino acid selective transport systems, the mosquito NAT-SLC6 subfamily evolved a unique mechanism for selective absorption of sulfur-containing substrates. We demonstrated specific patterns of alimentary and neuronal transcription of AeNAT5 in mosquito larvae that is collateral with the indispensable function of this transporter in mosquito development. PMID:23748165

Meleshkevitch, Ella A.; Voronov, Dmitri A.; Miller, Melissa M.; Penneda, Maria; Fox, Jeffrey M.; Metzler, Ryan; Boudko, Dmitri Y.

2013-01-01

69

Stromal Targeting of Sodium Iodide Symporter Using Mesenchymal Stem Cells Allows Enhanced Imaging and Therapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Abstract The tumor-homing property of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) has lead to their use as delivery vehicles for therapeutic genes. The application of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) as therapy gene allows noninvasive imaging of functional transgene expression by 123I-scintigraphy or PET-imaging, as well as therapeutic application of 131I or 188Re. Based on the critical role of the chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and presumably secreted)/CCL5 secreted by MSCs in the course of tumor stroma recruitment, use of the RANTES/CCL5 promoter should allow tumor stroma-targeted expression of NIS after MSC-mediated delivery. Using a human hepatocellular cancer (HCC) xenograft mouse model (Huh7), we investigated distribution and tumor recruitment of RANTES-NIS-engineered MSCs after systemic injection by gamma camera imaging. 123I-scintigraphy revealed active MSC recruitment and CCL5 promoter activation in the tumor stroma of Huh7 xenografts (6.5% ID/g 123I, biological half-life: 3.7?hr, tumor-absorbed dose: 44.3?mGy/MBq). In comparison, 7% ID/g 188Re was accumulated in tumors with a biological half-life of 4.1?hr (tumor-absorbed dose: 128.7?mGy/MBq). Administration of a therapeutic dose of 131I or 188Re (55.5?MBq) in RANTES-NIS-MSC-treated mice resulted in a significant delay in tumor growth and improved survival without significant differences between 131I and 188Re. These data demonstrate successful stromal targeting of NIS in HCC tumors by selective recruitment of NIS-expressing MSCs and by use of the RANTES/CCL5 promoter. The resulting tumor-selective radionuclide accumulation was high enough for a therapeutic effect of 131I and 188Re opening the exciting prospect of NIS-mediated radionuclide therapy of metastatic cancer using genetically engineered MSCs as gene delivery vehicles. PMID:23402366

Knoop, Kerstin; Schwenk, Nathalie; Dolp, Patrick; Willhauck, Michael J.; Zischek, Christoph; Zach, Christian; Hacker, Markus; Göke, Burkhard; Wagner, Ernst; Nelson, Peter J.

2013-01-01

70

Codon-optimized Human Sodium Iodide Symporter (opt-hNIS) as a Sensitive Reporter and Efficient Therapeutic Gene.  

PubMed

To generate a more efficient in vivo reporter and therapeutic gene, we optimized the coding sequence of the human sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene by replacing NIS DNA codons from wild type to new codons having the highest usage in human gene translation. The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI), representing the number of codons effective for human expression, was much improved (0.79 for hNIS, 0.97 for opt-hNIS). Both wild-type (hNIS) and optimized human NIS (opt-hNIS) were cloned into pcDNA3.1 and pMSCV vectors for transfection. Various cancer cell lines such as thyroid (TPC-1, FRO, B-CPAP), breast (MDA-MB-231), liver (Hep3B), cervical (HeLa), and glioma (U87MG) were transfected with pcDNA3.1/hNIS or pcDNA3.1/opt-hNIS. (125)I uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing cells was 1.6 ~ 2.1 times higher than uptake by wild-type hNIS-expressing cells. Stable cell lines were also established by retroviral transduction using pMSCV/hNIS or pMSCV/opt-hNIS, revealing higher NIS protein levels and (125)I uptake in opt-hNIS-expressing cells than in hNIS-expressing cells. Moreover, scintigraphic images from cell plates and mouse xenografts showed stronger signals from opt-hNIS-expressing cells than hNIS-expressing cells, and radioactivity uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing tumors was 2.3-fold greater than that by hNIS-expressing tumors. To test the efficacy of radioiodine therapy, mouse xenograft models were established with cancer cells expressing hNIS or opt-hNIS. (131)I treatment reduced tumor sizes of hNIS- and opt-hNIS-expressing tumors to 0.57- and 0.27- fold, respectively, compared to their sizes before therapy, suggesting an improved therapeutic effect of opt-hNIS. In summary, this study shows that codon optimization strongly increases hNIS protein levels and radioiodine uptake, thus supporting opt-hNIS as a more sensitive reporter and efficient therapeutic gene. PMID:25553100

Kim, Young-Hwa; Youn, Hyewon; Na, Juri; Hong, Kee-Jong; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key

2015-01-01

71

Codon-optimized Human Sodium Iodide Symporter (opt-hNIS) as a Sensitive Reporter and Efficient Therapeutic Gene  

PubMed Central

To generate a more efficient in vivo reporter and therapeutic gene, we optimized the coding sequence of the human sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene by replacing NIS DNA codons from wild type to new codons having the highest usage in human gene translation. The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI), representing the number of codons effective for human expression, was much improved (0.79 for hNIS, 0.97 for opt-hNIS). Both wild-type (hNIS) and optimized human NIS (opt-hNIS) were cloned into pcDNA3.1 and pMSCV vectors for transfection. Various cancer cell lines such as thyroid (TPC-1, FRO, B-CPAP), breast (MDA-MB-231), liver (Hep3B), cervical (HeLa), and glioma (U87MG) were transfected with pcDNA3.1/hNIS or pcDNA3.1/opt-hNIS. 125I uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing cells was 1.6 ~ 2.1 times higher than uptake by wild-type hNIS-expressing cells. Stable cell lines were also established by retroviral transduction using pMSCV/hNIS or pMSCV/opt-hNIS, revealing higher NIS protein levels and 125I uptake in opt-hNIS-expressing cells than in hNIS-expressing cells. Moreover, scintigraphic images from cell plates and mouse xenografts showed stronger signals from opt-hNIS-expressing cells than hNIS-expressing cells, and radioactivity uptake by opt-hNIS-expressing tumors was 2.3-fold greater than that by hNIS-expressing tumors. To test the efficacy of radioiodine therapy, mouse xenograft models were established with cancer cells expressing hNIS or opt-hNIS. 131I treatment reduced tumor sizes of hNIS- and opt-hNIS-expressing tumors to 0.57- and 0.27- fold, respectively, compared to their sizes before therapy, suggesting an improved therapeutic effect of opt-hNIS. In summary, this study shows that codon optimization strongly increases hNIS protein levels and radioiodine uptake, thus supporting opt-hNIS as a more sensitive reporter and efficient therapeutic gene. PMID:25553100

Kim, Young-Hwa; Youn, Hyewon; Na, Juri; Hong, Kee-Jong; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key

2015-01-01

72

Theranostic Studies of Human Sodium Iodide Symporter Imaging and Therapy Using 188Re: A Human Glioma Study in Mice  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the role of 188Re in human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) theranostic gene-mediated human glioma imaging and therapy in model mice. Methods The human glioma cell line U87 was transfected with recombinant lentivirus encoding the hNIS gene under the control of cytomegalovirus promoter (U87-hNIS). The uptake and efflux of 188Re were determined after incubating the cells with 188Re. 188Re uptake experiments in the presence of various concentrations of sodium perchlorate were carried out. In vitro cell killing tests with 188Re were performed. U87-hNIS mediated 188Re distribution, imaging and therapy in nude mice were also tested. Results U87-hNIS cell line was successfully established. The uptake of 188Re in U87-hNIS cells increased up to 26-fold compared to control cells, but was released rapidly with a half-life of approximately 4 minutes. Sodium perchlorate reduced hNIS-mediated 188Re uptake to levels of control cell lines. U87-hNIS cells were selectively killed following exposure to 188Re, with a survival of 21.4%, while control cells had a survival of 92.1%. Unlike in vitro studies, U87-hNIS tumor showed a markedly increased 188Re retention even 48 hours after 188Re injection. In the therapy study, there was a significant difference in tumor size between U87-hNIS mice (317±67 mm3) and control mice (861±153 mm3) treated with 188Re for 4 weeks (P<0.01). Conclusion The results indicate that inserting the hNIS gene into U87 cells is sufficient to induce specific 188Re uptake, which has a cell killing effect both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, our study, based on the function of hNIS as a theranostic gene allowing noninvasive imaging of hNIS expression by 188Re scintigraphy, provides detailed characterization of in vivo vector biodistribution and level, localization, essential prerequisites for precise planning and monitoring of clinical gene therapy that aims to individualize gene therapy concept. PMID:25000403

Guo, Rui; Zhang, M.; Xi, Yun; Ma, Yufei; Liang, Sheng; Shi, Shuo; Miao, Ying; Li, Biao

2014-01-01

73

Microarray analysis of Etrog citron (Citrus medica L.) reveals changes in chloroplast, cell wall, peroxidase and symporter activities in response to viroid infection.  

PubMed

Viroids are small (246-401 nucleotides), single-stranded, circular RNA molecules that infect several crop plants and can cause diseases of economic importance. Citrus are the hosts in which the largest number of viroids have been identified. Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), the causal agent of citrus exocortis disease, induces considerable losses in citrus crops. Changes in the gene expression profile during the early (pre-symptomatic) and late (post-symptomatic) stages of Etrog citron infected with CEVd were investigated using a citrus cDNA microarray. MaSigPro analysis was performed and, on the basis of gene expression profiles as a function of the time after infection, the differentially expressed genes were classified into five clusters. FatiScan analysis revealed significant enrichment of functional categories for each cluster, indicating that viroid infection triggers important changes in chloroplast, cell wall, peroxidase and symporter activities. PMID:22420919

Rizza, Serena; Conesa, Ana; Juarez, José; Catara, Antonino; Navarro, Luis; Duran-Vila, Nuria; Ancillo, Gema

2012-10-01

74

The nucleobase cation symporter 1 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and that of the evolutionarily distant Arabidopsis thaliana display parallel function and establish a plant-specific solute transport profile.  

PubMed

The single cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of importing purines as nitrogen sources. An analysis of the annotated C. reinhardtii genome reveals at least three distinct gene families encoding for known nucleobase transporters. In this study the solute transport and binding properties for the lone C. reinhardtii nucleobase cation symporter 1 (CrNCS1) are determined through heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. CrNCS1 acts as a transporter of adenine, guanine, uracil and allantoin, sharing similar - but not identical - solute recognition specificity with the evolutionary distant NCS1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. The results suggest that the solute specificity for plant NCS1 occurred early in plant evolution and are distinct from solute transport specificities of single cell fungal NCS1 proteins. PMID:23770594

Schein, Jessica R; Hunt, Kevin A; Minton, Janet A; Schultes, Neil P; Mourad, George S

2013-09-01

75

Sodium-iodine Symporter Gene Expression Controlled by the EGR-1 Promoter: Biodistribution, Imaging and in vitro Radionuclide Therapy with Na131I.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to explore the feasibility of radioiodine treatment for cervical cancer using the early growth response (Egr-1) promoter to control sodium-iodine symporter (hNIS) gene expression. The hNIS gene was previously transfected into Hela cells under the control of either the cytomegalovirus (CMV) or Egr-1 promoters. Na(125)I uptake was measured in the presence or absence of NaClO4. Na(125)I efflux was measured. The effects of external beam radiation on iodine uptake and retention were studied. The cytotoxic effects of (131)I were measured by clonogenic assay. The Na(125)I biodistribution was obtained using mice bearing control and transfected cells. The %ID/g of tumor and major organs were obtained for a range of times up to 48 hours post injection and the ratio of tumor to non-tumor activity (T/NT) was calculated. Tumors were imaged with Na(131)I and (99m)TcO4 (-), and the ratio of tumor to background activity (T/B) was calculated. Na(125)I uptake in Hela cells was minimal in the absence of hNIS. Uptake in the transfected cells was strong, and could be blocked by NaClO4. The iodine uptake of Hela-Egr-1-hNIS cells increased after the irradiation, and the magnitude of this effect approximately matched the radiation dose delivered. The efflux of 125I was affected by neither the promoter sequence nor pre-irradiation. (131)I reduced the clonogenic survival of symporter expressing cells, relative to the parental line. The effect was greatest in cells where hNIS was driven by the CMV promoter. Tumors formed from Hela-Egr-1-hNIS concentrated Na(125)I over a 12 hour period, in contrast to untransfected cells. These tumors could also be successfully imaged using either Na(131)I or (99m)TcO4 (-). (131)I uptake peaked at 4h, while (99m)TcO4 (-) accumulated over approximately 20 hours. In vivo uptake of (131)I and (99m)TcO4 (-) was slightly higher in cells transfected with the Egr-1 promoter, compared to CMV. Hela-Egr-1-hNIS cells demonstrate highly enhanced iodine uptake, and this effect is further augmented by radiation, creating a positive feedback loop which may bolster radionuclide therapy in vivo. PMID:24354753

Tang, Jun; Wang, Xiaoxia; Xu, Yuanqi; Shi, Yizhen; Liu, Zengli; Yang, Yi

2015-02-01

76

Arabidopsis POLYOL TRANSPORTER5, a new member of the monosaccharide transporter-like superfamily, mediates H+-Symport of numerous substrates, including myo-inositol, glycerol, and ribose.  

PubMed

Six genes of the Arabidopsis thaliana monosaccharide transporter-like (MST-like) superfamily share significant homology with polyol transporter genes previously identified in plants translocating polyols (mannitol or sorbitol) in their phloem (celery [Apium graveolens], common plantain [Plantago major], or sour cherry [Prunus cerasus]). The physiological role and the functional properties of this group of proteins were unclear in Arabidopsis, which translocates sucrose and small amounts of raffinose rather than polyols. Here, we describe POLYOL TRANSPORTER5 (AtPLT5), the first member of this subgroup of Arabidopsis MST-like transporters. Transient expression of an AtPLT5-green fluorescent protein fusion in plant cells and functional analyses of the AtPLT5 protein in yeast and Xenopus oocytes demonstrate that AtPLT5 is located in the plasma membrane and characterize this protein as a broad-spectrum H+-symporter for linear polyols, such as sorbitol, xylitol, erythritol, or glycerol. Unexpectedly, however, AtPLT5 catalyzes also the transport of the cyclic polyol myo-inositol and of different hexoses and pentoses, including ribose, a sugar that is not transported by any of the previously characterized plant sugar transporters. RT-PCR analyses and AtPLT5 promoter-reporter gene plants revealed that AtPLT5 is most strongly expressed in Arabidopsis roots, but also in the vascular tissue of leaves and in specific floral organs. The potential physiological role of AtPLT5 is discussed. PMID:15598803

Klepek, Yvonne-Simone; Geiger, Dietmar; Stadler, Ruth; Klebl, Franz; Landouar-Arsivaud, Lucie; Lemoine, Rémi; Hedrich, Rainer; Sauer, Norbert

2005-01-01

77

Functional integration of the HUP1 hexose symporter gene into the genome of C. reinhardtii: Impacts on biological H(2) production.  

PubMed

Phototrophic organisms use photosynthesis to convert solar energy into chemical energy. In nature, the chemical energy is stored in a diverse range of biopolymers. These sunlight-derived, energy-rich biopolymers can be converted into environmentally clean and CO(2) neutral fuels. A select group of photosynthetic microorganisms have developed the ability to extract and divert protons and electrons derived from water to chloroplast hydrogenase(s) to produce molecular H(2) fuel. Here, we describe the development and characterization of C. reinhardtii strains, derived from the high H(2) production mutant Stm6, into which the HUP1 (hexose uptake protein) hexose symporter from Chlorella kessleri was introduced. The isolated cell lines can use externally supplied glucose for heterotrophic growth in the dark. More importantly, external glucose supply (1mM) was shown to increase the H(2) production capacity in strain Stm6Glc4 to approximately 150% of that of the high-H(2) producing strain, Stm6. This establishes the foundations for a new fuel production process in which H(2)O and glucose can simultaneously be used for H(2) production. It also opens new perspectives on future strategies for improving bio-H(2) production efficiency under natural day/night regimes and for using sugar waste material for energy production in green algae as photosynthetic catalysts. PMID:17624461

Doebbe, Anja; Rupprecht, Jens; Beckmann, Julia; Mussgnug, Jan H; Hallmann, Armin; Hankamer, Ben; Kruse, Olaf

2007-08-01

78

Noninvasive 3D imaging of liver regeneration in a mouse model of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 using the sodium iodide symporter gene.  

PubMed

Cell transplantation is a potential treatment for the many liver disorders that are currently only curable by organ transplantation. However, one of the major limitations of hepatocyte transplantation is an inability to monitor cells longitudinally after injection. We hypothesized that the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene could be used to visualize transplanted hepatocytes in a rodent model of inherited liver disease, hereditary tyrosinemia type 1. Wildtype C57Bl/6J mouse hepatocytes were transduced ex vivo using a lentiviral vector containing the mouse Slc5a5 (NIS) gene under the control of the thyroxine-binding globulin promoter. NIS-transduced cells could robustly concentrate radiolabeled iodine in vitro, with lentiviral transduction efficiencies greater than 80% achieved in the presence of dexamethasone. Next, NIS-transduced hepatocytes were transplanted into congenic fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase knockout (Fah(-/-) ) mice, resulting in prevention of liver failure. NIS-transduced hepatocytes were readily imaged in vivo by single-photon emission computed tomography, demonstrating for the first time noninvasive 3D imaging of regenerating tissue in individual animals over time. We also tested the efficacy of primary hepatocyte spheroids to engraft in the liver. Using the NIS-reporter, robust spheroid engraftment and survival could be detected longitudinally after direct parenchymal injection, thereby demonstrating a novel strategy for hepatocyte transplantation. Conclusion: This work is the first to demonstrate the efficacy of NIS-imaging in the field of hepatocyte transplantation. We anticipate that NIS-labeling will allow non-invasive and longitudinal identification of hepatocytes and stem cells in future studies related to liver regeneration in small and large preclinical animal models. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25482651

Hickey, Raymond D; Mao, Shennen A; Amiot, Bruce; Suksanpaisan, Lukkana; Miller, Amber; Nace, Rebecca; Glorioso, Jaime; O'Connor, Michael K; Peng, Kah Whye; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Russell, Stephen J; Nyberg, Scott L

2014-12-01

79

Perchlorate transport and inhibition of the sodium iodide symporter measured with the yellow fluorescent protein variant YFP-H148Q/I152L  

SciTech Connect

Perchlorate is an environmental contaminant that impairs thyroid function by interacting with the sodium iodide symporter (NIS), the transporter responsible for iodide uptake in the thyroid gland. Perchlorate is well known as a competitive inhibitor of iodide transport by NIS, and recent evidence demonstrates that NIS can also transport perchlorate. In this study, we evaluated the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) variant YFP-H148Q/I152L, as a genetically encodable biosensor of intracellular perchlorate concentration monitored by real-time fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence of recombinant YFP-H148Q/I152L was suppressed by perchlorate and iodide with similar affinities of 1.2 mM and 1.6 mM, respectively. Perchlorate suppressed YFP-H148Q/I152L fluorescence in FRTL-5 thyroid cells and NIS-expressing COS-7 cells, but had no effect on COS-7 cells lacking NIS. Fluorescence changes in FRTL-5 cells were Na{sup +}-dependent, consistent with the Na{sup +}-dependence of NIS activity. Perchlorate uptake in FRTL-5 cells resulted in 10-fold lower intracellular concentrations than iodide uptake, and was characterized by a higher affinity (K{sub m} 4.6 muM for perchlorate and 34.8 muM for iodide) and lower maximal velocity (V{sub max} 6.8 muM/s for perchlorate and 39.5 muM/s for iodide). Perchlorate also prevented iodide-induced changes in YFP-H148Q/I152L fluorescence in FRTL-5 cells, with half-maximal inhibition occurring at 1.1-1.6 muM. In conclusion, YFP-H148Q/I152L detects perchlorate accumulation by thyroid and other NIS-expressing cells, and reveals differences in the kinetics of perchlorate versus iodide transport by NIS.

Cianchetta, Stefano; Bernardo, Julie di; Romeo, Giovanni [Medical Genetics Unit, Department of Gynecologic, Obstetric and Pediatric Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Rhoden, Kerry J., E-mail: kerry.rhoden@unibo.i [Medical Genetics Unit, Department of Gynecologic, Obstetric and Pediatric Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

2010-03-15

80

Radioiodine therapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer following prostate-specific membrane antigen promoter-mediated transfer of the human sodium iodide symporter.  

PubMed

Radioiodine therapy, the most effective form of systemic radiotherapy available, is currently useful only for thyroid cancer because of the thyroid-specific expression of the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS). Here, we explore the efficacy of a novel form of gene therapy using prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) promoter-mediated hNIS gene transfer followed by radioiodine administration for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The androgen-dependent C33 LNCaP cell line and the androgen-independent C81 LNCaP cell line were transfected by adenovirus. PSMA promoter-hNIS (Ad.PSMApro-hNIS) or adenovirus.cytomegalovirus-hNIS containing the cytomegalovirus promoter (Ad.CMV-hNIS) or a control virus. The iodide uptake was measured in vitro. The in vivo iodide uptake by C81 cell xenografts in nude mice injected with an adenovirus carrying the hNIS gene linked to PSMA and the corresponding tumor volume fluctuation were assessed. Iodide accumulation was shown in different LNCaP cell lines after Ad.PSMApro-hNIS and Ad.CMV-hNIS infection, but not in different LNCaP cell lines after adenovirus.cytomegalovirus (Ad.CMV) infection. At each time point, higher iodide uptake was shown in the C81 cells infected with Ad.PSMApro-hNIS than in the C33 cells (P < 0.05). An in vivo animal model showed a significant difference in 131 I radioiodine uptake in the tumors infected with Ad.PSMApro-hNIS, Ad.CMV-hNIS and control virus (P < 0.05) and a maximum reduction of tumor volume in mice infected with Ad.PSMApro-hNIS. These results show prostate-specific expression of the hNIS gene delivered by the PSMA promoter and effective radioiodine therapy of CRPC by the PSMA promoter-driven hNIS transfection. PMID:24369144

Gao, Xiao-Feng; Zhou, Tie; Chen, Guang-Hua; Xu, Chuan-Liang; Ding, Ye-Lei; Sun, Ying-Hao

2014-01-01

81

Changes in gastric sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) activity are associated with differences in thyroid gland sensitivity to perchlorate during metamorphosis.  

PubMed

We investigated stage-dependent changes in sensitivity of the thyroid gland to perchlorate during development of African clawed frog tadpoles (Xenopus laevis) in relation to non-thyroidal iodide transporting tissues. Perchlorate-induced increases in thyroid follicle cell size and colloid depletion were blunted when exposures began at Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage 55 compared to when exposures began at NF stages 49 or 1-10. To determine if the development of other iodide transporting tissues may contribute to this difference we first examined which tissues expressed transcripts for the sodium dependent iodide symporter (NIS). RT-PCR analysis revealed that NIS was expressed in stomach and small intestine in addition to the thyroid gland of X. laevis tadpoles. NIS mRNA was not detected in lung, kidney, skin, gill, muscle, heart or liver. Perchlorate sensitive (125)I uptake was found in stomach, lung, kidney, gill, and small intestine but not muscle, liver, or heart. Perchlorate-sensitive (125)I uptake by stomach was 6-10 times greater than in any other non-thyroidal tissue in tadpoles. While NF stage 49 tadpoles exhibited perchlorate-sensitive uptake in stomach it was roughly 4-fold less than that observed in NF stage 55 tadpoles. Although abundance of the NIS gene was greater in stomachs from NF stage 55 compared to NF stage 49 tadpoles this difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that gastric iodide uptake increases between NF stages 49 and 55, possibly due to post-translational changes in NIS glycosylation or trafficking within gastric mucosal cells. These developmental changes in gastric NIS gene expression may affect iodide availability to the thyroid gland. PMID:25448256

Carr, James A; Murali, Sharanya; Hu, Fang; Goleman, Wanda L; Carr, Deborah L; Smith, Ernest E; Wages, Mike

2014-11-18

82

Combined Cerenkov luminescence and nuclear imaging of radioiodine in the thyroid gland and thyroid cancer cells expressing sodium iodide symporter: initial feasibility study.  

PubMed

Radioiodine (RI) such as (131)I or (124)I, can generate luminescent emission and be detected with an optical imaging (OI) device. To evaluate the possibility of a novel Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) for application in thyroid research, we performed feasibility studies of CLI by RI in the thyroid gland and human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells expressing sodium iodide symporter gene (ARO-NIS). For in vitro study, FRTL-5 and ARO-NIS were incubated with RI, and the luminometric and CLI intensity was measured with luminometer and OI device. Luminescence intensity was compared with the radioactivity measured with ?-counter. In vivo CLI of the thyroid gland was performed in mice after intravenous injection of RI with and without thyroid blocking. Mice were implanted with ARO-NIS subcutaneously, and CLI was performed with injection of (124)I. Small animal PET or ?-camera imaging was also performed. CLI intensities of thyroid gland and ARO-NIS were quantified, and compared with the radioactivities measured from nuclear images (NI). Luminometric assay and OI confirmed RI uptake in the cells in a dose-dependent manner, and luminescence intensity was well correlated with radioactivity of the cells. CLI clearly demonstrated RI uptake in thyroid gland and xenografted ARO-NIS cells in mice, which was further confirmed by NI. A strong positive correlation was observed between CLI intensity and radioactivity assessed by NI. We successfully demonstrated dual molecular imaging of CLI and NI using RI both in vitro and in vivo. CLI can provide a new OI strategy in preclinical thyroid studies. PMID:21551958

Jeong, Shin Young; Hwang, Mi-Hye; Kim, Jung Eun; Kang, Sungmin; Park, Jeong Chan; Yoo, Jeongsoo; Ha, Jeoung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Woo; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Jaetae

2011-01-01

83

Role of Na+ conductance, Na+-H+ exchange, and Na+-K+-2Cl? symport in the regulatory volume increase of rat hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

In rat hepatocytes under hypertonic stress, the entry of Na+ (which is thereafter exchanged for K+ via Na+-K+-ATPase) plays the key role in regulatory volume increase (RVI).In the present study, the contributions of Na+ conductance, Na+-H+ exchange and Na+-K+-2Cl? symport to this process were quantified in confluent primary cultures by means of intracellular microelectrodes and cable analysis, microfluorometric determinations of cell pH and buffer capacity, and measurements of frusemide (furosemide)/bumetanide-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake, respectively. Osmolarity was increased from 300 to 400 mosmol l?1 by addition of sucrose.The experiments indicate a relative contribution of approximately 4:1:1 to hypertonicity-induced Na+ entry for the above-mentioned transporters and the overall Na+ yield equalled 51 mmol l?1 (10 min)?1.This Na+ gain is in good agreement with the stimulation of Na+ extrusion via Na+-K+-ATPase plus the actual increase in cell Na+, namely 55 mmol l?1 (10 min)?1, as was determined on the basis of ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake and by means of Na+-sensitive microelectrodes, respectively.The overall increase in Na+ and K+ activity plus the expected concomitant increase in cell Cl? equalled 68 mmol l?1, which fits well with the increase in osmotic activity expected to occur from an initial cell shrinkage to 87.5 % and a RVI to 92.6 % of control, namely 53 mosmol l?1.The prominent role of Na+ conductance in the RVI of rat hepatocytes could be confirmed on the basis of the pharmacological profile of this process, which was characterized by means of confocal laser-scanning microscopy. PMID:9481677

Wehner, Frank; Tinel, Hanna

1998-01-01

84

Visualization of gene expression in the live subject using the Na/I symporter as a reporter gene: applications in biotherapy  

PubMed Central

Biotherapies involve the utilization of antibodies, genetically modified viruses, bacteria or cells for therapeutic purposes. Molecular imaging has the potential to provide unique information that will guarantee their biosafety in humans and provide a rationale for the future development of new generations of reagents. In this context, non-invasive imaging of gene expression is an attractive prospect, allowing precise, spacio-temporal measurements of gene expression in longitudinal studies involving gene transfer vectors. With the emergence of cell therapies in regenerative medicine, it is also possible to track cells injected into subjects. In this context, the Na/I symporter (NIS) has been used in preclinical studies. Associated with a relevant radiotracer (123I-, 124I-, 99mTcO4-), NIS can be used to monitor gene transfer and the spread of selectively replicative viruses in tumours as well as in cells with a therapeutic potential. In addition to its imaging potential, NIS can be used as a therapeutic transgene through its ability to concentrate therapeutic doses of radionuclides in target cells. This dual property has applications in cancer treatment and could also be used to eradicate cells with therapeutic potential in the case of adverse events. Through experience acquired in preclinical studies, we can expect that non-invasive molecular imaging using NIS as a transgene will be pivotal for monitoring in vivo the exact distribution and pharmacodynamics of gene expression in a precise and quantitative way. This review highlights the applications of NIS in biotherapy, with a particular emphasis on image-guided radiotherapy, monitoring of gene and vector biodistribution and trafficking of stem cells. This article is part of a themed section on Imaging in Pharmacology. To view the editorial for this themed section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00685.x PMID:19814733

Baril, Patrick; Martin-Duque, Pilar; Vassaux, Georges

2010-01-01

85

Structural evidence for induced fit and a mechanism for sugar/H+ symport in LacY  

PubMed Central

Cation-coupled active transport is an essential cellular process found ubiquitously in all living organisms. Here, we present two novel ligand-free X-ray structures of the lactose permease (LacY) of Escherichia coli determined at acidic and neutral pH, and propose a model for the mechanism of coupling between lactose and H+ translocation. No sugar-binding site is observed in the absence of ligand, and deprotonation of the key residue Glu269 is associated with ligand binding. Thus, substrate induces formation of the sugar-binding site, as well as the initial step in H+ transduction. PMID:16525509

Mirza, Osman; Guan, Lan; Verner, Gill; Iwata, So; Kaback, H Ronald

2006-01-01

86

Induction of amino acid transporters expression by endurance exercise in rat skeletal muscle  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Regulation of amino acid transporter expression in working muscle remains unclear. •Expression of amino acid transporters for leucine were induced by a bout of exercise. •Requirement of leucine in muscle cells might regulate expression of its transporters. •This information is beneficial for understanding the muscle remodeling by exercise. -- Abstract: We here investigated whether an acute bout of endurance exercise would induce the expression of amino acid transporters that regulate leucine transport across plasma and lysosomal membranes in rat skeletal muscle. Rats ran on a motor-driven treadmill at a speed of 28 m/min for 90 min. Immediately after the exercise, we observed that expression of mRNAs encoding L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and CD98 was induced in the gastrocnemius, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) mRNA was also induced by the exercise in those three muscles. Expression of proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) mRNA was slightly but not significantly induced by a single bout of exercise in soleus and EDL muscles. Exercise-induced mRNA expression of these amino acid transporters appeared to be attenuated by repeated bouts of the exercise. These results suggested that the expression of amino acid transporters for leucine may be induced in response to an increase in the requirement for this amino acid in the cells of working skeletal muscles.

Murakami, Taro, E-mail: tamuraka@sgk.ac.jp; Yoshinaga, Mariko

2013-10-04

87

The putative electrogenic nitrate-proton symport of the yeast Candida utilis. Comparison with the systems absorbing glucose or lactate.  

PubMed Central

Strain N.C.Y.C. 193 of Candida utilis was grown aerobically at 30 degrees C with nitrate as limiting nutrient in a chemostat. The washed yeast cells depleted of ATP absorbed up to 5 nmol of nitrate/mg dry wt. of yeast. At pH 4-6, extra protons and nitrate entered the yeast cells together, in a ratio of about 2:1. Charge balance was maintained by an outflow of about 1 equiv. of K+. Nitrate stimulated the uptake of about 1 proton equivalent during glycolysis or aerobic energy metabolism. Studies with 3,3'-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine indicated that the proton-linked absorption of nitrate, amino acids or glucose depolarized the yeast cells. Proton uptake along with lactate led neither to net expulsion of K+ nor to membrane depolarization. PMID:2998345

Eddy, A A; Hopkins, P G

1985-01-01

88

Genetic Disruption of Lactate/H+ Symporters (MCTs) and Their Subunit CD147/BASIGIN Sensitizes Glycolytic Tumor Cells to Phenformin.  

PubMed

Rapidly growing glycolytic tumors require energy and intracellular pH (pHi) homeostasis through the activity of two major monocarboxylate transporters, MCT1 and the hypoxia-inducible MCT4, in intimate association with the glycoprotein CD147/BASIGIN (BSG). To further explore and validate the blockade of lactic acid export as an anticancer strategy, we disrupted, via zinc finger nucleases, MCT4 and BASIGIN genes in colon adenocarcinoma (LS174T) and glioblastoma (U87) human cell lines. First, we showed that homozygous loss of MCT4 dramatically sensitized cells to the MCT1 inhibitor AZD3965. Second, we demonstrated that knockout of BSG leads to a decrease in lactate transport activity of MCT1 and MCT4 by 10- and 6-fold, respectively. Consequently, cells accumulated an intracellular pool of lactic and pyruvic acids, magnified by the MCT1 inhibitor decreasing further pHi and glycolysis. As a result, we found that these glycolytic/MCT-deficient cells resumed growth by redirecting their metabolism toward OXPHOS. Third, we showed that in contrast with parental cells, BSG-null cells became highly sensitive to phenformin, an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I. Phenformin addition to these MCT-disrupted cells in normoxic and hypoxic conditions induced a rapid drop in cellular ATP-inducing cell death by "metabolic catastrophe." Finally, xenograft analysis confirmed the deleterious tumor growth effect of MCT1/MCT4 ablation, an action enhanced by phenformin treatment. Collectively, these findings highlight that inhibition of the MCT/BSG complexes alone or in combination with phenformin provides an acute anticancer strategy to target highly glycolytic tumors. This genetic approach validates the anticancer potential of the MCT1 and MCT4 inhibitors in current development. Cancer Res; 75(1); 171-80. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25403912

Marchiq, Ibtissam; Le Floch, Renaud; Roux, Danièle; Simon, Marie-Pierre; Pouyssegur, Jacques

2015-01-01

89

In vivo Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide (131I) Therapy of Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells Transfected with a Lentivirus Expressing Sodium Iodide Symporter  

PubMed Central

Introduction Despite recent improvements in the survival rates for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), novel treatment strategies are required to improve distant metastasis-free survival. The sodium iodine symporter (NIS) gene has been applied for in vivo imaging and cancer therapy. In this study, we examined the potential of NIS gene therapy as a therapeutic approach in NPC by performing non-invasive imaging using 125I and 131I therapy in vivo. Methods We constructed a lentiviral vector expressing NIS and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the human elongation factor-1? (EF1?) promoter, and stably transfected the vector into CNE-2Z NPC cells to create CNE-2Z-NIS cells. CNE-2Z and CNE-2Z-NIS tumor xenografts were established in nude mice; 125I uptake, accumulation and efflux were measured using micro-SPECT/CT imaging; the therapeutic effects of treatment with 131I were assessed over 25 days by measuring tumor volume and immunohistochemical staining of the excised tumors. Results qPCR, immunofluorescence and Western blotting confirmed that CNE-2Z-NIS cells expressed high levels of NIS mRNA and protein. CNE-2Z-NIS cells and xenografts took up and accumulated significantly more 125I than CNE-2Z cells and xenografts. In vitro, 131I significantly reduced the clonogenic survival of CNE-2Z-NIS cells. In vivo, 131I effectively inhibited the growth of CNE-2Z-NIS xenografts. At the end of 131I therapy, CNE-2Z-NIS xenograft tumor cells expressed higher levels of NIS and caspase-3 and lower levels of Ki-67. Conclusion Lentiviruses effectively delivered and mediated long-lasting expression of NIS in CNE-2Z cells which enabled uptake and accumulation of radioisotopes and provided a significant therapeutic effect in an in vivo model of NPC. NIS-mediated radioiodine treatment merits further investigation as a potentially effective, low toxicity therapeutic strategy for NPC. PMID:25621996

Shi, Shuo; Zhang, Min; Guo, Rui; Miao, Ying; Hu, Jiajia; Xi, Yun; Li, Biao

2015-01-01

90

Image-Guided Tumor-Selective Radioiodine Therapy of Liver Cancer After Systemic Nonviral Delivery of the Sodium Iodide Symporter Gene  

PubMed Central

Abstract We reported the induction of tumor-selective iodide uptake and therapeutic efficacy of 131I in a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) xenograft mouse model, using novel polyplexes based on linear polyethylenimine (LPEI), shielded by polyethylene glycol (PEG), and coupled with the epidermal growth factor receptor-specific peptide GE11 (LPEI-PEG-GE11). The aim of the current study in the same HCC model was to evaluate the potential of biodegradable nanoparticle vectors based on pseudodendritic oligoamines (G2-HD-OEI) for systemic sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene delivery and to compare efficiency and tumor specificity with LPEI-PEG-GE11. Transfection of HCC cells with NIS cDNA, using G2-HD-OEI, resulted in a 44-fold increase in iodide uptake in vitro as compared with a 22-fold increase using LPEI-PEG-GE11. After intravenous application of G2-HD-OEI/NIS HCC tumors accumulated 6–11% ID/g 123I (percentage of the injected dose per gram tumor tissue) with an effective half-life of 10?hr (tumor-absorbed dose, 281?mGy/MBq) as measured by 123I scintigraphic gamma camera or single-photon emission computed tomography computed tomography (SPECT CT) imaging, as compared with 6.5–9% ID/g with an effective half-life of only 6?hr (tumor-absorbed dose, 47?mGy/MBq) for LPEI-PEG-GE11. After only two cycles of G2-HD-OEI/NIS/131I application, a significant delay in tumor growth was observed with markedly improved survival. A similar degree of therapeutic efficacy had been observed after four cycles of LPEI-PEG-GE11/131I. These results clearly demonstrate that biodegradable nanoparticles based on OEI-grafted oligoamines show increased efficiency for systemic NIS gene transfer in an HCC model with similar tumor selectivity as compared with LPEI-PEG-GE11, and therefore represent a promising strategy for NIS-mediated radioiodine therapy of HCC. PMID:21851208

Klutz, Kathrin; Willhauck, Michael J.; Dohmen, Christian; Wunderlich, Nathalie; Knoop, Kerstin; Zach, Christian; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard; Gildehaus, Franz-Josef; Ziegler, Sibylle; Fürst, Sebastian; Göke, Burkhard; Wagner, Ernst

2011-01-01

91

Transport of amino acids in the kidney.  

PubMed

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and key intermediates in the synthesis of biologically important molecules, as well as energy sources, neurotransmitters, regulators of cellular metabolism, etc. The efficient recovery of amino acids from the primary filtrate is a well-conserved key role of the kidney proximal tubule. Additionally, renal metabolism participates in the whole body disposition of amino acids. Therefore, a wide array of axially heterogeneously expressed transporters is localized on both epithelial membranes. For transepithelial transport, luminal uptake, which is carried out mainly by active symporters, is coupled with a mostly passive basolateral efflux. Many transporters require partner proteins for appropriate localization, or to modulate transporter activity, and/or increase substrate supply. Interacting proteins include cell surface antigens (CD98), endoplasmic reticulum proteins (GTRAP3-18 or 41), or enzymes (ACE2 and aminopeptidase N). In the past two decades, the molecular identification of transporters has led to significant advances in our understanding of amino acid transport and aminoacidurias arising from defects in renal transport. Furthermore, the three-dimensional crystal structures of bacterial homologues have been used to yield new insights on the structure and function of mammalian transporters. Additionally, transgenic animal models have contributed to our understanding of the role of amino acid transporters in the kidney and other organs and/or at critical developmental stages. Progress in elucidation of the renal contribution to systemic amino acid homeostasis requires further integration of kinetic, regulatory, and expression data of amino acid transporters into our understanding of physiological regulatory networks controlling metabolism. PMID:24692143

Makrides, Victoria; Camargo, Simone M R; Verrey, François

2014-01-01

92

Induction of amino acid transporters expression by endurance exercise in rat skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

We here investigated whether an acute bout of endurance exercise would induce the expression of amino acid transporters that regulate leucine transport across plasma and lysosomal membranes in rat skeletal muscle. Rats ran on a motor-driven treadmill at a speed of 28 m/min for 90 min. Immediately after the exercise, we observed that expression of mRNAs encoding L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and CD98 was induced in the gastrocnemius, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) mRNA was also induced by the exercise in those three muscles. Expression of proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) mRNA was slightly but not significantly induced by a single bout of exercise in soleus and EDL muscles. Exercise-induced mRNA expression of these amino acid transporters appeared to be attenuated by repeated bouts of the exercise. These results suggested that the expression of amino acid transporters for leucine may be induced in response to an increase in the requirement for this amino acid in the cells of working skeletal muscles. PMID:24016666

Murakami, Taro; Yoshinaga, Mariko

2013-10-01

93

Molecular basis of essential amino acid transport from studies of insect nutrient amino acid transporters of the SLC6 family (NAT-SLC6)  

PubMed Central

Two protein families that represent major components of essential amino acid transport in insects have been identified. They are annotated as the SLC6 and SLC7 families of transporters according to phylogenetic proximity to characterized amino acid transporters (HUGO nomenclature). Members of these families have been identified as important apical and basolateral parts of transepithelial essential amino acid absorption in the metazoan alimentary canal. Synergistically, they play critical physiological roles as essential substrate providers to diverse metabolic processes, including generic protein synthesis. This review briefly clarifies the requirements for amino acid transport and a variety of amino acid transport mechanisms, including the aforementioned families. Further it focuses on the large group of Nutrient Amino acid Transporters (NATs), which comprise a recently identified subfamily of the Neurotransmitter Sodium Symporter family (NSS or SLC6). The first insect NAT, cloned from the caterpillar gut, has a broad substrate spectrum similar to mammalian B0 transporters. Several new NAT-SLC6 members have been characterized in an effort to explore mechanisms for the essential amino acid absorption in model dipteran insects. The identification and functional characterization of new B0-like and narrow specificity transporters of essential amino acids in fruit fly and mosquitoes leads to a fundamentally important insight: that NATs evolved and act together as the integrated active core of a transport network that mediates active alimentary absorption and systemic distribution of essential amino acids. This role of NATs is projected from the most primitive prokaryotes to the most complex metazoan organisms, and represents an interesting platform for unraveling the molecular evolution of amino acid transport and modeling amino acid transport disorders. The comparative study of NATs elucidates important adaptive differences between essential amino acid transportomes of invertebrate and vertebrate organisms, outlining a new possibility for selective targeting of essential amino acid absorption mechanisms to control medically and economically important arthropods and other invertebrate organisms. PMID:22230793

Boudko, Dmitri Y.

2012-01-01

94

Energetics of Amino Acid Uptake by Vicia faba Leaf Tissues 1  

PubMed Central

The uptake of [U-14C]threonine and of (?-14C]aminoisobutyrate (?-AIB) by Vicia faba leaf discs is strongly pH dependent (optimum: pH 4.0) and exhibits biphasic saturation kinetics. Kinetics of ?-AIB uptake at different pH values indicate that acidic pH values decrease the Km of the carriers while the maximal velocity remains nearly unaffected. Similar results were obtained for both system 1 (from 0.5 to 5 millimolar) and system 2 (from 20 to 100 millimolar). After addition of amino acids to a medium containing leaf fragments, alkalinizations depending both on the amino acid added and on its concentration have been recorded. The effects of compounds which increase (fusicoccin) or decrease (uncouplers, ATPase inhibitors, high KCl concentrations) the protonmotive force were studied both on the acidification of the medium and on amino acid uptake by the tissues. There is a close relationship between the time required for the effect of these compounds on the acidification and that needed for inhibition of uptake. Studies with thiol inhibitors show that 0.1 millimolar N-ethylmaleimide preferentially inhibits uptake by the mesophyll whereas 0.1 millimolar parachloromercuribenzenesulfonate affects rather uptake by the veins. New evidence was found which added to the electrophysiological data already supporting the occurrence of proton amino acid symport in leaf tissues, particularly in the veins. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 10 Fig. 12 PMID:16662764

Despeghel, Jean-Pierre; Delrot, Serge

1983-01-01

95

Amino acids  

MedlinePLUS

Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

96

A loss of taurine and other amino acids from ventricles of patients undergoing bypass surgery.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To study the changes in amino acid content of left ventricles of patients during cardiac surgery that involves cardiopulmonary bypass and cold cardioplegia. DESIGN--Biopsy specimens (up to 10 mg wet weight) from the left ventricle of 30 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft and valve replacement surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass (protected by cold cardioplegia with St Thomas' solution) were taken immediately before the infusion of the cardioplegic solution and just before the removal of the cross clamp, and were analysed for their amino acid content. RESULTS--Of the most abundant cellular amino acids in the left ventricle taurine, glutamine, glutamate, and aspartate, but not alanine, showed a significant fall during the period of cross clamping. A rise in intracellular sodium (Na) is known to occur during cold cardioplegic arrest so that an activation of an amino acid/Na efflux, similar to that seen in animal experiments, seems a likely mechanism. The anomalous behaviour of alanine suggests some recovery of metabolism. CONCLUSIONS--The loss of alpha amino acids (by contrast with the loss of taurine) will depress protein synthesis and reduce energy reserves after cardiac surgery. Attempts to preserve the concentrations of intracellular alpha amino acids must be balanced against the need to regulate intracellular Na concentration and hence intracellular pH and calcium ions. The presence of alpha amino acids in the cardioplegic solution (or in a resuscitation solution) should maintain the intracellular concentrations and favour activation of the taurine/Na symport to oppose the rise in intracellular Na concentration. Because the reservoir of tissue taurine is limited, the potential benefits of increasing the concentration of taurine in the heart by diet before surgery and addition of alpha amino acids to the cardioplegic solution merits further assessment. PMID:8461223

Suleiman, M S; Fernando, H C; Dihmis, W C; Hutter, J A; Chapman, R A

1993-01-01

97

Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

98

Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

99

Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... acid Description Folic acid, or folate, is a B vitamin found in many beans, grains, fortified breakfast cereals, ... for use? Folic acid, or folate, is a B vitamin. It is promoted mainly as part of a ...

100

Acid Rain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

Openshaw, Peter

1987-01-01

101

Acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When

1980-01-01

102

The SLC36 family of proton-coupled amino acid transporters and their potential role in drug transport.  

PubMed

Members of the solute carrier (SLC) 36 family are involved in transmembrane movement of amino acids and derivatives. SLC36 consists of four members. SLC36A1 and SLC36A2 both function as H(+) -coupled amino acid symporters. SLC36A1 is expressed at the luminal surface of the small intestine but is also commonly found in lysosomes in many cell types (including neurones), suggesting that it is a multipurpose carrier with distinct roles in different cells including absorption in the small intestine and as an efflux pathway following intralysosomal protein breakdown. SLC36A1 has a relatively low affinity (K(m) 1-10 mM) for its substrates, which include zwitterionic amino and imino acids, heterocyclic amino acids and amino acid-based drugs and derivatives used experimentally and/or clinically to treat epilepsy, schizophrenia, bacterial infections, hyperglycaemia and cancer. SLC36A2 is expressed at the apical surface of the human renal proximal tubule where it functions in the reabsorption of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline. SLC36A2 also transports amino acid derivatives but has a narrower substrate selectivity and higher affinity (K(m) 0.1-0.7 mM) than SLC36A1. Mutations in SLC36A2 lead to hyperglycinuria and iminoglycinuria. SLC36A3 is expressed only in testes and is an orphan transporter with no known function. SLC36A4 is widely distributed at the mRNA level and is a high-affinity (K(m) 2-3 µM) transporter for proline and tryptophan. We have much to learn about this family of transporters, but from current knowledge, it seems likely that their function will influence the pharmacokinetic profiles of amino acid-based drugs by mediating transport in both the small intestine and kidney. PMID:21501141

Thwaites, David T; Anderson, Catriona M H

2011-12-01

103

Aminocaproic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

104

Ethacrynic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

105

Mefenamic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

106

Auxin- and abscisic acid-dependent osmoregulation in protoplasts of Phaseolus vulgaris pulvini.  

PubMed

Protoplasts isolated from the laminar pulvinus of Phaseolus vulgaris and bathed in a medium containing KCl as the major salt were found to swell in response to IAA and to shrink in response to ABA. The protoplasts of flexor cells and those of extensor cells responded similarly. The results indicate that the cellular content of osmotic solutes is enhanced by IAA and reduced by ABA. The IAA-induced swelling was abolished when either the K(+) or the Cl(-) of the bathing medium was replaced by an impermeant ion or when the medium was adjusted to neutral pH (instead of pH 6). The response was inhibited by vanadate. It is concluded that the swelling is caused by enhanced influxes of K(+) and Cl(-), which probably occur through K(+) channels and Cl(-)/H(+) symporters, respectively. The ABA-induced shrinking was inhibited by 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid, an anion-channel inhibitor, suggesting that it is caused by Cl(-) efflux through anion channels and charge-balancing K(+) efflux through outward-rectifying K(+) channels. It appears that the two plant hormones act on pulvinar motor cells to regulate their turgor pressure, as they do in stomatal guard cells. The findings are discussed in relation to the pulvinar movements induced by environmental stimuli. PMID:11726706

Iino, M; Long, C; Wang, X

2001-11-01

107

Shikimic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The molecule for this month comes from the article Isolation of Shikimic Acid from Star Aniseed by Richard Payne and Michael Edmonds. Shikimic acid plays a key role in the biosynthesis of many important natural products including aromatic amino acids, alkaloids, phenolics, and phenylpropanoids. It plays such an important role that one of the key biosynthetic pathways is referred to as the shikimate pathway.

108

Acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acid rain problem in the northeastern U.S. has been growing in severity and geographical areas affected. Acid rain has damaged, or will result in damage to visibility, physical structures and materials, aquatic life, timber, crops, and soils. The principal causes of acid rain in the northeastern U.S. are sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from large power plants and

1980-01-01

109

Insulin increases mRNA abundance of the amino acid transporter SLC7A5/LAT1 via an mTORC1?dependent mechanism in skeletal muscle cells  

PubMed Central

Abstract Amino acid transporters (AATs) provide a link between amino acid availability and mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation although the direct relationship remains unclear. Previous studies in various cell types have used high insulin concentrations to determine the role of insulin on mTORC1 signaling and AAT mRNA abundance. However, this approach may limit applicability to human physiology. Therefore, we sought to determine the effect of insulin on mTORC1 signaling and whether lower insulin concentrations stimulate AAT mRNA abundance in muscle cells. We hypothesized that lower insulin concentrations would increase mRNA abundance of select AAT via an mTORC1?dependent mechanism in C2C12 myotubes. Insulin (0.5 nmol/L) significantly increased phosphorylation of the mTORC1 downstream effectors p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and ribosomal protein S6 (S6). A low rapamycin dose (2.5 nmol/L) significantly reduced the insulin?(0.5 nmol/L) stimulated S6K1 and S6 phosphorylation. A high rapamycin dose (50 nmol/L) further reduced the insulin?(0.5 nmol/L) stimulated phosphorylation of S6K1 and S6. Insulin (0.5 nmol/L) increased mRNA abundance of SLC38A2/SNAT2 (P ? 0.043) and SLC7A5/LAT1 (P ? 0.021) at 240 min and SLC36A1/PAT1 (P = 0.039) at 30 min. High rapamycin prevented an increase in SLC38A2/SNAT2 (P = 0.075) and SLC36A1/PAT1 (P ? 0.06) mRNA abundance whereas both rapamycin doses prevented an increase in SLC7A5/LAT1 (P ? 0.902) mRNA abundance. We conclude that a low insulin concentration increases SLC7A5/LAT1 mRNA abundance in an mTORC1?dependent manner in skeletal muscle cells. PMID:24760501

Walker, Dillon K.; Drummond, Micah J.; Dickinson, Jared M.; Borack, Michael S.; Jennings, Kristofer; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B.

2014-01-01

110

Basically Acids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the basics of acid/base chemistry in a fun, interactive way by studying instances of acid/base chemistry found in popular films such as Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and National Treasure. Students learn what acids, bases and indicators are and how they can be used, including invisible ink. They also learn how engineers use acids and bases every day to better our quality of life. Students' interest is piqued by the use of popular culture in the classroom.

University of Houston,

111

The Proton Electrochemical Transmembrane Gradients Generated by the Transfer Cells of the Haustorium of Polytrichum formosum and Their Use in the Uptake of Amino Acids  

PubMed Central

The epidermal cells of the sporophyte haustorium of Polytrichum formosum are modified into transfer cells. These cells are located in a strategic place allowing them to control the exchanges between the two generations. Their plasmalemma creates proton gradients (?? and ?pH) which increase during the development of the sporophyte. As the sporophyte grows from 2 to 4 cm long, the pH of the incubation medium of the haustoria decreases from 5.2 to 4.3, and the transmembrane potential difference (PD) hyperpolarizes form ?140 to ?210 millivolts. These gradients become rapidly larger than that generated by the plasmalemma of the basal cells of the sporophyte. They are used to energize the uptake of the solutes present in the apoplast of the gametophyte, particularly the amino acids. Below 20 micromolar ?-aminoisobutyric acid uptake in the transfer cells is mediated by a saturable system and is optimal at acidic pH (4.0 and 4.5). It is strongly inhibited by compounds dissipating both ?? and ?pH (10 micromolar carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone) or only ?? (0.1 molar KCl). The absorption of ?-aminoisobutyric acid and of the other neutral amino acids tested induces an alkalinization of the medium and a depolarization of membrane potential difference which is concentration dependent. These data show that the uptake of amino acids by the transfer cells of the haustorium is a secondary translocation (proton-amino acid symport) energized by a primary translocation (proton efflux). More particularly, they show that transfer cells possess a membrane enzymic equipment particularly efficient to achieve the uptake of the solutes leaked in the apoplast from other cell types. PMID:16666897

Renault, Sylvie; Despeghel-Caussin, Chantal; Bonnemain, Jean-Louis; Delrot, Serge

1989-01-01

112

The Proton Electrochemical Transmembrane Gradients Generated by the Transfer Cells of the Haustorium of Polytrichum formosum and Their Use in the Uptake of Amino Acids.  

PubMed

The epidermal cells of the sporophyte haustorium of Polytrichum formosum are modified into transfer cells. These cells are located in a strategic place allowing them to control the exchanges between the two generations. Their plasmalemma creates proton gradients (Deltapsi and DeltapH) which increase during the development of the sporophyte. As the sporophyte grows from 2 to 4 cm long, the pH of the incubation medium of the haustoria decreases from 5.2 to 4.3, and the transmembrane potential difference (PD) hyperpolarizes form -140 to -210 millivolts. These gradients become rapidly larger than that generated by the plasmalemma of the basal cells of the sporophyte. They are used to energize the uptake of the solutes present in the apoplast of the gametophyte, particularly the amino acids. Below 20 micromolar alpha-aminoisobutyric acid uptake in the transfer cells is mediated by a saturable system and is optimal at acidic pH (4.0 and 4.5). It is strongly inhibited by compounds dissipating both Deltapsi and DeltapH (10 micromolar carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone) or only Deltapsi (0.1 molar KCl). The absorption of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid and of the other neutral amino acids tested induces an alkalinization of the medium and a depolarization of membrane potential difference which is concentration dependent. These data show that the uptake of amino acids by the transfer cells of the haustorium is a secondary translocation (proton-amino acid symport) energized by a primary translocation (proton efflux). More particularly, they show that transfer cells possess a membrane enzymic equipment particularly efficient to achieve the uptake of the solutes leaked in the apoplast from other cell types. PMID:16666897

Renault, S; Despeghel-Caussin, C; Bonnemain, J L; Delrot, S

1989-07-01

113

Acids (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". We will observe the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with three acid solutions. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

114

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

White, J.C. (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (US))

1988-01-01

115

Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the acidity of rain and snow reveal that in parts of the eastern U.S. and of western Europe precipitation has changed from a nearly neutral solution 200 years ago to a dilute solution of sulfuric and nitric acids today. The trend is a result of the emission of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere accompanying the rise

Gene E. Likens; Richard F. Wright; James N. Galloway; Thomas J. Butler

1979-01-01

116

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

Elsworth, S.

1985-01-01

117

Acid test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Baking soda can be used as an indicator of how much acid a substance contains. Lemons and limes have more acid in them than grapefruits and oranges. Indophenol can be used as an indicator of how much vitamin C is in a substance.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-06

118

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

The acid rain problem in the northeastern U.S. has been growing in severity and geographical areas affected. Acid rain has damaged, or will result in damage to visibility, physical structures and materials, aquatic life, timber, crops, and soils. The principal causes of acid rain in the northeastern U.S. are sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from large power plants and smelters in the Ohio River Valley. Immediate corrective action and appropriate research are needed to reduce acid precipitation. Short-term programs that will define the rate of environmental deterioration, remaining environmental capacity to resist sudden deterioration, mechanisms of acid rain formation, and costs of various control options must be developed. (3 maps, 13 references, 1 table)

Bess, F.D.

1980-01-01

119

Uptake of Amino Acids and Their Metabolic Conversion into the Compatible Solute Proline Confers Osmoprotection to Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

The data presented here reveal a new facet of the physiological adjustment processes through which Bacillus subtilis can derive osmostress protection. We found that the import of proteogenic (Glu, Gln, Asp, Asn, and Arg) and of nonproteogenic (Orn and Cit) amino acids and their metabolic conversion into proline enhances growth under otherwise osmotically unfavorable conditions. Osmoprotection by amino acids depends on the functioning of the ProJ-ProA-ProH enzymes, but different entry points into this biosynthetic route are used by different amino acids to finally yield the compatible solute proline. Glu, Gln, Asp, and Asn are used to replenish the cellular pool of glutamate, the precursor for proline production, whereas Arg, Orn, and Cit are converted into ?-glutamic semialdehyde/?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate, an intermediate in proline biosynthesis. The import of Glu, Gln, Asp, Asn, Arg, Orn, and Cit did not lead to a further increase in the size of the proline pool that is already present in osmotically stressed cells. Hence, our data suggest that osmoprotection of B. subtilis by this group of amino acids rests on the savings in biosynthetic building blocks and energy that would otherwise have to be devoted either to the synthesis of the proline precursor glutamate or of proline itself. Since glutamate is the direct biosynthetic precursor for proline, we studied its uptake and found that GltT, an Na(+)-coupled symporter, is the main uptake system for both glutamate and aspartate in B. subtilis. Collectively, our data show how effectively B. subtilis can exploit environmental resources to derive osmotic-stress protection through physiological means. PMID:25344233

Zaprasis, Adrienne; Bleisteiner, Monika; Kerres, Anne; Hoffmann, Tamara; Bremer, Erhard

2015-01-01

120

NHEVNAT: an H+ V-ATPase electrically coupled to a Na+:nutrient amino acid transporter (NAT) forms an Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE)  

PubMed Central

Summary Glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and other metabolic pathways of living organisms generate potentially toxic acids within all cells. One ubiquitous mechanism for ridding cells of the acids is to expel H+ in exchange for extracellular Na+, mediated by electroneutral transporters called Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs) that are driven by Na+ concentration gradients. The exchange must be important because the human genome contains 10 NHEs along with two Na+/H+ antiporters (NHAs). By contrast, the genomes of two principal disease vector mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti, contain only three NHEs along with the two NHAs. This shortfall may be explained by the presence of seven nutrient amino acid transporters (NATs) in the mosquito genomes. NATs transport Na+ stoichiometrically linked to an amino acid into the cells by a process called symport or co-transport. Three of the mosquito NATs and two caterpillar NATs have previously been investigated after heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and were found to be voltage driven (electrophoretic). Moreover, the NATs are present in the same membrane as the H+ V-ATPase, which generates membrane potentials as high as 120 mV. We review evidence that the H+ V-ATPase moves H+ out of the cells and the resulting membrane potential (Vm) drives Na+ linked to an amino acid into the cells via a NAT. The H+ efflux by the V-ATPase and Na+ influx by the NAT comprise the same ion exchange as that mediated by an NHE; so the V and NAT working together constitute an NHE that we call NHEVNAT. As the H+ V-ATPase is widely distributed in mosquito epithelial cells and there are seven NATs in the mosquito genomes, there are potentially seven NHEVNATs that could replace the missing NHEs. We review published evidence in support of this hypothesis and speculate about broader functions of NHEVNATs. PMID:19151209

Harvey, William R.; Boudko, Dmitri Y.; Rheault, Mark R.; Okech, Bernard A.

2009-01-01

121

Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Due to the presence of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide, rainfall is naturally acidic. The release of other gases and chemicals such as sulfur dioxide during the combustion of coal and oil can cause rainfall to become even more acidic, sometimes to the point of toxicity. In this activity, students will measure the pH of local rainfall to see what effect these gases have in their region. They will also check an online resource to see how the releases of acid rain-causing chemicals have varied over the past 20 years, and answer questions about the information they uncover.

Fox, Chris

122

ACID RAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

123

Tranexamic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this ...

124

Acidic precipitation  

SciTech Connect

The authors present an overview of the environmental chemistry and transport phenomena of air pollutants, biological and ecological effects of acidic precipitation, mitigation of acidified aquatic ecosystems, and modelling approaches. This book reviews what is known about the impact of acidic deposition in the biota and processes in complex ecosystems such as lakes, streams, and forests. The specific effects on crops, trees, fish, and microorganisms are also discussed.

Adriano, D.C. (Georgia Univ., Aiken, SC (USA)); Johnson, A.H. (Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1989-01-01

125

Uric acid - urine  

MedlinePLUS

The urine uric acid test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood ... to choose the best medicine to lower uric acid level in the blood. Uric acid is a ...

126

Salicylic acids  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

2012-01-01

127

Acid Stomach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is intended for a high-school, introductory chemistry class or health class. The lesson begins with an article on the history of the development of aspirin. Students will then complete a lab that compares the reaction of regular aspirin, buffered aspirin, and enteric aspirin in neutral, acidic, and basic solutions. They will then analyze the results of the experiment to gain insight into how this information was used by researchers to solve some of the problems associated with aspirin. To complete the lesson, students must understand acids and bases.

Science Netlinks

2003-08-07

128

Amino Acids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Featured Molecules this month are the 20 standard ?-amino acids found in proteins and serve as background to the paper by Barone and Schmidt on the Nonfood Applications of Proteinaceous Renewable Materials. The molecules are presented in two formats, the neutral form and the ionized form found in solution at physiologic pH.

129

Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online examination into acid rain and sulfur dioxide emissions. Students research which states have succeeded in reducing sulfur dioxide emissions between 1980 and 1999, and which states emissions have increased. This activity is accompanied by a page of websites for further information.

130

Acid Attack  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students explore the effect of chemical erosion on statues and monuments. They use chalk to see what happens when limestone is placed in liquids with different pH values. They also learn several things that engineers are doing to reduce the effects of acid rain.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

131

Pharmacology of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are triterpenoid compounds that exist widely in food, medicinal herbs and other plants. This review summarizes the pharmacological studies on these two triterpenoids. Both oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are effective in protecting against chemically induced liver injury in laboratory animals. Oleanolic acid has been marketed in China as an oral drug for human liver

Jie Liu

1995-01-01

132

HYDROFLUORIC ACID Safety Office  

E-print Network

acids like Sulfuric and Hydrochloric. Hydrofluoric Acid is an acid like no other. It is so potentHYDROFLUORIC ACID SAFETY Safety Office University ofTennessee Space Institute Tullahoma, TN #12;What is Hydrofluoric Acid ? Hydrofluoric acid is a "weak" inorganic acid. Primarily used

Davis, Lloyd M.

133

Domoic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly detailed chemical information page features domoic acid, a toxin associated with Amnesic shellfish poisoning and naturally produced by the red algae Chondria armata and diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Created by the International Programme on Chemical Safety, this web page organizes information under the following sections: Name, Summary, Physio-Chemical Properties, Uses, Routes of Entry, Kinetics, Toxicology, Toxicological and Biomedical Investigations, Clinical Effects, Management, Illustrative Cases, Additional Information, References, and Authors.

INCHEM

134

Nicotinuric Acid  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Metabolic syndrome is a multiplex disorder and puts patients on the road to type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. However, a surrogate biomarker in plasma or urine in fully reflecting features of metabolic syndrome has not been explored. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Urine metabolomics has potential utility in metabolic profiling because urine metabolites analysis reflects global outflux of metabolic change. Accordingly, we collected data on subjects (n = 99) with overweight, dyslipidemia, hypertension or impaired glucose tolerance and took a metabolomics approach to analyze the metabolites of urine revealed in metabolic syndrome by high-performance liquid chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry and elicit potential biomarkers to picture metabolic syndrome. RESULTS Our results revealed that the urine nicotinuric acid value of subjects with diabetes (HbA1c ?6.5% or those receiving diabetes medications) (n = 25) was higher than subjects without diabetes (n = 37) (221 ± 31 vs. 152 ± 13 × 103 mAU, P = 0.0268). Moreover, urinary nicotinuric acid level was positively correlated with body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol and high sensitivity C-reactive protein, but negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS This is the first study, to our knowledge, to propose that nicotinuric acid represents an important pathogenic mechanism in process from metabolic syndrome to diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:23275373

Huang, Chun-Feng; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Fan, Chun-Ming; Hong, Chuang-Ye; Shiao, Ming-Shi

2013-01-01

135

The SLC36 family of proton-coupled amino acid transporters and their potential role in drug transport  

PubMed Central

Members of the solute carrier (SLC) 36 family are involved in transmembrane movement of amino acids and derivatives. SLC36 consists of four members. SLC36A1 and SLC36A2 both function as H+-coupled amino acid symporters. SLC36A1 is expressed at the luminal surface of the small intestine but is also commonly found in lysosomes in many cell types (including neurones), suggesting that it is a multipurpose carrier with distinct roles in different cells including absorption in the small intestine and as an efflux pathway following intralysosomal protein breakdown. SLC36A1 has a relatively low affinity (Km 1–10 mM) for its substrates, which include zwitterionic amino and imino acids, heterocyclic amino acids and amino acid-based drugs and derivatives used experimentally and/or clinically to treat epilepsy, schizophrenia, bacterial infections, hyperglycaemia and cancer. SLC36A2 is expressed at the apical surface of the human renal proximal tubule where it functions in the reabsorption of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline. SLC36A2 also transports amino acid derivatives but has a narrower substrate selectivity and higher affinity (Km 0.1–0.7 mM) than SLC36A1. Mutations in SLC36A2 lead to hyperglycinuria and iminoglycinuria. SLC36A3 is expressed only in testes and is an orphan transporter with no known function. SLC36A4 is widely distributed at the mRNA level and is a high-affinity (Km 2–3 µM) transporter for proline and tryptophan. We have much to learn about this family of transporters, but from current knowledge, it seems likely that their function will influence the pharmacokinetic profiles of amino acid-based drugs by mediating transport in both the small intestine and kidney. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Transporters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.164.issue-7 PMID:21501141

Thwaites, David T; Anderson, Catriona MH

2011-01-01

136

Folic acid - test  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is a type of B vitamin. This article discusses the test to measure the amount of folic acid in the blood. ... that may interfere with test results, including folic acid supplements. Drugs that can decrease folic acid measurements ...

137

Methylmalonic acid blood test  

MedlinePLUS

... acid is a substance produced when proteins (called amino acids) in the body break down. A test can ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

138

Acid Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The I2I-Acid Ocean virtual lab is an e-learning activity where students become virtual scientists studying the impact of ocean acidification on sea urchin larval growth. Students recreate a real, up-to-date climate change experiment. They also learn important general scientific principles, such as the importance of sample size and numbers of replicates, and discuss what this research into a specific impact of climate change may mean for the future of our oceans. There is a French translation available.

139

New bioactive fatty acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

140

New Bioactive Fatty Acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

141

Understanding Acid Rain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-01-01

142

Brnsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid**  

E-print Network

Brønsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid** Mark Juhasz, Stephan Hoffmann, Evgenii Stoyanov, Kee-Chan Kim, and Christopher A. Reed* Acids based on carborane anions as conjugate bases (Figure 1) are a new class of Brønsted (protic) acids, notable for their "strong yet gentle" qualities.[1] For example

Reed, Christopher A.

143

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Acid rain, says Boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of North America and Europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time. Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon; the effects on man, wildlife, water, and our cultural heritage. He probes the delays of politicians and the frequent self-serving arguments advanced by industry in the face of what scientists have proved. The solutions he offers are to strengthen the Clean Air Act and require emission reductions that can be accomplished by establishing emission standards on a regional or bubble basis, burn low-sulfur coal, install scrubbers at critical plants, and invest in alternative energy sources. 73 references, 1 figure.

Boyle, R.H.; Boyle, R.A.

1983-01-01

144

New method of acidizing or acid fracturing: crosslinked acid gels  

SciTech Connect

Acid polymer gels having pH less than one have been crosslinked for retarding the chemical and physical activity of hydrochloric acid on calcareous formations. Hydrochloric acid concentrations from .0025 to 28% have been successfully crosslinked. This stimulation fluid offers high viscosity with adequate shear stability, perfect support for proppants, and clay stabilization. Additionally, the fluid provides effective fluid loss control and retardation of acid reaction enabling live acid to penetrate deeper into the formation for better formation conductivity and practically a residue-free break for rapid clean-up of the well after the job. Results of lab and field tests show the acid crosslinked system to be an effective stimulation fluid for acidizing and acid fracturing in calcareous and sandstone formations having low formation permeability.

Pabley, A.S.; Holcomb, D.L.

1980-01-01

145

Azelaic Acid Topical  

MedlinePLUS

Azelaic acid gel is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin disease that ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat acne. Azelaic acid ...

146

Acid Lipase Disease  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, Wolman’s Disease Table of Contents (click to jump ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease occurs when the ...

147

Uric acid test (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

148

Folic Acid and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... What to Expect Ebola: What to Know Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > Parents > Pregnancy & Newborn Center > Your ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

149

Plasma amino acids  

MedlinePLUS

Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acids levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

150

Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on erythropoiesis: A preclinical in vitro characterization for the treatment of congenital sideroblastic anemia.  

PubMed

Congenital sideroblastic anemia (CSA) is a hereditary disorder characterized by microcytic anemia and bone marrow sideroblasts. The most common form of CSA is attributed to mutations in the X-linked gene 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2). ALAS2 is a mitochondrial enzyme, which utilizes glycine and succinyl-CoA to form 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a crucial precursor in heme synthesis. Therefore, ALA supplementation could be an effective therapeutic strategy to restore heme synthesis in CSA caused by ALAS2 defects. In a preclinical study, we examined the effects of ALA in human erythroid cells, including K562 cells and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived erythroid progenitor (HiDEP) cells. ALA treatment resulted in significant dose-dependent accumulation of heme in the K562 cell line. Concomitantly, the treatment substantially induced erythroid differentiation as assessed using benzidine staining. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed significant upregulation of heme-regulated genes, such as the globin genes [hemoglobin alpha (HBA) and hemoglobin gamma (HBG)] and the heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) gene, in K562 cells. Next, to investigate the mechanism by which ALA is transported into erythroid cells, quantitative RT-PCR analysis was performed on previously identified ALA transporters, including solute carrier family 15 (oligopeptide transporter), member (SLC15A) 1, SLC15A2, solute carrier family 36 (proton/amino acid symporter), member (SLC36A1), and solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter), member 13 (SLC6A13). Our analysis revealed that SLC36A1 was abundantly expressed in erythroid cells. Thus, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was added to K562 cells to competitively inhibit SLC36A1-mediated transport. GABA treatment significantly impeded the ALA-mediated increase in the number of hemoglobinized cells as well as the induction of HBG, HBA, and HMOX1. Finally, small-interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of ALAS2 in HiDEP cells considerably decreased the expression of HBA, HBG, and HMOX1, and these expression levels were rescued with ALA treatment. In summary, ALA appears to be transported into erythroid cells mainly by SLC36A1 and is utilized to generate heme. ALA may represent a novel therapeutic option for CSA treatment, particularly for cases harboring ALAS2 mutations. PMID:25450364

Fujiwara, Tohru; Okamoto, Koji; Niikuni, Ryoyu; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Okitsu, Yoko; Fukuhara, Noriko; Onishi, Yasushi; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Ichinohasama, Ryo; Nakamura, Yukio; Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru; Harigae, Hideo

2014-10-18

151

Acid-Base Equilibria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 9-page PDF document is part of an environmental geochemistry course taught by Dr. David Sherman at the University of Bristol. Topics include acid-base theories, aqueous systems, strong and weak acids and bases, acid-base properties of minerals, the pH of weak acid and buffered systems, and the calculation of titration curves.

Sherman, David W.; Bristol, University O.

152

Detection of bound phenolic acids: prevention by ascorbic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid of degradation of phenolic acids during alkaline hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental conditions commonly used to detect bound phenolic acids by alkaline hydrolysis result in loss of several phenolic acids, particularly dihydroxy-derivatives (caffeic acid, dihydrocaffeic acid, homogentisic acid). In this study we show that the addition of ascorbic acid, a strong antioxidant, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, a metal chelator, totally prevent the loss of phenolic acids during alkaline hydrolysis. In these

M Nardini; E Cirillo; F Natella; D Mencarelli; A Comisso; C Scaccini

2002-01-01

153

Acids and Bases (Netorials)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids and Bases: this is a resource in the collection "Netorials". In this module there is an introduction to the chemical properties of acids and bases. Afterwards, the sections include topics such as Molecular Structures of Acids and Bases, Ionization constants, properties of salts, buffers and Lewis theory of Acids and Bases. The Netorials cover selected topics in first-year chemistry including: Chemical Reactions, Stoichiometry, Thermodynamics, Intermolecular Forces, Acids & Bases, Biomolecules, and Electrochemistry.

154

Acid tolerance in amphibians  

SciTech Connect

Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

Pierce, B.A.

1985-04-01

155

Gating topology of the proton-coupled oligopeptide symporters.  

PubMed

Proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters belong to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of membrane transporters. Recent crystal structures suggest the MFS fold facilitates transport through rearrangement of their two six-helix bundles around a central ligand binding site; how this is achieved, however, is poorly understood. Using modeling, molecular dynamics, crystallography, functional assays, and site-directed spin labeling combined with double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy, we present a detailed study of the transport dynamics of two bacterial oligopeptide transporters, PepTSo and PepTSt. Our results identify several salt bridges that stabilize outward-facing conformations and we show that, for all the current structures of MFS transporters, the first two helices of each of the four inverted-topology repeat units form half of either the periplasmic or cytoplasmic gate and that these function cooperatively in a scissor-like motion to control access to the peptide binding site during transport. PMID:25651061

Fowler, Philip W; Orwick-Rydmark, Marcella; Radestock, Sebastian; Solcan, Nicolae; Dijkman, Patricia M; Lyons, Joseph A; Kwok, Jane; Caffrey, Martin; Watts, Anthony; Forrest, Lucy R; Newstead, Simon

2015-02-01

156

Gating Topology of the Proton-Coupled Oligopeptide Symporters  

PubMed Central

Summary Proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters belong to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of membrane transporters. Recent crystal structures suggest the MFS fold facilitates transport through rearrangement of their two six-helix bundles around a central ligand binding site; how this is achieved, however, is poorly understood. Using modeling, molecular dynamics, crystallography, functional assays, and site-directed spin labeling combined with double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy, we present a detailed study of the transport dynamics of two bacterial oligopeptide transporters, PepTSo and PepTSt. Our results identify several salt bridges that stabilize outward-facing conformations and we show that, for all the current structures of MFS transporters, the first two helices of each of the four inverted-topology repeat units form half of either the periplasmic or cytoplasmic gate and that these function cooperatively in a scissor-like motion to control access to the peptide binding site during transport. PMID:25651061

Fowler, Philip W.; Orwick-Rydmark, Marcella; Radestock, Sebastian; Solcan, Nicolae; Dijkman, Patricia M.; Lyons, Joseph A.; Kwok, Jane; Caffrey, Martin; Watts, Anthony; Forrest, Lucy R.; Newstead, Simon

2015-01-01

157

Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the absorption of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in humans are lacking. We

M. R. Olthof; P. C. H. Hollman; M. B. Katan

2001-01-01

158

Chlorogenic Acid and Caffeic Acid Are Absorbed in Humans1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the absorption of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in humans are lacking. We

Margreet R. Olthof; Peter C. H. Hollman; Martijn B. Katan

159

Purification of oleic acid and linoleic acid  

SciTech Connect

To permit kinetic studies of the reactivity of unsaturated fatty acids towards oxygen radicals, it is essential to remove traces of hydroperoxides and other conjugated lipid impurities commonly present in commercial samples. Removal of these impurities has been satisfactorily achieved for oleic and linoleic acids by anaerobic low temperature recrystallization from acetonitrile. The uv spectra of commercial and purified samples are compared.

Arudi, R.L.; Sutherland, M.W.; Bielski, B.H.J.

1983-01-01

160

Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

2006-01-01

161

Acid-fast stain  

MedlinePLUS

The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body ... dye. The slide is then washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria ...

162

Aminocaproic Acid Injection  

MedlinePLUS

Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

163

Hydrochloric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrocholoric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

164

Uric acid - blood  

MedlinePLUS

Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Purines are found in some ... dried beans and peas, and beer. Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys. ...

165

Zoledronic Acid Injection  

MedlinePLUS

Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

166

Sulfuric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

167

Fatty acid analogs  

DOEpatents

In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

Elmaleh, David R. (Newton Center, MA); Livni, Eli (Brookline, MA)

1985-01-01

168

Plant fatty acid hydroxylases  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2001-01-01

169

The Acid Rain Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

170

[alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

2010-01-01

171

Neutralizing Acids and Bases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use their knowledge of color changes with red cabbage indicator to neutralize an acidic solution with a base and then neutralize a basic solution with an acid. Use this as a follow-up activity to the related activity, "Color Changes with Acids and Bases."

2012-04-08

172

Acid (and Base) Rainbows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use red cabbage juice and pH indicator paper to test the acidity and basicity of household materials. The activity links this concept of acids and bases to acid rain and other pollutants. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

Kolenbrander, Amy; Yowell, Janet; Mach, Natalie; Zarske, Malinda S.; Carlson, Denise; Perez, Sharon

2004-01-01

173

What Is Acid Rain?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

Likens, Gene E.

2004-01-01

174

Nucleic acid detection compositions  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

2008-08-05

175

Editorial: Acid precipitation  

SciTech Connect

This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

NONE

1995-09-01

176

Cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Waunakee, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow; Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2010-11-09

177

Cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2007-12-11

178

Cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2000-01-01

179

[Biosynthesis of adipic acid].  

PubMed

Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production. PMID:24432653

Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

2013-10-01

180

The linoleic acid and trans fatty acids of margarines1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty brands of margarine were analysed for cis-polyunsaturated acids by lipox- idase, for trans fatty acid by infrared spectroscopy, and for fatty acid composition by gas-liquid chromatography. High concentrations of trans fatty acids tended to be associated with low concentrations of hinoleic acid. Later analyses on eight of the brands, representing various proportions of linoleic to trans fatty acids, indicated

J. L. Beare-Rogers; L. M. Gray; R. Hollywood

181

Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid  

DOEpatents

Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

2008-12-02

182

Microorganisms for producing organic acids  

SciTech Connect

Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

2014-09-30

183

Preparation of Some Substituted Terephthalic Acids  

E-print Network

Preparation of Some Substituted Terephthalic Acids Susanna Branion and Vladimir Benin Department substituted terephthalic acids: 2-sulfomethylterephthalic acid (1) and 2-phosphonoterephthalic acid (2 for construction of acid-pendant polymer chains. Keywords: Acid-pendant polymers, arenephosphonic acids

Benin, Vladimir

184

4, 29012944, 2007 Acid deposition,  

E-print Network

HESSD 4, 2901­2944, 2007 Acid deposition, climate change and acid extremes C. D. Evans et al. Title System Sciences Effects of decreasing acid deposition and climate change on acid extremes in an upland, 2901­2944, 2007 Acid deposition, climate change and acid extremes C. D. Evans et al. Title Page

Boyer, Edmond

185

Lewis Acid Organocatalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term Lewis acid catalysts generally refers to metal salts like aluminium chloride, titanium chloride and zinc chloride. Their application in asymmetric catalysis can be achieved by the addition of enantiopure ligands to these salts. However, not only metal centers can function as Lewis acids. Compounds containing carbenium, silyl or phosphonium cations display Lewis acid catalytic activity. In addition, hypervalent compounds based on phosphorus and silicon, inherit Lewis acidity. Furthermore, ionic liquids, organic salts with a melting point below 100 °C, have revealed the ability to catalyze a range of reactions either in substoichiometric amount or, if used as the reaction medium, in stoichiometric or even larger quantities. The ionic liquids can often be efficiently recovered. The catalytic activity of the ionic liquid is explained by the Lewis acidic nature of their cations. This review covers the survey of known classes of metal-free Lewis acids and their application in catalysis.

Sereda, Oksana; Tabassum, Sobia; Wilhelm, René

186

Acid Rain Learning Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These suggestions for activities allow students to learn about acid deposition in new and interactive ways, both in and out of the classroom. The suggestions are for individuals and small groups, the class as a whole, or for field trips. Students may contact local experts about acid rain issues, investigate the energy sources used to generate electricity by their local power companies, collect cartoons about acid rain and air pollution, or play the roles of scientists or interested parties involved in investigations of acid rain issues. Field trip ideas include visiting a local museum or science center to see exhibits or resources on acid rain, and visiting a local cemetary to examine the effects of acid rain on the headstones.

187

THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

188

CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID OR EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID, BUT NOT ARACHIDONIC ACID,  

E-print Network

, with UMP plus the omega-3 fatty acid docosa- hexaenoic acid (given by gavage), produces substantial in/or, by gavage, an omega-3 (docosahexae- noic or eicosapentaenoic acid) or omega-6 (arachidonic acid) fatty acid. Both of the omega-3 fatty acids elevated major brain phosphatide levels (by 18­28%, and 21­27%) and giv

Wurtman, Richard

189

Acid rain on Bermuda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased acidity of precipitation due to combustion of fossil fuels has been well documented for both the eastern USA1 and Canada2. The SO2 and NOxemitted by the burning of coal, natural gas, fuel oil and petrol are oxidized in the atmosphere to sulphuric and nitric acids which subsequently give rise to acid precipitation1. However, the SO2 and NOx emitted, and

Timothy Jickells; Anthony Knap; Thomas Church; James Galloway; John Miller

1982-01-01

190

Bile Acid Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bile acids are physiological agents that facilitate biliary secretion of lipids and metabolites, and intestinal absorption\\u000a of fat and nutrients. Bile acids are also signaling molecules that activate nuclear receptors and cell signaling pathways\\u000a to regulate hepatic lipid metabolism and homeostasis. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver, stored in\\u000a the gallbladder, secreted to the intestine and reabsorbed

John Y. L. Chiang

191

Kidney amino acid transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near complete reabsorption of filtered amino acids is a main specialized transport function of the kidney proximal tubule.\\u000a This evolutionary conserved task is carried out by a subset of luminal and basolateral transporters that together form the\\u000a transcellular amino acid transport machinery similar to that of small intestine. A number of other amino acid transporters\\u000a expressed in the basolateral membrane

François Verrey; Dustin Singer; Tamara Ramadan; Raphael N. Vuille-dit-Bille; Luca Mariotta; Simone M. R. Camargo

2009-01-01

192

Diterpenoid acids from Grindelia nana.  

PubMed

Two new norditerpenoid acids of the labdane-type (norgrindelic acids), 4,5-dehydro-6-oxo-18-norgrindelic acid (1) and 4beta-hydroxy-6-oxo-19-norgrindelic acid (2), as well as a new grindelic acid derivative, 18-hydroxy-6-oxogrindelic acid (3), were isolated from the aerial parts of Grindelia nana. In addition, the known compounds, 6-oxogrindelic acid, grindelic acid, methyl grindeloate, 7alpha,8alpha-epoxygrindelic acid, and 4alpha-carboxygrindelic acid were also isolated. The structures of the new compounds were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. PMID:10757723

Mahmoud, A A; Ahmed, A A; Tanaka, T; Iinuma, M

2000-03-01

193

Recovery of organic acids  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

2009-10-13

194

USGS Tracks Acid Rain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

1995-01-01

195

Acid Rain Students' Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EPA developed this colorful website to teach students all about acid rain. First, through clear descriptions and helpful figures users can learn the characteristics of acid rain, its dangers, and how to control it. The website offers an interactive connect-the-dots, word searches, crossword puzzles, and other games. A short movie provides an overview of how the use of coal contributes to acid rain and acid rain's impacts on ecosystems and human health. The website also offers an introduction to the pH scale and tools to measure the pH.

196

Recovery of organic acids  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

2011-11-01

197

ACID AEROSOLS ISSUE PAPER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report evaluates scientific information on direct health effects associated with exposure to acid aerosols. The present report is not intended as a complete and detailed review of all literature pertaining to acid aerosols. Rather, an attempt has been made to focus on the eva...

198

EXPOSURES TO ACIDIC AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient monitoring of acid aerosol in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. easurements made in Kingston, TN, and Stuebenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m3 more than 10 ti...

199

Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

Sims, Paul A.

2011-01-01

200

Acids and Salts (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids and Salts: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore a few properties of common acids and their salts. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

201

Strong Acids (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Strong Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore the properties of common strong acids. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

202

Acid in water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plants and animals that live in water create some amount of acid in the water. The carbon dioxide that plants and animals release into the water makes the water acidic and unsafe for living organisms. This is why the water of captive aquatic animals and plants must be changed often.

Laszlo Ilyes (None;)

2007-05-16

203

Acids in Proteins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson describes how amino acids build proteins in a person's body. Amino acids are the chemical building blocks for the structure of an organism. A link to a quiz is provided at the end of the lesson to check comprehension.

2012-06-19

204

Sealed Lead Acid Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing trend among users of lead acid batteries towards use of sealed maintenance free designs. These offer the user many advantages in freedom of battery placement, increased safety, battery size and weight, no need to water, and in some instances superior performance. In standby service, two battery types are rivalling the traditional flooded lead acid stationary battery.

J. J. Kelley; C. K. McManus

1986-01-01

205

Acid (and Base) Rainbows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the differences between acids and bases and how to use indicators, such as pH paper and red cabbage juice, to distinguish between them. They learn why it is important for engineers to understand acids and bases.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

206

EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent reviews of available data indicate that precipitation in a large region of North America is highly acidic when its pH is compared with the expected pH value of 5.65 for pure rain water in equilibrium with CO2. A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsib...

207

Controlling acid rain  

E-print Network

High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn the northeastern USA are caused by the large scale combustion of fossil fuels within this region. Average precipitation acidity is pH 4.2, but spatial and temporal ...

Fay, James A.

1983-01-01

208

What Causes Acid Rain?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is the formation of acid rain. The resource explains the chemical reaction that begins when compounds like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the air, mix and react with water and other chemicals to form more acidic pollutants that dissolve very easily in water and can be carried long distances where they become part of rain, sleet, snow, and fog.

209

Lead-acid cell  

SciTech Connect

A lead-acid storage battery is described that has a lead negative electrode, a lead dioxide positive electrode and a sulfuric acid electrolyte having an organic catalyst dissolved therein which prevents dissolution of the electrodes into lead sulfate whereby in the course of discharge, the lead dioxide is reduced to lead oxide and the lead is oxidized.

Hradcovsky, R.J.; Kozak, O.R.

1980-12-09

210

Carbolic acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Carbolic acid is a sweet-smelling clear liquid that is added to many different products. Carbolic acid poisoning occurs when someone touches or swallows this chemical. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management ...

211

Acid Rain Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The results of a long term study of the effects of acidic deposition in the Northeast were published in Bioscience this week, and they suggest that forests, lakes, and streams of the Northeastern US are not recovering from the toxic effects of acid rain despite significant cuts in the power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide -- two major contributors to the problem. "Acid rain," more accurately called acidic deposition, causes toxic forms of aluminum to concentrate in soil and water, vital calcium and magnesium to be leached from trees, and surface waters to become inhospitable to aquatic biota. The study showed that, after 30 years of federally mandated air emission reductions, sulfur dioxide emissions have decreased while nitrogen oxide emissions have remained the same and that acidic deposition-related problems continue to plague New York and New England.

Sanders, Hilary C.

2001-01-01

212

Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.  

PubMed

cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ?-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers. PMID:25321346

Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

2014-12-14

213

Acid recovery from waste sulfuric acid by diffusion dialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of sulfuric acid production from pyrite, there is a lot of waste acid produced in fume washing with dilute\\u000a acid. Acid recovery from this sort of waste sulfuric acid by diffusion dialysis is studied in the paper. The mass transfer\\u000a dialysis coefficient of sulfuric acid of the membrane AFX is measured, the effect of the flowrate of

Guiqing Zhang; Qixiu Zhang; Kanggen Zhou

1999-01-01

214

Sulfuric Acid on Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

1999-01-01

215

Trans Fatty Acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

Doyle, Ellin

1997-09-01

216

WASTE ACID DETOXIFICATION AND RECLAMATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) project demonstrated the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) systems ability to recover waste electropolish acid solutions generated during the manufacturing of gun-tubes, and reuse the clean acid. ...

217

Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid  

PubMed Central

A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

1985-01-01

218

Folic acid in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... certain types of anemias . Folate works along with vitamin B12 and vitamin C to help the body break ... Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academy Press, ...

219

Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... Amoxicillin is in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth ... allergic to amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox, Wymox), clavulanic acid, penicillin, cephalosporins, or any other medications.tell your doctor ...

220

Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

1989-01-01

221

Alpha Hydroxy Acids  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer cells associated with exposure to light) in mice, and that salicyclic acid had a photoprotective effect (protected against the effects of light) in mice. The complete results of this study are available ...

222

Boric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... acid poisoning usually occurs when someone swallows powdered roach-killing products that contain the chemical. Chronic poisoning ... and ant pesticides Photography chemicals Powders to kill roaches Some eye wash products Note: This list may ...

223

ACID RAIN CONTROL OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE) both develo...

224

Amino Acids and Chirality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

Cook, Jamie E.

2012-01-01

225

Facts about Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir CDC urges women to ... Blood Disorders & Disabilities Information For... Media Policy Makers Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

226

(Acid rain workshop)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

Turner, R.S.

1990-12-05

227

Lead-acid cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specification describes a post seal arrangement for a lead-acid battery. The seal is a resilient bellows which permits relative movement between the cell receptacle and the grids to which the post is attached.

L. D. Babusci; B. A. Cretella; D. O. Feder; D. E. Koontz

1970-01-01

228

Acid-Base Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Website for anyone wanting to become more familiar with the physiology of acid-base balance in clinical medicine. Several pages are interactive. Numerical results are accompanied by text interpretations to facilitate recognition and understanding.

MD Alan W. Grogono (Tulane University School of Medicine Dept. of Anesthesiology)

2002-06-01

229

Domoic Acid Fact Sheet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online fact sheet illustrates the transfer of domoic acid through the food web. Domoic acid is a nerve toxin produced by a naturally occurring Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) usually (but not always) of the genus Pseudonitzchia. The sheet explains what to do if you find a sick or dead animal and includes contact information for injured/sick/entangled animal rescue networks in California.

Sanctuary, Channel I.

230

Acid Rain Lesson Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five articulated lessons focus on air quality using classroom and field data collection activities. Case study in Great Smoky Mountains has broader application. Background and data for lessons on: the pH scale, understanding acid vs. base, collecting data, mapping relationship of weather events to acid rain. Links to NPS data on air quality, current values, atlas and reports, packaged datasets on ozone, meteorological conditions and other parameters. Also available: teacher resources; educator workshops.

231

Effects of acid precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid precipitation, including dry deposition, is recognized as coming from pollution-caused strong acid precursors that result from the burning of fossil fuels. Recent studies suggest that ecosystems susceptible to acidification occur over the entire length of the Appalachian Mountains and certain other regions of the eastern U.S. This paper reviews a short-term assessment by the EPA to survey the extent

Norman R. Glass; Dean E. Arnold; James N. Galloway; George R. Hendrey; Jeffrey J. Lee; W. W. McFee; Stephen A. Norton; Charles F. Powers; Danny L. Rambo; Carl L. Schofield

1982-01-01

232

Discovery of essential fatty acids.  

PubMed

Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

Spector, Arthur A; Kim, Hee-Yong

2015-01-01

233

Acidification and Acid Rain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that endangers the existing biota. Concerns about acid (or acidic) rain in its modern sense were publicized by the Swedish soil scientist Svante Odén (1968). He argued, initially in the Swedish press, that long-term increases in the atmospheric deposition of acid could lower the pH of surface waters, cause a decline in fish stocks, deplete soils of nutrients, and accelerate damage to materials. By the 1970s, acidification of surface waters was reported in many countries in Europe as well as in North America. The late twentieth-century rush to understand the impact of acid rain was driven by: (i) reports of damaged or threatened freshwater fisheries and (ii) damaged forests. Perhaps the earliest linkage between acidic surface water and damage to fish was made by Dahl (1921) in southern Norway. There, spring runoff was sufficiently acidic to kill trout. It was not until the 1970s that a strong link was established between depressed pH, mobilization of aluminum from soil, and fish status ( Schofield and Trojnar,1980). The relationship between acidification of soils and forest health started with hypotheses in the 1960s and has slowly developed. Acid rain enhances the availability of some nutrients (e.g., nitrogen), and may either enhance or diminish the availability of others (e.g., calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus). Damage to anthropogenic structures, human health, and visibility have also raised concerns. The history of these early developments was summarized by Cowling (1982). Since the 1970s, sulfur and nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere have been reduced by 50-85% and 0-30%, respectively, both in North America and Europe. The emission reductions have occurred as a consequence of knowledge gained and economic factors. While recovery of water quality is underway in some areas, problems of acidification persist, and are now complicated by the effects of climate change ( Schindler, 1997).

Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

2003-12-01

234

Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

1989-01-01

235

Export of Acidity in Drainage Water from Acid Sulphate Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbed acid sulphate soils are potent sources of acidity in coastal waterways. Monitoring studies of the drainage water for sites at East Trinity, Cairns and Pimpama, south-east Queensland indicate that considerable acidity is found in the drainage water from these sites. Hydrogen (H+), ferrous (Fe2+) and aluminium (Al) ions are the dominant acid cations involved. When drainage water is mixed

F. J Cook; W Hicks; E. A Gardner; G. D Carlin; D. W Froggatt

2000-01-01

236

What is Acid Rain? Explore the Acid Lake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acid rain is a type of air pollution that occurs when certain chemicals mix with water in the air. Most chemicals that cause acid rain come from the emissions from factories and cars. Acid rain looks just like 'normal' rain but when it falls, it can hurt plants and animals. For example, when acid rain falls into a lake or river, it makes that body of water more acidic. Many plants and animals cannot live in acidic water. Play this game, from Earth Day Canada's EcoKids program, to learn more about acid rain and its impact on the environment.

Canada, Earth D.

2010-01-01

237

XYLARIC ACID, DARABINARIC ACID (D-LYXARIC ACID), L-ARABINARIC ACID (L-LYXARIC ACID), AND RIBARIC ACID-1,4-LACTONE; SYNTHESIS AND ISOLATION SYNTHESIS OF POLYHYDROXYPOLYAMIDES THEREFROM.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation describes the nitric acid oxidation of the pentoses D-xylose, L-arabinose, D-arabinose, and D-ribose to produce xylaric acid, L-arabinaric acid (L-lyxaric acid), D-arabinaric acid… (more)

Hinton, Michael Raymond

2009-01-01

238

Molecular Structure of Malonic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Propanedioic acid is a dibasic carboxylic acid that was first synthesized by oxidizing malic acid in 1858 by a scientist named Dessaigne. Naturally, propandioic acid is found in apples. This chemical is relatively unstable and has few uses, but its ester derivative, diethyl malonate, is used to synthesize useful compounds such as barbiturates, flavors, fragrances, and vitamins (B1 and B6).

2002-10-10

239

Atmospheric Dust and Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why is acid rain still an environmental problem in Europe and North America despite antipollution reforms? The answer really is blowing in the wind: atmospheric dust. These airborne particles can help neutralize the acids falling on forests, but dust levels are unusually low these days. In the air dust particles can neutralize acid rain. What can we do about acid

Lars O. Hedin; Gene E. Likens

1996-01-01

240

Pelargonic acid weed control parameters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Producers and researchers are interested in pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid) as a broad-spectrum post-emergence or burn-down herbicide. Pelargonic acid is a fatty acid naturally occurring in many plants and animals, and present in many foods we consume. The objective of this research was to determine...

241

Ursodeoxycholic acid, 7-ketolithocholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid are primary bile acids of the nutria (Myocastor coypus).  

PubMed

Because ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids are interconverted in humans via 7-ketolithocholic acid, bile acid metabolism was studied in the nutria (Myocastor coypus), the bile of which is known to contain these three bile acids. Relative concentrations of ursodeoxycholic (37% +/- 20%), 7-ketolithocholic (33% +/- 17%), and chenodeoxycholic (17% +/- 9%) acids in gallbladder bile were unchanged by 5-20 h of complete biliary diversion (n = 7). Injection of either [14C]cholesterol, [14C]ursodeoxycholic, [14C]7-ketolithocholic acid, or a mixture of [7 beta-3H]chenodeoxycholic acid and [14C]chenodeoxycholic acid into bile fistula nutria demonstrated that all three bile acids can be synthesized hepatically from cholesterol, that they are interconverted sparingly (2%-5%) by the liver, but that 7-ketolithocholic acid is an intermediate in the hepatic transformation of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid. An animal that had been fed antibiotics showed an unusually elevated concentration of ursodeoxycholic acid in gallbladder and hepatic bile, suggesting that bacterial transformation of ursodeoxycholic acid in the intestine may be a source of some biliary chenodeoxycholic acid and 7-ketolithocholic acid. PMID:3943698

Tint, G S; Bullock, J; Batta, A K; Shefer, S; Salen, G

1986-03-01

242

Acidity and taste in kiwifruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although total titratable acidity levels in ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit appear quite stable during storage at 0°C under New Zealand conditions it is known that citric acid levels decline but malic acid levels are maintained. By contrast, malic acid levels tend to increase with storage at 4°C. These observations formed the basis of a sensory comparison of fruit stored at 0, 4,

K. Marsh; S. Attanayake; S. Walker; A. Gunson; H. Boldingh; E. MacRae

2004-01-01

243

The biosynthesis of ricinoleic acid  

PubMed Central

1. Ricinoleic acid is shown to be synthesized in the immature castor bean seed only after 3–4 weeks from the time of fertilization. 2. Synthesis occurs both in the isolated embryo and the endosperm. 3. Linoleic acid does not act as precursor of ricinoleic acid in the isolated bean embryo. 4. Oleic acid is shown to be the direct precursor of ricinoleic acid. 5. The reaction does not use molecular oxygen. This suggests that ricinoleic acid is not a precursor of linoleic acid. PMID:14340094

James, A. T.; Hadaway, H. C.; Webb, Joan P. W.

1965-01-01

244

Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease  

PubMed Central

Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

Ramsdell, John S.; Gulland, Frances M.

2014-01-01

245

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Nekimken, Howard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carey, W. Patrick (Lynnwood, WA); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

1997-01-01

246

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

1997-07-22

247

Science Shorts: Understanding Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You may have heard acid rain mentioned as an environmental problem. It doesn't mean that a strong chemical is raining from the sky. The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. However, a small change in how acidic precipitation is can have a profound effect. This month's activity will help students understand the effect of acid rain on buildings and statues.

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-11-01

248

Extracellular nucleic acids.  

PubMed

Extracellular nucleic acids are found in different biological fluids in the organism and in the environment: DNA is a ubiquitous component of the organic matter pool in the soil and in all marine and freshwater habitats. Data from recent studies strongly suggest that extracellular DNA and RNA play important biological roles in microbial communities and in higher organisms. DNA is an important component of bacterial biofilms and is involved in horizontal gene transfer. In recent years, the circulating extracellular nucleic acids were shown to be associated with some diseases. Attempts are being made to develop noninvasive methods of early tumor diagnostics based on analysis of circulating DNA and RNA. Recent observations demonstrated the possibility of nucleic acids exchange between eukaryotic cells and extracellular space suggesting their participation in so far unidentified biological processes. PMID:17563084

Vlassov, Valentin V; Laktionov, Pavel P; Rykova, Elena Y

2007-07-01

249

Acid neutralizing capacity, alkalinity, and acid-base status of natural waters containing organic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terms acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and alkalinity (Alk) are extensively employed in the characterization of natural waters, including soft circumneutral or acidic waters. However, in the presence of organic acids, ANC measurements are inconsistent with many conceptual definitions of ANC or Alk and do not provide an adequate characterization of the acid-base chemistry of water. Knowledge of Gran ANC

Harold F. Hemond

1990-01-01

250

A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid  

SciTech Connect

An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

2010-05-03

251

Acid rain in Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

1992-07-01

252

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics  

PubMed Central

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented. PMID:24966721

Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

2013-01-01

253

Eucomic acid methanol monosolvate  

PubMed Central

In the crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: 2-hy­droxy-2-(4-hy­droxy­benz­yl)butane­dioic acid methanol monosolvate], C11H12O6·CH3OH, the dihedral angles between the planes of the carboxyl groups and the benzene ring are 51.23?(9) and 87.97?(9)°. Inter­molecular O—H?O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the hy­droxy and carb­oxy­lic acid groups and the methanol solvent mol­ecule give a three-dimensional structure. PMID:22091200

Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai; Liang, Zhi-Hong; Jiang, Ren-Wang

2011-01-01

254

Liposomal spherical nucleic acids.  

PubMed

A novel class of metal-free spherical nucleic acid nanostructures was synthesized from readily available starting components. These particles consist of 30 nm liposomal cores, composed of an FDA-approved 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) lipid monomer. The surface of the liposomes was functionalized with DNA strands modified with a tocopherol tail that intercalates into the phospholipid layer of the liposomal core via hydrophobic interactions. The spherical nucleic acid architecture not only stabilizes these constructs but also facilitates cellular internalization and gene regulation in SKOV-3 cells. PMID:24983505

Banga, Resham J; Chernyak, Natalia; Narayan, Suguna P; Nguyen, SonBinh T; Mirkin, Chad A

2014-07-16

255

Enantiomeric separation of amino acids and nonprotein amino acids using a particle-loaded  

E-print Network

Enantiomeric separation of amino acids and nonprotein amino acids using a particle acids and three nonprotein amino acids are derivatized with the fluorogenic reagent 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2 liquid chromatography (HPLC). Keywords: Amino acid / Nonprotein amino acid / Capillary

Zare, Richard N.

256

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject...

2011-07-01

257

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject...

2013-07-01

258

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject...

2010-07-01

259

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject...

2012-07-01

260

Molecular Structure of Aspartic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aspartate was first isolated in 1868 from legumin in plant seeds. Aspartic acid forms colorless crystals that are soluble in water and insoluble in alcohols and ethers. This is a naturally occurring nonessential amino acid that is produced in the liver from oxaloacetic acid, but is plentiful in meats and sprouting seeds. The amino acid is important in the Krebs cycle as well as the urea cycle, where it is vital in the elimination of dietary waste products. Aspartic acid is required for stamina, brain and neural health. This acid has been found to be important in the functioning of ribonucleic acid (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and in the production of immunoglobin and antibody synthesis. A deficiency of aspartate will lead to fatigue and depression. Aspartic acid has many uses that include biological and clinical studies, preparation of culture media, and it also functions as a detergent, fungicide, germicide, and metal complexation.

2002-08-20

261

Bile acid coenzyme A: amino acid N-acyltransferase in the amino acid conjugation of bile acids.  

PubMed

Bile acids are converted to their glycine and taurine N-acyl amidates by enzymes in the liver in a two-step process. This increases their aqueous solubility, particularly in the acidic environment of the upper part of the small intestine. Bile acid coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters synthesized by bile acid CoA ligase (see Shonsey et al., 2005) are substrates of bile acid CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferases (BAT) in the formation of bile acid N-acyl amidates. This chapter describes the methods used to purify BAT from human liver, to isolate and clone cDNAs encoding BAT from human, mouse, and rat liver cDNA libraries, the expression of BAT, the assays used to measure BAT activity, and the chemical syntheses of bile acid N-acylamidates. In addition, an enzyme that catalyzes further metabolism of glycine-conjugated bile acids is described. PMID:16399361

Shonsey, Erin M; Sfakianos, Mindan; Johnson, Michelle; He, Dongning; Falany, Charles N; Falany, Josie; Merkler, David J; Barnes, Stephen

2005-01-01

262

Reduction of glycyrrhizic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of glycyrrhizic acid by NaBH4 and LiAlH4 was studied. The conditions for the selective reduction of the COOH groups of the carbohydrate chain and the C(11)=0 group\\u000a of aglycon were found.

L. A. Baltina; N. G. Serdyuk; E. V. Vasil’eva; G. A. Tolstikov

1997-01-01

263

Acidification and Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw

S. A. Norton

2003-01-01

264

Basically Acidic Ink  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students hypothesize whether vinegar and ammonia-based glass cleaner are acids or bases. They create designs on index cards using these substances as invisible inks. After the index cards have dried, they apply red cabbage juice as an indicator to reveal the designs.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

265

The Acid Rain Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

1997-01-01

266

Acid Rain Classroom Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

Demchik, Michael J.

2000-01-01

267

The Acid Rain Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

1982-01-01

268

The Acid Rain Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for…

Bybee, Rodger; And Others

1984-01-01

269

Acid Rain Investigations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

Hugo, John C.

1992-01-01

270

ACID AEROSOL MEASUREMENT WORKSHOP  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the discussion and results of the U.S. EPA Acid Aerosol Measurement Workshop, conducted February 1-3, 1989, in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. t was held in response to recommendations by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) regarding ...

271

Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid  

EPA Science Inventory

The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given sin...

272

Valproic Acid: second generation.  

PubMed

The manuscript focuses on structure-activity relationship studies of CNS-active compounds derived from valproic acid (VPA) that have the potential to become second-generation VPA drugs. Valproic acid is one of the four most widely prescribed antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and is effective (and regularly approved) in migraine prophylaxis and in the treatment of bipolar disorders. Valproic acid is also currently undergoing clinical trials in cancer patients. Valproic acid is the least potent of the established AEDs and its use is limited by two rare but potentially life-threatening side effects, teratogenicity and hepatotoxicity. Because AEDs treat the symptoms (seizure) and not the cause of epilepsy, epileptic patients need to take AEDs for a long period of time. Consequently, there is a substantial need to develop better and safer AEDs. To become a successful second-generation VPA, the new drug should possess the following characteristics: broad-spectrum antiepileptic activity, better potency than VPA, lack of teratogenicity and hepatotoxicity, and a favorable pharmacokinetic profile compared with VPA including a low potential for drug interactions. PMID:17199028

Bialer, Meir; Yagen, Boris

2007-01-01

273

Brain amino acid sensing.  

PubMed

The 20 different amino acids, in blood as well as in the brain, are strictly maintained at the same levels throughout the day, regardless of food intake. Gastric vagal afferents only respond to free glutamate and sugars, providing recognition of food intake and initiating digestion. Metabolic control of amino acid homeostasis and diet-induced thermogenesis is triggered by this glutamate signalling in the stomach through the gut-brain axis. Rats chronically fed high-sugar and high-fat diets do not develop obesity when a 1% (w/v) monosodium glutamate (MSG) solution is available in a choice paradigm. Deficiency of the essential amino acid lysine (Lys) induced a plasticity in rats in response to Lys. This result shows how the body is able to identify deficient nutrients to maintain homeostasis. This plastic effect is induced by activin A activity in the brain, particularly in certain neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) which is the centre for amino acid homeostasis and appetite. These neurons respond to glutamate signalling in the oral cavity by which umami taste is perceived. They play a quantitative role in regulating ingestion of deficient nutrients, thereby leading to a healthier life. After recovery from malnutrition, rats prefer MSG solutions, which serve as biomarkers for protein nutrition. PMID:25200295

Tsurugizawa, T; Uneyama, H; Torii, K

2014-09-01

274

Effects of Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides links to information on the potential damage caused to the environment by acid rain. An introductory paragraph briefly describes the damage to lakes and streams, building materials, and monuments. Each link access additional information on these topics: surface waters and aquatic animals, forests, automotive coatings, soluble building materials such as marble or limestone, atmospheric haze, and human health effects.

275

Federal Acid Rain Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal environmental policy, designed to control acid rain, is shaped after the hierarchy of the system, and is controlled simultaneously by regional and central governments. Each governmental level controls one of two policy instruments: pollution abatement production and pollution tax. In a two-stage game where regional governments are Stackelberg leaders and control pollution taxes, the subgame perfect equilibrium is socially

Arthur J. Caplan; Emilson C. D. Silva

1999-01-01

276

Acid rain bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography identifies 900 citations on various aspects of Acid Rain, covering published bibliographies, books, reports, conference and symposium proceedings, audio visual materials, pamphlets and newsletters. It includes five sections: citations index (complete record of author, title, source, order number); KWIC index; title index; author index; and source index. 900 references.

Sayers, C.S.

1983-09-01

277

Effects of acid precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsible for substantial adverse effects on the public welfare. Such effects include: the acidification of lakes and rivers, with resultant damage to fish and other components of aquatic ecosystems; acidification and demineralization of soils; and possible reductions in crop and forest productivity. Affected areas include Canada and the northeastern US.

Norman R. Glass; Gary E. Glass; Peter J. Rennie

1979-01-01

278

Acid diffusion through polyaniline membranes  

SciTech Connect

Polyaniline membranes in the undoped (base) and doped (acid) forms are studied for their utility as pervaporation membranes. The separation of water from mixtures of propionic acid, acetic acid and formic acid have been demonstrated from various feed compositions. Doped polyaniline displays an enhanced selectivity of water over these organic acids as compared with undoped polyaniline. For as-cast polyaniline membranes a diffusion coefficient (D) on the order of 10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/sec has been determined for the flux of protons through the membranes using hydrochloric acid.

Su, T.M.; Huang, S.C.; Conklin, J.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-01

279

Thiobarbituric Acid Spray Reagent for Deoxy Sugars and Sialic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENTLY, new sensitive assays have been reported for deoxy sugars1, 2-keto,3-deoxy sugar acids2-4, and sialic acids5,6. In these assays, the products of periodate oxidation, malonaldehyde from deoxy sugars and beta-formylpyruvic acid from the latter two groups of compounds, are coupled with 2-thiobarbituric acid to produce a bright red chromophore. I wish to report an adaptation of these methods for spraying

Leonard Warren

1960-01-01

280

Boswellic acid inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells  

PubMed Central

Background Boswellic acid is a type of triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Sphingomyelin metabolism generates multiple lipid signals affecting cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Upregulation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase) has been found in several inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Methods The present study is to examine the effect of 3-acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acids (AKBA), a potent boswellic acid, on acid SMase activity and expression in intestinal cells. Both transformed Caco-2 cells and non-transformed Int407 cells were incubated with AKBA. After incubation, the change of acid SMase activity was assayed biochemically, the enzyme protein was examined by Western blot, and acid SMase mRNA was quantified by qPCR. Results We found that AKBA decreased acid SMase activity in both intestinal cell lines in dose and time dependent manners without affecting the secretion of the enzyme to the cell culture medium. The effect of AKBA was more effective in the fetal bovine serum-free culture medium. Among different types of boswellic acid, AKBA was the most potent one. The inhibitory effect on acid SMase activity occurred only in the intact cells but not in cell-free extract in the test tubes. At low concentration, AKBA only decreased the acid SMase activity but not the quantity of the enzyme protein. However, at high concentration, AKBA decreased both the mass of acid SMase protein and the mRNA levels of acid SMase in the cells, as demonstrated by Western blot and qPCR, respectively. Under the concentrations decreasing acid SMase activity, AKBA significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Conclusion We identified a novel inhibitory effect of boswellic acids on acid SMase expression, which may have implications in human diseases and health. PMID:19951413

2009-01-01

281

Fatty acid selectivity of lipases: Erucic acid from rapeseed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid selectivity of several commercial lipases was evaluated in the hydrolysis of high-erucic acid rapeseed oil\\u000a (HEARO). The lipase ofPseudomonas cepacia catalyzed virtually complete hydrolysis of the oil (94–97%), while that ofGeotrichum candidum discriminated strongly against erucic acid, especially in esterification. A two-step process is suggested for obtaining a\\u000a highly enriched erucic acid in which theG. candidum lipase

Philip E. Sonnet; Thomas A. Foglia; Stephen H. Feairheller

1993-01-01

282

Carboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 90 CARBOXYLIC ACID UNKNOWN  

E-print Network

Point/Boiling Point If your carboxylic acid is a solid, take its melting point. If it is a liquid, take its micro- boiling point. C. Titration/Neutralization EquivalenceMolecular Weight Determination WeighCarboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 90 CARBOXYLIC ACID UNKNOWN A. Solubility Tests: Water, Na

Jasperse, Craig P.

283

Oxalic acid excretion after intravenous ascorbic acid administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbic acid is frequently administered intravenously by alternative health practitioners and, occasionally, by mainstream physicians. Intravenous administration can greatly increase the amount of ascorbic acid that reaches the circulation, potentially increasing the risk of oxalate crystallization in the urinary space. To investigate this possibility, we developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry methodology and sampling and storage procedures for oxalic acid analysis

Line Robitaille; Orval A. Mamer; Wilson H. Miller Jr.; Mark Levine; Sarit Assouline; David Melnychuk; Caroline Rousseau; L. John Hoffer

2009-01-01

284

College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

2011-01-01

285

Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

McCormick, John

286

SPECTROFLUOROMETRIC ASSAY FOR HYPOHALITE AND PEROXYACETIC ACID USING KOJIC ACID  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hypochlorite reacted with kojic acid to form an intensely fluorescent product with excitation and emission wavelengths at 395 and 495 nm, respectively. Hypobromite, generated by reaction of hypochlorite or peroxyacetic acid with NaBr, also reacted with kojic acid to generate an identical fluorescen...

287

An amino acid transporter involved in gastric acid secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric acid secretion is regulated by a variety of stimuli, in particular histamine and acetyl choline. In addition, dietary factors such as the acute intake of a protein-rich diet and the subsequent increase in serum amino acids can stimulate gastric acid secretion only through partially characterized pathways. Recently, we described in mouse stomach parietal cells the expression of the system

Philipp Kirchhoff; Mital H. Dave; Christine Remy; Ortrud Kosiek; Stephanie M. Busque; Matthias Dufner; John P. Geibel; Francois Verrey; Carsten A. Wagner

2006-01-01

288

Crosslinked acid gels offer advantages  

SciTech Connect

Acid polymer gels having a pH less than one have been crosslinked for retarding the chemical and physical activity of hydrochloric acid on calcareous formations. Hydrochloric acid concentrations from /one quarter/% to 28% have been successfully crosslinked. This unique stimulation fluid offers high viscosity with adequate shear stability, perfect support for propants, and clay stabilization. Additionally, the fluid provided effective fluid loss control and retardation of acid reaction enabling live acid to penetrate deeper into the formation for better conductivity; furthermore, there is practically a residue free break for rapid cleanup of the well after the job. Results of lab and field tests show this new acid crosslinked system to be an effective stimulation fluid for acidizing and acid fracturing in calcareous and sandstone formations having low permeability. 5 refs.

Pabley, A.S.; Holcomb, D.L.

1981-09-28

289

Molecular Structure of Sulfuric Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

H2SO4 was discovered by alchemists and made from heating a compound of iron sulfate. In 1740, sulfuric acid was produced for commercial sale. Sulfuric acid is a very strong acid which is used in car batteries. The acid disassociates in water to give two protons and sulfate. This acid can destroy flesh and cause blindness. It was discovered in the 19th century that adding sulfuric acid to soil produces phosphorus, which is beneficial to plants; hence, sulfuric acid is used as a fertilizer in the form of super phosphate and ammonium sulfate. Sulfuric acid is also used to refine petroleum and process metals, and is found in paints and car batteries.

2002-08-15

290

Asphaltene damage in matrix acidizing  

E-print Network

asphaltene deposition in the reservoir. Frequently, the cause of destabilization is the acid stimulation of the reservoir. Published work in the field of matrix acidizing has been limited to cores saturated with brine. Research in two phase systems has been...

Hinojosa, Roberto Antonio

1996-01-01

291

The Composition of Arylstibonic Acids.  

E-print Network

??This thesis describes a detailed ESI-MS investigation into the arylstibonic acids, organo-antimony-containing compounds that are currently of interest as anticancer reagents. Four arylstibonic acids, of… (more)

Wright, Cody Elvin

2010-01-01

292

Folic Acid: Data and Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Folic Acid Share Compartir Data and Statistics On this Page In the United States Hispanic/ ... Questions & Answers Cereals with Folic Acid Data and Statistics Research Birth Defects COUNT Articles & Key Findings Recommendations ...

293

Omega-3-acid Ethyl Esters  

MedlinePLUS

Omega-3-acid ethyl esters are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the ... triglycerides (a fat-like substance) in your blood. Omega-3-acid ethyl esters are in a class of ...

294

An amino acid transporter involved in gastric acid secretion.  

PubMed

Gastric acid secretion is regulated by a variety of stimuli, in particular histamine and acetyl choline. In addition, dietary factors such as the acute intake of a protein-rich diet and the subsequent increase in serum amino acids can stimulate gastric acid secretion only through partially characterized pathways. Recently, we described in mouse stomach parietal cells the expression of the system L heteromeric amino acid transporter comprised of the LAT2-4F2hc dimer. Here we address the potential role of the system L amino acid transporter in gastric acid secretion by parietal cells in freshly isolated rat gastric glands. RT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the expression of 4F2-LAT2 amino acid transporters in rat parietal cells. In addition, mRNA was detected for the B(0)AT1, ASCT2, and ATB(0+) amino acid transporters. Intracellular pH measurements in parietal cells showed histamine-induced and omeprazole-sensitive H+-extrusion which was enhanced by about 50% in the presence of glutamine or cysteine (1 mM), two substrates of system L amino acid transporters. BCH, a non-metabolizable substrate and a competitive inhibitor of system L amino acid transport, abolished the stimulation of acid secretion by glutamine or cysteine suggesting that this stimulation required the uptake of amino acids by system L. In the absence of histamine glutamine also stimulated H+-extrusion, whereas glutamate did not. Also, phenylalanine was effective in stimulating H+/K+-ATPase activity. Glutamine did not increase intracellular Ca2+ levels indicating that it did not act via the recently described amino acid modulated Ca2+-sensing receptor. These data suggest a novel role for heterodimeric amino acid transporters and may elucidate a pathway by which protein-rich diets stimulate gastric acid secretion. PMID:16308696

Kirchhoff, Philipp; Dave, Mital H; Remy, Christine; Kosiek, Ortrud; Busque, Stephanie M; Dufner, Matthias; Geibel, John P; Verrey, Francois; Wagner, Carsten A

2006-03-01

295

Molecular Structure of Octanoic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Caprylic acid is a colorless oil manufactured from 1-heptene or 1-octanol. Octanoic acid has an unpleasant rancid taste. When converted from the carboxlic acid to an ester, it has a pleasant taste. In addition, esters of caprylic acid are used in the preparation of dyes, perfumes, and food preservatives. This compound has also been found to have antifungal activity and is used to treat yeast infections.

2002-10-11

296

Fatty acid signaling in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Many organisms use fatty acid derivatives as biological regulators. In plants, for example, fatty acid-derived signals have\\u000a established roles in the regulation of developmental and defense gene expression. Growing numbers of these compounds, mostly\\u000a derived from fatty acid hydroperoxides, are being characterized. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is serving a vital role in the discovery of fatty acid-derived signal

Edward E. Farmer; Hans Weber; Sabine Vollenweider

1998-01-01

297

Enviropedia: Introduction to Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides information about acid rain, a widespread term used to describe all forms of acid precipitation. The sources, nature, and chemistry of acid rain are discussed, along with its impact on buildings, soils, freshwater lakes, trees, and wildlife. Other topics include measuring, modeling, and monitoring acid rain; and vehicle and industrial emission controls. The problem of airborne pollutants migrating across international borders is also discussed.

298

Acid rain: Reign of controversy  

SciTech Connect

Acid Rain is a primer on the science and politics of acid rain. Several introductory chapters describe in simple terms the relevant principles of water chemistry, soil chemistry, and plant physiology and discuss the demonstrated or postulated effects of acid rain on fresh waters and forests as well as on statuary and other exposed objects. There follow discussions on the economic and social implications of acid rain (for example, possible health effects) and on the sources, transport, and distribution of air pollutants.

Kahan, A.M.

1986-01-01

299

Molecular Structure of Trimesic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Trimesic Acid is made up of a benzene ring with three carboxylic groups at the 1, 3, and 5 positions, and it can be synthesized from the oxidation of 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene. The acid is an important building block in crystal engineering which is used to form honeycomb structures, but it has the ability to form diverse supramolecular structures. Also, trimesic acid salt and the free trimesic acid are useful as a plasticizer.

2003-05-08

300

XYLARIC ACID, D-ARABINARIC ACID (D-LYXARIC ACID), L-ARABINARIC ACID (L-LYXARIC ACID), AND RIBARIC ACID-1,4-LACTONE; SYNTHESIS AND ISOLATION - SYNTHESIS OF POLYHYDROXYPOLYAMIDES THEREFROM.  

E-print Network

?? This dissertation describes the nitric acid oxidation of the pentoses D-xylose, L-arabinose, D-arabinose, and D-ribose to produce xylaric acid, L-arabinaric acid (L-lyxaric acid), D-arabinaric… (more)

Hinton, Michael Raymond

2009-01-01

301

A Phosphoribosylanthranilate Transferase Gene Is Defective in Blue Fluorescent Arabidopsis thaliana Tryptophan Mutants 1  

PubMed Central

An Arabidopsis thaliana gene encoding phosphoribosylanthranilate transferase is shown to be the gene that is defective in blue fluorescent trp1 mutant plants. This gene, named PAT1, was isolated using an A. thaliana cDNA clone that suppressed an Escherichia coli trpD? mutation. The PAT1 coding region is homologous to those for the phosphoribosylanthranilate transferases from many microorganisms. Unlike other genes involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in A. thaliana, PAT1 appears to be a single-copy gene. PAT1 was demonstrated to be the gene that is defective in blue fluorescent trp1 mutants by two methods: genetic complementation in transgenic plants and genetic mapping studies. This is the first report of cloning a plant phosphoribosylanthranilate transferase gene. The PAT1 gene should prove useful as a selectable marker for transformation or a visible reporter of gene expression when used in conjunction with trp1 plants. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:16653032

Rose, Alan B.; Casselman, Amy L.; Last, Robert L.

1992-01-01

302

Weak Acid Equilibrium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to calculate the pH of a weak acid aqueous solution. The problems involve a series of generic acids with assigned equilibrium constants (Ka) and total concentrations (Ct). Initially, students are required to hand calculate all problems by algebraic manipulation of the mathematical relationships of the system. The solution is a cubic equation. Through a series of assumptions, the solution is simplified. The assumptions are based on the chemistry of the system given the Ka and Ct for the problem. The problems are then graphically solved. Ultimately, the students develop an Excel worksheet to solve the problems and a Bjerrum plot to display the speciation as a function of pH.

Stapleton, Michael

303

Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".  

PubMed

The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent. PMID:3758667

Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

1986-01-01

304

Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given single doses of 1500 and 3000 mg\\/kg; these effects persisted to varying degrees on post-treatment days 2,14,

Ralph E. Linder; Gary R. Klinefelter; Lillian F. Strader; Juan D. Suarez; Naomi L. Roberts

1997-01-01

305

Acid Deposition Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides students with the opportunity to use analytical meters and instruments and perform acid deposition sampling. Students will collect samples from various sources over a period of time, then measure pH and develop graphs or charts. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Willey, Babe

2011-02-17

306

Lipoic Acid Synthase (LASY)  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—Lipoic acid synthase (LASY) is the enzyme that is involved in the endogenous synthesis of lipoic acid, a potent mitochondrial antioxidant. The aim of this study was to study the role of LASY in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We studied expression of LASY in animal models of type 2 diabetes. We also looked at regulation of LASY in vitro under conditions that exist in diabetes. Additionally, we looked at effects of LASY knockdown on cellular antioxidant status, inflammation, mitochondrial function, and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. RESULTS—LASY expression is significantly reduced in tissues from animal models of diabetes and obesity compared with age- and sex-matched controls. In vitro, LASY mRNA levels were decreased by the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and high glucose. Downregulation of the LASY gene by RNA interference (RNAi) reduced endogenous levels of lipoic acid, and the activities of critical components of the antioxidant defense network, increasing oxidative stress. Treatment with exogenous lipoic acid compensated for some of these defects. RNAi-mediated downregulation of LASY induced a significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. In endothelial cells, downregulation of LASY aggravated the inflammatory response that manifested as an increase in both basal and TNF-?–induced expression of the proinflammatory cytokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Overexpression of the LASY gene ameliorated the inflammatory response. CONCLUSIONS—Deficiency of LASY results in an overall disturbance in the antioxidant defense network, leading to increased inflammation, insulin resistance, and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:19074983

Padmalayam, Indira; Hasham, Sumera; Saxena, Uday; Pillarisetti, Sivaram

2009-01-01

307

Acid Rain Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners conduct a simple experiment to model and explore the harmful effects of acid rain (vinegar) on living (green leaf and eggshell) and non-living (paper clip) objects. Learners observe the effects over a period of days. This activity has links to other activities which can be combined to make a larger lesson. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

Kolenbrander, Amy; Yowell, Janet; Mach, Natalie; Zarske, Malinda S.; Carlson, Denise

2004-01-01

308

Acid rain in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to\\u000a the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging\\u000a perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in

Neeloo Bhatti; David G. Streets; Wesley K. Foell

1992-01-01

309

An Umbrella for Acid Rain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

Randal, Judith

1979-01-01

310

Molecular Structure of Carbonic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The hypothetical acid formed with carbon dioxide and water; it is only in the H2CO3 form when in solution. This acid is found in everyday products, the most prominent of which include carbonated beverages. The conversion of carbonic acid into water and carbon dioxide in sodas is the reason the beverage looses the bubbling.

2002-09-10

311

Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas  

DOEpatents

Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

2014-07-01

312

Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process  

DOEpatents

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

1995-05-02

313

Nucleic Acids Molecular Biology Tools  

E-print Network

Nucleic Acids Proteins Molecular Biology Tools Molecular Biology and Genomics Weigang Qiu Weigang Qiu Molecular Biology and Genomics #12;Nucleic Acids Proteins Molecular Biology Tools Outline 1 Nucleic Acids 2 Proteins 3 Molecular Biology Tools Weigang Qiu Molecular Biology and Genomics #12;Nucleic

Qiu, Weigang

314

Acid rain: the international response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain or technically “acid deposition” has far reaching environmental, economic, political and international implications. It has been blamed for large?scale damage to aquatic ecosystems and forests in Scandinavia, southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States. A number of other countries have expressed concern about the possible affects of acid rain on water bodies, forests, agricultural crops and material structures.Never

Gordon L. Brady; Joseph C. Selle

1985-01-01

315

Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process  

DOEpatents

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Poole, Loree J. (Baton Rouge, LA)

1995-01-01

316

Exposures to acidic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H(+) ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/cu m more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H(+) determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr (H+) concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/cu m (approximately 27 microgram/cu m H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/cu m for H(+) ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H(+) ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} exceeded 50 microgram/cu m.

Spengler, J.D.; Keeler, G.J.; Koutrakis, P.; Ryan, P.B.; Raizenne, M.

1989-01-01

317

Exposures to acidic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m/sup 3/ more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H+ determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr H+ concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/m/sup 3/ (approximately 27 micrograms/m/sup 3/ H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/m/sup 3/ for H+ ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H+ ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ exceeded 50 micrograms/m/sup 3/.

Spengler, J.D.; Keeler, G.J.; Koutrakis, P.; Ryan, P.B.; Raizenne, M.; Franklin, C.A.

1989-02-01

318

Experimental study of the hydrothermal reactivity of organic acids and acid anions: II. Acetic acid, acetate, and valeric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic acids and acid anions occur in substantial concentrations in many aqueous geologic fluids and are thought to take part in a variety of geochemical processes ranging from the transport of metals in ore-forming fluids to the formation of natural gas to serving as a metabolic energy source for microbes in subsurface habitats. The widespread occurrence of organic acids and their potential role in diverse geologic processes has led to numerous experimental studies of their thermal stability, yet there remain substantial gaps in our knowledge of the factors that control the rates and reaction pathways for the decomposition of these compounds under geologic conditions. In order to address some of these uncertainties, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the behavior of organic acids and acid anions under hydrothermal conditions in the presence of minerals. Reported here are results of experiments where aqueous solutions of acetic acid, sodium acetate, or valeric acid ( n-pentanoic acid) were heated at 325°C, 350 bars in the presence of the mineral assemblages hematite + magnetite + pyrite, pyrite + pyrrhotite + magnetite, and hematite + magnetite. The results indicate that aqueous acetic acid and acetate decompose by a combination of two reaction pathways: decarboxylation and oxidation. Both reactions are promoted by minerals, with hematite catalyzing the oxidation reaction while magnetite catalyzes decarboxylation. The oxidation reaction is much faster, so that oxidation dominates the decomposition of acetic acid and acetate when hematite is present. In contrast to previous reports that acetate decomposed more slowly than acetic acid, we found that acetate decomposed at slightly faster rates than the acid in the presence of minerals. Although longer-chain monocarboxylic acids are generally thought to decompose by decarboxylation, valeric acid appeared to decompose primarily by "deformylation" to 1-butene plus formic acid. Subsequent decomposition of 1-butene and formic acid generated a variety of short-chain (?C 4) hydrocarbons and moncarboxylic acids as well as CO 2. Valeric acid decomposition proceeded more rapidly (by a factor of 2) in the presence of hematite-magnetite-pyrite than with the other mineral assemblages, with the greater reaction rate apparently attributable to the effects of fluid chemistry. Valeric acid was observed to decompose at a substantially faster rate than acetic acid under similar conditions. The results suggest that decomposition of aqueous monocarboxylic acids may make a significant contribution to the conversion of petroleum to light hydrocarbons in natural gas and thermal fluids.

McCollom, Thomas M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.

2003-10-01

319

Composition for nucleic acid sequencing  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

Korlach, Jonas (Ithaca, NY); Webb, Watt W. (Ithaca, NY); Levene, Michael (Ithaca, NY); Turner, Stephen (Ithaca, NY); Craighead, Harold G. (Ithaca, NY); Foquet, Mathieu (Ithaca, NY)

2008-08-26

320

Vibrational structure of the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid studied by infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectroscopic discrimination of the two structurally similar polyunsaturated C20 fatty acids (PUFAs) 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) is shown. For this purpose their vibrational structures are studied by means of attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The fingerprint regions of the recorded spectra are found to be almost identical, while the C–H stretching mode regions

Johannes Kiefer; Kristina Noack; Juergen Bartelmess; Christian Walter; Heike Dörnenburg; Alfred Leipertz

2010-01-01

321

Molecular Structure of Adipic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Adipic acid is odorless and colorless white crystals or powder with a sour taste. Adipic acid is used primarily in the manufacture of nylon-6,6 polyamide and polyester polyols for polyurethane systems. It is also used for raw materials in pharmaceuticals, perfume fixatives, acidulants, leavening and buffering agents in non-alcoholic beverages, gelatins and puddings. In addition, adipic acid is used in manufacturing plasticizers and lubricants components. It is slightly soluble in water and soluble in alcohol and acetone. Adipic acid can be prepared from acetylene and acetic acid in the presence of tert-butyl peroxide. It has been manufactured from either cyclohexane or phenol.

2004-11-09

322

The politics of acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This work examines and compares the acid rain policies through the different political systems of Canada, Great Britain and the United States. Because the flow of acid rain can transcend national boundaries, acid rain has become a crucial international problem. According to the author, because of differences in governmental institutions and structure, the extent of governmental intervention in the industrial economy, the degree of reliance on coal for power generation, and the extent of acid rain damage, national responses to the acid rain problem have varied.

Wilcher, M.E. (Pennsylvania State Univ., New Kensington, PA (US))

1989-01-01

323

Acid Rain Experiments: Soil Buffering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment will help students understand that soil sometimes contains substances, like limestone, that buffer acids or bases, and that some salts in soil may also act as buffers. They will collect soil samples from their lawn, garden, or school and look for buffering effects by observing the pH change of an acid mixture poured through the samples. If the water collected from the sample is less acidic than the original mixture, then the soil is buffering some of the acid. If it does not change, then the soil may not be capable of buffering acids.

324

Molecular Structure of Benzoic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Benzoic acid is a medium-strong acid found in human foods such as berries, and is used as a plasticizer, insecticide, fungicide, an antifungal agent and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. It is more hydrophobic, water fearing, in comparison with other carboxylic acids and therefore can be extracted easily from all types of solvents. This acid is slightly soluble in water and has a melting point of 122 degrees Celsius. Benzoic acid is industrially manufactured from toluene, benzotrichloride and phthalic anhydride. It is purified by the process of sublimation, and the extremely pure form is used as a titrimetric and calorimetric standard in analytical chemistry.

2003-05-08

325

Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

1999-01-01

326

Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2002-01-01

327

Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

1983-01-01

328

Liquid chromatographic determination of nitrilotriacetic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and related aminopolycarboxylic acids using an amperometric detector  

SciTech Connect

An amperometric detector employing a carbon-paste electrode is used to determine aminopolycarboxylic acids, including nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) to determine aminopolycarboxylic acids, including nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), after liquid chromatographic separation on a reversed-phase column with an aqueous trichloroacetic acid mobile phase at pH lower than 2. The aminopolycarboxylic acids are directly oxidized at the detector electrode without involving an intermediate species. Glycine, iminodiacetic acid, common amino acids, citric acid, and fulvic acids do not interfere with the determination of NTA and EDTA. The low mobile-phase pH limits interference from metal ions in natural waters. Where such interference occurs, a stronger chelating reagent (e.g. diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DPTA) can be used to suppress it. NTA and EDTA in aqueous samples, including waste water treatment plant influent and effluent, can be determined without prior sample preparation. The minimum detectable amounts are 0.1 ppm for NTA and 0.15 ppm for EDTA with a precision of less than 7% relative standard deviation.

Dai, J.; Helz, G.R.

1988-02-15

329

Gas chromatography of fatty acids.  

PubMed

Lipids in foods contain a wide variety of fatty acids differing in chain length, degree of unsaturation, position and configuration of double bonds and the presence of special functional groups. Modern capillary gas chromatography offers excellent separation of fatty acids. Fused-silica capillary columns with stationary phases of medium polarity and non-polar methylsilicone stationary phases successfully separate most of the natural fatty acids. Special applications, such as the separation of complex cis-trans fatty acid mixtures and cyclic fatty acids, required particular chromatographic conditions, including the use of very long capillary columns or more polar stationary phases. The derivatization methods for the preparation of fatty acid esters also need to be optimized to obtain accurate quantitative results. This paper reviews the derivatization techniques, capillary columns and stationary phases commonly used in the gas chromatography of fatty acids in food. PMID:1494015

Shantha, N C; Napolitano, G E

1992-10-30

330

Molecular Structure of Sorbic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sorbic acid is a colorless or white crystalline powder, with a weak characteristic odor and slightly acidic taste. It may be obtained from berries of the mountain ash or prepared synthetically by condensing crotonaldehyde and malonic acid in pyridine solution. Sorbic acid is a polyunsaturated fat used to inhibit molds and yeast, is a fungistatic agent for foods (especially cheeses, wine and baked goods). The main use of sorbic acid is as a preservative in foods, animal feeds, tobacco, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, as well in packing materials for these substances and in other products that come in contact with human or animal skin in some way. Sorbic acid is also used as an intermediate for plasticizers and lubricants. Sorbic acid reacts with potassium to make potassium sorbate and with calcium to make calcium sorbate.

2004-11-11

331

Fungal metabolites of sorbic acid.  

PubMed

A number of fungal detoxification reactions of sorbic acid have been reviewed. These include decarboxylation to give trans-1,3-pentadiene, esterification to give ethyl sorbate, reduction to give 4-hexenol and 4-hexenoic acid. It was shown that seven Penicillium species could convert sorbic acid into 1,3-pentadiene whilst P. bilaii, P. fellutanum and P. glabrum did not. However, most Eurotium species were unable to bring about this conversion. Considerable differences in the resistance of two isolates of P. crustosum to sorbic acid were found. An isolate from coconut was more resistant than one isolated from hazelnuts. Both sorbic acid and caproic acid (hexanoic) brought about disorganization of the mitochondrial membranes in P. crustosum. It is suggested that these lipophilic acids inhibit growth by interfering with the electrochemical membrane potential across the mitochondrial membranes. PMID:2253810

Kinderlerer, J L; Hatton, P V

1990-01-01

332

21 CFR 573.480 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...concerning formic acid (85 percent formic acid). (ii) Statements identifying formic acid (85 percent formic acid) as a corrosive and possible severe irritant...Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) human safety guidance...

2013-04-01

333

21 CFR 573.480 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...concerning formic acid (85 percent formic acid). (ii) Statements identifying formic acid (85 percent formic acid) as a corrosive and possible severe irritant...Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) human safety guidance...

2012-04-01

334

21 CFR 573.480 - Formic acid.  

...concerning formic acid (85 percent formic acid). (ii) Statements identifying formic acid (85 percent formic acid) as a corrosive and possible severe irritant...Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) human safety guidance...

2014-04-01

335

21 CFR 573.480 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...concerning formic acid (85 percent formic acid). (ii) Statements identifying formic acid (85 percent formic acid) as a corrosive and possible severe irritant...Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) human safety guidance...

2011-04-01

336

Metabolism of 14 C-labelled oleic acid, erucic acid and nervonic acid in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-14C-Oleic acid, 2-14C-erucic acid and 2-14C-nervonic acid were administered to rats by tail-vein and the distribution of radioactivity in liver lipids was determined\\u000a at intervals from 15 min to 6 hr after injection. High levels of activity were found after short time intervals which were\\u000a mainly associated with triglycerides in the case of oleic acid and with free fatty acids

K. K. Carroll

1966-01-01

337

Mycophenolic Acid in Silage  

PubMed Central

We examined 233 silage samples and found that molds were present in 206 samples with counts between 1 × 103 and 8.9 × 107 (mean, 4.7 × 106) CFU/g. Mycophenolic acid, a metabolite of Penicillium roqueforti, was detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 74 (32%) of these samples at levels ranging from 20 to 35,000 (mean, 1,400) ?g/kg. This compound has well-known immunosuppressive properties, so feeding with contaminated silage may promote the development of infectious diseases in livestock. PMID:10919834

Schneweis, Isabell; Meyer, Karsten; Hörmansdorfer, Stefan; Bauer, Johann

2000-01-01

338

Corals on Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this inquiry-based lesson is for learners to gain an understanding of how increasing ocean acidity can affect the calcification of marine organisms. During this activity, learners: (1) design an experiment to quantify the CaCO3 concentration of two invertebrate skeletal samples, one that has been soaked in normal seawater and another in a low pH solution, and (2) use critical thinking and discussion to evaluate possible explanations for the difference in the skeletal CaCO3 compositions. This lesson plan includes a post-activity demonstration, which shows how the dissolution of CO2 into the ocean lowers pH.

Boleman, Casey L.; Gravinese, Philip M.; Muse, Ellen N.; Marston, Andrea E.; Windsor, John G.

2013-01-01

339

Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 x 10(exp -4) Torr H2O and 1-2.5 x 10(exp -6) Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

1994-01-01

340

Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite.  

PubMed

Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, have been identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl (tBDMS) derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds have been observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 have been identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series. Inorganic phosphate is present at about 25 micromoles/gram. PMID:11537207

Cooper, G W; Onwo, W M; Cronin, J R

1992-01-01

341

Boswellic acid inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Boswellic acid is a type of triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Sphingomyelin metabolism generates multiple lipid signals affecting cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Upregulation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase) has been found in several inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. METHODS: The present study is to examine the effect of 3-acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acids (AKBA), a potent

Yao Zhang; Rui-Dong Duan

2009-01-01

342

Sedimentation of sulfuric acid in acid tars from current production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid tars obtained in treating T-750, KhF-12, and I-8A oils were investigated for purposes of recovering sulfuric acid and asphalt binders from the compositions and of determining the effects of storage time on the recovery. The consumption and sedimentation levels of sulfuric acid during storage for different periods and at different temperatures were assessed. The characteristics of an asphalt binder

T. L. Denisova; A. F. Frolov; A. N. Aminov; S. P. Novosel'tsev

1987-01-01

343

Cryoprotection from lipoteichoic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous chemical additives lower the freezing point of water, but life at sub-zero temperatures is sustained by a limited number of biological cryoprotectants. Antifreeze proteins in fish, plants, and insects provide protection to a few degrees below freezing. Microbes have been found to survive at even lower temperatures, and with a few exceptions, antifreeze proteins are missing. Survival has been attributed to external factors, such as the high salt concentration of brine veins and adhesion to particulates or ice crystal defects. We have discovered an endogenous cryoprotectant in the cell wall of bacteria, lipoteichoic acid biopolymers. Adding 1% LTA to bacteria cultures immediately prior to freezing provides 50% survival rate, similar to the results obtained with 1% glycerol. In the absence of an additive, bacterial survival is negligible as measured with the resazurin cell viability assay. The mode of action for LTA cryoprotection is unknown. With a molecular weight of 3-5 kDa, it is unlikely to enter the cell cytoplasm. Our observations suggest that teichoic acids could provide a shell of liquid water around biofilms and planktonic bacteria, removing the need for brine veins to prevent bacterial freezing.

Rice, Charles V.; Middaugh, Amy; Wickham, Jason R.; Friedline, Anthony; Thomas, Kieth J.; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm; Garimella, Ravindranth

2012-10-01

344

Electrochemical destruction of organic acids  

SciTech Connect

An electrochemical process for removing organic acids from an aqueous waste stream has been characterized. Biological treatment of aqueous organic acid waste streams has been the typical means of degrading organic acids, and the resultant biosludge is landfilled. In the electrochemical approach, aqueous organic acids may be efficiently converted to useful fuel in a one or two electron process. The possible reactions occurring are outlined here. The electrolysis of the sodium salts of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids has been studied both as single component solutions and mixtures. The reaction products as well as relative rates of destruction of the acid salts were measured. The effect of experimental variables such as current density, temperature, and anode material on the current efficiency and product distribution was investigated. Electrode stability due to platinum corrosion was identified as the major limitation to the process.

Gendes, J.D.; Hartsough, D. [Electrosynthesis Co., Inc., Lancaster, NY (United States); Super, J.D. [DuPont Specialty Chemicals, Deepwater, NJ (United States)

1994-12-31

345

Molecular Structure of Phosphoric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phosphoric acid was first made in 1774 by K.W. Scheele and J.G. Gahn from bone ash. Phosphoric acid is made by treating calcium phosphate rock with sulfuric acid, followed by filtration. It is by this process that almost 10 tons of phosphoric acid are produced in the United States each year. The compound is primarily used to manufacture some pharmaceutical products, fertilizers and as a flavoring agent in coca-cola. The steel industry uses it to clean and rust-proof their steel. Phosphoric acid is also used in the process of soil stabilization, and as a catalyst in the production of propylene and butene polymers, ethylbenzene, and cumene. In recent years though the industry has moved away from using phosphoric acid as a ingredient in detergents because of the harmful effect that Phosphates have on lakes a process called lake eutrophication.

2002-09-10

346

Molecular Structure of Butyric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

n-Butyric acid is a substance that was isolated from butter in 1869. Butyric acid means, in Latin, the acid of butter as it was first discovered in rancid butter. It is found most commonly in butter, but can also be present in some fruits. Butyric acid is also produced synthetically, through fermentation of various carbohydrates, to be used as a flavoring agent in various food products. Applications of butyric acid are as an additive to food, flavorings, varnishes, perfumes, pharmaceuticals and disinfectants. It is also used for the production of plastics, plasticizers, surfactants and textile auxiliaries. Butyric acid and its derivatives are also being seriously considered around the world as potential anticancer agents.

2002-10-11

347

Enzymatic tRNA acylation by acid and alpha-hydroxy acid analogues of amino acids.  

PubMed

Incorporation of unnatural amino acids with unique chemical functionalities has proven to be a valuable tool for expansion of the functional repertoire and properties of proteins as well as for structure-function analysis. Incorporation of alpha-hydroxy acids (primary amino group is substituted with hydroxyl) leads to the synthesis of proteins with peptide bonds being substituted by ester bonds. Practical application of this modification is limited by the necessity to prepare corresponding acylated tRNA by chemical synthesis. We investigated the possibility of enzymatic incorporation of alpha-hydroxy acid and acid analogues (lacking amino group) of amino acids into tRNA using aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). We studied direct acylation of tRNAs by alpha-hydroxy acid and acid analogues of amino acids and corresponding chemically synthesized analogues of aminoacyl-adenylates. Using adenylate analogues we were able to enzymatically acylate tRNA with amino acid analogues which were otherwise completely inactive in direct aminoacylation reaction, thus bypassing the natural mechanisms ensuring the selectivity of tRNA aminoacylation. Our results are the first demonstration that the use of synthetic aminoacyl-adenylates as substrates in tRNA aminoacylation reaction may provide a way for incorporation of unnatural amino acids into tRNA, and consequently into proteins. PMID:18067322

Owczarek, Alina; Safro, Mark; Wolfson, Alexey D

2008-01-01

348

Enantioselective synthesis of pentacycloanammoxic acid.  

PubMed

A highly effective enantioselective synthesis of pentacycloanammoxic acid (1), an unusual naturally occurring fatty acid from Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans, has been accomplished. The C20-structure of 1 was assembled with stereocontrol from four building blocks, cyclobutene, 2-cyclopentenone, the chiral silylcyclopentenone 6, and 7-bromoheptanoic acid. Both 1 and its enantiomer are now available in quantities that should facilitate future studies on the mode of biosynthesis which appears to be unprecedented. PMID:16522072

Mascitti, Vincent; Corey, E J

2006-03-15

349

Total synthesis of (+/-)-pentacycloanammoxic acid.  

PubMed

The first total synthesis of (+/-)-pentacycloanammoxic acid/methyl ester (1), an unusual naturally occurring fatty acid from Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans, has been accomplished by the sequence of reactions shown in Scheme 1. The C20-structure of 1 was assembled with stereocontrol from three building blocks: cyclooctatetraene, 2-cyclopentenone, and 7-bromoheptanoic acid. The synthesis of 1 confirms the proposed structure of 1. The mode of biosynthesis and absolute configuration have yet to be clarified. PMID:15571387

Mascitti, Vincent; Corey, E J

2004-12-01

350

Zirconium in sulfuric acid applications  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium is one of the few metals that resists attack by sulfuric acid at concentrations up to 75% and temperatures to boiling and above. This capability makes zirconium a good structural metal for use in 40 to 65% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ up to boiling temperatures and for weak acid concentrations at elevated temperatures. Zirconium's corrosion properties in sulfuric acid solutions are compared with nickel base alloys. Examples of applications and limitations in the use of zirconium are presented.

Webster, R.T.; Yau, T.L.

1986-02-01

351

Fungal metabolites of sorbic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of fungal detoxification reactions of sorbic acid have been reviewed. These include decarboxylation to give trans?1,3?pentadiene, esterification to give ethyl sorbate, reduction to give 4?hexenol and 4?hexenoic acid. It was shown that seven Penicillium species could convert sorbic acid into 1,3?pentadiene whilst P. bilaii, P. fellutanum and P. glabrum did not. However, most Eurotium species were unable to

Judith. L. Kinderlerer; P. V. Hatton

1990-01-01

352

Simulated acid rain on crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1981, simulated HâSOâ acid rain was applied to alfalfa and tall fescue and a 2:1 ratio of HâSOâ:HNOâ acid rain was applied to alfalfa, tall fescue, barley, wheat, potato, tomato, radish, and corn crops growing in the open field at Corvallis, Oregon. Careful attention was given to effects of the acid rain on the appearance of the foliage, and

M. D. Plocher; S. C. Perrigan; R. J. Hevel; R. M. Cooper; D. N. Moss

1985-01-01

353

Dicarboxylic acids from electric discharge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted concerning the possible synthesis of a suite of dicarboxylic acids similar to that found in the Murchison meteorite. The investigation included the conduction of a chemical evolution experiment which simulated electric discharge through the primitive atmosphere of the earth. The suite of dicarboxylic acids obtained in the electric discharge experiment is similar to that of the Murchison meteorite, except for the fact that 2-chlorosuccinic acid is present in the spark discharge.

Zeitman, B.; Chang, S.; Lawless, J. G.

1974-01-01

354

Toxicologic acid-base disorders.  

PubMed

Acid-base disorders may complicate the presentation of patients with poisoning. This article summarizes an approach to acid-base disorders from a toxicologic perspective. It aims to assist the reader in identifying underlying acid-base processes, generating a differential diagnosis for each, and approaching that differential diagnosis in a systematic fashion. Understanding these processes will help to guide management and interventional strategies. PMID:24275173

Wiener, Sage W

2014-02-01

355

Cryoprotection from bacterial teichoic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies from our lab demonstrated that teichoic acid is surrounded by liquid water at -40 °C. The size and shape of the liquid water pockets has been visualized with fluorescence microscopy images of aqueous Rhodamine- B solutions. The long, thin channels surround ice crystals with a size of 5-20 microns. Subsequent studies show that B. subtilis Gram-positive bacteria are sequestered into large pockets without added teichoic acid. Here, the ice crystals are orders of manitude larger. When bacteria are mixed with teichoic acid solutions, the distribution of bacteria changes dramatically. The smaller ice crystals allow the bacteria to align in the thin channels of liquid water seen with teichoic acid only. The role of teichoic acid in the freeze tolerance was examined with live/dead fluorescence assays of bacteria mixed with teichoic acid. These quantitative assays were used to determine if teichoic acid acts in a synergetic fashion to enhance the survivability of E. coli, a gram-negative species which lacks teichoic acid. Additionally, we have obtained B. subtilis mutants lacking wall-associated teichoic acids to evaluate cryoprotection compared to the wild-type strain.

Rice, Charles V.; Harrison, William; Kirkpatrick, Karl; Brown, Eric D.

2009-08-01

356

Molecular Structure of Lauric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lauric acid was first discovered in lauraceae seeds by Marsson T in 1849. The highest content of lauric acid is found in a mother's breast milk and lauraceae seeds. It is used in foods such as vegetable shortenings as a defoaming agent and industrially as a booster for soaps and detergents. Also it is used in cosmetics, insecticides, and food additives. Additionally, Lauric acid is a medium chain fatty acid, which forms monolaurin in the human or animal body. This compound is an antiviral, antibacterial, and antiprotozoal monoglyceride that destroys lipid coated viruses such as HIV, herpes, cytomegalovirus, and influenza.

2002-10-11

357

Molecular Structure of Propionic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Propanoic acid was named after the Greek word "Pro" for first and "pion" for fat, because it is the first fatty acid. It is a liquid and has a slightly pungent odor that can be characterized as rancid. Sweat, milk, and fermentation products all contain small amounts of this chemical. It can be synthesized from ethanol or ethylene and carbon monoxide. The calcium salt of propanoic acid is used as an antimolding agent and is an additive in breads. Esters of this carboxylic acid have a pleasant smell and taste and are used in the manufacture of fruit flavors and perfume bases. This compound is also found in a herbicide, called Silverado.

2002-10-11

358

Acidic gas capture by diamines  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

Rochelle, Gary (Austin, TX); Hilliard, Marcus (Missouri City, TX)

2011-05-10

359

A Simpler Nucleic Acid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been supposed that for a nucleic acid analog to pair with RNA it must, like RNA, have a backbone with at least a sixatom repeat; a shorter backbone presumably would not stretch far enough to bind RNA properly. The Eschenmoser group has shown, however, that this first impression is incorrect.As they report in their new paper, Eschenmoser and co-workers ( I ) have now synthesized a substantial number of these polymers, which are called (L)-a-threofuranosyl oligonucleotides or TNAs. They are composed of bases linked to a threose sugar-phosphate backbone, with phosphodiester bonds connecting the nucleotides. The investigators discovered that pairs of complementary TNAs do indeed form stable Watson-Crick double helices and, perhaps more importantly, that TNAs form stable double helices with complementary RNAs and DNAs.

Orgel, Leslie

2000-01-01

360

No Potassium, No Acid: K+ Channels and Gastric Acid Secretion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The gastric H+-K+-ATPase pumps H+ into the lumen and takes up K+ in parallel. In the acid-producing parietal cells, luminal KCNE2/KCNQ1 K+ channels play a pivotal role in replenishing K+ in the luminal fluid. Inactivation of KCNE2/KCNQ1 channels abrogates gastric acid secretion and dramatically modifies the architecture of gastric mucosa.

2007-10-01

361

Acid Placement in Acid Jetting Treatments in Long Horizontal Wells  

E-print Network

is withdrawn from the well. The jetting action helps to remove the drilling fluid filter cake and promote the acid to penetrate into the formation and form wormholes to stimulate the well. However, with very long sections of wellbore open to flow, the acid...

Sasongko, Hari

2012-07-16

362

Acid rain on acid soil: a new perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain is widely believed to be responsible for acidifying soil and water in areas of North America and northern Europe. However, factors commonly considered to make landscapes susceptible to acidification by acid rain are the same factors long known to strongly acidify soils through the natural processes of soil formation. Recovery from extreme and widespread careless land use has

E. C. Krug; C. R. Frink

1983-01-01

363

Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in Lepidopteran caterpillars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in Noctuid as well as Sphingid caterpillar oral secretions and especially volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-Glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants...

364

A comparison of chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of federal and state mandates restricting the use of hexavalent chromium, it was deemed worthwhile to compare the corrosion protection afforded 2219-T87 aluminum alloy by both Type I chromic acid and Type II sulfuric acid anodizing per MIL-A-8625. Corrosion measurements were made on large, flat 2219-T87 aluminum alloy sheet material with an area of 1 cm(exp 2) exposed to a corrosive medium of 3.5-percent sodium chloride at pH 5.5. Both ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the dc polarization resistance techniques were employed. The results clearly indicate that the corrosion protection obtained by Type II sulfuric acid anodizing is superior, and no problems should result by substituting Type II sulfuric acid anodizing for Type I chromic acid anodizing.

Danford, M. D.

1992-01-01

365

Microbial desulfonation of substituted naphthalenesulfonic acids and benzenesulfonic acids.  

PubMed

Sulfur-limited batch enrichment cultures containing one of nine multisubstituted naphthalenesulfonates and an inoculum from sewage yielded several taxa of bacteria which could quantitatively utilize 19 sulfonated aromatic compounds as the sole sulfur source for growth. Growth yields were about 4 kg of protein per mol of sulfur. Specific degradation rates were about 4 to 14 mu kat/kg of protein. A Pseudomonas sp., an Arthrobacter sp., and an unidentified bacterium were examined. Each desulfonated at least 16 aromatic compounds, none of which served as a carbon source. Pseudomonas sp. strain S-313 converted 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 5-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid to 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, 5-amino-1-naphthol, phenol, and 3-aminophenol, respectively. Experiments with 18O2 showed that the hydroxyl group was derived from molecular oxygen. PMID:3662502

Zürrer, D; Cook, A M; Leisinger, T

1987-07-01

366

Microbial desulfonation of substituted naphthalenesulfonic acids and benzenesulfonic acids.  

PubMed Central

Sulfur-limited batch enrichment cultures containing one of nine multisubstituted naphthalenesulfonates and an inoculum from sewage yielded several taxa of bacteria which could quantitatively utilize 19 sulfonated aromatic compounds as the sole sulfur source for growth. Growth yields were about 4 kg of protein per mol of sulfur. Specific degradation rates were about 4 to 14 mu kat/kg of protein. A Pseudomonas sp., an Arthrobacter sp., and an unidentified bacterium were examined. Each desulfonated at least 16 aromatic compounds, none of which served as a carbon source. Pseudomonas sp. strain S-313 converted 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 5-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, and 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid to 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, 5-amino-1-naphthol, phenol, and 3-aminophenol, respectively. Experiments with 18O2 showed that the hydroxyl group was derived from molecular oxygen. PMID:3662502

Zürrer, D; Cook, A M; Leisinger, T

1987-01-01

367

Stability of cyclopropane and conjugated linoleic acids during fatty acid quantification in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven methods commonly used for fatty acid analysis of microgrganisms and foods were compared to establish the best for the\\u000a analysis of lyophilized lactic acid bacteria. One of these methods involves fat extraction followed by methylation of fatty\\u000a acids, while the other methods use a direct methylation of the samples, under different operating conditions (e.g., reaction\\u000a temperature and time, reagents,

Fabiola Dionisi; Pierre-Alain Golay; Marina Elli; Laurent B. Fay

1999-01-01

368

Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. (6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high ({approx}50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

Baylor university

2003-06-01

369

Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

2003-05-31

370

Chicoric acid found in basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid, which is a caffeic acid derivatized with tartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid was

Jungmin Lee; Carolyn F. Scagel

2009-01-01

371

40 CFR 721.10679 - Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra...  

... 2014-07-01 false Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester (generic). 721...Substances § 721.10679 Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene...

2014-07-01

372

Production of Succinic Acid from Citric Acid and Related Acids by Lactobacillus Strains  

PubMed Central

A number of Lactobacillus strains produced succinic acid in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth to various extents. Among 86 fresh isolates from fermented cane molasses in Thailand, 30 strains (35%) produced succinic acid; namely, 23 of 39 Lactobacillus reuteri strains, 6 of 18 L. cellobiosus strains, and 1 of 6 unidentified strains. All of 10 L. casei subsp. casei strains, 5 L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strains, 6 L. mali strains, and 2 L. buchneri strains did not produce succinic acid. Among 58 known strains including 48 type strains of different Lactobacillus species, the strains of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. parvus produced succinic acid to the same extent as the most active fresh isolates, and those of L. alimentarius, L. collinoides, L. farciminis, L. fructivorans (1 of 2 strains tested), L. malefermentans, and L. reuteri were also positive, to lesser extents. Diammonium citrate in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth was determined as a precursor of the succinic acid produced. Production rates were about 70% on a molar basis with two fresh strains tested. Succinic acid was also produced from fumaric and malic acids but not from dl-isocitric, ?-ketoglutaric, and pyruvic acids. The present study is considered to provide the first evidence on the production of succinic acid, an important flavoring substance in dairy products and fermented beverages, from citrate by lactobacilli. PMID:16347795

Kaneuchi, Choji; Seki, Masako; Komagata, Kazuo

1988-01-01

373

ANTIBODY PURIFICATION USING CAPRYLIC ACID In mildly acidic conditions, the addition of short-chain fatty acids such as caprylic  

E-print Network

ANTIBODY PURIFICATION USING CAPRYLIC ACID In mildly acidic conditions, the addition of short-chain fatty acids such as caprylic acid to serum will precipitate most serum proteins with the exception or ammonium sulfate precipitation, caprylic acid will yield a relatively pure antibody preparation. 1. Measure

Mecham, Robert

374

SOIL REACTION AND ACIDIC DEPOSITION  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter discusses the major chemical processes by which acidic deposition interacts with soils. he focus is on forest soils, as the effects of acidic deposition on soils used for production of food and fiber are generally small compared to effects of agricultural practices s...

375

Acetic acid bacteria in oenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic acid bacteria have always been considered the bad mi- croorganisms of oenology; responsible for wine spoiling (vine- gary taint). The taxonomy and our knowledge of the metabo- lism of acetic acid bacteria are rapidly evolving, especially as new molecular biology techniques are applied to this fastidious group of microorganisms, which are still rather difficult to work with. The dramatic

A. Mas; M. J. Torija; A. González; M. Poblet; J. M. Guillamón

376

Acid Rain: An Educational Opportunity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with how educators can handle the subject of acid rain; illustrates suggestions with experiences of grade nine students visiting Frost Valley Environmental Education Center (Oliverea, New York) to learn scientific concepts through observation of outdoor phenomena, including a stream; and discusses acid rain, pH levels, and pollution control…

Marion, James I.

1984-01-01

377

Acid Precipitation: Causes and Consequences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the first of three articles in a series on the acid rain problem in recent years. Discussed are the causes of acid precipitation and its consequences for the abiotic and biotic components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and for man-made materials. (Author/SA)

Babich, Harvey; And Others

1980-01-01

378

Acid Rain: What's the Forecast?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various types of acid rain, considered to be a century-old problem. Topics include: wet and dry deposition, effects on a variety of environments, ecosystems subject to detrimental effects, and possible solutions to the problem. A list of recommended resources on acid rain is provided. (BC)

Bybee, Rodger

1984-01-01

379

Acid Rain: The Scientific Challenge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documents the workings and findings of the Massachusetts Acid Rain Monitoring Project, which has pooled the volunteer efforts of more than 1,000 amateur and professional scientists since 1983. Reports on the origins of air pollution, the prediction of acid rain, and its effects on both water life and land resources. (JJK)

Godfrey, Paul J.

1991-01-01

380

Molecular Structure of Formic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formic Acid, also known as methanoic acid and hydrogencarboxylic acid, is the simplest organic acid. It is a colorless, toxic, corrosive liquid with a pungent, penetrating odor. In nature, it is found in the stings and bites of many insects of the order hymenoptera, including bees and ants. The principal use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. The largest single use of formic acid is as a silage additive in Europe, but this market hardly exists in the United States. When sprayed on fresh hay or other silage, it arrests certain decay processes and causes the feed to retain its nutritive value longer. In the poultry industry, it is sometimes added to silage to kill salmonella bacteria. It is also used in textile dyeing, leather tanning, as a solvent, in electroplating processes, in the manufacturing of lacquers, glass, vinyl resin plasticizers, and formate esters (for flavor and fragrance) and in the manufacture of fumigants. Formic acid is a strong reducing agent, and may act both as an acid and as an aldehyde because the carboxyl is bound to a hydrogen rather than an alkyl group.

2003-05-08

381

ACID DEPOSITION AND FOREST DECLINE  

EPA Science Inventory

The location, topography and other characteristics of the high-elevation forests of eastern North America cause them to be receptors of high levels of acid deposition and airborn trace metals. No other major forested areas in the U.S. are subjected to such intensely acid cloud mo...

382

Synthesis of pyromellitic acid esters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ester acids necessary for studyng the thermochemical properties of pyromellitic acid (PMK)-based peroxides were investigated. Obtaining a tetramethyl ester of a PMK was described. The mechanism of an esterification reaction is discussed, as is the complete esterification of PMK with primary alcohol.

Fedorova, V. A.; Donchak, V. A.; Martynyuk-Lototskaya, A. N.

1985-01-01

383

Molecular Structure of Isophthalic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Isophthalic acid is one of the three simple aromatic dicarboxylic acids with the carboxyl groups in the meta postions. It is used to produce isophthalic polyester that together with other components is used in resin systems for flame retardants and in corrosion prevention.

2008-01-10

384

BOTANICAL ASPECTS OF ACIDIC PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Acidic precipitation can be characterized as wet or frozen atmospheric deposition with a hydrogen ion concentration greater than 2.5 microequivalents liter-1. Acidic precipitation is perceived as a significant air pollution problem derived chiefly from combustion of fossil fuels,...

385

Learning About Acids and Bases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The chemistry of acids and bases is a fundamental area of study in the physical sciences. The following activity is really two exercises in one. First, students learn to distinguish between acids and bases using various color-changing indicator solutions.

John Eichinger

2009-05-15

386

The Acid Rain Differential Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers an acid rain differential game. Countries emit sulphur which is partly transferred to other countries. Depositions above critical loads ultimately destroy the soil. Countries face a trade-off between the costs of emission reductions and the damage to the soil due to the depletion of the acid buffers. Because of the transboundary externalities the outcome will depend on

Karl-Göran Mäler; Aart De Zeeuw

1998-01-01

387

Acid rain & electric utilities II  

SciTech Connect

This document presents reports which were presented at the Acid Rain and Electric Utilities Conference. Topics include environmental issues and electric utilities; acid rain program overview; global climate change and carbon dioxide; emissions data management; compliance; emissions control; allowance and trading; nitrogen oxides; and assessment. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

NONE

1997-12-31

388

Acid rain and environmental policy  

SciTech Connect

Various seemingly paradoxical scientific questions are posed which relate to the problem of acid rain and its effect on the environment and environmental policy. The first paradox discussed concerns the supposed increase in fossil fuel usage over the last several decades, with the resultant increases in emissions of pollutants from the combustion of fuels which cause acid rain. Despite these increases, experts do not agree on whether acidity of rain has increased in eastern North America. The second paradox concerns the effect of acid rain on vegetation. If the rain is supposedly harmful, why have some reports shown increases and others, decreases in the growth of crops and trees with the application of simulated acid rain. The third paradox concerns the effect of acid rains on fish life in lakes. If acid rain falls throughout eastern North America, why have some lakes become acid and lost fish populations while others have not. Since unequivocal answers to these scientific questions are not available, a systematic approach is needed for developing policy which can be useful for solving the problem. It appears that traditional cost-benefit analysis can not be the sole basis for decision-making, but that it will be helpful. Research needs must be identified, and the upper and lower limits for alternative strategies must be determined. 14 references, 1 table.

Jacobson, J.S.

1981-10-01

389

Can crops tolerate acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief article describes work by scientists at the ARS Air Quality-Plant Growth and Development Laboratory in Raleigh, North Carolina, that indicates little damage to crops as a result of acid rain. In studies with simulated acid rain and 216 exposed varieties of 18 crops, there were no significant injuries nor was there reduced growth in most species. Results of

1989-01-01

390

SIMULATED ACID RAIN ON CROPS  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1981, simulated H2SO4 acid rain was applied to alfalfa and tall fescue and a 2:1 ratio of H2SO4:HNO3 acid rain was applied to alfalfa, tall fescue, barley, wheat, potato, tomato, radish, and corn crops growing in the open field at Corvallis, Oregon. Careful attention was given...

391

Catalytic cracking of octanoic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

As acids are intermediates during the catalytic conversion of triglycerides to hydrocarbons, the purpose of this research was to investigate octanoic acid conversion to hydrocarbons. The shortage of oil resources has led to the development of new technologies that can more fully exploit renewable energies such as fats (rape or sunflower oils) and their derivatives. The general aim of this

F. Billaud; A. K. Tran Minh; P. Lozano; D. Pioch

2001-01-01

392

Fumaric acid production by fermentation  

PubMed Central

The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w/w from glucose, the latter raw material is three times cheaper. Besides, the fermentation fixes CO2. Production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus species and the involved metabolic pathways are reviewed. Submerged fermentation systems coupled with product recovery techniques seem to have achieved economically attractive yields and productivities. Future prospects for improvement of fumaric acid production include metabolic engineering approaches to achieve low pH fermentations. PMID:18214471

Roa Engel, Carol A.; Zijlmans, Tiemen W.; van Gulik, Walter M.; van der Wielen, Luuk A. M.

2008-01-01

393

Atmospheric dust and acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Why is acid rain still an environmental problem in Europe and North America despite antipollution reforms? The answer really is blowing in the wind: atmospheric dust. These airborne particles can help neutralize the acids falling on forests, but dust levels are unusually low these days. In the air dust particles can neutralize acid rain. What can we do about acid rain and atmospheric dust? Suggestions range from the improbable to the feasible. One reasonable suggestion is to reduce emissions of acidic pollutants to levels that can be buffered by natural quantities of basic compounds in the atmosphere; such a goal would mean continued reductions in sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, perhaps even greater than those prescribed in the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act in the U.S. 5 figs.

Hedin, L.O.; Likens, G.E.

1996-12-01

394

Molecular Structure of Linoleic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Linoleic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid occurring widely in plant glycerides or fats. Common sources include many vegetable oils such as flax seed, safflower, soybean, peanut, and corn; some margarines; and dairy fats. It is a colorless to straw-colored liquid, insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and ether. Linoleic acid is easily oxidized by air and is combustible. It also appears as an aluminum salt, in the form of yellow lumps or powder, that is practically insoluble in water but soluble in oils and fixed alkalai hydroxides. Linoleic acid is essential in human nutrition and is used also for soaps, animal feeds, paints, drying protective coatings, emulsifying or smoothing and wetting agents, and in biochemical research. The conjugated form of linoleic acid or CLA has been associated with health benefits such as lowered risk of cancer and atherosclerosis. Prepared CLA is available as a supplement. However, foods high in CLA content could be used.

2003-05-08

395

Molecular Structure of Stearic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stearic acid is white leaflets, slightly yellow crystal masses or a white to slightly yellow powder. Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid found in low percentages in cotton, coconut, palm kernel, corn, palm, castor, rapeseed, soybean, sunflower, herring, and tallow oils. It is also one of the fat components found in the cocoa butter of chocolate. It is prepared synthetically by hydrogenation of cottonseed and other vegetable oils or by treating animal fat with water at a high pressure and temperature. Stearic acid is useful as an ingredient in making candles, soaps, and for softening synthetic rubber. It is also a component of cosmetic formulations, pharmaceuticals creams and vanishing lotion. Stearic acid is practically nontoxic but the dust is irritating to eyes, nose, and throat and the solid is irritating to skin and eyes.

2004-11-11

396

Kinetics of aluminum-fulvic acid complexation in acidic waters  

SciTech Connect

A fluorescence technique has been used to study the complex formation kinetics of aluminum with a single metal-free fulvic acid isolated from an Adirondack Mountain forest soil. In the pH range of 3.0-4.5, two kinetically distinguishable components of the fulvic acid mixture have been identified, which define two types of average aluminum binding sites. Both fulvic acid average sites conform to a bidentate chelating binding site kinetic analysis, from which rate and equilibrium parameters have been obtained. From comparison of rate and equilibrium constants of aluminum-salicyclic acid complexation, the authors conclude that the faster reacting component of fulvic acid probably contains salicyclic acid type aluminum binding sites. Results are also compared with those of an aluminum-fluoride kinetic study. Fulvic acid and fluoride react with aluminum by the same mechanism and therefore have the same pH dependence. The dependence of the rate on temperature is, however, quite different for the two reactions. The environmental implications of these findings are discussed. 45 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

Plankey, B.J.; Patterson, H.H.

1987-06-01

397

21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is contained in the free acid state in a number of plants. Formic acid is prepared by the reaction of sodium formate with sulfuric acid and is isolated by distillation. (b) Formic acid is used...

2011-04-01

398

21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is contained in the free acid state in a number of plants. Formic acid is prepared by the reaction of sodium formate with sulfuric acid and is isolated by distillation. (b) Formic acid is used...

2012-04-01

399

21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is contained in the free acid state in a number of plants. Formic acid is prepared by the reaction of sodium formate with sulfuric acid and is isolated by distillation. (b) Formic acid is used...

2013-04-01

400

21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid.  

...acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is contained in the free acid state in a number of plants. Formic acid is prepared by the reaction of sodium formate with sulfuric acid and is isolated by distillation. (b) Formic acid is used...

2014-04-01

401

21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is contained in the free acid state in a number of plants. Formic acid is prepared by the reaction of sodium formate with sulfuric acid and is isolated by distillation. (b) Formic acid is used...

2010-04-01

402

An Abstracting Transformation for Amino Acid Polymorphism  

E-print Network

An Abstracting Transformation for Amino Acid Polymorphism Anthony M. Castaldo, PhD Research three nucleotide se- quences (a codon) into amino acids: Amino Acid (or signal) Codons A (Alanine) GCT believe what is important is the sequence of amino acids produced, and because amino acids average about

Texas at San Antonio, University of

403

The standard amino acids alanine ala A  

E-print Network

The standard amino acids alanine ala A cysteine cys C aspartic acid asp D glutamic acid glu E's the mapping from nucleotide triplets in DNA sequences (via messenger RNA) to individual amino acids, and T) but only 20 amino acids, and that the code is redundant or "degenerate" in the sense that several

Guevara-Vasquez, Fernando

404

8, 687725, 2008 Effect of fatty acids  

E-print Network

Chemistry and Physics Discussions The effect of fatty acid surfactants on the uptake of nitric acid on the uptake of nitric acid (HNO3), an important removal reaction of nitrogen oxides in the marine boundary acid films and of water soluble organic25 aerosol constituents on the uptake of atmospheric nitric acid

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

405

n-3 fatty acids, ?-linolenic acid, and antioxidants in sepsis  

PubMed Central

The usefulness of n-3 fatty acids, ?-linolenic acid and antioxidants in the critically ill is controversial. I propose that adverse outcome in the critically ill is due to excess production of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), while generation of anti-inflammatory products of PUFAs may lead to a favorable outcome. Hence, I suggest that measurement of plasma levels of various cytokines, free radicals, and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory products of PUFAs and correlating them to the clinical picture may pave the way to identify prognostic markers and develop newer therapeutic strategies to prevent and manage critical illness. PMID:23597172

2013-01-01

406

The ascorbic acid paradox.  

PubMed

Ascorbic acid (AA) is a common culture medium and dietary supplement. While AA is most commonly known for its antioxidant properties, it is also known to function as a pro-oxidant under select conditions. However, the complexity and often unknown composition of biological culture systems makes prediction of AA behaviour in supplemented cultures challenging. The frequent observation of outcomes inconsistent with antioxidant behaviour suggests that AA may be playing a pro-oxidant role more often than appreciated. In this work we explored the intracellular and extracellular impact of AA supplementation on KG1a myeloid leukaemia cells over a 24-h culture period following the addition of the AA supplement. At 24h we found that supplementation of AA up to 250?M resulted in intracellular antioxidant behaviour. However, when these same cultures were evaluated at 2 or 4h we observed pro-oxidant activity at the higher AA concentrations indicating that the outcome was very much time and dose dependent. In contrast, pro-oxidant activity was never observed in the extracellular medium. Paradoxically, and to our knowledge not previously reported, we observed that intracellular pro-oxidant activity and extracellular antioxidant activity could occur simultaneously. These results indicate that the precise activity of AA supplementation varies as a function of dose, time and cellular location. Further, these results demonstrate how in the absence of careful culture characterization the true impact of AA on cultures could be underappreciated. PMID:20732307

Osiecki, Michael; Ghanavi, Parisa; Atkinson, Kerry; Nielsen, Lars K; Doran, Michael R

2010-10-01

407

Lead-acid battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

1983-01-01

408

Gibberellic acid in plant  

PubMed Central

Gibberellic acid (GA), a plant hormone stimulating plant growth and development, is a tetracyclic di-terpenoid compound. GAs stimulate seed germination, trigger transitions from meristem to shoot growth, juvenile to adult leaf stage, vegetative to flowering, determines sex expression and grain development along with an interaction of different environmental factors viz., light, temperature and water. The major site of bioactive GA is stamens that influence male flower production and pedicel growth. However, this opens up the question of how female flowers regulate growth and development, since regulatory mechanisms/organs other than those in male flowers are mandatory. Although GAs are thought to act occasionally like paracrine signals do, it is still a mystery to understand the GA biosynthesis and its movement. It has not yet confirmed the appropriate site of bioactive GA in plants or which tissues targeted by bioactive GAs to initiate their action. Presently, it is a great challenge for scientific community to understand the appropriate mechanism of GA movement in plant’s growth, floral development, sex expression, grain development and seed germination. The appropriate elucidation of GA transport mechanism is essential for the survival of plant species and successful crop production. PMID:23857350

Gupta, Ramwant; Chakrabarty, S K

2013-01-01

409

40 CFR 180.550 - Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid]; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid]; tolerances for residues. 180.550 Section... Specific Tolerances § 180.550 Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid];...

2011-07-01

410

40 CFR 180.550 - Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid]; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid]; tolerances for residues. 180.550 Section... Specific Tolerances § 180.550 Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid];...

2012-07-01

411

40 CFR 180.550 - Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid]; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid]; tolerances for residues. 180.550 Section... Specific Tolerances § 180.550 Arsanilic acid [(4-aminophenyl) arsonic acid];...

2010-07-01

412

40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid...

2011-07-01

413

40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid...

2012-07-01

414

40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid...

2014-07-01

415

40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid...

2013-07-01

416

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid...

2014-07-01

417

40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).  

... 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). 721.10512 Section 721.10512...for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical...

2014-07-01

418

40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). 721.10512 Section 721.10512...for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical...

2013-07-01

419

Determination of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids in lake trout from the Great Lakes region.  

PubMed

A comprehensive method to extract perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters simultaneously from fish samples has been developed. The recoveries of target compounds ranged from 78 % to 121 %. The new method was used to analyze lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Great Lakes region. The results showed that the total perfluoroalkane sulfonate concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 145 ng/g (wet weight) with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) as the dominant contaminant. Concentrations in fish between lakes were in the order of Lakes Ontario ? Erie > Huron > Superior ? Nipigon. The total perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 18.2 ng/g wet weight. The aggregate mean perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentration in fish across all lakes was 0.045 ± 0.023 ng/g. Mean concentrations of PFOA were not significantly different (p > 0.1) among the five lakes. Perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids were detected in lake trout from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Lake Huron with concentration ranging from non-detect (ND) to 0.032 ng/g. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters were detected only in lake trout from Lake Huron, at levels similar to perfluorooctanoic acid. PMID:22722738

Guo, Rui; Reiner, Eric J; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Helm, Paul A; Mabury, Scott A; Braekevelt, Eric; Tittlemier, Sheryl A

2012-11-01

420

Phytic acid in green leaves.  

PubMed

Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention. PMID:24341824

Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

2014-07-01

421

Renal handling of terephthalic acid  

SciTech Connect

By use of the Sperber in vivo chicken preparation method, infusion of radiolabeled terephthalic acid ((/sup 14/C)TPA) into the renal portal circulation revealed a first-pass excretion of the unchanged compound into the urine. This model was utilized further to characterize the excretory transport of (/sup 14/C)TPA and provide information on the structural specificity in the secretion of dicarboxylic acids. At an infusion rate of 0.4 nmol/min. 60% of the (/sup 14/C)TPA which reached the kidney was directly excreted. An infusion rate of 3 or 6 mumol/min resulted in complete removal of (/sup 14/C)TPA by the kidney. These results indicate that TPA is both actively secreted and actively reabsorbed when infused at 0.4 nmol/min and that active reabsorption is saturated with the infusion of TPA at higher concentrations. The secretory process was saturated with the infusion of TPA at 40 mumol/mn. The excretory transport of TPA was inhibited by the infusion of probenecid, salicylate, and m-hydroxybenzoic acid, indicating that these organic acids share the same organic anion excretory transport process. m-Hydroxybenzoic acid did not alter the simultaneously measured excretory transport of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH), suggesting that there are different systems involved in the secretion of TPA and PAH. The structural specificity for renal secretion of dicarboxylic acids was revealed by the use of o-phthalic acid and m-phthalic acid as possible inhibitors of TPA secretion.

Tremaine, L.M.; Quebbemann, A.J.

1985-01-01

422

Pyroligneous acid-the smoky acidic liquid from plant biomass.  

PubMed

Pyroligneous acid (PA) is a complex highly oxygenated aqueous liquid fraction obtained by the condensation of pyrolysis vapors, which result from the thermochemical breakdown or pyrolysis of plant biomass components such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. PA produced by the slow pyrolysis of plant biomass is a yellowish brown or dark brown liquid with acidic pH and usually comprises a complex mixture of guaiacols, catechols, syringols, phenols, vanillins, furans, pyrans, carboxaldehydes, hydroxyketones, sugars, alkyl aryl ethers, nitrogenated derivatives, alcohols, acetic acid, and other carboxylic acids. The phenolic components, namely guaiacol, alkyl guaiacols, syringol, and alkyl syringols, contribute to the smoky odor of PA. PA finds application in diverse areas, as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, plant growth stimulator, coagulant for natural rubber, and termiticidal and pesticidal agent; is a source for valuable chemicals; and imparts a smoky flavor for food. PMID:25467926

Mathew, Sindhu; Zakaria, Zainul Akmar

2015-01-01

423

Potential bile acid metabolites. 14. Hyocholic and muricholic acid stereoisomers.  

PubMed

The complete set of the eight theoretically possible stereoisomeric 3,6,7-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acids, four of which are new, related to hyocholic and muricholic acids were prepared from chenodeoxycholic acid. The principal reactions used were 1) cis-dihydroxylation of delta 6-compounds with osmium tetroxide/N-methylmorpholine N-oxide; 2) trans-dihydroxylation of 6 alpha, 7 alpha-epoxy compounds with boron trifluoride etherate in N,N-dimethyl-formamide; 3) inversion of equatorial 3 alpha-hydroxylated compounds to the corresponding 3 beta-epimers with diethyl azodicarboxylate/triphenylphosphine/formic acid; and 4) stereoselective reduction of 7-keto derivatives with zinc borohydride (or sodium borohydride) and by metallic potassium/tert-amyl alcohol. PMID:2769078

Iida, T; Momose, T; Tamura, T; Matsumoto, T; Chang, F C; Goto, J; Nambara, T

1989-08-01

424

Genetics Home Reference: Sialic acid storage disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Sialic acid storage disease On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Glossary definitions Reviewed February 2008 What is sialic acid storage disease? Sialic acid storage disease is an ...

425

Generalization of ACID Properties Brahim Medjahed  

E-print Network

Generalization of ACID Properties Brahim Medjahed Department of Computer & Information Science; Extended Transaction Models DEFINITION ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee the reliability of database transactions [2]. ACID properties were initially

Medjahed, Brahim

426

21 CFR 184.1099 - Tartaric acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...also known as l ?(+)?tartaric acid. Tartaric acid occurs as colorless or translucent crystals or as a white, crystalline powder. It is odorless and has an acid taste. It is obtained as a byproduct of wine manufacture....

2010-04-01

427

21 CFR 186.1093 - Sulfamic acid.  

...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1093 Sulfamic acid. (a) Sulfamic acid (H3 NO3 S, CAS Reg. No. 5329-14-6...solid manufactured from urea, sulfur trioxide, and sulfuric acid. It is soluble and highly ionized in...

2014-04-01

428

21 CFR 186.1093 - Sulfamic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1093 Sulfamic acid. (a) Sulfamic acid (H3 NO3 S, CAS Reg. No. 5329-14-6...solid manufactured from urea, sulfur trioxide, and sulfuric acid. It is soluble and highly ionized in...

2011-04-01

429

21 CFR 186.1093 - Sulfamic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1093 Sulfamic acid. (a) Sulfamic acid (H3 NO3 S, CAS Reg. No. 5329-14-6...solid manufactured from urea, sulfur trioxide, and sulfuric acid. It is soluble and highly ionized in...

2013-04-01

430

21 CFR 186.1093 - Sulfamic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1093 Sulfamic acid. (a) Sulfamic acid (H3 NO3 S, CAS Reg. No. 5329-14-6...solid manufactured from urea, sulfur trioxide, and sulfuric acid. It is soluble and highly ionized in...

2010-04-01

431

21 CFR 186.1093 - Sulfamic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1093 Sulfamic acid. (a) Sulfamic acid (H3 NO3 S, CAS Reg. No. 5329-14-6...solid manufactured from urea, sulfur trioxide, and sulfuric acid. It is soluble and highly ionized in...

2012-04-01

432

21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be free hydrochloride salt, hydrated, or anhydrous form,...

2011-04-01

433

21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be free hydrochloride salt, hydrated, or anhydrous form,...

2012-04-01

434

21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be free hydrochloride salt, hydrated, or anhydrous form,...

2010-04-01

435

21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be free hydrochloride salt, hydrated, or anhydrous form,...

2013-04-01

436

21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.  

...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be free hydrochloride salt, hydrated, or anhydrous form,...

2014-04-01

437

Nucleic Acid Chaperone Activity of HIV1  

E-print Network

Nucleic Acid Chaperone Activity of HIV1 Nucleocapsid Protein: Critical Role in Reverse ............................................................................ 218 II. Structure and Nucleic Acid Binding Properties of HIV1 NC ........................................................................... 219 A. Specific and Nonspecific Nucleic Acid Binding .............................. 220 B. Structural

Levin, Judith G.

438

Homocysteine, Folic Acid and Cardiovascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... t recommend widespread use of folic acid and B vitamin supplements to reduce the risk of heart disease ... been established. How do folic acid and other B vitamins affect homocysteine levels? Folic acid and other B ...

439

40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

2011-07-01

440

40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

2010-07-01

441

40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

2012-07-01

442

40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...  

...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

2014-07-01

443

40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory...description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

2013-07-01

444

Environmental Protection Agency: Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) acid rain portal. It consists of links to information on the causes and effects of acid rain, how it is measured, and some suggestions for ways to reduce its occurrence. There are also links to information for users about the problem in their areas, and to a selection of educational resources, including activities and science experiments, for students in all grades. Another set of links provides access to information on state and national data and statistics, acid rain legislation, and U.S. and international initiatives.

445

Treatment of acid mine wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

Acid mine drainage often results from the oxidation sulfide minerals to form sulfuric acid. As a consequence, high concentrations of metals in the both the suspended and dissolved state result from the low pH water. This paper discusses several of the more common treatment methods for acid mine drainage including the use of chemical precipitation agents, pH correction agents, filtration methods, and biodegradation methods. Advanced treatment technologies are also briefly described and include microfiltration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis.

Hayward, D.; Barnard, R.

1993-06-01

446

Amino Acids from a Comet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

Cook, Jamie Elisla

2009-01-01

447

Can crops tolerate acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This brief article describes work by scientists at the ARS Air Quality-Plant Growth and Development Laboratory in Raleigh, North Carolina, that indicates little damage to crops as a result of acid rain. In studies with simulated acid rain and 216 exposed varieties of 18 crops, there were no significant injuries nor was there reduced growth in most species. Results of chronic and acute exposures were correlated in sensitive tomato and soybean plants and in tolerant winter wheat and lettuce plants. These results suggest that 1-hour exposures could be used in the future to screen varieties for sensitivity to acid rain.

Kaplan, J.K.

1989-11-01

448

Acid placement and coverage in the acid jetting process  

E-print Network

of treated core permeability normalized to damaged vs. water volume............................ 55 Figure 4.18: Dry filter-cake (exposed to the open air for 24 hrs after deposition...)................................................................................................. 56 Figure 4.19: Two acid jetted cores; one jetted immediately, the other after 24 hours of drying out........................................................ 57 Figure 4.20: Core with mud cake after acid jetting (q=140 cc/min, duration 60 sec...

Mikhailov, Miroslav I.

2009-05-15

449

Sedimentary humic acid and fulvic acid as fluorescent organic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence and absorption spectra of sedimentary humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA), with molecular weights ranging from 300,000, were measured at 20°C and pH 8. The maximum excitation and emission wavelengths of HA were longer than those of FA, being independent of molecular weight. The excitation and emission maxima can be utilized to differentiate between sedimentary HA and FA.

Kohji Hayase; Hiroyuki Tsubota

1985-01-01

450

Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 [times] 10[sup [minus]4] Torr H[sub 2]O and 1-2.5 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] Torr HNO[sub 3]) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. FTIR spectroscopy was used to

Laura T. Iraci; Ann M. Middlebrook; Margaret A. Wilson; Margaret A. Tolbert

1994-01-01

451

Langmuir 1985,1,725-740 725 Acid-Base Behavior of Carboxylic Acid Groups Covalently  

E-print Network

using chromic acid/sulfuric acid introduces a high density of covalently attached carboxylic acid groupsLangmuir 1985,1,725-740 725 Acid-Base Behavior of Carboxylic Acid Groups Covalently Attached: August 7, 1985 Oxidation of polyethylene with chromic acidfsulfuric acid generates a material (PE-C02H

Deutch, John

452

Synthesis and intestinal metabolism of ursodeoxycholic acid conjugate with an antiinflammatory agent, 5-aminosalicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aminosalicylic acid conjugate of ursodeoxycholic acid was synthesized in above 90% yield by adding a basic solution of 5-aminosalicylic acid into the mixed anhydride formed with ursodeoxycholic acid and ethyl chloroformate. The 5-aminosalicylic acid conjugate of ursodeoxycholic acid was poorly secreted into the bile and was deconjugated with cholylglycine hydrolase and Clostridium perfringens, that deconjugate naturally occurring glycine and taurine

Ashok K. Batta; G. Stephen Tint; Guorong Xu; Sarah Shefer; Gerald Salen

453

Oxidation of Benzaldehyde to Benzoic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzaldehyde was oxidized to benzoic acid using Na2WO4·2H2O as a catalyst. Different factors, such as different acidic additives, the reaction time, the amount of catalyst, and hydrogen peroxide dosage, on the isolated yield of benzoic acid were investigated. The effects of surfactants on yield of benzoic acid were also discussed in the acid-free system. The results indicated that both acidic

Hongyan Yan; Chunsheng Liu; Genxiang Luo

2005-01-01

454

Nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesis  

DOEpatents

The present invention generally relates to high density nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesizing nucleic acid sequences on a solid surface. Specifically, the present invention contemplates the use of stabilized nucleic acid primer sequences immobilized on solid surfaces, and circular nucleic acid sequence templates combined with the use of isothermal rolling circle amplification to thereby increase nucleic acid sequence concentrations in a sample or on an array of nucleic acid sequences.

Sabanayagam, Chandran R. (Allston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Needham, MA); Misasi, John (Syracuse, NY); Hatch, Anson (Seattle, WA); Cantor, Charles (Del Mar, CA)

2001-01-01

455

Organic acids enhance halogen activation on mildly acidic water surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iodine species of marine origin are ubiquitous in the marine boundary layer (MBL). They are found over the open ocean (even in the absence of biogenic sources), the Antarctic coast, in rain, aerosols, ice, and snow, and participate in HOx/NOx cycles in the MBL. Surface-active organic acids coating the surface marine microlayer (SML) and marine aerosols could affect their chemical/physical properties. Recent field measurements show that organic acids represent ˜50% of the mass of fog waters collected in the US Gulf Coast. Here we report that I2(g) emissions from the heterogeneous reactions of O3(g) with I- (aq) are dramatically enhanced in the presence of surface-active organic acids under mildly acidic condition that are typical of fine marine aerosols. The amphiphilic weak carboxylic acids appear to promote I2(g) emissions by donating the interfacial protons more efficiently than water itself. We infer that the organic acids coating aerosol particles ejected from ocean's surface films could enhance I2(g) production in the MBL.

Hayase, S.; Enami, S.; Yabushita, A.; Kawasaki, M.; Hoffmann, M. R.; Colussi, A. J.

2011-12-01

456

Acid Strong Base Titrations Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Acid Strong Base Titrations model show how to estimate the concentration of the acid in a given sample. If one follows the titration by a visual indicator, the neutralization is detected through a sudden change of that indicator color. This model shows the titration curve as a strong monofunctional base (sodium hydroxide, for example), is added to an aqueous solution of a monoprotic acid. The Acid Strong Base Titrations model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the jar file will run the program if Java is installed. You can modify this simulation if you have EJS installed by right-clicking within the map and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item.

Fernandes, Fernando S.

2012-10-03

457

Dried Acid Mine Drainage Residuals  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Dried acid mine drainage residuals that are formed during treatment of the drainage.  The USGS has pioneered a new use for these residuals that are currently a disposal challenge, using them to filter phosphorus from agricultural and municipal wastewaters....

458

Low acid producing solid propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential environmental effects of the exhaust products of conventional rocket propellants have been assessed by various groups. Areas of concern have included stratospheric ozone, acid rain, toxicity, air quality and global warming. Some of the studies which have been performed on this subject have concluded that while the impacts of rocket use are extremely small, there are propellant development options which have the potential to reduce those impacts even further. This paper discusses the various solid propellant options which have been proposed as being more environmentally benign than current systems by reducing HCI emissions. These options include acid neutralized, acid scavenged, and nonchlorine propellants. An assessment of the acid reducing potential and the viability of each of these options is made, based on current information. Such an assessment is needed in order to judge whether the potential improvements justify the expenditures of developing the new propellant systems.

Bennett, Robert R.

1995-01-01

459

Molecular Structure of Retinoic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Retinoic acid is a yellow to light-orange crystalline powder, that is insoluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol. Retinoic acid is a natural metabolite of vitamin A which participates in many of the known functions of vitamin A and may be the active agent in tetragenesis (still under investigation). Retinoic acid is used to improve the appearance and texture of the skin. It is also used in the treatment of certain skin diseases such as acne, psoriasis, diarier's disease and ichthyosis. Mild side-effects to the gel, primarily skin irritation, are common. Common side-effects associated with the oral formulation are: headache, dry skin, peeling skin, alopecia and high blood lipids. Retinoic acid is also very potent in promoting growth and controlling differentiation and maintenance of epithelial tissues in vitamin A deficient animals.

2004-11-11

460

Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning  

E-print Network

Nitrate and prussic acid poisoning in cattle are noninfectious conditions that can kill livestock. This publication explains the causes and symptoms of these conditions as well as preventive measures and sampling and testing steps....

Stichler, Charles; Reagor, John C.

2001-09-05

461

Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)  

MedlinePLUS

... acid is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations. Vitamin B complex generally includes vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin/niacinamide), vitamin ...

462

Phosphonic acid based exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

1995-09-12

463

Phosphonic acid based exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

1995-01-01

464

Controlling acid rain : policy issues  

E-print Network

The policy and regulatory ramifications of U.S. acid rain control programs are examined; particularly, the alternative of a receptor-oriented strategy as constrasted to emission-oriented proposals (e.g., the Mitchell bill) ...

Fay, James A.

1983-01-01

465

Simulated acid rain on crops  

SciTech Connect

In 1981, simulated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ acid rain was applied to alfalfa and tall fescue and a 2:1 ratio of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/:HNO/sub 3/ acid rain was applied to alfalfa, tall fescue, barley, wheat, potato, tomato, radish, and corn crops growing in the open field at Corvallis, Oregon. Careful attention was given to effects of the acid rain on the appearance of the foliage, and the effects on yield were measured. Because the effect of pH 4.0 rain on corn yield was the only significant effect noted in the 1981 studies, in 1982, more-extensive studies of the effect of simulated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//HNO/sub 3/ rain on corn were conducted. No significant effects of acid rain were found on foliage appearance, or on yield of grain or stover in the 1982 studies.

Plocher, M.D.; Perrigan, S.C.; Hevel, R.J.; Cooper, R.M.; Moss, D.N.

1985-10-01

466

Molecular Structure of Abscisic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Abscisic acid (ABA) was first identified and characterized by Frederick Addicott in 1963. ABA is a naturally occurring compound in plants synthesized partially in the chloroplasts. It is a phytohormone that plays an important role in regulating transpiration, stress responses, germination of seeds and embryogenesis in plants. Abscisic acid influences most aspects of plant growth and development to some level, in part due to interactions with other phytohormones. Abscisic acid also promotes abscission of leaves and fruits, and for this reason the name abscisic is given. This plant hormone is the key factor in the adaptation of the plant to environmental stresses such as salinity, drought or water loss, and freezing temperatures. Abscisic acid promotes dormancy and helps the plant tolerate stressful conditions by suspending primary and secondary growth.

2004-11-09

467

EXPOSURE MODELING OF ACID AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting an intensive characterization and human exposure monitoring program of acid species and related air pollutants in an urban environment. he EPA's Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) in coopera...

468

Biotechnological production of citric acid  

PubMed Central

This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid. PMID:24031566

Max, Belén; Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

2010-01-01

469

Acid diffusion through polymer films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to perform 0.2 micrometer processes, one needs to study the diffusion of photoacid generators within the photoresist system, since diffusion during post exposure bake time has an influence on the critical dimension (CD). We have developed a new method to study the diffusion of photoacid generators within a polymer film. This new method is based on monitoring the change of the fluorescence intensity of a pH- sensitive fluorescent dye caused by the reaction with photoacid. A simplified version of this experiment has been conducted by introducing acid vapor to quench the fluorescence intensity of this pH sensor. A thin polymer film is spin cast onto the sensor to create a barrier to the acid diffusion process. During the acid diffusion process, the fluorescence intensity of this pH sensor is measured in situ, using excitation and emission wavelengths at 466 nm and 516 nm, respectively. Fluoresceinamine, the pH sensitive fluorescent dye, is covalently bonded onto the treated quartz substrate to form a single dye layer. Poly(hydroxystyrene) (Mn equals 13k, Tg equals 180 degrees Celsius) in PGMEA (5% - 18% by weight) is spin cast onto this quartz substrate to form films with varying thickness. The soft bake time is 60 seconds at 90 degrees Celsius and a typical film has a thickness of 1.4 micrometers. Trifluoroacetic acid is introduced into a small chamber while the fluorescence from this quartz window is observed. Our study focuses on finding the diffusion constant of the vaporized acid (trifluoroacetic acid) in the poly(hydroxystyrene) polymer film. By applying the Fick's second law, (It - Io)/(I(infinity ) - Io) equals erfc [L/(Dt)1/2] is obtained. The change of fluorescence intensity with respect to the diffusion time is monitored. The above equation is used for the data analysis, where L represents the film thickness and t represents the average time for the acid to diffuse through the film. The diffusion constant is calculated to be at the order of 10-10 cm2/s to 10-12 cm2/s. All the experiments are conducted at room temperature and are valid only for acid vapor. With different film thickness, it was found that the acid diffuses through the film with a similar diffusion constant. The diffusion is faster with increased solvent residue in the film (controlled by spin coating speed). The theoretical computer modeling of the local acid concentration with respect to acid diffusion is also performed.

Zhang, P. Linda; Eckert, Andrew R.; Willson, C. Grant; Webber, Stephen E.; Byers, Jeffrey D.

1997-07-01

470

Radiolysis of sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid monohydrate, and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate and its relevance to Europa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report laboratory studies on the 0.8MeV proton irradiation of ices composed of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sulfuric acid monohydrate (H2SO4·H2O), and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (H2SO4·4H2O) between 10 and 180K. Using infrared spectroscopy, we identify the main radiation products as H2O, SO2, (S2O3)x, H3O+, HSO4-, and SO42-. At high radiation doses, we find that H2SO4 molecules are destroyed completely and that

M. J. Loeffler; R. L. Hudson; M. H. Moore; R. W. Carlson

2011-01-01

471

Molecular Structure of Glucuronic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Glucuronic acid is a substance derived from uronic acid, and is found in both plants and animals, usually in combination with phenols or alcohols. It is primarily used in detoxifying drugs and toxins to ensure easy elimination from the body. This substance is soluble in water and alcohol and has a melting point of 165 degrees Celsius. It exhibits mutarotation in the crystal form or its specific rotation of light changes depending on the way the crystals were prepared.

2003-05-08

472

Understanding acid–base balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, the Hendersen–Hasselbalch model has been used to analyse clinical acid–base problems. Simplistically, this approach defines pH as a function of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate concentrations in aqueous solutions. The definition of the metabolic component of an acid–base relationship with this approach is, however, limited as bicarbonate varies with the concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide. These limitations are partly overcome

Andrew Durward; Ian Murdoch

2003-01-01

473

Photodissociation dynamics of hydroxybenzoic acids  

SciTech Connect

Aromatic amino acids have large UV absorption cross-sections and low fluorescence quantum yields. Ultrafast internal conversion, which transforms electronic excitation energy to vibrational energy, was assumed to account for the photostability of amino acids. Recent theoretical and experimental investigations suggested that low fluorescence quantum yields of phenol (chromophore of tyrosine) are due to the dissociation from a repulsive excited state. Radicals generated from dissociation may undergo undesired reactions. It contradicts the observed photostability of amino acids. In this work, we explored the photodissociation dynamics of the tyrosine chromophores, 2-, 3- and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in a molecular beam at 193 nm using multimass ion imaging techniques. We demonstrated that dissociation from the excited state is effectively quenched for the conformers of hydroxybenzoic acids with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Ab initio calculations show that the excited state and the ground state potential energy surfaces change significantly for the conformers with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. It shows the importance of intramolecular hydrogen bond in the excited state dynamics and provides an alternative molecular mechanism for the photostability of aromatic amino acids upon irradiation of ultraviolet photons.

Yang Yilin; Dyakov, Yuri; Lee, Y. T.; Ni, Chi-Kung [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Sun Yilun; Hu Weiping [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China)

2011-01-21

474

Molecular Structure of Oxalic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oxalic acid is an odorless, colorless powder or granular solid. It is used as a scouring agent in textiles for finishing, stripping, cleaning, and as a bleaching agent for stain removal. Oxalic acid is also used as a rust remover as well as a grease and wax removing agent in metal cleaning. It is also used to clean and sterilize equipment, slso as a purifying agent in the pharmaceutical industry, in the waste water treatment industry and is also used to remove calcium from water. Oxalic acid is found in many plants and in many vegetables, for example sorrel, spinach and rhubarb, usually as its calcium or potassium salts. Oxalic acid is produced commercially by nitric acid oxidation of starch. It also can be made by fusing sawdust (or other forms of cellulose) with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. Oxalic acid may be released to the environment in tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust, rendering, in waste streams from pulp bleaching, and by photochemical oxidations of anthropogenic compounds during long range transport.

2004-11-10

475

Fatty Acids, Antibiotic Resistance, and Deoxyribonucleic Acid Homology Groups of Bradyrhizobiurn japonicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid compositions and multiple antibiotic resistance patterns of 32 strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum correlated with two major deoxyribonucleic acid homology groups. In group I, the fatty acid composition was 1.3% 16:l cis9 acid, 3.6% 16:lC acid, 8.8% 16:O acid, 1.2% 19:0 cyclopropane acid, and 81.2% 18:l acid. Group I1 contained 0.5% 16:lC acid, 11.1% 16:O acid, 0.8% 17:O

L. D. KUYKENDALL; M. A. ROY; J. J. O'NEILL

476

Polypyrrole based strong acid catalyst for acetalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel polypyrrole based acid catalyst has been synthesized through the neutralization reaction of polypyrrole and sulfuric acid. The polypyrrole based acid owned the acidity as high as 6.0 mmol/g, which was much higher than that of the traditional solid acids such as Nafion and Amberlyst-15 (0.8 mmol/g). The catalytic activities of the novel solid acid were investigated through the acetalization. The results showed that the novel solid acid held high activities for the reactions. Furthermore, the recycled activities of the catalyst indicated that the solid acid owned high stability during the catalytic process and little acid sites dropped from polypyrrole. The high acidity and stability made the novel polypyrrole based acid hold great potential for the green chemical processes.

Liang, Xuezheng; Cheng, Yuxiao; Qi, Chenze

2011-09-01

477

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Accumulation via 10Hydroxy12-Octadecaenoic Acid during Microaerobic Transformation of Linoleic Acid by Lactobacillus acidophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid with potentially beneficial physiological and anticarcinogenic effects, were efficiently produced from linoleic acid by washed cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus AKU 1137 under microaerobic conditions, and the metabolic pathway of CLA production from linoleic acid is explained for the first time. The CLA isomers produced were identified as cis-9, trans-11- or

JUN OGAWA; KENJI MATSUMURA; SHIGENOBU KISHINO; YORIKO OMURA; SAKAYU SHIMIZU

2001-01-01

478

Molecular screening of wine lactic acid bacteria degrading hydroxycinnamic acids.  

PubMed

The potential to produce volatile phenols from hydroxycinnamic acids was investigated for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Spanish grape must and wine. A PCR assay was developed for the detection of LAB that potentially produce volatile phenols. Synthetic degenerate oligonucleotides for the specific detection of the pdc gene encoding a phenolic acid decarboxylase were designed. The pdc PCR assay amplifies a 321 bp DNA fragment from phenolic acid decarboxylase. The pdc PCR method was applied to 85 strains belonging to the 6 main wine LAB species. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Pediococcus pentosaceus strains produce a positive response in the pdc PCR assay, whereas Oenococcus oeni, Lactobacillus hilgardii, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains did not produce the expected PCR product. The production of vinyl and ethyl derivatives from hydroxycinnamic acids in culture media was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. A relationship was found between pdc PCR amplification and volatile phenol production, so that the LAB strains that gave a positive pdc PCR response produce volatile phenols, whereas strains that did not produce a PCR amplicon did not produce volatile phenols. The proposed method could be useful for a preliminary identification of LAB strains able to produce volatile phenols in wine. PMID:19099460

de las Rivas, Blanca; Rodríguez, Héctor; Curiel, José Antonio; Landete, José María; Muñoz, Rosario

2009-01-28

479

CAFFEIC ACID, CHLOROGENIC ACID, AND DIHYDROCAFFEIC ACID METABOLISM: GLUTATHIONE CONJUGATE FORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant properties of the dietary dihydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic (CA), dihydrocaffeic (DHCA), and chlorogenic (CGA) acids) have been well studied but little is known about their metabolism. In this article, evidence is presented showing that CA, DHCA, and CGA form quinoids and hydroxylated products when oxidized by peroxidase\\/H2O2 or tyrosinase\\/O2. Mass spectrometry analyses of the metabolites formed with peroxidase\\/H2O2\\/glutathione (GSH)

MAJID Y. MORIDANI; HUGH SCOBIE; AKRAM JAMSHIDZADEH; PAR SALEHI; PETER J. O'BRIEN

480

Decreasing the Linoleic Acid to ?-Linolenic Acid Diet Ratio Increases Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Erythrocytes in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The n-6\\/n-3 fatty acid (FA) ratio has increased in the Western-style diet to ~10–15:1 during the last century, which may have\\u000a contributed to the rise in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Prior studies have evaluated the effects on CVD risk factors of manipulating\\u000a the levels of n-6 and n-3 FA using food and supplements or investigated the metabolic fate of linoleic acid

Michelle Wien; Sujatha Rajaram; Keiji Oda; Joan Sabaté

2010-01-01

481

Hepatoprotective bile acid 'ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA)' Property and difference as bile acids.  

PubMed

Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a bile acid, which is present in human bile at a low concentration of only 3% of total bile acids. It is a 7beta-hydroxy epimer of the primary bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). UDCA is isolated from the Chinese drug 'Yutan' a powder preparation derived from the dried bile of adult bears. For centuries, Yutan has been used in the treatment of hepatobiliary disorders. In Japan, it has also been in widespread use as a folk medicine from the mid-Edo period. In Japan, not only basic studies such as isolation, crystallization, definition of the chemical structure and establishment of the synthesis of UDCA have been conducted but clinical studies have been conducted. First reports on the effects of UDCA in patients with liver diseases came from Japan as early as 1961. In the 1970s, the first prospective study of patients with gallbladder stones treated with UDCA demonstrating gallstone dissolution was reported. In late 1980s, a number of controlled trials on the use of UDCA in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) were reported. Since then, a variety of clinical studies have shown the beneficial effect of UDCA in liver disease worldwide. To date, UDCA is utilized for the treatment of PBC for which it is the only drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In recent years, with the advent of molecular tools, the mechanisms of action of bile acids and UDCA have been investigated, and various bioactivities and pharmacological effects have been revealed. Based on the results of these studies, the bioactive substances in bile acids that are involved in digestive absorption may play important roles in signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, the mechanisms of action of UDCA is evidently involved. We reveal the physicochemical properties of UDCA as bile acid and overview the established pharmacological effects of UDCA from its metabolism. Furthermore, we overview the current investigations into the mechanism of action of UDCA in liver disease. PMID:16214392

Ishizaki, Kaoru; Imada, Teruaki; Tsurufuji, Makoto

2005-10-01

482

A review of the role of acid-base balance in amino acid nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Acid-base balance and amino acid metabolism are intimately related. Changes in acid-base balance influence the metabolic fate of many amino acids. Also, acid-base homeostasis is achieved in part by alteration of amino acid metabolism, not only in the kidney, but also in liver, muscle and splanchnic tissue. Glutamine is the primary amino acid involved in renal ammonia- genesis, a

J. F. Patience; J. E Patience

2010-01-01

483

Extractive fermentation of acetic acid  

SciTech Connect

In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

Busche, R.M. [Bio En-Gene-Er Associates, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

1991-12-31

484

Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are independent of salicylic acid. Evidence is emerging that jasmonic acid and ethylene play key roles in these salicylic acid-independent

Corné M. J Pieterse; Leendert C van Loon

1999-01-01

485

Agronomy Facts 3 Soil Acidity and Aglime  

E-print Network

Agronomy Facts 3 Soil Acidity and Aglime Summary · Soil pH indicates the acidic level of a soil. A pH less than 7.0 indicates an acid soil. · Soil acidification is a natural process that is increased of soil acidity (low soil pH) can reduce root growth, reduce nutrient availability, and affect crop

Kaye, Jason P.

486

New Acid Etched Titanium Dental Implant Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The purpose of this investigation was to create an acid etched implant surface that results in a surface similar to that gained by using sandblasting combined with acid etching and to compare it with surfaces of commercially available screw-type implants. Titanium grade V discs were machined in preparation for acid etching. Tests were carried out using different acids and

Gintaras Juodzbalys; Marija Sapragoniene; Ann Wennerberg

487

Sulfuric Acid in the Venus Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The visible and ultraviolet transmission features of a thin layer of elemental bromine and hydrobromic acid dissolved in sulfuric acid somewhat resemble the Venus spectrum, up to 14 microns. The chemical process postulated for forming sulfuric acid involves the oxidation of sulfur and its compounds to sulfuric acid through the agency of elemental bromine, produced by the photolytic decomposition of hydrogen bromide.

Sill, G. T.

1972-01-01

488

An ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical nucleic acid biosensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and ultrasensitive procedure for non- labeling detection of nucleic acids is described in this study. It is based on the photoelectrochemical detection of target nucleic acids by forming a nucleic acid\\/photoreporter adduct layer on an ITO electrode. The target nucleic acids were hybridized with immob- ilized oligonucleotide capture probes on the ITO elec- trode. A subsequent binding of

Zhiqiang Gao; Natalia C. Tansil

2005-01-01

489

21 CFR 189.155 - Monochloroacetic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monochloroacetic acid. 189.155 Section 189.155 Food and Drugs...Use as Human Food § 189.155 Monochloroacetic acid. (a) Monochloroacetic acid is the chemical chloroacetic acid, C2 H3...

2012-04-01

490

21 CFR 189.155 - Monochloroacetic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monochloroacetic acid. 189.155 Section 189.155 Food and Drugs...Use as Human Food § 189.155 Monochloroacetic acid. (a) Monochloroacetic acid is the chemical chloroacetic acid, C2 H3...

2011-04-01

491

Stabilization of H2 by Organic Acids  

E-print Network

Stabilization of H2 SO4 ­H2 O Clusters by Organic Acids A.B. Nadykto1 and F. Yu1 Abstract While understood. In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia. The stabilizing effect of formic, acetic, and benzoic acids is found to be close that of ammonia that indicates

Yu, Fangqun

492

21 CFR 189.155 - Monochloroacetic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monochloroacetic acid. 189.155 Section 189.155 Food and Drugs...Use as Human Food § 189.155 Monochloroacetic acid. (a) Monochloroacetic acid is the chemical chloroacetic acid, C2 H3...

2010-04-01

493

21 CFR 189.155 - Monochloroacetic acid.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monochloroacetic acid. 189.155 Section 189.155 Food and Drugs...Use as Human Food § 189.155 Monochloroacetic acid. (a) Monochloroacetic acid is the chemical chloroacetic acid, C2 H3...

2014-04-01

494

21 CFR 189.155 - Monochloroacetic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monochloroacetic acid. 189.155 Section 189.155 Food and Drugs...Use as Human Food § 189.155 Monochloroacetic acid. (a) Monochloroacetic acid is the chemical chloroacetic acid, C2 H3...

2013-04-01

495

Fatty Acids Homeostasis; the search for  

E-print Network

Fatty Acids Homeostasis; the search for the key regulatory factors. --Andrew Knyazev, Math CUStargardt''ss--like macular degenerationlike macular degeneration FA metabolic proteins in diseases #12;FA Homeostasis of the Fatty Acids moleculesFatty Acids molecules !! The mechanism of Fatty Acid homeostasis is not understood

Knyazev, Andrew

496

Nonprotein Amino Acids in the Murchison Meteorite  

PubMed Central

Twelve nonprotein amino acids appear to be present in the Murchison meteorite. The identity of eight of them has been conclusively established as N-methylglycine, ?-alanine, 2-methylalanine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid, ?-amino-n-butyric acid, ?-amino-n-butyric acid, isovaline, and pipecolic acid. Tentative evidence is presented for the presence of N-methylalanine, N-ethylglycine, ?-aminoisobutyric acid, and norvaline. These amino acids appear to be extraterrestrial in origin and may provide new evidence for the hypothesis of chemical evolution. PMID:16591908

Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Lawless, James G.; Ponnamperuma, Cyril

1971-01-01

497

Synthesis of new polysialic acid derivatives.  

PubMed

In this paper we report the first synthesis of novel polysialic acid derivatives which is initiated by treatment of polysialic acid with EDC-HCl to yield the inter-residual delta-lactone. Subsequent reaction with amines or hydrazine gives the corresponding polysialic acid amides and hydrazide. Alkylation of the tetrabutylammonium salt of polysialic acid yields polysialic acid esters. In contrast a variety of N-derivatives of polysialic acid can be prepared starting from deacetylated polysialic acid. The N-derivatives prepared in this communication can be used for the Cu-catalyzed as well as Cu-free "click" chemistry. PMID:20602419

Su, Yi; Kasper, Cornelia; Kirschning, Andreas; Dräger, Gerald; Berski, Silke

2010-09-01

498

Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphen